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Sample records for based cast films

  1. Surface characterization of passive film on NiCr-based dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2003-04-01

    Surface characterization of passive film formed on different NiCr-based dental casting alloys in an acidic artificial saliva was investigated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and potential decay test. The polarization resistance (R(p)), which is inversely proportional to corrosion rate, of passive film was obtained from the EIS data. The stable passive current density, passivating rate, and passivity decay rate of passive film were evaluated by potential decay test. Surface chemical analyses of passive film were performed by using X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and Auger electron spectrometer. Results showed that the R(p), stable passive current density, passivating rate, and passivity decay rate, respectively, were significantly different among the various NiCr-based alloys (p<0.001). The presence of higher Cr (maximum 31-37 at%; mainly as Cr(2)O(3)) and Mo (maximum 10-11 at%; mainly as MoO(3)) contents in the passive film led to a higher R(p), lower stable passive current density, faster passivating rate, and lower passivity decay rate. The presence of Be (>20 at%; mainly as BeO) in the passive film was detrimental to both the corrosion resistance and the stability of passive film. The presence of small amount of Ti (<6 at%; mainly as TiO(2)) in the passive film did not show any influence on the characterization of passive film. PMID:12559817

  2. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  3. Refractory films from spin-cast polyacrylonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films have been spin-cast and pyrolyzed to produce thin (500 to 1500 A) carbon films. These films have higher electrical conductivities than carbon films produced by other methods at similar temperatures. The conductivity can be varied by at least four orders of magnitude by changing the pyrolysis temperature. UV, IR, and Raman spectroscopies were used to investigate the chemical structure of the films during different stages of processing.

  4. Refractory films from spin-cast carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described to produce thin films of carbon by the pyrolysis of spin-cast polyacrylonitrile. Uv, ir, and Raman spectroscopies were employed to investigate the chemical structure of the films during pyrolysis. The electrical conductivity of films made in this way can be varied over several decades by changing the final temperature of carbonization. These films can also be photolithographically patterned and manipulated by wet and dry transfer techniques. As such, these films may have utility in microelectronic and hybrid microcircuit applications. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. A simple calibration approach based on film-casting for confocal Raman microscopy to support the development of a hot-melt extrusion process.

    PubMed

    Netchacovitch, L; Thiry, J; De Bleye, C; Dumont, E; Dispas, A; Hubert, C; Krier, F; Sacré, P-Y; Evrard, B; Hubert, Ph; Ziemons, E

    2016-07-01

    When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must be produced and a "reference method" must be used in order to determine the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) content of each sample. To circumvent this issue, the paper presents a simple approach based on the film-casting technique used as a calibration tool in the framework of hot-melt extrusion process. Confocal Raman microscopic method was successfully validated for the determination of itraconazole content in film-casting samples. Then, hot-melt extrusion was carried out to produce real samples in order to confront the results obtained with confocal Raman microscopy and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). The agreement between both methods was demonstrated using a comparison study based on the Bland and Altman's plot. PMID:27154691

  6. Spin-cast carbon films from polyacrylonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon films have been made by a variety of techniques, including evaporation, sputtering, and laser or thermal pyrolysis of organic polymers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is often used as a carbon precursor, since low-temperature thermo-oxidative pretreatment produces a material which can be pyrolyzed without loss of shape. This is the basis for the production of carbon fibers with good mechanical properties. We report here the formation of very thin films of carbon (500 to 1500 A) by pyrolysis of spin-cast PAN. Using this technique, large, conductive films can be made which are sufficiently robust to allow intact lift-off and transfer of the films from one substrate to another. Such films are chemically inert, but can be photolithographically patterned and etched with an oxygen plasma.

  7. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting

    PubMed Central

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 160 °C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods. PMID:26640089

  8. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 160 °C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods.

  9. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting.

    PubMed

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 160 °C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods. PMID:26640089

  10. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Wilkening, D.; Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B.

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  11. Residual stress in spin-cast polyurethane thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-19

    Residual stress is inevitable during spin-casting. Herein, we report a straightforward method to evaluate the residual stress in as-cast polyurethane thin films using area shrinkage measurement of films in floating state, which shows that the residual stress is independent of radial location on the substrate and decreased with decreasing film thickness below a critical value. We demonstrate that the residual stress is developed due to the solvent evaporation after vitrification during spin-casting and the polymer chains in thin films may undergo vitrification at an increased concentration. The buildup of residual stress in spin-cast polymer films provides an insight into the size effects on the nature of polymer thin films.

  12. Conductive, spin-cast carbon films from polyacrylonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1987-05-18

    Polyacrylonitrile films have been spin cast and pyrolyzed to produce thin (500--1500 A) carbon films. These films have higher electrical conductivities than films produced by other methods at similar temperatures. The conductivity can be varied by at least four orders of magnitude by changing the pyrolysis temperature. Ultraviolet, infrared, and Raman spectroscopies were used to investigate the chemical structure of the films during different stages of processing.

  13. Nonequilibrium Polymer Rheology in Spin-Cast Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, David R.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2009-06-01

    A new experimental approach is introduced to probe the rheology of ?100nm-thick liquid polymer films. As-cast films were found to have a substantially reduced effective viscosity compared to annealed films. The reduced viscosity is explained in terms of nonequilibrium chain conformations giving rise to a reduced entanglement density caused by the rapid quenching of the film during spin coating. Unexpectedly long annealing times at high temperatures are required for the films to recover their bulk rheology.

  14. Influence of casting solvent on phenyl ordering at the surface of spin cast polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Myers, John N; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Chunyan; Chen, Zhan

    2014-06-01

    Controlling the surface molecular structure of spin cast polymer films is important for the rational design of surface properties. However, the relationship between spin casting parameters and film surface molecular structure is poorly understood. We report that the surface molecular structure of spin cast homopolymers which contain phenyl groups is influenced by the solvent aromaticity, investigated by a nonlinear optical spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. When phenyl groups were located in a linear polymer backbone, spin casting with aromatic solvents enhanced the phenyl SFG signal relative to when a non-aromatic solvent was used which suggests that the aromatic solvent induced the surface phenyl groups to be more ordered and/or to lie more perpendicular to the film surface. In addition, when alkyl structures were believed to be present at the solvent/air interface, alkyl structures were observed at the film/air interface which suggests that molecular structure at the solvent/air interface was carried to the film surface. The effects of solvent aromaticity on phenyl ordering at spin cast film surfaces can be explained by different molecular structures of polymer chains at solvent/air interfaces, preferential solvation of functional groups during evaporation, and re-orientation of bulky side groups at the polymer film/air interface. PMID:24703669

  15. Land-based turbine casting initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    To meet goals for the ATS program, technical advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land-based gas turbines. These advances include directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. The proposed program to scale aircraft gas turbine casting technology up to land based gas turbine size components is based on low sulfur alloys, casting process development, post-cast process development, and establishing casting defect tolerance levels. The inspection side is also discussed.

  16. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  17. Bifilm Defects in Ni-Based Alloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John; Tiryakioğlu, Murat

    2012-08-01

    The Ni-base superalloys, which are normally melted and cast in a vacuum, entrain their surface-oxide film during turbulent pouring of the melt; unfortunately at this time, this process is universally practiced for investment castings of these materials. The entrained film becomes a bifilm crack automatically, so that cast alloys have a large population of cracks that controls their failure behavior. The problems of the growth of single crystals and the welding of polycrystalline alloys are reviewed to illustrate the central role of bifilms in the cracking of turbine blades, the heat-affected zones of welds, and the reliability of properties. It has been demonstrated that improved gravity pouring systems can reduce these problems significantly, but only countergravity filling of molds is expected to result in defect-free castings. Recent cases in which turbine blades failed in service are examined, and the central role of bifilm defects in these failures is discussed.

  18. Interfacial glass transition profiles in ultrathin, spin cast polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Scott; Overney, René M.; Chau, Wilson; Lee, Victor Y.; Miller, Robert D.; Frommer, Jane

    2004-03-01

    Interfacial glass transition temperature (Tg) profiles in spin cast, ultrathin films of polystyrene and derivatives were investigated using shear-modulated scanning force microscopy. The transitions were measured as a function of film thickness (δ), molecular weight, and crosslinking density. The Tg(δ) profiles were nonmonotonic and exhibited two regimes: (a) a sublayer extending about 10 nm from the substrate, with Tg values lowered up to ˜10 °C below the bulk value, and (b) an intermediate regime extending over 200 nm beyond the sublayer, with Tg values exceeding the bulk value by up to 10 °C. Increasing the molecular weight was found to shift the Tg(δ) profiles further from the substrate interface, on the order of 10 nm/kDa. Crosslinking the precast films elevated the absolute Tg values, but had no effect on the spatial length scale of the Tg(δ) profiles. These results are explained in the context of film preparation history and its influence on molecular mobility. Specifically, the observed rheological anisotropy is interpreted based on the combined effects of shear-induced structuring and thermally activated interdiffusion.

  19. Interfacial glass transition profiles in ultrathin, spin cast polymer films.

    PubMed

    Sills, Scott; Overney, René M; Chau, Wilson; Lee, Victor Y; Miller, Robert D; Frommer, Jane

    2004-03-15

    Interfacial glass transition temperature (T(g)) profiles in spin cast, ultrathin films of polystyrene and derivatives were investigated using shear-modulated scanning force microscopy. The transitions were measured as a function of film thickness (delta), molecular weight, and crosslinking density. The T(g)(delta) profiles were nonmonotonic and exhibited two regimes: (a) a sublayer extending about 10 nm from the substrate, with T(g) values lowered up to approximately 10 degrees C below the bulk value, and (b) an intermediate regime extending over 200 nm beyond the sublayer, with T(g) values exceeding the bulk value by up to 10 degrees C. Increasing the molecular weight was found to shift the T(g)(delta) profiles further from the substrate interface, on the order of 10 nm/kDa. Crosslinking the precast films elevated the absolute T(g) values, but had no effect on the spatial length scale of the T(g)(delta) profiles. These results are explained in the context of film preparation history and its influence on molecular mobility. Specifically, the observed rheological anisotropy is interpreted based on the combined effects of shear-induced structuring and thermally activated interdiffusion. PMID:15267406

  20. Infiltration of Slag Film into the Grooves on a Continuous Casting Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jung-Wook; Jeong, Hee-Tae

    2013-02-01

    An analytical model is developed to clarify the slag film infiltration into grooves on a copper mold during the continuous casting of steel slabs. A grooved-type casting mold was applied to investigate the infiltration of slag film into the grooves of a pitch of 0.8 mm, width of 0.7 mm, and depth of 0.6 mm at the vicinity of a meniscus. The plant trial tests were carried out at a casting speed of 5.5 m min-1. The slag film captured at a commercial thin slab casting plant showed that both the overall and the liquid film thickness were decreased exponentially as the distance from the meniscus increases. In contrast, the infiltration of slag film into the grooves had been increased with increasing distance from the meniscus. A theoretic model has been derived based on the measured profile of slag film thickness to calculate the infiltration of slag film into the grooves. It successfully reproduces the empirical observation that infiltration ratio increased sharply along casting direction, about 80 pct at 50 mm and 95 pct at 150 mm below the meniscus. In the model calculation, the infiltration of slag film increases with increasing groove width and/or surface tension of the slag. The effect of groove depth is negligible when the width to depth ratio of the groove is larger than unity. It is expected that the developed model for slag film infiltration in this study will be widely utilized to optimize the design of groove dimensions in continuous casting molds.

  1. Starch-polyvinyl alcohol cast film-performance and biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Liang; Imam, S.H.; Stein, T.M.

    1996-10-01

    Starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) cast films were prepared in the absence of plasticizer. Their physical and biodegradable properties were examined. Moisture absorption by the films was similar to that of PVOH at low humidity and increased linearly as the relative humidity increased. The tensile strength of the films decreased with increased humidity and did not display significant improvement with increased PVOH content. Higher PVOH content improved elongation when the relative humidity was 80% or higher. Biodegradation studies revealed that the presence of PVOH in the films slowed the rate of degradation.

  2. On the membrane approximation in isothermal film casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional model for isothermal film casting is studied. Film casting is an important engineering process to manufacture thin films and sheets from a highly viscous polymer melt. The model equations account for variations in film width and film thickness, and arise from thinness and kinematic assumptions for the free liquid film. The first aspect of our study is a rigorous discussion of the existence and uniqueness of stationary solutions. This objective is approached via the argument principle, exploiting the homotopy invariance of a family of analytic functions. As our second objective, we analyze the linearization of the governing equations about stationary solutions. It is shown that solutions for the associated boundary-initial value problem are given by a strongly continuous semigroup of bounded linear operators. To reach this result, we cast the relevant Cauchy problem in a more accessible form. These transformed equations allow us insight into the regularity of the semigroup, thus yielding the validity of the spectral mapping theorem for the semigroup and the spectrally determined growth property.

  3. Electrospun fiber and cast films produced using zein blends with nylon-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of zein and nylon-6 (55k) were used to produce electrospun fibers and solution cast films. Zein was blended with nylon-6 in formic acid solution. When the amount of nylon-6 was 8% or less a compatible blend formed. The blend was determined to be compatible based on physical property measureme...

  4. Storage Stability and Antibacterial Activity against E. coli O157:H7 of Carvacrol in Edible Apple Films made by Two Different Casting Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antimicrobial activities against E. coli O157:H7, as well as the stability of carvacrol, the main constituent of oregano oil, were evaluated during the preparation and storage of apple-based edible films made by two different casting methods, continuous casting and batch casting. Antimicrobial ...

  5. Tape casting and partial melting of Bi-2212 thick films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhl, D.; Lang, TH.; Heeb, B.; Gauckler, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    To produce Bi-2212 thick films with high critical current densities tape casting and partial melting is a promising fabrication method. Bi-2212 powder and organic additives were mixed into a slurry and tape casted onto glass by the doctor blade tape casting process. The films were cut from the green tape and partially molten on Ag foils during heat treatment. We obtained almost single-phase and well-textured films over the whole thickness of 20 microns. The orientation of the (a,b)-plane of the grains was parallel to the substrate with a misalignment of less than 6 deg. At 77 K/0T a critical current density of 15, 000 A/sq cm was reached in films of the dimension 1 cm x 2 cm x 20 microns (1 micron V/cm criterion, resistively measured). At 4 K/0T the highest value was 350,000 A/sq cm (1 nV/cm criterion, magnetically measured).

  6. Understanding how processing additives tune nanoscale morphology of high efficiency organic photovoltaic blends: From casting solution to spun-cast thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Ming; Keum, Jong Kahk; Kumar, Rajeev; Chen, Jihua; Browning, Jim; Chen, Wei; Jianhui, Hou; Do, Changwoo; Littrell, Ken; Sanjib, Das; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Xiao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Adding a small amount of a processing additive to the casting solution of organic blends has been demonstrated to be an effective method for achieving improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, an understanding of the nano-structural evolution occurring in the transformation from casting solution to thin photoactive films is still lacking. In this report, we investigate the effects of the processing additive diiodooctane (DIO) on the morphology of OPV blend of PBDTTT-C-T and fullerene derivative, PC71BM in a casting solution and in spun-cast thin films by using neutron/x-ray scattering, neutron reflectometry and other characterization techniques. The results reveal that DIO has no effect on the solution structures of PBDTTT-C-T and PC71BM. In the spun-cast films, however, DIO is found to promote significantly the molecular ordering of PBDTTT-C-T and PC71BM, and phase segregation, resulting in the improved PCE. Thermodynamic analysis based on Flory-Huggins theory provides a rationale for the effects of DIO on different characteristics of phase segregation as a solvent and due to evaporationg during the film formation. Such information may enable improved rational design of ternary blends to more consistently achieve improved PCE for OPVs.

  7. Aging properties of films of plasticized vital wheat gluten cast from acidic and basic solutions.

    PubMed

    Olabarrieta, Idoia; Cho, Sung-Woo; Gällstedt, Mikael; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon; Johansson, Eva; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2006-05-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms behind the undesired aging of films based on vital wheat gluten plasticized with glycerol, films cast from water/ethanol solutions were investigated. The effect of pH was studied by casting from solutions at pH 4 and pH 11. The films were aged for 120 days at 50% relative humidity and 23 degrees C, and the tensile properties and oxygen and water vapor permeabilities were measured as a function of aging time. The changes in the protein structure were determined by infrared spectroscopy and size-exclusion and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the film structure was revealed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The pH 11 film was mechanically more stable with time than the pH 4 film, the latter being initially very ductile but turning brittle toward the end of the aging period. The protein solubility and infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that the protein structure of the pH 4 film was initially significantly less polymerized/aggregated than that of the pH 11 film. The polymerization of the pH 4 film increased during storage but it did not reach the degree of aggregation of the pH 11 film. Reverse-phase chromatography indicated that the pH 11 films were to some extent deamidated and that this increased with aging. At the same time a large fraction of the aged pH 11 film was unaffected by reducing agents, suggesting that a time-induced isopeptide cross-linking had occurred. This isopeptide formation did not, however, change the overall degree of aggregation and consequently the mechanical properties of the film. During aging, the pH 4 films lost more mass than the pH 11 films mainly due to migration of glycerol but also due to some loss of volatile mass. Scanning electron and optical microscopy showed that the pH 11 film was more uniform in thickness and that the film structure was more homogeneous than that of the pH 4 film. The oxygen permeability was also lower for the pH 11 film. The fact that the pH 4 film experienced a larger and more rapid change in its mechanical properties with time than the pH 11 film, as a consequence of a greater loss of plasticizer, was presumably due to its initial lower degree of protein aggregation/polymerization. Consequently, the cross-link density achieved at pH 4 was too low to effectively retain volatiles and glycerol within the matrix. PMID:16677051

  8. Study of anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide films using internal reflection techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liberman, V.

    1996-11-01

    We have compared anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide (VDP) films, using internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited directly on the internal reflection element. We find that spin cast films are more anisotropic than their VDP counterparts, with the polyimide chains tending to align parallel to the substrate. Both films are found to contain more and less ordered regions. Within the ordered regions, the plane of the phenyl ring tends to align parallel to the substrate.

  9. Fabrication of silk fibroin film using centrifugal casting technique for corneal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Chae; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Jung-Ho; Ju, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jung Min; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Su Hyeon; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Films prepared from silk fibroin have shown potential as biomaterials in tissue engineering applications for the eye. Here, we present a novel process for fabrication of silk fibroin films for corneal application. In this work, fabrication of silk fibroin films was simply achieved by centrifugal force. In contrast to the conventional dry casting method, we carried out the new process in a centrifuge with a rotating speed of 4000 rpm, where centrifugal force was imposed on an aluminum tube containing silk fibroin solution. In the present study, we also compared the surface roughness, mechanical properties, transparency, and cell proliferation between centrifugal and dry casting method. In terms of surface morphology, films fabricated by the centrifugal casting have less surface roughness than those by the dry casting. For elasticity and transparency, silk fibroin films obtained from the centrifugal casting had favorable results compared with those prepared by dry casting. Furthermore, primary human corneal keratocytes grew better in films prepared by the centrifugal casting. Therefore, our results suggest that this new fabrication process for silk fibroin films offers important potential benefits for corneal tissue regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 508-514, 2016. PMID:25939800

  10. Ink-jet printing versus solvent casting to prepare oral films: Effect on mechanical properties and physical stability.

    PubMed

    Buanz, Asma B M; Belaunde, Claudia C; Soutari, Nina; Tuleu, Catherine; Gul, Mine Orlu; Gaisford, Simon

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this work was to compare and contrast the mechanical properties and physical stabilities of oral films prepared with either thermal ink-jet printing (TIJP) or solvent casting (SC). Clonidine hydrochloride was selected as a model drug because of its low therapeutic dose and films were prepared using cellulose polymers. Mechanical testing showed that the printed films had Young's moduli and tensile strength values similar to the free film, while casted films were significantly more brittle. The drug also appeared to crystallize out of casted films during stress testing whereas printed films remained unchanged. The dissolution behavior of printed and cast films were similar, because of the rapid disintegration of the polymer. The conclusion is that printing resulted in a better film than casting because the drug resided on the film, rather than in the film where it could exert a plasticizing effect. PMID:25526674

  11. Electroconductive PET/SWNT Films by Solution Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinert, Brian W.; Dean, Derrick R.

    2008-01-01

    The market for electrically conductive polymers is rapidly growing, and an emerging pathway for attaining these materials is via polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites, because of the superior properties of CNTs. Due to their excellent electrical properties and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, we expect CNTs could be easily aligned to maximize their effectiveness in imparting electrical conductivity to the polymer matrix. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were dispersed in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) matrix by solution blending then cast onto a glass substrate to create thin, flexible films. Various SWNT loading concentrations were implemented (0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 wt.%) to study the effect of additive density. The processing method was repeated to produce films in the presence of magnetic fields (3 and 9.4 Tesla). The SWNTs showed a high susceptibility to the magnetic field and were effectively aligned in the PET matrix. The alignment was characterized with Raman spectroscopy. Impedance spectroscopy was utilized to study the electrical behavior of the films. Concentration and dispersion seemed to play very important roles in improving electrical conductivity, while alignment played a secondary and less significant role. The most interesting result proved to be the effect of a magnetic field during processing. It appears that a magnetic field may improve dispersion of unmodified SWNTs, which seems to be more important than alignment. It was concluded that SWNTs offer a good option as conductive, nucleating filler for electroconductive polymer applications, and the utilization of a magnetic field may prove to be a novel method for CNT dispersion that could lead to improved nanocomposite materials.

  12. Drop-casted polyaniline thin films on flexible substrates for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongmin; Sohn, J.; Jo, Yongcheol; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Cho, Sangeun; Inamdar, A. I.; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2014-11-01

    The PANI (polyaniline) thin films are synthesized on flexible ITO/PET (indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by using the drop-casting method. The amount of the PANI for the drop casting varies from 0.04 to 0.16 g. The morphology of the drop-casted PANI films shows a porous vermicular shape. The electrochemical supercapacitor properties of the PANI films are examined in a 0.5-M LiClO4 + PC electrolyte. The PANI films with 0.08 g of PANI show higher current density and considerably higher specific capacitance and capacity retention, compared with other PANI films. The highest specific capacitance of the films with 0.08 g of PANI is found to be ˜120 F/g, and the capacity retention is found to be as high as 70.51% after 100 charge-discharge cycles.

  13. Morphological characterization of β phase in poly-(vinylidenefluoride) film prepared by spin cast method

    SciTech Connect

    Mehtani, Hitesh Kumar Kumar, Rishi Raina, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    Poly-(Vinylidene fluoride) PVDF film was prepared by spin casting method to control the pore size of the matrix. The morphological spherulitic structure was confirmed Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after gold sputtering and the presence of β phase was ensured in spin cast PVDF film by the FTIR spectroscopy. The β phase is very important in the application because it improve the properties like piezoelectricity by modifying PVDF crystallinity.

  14. Storage stability and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 of carvacrol in edible apple films made by two different casting methods.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Xian; Olsen, Carl W; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; McHugh, Tara H; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2008-05-14

    The antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7 as well as the stability of carvacrol, the main constituent of oregano oil, were evaluated during the preparation and storage of apple-based edible films made by two different casting methods, continuous casting and batch casting. Antimicrobial assays of films and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of film extracts following storage up to 49 days at 5 and 25 degrees C revealed that (a) optimum antimicrobial effects were apparent with carvacrol levels of approximately 1.0% added to the purees prior to film preparation, (b) carvacrol in the films and film weights remained unchanged over the storage period of up to 7 weeks, and (c) casting methods affected carvacrol concentration, bactericidal activity, physicochemical properties, and colors of the apple films. Carvacrol addition to the purees used to prepare the films reduced water vapor and oxygen permeability of apple films. The results indicate that carvacrol has a dual benefit. It can be used to both impart antimicrobial activities and enhance barrier properties of edible films. The cited observations facilitate relating compositional and physicochemical properties of apple puree films containing volatile plant antimicrobials to their use in foods. PMID:18366181

  15. Characterization of Bimetallic Castings with an Austenitic Working Surface Layer and an Unalloyed Cast Steel Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents the technology of bimetallic castings based on the founding method of layer coating directly in the cast process of the so-called method of mold cavity preparation. The prepared castings consist of two fundamental parts, i.e., the base and the working surface layer. The base part of the bimetallic casting is typical foundry material, i.e., unalloyed cast steel, whereas the working layer is a plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The quality of the joint between the base part and the working layer was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing and structure examinations containing metallographic macro- and microscopic studies with the use of a light microscope (LOM) with microhardness measurements and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with microanalysis of the chemical composition (energy dispersive spectroscopy—EDS). On the basis of the obtained results it was confirmed that the decisive phenomena needed to create a permanent joint between the two components of the bimetallic casting are carbon and heat transport in the direction from the high-carbon and hot base material which was poured into the mold in the form of liquid metal to the low-carbon and cold material of the working layer which was placed in the mold cavity in the form of a monolithic insert.

  16. Cast

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Takao-Rikitsu, Etsuko; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue, Marie; Takeuchi, Masakazu; Matsubara, Kaho; Deguchi-Tawarada, Maki; Satoh, Keiko; Morimoto, Koji; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takai, Yoshimi

    2002-01-01

    The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) has been implicated in defining the site of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter. We have identified here a novel CAZ protein of ∼120 kD from rat brain and named it CAST (CAZ-associated structural protein). CAST had no transmembrane segment, but had four coiled-coil domains and a putative COOH-terminal consensus motif for binding to PDZ domains. CAST was localized at the CAZ of conventional synapses of mouse brain. CAST bound directly RIM1 and indirectly Munc13-1, presumably through RIM1, forming a ternary complex. RIM1 and Munc13-1 are CAZ proteins implicated in Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotansmitters. Bassoon, another CAZ protein, was also associated with this ternary complex. These results suggest that a network of protein–protein interactions among the CAZ proteins exists at the CAZ. At the early stages of synapse formation, CAST was expressed and partly colocalized with bassoon in the axon shaft and the growth cone. The vesicles immunoisolated by antibassoon antibody–coupled beads contained not only bassoon but also CAST and RIM1. These results suggest that these CAZ proteins are at least partly transported on the same vesicles during synapse formation. PMID:12163476

  17. Oxide defects in a vacuum investment-cast ni-based turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, A. K. M. B.; Campbell, J.

    2004-07-01

    Samples from large turbine blades for power generation, investment-cast in vacuum from a nickel-based superalloy, were investigated. Samples were cut from regions near the top of the casting that contained freckle defects. The microstructures of these segregated regions were compared with those from nonsegregated adjacent regions using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The segregated areas revealed a high density of carbides and a network of cracks. Samples were prepared by carefully fracturing along the cracks so as to observe the surfaces of the cracks. Observation by SEM revealed the presence of inclusions identified as films that appeared to have initiated the growth of carbides. Fractures of random areas of the nonsegregated alloy revealed that the films were numerous and widely distributed. In all cases, the films were principally oxides (and/or possibly nitrides) of aluminum and chromium. It was hypothesized that the films had originated by entrainment of the surface film on the liquid metal during the turbulent pouring of the casting. The films could, therefore, be assumed to be double, because the entrainment mechanism is a folding action. It follows that the doubled-over films constitute (1) the observed cracks and (2) the substrates for carbide precipitation. Evidence from other alloy systems is presented to support this conclusion.

  18. Microporosity Prediction and Validation for Ni-based Superalloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Beckermann, C.; Carlson, K.; Hirvo, D.; Bell, K.; Moreland, T.; Gu, J.; Clews, J.; Scott, S.; Couturier, G.; Backman, D.

    2015-06-01

    Microporosityin high performance aerospace castings can reduce mechanical properties and consequently degrade both component life and durability. Therefore, casting engineers must be able to both predict and reduce casting microporosity. A dimensionless Niyama model has been developed [1] that predicts local microporosity by accounting for local thermal conditions during casting as well as the properties and solidification characteristics of the cast alloy. Unlike the well-known Niyama criterion, application of the dimensionless Niyama model avoids the need to find a threshold Niyama criterion below which shrinkage porosity forms - a criterion which can be determined only via extensive alloy dependent experimentation. In the present study, the dimensionless Niyama model is integrated with a commercial finite element casting simulation software, which can now more accurately predict the location-specific shrinkage porosity volume fraction during solidification of superalloy castings. These microporosity predictions are validated by comparing modelled results against radiographically and metallographically measured porosity for several Ni-based superalloy equiaxed castings that vary in alloy chemistry with a focus on plates of changing draft angle and thickness. The simulation results agree well with experimental measurements. The simulation results also show that the dimensionless Niyama model can not only identify the location but also the average volume fraction of microporosity distribution in these equiaxed investment cast Ni-based superalloy experiments of relatively simple geometry.

  19. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  20. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  1. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles—yet size–effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector. PMID:26165185

  2. 10. DETAIL OF CAST IRON COLUMN BASE ON FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF CAST IRON COLUMN BASE ON FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT, SHOWING MANUFACTURER'S STAMP: IOWA IRON WOKS CO. DUBUQUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  3. 25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted wooded post at top, located at north end of bridge. VIEW NORTHEAST - Chelsea Street Bridge & Draw Tender's House, Spanning Chelsea River, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 56. DETAIL OF BASE OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. DETAIL OF BASE OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER WITH CAST IRON HAND PUMP OVER WELL HEAD ON HIGHWAY L44 IN IOWA JUST EAST OF NEBRASKA CITY, NEBRASKA. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Nisin and Natamycin Incorporated Sodium Caseinate Extrusion-Blown Films: A Comparative Study with Heat-Pressed/Solution Cast Films.

    PubMed

    Colak, Basak Yilin; Peynichou, Pierre; Galland, Sophie; Oulahal, Nadia; Prochazka, Frédéric; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial edible films based on sodium caseinate, glycerol, and 2 food preservatives (nisin or natamycin) were prepared by classical thermomechanical processes. Food preservatives were compounded (at 65 °C for 2.5 min) with sodium caseinate in a twin-screw extruder. Anti-Listeria activity assays revealed a partial inactivation of nisin following compounding. Thermoplastic pellets containing food preservatives were then used to manufacture films either by blown-film extrusion process or by heat-press. After 24 h of incubation on agar plates, the diameters of K. rhizophila growth inhibition zones around nisin-incorporated films prepared by solution casting (control), extrusion blowing or heat pressing at 80 °C for 7 min of nisin-containing pellets were 15.5 ± 0.9, 9.8 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. Since heat-pressing for 7 min at 80 °C of nisin-incorporated pellets did not further inactivate nisin, this indicates that nisin inactivation during extrusion-blowing was limited. Moreover, the lower diameter of the K. rhizophila growth inhibition zone around films prepared with nisin-containing pellets compared to that observed around films directly prepared by solution casting confirms that nisin inactivation mainly occurred during the compounding step. Natamycin-containing thermoplastic films inhibited Aspergillus niger growth; however, by contrast with nisin-containing films, heat-pressed films had higher inhibition zone diameters than blown films, therefore suggesting a partial inactivation of natamycin during extrusion-blowing. PMID:27061434

  6. Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-Based Caste Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste. PMID:25902290

  7. Awareness programs and change in taste-based caste prejudice.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste. PMID:25902290

  8. Ultrasonically assisted single screw extrusion, film blowing and film casting of LLDPE/clay and PA6/clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknezhad, Setareh

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the dispersion of modified clay particles in LLDPE and PA6 matrices and the final properties of nanocomposites. LLDPE and PA6 are two polymers that are widely used in packaging industry. Blown and cast films were manufactured from the prepared nanocomposites. To achieve one step film processing, an online ultrasonic film casting was developed. Ultrasonic waves caused high-energy mixing and dispersion due to the acoustic cavitation, causing the clay agglomorates to separate into individual platelets in polymer matrix. Ultrasonic waves also broke down the polymer molecular chains reducing viscosity of the melt, facilating dispersion of the clay platelets throughout the matrix. Ultrasound also led to a breakage of the clay platelets reducing the particle size and improving their distribution. Clay particles acted as a heterogenous nucleation agent generating smaller size polymer crystals. In turn, these improved different properties including mechanical properties, oxygen permeability and transparency of films. In LLDPE/clay 20A nanocomposites, the effect of ultrasound was more obvious at higher clay loadings. Exfoliated structure for ultrasonically treated nanocomposites containing 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt% of clay 20A and highly intercalated structure for ultrasonically treated nanocomposites containing 10 wt% of clay 20A were achieved. However, in blown films, the exfoliated structure transferred to the intercalated structure due to the addition of more shear and thermal degradation of surfactants of the clay particles. While, manufacturing cast films using the new developed online ultrasonic cast film machine revealed the exfoliated structure with ultrasonic treatment till 7.5 wt% of clay loadings. Cast films of nanocomposites containing 5 wt% of clay loadings were also prepared with addition of different compatibilizers. The compatibilizer containing higher amount of grafted maleic anhydride (MA) affected mechanical properties and oxygen permeability with ultrasonic treatment to higher extent. However, use of compatibilizers led to a higher die pressure and resulted in opaque cast films. The mechanical properties were in agreement with crystallinity of samples. The exfoliated structure was achieved for PA6/clay 30B nanocomposites prepared using ultrasonically assisted single screw extrusion except for untreated nanocomposites containing 10 wt% of clay 30B. Untreated 92.5/7.5 and 90/10 PA6/clay 30B blown films showed the intercalated structure, but the exfoliated structure was achieved with ultrasonic treatment. All cast films of PA6/clay 30B showed the exfoliated structure. FTIR spectroscopy along with XRD results confirmed the existence of alpha and gamma-type crystals in the cast films, with clay particles favoring the formation of gamma-type crystals, and ultrasonic treatment favoring the formation of alpha-type crystals. Both parameters increased crystallinity of cast films improving their mechanical properties and oxygen permeability.

  9. Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS on Spin-Coated and Drop Cast Nanofibrillar Cellulose Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtakari, Dimitar; Liu, Jun; Kumar, Vinay; Xu, Chunlin; Toivakka, Martti; Saarinen, Jarkko J.

    2015-10-01

    Aqueous dispersion of conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was deposited on spin-coated and drop cast nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)-glycerol (G) matrix on a glass substrate. A thin glycerol film was utilized on plasma-treated glass substrate to provide adequate adhesion for the NFC-glycerol (NFC-G) film. The effects of annealing temperature, the coating method of NFC-G, and the coating time intervals on the electrical performance of the PEDOT:PSS were characterized. PEDOT:PSS on drop cast NFC-G resulted in 3 orders of magnitude increase in the electrical conductivity compared to reference PEDOT:PSS film on a reference glass substrate, whereas the optical transmission was only slightly decreased. The results point out the importance of the interaction between the PEDOT:PSS and the NFC-G for the electrical and barrier properties for thin film electronics applications.

  10. Influence of macromolecular architecture on necking in polymer extrusion film casting process

    SciTech Connect

    Pol, Harshawardhan; Banik, Sourya; Azad, Lal Busher; Doshi, Pankaj; Lele, Ashish; Thete, Sumeet

    2015-05-22

    Extrusion film casting (EFC) is an important polymer processing technique that is used to produce several thousand tons of polymer films/coatings on an industrial scale. In this research, we are interested in understanding quantitatively how macromolecular chain architecture (for example long chain branching (LCB) or molecular weight distribution (MWD or PDI)) influences the necking and thickness distribution of extrusion cast films. We have used different polymer resins of linear and branched molecular architecture to produce extrusion cast films under controlled experimental conditions. The necking profiles of the films were imaged and the velocity profiles during EFC were monitored using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) technique. Additionally, the temperature profiles were captured using an IR thermography and thickness profiles were calculated. The experimental results are compared with predictions of one-dimensional flow model of Silagy et al{sup 1} wherein the polymer resin rheology is modeled using molecular constitutive equations such as the Rolie-Poly (RP) and extended Pom Pom (XPP). We demonstrate that the 1-D flow model containing the molecular constitutive equations provides new insights into the role of macromolecular chain architecture on film necking.{sup 1}D. Silagy, Y. Demay, and J-F. Agassant, Polym. Eng. Sci., 36, 2614 (1996)

  11. Influence of macromolecular architecture on necking in polymer extrusion film casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pol, Harshawardhan; Banik, Sourya; Azad, Lal Busher; Thete, Sumeet; Doshi, Pankaj; Lele, Ashish

    2015-05-01

    Extrusion film casting (EFC) is an important polymer processing technique that is used to produce several thousand tons of polymer films/coatings on an industrial scale. In this research, we are interested in understanding quantitatively how macromolecular chain architecture (for example long chain branching (LCB) or molecular weight distribution (MWD or PDI)) influences the necking and thickness distribution of extrusion cast films. We have used different polymer resins of linear and branched molecular architecture to produce extrusion cast films under controlled experimental conditions. The necking profiles of the films were imaged and the velocity profiles during EFC were monitored using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) technique. Additionally, the temperature profiles were captured using an IR thermography and thickness profiles were calculated. The experimental results are compared with predictions of one-dimensional flow model of Silagy et al1 wherein the polymer resin rheology is modeled using molecular constitutive equations such as the Rolie-Poly (RP) and extended Pom Pom (XPP). We demonstrate that the 1-D flow model containing the molecular constitutive equations provides new insights into the role of macromolecular chain architecture on film necking.1D. Silagy, Y. Demay, and J-F. Agassant, Polym. Eng. Sci., 36, 2614 (1996).

  12. Antireflective polyimide based films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuanmei

    The goal of this work was to prepare antireflective and anti-abrasion films using polyimide and organically modified silica nanoparticle thin films. A series of thin film were prepared from colorless and soluble polyimide with organically modified silica colloids via a solution casting method. The polyimide was selected for its optical properties. Three type of organically modified silica nanoparticles were prepared by grafting polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and fluoroalkyl groups onto silica nanoparticles. The molecular weight of the polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and the amount of fluorinated alkyl groups were varied. The organically modified silica colloids were characterized by TEM, DLS, FTIR, 1H NMR, solid state 13C NMR and solid state 29Si NMR. The coatings were characterized by UV-Vis transmittance spectra and SEM. The effect of modified silica loading, the molecular weight of polymer and type of solvent on AR properties were studied. An enhancement in antireflective activity was observed for 1 wt% LPDMS modified (low molecular weight) silica coatings, 3 wt% fluorosilica-10 and 3% L-MPS-PF-SILICA nanoparticles (low molecular weight polyfluoroester modified silica) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc). In comparison with cyclopentanone (CPT), DMAc favors migration of silica particles towards coating-air interface giving higher transmittance. The migration of particles to the surface and consequent increased surface roughness were observed by SEM. The present study suggested a roll to roll solution casting method to create antireflective coatings. This approach had potential to be used for a one-step large-scale manufacturing of antireflective coating. Four acrylated bismaleimide were made via two-step process. The first step involved the solution imidization to form hydroxylated bismaleimide. In the second step, hydroxylated bismaleimide was reacted with acryloyl chloride to form acrylated bismaleimide. The acrylated bismaleimide were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GPC and mass spectra. The acrylated bismaleimide was formulated with acryloyl morpholine and photoinitiator with or without addition of PDMS-silica nanoparticles to achieve UV-curable thin films. The photo-cure kinetics of four neat acrylated bismaleimide and the formulation were investigated by real-time FTIR, photo-DSC and rheometer. The kinetic analysis revealed that PDMS-silica accelerated the photocure rate and increased the conversion of both acrylate double bond and maleimide double bond. The dispersion of PDMS-silica nanoparticles affected the abrasion resistance. The optimal abrasion resistance was achieved with 3.0% wt PDMS modified silica nanoparticle loading.

  13. Expedited Record Base Fabrication Using an Irreversible Hydrocolloid Cast.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suk; Park, Ju-Mi

    2016-04-01

    The registration of a maxillomandibular relationship requires additional clinical and laboratory procedures when the mouth presents with loss of occlusal support. This procedure can be a challenge for a patient who needs urgent care or resides in a remote area. This article describes a procedure for expediting the mounting of a master cast for the fabrication of a maxillary immediate complete denture. The technique presented describes the use of a silicone record base made on an irreversible hydrocolloid cast generated from the final impression. PMID:25996091

  14. Aluminum-Based Cast In Situ Composites: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod, S. L.; Bakshi, Srinivasa R.; Murty, B. S.

    2015-06-01

    In situ composites are a class of composite materials in which the reinforcement is formed within the matrix by reaction during the processing. In situ method of composite synthesis has been widely followed by researchers because of several advantages over conventional stir casting such as fine particle size, clean interface, and good wettability of the reinforcement with the matrix and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement compared to other processes. Besides this, in situ processing of composites by casting route is also economical and amenable for large scale production as compared to other methods such as powder metallurgy and spray forming. Commonly used reinforcements for Al and its alloys which can be produced in situ are Al2O3, AlN, TiB2, TiC, ZrB2, and Mg2Si. The aim of this paper is to review the current research and development in aluminum-based in situ composites by casting route.

  15. Rheological and Film-Casting Properties of Well-Characterised Polyethylenes with Different Branching Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auhl, Dietmar; Kunamaneni, Suneel; Seay, Christopher W.; McGrady, Christopher D.; Baird, Donald G.; McLeish, Tom C. B.

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the influence of branching structure on cast-film properties, i.e. the neck-in profile and final cast-film dimensions, for a series of metallocene catalysed PE as well as tubular reactor PE with various branching levels. For this study a lab extruder has been employed due to the small sample quantities available. The materials and flow conditions have been chosen specifically in order to match for various polyethylenes with different molecular structures at the die exit. Non-linear visco-elastic properties in shear and uniaxial elongation have been determined from constant strain-rate tests and fitted with a multi-mode Pom-Pom model, the parameters of which are discussed with respect to the molecular analysis of the branching structure. The experimental results for the film-casting behaviour as a function of long-chain branching content and draw ratio will be further compared to model predictions using recent theoretical approaches together with the Pom-Pom constitutive equation.

  16. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Methattel Raman, Shijeesh; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  17. Structural relaxation of spin-cast glassy polymer thin films as a possible factor in dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, H.; Carelli, C.; Keddie, J. L.; Sferrazza, M.

    2003-11-01

    Reiter [CITE] has recently reported a situation in which the dewetting of quasi-solid films is linked to plastic deformation rather than viscous flow resulting from capillary forces. Herein we propose that, in thin films of some glassy polymers especially poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared by spin-casting from solvent, structural relaxation might impart sufficient stress to cause plastic deformation. We find that PMMA films decrease in thickness by several percent, which is sufficient to create significant stress in those cases in which the film is attached to a rigid substrate. The floating technique, which can take tens of minutes, might allow most of the structural relaxation to occur prior to dewetting experiments.

  18. Cast iron-base alloy for cylinder/regenerator housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witter, Stewart L.; Simmons, Harold E.; Woulds, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    NASACC-1 is a castable iron-base alloy designed to replace the costly and strategic cobalt-base X-40 alloy used in the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/generator housing. Over 40 alloy compositions were evaluated using investment cast test bars for stress-rupture testing. Also, hydrogen compatibility and oxygen corrosion resistance tests were used to determine the optimal alloy. NASACC-1 alloy was characterized using elevated and room temperature tensile, creep-rupture, low cycle fatigue, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal expansion testing. Furthermore, phase analysis was performed on samples with several heat treated conditions. The properties are very encouraging. NASACC-1 alloy shows stress-rupture and low cycle fatigue properties equivalent to X-40. The oxidation resistance surpassed the program goal while maintaining acceptable resistance to hydrogen exposure. The welding, brazing, and casting characteristics are excellent. Finally, the cost of NASACC-1 is significantly lower than that of X-40.

  19. Preparation and characterization of solution cast films of PET, reorganized PET and their MWNT nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind R.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2013-06-01

    The samples of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), reorganized PET (r-PET) and their nanocomposites with 0.05 wt % and 0.1 wt % multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were prepared by standard solution casting method using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a solvent. Reorganization of PET was obtained by precipitation method using TFA as a solvent and acetone as an antisolvent. Structural and morphological properties of the films were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal properties of the films. Bulk resistivity of the prepared samples was studied using LCR meter. The results show better dispersion of MWNT in r-PET than in PET. Better dispersion is attributed to the morphological changes in r-PET. The films obtained were conductive and transparent even after addition of MWNT signifying their use as a flexible solar substrate.

  20. Method of casting pitch based foam

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing molded pitch based foam is disclosed which minimizes cracking. The process includes forming a viscous pitch foam in a container, and then transferring the viscous pitch foam from the container into a mold. The viscous pitch foam in the mold is hardened to provide a carbon foam having a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts.

  1. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, P.

    1995-03-28

    A method is disclosed for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 1 figure.

  2. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets or hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  3. Crystallographic Textures and Morphologies of Solution Cast Ibuprofen Composite Films at Solid Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of thin composite layers has promising advantages in a variety of applications like transdermal, buccal, or sublingual patches. Within this model study the impact of the matrix material on the film forming properties of ibuprofen–matrix composite films is investigated. As matrix materials polystyrene, methyl cellulose, or hydroxyl-ethyl cellulose were used. The film properties were either varied by the preparation route, i.e., spin coating or drop casting, or via changes in the relative ratio of the ibuprofen and the matrix material. The resulting films were investigated via X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscope experiments. The results show that preferred (100) textures can be induced via spin coating with respect to the glass surface, while the drop casting results in a powder-like behavior. The morphologies of the films are strongly impacted by the ibuprofen amount rather than the preparation method. A comparison of the various matrix materials in terms of their impact on the dissolution properties show a two times faster zero order release from methyl cellulose matrix compared to a polystyrene matrix. The slowest rate was observed within the hydroxyl ethyl cellulose as the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) release is limited by diffusion through a swollen matrix. The investigation reveals that the ibuprofen crystallization and film formation is only little effected by the selected matrix material than that compared to the dissolution. A similar experimental approach using other matrix materials may therefore allow to find an optimized composite layer useful for a defined application. PMID:25275801

  4. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Menchhofer, P.

    1995-05-30

    A method is disclosed for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 9 figs.

  5. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, P.

    1997-09-09

    A method is disclosed for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 9 figs.

  6. Spin-Casting Polymer Brush Films for Stimuli-Responsive and Anti-Fouling Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Binbin; Feng, Chun; Hu, Jianhua; Shi, Ping; Gu, Guangxin; Wang, Lei; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-03-16

    Surfaces modified with amphiphilic polymers can dynamically alter their physicochemical properties in response to changes of their environmental conditions; meanwhile, amphiphilic polymer coatings with molecular hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches, which can mitigate biofouling effectively, are being actively explored as advanced coatings for antifouling materials. Herein, a series of well-defined amphiphilic asymmetric polymer brushes containing hetero side chains, hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), was employed to prepare uniform thin films by spin-casting. The properties of these films were investigated by water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). AFM showed smooth surfaces for all films with the roughness less than 2 nm. The changes in water contact angle and C/O ratio (XPS) evidenced the enrichment of PEG or PS chains at film surface after exposed to selective solvents, indicative of stimuli- responsiveness. The adsorption of proteins on PEG functionalized surface was quantified by QCM and the results verified that amphiphilic polymer brush films bearing PEG chains could lower or eliminate protein-material interactions and resist to protein adsorption. Cell adhesion experiments were performed by using HaCaT cells and it was found that polymer brush films possess good antifouling ability. PMID:26905980

  7. Rotational Casting: an improved method of producing polymer film calibration standards for infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, Kenneth B.; Herpst, Robert D.

    1999-02-01

    Referencing NIST Standard SRM 1921A, a comprehensive approach, has been developed for use by all practitioners of infrared spectroscopy, to calibrate their instruments. This approach utilizes a thin film of Poly 1-phenylethylene) Polystyrene rotationally cast, commonly on an Alkyl Halide crystal, with a radial molecular alignment. Historically, drawn polystyrene films have provided reasonable accuracy with respect to band locations documented by NIST. The principal difference between the two methods lies in their respective ways of manufacture. The rotational method exhibits radial stress patterns where drawn films exhibit parallel stress lines. Comparative studies show that a radial film is just as accurate, yet with fewer shortcomings. Greatest attention is fixed on band position, however, energy absorption at critical points is generally ignored. A radial film can be case in an array of precise pathlengths to monitor an instruments Y coordinate efficiency. Drawn films have limitations. All test films are mounted perpendicular to the directional path of an incident beam. When a conventional film, with transverse and longitudinal orientations, is rotated along a 'Z' axis, or the axis which an incident beam travels, results may differ. This is a well-documented phenomenon. When the orientation of a vibrator changes with respect to a fixed energy beam, the moment of dipole of that vibrator also changes. Due to the configuration of a radial film, there is no significant change in orientation upon rotation. This would be valuable information for anyone using infrared for quantitative purposes. Significance of the rotational method lies in accurate pathlength reproducibility in a variety of thicknesses, a unique molecular arrangement, limited control in the absorbance range, and maintained precision in band location. Lastly, it is a cost-effective measure.

  8. Optimization of a 0.69PZT-0.31PZNN thick film by controlling slurry viscosity and tape-casting blade height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Daniel; Woo, Min Sik; Ahn, Jung Hwan; Sung, Tae Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Bum

    2014-12-01

    We investigated how the viscosities of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate/lead zirconate nickel niobate (PZT-PZNN) slurry samples affect the laminated-film densities based on various conditions of degassing time for 0, 30, and 60 min. PZT-PZNN slurries with different viscosities were tape casted into green sheets by adjusting the comma blade height to 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm. As a result the slurry viscosity linearly increased with increasing slurry degassing time, and the thickness of the green sheet increased with increasing comma blade height. The density and the dielectric properties of piezoelectric ceramic films with the same thicknesses, but composed of different numbers of layers, were compared. The laminated-film density and the dielectric property d33 × g33 increased with decreasing number of laminated layers. However, when the viscosity of the slurry was too high (degassing time > 60 min) and the comma blade height was too high (comma blade height > 300 μm), the tape-casted green sheet was too thick to have enough time to dry. By controlling the slurry viscosity by adjusting the degassing time and the comma blade height, we were able to optimize the thickness of the green sheet in a tape-casting. The optimal green sheet thickness was < 70 μm, and the number of sheets laminated should be minimized to increase the film's density and dielectric constant.

  9. Improving Drug Loading of Mucosal Solvent Cast Films Using a Combination of Hydrophilic Polymers with Amoxicillin and Paracetamol as Model Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kianfar, Farnoosh

    2013-01-01

    Solvent cast mucosal films with improved drug loading have been developed by combining carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), sodium alginate (SA), and carrageenan (CAR) using paracetamol and amoxicillin as model drugs and glycerol (GLY) as plasticizer. Films were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), folding resilience, swelling capacity, mucoadhesivity, and drug dissolution studies. SA, CMC, and GLY (5 : 3 : 6) films showed maximum amoxicillin loading of 26.3% whilst CAR, CMC, and GLY (1 : 2 : 3) films had a maximum paracetamol loading of 40%. XRPD analysis showed different physical forms of the drugs depending on the amount loaded. Films containing 29.4% paracetamol and 26.3% amoxicillin showed molecular dispersion of the drugs while excess paracetamol was observed on the film surface when the maximum 40% was loaded. Work of adhesion was similar for blank films with slightly higher cohesiveness for CAR and CMC based films, but the differences were significant between paracetamol and amoxicillin containing films. The stickiness and cohesiveness for drug loaded films were generally similar with no significant differences. The maximum percentage cumulative drug release was 84.65% and 70.59% for paracetamol and amoxicillin, respectively, with anomalous case two transport mechanism involving both drug diffusion and polymer erosion. PMID:23841056

  10. Cast Fe-base cylinder/regenerator housing alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, F.; Kindlimann, L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an iron-base alloy that can meet the requirements of automotive Stirling engine cylinders and regenerator housings is described. Alloy requirements are as follows: a cast alloy, stress for 5000-hr rupture life of 200 MPa (29 ksi) at 775 C (1427 F), oxidation/corrosion resistance comparable to that of N-155, compatibility with hydrogen, and an alloy cost less than or equal to that of 19-9DL. The preliminary screening and evaluation of ten alloys are described.

  11. Precursor-route ZnO films from a mixed casting solvent for high performance aqueous electrolyte-gated transistors.

    PubMed

    Althagafi, Talal M; Algarni, Saud A; Al Naim, Abdullah; Mazher, Javed; Grell, Martin

    2015-12-14

    We significantly improved the performance of precursor-route semiconducting zinc oxide (ZnO) films in electrolyte-gated thin film transistors (TFTs). We find that the organic precursor to ZnO, zinc acetate (ZnAc), dissolves more readily in a 1 : 1 mixture of ethanol (EtOH) and acetone than in pure EtOH, pure acetone, or pure isopropanol. XPS and SEM characterisation show improved morphology of ZnO films converted from a mixed solvent cast ZnAc precursor compared to the EtOH cast precursor. When gated with a biocompatible electrolyte, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) derived from mixed solvent cast ZnAc give 4 times larger field effect current than similar films derived from ZnAc cast from pure EtOH. The sheet resistance at VG = VD = 1 V is 30 kΩ □(-1), lower than for any organic TFT, and lower than for any electrolyte-gated ZnO TFT reported to date. PMID:26549322

  12. A novel dimethylformamide (DMF) free bar-cast method to deposit organolead perovskite thin films with improved stability.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eurig W; Holliman, Peter J; Connell, Arthur; Davies, Matthew L; Baker, Jennifer; Hobbs, Robert J; Ghosh, Sanjay; Furnell, Leo; Anthony, Rosie; Pleydell-Pearce, Cameron

    2016-03-10

    We report a solvent-free approach to synthesizing organolead perovskites by using solid state reactions to coat perovskite crystals onto Al2O3 or TiO2 nanoparticles followed by addition of terpineol affording perovskite inks. We have bar cast these inks to produce photoactive perovskite thin films which are significantly more stable to humidity than solution-processed films. This new method also avoids the use of toxic DMF solvent. PMID:26962574

  13. Coccidioidomycosis among cast and crew members at an outdoor television filming event--California, 2012.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Marquez, Patricia; Terashita, Dawn; McNary, Jennifer; Windham, Gayle; Materna, Barbara

    2014-04-18

    In March 2013, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) identified two Doctor's First Reports of Occupational Injury or Illness (DFRs) regarding Los Angeles County residents who had worked at the same jobsite in January 2012 and had been evaluated for possible work-associated coccidioidomycosis (valley fever). Occupational exposure to Coccidioides, the causative fungi, typically is associated with soil-disrupting activities. The physicians noted that both workers were cast or crew members filming a television series episode, and the site of possible exposure was an outdoor set in Ventura County, California. On the basis of their job titles, neither would have been expected to have been engaged in soil-disrupting activities. Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) conducted an outbreak investigation by using CDPH-provided occupational surveillance records, traditional infectious disease surveillance, and social media searches. This report describes the results of that investigation, which identified a total of five laboratory-confirmed and five probable cases linked to this filming event. The employer and site manager were interviewed. The site manager stated that they would no longer allow soil-disruptive work at the site and would incorporate information about the potential risk for Coccidioides exposure onsite into work contracts. Public health professionals, clinicians, and the television and film industry should be aware that employees working outdoors in areas where Coccidioides is endemic (e.g., central and southern California), even those not engaged in soil-disruptive work, might be at risk for coccidioidomycosis. PMID:24739339

  14. Interplay of processing, morphological order, and charge-carrier mobility in polythiophene thin films deposited by different methods: comparison of spin-cast, drop-cast, and inkjet-printed films.

    PubMed

    Wong, Loke-Yuen; Png, Rui-Qi; Silva, F B Shanjeera; Chua, Lay-Lay; Repaka, D V Maheswar; Shi-Chen; Gao, Xing-Yu; Ke, Lin; Chua, Soo-Jin; Wee, Andrew T S; Ho, Peter K H

    2010-10-01

    The dependence of morphology and polymer-chain orientation of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) thin films on processing conditions have been widely studied. However, their possible variation across the film thickness direction remains largely unknown. We report here a marked difference in the optical dielectric (n,k) spectra between the top and bottom interfaces of spin-cast (sc) rrP3HT films deposited from chlorobenzene solutions. These spectra were obtained from reflection variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry using a self-consistent graded optical model with self-imposed Kramers-Krönig consistency. The top interface shows a red-shifted absorption that is characteristic of better order than at the bottom, across a wide range of film thicknesses. This disparity diminishes in drop-cast (dc) and multipass inkjet-printed (ijp) films, and disappears in amorphous films such as those of polystyrene and of a green-emitting phenyl-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylene). The (n,k) spectra also reveal that crystallinity increases across sc < dc < ijp films. This is supported by cross section scanning electron microscopy of the cleaved edges and measurement of the microroughness of both the film interfaces. Furthermore, optical anisotropy decreases across sc > dc > ijp films. Finally, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy also shows the frontier chains in ijp and dc films are more isotropically oriented than those in sc films. These results suggest that semicrystalline conjugated polymer films can be produced far from equilibrium. This explains the marked variation in their (opto)electronic properties between the top and bottom surfaces that has sometimes been found depending on the film deposition method. In particular, an unusually pronounced crystallization is induced by ijp. We label this marked ijp-induced crystallization the "ijp morphology", which appears to be general, as it is found also in single-inkjet-droplet films. It appears also to be responsible for the lower field-effect mobility measured for ijp films deposited on a variety of linear and circular electrode arrays. This however can fortuitously be reversed by annealing in solvent vapor. As all films were deposited in the low Peclet-number regime, we can rule out surface skin formation. We attribute the extensive crystallization to the non-uniform drying of picoliter droplets, further promoted by repeated film swelling-deswelling cycles in multipass-ijp films. PMID:20828174

  15. Direct Isosurface Ray Casting of NURBS-Based Isogeometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schollmeyer, Andre; Froehlich, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    In NURBS-based isogeometric analysis, the basis functions of a 3D model's geometric description also form the basis for the solution space of variational formulations of partial differential equations. In order to visualize the results of a NURBS-based isogeometric analysis, we developed a novel GPU-based multi-pass isosurface visualization technique which performs directly on an equivalent rational Bézier representation without the need for discretization or approximation. Our approach utilizes rasterization to generate a list of intervals along the ray that each potentially contain boundary or isosurface intersections. Depth-sorting this list for each ray allows us to proceed in front-to-back order and enables early ray termination. We detect multiple intersections of a ray with the higher-order surface of the model using a sampling-based root-isolation method. The model's surfaces and the isosurfaces always appear smooth, independent of the zoom level due to our pixel-precise processing scheme. Our adaptive sampling strategy minimizes costs for point evaluations and intersection computations. The implementation shows that the proposed approach interactively visualizes volume meshes containing hundreds of thousands of Bézier elements on current graphics hardware. A comparison to a GPU-based ray casting implementation using spatial data structures indicates that our approach generally performs significantly faster while being more accurate. PMID:26357373

  16. Real-time measurement system for tracking birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during drying of solution cast coatings and films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsal, E.; Drum, J.; Yucel, O.; Nugay, I. I.; Yalcin, B.; Cakmak, M.

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a new instrument to track temporal changes in physical parameters during the drying behavior of solutions, as well as curing of monomers. This real-time instrument follows in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during the course of solidification of coatings and films through solvent evaporation and thermal or photocuring in a controlled atmosphere. It is specifically designed to simulate behavior of polymer solutions inside an industrial size, continuous roll-to-roll solution casting line and other coating operations where resins are subjected to ultraviolet (UV) curing from monomer precursors. Controlled processing parameters include air speed, temperature, initial cast thickness, and solute concentration, while measured parameters are thickness, weight, film temperature, in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of this instrument with solution cast and dried poly (amide-imide)/DMAc (Dimethylacetamide) solution, water based black paint, and organo-modified clay/NMP (N-Methylpyrrolidone) solution. In addition, the physical changes that take place during UV photo polymerization of a monomer are tracked. This instrument is designed to be generic and it can be used for tracking any drying/swelling/solidification systems including paper, foodstuffs such as; grains, milk as well as pharmaceutical thin paste and slurries.

  17. Efficient fabrication of wafer scale thin film of individualized single-walled carbon nanotubes by dual-nozzle spin casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Shin; Kwon, Soongeun; Shin, Dong Hun; Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Woo, Ju Yeon; Lim, Donghyun; Kwak, Yoon Keun; Kim, Soohyun; Han, Chang-Soo

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a dual-nozzle spin casting method was proposed to form a thin film of individualized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) at the wafer scale. Each nozzle simultaneously ejected the SWNT solution and methanol, respectively. During the ejection process, two solutions were mixed at the contacting end of the nozzles and then dropped onto the substrate. Functionalization of the wafer substrate with the amine group improved the uniformity of the SWNT thin film as well as the adhesion between the individualized SWNTs and the substrate. The best condition of the spin casting involved the substrate functionalization using 3-aminopropyltriethosilane aqueous solution with a concentration of ˜10 mM and a deposition velocity of ˜5000 rpm. The root-mean-square roughness of the fabricated SWNT layer over the wafer substrate was found to be 1.4-1.8 nm, which indicated that the resultant thin film was one or two layers of SWNTs. The wafer scale SWNT thin film formed by dual-nozzle spin casting can be further used for the mass production and high integration of the SWNT nanoelectronic devices.

  18. On the stabilizing effects of neck-in, gravity, and inertia in Newtonian film casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechert, M.; Schubert, D. W.; Scheid, B.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the influence of the reduction of width along the stretching direction, the so-called neck-in effect, on the draw resonance instability in Newtonian film casting using a linear stability analysis of a model of reduced dimensionality including gravity and inertia forces. Proper scaling reveals the aspect ratio, i.e., the ratio of the initial film half-width to the film length, together with the fluidity and the inlet velocity as independent, dimensionless control parameters. Moreover, we introduce the local Trouton ratio as a measure for the type of elongational deformation, which can be uniaxial, planar, or a combination of both. In the case of purely uniaxial or planar deformations, a one-dimensional model is sufficient. The influence of the control parameters on the draw resonance instability, including a threshold to unconditional stability, is visualized by several stability maps. Special cases of viscous-gravity and viscous-inertia models are analyzed separately due to their practical importance. Gravity appears to influence the aspect ratio at which the critical draw ratio is maximum and amplifies the stabilizing effect of the neck-in. Inertia increases the stabilization due to neck-in, eventually leading to a window of unconditional stability within the analyzed region of aspect ratios. The mechanism underlying the complete suppression of draw resonance is presented, using exclusively steady state analysis. Additionally, the stabilizing mechanisms of gravity and neck-in are revealed. Known alternative stability criteria are extended to the case of finite width and their validity is tested in the presence of inertia, gravity, and finite aspect ratios.

  19. Determination of the Lifetime of a Double-Oxide Film in Al Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmed; Salem, Hanadi A. G.; Kandeil, Abdelrazek Youssef; Griffiths, W. D.

    2014-08-01

    One of the most important casting defects in Al alloys is thought to be the double-oxide film defect (bifilm) which has been reported to have a deleterious effect on the reproducibility of the mechanical properties of Al castings. Previous research has suggested that the atmosphere inside such bifilms could be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt, which might decrease the size of the defects and reduce their harmful effect on mechanical properties. In order to follow the change in the composition of the interior atmosphere of a bifilm, analog air bubbles were held inside Al alloy melts, for varying lengths of time, and subjected to stirring, followed by solidification. The bubble contents were then analyzed using a mass spectrometer to determine the changes in their compositions with time. The results suggested that initially oxygen and then nitrogen inside the bubble were consumed, and hydrogen dissolved in the melt diffused into the bubble. The consumption rates of O and N as well as the rate of H diffusion were dependent upon the type of oxide, which was dependent on the alloy composition. The reaction rates were the fastest with MgO (in an Al-5Mg alloy), slower with alumina (in commercial-purity Al alloy), and the slowest with MgAl2O4 spinel (in an Al-7Si-0.3Mg alloy). It was estimated that the times required for typical bifilm defects in the different alloys to lose their entire oxygen and nitrogen contents were about 345 seconds (~6 minutes), in the case of Al-5Mg; 538 seconds (~9 minutes), in the case of a commercial purity alloy; and 1509 seconds (~25 minutes), in the case of the Al-7Si-0.3Mg alloy (2L99) due to the different oxides that the different alloys would be expected to form.

  20. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.M.; Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y.; Lee, M.W.; Thian, E.S.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.

  1. High solids loading for water-based tape casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannasiri, Thitima

    Tape Casting is a low cost process for making large-area, thin, flat ceramics, which traditionally utilizes organic solvents to allow fast drying.sp{1-4} However, some of the volatile organic compounds (VOC), such as toluene, methylethyl ketone (MEK), and cyclohexanone, are hazardous air pollutants, and their emissions need to be regulated. Therefore, using water as a solvent is desirable to avoid the need of trapping VOCs. Although water is of low cost, nonflammable and safe to the environment, its heat of vaporization is high, 540 kca/g, compared to that of toluene, 74 kca/g.sp7 This makes the drying slow when water is used. The use of water in a tape casting formulation has previously been practical just for applications which require very thin tape, 100-200 mum. A high solids loading of above 50 vol% is an alternative approach to obtain sufficiently rapid drying for a thicker tape (up to 0.8 mm) since the water content is originally minimized. In order to obtain a high solids loading, the dispersants and binder systems were carefully tailored during the present research project. Low molecular weight polyelectrolytes, such as polyacrylic acid PAA (M.W. 1800) and citric acid, were found to be effective for high solids loading of Alsb2Osb3 (A-16SG), for which the electrosteric stabilization played an important role to the stability of the suspension. The viscosity and flow behavior of the suspension strongly depended on pH and the amount of polyelectrolyte, which could be related to the configuration of the polyelectrolyte molecules on the powder surface. The high solids loading of 64.5 vol% could be obtained for the fine A-16SG powder which had a surface area of 9.3 msp2/g. For the coarser powder, A-152SG, the dilatancy was a major problem that obstructed a further rise in solids loading. The dilatancy could be minimized by modifying the size distribution with A-152SG plus A-16SG and using a proper pH and amount of dispersants. An extremely high solids loading of 71-73 vol% could be reached in an aqueous system for the size-modified powder, before binder addition. An emulsion binder (Duramaxsp{TM} B-1001) aided the reduction in viscosity of the high solids loading suspension, while the soluble binder aggravated the agglomeration and drastically raised the viscosity. The emulsion binder used also had high polymer content and, therefore, less water. The final solids loadings obtained were 55.7 vol% for A-16SG and 63 vol% for mixed A-152SG and A-16SG powder. The drying time was reduced by one third for the 63 vol% formulation compared to the 55.7 vol% formulation. Water-based tape casting of A1N was possible in a buffer solution. Polyacrylic acid, PAA (M.W. 1800), aided dispersion and also minimized hydrolysis of A1N in water. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), PVP (M.W. 160,000), gave a lower viscosity to suspension compared to poly(vinyl alcohol) and cellulose ether, and had less bubble formation. The suspension could be processed for more than 72 h without degradation. With optimization of dispersant and binder, a high solids loading formulation of 52 vol% could be obtained. When the organic components were burned out in the air, AlN with 3wt% Ysb2Osb3 could be sintered at 1800sp°C for 1 h without degradation. The thermal conductivity was up to 153 W/m.K.

  2. Application of film-casting technique to investigate drug-polymer miscibility in solid dispersion and hot-melt extrudate.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Tapan; Gupta, Simerdeep Singh; Meena, Anuprabha K; Vitez, Imre; Mahajan, Nidhi; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2015-07-01

    Determination of drug-polymer miscibility is critical for successful development of solid dispersions. This report details a practical method to predict miscibility and physical stability of drug with various polymers in solid dispersion and, especially, in melt extrudates by applying a film-casting technique. Mixtures of itraconazole (ITZ) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP), Kollidon(®) VA 64, Eudragit(®) E PO, and Soluplus(®) were film-casted, exposed to 40°C/75% RH for 1 month and then analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry, and polarized light microscopy (PLM). ITZ had the highest miscibility with HPMCP, being miscible at drug to polymer ratio of 6:4 (w/w). There was a downward trend of lower miscibility with Soluplus(®) (miscible at 3:7, w/w, and a few microcrystals present at 4:6, w/w), Kollidon(®) VA 64 (2:8, w/w) and Eudragit(®) E PO (<1:9, w/w). PLM was found more sensitive to detect drug crystallization than DSC and powder X-ray diffractometry. There was general correlation between results of film casting and hot-melt extrusion (HME) using a twin screw extruder. For ITZ-Soluplus(®) mixtures, HME at 4:6 (w/w) resulted in a single phase, whereas drug crystallization was observed at higher drug load. HME of ITZ-Kollidon(®) VA 64 mixtures also correlated well with the miscibility predicted by film casting. PMID:25917333

  3. Enhancement of Third-Order Optical Susceptibility in Polythiophene Thin Films Fabricated by Drop Casting Using Anhydrous Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Endo, Toshiyuki; Shinke, Wataru; Nagase, Takashi; Murakami, Shuichi; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2011-07-01

    To maximize the potential of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a nonlinear optical material, we examined the conditions for fabricating thin films. The results indicate that the third-order optical susceptibility χ(3), which was determined by electroabsorption spectroscopy, is fourfold enhanced when thin films are drop cast from an anhydrous chloroform solution in an inert atmosphere, compared with the χ(3) of spin-coated thin films prepared in an ambient atmosphere. Fabricating the thin films in an O2- and water-free environment is essential for obtaining large χ(3) values. Under these conditions, we determined the maximum value of the imaginary part of χ(3) for P3HT to be 2.2 ×10-9 esu.

  4. Controlled release implants based on cast lipid blends.

    PubMed

    Kreye, F; Siepmann, F; Zimmer, A; Willart, J F; Descamps, M; Siepmann, J

    2011-05-18

    The aim of this study was to use lipid:lipid blends as matrix formers in controlled release implants. The systems were prepared by melting and casting and thoroughly characterized before and after exposure to the release medium. Based on the experimental results, a mechanistic realistic mathematical model was used to get further insight into the underlying drug release mechanisms. Importantly, broad spectra of drug release patterns could be obtained by simply varying the lipid:lipid blend ratio in implants based on Precirol ATO 5 (glyceryl palmitostearate):Dynasan 120 (hardened soybean oil) mixtures loaded with propranolol hydrochloride. Release periods ranging from a few days up to several months could be provided. Interestingly, the drug release rate monotonically decreased with increasing Dynasan 120 content, except for implants containing about 20-25% Precirol, which exhibited surprisingly high release rates. This could be attributed to the incomplete miscibility of the two lipids at these blend ratios: DSC thermograms showed phase separation in these systems. This is likely to cause differences in the implants' microstructure, which determines the mobility of water and dissolved drug as well as the mechanical stability of the systems. Purely diffusion controlled drug release was only observed at Precirol ATO 5 contents around 5-10%. In all other cases, limited drug solubility effects or matrix former erosion are also expected to play a major role. Thus, lipid:lipid blends are very interesting matrix formers in controlled release implants. However, care must be taken with respect to the mutual miscibility of the compounds: in case of phase separation, surprisingly high drug release rates might be observed. PMID:21463679

  5. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    PubMed

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p < 0.0001) and cell metabolic activity (p < 0.0001), and significantly increased cell toxicity (p < 0.0001) and inflammatory cytokine expression (p < 0.0001). S. mutans-treated Ni-based dental casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern. PMID:23103633

  6. A simple, safe and affordable cast-based guided implant placement system.

    PubMed

    Stumpel, Lambert J

    2015-03-01

    A fully restrictive surgical guide allows controlled execution of a preoperatively planned osteotomy and subsequent implant placement. There are two fabrication modes. One is a digital path, where these guides can be fabricated based on data from a cone beam CT source. Alternatively, 3-D data can be derived from a dental cast and periapical radiographs. The 3D Click Guide is a cast-based, fully restrictive surgical guide that can be generated in the dental office. PMID:25864302

  7. Three-dimensional microstructure simulation of Ni-based superalloy investment castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dong; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2011-05-01

    An integrated macro and micro multi-scale model for the three-dimensional microstructure simulation of Ni-based superalloy investment castings was developed, and applied to industrial castings to investigate grain evolution during solidification. A ray tracing method was used to deal with the complex heat radiation transfer. The microstructure evolution was simulated based on the Modified Cellular Automaton method, which was coupled with three-dimensional nested macro and micro grids. Experiments for Ni-based superalloy turbine wheel investment casting were carried out, which showed a good correspondence with the simulated results. It is indicated that the proposed model is able to predict the microstructure of the casting precisely, which provides a tool for the optimizing process.

  8. Solution-cast metal oxide thin film electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Trotochaud, Lena; Ranney, James K; Williams, Kerisha N; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2012-10-17

    Water oxidation is a critical step in water splitting to make hydrogen fuel. We report the solution synthesis, structural/compositional characterization, and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalytic properties of ~2-3 nm thick films of NiO(x), CoO(x), Ni(y)Co(1-y)O(x), Ni(0.9)Fe(0.1)O(x), IrO(x), MnO(x), and FeO(x). The thin-film geometry enables the use of quartz crystal microgravimetry, voltammetry, and steady-state Tafel measurements to study the electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical properties of the oxides. Ni(0.9)Fe(0.1)O(x) was found to be the most active water oxidation catalyst in basic media, passing 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 336 mV with a Tafel slope of 30 mV dec(-1) with oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity roughly an order of magnitude higher than IrO(x) control films and similar to the best known OER catalysts in basic media. The high activity is attributed to the in situ formation of layered Ni(0.9)Fe(0.1)OOH oxyhydroxide species with nearly every Ni atom electrochemically active. In contrast to previous reports that showed synergy between Co and Ni oxides for OER catalysis, Ni(y)Co(1-y)O(x) thin films showed decreasing activity relative to the pure NiO(x) films with increasing Co content. This finding is explained by the suppressed in situ formation of the active layered oxyhydroxide with increasing Co. The high OER activity and simple synthesis make these Ni-based catalyst thin films useful for incorporating with semiconductor photoelectrodes for direct solar-driven water splitting or in high-surface-area electrodes for water electrolysis. PMID:22991896

  9. Preparation and characterization of bio-based hybrid film containing chitosan and silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shahzadi, Kiran; Wu, Lin; Ge, Xuesong; Zhao, Fuhua; Li, Hui; Pang, Shuping; Jiang, Yijun; Guan, Jing; Mu, Xindong

    2016-02-10

    A bio-based hybrid film containing chitosan (CS) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been prepared by a simple casting technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to characterize the structure of bio-based film. The bio-based hybrid film showed unique performance compared with bare chitosan film. The incorporated nano-silver could improve the strength properly. The results revealed that AgNWs in CS film, improved its tensile strength more than 62% and Young modulus 55% compared with pure chitosan film. On the other hand tensile strength was increased 36.7% with AgNPs. Importantly, the film also exhibited conductivity and antibacterial properties, which may expand its future application. PMID:26686186

  10. Caste-, work-, and descent-based discrimination as a determinant of health in social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2014-01-01

    Social epidemiology explores health in the context of broad social determinants of health, where the boundary lines between health and politics appear increasingly blurred. Social determinants of health such as caste, discrimination, and social exclusion are inherently political in nature, hence it becomes imperative to look at health through a broader perspective of political philosophy, ideology, and caste that imposes enormous obstacles to a person's full attainment of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. Caste is descent based and hereditary in nature. It is a characteristic determined by one's birth into a particular caste, irrespective of the faith practiced by the individual. Caste denotes a system of rigid social stratification into ranked groups defined by descent and occupation. Under various caste systems throughout the world, caste divisions also dominate in housing, marriage, and general social interaction divisions that are reinforced through the practice and threat of social ostracism, economic boycotts, and even physical violence-all of which undermine health equality. PMID:24871772

  11. Optimisation of melting and casting conditions for Zr-fluoride based glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, R.; Caspary, R.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-04-01

    A systematic investigation was carried out on melting and casting of Zr-fluoride based glasses in order to find out the optimum fabrication conditions. Several rods were prepared with variation in compositions and melting/casting parameters. They were characterised to compare their optical homogeneity and stability. The results showed an appreciable influence of the conditions selected during different stages of melting on the glass quality. The fabrication conditions were optimised for three different compositions suitable for making optical fibre preforms.

  12. Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration-Assisted Drop Casting (SVADC) for the Fabrication of Photovoltaic Solar Cell Arrays and Thin-Film Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Zabihi, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    A simple, low-cost, versatile, and potentially scalable casting method is proposed for the fabrication of micro- and nano-thin films, herein termed as ultrasonic "substrate vibration-assisted drop casting" (SVADC). The impingement of a solution drop onto a substrate in a simple process called drop casting, usually results in spreading of the liquid solution and the formation of a non-uniform thin solid film after solvent evaporation. Our previous and current supporting results, as well as few similar reports by others, confirm that imposing ultrasonic vibration on the substrate can simply convert the uncontrollable drop casting method into a controllable coating technique. Therefore, the SVADC may be used to fabricate an array of emerging thin-film solar cells, such as polymer, perovskite, and quantum-dot solar cells, as well as other small thin-film devices, in a roll-to-roll and automated fabrication process. The preliminary results demonstrate a ten-fold increase in electrical conductivity of PEDOT: PSS made by SVADC compared with the film made by conventional drop casting. Also, simple planar perovskite solar cells made here using SVADC show promising performance with an efficiency of over 3 % for a simple structure without performing process optimization or using expensive materials and treatments.

  13. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. PMID:24507339

  14. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waxy casts; Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts ... a sign of many types of kidney diseases. Red blood cell casts mean there is a microscopic amount of ...

  15. Si-nanocrystal/P3HT hybrid films with a 50- and 12-fold enhancement of hole mobility and density: films prepared by successive drop casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiya, Daisuke; Saitow, Ken-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid silicon nanocrystal (Si-NC)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films serve as the active layers of quantum dot/polymer hybrid photovoltaics. To achieve effective photovoltaic properties, it is necessary to enhance the charge carrier mobility and carrier density of the P3HT films. A 50- and 12-fold enhancement of the hole mobility and hole density, respectively, was achieved along the out-of-plane direction of a Si-NC/P3HT hybrid film, which corresponds to the carrier-migration direction between the photovoltaic electrodes. According to time-of-flight, electronic absorption, Raman, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence lifetime, and X-ray diffraction measurements, the significant enhancement of the mobility and density was attributed to both an increase in the P3HT crystallinity and the dissociation efficiency of P3HT excitons on the addition of Si-NCs to the P3HT films. These enhancements were achieved using a film preparation method developed in the present study, which has been named successive drop casting.Hybrid silicon nanocrystal (Si-NC)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films serve as the active layers of quantum dot/polymer hybrid photovoltaics. To achieve effective photovoltaic properties, it is necessary to enhance the charge carrier mobility and carrier density of the P3HT films. A 50- and 12-fold enhancement of the hole mobility and hole density, respectively, was achieved along the out-of-plane direction of a Si-NC/P3HT hybrid film, which corresponds to the carrier-migration direction between the photovoltaic electrodes. According to time-of-flight, electronic absorption, Raman, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence lifetime, and X-ray diffraction measurements, the significant enhancement of the mobility and density was attributed to both an increase in the P3HT crystallinity and the dissociation efficiency of P3HT excitons on the addition of Si-NCs to the P3HT films. These enhancements were achieved using a film preparation method developed in the present study, which has been named successive drop casting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02361k

  16. Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.

  17. Facile preparation and thermoelectric properties of Bi₂Te₃ based alloy nanosheet/PEDOT:PSS composite films.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Cai, K F; Chen, Song; Cizek, Pavel; Lin, Tong

    2014-04-23

    Bi2Te3 based alloy nanosheet (NS)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite films were prepared separately by spin coating and drop casting techniques. The drop cast composite film containing 4.10 wt % Bi2Te3 based alloy NSs showed electrical conductivity as high as 1295.21 S/cm, which is higher than that (753.8 S/cm) of a dimethyl sulfoxide doped PEDOT:PSS film prepared under the same condition and that (850-1250 S/cm) of the Bi2Te3 based alloy bulk material. The composite film also showed a very high power factor value, ∼32.26 μWm(-1) K(-2). With the content of Bi2Te3 based alloy NSs increasing from 0 to 4.10 wt %, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the composite films increase simultaneously. PMID:24666341

  18. Cellular activity of Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on electrospun fibrous and solvent-cast film scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bagher, Zohreh; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Azami, Mahmoud; Safa, Majid; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    It was shown that topography and surface chemistry of materials influence cell behaviors. In this study, the effects of chemistry and topography of scaffold surface on adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal (WJMSCs) stem cells into motor neurons were investigated. WJMSCs were cultivated in an neurogenic inductive medium on the surface of modified and unmodified polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun fibrous and solvent-cast film scaffolds. All the scaffolds were characterized according to their ability to support cell attachment and viability by SEM and MTT assay. The expression of motor neuron-specific markers was assayed by real-time PCR after 15days post induction. Results showed that attachment, proliferation and differentiation of WJMSCs into motor neuron-like cells on the nanotopographic surface was higher than that of the cells on the solvent-cast scaffolds. In addition, regardless of their topography, WJMSCs cultured on collagen-coated PCL nanofibrous showed results similar to collagen-coated PCL films. Results suggested that surface chemistry has more impact on WJMSCs behaviour rather than topography. In conclusion, collagen-coated electrospun PCL have potential for being used in neural tissue engineering because of its bioactive and three-dimensional structure which enhance viability and differentiation of WJMSCs. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 218-226, 2016. PMID:26265047

  19. High-Throughput Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models for ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models aid in predicting exposure doses needed to create tissue concentrations equivalent to those identified as bioactive by ToxCast. We have implemented four empirical and physiologically-based toxicokinetic (TK) models within a new R ...

  20. Electrical Transport and Grain Growth in Solution-Cast, Chloride-Terminated Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystal Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the evolution of electrical transport and grain size during the sintering of thin films spin-cast from soluble phosphine and amine-bound, chloride-terminated cadmium selenide nanocrystals. Sintering of the nanocrystals occurs in three distinct stages as the annealing temperature is increased: (1) reversible desorption of the organic ligands (≤150 °C), (2) irreversible particle fusion (200–300 °C), and (3) ripening of the grains to >5 nm domains (>200 °C). Grain growth occurs at 200 °C in films with 8 atom % Cl–, while films with 3 atom % Cl– resist growth until 300 °C. Fused nanocrystalline thin films (grain size = 4.5–5.5 nm) on thermally grown silicon dioxide gate dielectrics produce field-effect transistors with electron mobilities as high as 25 cm2/(Vs) and on/off ratios of 105 with less than 0.5 V hysteresis in threshold voltage without the addition of indium. PMID:24960255

  1. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  2. Effect of casting geometry on mechanical properties of two nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. R.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Collins, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine mechanical properties of two rhenium-free modifications of alloy TRW, and to evaluate the suitability of the alloy for use in a small integrally cast turbine rotor. The two alloys were initially developed using stress rupture properties of specimens machined from solid gas turbine blades. Properties in this investigation were determined from cast to size bars and bars cut from 3.8 by 7.6 by 17.8 cm blocks. Specimens machined from blocks had inferior tensile strength and always had markedly poorer rupture lives than cast to size bars. At 1,000 C the cast to size bars had shorter rupture lives than those machined from blades. Alloy R generally had better properties than alloy S in the conditions evaluated. The results show the importance of casting geometry on mechanical properties of nickel base superalloys and suggest that the geometry of a component can be simulated when developing alloys for that component.

  3. An Informatics Based Approach to Reduce the Grain Size of Cast Hadfield Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Swati; Pathak, Shankha; Sheoran, Sumit; Kela, Damodar H.; Datta, Shubhabrata

    2016-04-01

    Materials Informatics concept using computational intelligence based approaches are employed to bring out the significant alloying additions to achieve grain refinement in cast Hadfield steel. Castings of Hadfield steels used for railway crossings, requires fine grained austenitic structure. Maintaining proper grain size of this component is very crucial in order to achieve the desired properties and service life. This work studies the important variables affecting the grain size of such steels which includes the compositional and processing variables. The computational findings and prior knowledge is used to design the alloy, which is subjected to a few trials to validate the findings.

  4. Fabrication and Electrical Characteristics of Graphite/Carbon Nanotube/Polyvinyl Butyral Composite Film via Tape-Casting and Heat-Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Young; Choi, Seung-Woo; Boo, Seong Jae; Lee, Jong-Ho; Noh, Hee Sook; Kim, Ho-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Composite stacking films, which can be applied as the bipolar plates of redox flow batteries, were fabricated via a tape-casting process that used slurry of graphite, CNT, and resin materials. The slurry was made of 25~45 wt% conductive filler (graphite, CNT) and 55~75 wt% polyvinyl butyral (PVB) binder solution (binder, dispersant, plasticizer, and solvent). The sheet thickness of the composite films was controlled to 70~150 μm, and composite films of about 1 mm in thickness were also fabricated by stacking and laminating the sheet film, including the conductive filler of above 85 wt%. The effects of the shape and physical properties of the graphite were investigated with regard to the dispersion behavior and flow of the slurry on the carrier film of the tape-casting device. As a result, the acicular graphite showed a good dispersion property with the resin of the PVB binder, as compared to spherical graphite. The composite film with acicular graphite showed a lower resistivity than that of a film with spherical graphite. Furthermore, the effects of adding a small amount of CNT and the heat-treatment to the composite stacking film were also studied. Finally, the composite film showed an electrical characteristic of below 50 mΩ·cm and a high bending strength of above 20 MPa. PMID:26726462

  5. Sophorolipid-induced dimpling and increased porosity in solvent-cast short-chain polyhydroxyalkanoate films: impact on thermo-mechanical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sophorolipids (SL; microbial glycolipids) were used as additives in solvent-cast short-chain polyhydroxyalkanoate (sc-PHA) films to enhance surface roughness and porosity. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), poly-(6%)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(94%)-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHB/V), and poly-(90%)-3-hydroxybutyrate-c...

  6. Base of Smokestack showing brick privies and cast iron 400,000 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Base of Smokestack showing brick privies and cast iron 400,000 gal. water tank with Roundhouse in background - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  7. Equilibration of Polymer Films Cast from Solutions with Different Solvent Qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ranxing Nancy; Clough, Andrew; Peng, Dongdong; Yang, Zhaohui; Tsui, Ophelia

    2012-02-01

    The preparation history can affect the physical properties of polymer thin films. In spin coating, films are made from a polymer solution. Due to rapid evaporation of solvent in this process, the polymer chains in the films cannot fully interpenetrate, resulting in a non-equilibrium conformation with reduced entanglement density. These in turn can affect the film's equilibration process and viscoelastic properties. On the basis that the chain conformation and entanglement density in a film depend on the conformation of the chains while in solution before spin-coating. We modify the structural properties of the films by adjusting the quality of the solvent used in spin-coating. We examine in detail how these adjustments affect the way polystyrene films approach equilibrium on annealing above the glass transition temperature. It is found that the equilibration time of the film is significantly increased as the solvent quality is decreased towards the θ condition. We attribute this observation to reduced entanglement in the films with decreasing solvent quality.

  8. Covalent cum noncovalent functionalizations of carbon nanotubes for effective reinforcement of a solution cast composite film.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2012-04-01

    Although carbon nanotubes have impressive tensile properties, exploiting these properties in composites, especially those made by the common solution casting technique, seems to be elusive thus far. The reasons could be partly due to the poor nanotube dispersion and the weak nanotube/matrix interface. To solve this dual pronged problem, we combine noncovalent and covalent functionalizations of nanotubes in a single system by the design and application of a novel dispersant, hydroxyl polyimide-graft-bisphenol A diglyceryl acrylate (PI(OH)-BDA), and use them with epoxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (O-SWNTs). Our novel PI(OH)-BDA dispersant functionalizes the nanotubes noncovalently to achieve good dispersion of the nanotubes because of the strong π-π interaction due to main chain and steric hindrance of the BDA side chain. PI(OH)-BDA also functionalizes O-SWNTs covalently because it reacts with epoxide groups on the nanotubes, as well as the cyanate ester (CE) matrix used. The resulting solution-cast CE composites show 57%, 71%, and 124% increases in Young's modulus, tensile strength, and toughness over neat CE. These values are higher than those of composites reinforced with pristine SWNTs, epoxidized SWNTs, and pristine SWNTs dispersed with PI(OH)-BDA. The modulus and strength increase per unit nanotube weight fraction, i.e., dE/dW(NT) and dσ/dW(NT), are 175 GPa and 7220 MPa, respectively, which are significantly higher than those of other nanotube/thermosetting composites (22-70 GPa and 140-3540 MPa, respectively). Our study indicates that covalent cum noncovalent functionalization of nanotubes is an effective tool for improving both the nanotube dispersion and nanotube/matrix interfacial interaction, resulting in significantly improved mechanical reinforcement of the solution-cast composites. PMID:22432973

  9. Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge gap: a case of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atteraya, Madhu; Kimm, HeeJin; Song, In Han

    2015-05-01

    Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities are major obstacles to achieving health equity. The authors investigated whether there is any association between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge within caste and ethnic populations. They used the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally represented cross-sectional study data set. The study sample consisted of 11,273 women between 15 and 49 years of age. Univariate and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge. The study sample was divided into high Hindu caste (47.9 percent), "untouchable" caste (18.4 percent), and indigenous populations (33.7 percent). Within the study sample, the high-caste population was found to have the greatest knowledge of the means by which HIV is prevented and transmitted. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, untouchables were the least knowledgeable. The odds ratio for incomplete knowledge about transmission among indigenous populations was 1.27 times higher than that for high Hindu castes, but there was no significant difference in knowledge of preventive measures. The findings suggest the existence of a prevailing HIV knowledge gap. This in turn suggests that appropriate steps need to be implemented to convey complete knowledge to underprivileged populations. PMID:26027418

  10. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P. J. A.

    2007-11-01

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

  11. Photoactivated chlorophyllin-based gelatin films and coatings to prevent microbial contamination of food products.

    PubMed

    López-Carballo, G; Hernández-Muñoz, P; Gavara, R; Ocio, M J

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this work was to develop antimicrobial photosensitizer-containing edible films and coatings based on gelatin as the polymer matrix, incorporating sodium magnesium chlorophyllin (E-140) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (E-141). Chlorophyllins were incorporated into the gelatin film-forming solution and the inhibiting effect of the cast films was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The results demonstrated that water soluble sodium magnesium chlorophyllin and water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin reduced the growth of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes by 5 log and 4 log respectively. Subsequently, the activity of self-standing films and coatings containing E-140 was assessed on cooked frankfurters inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. These tests showed that it was possible to reduce microorganism growth in cooked frankfurters inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes by covering them with sodium magnesium chlorophyllin-gelatin films and coatings. PMID:18555550

  12. Technology and experiments of 42CrMo bearing ring forming based on casting ring blank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongtang; Ju, Li; Qi, Huiping; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Guozhen; Wang, Mingli

    2014-03-01

    Bearing ring is the crucial component of bearing. With regard to such problems as material waste, low efficiency and high energy consumption in current process of producing large bearing ring, a new process named "casting-rolling compound forming technology" is researched by taking the typical 42CrMo slew bearing as object. Through theoretical analysis, the design criteria of the main casting-rolling forming parameters are put forward at first. Then the constitutive relationship model of as-cast 42CrMo steel and its mathematical model of dynamic recrystallization are obtained according to the results of the hot compression experiment. By a coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model for radial-axial rolling of bearing ring, the fraction of dynamic recrystallization is calculated and recrystallized grains size are predicated. Meanwhile, the effects of the initial rolling temperature and feed rate of idle roll on material microstructure evolution are analyzed. Finally, the industrial rolling experiment is designed and performed, based on the simulation results. In addition, mechanical and metallographic tests are conducted on rolled bearing ring to get the mechanical parameters and metallographic structure. The experimental data and results show that the mechanical properties of bearing ring produced by casting-rolling compound forming technology are up to industrial standard, and a qualified bearing ring can be successfully formed by employing this new technology. Through the study, a process of forming large bearing ring directly by using casting ring blank is obtained, which could provide an effective theoretical guidance for manufacturing large ring parts. It also has an edge in saving material, lowering energy and improving efficiency.

  13. Preparation and properties of films cast from mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and submicron particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Fanta, George F; Selling, Gordon W; Felker, Frederick C; Kenar, James A

    2015-05-01

    The use of starch in polymer composites for film production has been studied for increasing biodegradability, improving film properties and reducing cost. In this study, submicron particles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes both by rapidly cooling jet-cooked starch-palmitic acid mixtures and by acidifying solutions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes. Films were cast containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) with up to 50% starch particles. Tensile strength decreased and Young's modulus increased with starch concentration, but percent elongations remained similar to controls regardless of preparation method or starch content. Microscopy showed particulate starch distribution in films made with rapidly cooled starch-palmitic acid particles but smooth, diffuse starch staining with acidified sodium palmitate complexes. The mild effects on tensile properties suggest that submicron starch particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid complexes provide a useful, commercially viable approach for PVOH film modification. PMID:25659717

  14. Assessment of high temperature performance of a cast nickel base superalloy in corrosive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, D.; Iyer, S.R.; Radhakrishnan, V.M.

    1996-10-15

    Turbine blades are subjected to creep deformation through their continuous centrifugal loading during operation. In addition to this, hot corrosion in gas turbines limits the durability of even the best blade materials at present available. In this article, an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of hot corrosion due to sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and sodium metavanadate salt mixture on creep rupture of a cast nickel base turbine blade superalloy.

  15. Development of high strength nickel-base cast superalloy with superior creep rupture life

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, X.; Kim, H.; Choi, J.

    1996-10-15

    Elevating the operating temperature is considered to be the most effective for increasing the thermal efficiency of power generators or chemical plants. For this reason, the development of materials exhibiting superior creep strength and corrosion resistance is required. Directionally solidification (DS) and single crystal (SC) superalloys have been developed for advanced commercial and military applications. Owing to the difficulties to produce DS and SC alloys and the high casting cost, it is necessary to develop conventional casting superalloys with excellent properties similar to those of DS and SC alloys. For this purpose, a program to design and develop cast nickel-base superalloys was initiated in this investigation. Some methods, so called PHACOMP-Nv or NEW-PHACOMP-Md, allow one to estimate the phase stability of alloys, and eventually to improve it by modification of the composition. In fact these methods do not have a strong physical basis but are rather based on empirical correlations. In this paper, six compositions were calculated according to the conventional PHACOMP parameter calculation and based on the inventions Ni-Cr-W-Al-Ti-Ta system. Among them an alloy with high strength and superior creep rupture properties was determined. The phase stability was discussed using NEW-PHACOMP-Md concept.

  16. A facile and simple high-performance polydimethylsiloxane casting based on self-polymerization dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Lu-lu; Sun, Jian-hai; Li, Hui; Cui, Da-fu

    2014-09-01

    We present a new and facile method for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting by dip-coating the master molds in an aqueous solution of dopamine. A poly(dopamine) film formed by self-polymerization of dopamine is used as the surface anti-adhesion coating for PDMS de-molding. Different master molds, such as metal, silicon and PDMS replica, were used to verify the feasibility of this proposed PDMS casting method. The poly(dopamine) coatings at various fabrication conditions were studied by using surface plasmon resonance technology. We found that it is very easy to form repeated poly(dopamine) coatings with similar thicknesses and density at fairly flexible conditions of self-polymerization. The water contact angles of the PDMS master molds and the positive PDMS replicas were studied after the PDMS master molds were immersed in the dopamine coating solution for different times. The de-molding process was then measured by surface plasmon resonance technology. The surface morphology of the master molds and the PDMS replicas were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results demonstrate that the poly(dopamine) coating exhibits a strong release property in the PDMS de-molding process and has good stickiness after PDMS de-molding a dozen times. The package performances of the PDMS replicas were detected and compared by bonding experiments. PDMS replicas after a second round of de-molding present a little higher package performance than that of the PDMS replicas with an anti-sticking agent of silane. The biochemical properties of PDMS replicas were studied through fluorescence immunoassay experiments. The PDMS replicas present similar biochemical properties to the bare PDMS. This biomimetic surface modification method of dopamine for PDMS casting has a great potential for preparing microdevices for various biological and clinical applications.

  17. Environmental damage of a cast nickel base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodford, D. A.

    1981-02-01

    Exposure in air in the temperature range 900 to 1100 °C produces a major loss in stress rupture life and ductility of IN738. The sensitivity to this environmental damage increases with decreasing test temperature in the range 1000 to 700 °C. Oxygen is identified as the source of the damage for air exposure and indirect evidence supports grain boundary penetration of the gas to considerable depth. It is argued that oxygen segregation can lead to grain boundary immobilization and unstable intergranular fracture at intermediate temperatures. It is shown that compositional modifications, particularly boron and hafnium additions, may reduce the oxygen damage susceptibility, and that a cobalt base coating effectively eliminates the susceptibility. The relevance of these observations in understanding the effect of test environment on creep-rupture and fatigue crack propagation is considered.

  18. Novel composite films based on amidated pectin for cationic dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Nesic, Aleksandra R; Velickovic, Sava J; Antonovic, Dusan G

    2014-04-01

    Pectin, with its tendency to gel in the presence of metal ions has become a widely used material for capturing the metal ions from wastewaters. Its dye-capturing properties have been much less investigated, and this paper is the first to show how films based on amidated pectin can be used for cationic dye adsorption. In the present study amidated pectin/montmorillonite composite films were synthesized by membrane casting, and they are stable in aqueous solution both below and above pectin pKa. FTIR, thermogravimetry and SEM-EDAX have confirmed the presence of montmorillonite in the cast films and the interactions between the two constituents. In order to evaluate the cationic dye adsorption of these films Basic Yellow 28 was used, showing that the films have higher adsorption capacity compared to the others reported in the literature. The results were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms indicating an exothermic process and setting the optimum amount of montmorillonite in the films to 30% of pectin mass. According to the Langmuir isotherm the maximum adsorption capacity is 571.4 mg/g. PMID:24268651

  19. Paper Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrasjid, Dorine A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an art project, based on the work of artist Chew Teng Beng, in the molding of wet paper on a plaster cast to create embossed paper designs. The values of such a project are outlined, including a note that its tactile approach makes it suitable to visually handicapped students. (SJL)

  20. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  1. Tape cast second generation orthorhombic-based titanium aluminide alloys for MMC applications. [Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Rosenberger, A.H. . Materials and Mfg. Directorate); Shepard, M.J. )

    1999-06-18

    Titanium metal matrix composites (TMCs) utilizing continuous SiC fiber reinforcement are considered important, if not, enabling materials for advanced Air Force propulsion systems, wherein combinations of high specific strength and elevated temperature capability are prerequisites to obtain desired increases in thrust-to-weight ratios and decreased specific fuel consumption. One such class of TMCs being assessed for use in rotating engine components are those based upon the orthorhombic titanium aluminide phase, Ti[sub 2]AlNb. These orthorhombic titanium matrix composites (O TMCs) are being examined for sustained use at temperatures up to 700 C. Previous studies have primarily focused on O TMCs made using the foil-fiber-foil fabrication process. More recently the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory has been focusing attention on an alternative powder metallurgy approach for fabrication of O TMCs via tape casting. This latter approach has the potential to produce significant cost reduction (<$70/lb) for the matrix input material (powder). Unfortunately, little work has been done to understand the effects of powder microstructures and the tape casting process itself on the mechanical performance of O TMCs. Therefore, the first objective of this study is to examine the microstructural evolution and mechanical performance (with and without heat treatment) of three unreinforced heat orthorhombic-based titanium aluminide matrices made via tape casting. A second objective is to assess the viability of powder metallurgy processing for the fabrication of O TMCs.

  2. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction. PMID:24474371

  3. Fennel waste-based films suitable for protecting cultivations.

    PubMed

    Mariniello, L; Giosafatto, C V L; Moschetti, G; Aponte, M; Masi, P; Sorrentino, A; Porta, R

    2007-10-01

    Biodegradable, flexible, and moisture-resistant films were obtained by recycling fennel waste and adding to fennel homogenates the bean protein phaseolin that was modified or not modified by the enzyme transglutaminase. All films were analyzed for their morphology, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and susceptibility to biodegradation under soil-like conditions. Our experiments showed that transglutaminase treatment of the phaseolin-containing fennel waste homogenates allowed us to obtain films comparable in their mechanical properties and water vapor permeability to the commercial films Ecoflex and Mater-Bi. Furthermore, biodegradability tests demonstrated that the presence of the enzyme in the film-casting sample significantly influences the integrity of such a product that lasts longer than films obtained either with fennel waste alone or with a mixture of fennel waste and phaseolin. These findings indicate the fennel-phaseolin film prepared in the presence of transglutaminase to be a promising candidate for a new environmentally friendly mulching bioplastic. PMID:17877395

  4. Corrosion behavior of cast and forged cobalt-based alloys for double-alloy joint endoprostheses.

    PubMed

    Süry, P; Semlitsch, M

    1978-09-01

    An ideal combination of mechanical and corrosion properties of long-term implants such as joint endoprostheses has yet to be found. Besides being resistant to pitting and crevice attack, which can lead to corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking failures, the implant material must be highly resistant to wear and abrasion. Two cobalt-based alloys, wrought CoNiMoTi and air-cast CoCrMo, were subjected to a number of selected in vitro electrochemically and chemically accelerated corrosion tests in chloride-containing solutions with wrought AISI-316L used as a reference alloy. A limited number of immersion tests in FeCl3 and acidified FeCl3 solutions were also conducted. It is found that the mechanical properties of wrought CoNiCrMoTi alloy qualify it as a substitute for cast CoCrMo alloy and wrought AISI-316L in anchorage shaft production for all types of joint endoprostheses. Wrought CoNiCrMoTi has a higher resistance to fatigue cracking compared with cast CoCrMo and is as resistant to selective corrosion phenomena such as stress corrosion cracking. PMID:701305

  5. Influence of Molecular Rigidity on Interfacial Ordering in Diphenyl-Based Polysiloxane Films

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko,G.; Kewalramani, S.; Dutta, P.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (XRR) shows significant differences between the ordering in thin films of diphenyl-based siloxane oligomers with single versus double backbones of -Si-O- repeating groups. We show that the more restricted conformational arrangement of twofold-skeleton molecules results in a higher degree of molecular ordering indicated by 2-2.5 times higher value of intensity of the corresponding Bragg peak in thin solid films of poly(phenylsilsesquioxane) than in films of poly(diphenylsiloxane), regardless of the solvent used for film casting. In both cases, the ordered molecules are located within 40-50 Angstroms of the substrate surface. The results indicate unambiguously that the chain stiffness of siloxanes governs the degree of ordering in the restricted geometry of the interfacial region.

  6. Evaluation of linear friction welds in cast nickel-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, K.; Green, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cast nickel-based superalloys are commonly used in the manufacture of {open_quotes}blisks.{close_quotes} Blisks are combined turbine blade and disk assemblies used in advanced aircraft engines. Repair of refurbishment of blisks during engine repair or overhaul often involves the application of suitable fusion welding methods. Compared to fusion welding methods, the minimum heat input and the narrow heat- and deformation-affected zone (HAZ) associated with the linear friction welding (LFRW) process, and the minimal access required to produce the weld joint are expected to enable successful repair or refurbishment of blisks. This investigation evaluated the feasibility for using the LFRW process to produce metallurgically acceptable weld joints in cast IN738LC, Rene 80, Rene 80DS nickel-based superalloys. Similar metal combination LFRW were produced between rectangular bars (4 in. long, 1/2 inc. thick and 1 in. wide) of these alloys. Subsequently, a detailed metallurgical evaluation of the weld joints was performed using mechanical property testing and metallurgical characterization, which included room-temperature tensile testing (per ASTM E-8) of base metal and transverse-weld specimens, Charpy impact testing of both base metal and weld, light microscopy examination of the weld zone, and Vickers microhardness traverses (500 g load) across the weld joint, both along the weld center and near the weld outer periphery. The LFRW in cast IN738LC, Rene 80, Rene 80DS alloys showed satisfactory room-temperature weld mechanical properties and a homogenized microstructure in the weld zone. The weld mechanical property test results were consistent with the microstructural transitions observed in the weld zone. These results indicated that the LFRW process can be applied in blisk repair or refurbishment to produce metallurgically acceptable weld joints. Future investigations can be directed to evaluate the high temperature behavior of these weld joints.

  7. Evaluation of electroslag castings

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Sikka, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of evaluations of electroslag castings of ferritic (2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo) and austenitic (CF8M or type 316) steels are presented. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical composition, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Pertinent data are compared with equivalent data for sand castings and wrought products of the same materials. Based on the results of these studies, the properties of electroslag castings compare favorably with those of sand castings and wrought materials.

  8. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v) based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch) were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%w/w total solid) and relative humidity (34 and 54%RH) on the mechanical properties of the films. Additionally, intermolecular interactions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), melting temperature by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water solubility of the films was also determined. Increasing concentration of CMC increased tensile strength, reduced elongation at break, and decreased water solubility of the blended films. FT-IR spectra indicated intermolecular interactions between cassava starch and CMC in blended films by shifting of carboxyl (C = O) and OH groups. DSC thermograms and SEM micrographs confirmed homogeneity of cassava starch-CMC films. Conclusion The addition of CMC to the cassava starch films increased tensile strength and reduced elongation at break of the blended films. This was ascribed to the good interaction between cassava starch and CMC. Cassava starch-CMC composite films have the potential to replace conventional packaging, and the films developed in this work are suggested to be suitable for low moisture food and pharmaceutical products. PMID:21306655

  9. Simple casting based fabrication of PEDOT:PSS-PVDF-ionic liquid soft actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaite, Aiva; Tondu, Bertrand; Mathieu, Fabrice; Souéres, Philippe; Bergaud, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Despite a growing interest in conducting polymer based actuators, a robust fabrication technique is still needed. We suggest a fabrication method that allows fast production of conducting polymer actuators from commercially available polyvinylidene flouride membranes (PVDF) and a PEDOT/PSS solution. In order to improve adhesion of those materials, Ar plasma induced grafting is used to create hydrophilic surfaces of up to 40 μm. Hydrophilic PVDF-graft-polyethylene glycol allows diffusion of PEDOT/PSS in the pores of the membranes, while hydrophobic middle layers prevent short circuits. In this way, soft actuators can be fabricated by consequent drop casting and drying of conducting polymer.

  10. Moving cast shadow resistant for foreground segmentation based on shadow properties analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Gao, Yun; Yuan, Guowu; Ji, Rongbin

    2015-12-01

    Moving object detection is the fundamental task in machine vision applications. However, moving cast shadows detection is one of the major concerns for accurate video segmentation. Since detected moving object areas are often contain shadow points, errors in measurements, localization, segmentation, classification and tracking may arise from this. A novel shadow elimination algorithm is proposed in this paper. A set of suspected moving object area are detected by the adaptive Gaussian approach. A model is established based on shadow optical properties analysis. And shadow regions are discriminated from the set of moving pixels by using the properties of brightness, chromaticity and texture in sequence.

  11. Improved material properties of solution-cast starch films: Effect of varying amylopectin structure and amylose content of starch from genetically modified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Carolin; Andersson, Mariette; Andersson, Roger; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José L; Daniel, Geoffrey; Langton, Maud; Gällstedt, Mikael; Koch, Kristine

    2015-10-01

    High-amylose potato starches were produced through genetic modification resulting in changed granule morphology and composition, with higher amylose content and increased chain length of amylopectin. The increased amylose content and structural changes in amylopectin enhanced film-forming behavior and improved barrier and tensile properties in starch films. The molecular structure in these starches was related to film-forming properties. Solution-cast films of high-amylose starch revealed a homogeneous structure with increasing surface roughness at higher amylose content, possibly due to amylose aggregation. Films exhibited significantly higher stress and strain at break compared with films of wild-type starch, which could be attributable to the longer chains of amylopectin being involved in the interconnected network and more interaction between chains, as shown using transmission electron microscopy. The oxygen permeability of high-amylose starch films was significantly decreased compared with wild-type starch. The nature of the modified starches makes them an interesting candidate for replacement of non-renewable oxygen and grease barrier polymers used today. PMID:26076640

  12. Bio-based barium alginate film: Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Chao; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Wang, De-Yi

    2016-03-30

    A bio-based barium alginate film was prepared via a facile ionic exchange and casting approach. Its flammability, thermal degradation and pyrolysis behaviors, thermal degradation mechanism were studied systemically by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). It showed that barium alginate film had much higher LOI value (52.0%) than that of sodium alginate film (24.5%). Moreover, barium alginate film passed the UL-94 V-0 rating, while the sodium alginate film showed no classification. Importantly, peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of barium alginate film in MCC test was much lower than that of sodium alginate film, suggested that introduction of barium ion into alginate film significantly decreased release of combustible gases. TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS results indicated that barium alginate produced much less flammable products than that of sodium alginate in whole thermal degradation procedure. Finally, a possible degradation mechanism of barium alginate had been proposed. PMID:26794953

  13. Classification techniques based on AI application to defect classification in cast aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platero, Carlos; Fernandez, Carlos; Campoy, Pascual; Aracil, Rafael

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes the Artificial Intelligent techniques applied to the interpretation process of images from cast aluminum surface presenting different defects. The whole process includes on-line defect detection, feature extraction and defect classification. These topics are discussed in depth through the paper. Data preprocessing process, as well as segmentation and feature extraction are described. At this point, algorithms employed along with used descriptors are shown. Syntactic filter has been developed to modelate the information and to generate the input vector to the classification system. Classification of defects is achieved by means of rule-based systems, fuzzy models and neural nets. Different classification subsystems perform together for the resolution of a pattern recognition problem (hybrid systems). Firstly, syntactic methods are used to obtain the filter that reduces the dimension of the input vector to the classification process. Rule-based classification is achieved associating a grammar to each defect type; the knowledge-base will be formed by the information derived from the syntactic filter along with the inferred rules. The fuzzy classification sub-system uses production rules with fuzzy antecedent and their consequents are ownership rates to every defect type. Different architectures of neural nets have been implemented with different results, as shown along the paper. In the higher classification level, the information given by the heterogeneous systems as well as the history of the process is supplied to an Expert System in order to drive the casting process.

  14. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys. Aluminum promoted b phase formation and modified the grain structure from dendritic to equiaxed. Lead or bismuth reduces the size of grains, but not change the morphology of the structure in Cu-Zn alloys. The grain size of the Cu-Zn-alloy can be reduced from 3000 mm to 300 mm after the addition of aluminum and lead. Similar effects were observed in EnviroBrass III after the addition of aluminum and bismuth. Boron refined the structure of yellow brasses in the presence of iron. At least 50 ppm of iron and 3 ppm of boron are necessary to cause grain refinement in these alloys. Precipitation of iron from the melt is identified as the cause of grain refinement. Boron initiates the precipitation of iron which could not be explained at this time. On the other hand zirconium causes some reduction in grain size in all four alloys investigated. The critical limit for the zirconium was found to be around 100 ppm below which not much refinement could be observed. The mechanism of grain refinement in the presence of zirconium could not be explained. Grain refinement by boron and iron can remain over a long period of time, at least for 72 hours of holding or after remelting few times. It is necessary to have the iron and boron contents above the critical limits mentioned earlier. On the other hand, refinement by zirconium is lost quite rapidly, some times within one hour of holding, mostly due to the loss of zirconium, most probably by oxidation, from the melt. In all the cases it is possible to revive the refinement by adding more of the appropriate refining element. Cooling curve analysis (thermal analysis) can be used successfully to predict the grain refinement in yellow brasses. The precipitation of iron in the liquid metal causes the metal to solidify without undercooling. Absence of this reaction, as indicated by the time-temperature (t-T) and its first derivative (dt/dT) curves, proved to be an indicator of refinement. The viability of the technique as an on-line quality control tool was proved in two foundries. The method can also correctly predict the onset of fading. The corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys was measured in two solutions having different hydrogen activities, pH 6 and pH8, and compared with the base alloys. Potentiodynamic polarization and long term weight loss experiments were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance. Cu-Zn alloys were evaluated for dezincification. In general, the grain refined alloys performed marginally better than the base alloys.

  15. Drug release profiles and microstructural characterization of cast and freeze dried vitamin B12 buccal films by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Barnabás; Kállai, Nikolett; Tóth, Gergő; Hetényi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2014-02-01

    Solvent cast and freeze dried films, containing the water-soluble vitamin B12 as model drug were prepared from two polymers, sodium alginate (SA), and Carbopol 71G (CP). The proportion of the CP was changed in the films. The microstructural characterization of various samples was carried out by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The drug release kinetics of untreated and stored samples was evaluated by the conventionally applied semi-empirical power law. Correlation was found between the changes of the characteristic parameters of the drug release and the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime values of polymer samples. The results indicated that the increase of CP concentration, the freeze-drying process and the storage at 75% R.H. decreased the rate of drug release. The PALS method enabled the distinction between the micro- and macrostructural factors influencing the drug release profile of polymer films. PMID:24269613

  16. Improvement of the mechanical and barrier properties of methylcellulose-based films by treatment with HEMA and silane monomers under gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ruhul A.; Dussault, Dominic; Salmieri, Stephane; Safrany, Agnes; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were prepared by casting from its 1% aqueous solution containing 0.5% vegetable oil, 0.25% glycerol and 0.025% Tween®-80. Puncture strength (PS), puncture deformation (PD) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films were found to be 147 N/mm, 3.46 mm, and 6.34 g mm/m2 day kPa, respectively. The monomer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) (0.1-1%, w/w) was incorporated into the MC-based solution and films were prepared by casting. Films were then exposed to gamma radiation (5-25 kGy) and it revealed that 1% HEMA containing films showed the highest PS values (282 N/mm at 10 kGy). Silane monomer (3-aminopropyl tri-ethoxy silane) (0.1-1%, w/w) was also added into the MC-based films and were found to improve the strength of the films significantly. In comparison between HEMA and silane treatment onto MC-based films, it was observed that silane performed better strength and barrier properties. Surface morphology of the monomer treated films was examined by scanning electron microscopy and suggested better appearance than MC-based film.

  17. Fuzzy rule based classification and quantification of graphite inclusions from microstructure images of cast iron.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Pattan; Mytri, V D; Hiremath, P S

    2011-12-01

    The quantification of three classes of graphite inclusions in cast iron, namely, nodular, flake, and irregular, is the most important process in the foundry industry. This classification is based on the ISO 945 proposed morphology of graphite inclusions. This work presents a novel solution for automatic quantitative analysis of graphite inclusions into the three mentioned classes. The proposed work comprises three stages, namely, preprocessing of micrographs, classification of graphite inclusions, and then quantification of inclusions in each class. An effort has been made in this work to propose a minimum set of features to represent graphite inclusion morphology. The method employs just two geometric shape descriptors: the diameter ratio and the area ratio. A fuzzy rule based classifier is built using known feature values that are efficient in the classification of the three classes of graphite inclusions. The proposed method is automatic, fast, and provides the basis for determining many more morphological parameters that can be determined with the least effort. The results obtained by the proposed method are compared with the manual method. It is observed that the results obtained from the proposed method are useful in the optimization of cast iron manufacturing in the foundry industry. PMID:22053909

  18. Composite films based on biorelated agro-industrial waste and poly(vinyl alcohol). Preparation and mechanical properties characterization.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, E; Cinelli, P; Imam, S H; Mao, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project on the production of composite materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polymeric materials from renewable resources, the present paper reports on the incorporation of agricultural waste materials as organic fillers in a film matrix based on PVA as continuous phase. In this study lignocellulosic fibers byproducts, derived from sugar cane (SC) and apple (AP) and orange (OR) fruit juice extraction, were cast from PVA aqueous solutions. The effect of fiber type and composition on the relative properties of cast films was evaluated and compared. OR resulted to be suitable for blending in higher amounts by weight than SC and AP. Glycerol and urea were added as plasticizing agents and were observed to be effective in giving flexible films. Additionally, cornstarch was added to further increase the composition of polymers from renewable resources in cost-effective and ecoefficient composite film formulations. The prepared films resulted sensitive to moisture and water. To reduce water sensitivity, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) was tested as a cross-linking agent for the present composite formulations. Cross-linked films exhibited significant improvement in water-resistance that can be taken as a tuneable structural feature for customized applications. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite films (elongation at break, tensile strength, Young modulus) were found to be dependent upon the nature and content of the filler and on environmental conditions. PMID:11710006

  19. Enhanced Performance Consistency in Nanoparticle/TIPS Pentacene-Based Organic Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhengran; Xiao, Kai; Durant, William Mark; Anthony, John E.; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Chen, Jihua; Li, Dawen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, inorganic silica nanoparticles are used to manipulate the morphology of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS pentacene) thin films and the performance of solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This approach is taken to control crystal anisotropy, which is the origin of poor consistency in TIPS pentacene based OTFT devices. Thin film active layers are produced by drop-casting mixtures of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and TIPS pentacene. The resultant drop-cast films yield improved morphological uniformity at {approx}10% SiO{sub 2} loading, which also leads to a 3-fold increase in average mobility and nearly 4 times reduction in the ratio of measured mobility standard deviation ({mu}{sub Stdev}) to average mobility ({mu}{sub Avg}). Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as polarized optical microscopy are used to investigate the nanoparticle-mediated TIPS pentacene crystallization. The experimental results suggest that the SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles mostly aggregate at TIPS pentacene grain boundaries, and 10% nanoparticle concentration effectively reduces the undesirable crystal misorientation without considerably compromising TIPS pentacene crystallinity.

  20. Cooling Slope Casting Process for Synthesis of Bulk Metallic Glass Based Composites with Semisolid Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaya, Advenit; Tamura, Takuya; Miwa, Kenji

    2010-07-01

    A process combining cooling slope casting and suction casting was developed to generate a semisolid structure in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite. The melt was injected onto a cooling slope and subsequently vacuum sucked into a cylindrical copper mold placed at the end of the slope. The structure obtained for 4-mm-diameter specimens of composition Zr66.4Nb6.4Cu10.5Ni8.7Al8 consists of a dispersion of spheroidal and rosettelike bcc crystals in a glassy matrix. Various slope angles, slope lengths, and injection pressures were tested. The coarsest and most spheroidal crystal structure was obtained at short slope lengths and high injection pressures. Microstructure analysis suggests that the slope is the location of extensive crystal nucleation and possible fragmentation, while the microstructure’s morphological evolution seems to occur mainly in the mold. The semisolid structure is expected to confer improved mechanical properties and ductility to the composite material.

  1. Method of improving fatigue life of cast nickel based superalloys and composition

    DOEpatents

    Denzine, Allen F.; Kolakowski, Thomas A.; Wallace, John F.

    1978-03-14

    The invention consists of a method of producing a fine equiaxed grain structure (ASTM 2-4) in cast nickel-base superalloys which increases low cycle fatigue lives without detrimental effects on stress rupture properties to temperatures as high as 1800.degree. F. These superalloys are variations of the basic nickel-chromium matrix, hardened by gamma prime [Ni.sub.3 (Al, Ti)] but with optional additions of cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, columbium, tantalum, boron, zirconium, carbon and hafnium. The invention grain refines these alloys to ASTM 2 to 4 increasing low cycle fatigue life by a factor of 2 to 5 (i.e. life of 700 hours would be increased to 1400 to 3500 hours for a given stress) as a result of the addition of 0.01% to 0.2% of a member of the group consisting of boron, zirconium and mixtures thereof to aid heterogeneous nucleation. The alloy is vacuum melted and heated to 250.degree.-400.degree. F. above the melting temperature, cooled to partial solidification, thus resulting in said heterogeneous nucleation and fine grains, then reheated and cast at about 50.degree.-100.degree. F. of superheat. Additions of 0.1% boron and 0.1% zirconium (optional) are the preferred nucleating agents.

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based film potentially suitable for antimicrobial packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Alessandro; Paderni, Katia; Fabbri, Paola; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Fava, Patrizia

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed at developing a thin and water-resistant food-grade poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based matrix able to swell when in contact with high moisture content food products without rupturing to release antimicrobial agents onto the food surface. This film was prepared by blending PVOH and 7.20% (wt/wt of PVOH) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with citric acid as crosslinking agent. The film-forming solution was then casted onto a flat surface and the obtained film was 60 μm in thickness and showed a good transparency (close to T = 100%) in the visible region (400 to 700 nm). After immersion in water for 72 h at room temperature, the crosslinked matrix loses only 19.2% of its original weight (the percentage includes the amount of unreacted crosslinking agent, antimicrobial in itself). Water content, degree of swelling, and crosslinking density of the film prove that the presence of PEG diminishes the hydrophilic behavior of the material. Also the mechanical properties of the wet and dry film were assessed. Alongside this, 2.5% (wt/wt of dry film) of grapefruit seed extract (GSE), an antimicrobial agent, was added to the film-forming solution just before casting and the ability of the plastic matrix to release the additive was then evaluated in vitro against 2 GSE-susceptible microorganisms, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua. The results indicate that the developed matrix may be a promising food-grade material for the incorporation of active substances. PMID:24611868

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of free-standing Ni 0.23Cu 0.11Zn 0.66Fe 2O 4 thick films prepared using a modified tape-casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. H.; Li, Z. W.; Kong, L. B.

    2010-03-01

    Free-standing Ni 0.23Cu 0.11Zn 0.66Fe 2O 4 thick films have been prepared using a modified tape-casting method from a viscous paint. The surface morphology, saturation magnetization ( Ms), coercivity ( H c) and complex permeability of the thick films were studied. It is demonstrated that the thick films have relatively larger complex permeability and higher resonance frequency as compared to their bulk material counterparts.

  4. (100)-Textured KNN-based thick film with enhanced piezoelectric property for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Benpeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Teng; Yang, Xiaofei; Li, Yongxiang; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-04-01

    Using tape-casting technology, 35 μm free-standing (100)-textured Li doped KNN (KNLN) thick film was prepared by employing NaNbO3 (NN) as template. It exhibited similar piezoelectric behavior to lead containing materials: a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of ˜150 pm/V and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt) of 0.44. Based on this thick film, a 52 MHz side-looking miniature transducer with a bandwidth of 61.5% at -6 dB was built for Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. In comparison with 40 MHz PMN-PT single crystal transducer, the rabbit aorta image had better resolution and higher noise-to-signal ratio, indicating that lead-free (100)-textured KNLN thick film may be suitable for IVUS (>50 MHz) imaging.

  5. Preparation of nano cellulose fibers and its application in kappa-carrageenan based film.

    PubMed

    Savadekar, N R; Karande, V S; Vigneshwaran, N; Bharimalla, A K; Mhaske, S T

    2012-12-01

    Bio-based nanocomposite films were successfully developed using nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as the reinforcing phase and kappa-carrageenan (KCRG) as the matrix. NFC was successfully synthesis from short stable cotton fibers by chemo-mechanical process. The bionanocomposites were prepared by incorporating 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1wt% of the NFC into a KCRG matrix using a solution casting method there characterization was done in terms of thermal properties (DSC), morphology (SEM), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen transmission rate (OTR), X-ray diffractograms (XRD), and tensile properties. The main conclusion arising from the analysis of the result is that the bionanocomposites containing 0.4wt% of NFC exhibited the highest enhancement in tensile strength it is almost 44% improvement. WVTR and OTR results showed improvement of all nanocomposite film compare to control KCRG film. PMID:22940239

  6. Context-based user grouping for multi-casting in heterogeneous radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannweiler, C.; Klein, A.; Schneider, J.; Schotten, H. D.

    2011-08-01

    Along with the rise of sophisticated smartphones and smart spaces, the availability of both static and dynamic context information has steadily been increasing in recent years. Due to the popularity of social networks, these data are complemented by profile information about individual users. Making use of this information by classifying users in wireless networks enables targeted content and advertisement delivery as well as optimizing network resources, in particular bandwidth utilization, by facilitating group-based multi-casting. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a web service for advanced user classification based on user, network, and environmental context information. The service employs simple and advanced clustering algorithms for forming classes of users. Available service functionalities include group formation, context-aware adaptation, and deletion as well as the exposure of group characteristics. Moreover, the results of a performance evaluation, where the service has been integrated in a simulator modeling user behavior in heterogeneous wireless systems, are presented.

  7. Development and Characterization of Edible Films Based on Fruit and Vegetable Residues.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roberta M S; Ferreira, Mariana S L; Gonçalves, Édira C B A

    2016-02-01

    Edible films were developed from the solid residue of the processing of whole fruits and vegetables. The solid residue, processed into flour (FVR flour) was chemically and structurally characterized by microstructure, elemental composition, structural links, and moisture sorption isotherm. Films were prepared by casting using aqueous extracts of 8% and 10% of flour (w/w) and characterized in terms of thickness, water solubility, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The analysis of microstructure and elemental composition, performed on flour (mean particle size 350 μm), showed an essentially granular aspect, with the presence of fibrous particles having potassium as one of the most abundant elements. FTIR results showed similarity between the characteristic bands of other raw materials used in edible films. The sorption isotherm of FVR flour showed a typical profile of foods rich in soluble components, such as sugars. Dried films presented an average thickness of 0.263 ± 0.003 mm, a homogenous aspect, bright yellow color, pronounced fruit flavor, and high water solubility. The FTIR spectra of the edible films revealed that addition of potato skin flour did not change the molecular conformation. Moreover, the films presented low tensile strength at break when compared with fruit starch-based films. PMID:26766297

  8. Thermal cooling effects in the microstructure and properties of cast cobalt-base biomedical alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Valer, Vladimir

    Joint replacement prosthesis is widely used in the biomedical field to provide a solution for dysfunctional human body joints. The demand for orthopedic knee and hip implants motivate scientists and manufacturers to develop novel materials or to increase the life of service and efficiency of current materials. Cobalt-base alloys have been investigated by various researchers for biomedical implantations. When these alloys contain Chromium, Molybdenum, and Carbon, they exhibit good tribological and mechanical properties, as well as excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In this study, the microstructure of cast Co-Cr-Mo-C alloy is purposely modified by inducing rapid solidification through fusion welding processes and solution annealing heat treatment (quenched in water at room temperature. In particular the effect of high cooling rates on the athermal phase transformation FCC(gamma)↔HCP(epsilon) on the alloy hardness and corrosion resistance is investigated. The Co-alloy microstructures were characterized using metallography and microscopy techniques. It was found that the as cast sample typically dendritic with dendritic grain sizes of approximately 150 microm and containing Cr-rich coarse carbide precipitates along the interdendritic boundaries. Solution annealing gives rise to a refined microstructure with grain size of 30 microm, common among Co-Cr-Mo alloys after heat treating. Alternatively, an ultrafine grain structure (between 2 and 10 microm) was developed in the fusion zone for specimens melted using Laser and TIG welding methods. When laser surface modification treatments were implemented, the developed solidification microstructure shifted from dendritic to a fine cellular morphology, with possible nanoscale carbide precipitates along the cellular boundaries. In turn, the solidified regions exhibited high hardness values (461.5HV), which exceeds by almost 110 points from the alloy in the as-cast condition. The amount of developed athermal epsilon-martensite phase was determined using X-ray diffractrometry. It was found that the amount of epsilon-martensite increases significantly from 2% for the Laser surface processing to 13% in the as cast specimen, 24% in the annealed specimen, and 51% for the TIG surface processing. Moreover, the corrosion rate in Ringer solution was calculated by applying the Tafel extrapolation method on each alloy condition. The lowest corrosion rate (0.435 microm/year) was achieved in the Laser treated alloy and it is attributed to the lack of appreciable athermal epsilon-martensite. The highest corrosion rate (15.5 microm/year) was found to occur in the TIG treated alloy, which possesses the largest amount of epsilon-martensite. In turn, this suggests that surface modification through melting induces variable amounts of athermal epsilon-martensite in the as-cast Co-Cr-Mo-C alloys. Apparently, rapid solidification of melted surfaces in the Co-alloy is highly effective in modifying the induced amounts of HCP phase, and hence, the exhibited properties.

  9. Investigation on the dissolution of η phase in a cast Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangiri, M. R.; Arabi, H.; Boutorabi, S. M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The dissolution behavior of η phase has been investigated in a cast Ni-based superalloy. The results showed that the platelets and blocks of η phase were formed within the interdendritic regions of the microstructure. Applying standard solution annealing at 1150-1160°C for a period of 4 h did not result in the complete dissolution of η phase. For the complete dissolution of η phase without residual incipient melting, a 2-step solution annealing has been recommended. After dissolution at high temperatures, the η phase transforms to two MC-type carbides: one is enriched in Ti, Nb, and Ta, and the other is of (Zr,Ti)C type.

  10. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  11. Kaolin-based particle films for arthropod control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particle film technology was conceived by ARS scientists in the mid-1990's as an alternative to chemical pesticides. This technology was based on coating plant parts with mineral films that were chemically inert, could be formulated to spread and create a uniform film, formed a porous film that doe...

  12. Effect of the microhardness difference between base metal and bionic coupling unit on wear resistance of gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Chang, Fang; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, the samples with different microhardness difference between bionic coupling units and base metal were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade liner reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that when the microhardness difference is 561 HV0.2, the wear resistance of sample is the best.

  13. Selection of population data base from the votes cast in the 1979 federal elections.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, A A; Egbigbola, J A

    1981-04-01

    The authors attempt to provide an estimate of the population of Nigeria from the number of votes cast in the 1979 elections. The discrepancies between the number of votes cast and the number of registered voters are considered. The results of this procedure yield an estimated population of between 66 and 69 million. Comparisons are made with estimates from other sources. PMID:12339340

  14. Thermodynamics-Based Selection and Design of Creep-Resistant Cast Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaspour, Saeideh; Cáceres, Carlos H.

    2015-12-01

    Atomic level thermodynamics arguments that account for the generally weak age hardening response while suggesting that extending the athermal regime through short-range order (SRO) is a most feasible path to increasing the creep strength of many current alloys are presented. The tendency, or otherwise, of many solutes to develop SRO in dilute solid solutions rationalizes a number of observations in current multicomponent Mg alloys, and in particular the retention of linear strain hardening at high temperatures, while it disputes the viability of several micromechanisms often considered active, such as pinning of edge dislocations by mobile solute clouds, dynamic precipitation of thermally stable precipitates, or atomic size effects on the diffusivity. Potential solutes are sorted out and ranked based on the sign and value of the enthalpy of mixing of binary solid solutions using the Miedema phenomenological scheme. Due to their large negative energy of mixing and reasonable solubility (>1 at. pct) at ~473 K (~200 °C), Y and Gd appear as the best candidates to increase the creep strength through SRO, followed by Nd and Ca, in close agreement with data reported in the literature. The feasibility of enhancing the age hardening response through homogeneously nucleated, coherent precipitates, in some cases despite the negative energy of mixing of the alloy, or via internally ordered precipitates mimicking those present in Mg-Th alloys is considered by making parallels with the Al-Zn and the Al-Cu alloy systems. The possible optimization of the strengthening of high pressure die cast alloys combining SRO and intergranular eutectics or of heat-treatable cast alloys through internally ordered precipitates and SRO is discussed.

  15. Solvothermal synthesis of Cu2Zn1-x Fe x SnS4 nanoparticles and the influence of annealing conditions on drop-casted thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrokh, Zohreh; Yazdani, Ahmad; Eshghi, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Cu2Zn1-x Fe x SnS4 (CZFTS) semiconductor alloy sphere-like nanoparticles were synthesized by a solvothermal method and their thin films were fabricated using a facile drop casting route then annealed in Ar and/or sulfur atmosphere. The sphere-like CZFTS nanoparticles demonstrate promising morphological, structural, and optical properties for an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman spectra and EDS measurements of the samples indicate that a phase transition from kesterite to stannite occurred by increasing the Fe content to Fe/Fe + Zn = 0.61 ratio. Moreover, the increase in Fe content (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) resulted in a variation of the band gap energies of CZFTS from ˜1.515 to 1.206 eV on the basis of a parabolic decreasing trend. From a band gap bowing model we derived a small bowing constant of b ˜ 0.2009 ± 0.02 eV, indicating suitable miscibility of alloyed constituents in the host crystal lattice. The films annealed in sulfur showed a dense, uniform, low-crack surface, high thickness and low transmission compared to the films annealed in Ar flow. The four-point probe analysis showed an increasing resistivity of samples annealed in Ar with increasing Fe content.

  16. A new generation of electrochemical supercapacitors based on layer-by-layer polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christinelli, Wania Ap.; Gonçalves, Roger; Pereira, Ernesto C.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report supercapacitors fabricated with the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique using two polymers, namely poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) and poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) (PTAA). The electrochemical performances of POMA/PTAA supercapacitors were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results were compared with POMA casting film. The specific capacitance of LBL films increases almost linearly with a number of bilayers which were not observed for POMA casting films. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the self-doping effect between POMA and PTAA can change the properties on films and can be successfully used as a supercapacitor technology.

  17. Dimensional accuracy of stone casts made from silicone-based impression materials and three impression techniques.

    PubMed

    Vitti, Rafael Pino; da Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and compare the dimensional accuracy of stone casts of a partially edentulous mandibular arch made by two condensation silicones, two addition silicones and three impression techniques (1-step putty/light-body, 2-step putty/light-body and monophase technique). A partially edentulous standard stainless steel mandibular arch cast was obtained with reference points on the permanent mandibular right and left canines, and permanent mandibular right and left second molars. The anteroposterior distances (between the mandibular left canine and second molar and between the mandibular right canine and second molar) and transverse distances (between the mandibular left and right canines and between the mandibular left and right second molars) of stainless steel cast were measured by a microscope at 30× magnification and 0.5 µm accuracy. All impressions were made with condensation or addition silicones. The 1- and 2-step putty/light-body impressions were accomplished with putty and light-body materials and the monophase impressions with light-body material only. After the impression procedures, accuracy of each material and technique was assessed measuring the stone casts poured (n=5) from the impressions, by the same microscope. The differences between the values of stone cast and stainless steel cast were calculated, presented as percentages and analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and the means compared by Tukey's test (α=0.05). All distances measured on stone casts showed altered dimensions with significantly negative linear changes (shrinkage) as compared to those of the stainless steel cast. The stone casts made from the addition silicones were dimensionally more accurate. No differences were found among the impression techniques. PMID:24474292

  18. A comparative study on microgap of premade abutments and abutments cast in base metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Lalithamma, Jaini Jaini; Mallan, Sreekanth Anantha; Murukan, Pazhani Appan; Zarina, Rita

    2014-06-01

    The study compared the marginal accuracy of premade and cast abutments. Premade titanium, stainless steel, and gold abutments formed the control groups. Plastic abutments were cast in nickel-chromium, cobalt-chromium and grade IV titanium. The abutment/implant interface was analyzed. Analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test revealed no significant difference in mean marginal microgap between premade gold and titanium abutments and between premade stainless steel and cast titanium abutments. Statistically significant differences (P < .001) were found among all other groups. PMID:24914909

  19. -Based Mold Flux and Their Effects on In-Mold Performance during High-Aluminum TRIP Steels Continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cheng-Bin; Seo, Myung-Duk; Cho, Jung-Wook; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization behaviors of the newly developed lime-alumina-based mold fluxes for high-aluminum transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels casting were experimentally studied, and compared with those of lime-silica-based mold fluxes. The effects of mold flux crystallization characteristics on heat transfer and lubrication performance in casting high-Al TRIP steels were also evaluated. The results show that the crystallization temperatures of lime-alumina-based mold fluxes are much lower than those of lime-silica-based mold fluxes. Increasing B2O3 addition suppresses the crystallization of lime-alumina-based mold fluxes, while Na2O exhibits an opposite effect. In continuous cooling of lime-alumina-based mold fluxes with high B2O3 contents and a CaO/Al2O3 ratio of 3.3, faceted cuspidine precipitates first, followed by needle-like CaO·B2O3 or 9CaO·3B2O3·CaF2. In lime-alumina-based mold flux with low B2O3 content (5.4 mass pct) and a CaO/Al2O3 ratio of 1.2, the formation of fine CaF2 takes place first, followed by blocky interconnected CaO·2Al2O3 as the dominant crystalline phase, and rod-like 2CaO·B2O3 precipitates at lower temperature during continuous cooling of the mold flux. In B2O3-free mold flux, blocky interconnected 3CaO·Al2O3 precipitates after CaF2 and 3CaO·2SiO2 formation, and takes up almost the whole crystalline fraction. The casting trials show that the mold heat transfer rate significantly decreases near the meniscus during the continuous casting using lime-alumina-mold fluxes with higher crystallinity, which brings a great reduction of surface depressions on cast slabs. However, excessive crystallinity of mold flux causes poor lubrication between mold and solidifying steel shell, which induces various defects such as drag marks on cast slab. Among the studied mold fluxes, lime-alumina-based mold fluxes with higher B2O3 contents and a CaO/Al2O3 ratio of 3.3 show comparatively improved performance.

  20. Welding and mechanical properties of cast FAPY (Fe-16 at. % Al-based) alloy slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J.; Howell, C.R.

    1995-05-01

    This report deals with the welding procedure development and weldment properties of an Fe-16 at. % Al alloy known as FAPY. The welding procedure development was carried out on 12-, 25-, and 51-mm (0.5-, 1-, and 2-in.) -thick plates of the alloy in the as-cast condition. The welds were prepared by using the gas tungsten arc process and filler wire of composition matching the base-metal composition. The preheat temperatures varied from room temperature to 350{degrees}C, and the postweld heat treatment (PWHT) was limited only for 1 h at 750{degrees}C. The welds were characterized by microstructural. analysis and microhardness data. The weldment specimens were machined for Charpy-impact, tensile, and creep properties. The tensile and creep properties of the weldment specimens were essentially the same as that of the base metal. The Charpy-impact properties of the weldment specimens improved with the PWHT and were somewhat lower than previously developed data on the wrought material. Additional work is required on welding of thicker sections, development of PWHT temperatures as a function of section thickness, and mechanical properties.

  1. Application of alcohol based spraying coating on green sand mould for steel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. L.; Wang, J.; Yang, S. S.; He, Q. L.; Xiong, H. Sh

    2015-12-01

    A kind of coating suitable for green sand steel casting was developed. The practical application showed that the strength of the coating was high enough with no crack and no peeling under room temperature after drying the spraying coating, the performance of the coating for anti-cracking was good under high temperature, and the gas evolution of the coating was low. Using the coating, the casting surfaces finish appeared very good.

  2. Feature-based imaging for cast stainless steel components: 1987 and 1988 field examinations: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, R.; Jeong, P.; Williams, R.

    1989-01-01

    Digital-based inspection systems were used for the ultrasonic examinations and analysis of the hot-leg elbow in the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant in 1987 and 1988. This was the first time advanced systems were utilized during successive plant outages to monitor inspection data. The hot-leg elbow is made of statically cast stainless steel known for its mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. However, it presents unique difficulties in ultrasonic inspection because the large grain sizes can cause severe signal attenuation and beam redirection. The 1987 examination was authorized by Portland General Electric of Portland, Oregon, based on a study in 1985 which revealed that the hot-leg elbow could have experienced maximum strain and loading conditions because of steam generator snubber lockup. Seven indications were discovered during this examination; none of them was larger than the expected grain size in this material. The data were digitally processed at the EPRI NDE Center utilizing a personal computer based system that was integrated to other commercial systems and capable of feature-based imaging. Bandpass filtering and spatial averaging were found to increase signal-to-noise-ratio by as much as a factor of 2, i.e., 6 decibels. The hot-leg elbow was reexamined in 1988 using similar apparatus and inspection procedures. In addition to the seven 1987 indications, three more indications were discovered. These were determined to be in the midwall region. The largest of all the indications as reported by the inspection vendor was comparable to the average grain size, approximately 0.50 inch. The data were digitally processed at the EPRI NDE Center using similar techniques. Feature-based imaging of 1987 and 1988 inspection data made it possible to evaluate elbow conditions more reliably. 15 refs., 52 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite films based on potato starch/halloysite nanoclay.

    PubMed

    Sadegh-Hassani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-06-01

    In this research casting method was used to prepare potato starch based bio-nanocomposite films with halloysite nanoclay as the reinforcing materials. The composition included potato starch with 40% (w/w) of a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1as plasticizer) with nanoclay (0-5% w/w). The films were dried under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as solubility in water, water absorption capacity (WAC), water vapour permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability, and mechanical properties of the films were measured. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of nanoclay, mechanical properties of films were improved. Tensile strength was increased from 7.33 to 9.82MPa, and elongation at break decreased from 68.0 to 44.0%. Solubility in water decreased from 35 to 23%, and heat seal strength increased from 375 to 580N/m. Also incorporation of clay nanoparticles in the structure of biopolymer decreased permeability of the gaseous molecules. In summary, addition of halloysite nanoclay, improve the barrier and mechanical properties of potato starch films and this bionanocomposites have high potential to be used for food packaging purposes. PMID:24747380

  4. Use of gamma-irradiation technology in the manufacture of biopolymer-based packaging films for shelf-stable foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Duclerc F.; Rodrigues, Juliana A. F. R.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2005-07-01

    Gamma irradiation is an alternative method for the manufacture of sterilized packaging with increased storage stability and microbiological safety. Biopolymer-based packaging films are a potential solution to many environmental problems that have emerged from the production and accumulation of significant amounts of synthetic polymeric waste. This work was undertaken to verify the effectiveness of low-dose gamma-irradiation in obtaining biopolymer-based packaging films for shelf-stable foods. PHB polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) is an interesting biodegradable polymer that has been intensely investigated as cast and sheet films, with applications in the food industry and medicine. The films obtained are, however, typically brittle, and many scientists have attempted to reduce this brittleness by blending PHB with other polymers. In the present work, PHB was blended with PEG (polyethyleneglycol) to obtain films by the casting method that were then irradiated at a dose rate of 5.72 kGy/h with a 60Co source. Samples were melted at 200 °C and quenched to 0 °C in order to evaluate film crystallinity levels by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC analyses were performed with the samples (10 mg) under N2 atmosphere, heating from -50 to 200 °C (10 °C min-1), cooling from 200 to -50 °C (10 °C min-1); and heating from -50 to 200 °C (10 °C min-1). The thermal and mechanical resistances of the films after irradiation at low doses (5, 10, 20 kGy) are discussed. Water vapour transmission decreased with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that the films' performance as water vapour barrier had improved. Critical loss of the mechanical properties was observed at 40 kGy.

  5. Real-Time, Model-Based Spray-Cooling Control System for Steel Continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrus, Bryan; Zheng, Kai; Zhou, X.; Thomas, Brian G.; Bentsman, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    This article presents a new system to control secondary cooling water sprays in continuous casting of thin steel slabs (CONONLINE). It uses real-time numerical simulation of heat transfer and solidification within the strand as a software sensor in place of unreliable temperature measurements. The one-dimensional finite-difference model, CON1D, is adapted to create the real-time predictor of the slab temperature and solidification state. During operation, the model is updated with data collected by the caster automation systems. A decentralized controller configuration based on a bank of proportional-integral controllers with antiwindup is developed to maintain the shell surface-temperature profile at a desired set point. A new method of set-point generation is proposed to account for measured mold heat flux variations. A user-friendly monitor visualizes the results and accepts set-point changes from the caster operator. Example simulations demonstrate how a significantly better shell surface-temperature control is achieved.

  6. Biphasic calcium phosphate coating on cobalt-base surgical alloy during investment casting.

    PubMed

    Minouei, H; Meratian, M; Fathi, M H; Ghazvinizadeh, H

    2011-11-01

    The biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) yields higher bioactivity and efficiency than the Hydroxyapatite (HA) alone. The HA/β-TCP ratio significantly affects BCP bioactivity as well as the extent of BCP resorption. In this study, the BCP coating on ASTM F-75 cobalt base alloy during the investment casting process was investigated. For this purpose, molten metal was poured at 1,470°C into previously coated investment molds preheated to 750, 850, 950, 1,050°C in order to investigate the effect of mold preheating temperatures on coating phase transformations. For in vitro evaluation, samples were immersed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C for 4 weeks and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, and optical microscopy. The weight percentages of HA and β-TCP of the specimens were calculated to find that the HA/β-TCP ratio significantly depended on the mold preheating temperature as it caused changes in the dissolution behavior of BCP coating and the bone-like apatite precipitation on coating during in vitro evaluation. PMID:21894538

  7. Grain Selection During Casting Ni-Base, Single-Crystal Superalloys with Spiral Grain Selector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. F.; Liu, L.; Wang, N.; Zhao, X. B.; Zhang, J.; Fu, H. Z.

    2012-10-01

    The behavior of grain selection in a spiral grain selector during investment casting of a Ni-base, single-crystal (SX) superalloy, DD3, has been investigated by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques and optical microscopy. The results indicated that the main function of starter block is to optimize the crystal orientation. During the process of grain selection in spiral passage, the grain near the inner wall of spiral passage was usually selected as the final single crystal. It was found that the dendrites near the inner wall could develop new tertiary dendritic arms that paralleled the primary dendrites from the secondary dendritic arms to overgrow the dendrites far away from the inner wall. The crystal orientation that was examined by X-ray diffraction revealed that (1) the crystal orientation did not change obviously with increasing spiral thickness or angle and (2) the crystal orientation could be optimized by increasing the withdrawal rate and ceramic mold temperature. The influence of pouring temperature on crystal orientation was also discussed.

  8. Microstructure and stress rupture properties of polycrystal and directionally solidified castings of nickel-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bao-ping; Li, Lin-han; Wu, Jian-tao; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yan-bin; Chen, Xing-fu; Dong, Jian-xin; Li, Jun-tao

    2014-01-01

    A new directionally solidified Ni-based superalloy DZ24, which is a modification of K24 alloy without rare and expensive elemental additions, such as Ta and Hf, was studied in this paper. The microstructure and stress rupture properties of conventionally cast and directionally solidified superalloys were comparatively analyzed. It is indicated that the microstructure of K24 alloy is composed of γ, γ', γ/γ' eutectics and MC carbides. Compared with the microstructure of K24 polycrystalline alloy, γ/γ' eutectic completely dissolves into the γ matrix, the fine and regular γ' phase reprecipitates, and MC carbides decompose to M6C/M23C6 carbides after heat treatment in DZ24 alloy. The rupture life of DZ24 alloy is two times longer than that of K24 alloy. The more homogeneous the size of γ' precipitate, the longer the rupture life. The coarsening and rafting behaviors of γ' precipitates are observed in DZ24 alloy after the stress-rupture test.

  9. Pulsed Laser Deposition of the Ni-Base Superalloy Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joonghan; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy

    2016-03-01

    Ni-base superalloy films were deposited on single-crystal (SC) Ni-base superalloy substrates from a target with the same alloy composition by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Microstructure and growth behavior of the films deposited were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope. The homoepitaxial growth of the SC Ni-base superalloy film occurred at the 1123 K (850 °C) substrate temperature and 2 J/cm2 pulse energy. Films generally exhibited a strong polycrystalline characteristic as the substrate temperature and pulse energy increased. The SC film had a smooth surface. The measured root mean square roughness of the SC film surface was ~6 nm. Based on the Taguchi analysis, the substrate temperature and pulse energy were the most significant process parameters influencing the structural characteristics of the films. Also, the influence of the pulse repletion rate and deposition time was not found to be significant.

  10. Creep crack growth behavior at 1033 K of directionally solidified CM 247 LC -- A cast nickel-base superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala Krishna, M.S.; Sriramamurthy, A.M.; Radhakrishnan, V.M.

    1996-12-01

    Creep crack growth (CCG) studies on metals and alloys have gained importance and momentum in the recent years. In the present study, the creep crack growth behavior of a directionally solidified (DS) cast nickel-base superalloy has been investigated at 1,033K and the results obtained are reported here. The alloy studied is commonly used for producing turbine blades and vanes for aeroengine applications.

  11. Starch-based Antimicrobial Films Incorporated with Lauric Acid and Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, E.; Muhamad, I. I.

    2010-03-01

    Antimicrobial (AM) packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems. Starch-based film is considered an economical material for antimicrobial packaging. This study aimed at the development of food packaging based on wheat starch incorporated with lauric acid and chitosan as antimicrobial agents. The purpose is to restrain or inhibit the growth of spoilage and/or pathogenic microorganisms that are contaminating foods. The antimicrobial effect was tested on B. substilis and E. coli. Inhibition of bacterial growth was examined using two methods, i.e. zone of inhibition test on solid media and liquid culture test (optical density measurements). The control and AM films (incorporated with chitosan and lauric acid) were produced by casting method. From the observations, AM films exhibited inhibitory zones. Interestingly, a wide clear zone on solid media was observed for B. substilis growth inhibition whereas inhibition for E. coli was not as effective as B. substilis. From the liquid culture test, the AM films clearly demonstrated a better inhibition against B. substilis than E. coli.

  12. In-Situ observations of oxidation and phase stability in cast nickel-based intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, S. S.; Specht, E. D.; Santella, M. L.; Ice, G. E.; David, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the as-cast microstructure on the oxidation characteristics of two Ni-Al-Cr alloys with either γ or γ' primary solidification were investigated with an in-situ, time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) technique using synchrotron radiation. The measurements, carried out during rapid heating and cooling, showed that a segregated microstructure in these cast alloys leads to the preferential formation of zirconium oxide before the formation of aluminum oxides is detected. The oxidation leads to a change in the phase stability and to the modification of surface microstructures. Computational thermodynamic models were used to explain the preferential formation of oxides in the as-cast microstructure.

  13. In-situ observations of oxidation and phase stability in cast nickel-based intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Suresh S.; Specht, Eliot D; Santella, Michael L; Ice, Gene E; David, Stan A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the as-cast microstructure on the oxidation characteristics of two Ni-Al-Cr alloys with either gamma or gamma' primary solidification were investigated with an in-situ, time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) technique using synchrotron radiation. The measurements, carried out during rapid heating and cooling, showed that a segregated microstructure in these cast alloys leads to the preferential formation of zirconium oxide before the formation of aluminum oxides is detected. The oxidation leads to a change in the phase stability and to the modification of surface microstructures. Computational thermodynamic models were used to explain the preferential formation of oxides in the as-cast microstructure.

  14. Structurally Based Assessment of the Influence of Fluorides on the Characteristics of Continuous Casting Powder Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Tilo; Lychatz, Bernd; Haustein, Nicole; Janke, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    The use of fluorides in continuous casting powder leads to the desired reduction of melting temperature to less than 1573 K (1300 °C) as well as to lowering the viscosity below 10 dPas. With an equilateral use of alkalis, the tendency to form volatile fluorine compounds rises. The effect of these components on the structure of the casting slags can be described with the NBO/T-ratio. Should the full effect of fluorides to be used for structural modification of the slags, the other components have to be inhibited by compound formation so as to prevent them from forming gaseous fluoride. If the fluoride content in the continuous casting slag is represented by means of fluorspar, the influence on the NBO/T-ratio can be described with the impact factor 4.0.

  15. Microstructure Based Modeling of β Phase Influence on Mechanical Response of Cast AM Series Mg Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Erin I.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Deda, Erin; Allison, John; Li, Mei; Forsmark, Joy; Zindel, Jacob; Godlewski, Larry

    2014-09-30

    Magnesium alloys have become popular alternatives to aluminums and steels for the purpose of vehicle light-weighting. However, Mg alloys are hindered from wider application due to limited ductility as well as poor creep and corrosion performance. Understanding the impact of microstructural features on bulk response is key to improving Mg alloys for more widespread use and for moving towards truly predicting modeling capabilities. This study focuses on modeling the intrinsic features, particularly volume fraction and morphology of beta phase present, of cast Mg alloy microstructure and quantifying their impact on bulk performance. Computational results are compared to experimental measurements of cast plates of Mg alloy with varying aluminum content.

  16. Effects of Block Length and Solution-Casting Conditions on the Final Morphology and Properties of Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Multiblock Copolymer Films for Proton Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Park, J; Lee, H; Lane, O; Moore, R; McGrath, J; Baird, D

    2009-01-01

    The effects of block length and solution-casting conditions on the final microstructures and properties of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) multiblock copolymer (BPSH100-BPS0) films for proton exchange membranes were investigated based on the basic principles of microstructure formation of block copolymers. Morphological studies using transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering demonstrated that as the block length increased, the inter-ionic-domain distance increased, with a subsequent increase in lamellar ordering and long-range continuity. Further enhancement in morphological order was achieved by simply utilizing a selective solvent, dimethylacetamide, which is good and marginal for the sulfonated and unsulfonated blocks, respectively, rather than a neutral solvent, N-metyl-2-pyrrolidone. These morphological enhancements led to higher proton conductivity and water uptake. Drying temperature and/or solvent removal rate were observed to have considerable effects on water uptake and swelling behavior, being coupled with solvent selectivity. Also, the multiblock copolymer consisting of longer blocks was found to be more sensitive to the variation of the processing conditions such as solvent type and film drying temperature.

  17. Impact of annealing on the structural and optical properties of methylene green nanostructure films prepared by drop casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Menyawy, E. M.; Darwish, A. A. A.; Zedan, I. T.

    2016-05-01

    The methylene green (MG) powder was found to be polycrystalline with the triclinic system. MG films were deposited by drop coating technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that the MG films have nanostructure nature. It is found that the crystal size is increased by annealing. Optical properties of nanostructured MG films were performed in the spectral range from 200 to 2500 nm to determine the optical constants (n and k). The absorption coefficient of the as-deposited film revealed a two indirect allowed optical band gap with values of 1.90 and 3.11 eV, which increased by annealing to 2 and 3.48 eV, respectively. The dispersion of n was discussed in terms of the single oscillator model. The high frequency dielectric constant and the lattice dielectric constant were estimated and found to decreased by annealing.

  18. Treatment of tracheopharyngeal and tracheo-oesophageal fistulas following laryngectomy and fistula classification based on individual silicone casts.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Michael; Lorenz, Kai J; Glien, Alexander; Greiner, Ingo; Plontke, Stefan; Plößl, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    Persistent tracheopharyngeal (TPF) and tracheo-oesophageal (TEF) fistulas after laryngectomy create a therapeutic challenge. The current classification of TPFs and TEFs is based on clinical experience without detailed anatomical information. In this study, casts of TPFs/TEFs were obtained from 16 patients; these were the first steps in manufacturing customised prostheses. Fistulas were classified according to the shape and dimension of the tracheopharyngeal and tracheo-oesophageal silicone casts and prostheses as well as on epithetic requirements. Four different types of fistulas were classified: Type A, a fistula with a straight axis between the neopharynx and oesophagus; Type B, a fistula with a stenosis of the neopharynx but a straight axis; Type C, the axis between the neopharynx and oesophagus is flexed anteriorly; and Type D, neighbouring structures are absent creating a large defect. This classification system might improve the manufacturing processes of customised prostheses in individual cases with challenging tracheopharyngeal and tracheo-oesophageal fistulas. PMID:25178413

  19. Laser cladding of wear resistant Cu-base coatings on cast Al-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.; Nagarathnam, K.; Mazumder, J.

    1996-12-31

    Laser cladded Mn-Al bronze coatings on AA333 cast alloy substrate primarily for possible automotive applications were successfully produced using a 6 kW continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser with an oscillating beam for various processing conditions. The experimental test matrix included a 3x3 matrix of the three major laser process parameters-laser power, traverse speed, and powder feed. The produced coatings were dense, well-bonded, free of cracks, and relatively much harder (up to 400 kgf/mm{sup 2}) with sufficient toughness characteristics. Preliminary evaluation of the select coating microstructures using optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) revealed columnar type grains of varying sizes, homogeneous distribution of the alloying elements Cu, Mn, Al (major), Fe, and Ni (minor), and face-centered-cubic (fcc) Cu-based solid solution with enhanced lattice parameter, depending on the as-cladded alloy composition and process parameters. The coating/substrate interface microstructures were found to contain {alpha}-Al (fcc) and {theta}-CuAl{sub 2} (tetragonal). The dry sliding tribological tests revealed encouraging results of significantly better properties of the coatings: down to 1/3 of the wear rate of the AA333 substrate, and much less prone to full seizure under identical test conditions of 10 lbs normal load at 600 rpm, 30.3 mm radius of sliding. Some of the possible wear mechanisms of coating and substrate are explained, and important aspects of coating characteristics as a function of laser cladding parameters are also discussed.

  20. High-Throughput Models for Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritization in the ExpoCast Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) must characterize potential risks to human health and the environment associated with manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. High-throughput screening (HTS) for biological activity allows the ToxCast research pr...

  1. High Throughput Prioritization for Integrated Toxicity Testing Based on ToxCast Chemical Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rational prioritization of chemicals for integrated toxicity testing is a central goal of the U.S. EPA’s ToxCast™ program (http://epa.gov/ncct/toxcast/). ToxCast includes a wide-ranging battery of over 500 in vitro high-throughput screening assays which in Phase I was used to...

  2. Caste-based differences in gene expression in the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum.

    PubMed

    Donnell, David M; Strand, Michael R

    2006-02-01

    The polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma floridanum produces two larval castes, soldiers and reproductives, during development within its host. Soldier larvae defend the brood against competitors while reproductive larvae develop into adult wasps. As with other caste-forming insects, the distinct morphological and behavioral features of soldier and reproductive larvae likely involve differential gene expression. In this study we used a bi-directional suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach to isolate differentially expressed genes from C. floridanum soldier and reproductive larvae. We isolated 230 novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the two subtractions (114 soldier/116 reproductive ESTs). Among these ESTs were sequences with significant similarity to genes coding for serine proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, and cuticular proteins. Also, three novel genes were isolated that resemble one another in conceptual translation and share the cysteine spacing pattern of short scorpion toxins and insect defensins. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of 20 ESTs from the two libraries indicated that 85% were differentially expressed in one caste or the other. We conclude that our SSH strategy was effective in identifying a number of genes differentially expressed in soldier and reproductive larvae and that several of these genes will be useful in characterizing caste-specific gene networks in C. floridanum. PMID:16431281

  3. Dynamic shader generation for GPU-based multi-volume ray casting.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Friedemann; Botchen, Ralf P; Ertl, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Real-time performance for rendering multiple intersecting volumetric objects requires the speed and flexibility of modern GPUs. This requirement has restricted programming of the necessary shaders to GPU experts only. A visualization system that dynamically generates GPU shaders for multi-volume ray casting from a user-definable abstract render graph overcomes this limitation. PMID:18753036

  4. Optimization of excess Bi doping to enhance ferroic orders of spin casted BiFeO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Surbhi; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika; James, A. R.; Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2014-06-21

    Multiferroic Bismuth Ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films with varying excess bismuth (Bi) concentration were grown by chemical solution deposition technique. Room temperature multiferroic properties (ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and piezoelectricity) of the deposited BiFeO{sub 3} thin films have been studied. High resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that the dominant phases formed in the prepared samples change continuously from a mixture of BiFeO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to pure BiFeO{sub 3} phase and, subsequently, to a mixture of BiFeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increase in the concentration of excess Bi from 0% to 15%. BiFeO{sub 3} thin films having low content (0% and 2%) of excess Bi showed the traces of ferromagnetic phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Deterioration in ferroic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films is also observed when prepared with higher content (15%) of excess Bi. Single-phased BiFeO{sub 3} thin film prepared with 5% excess Bi concentration exhibited the soft ferromagnetic hysteresis loops and ferroelectric characteristics with remnant polarization 4.2 μC/cm{sup 2} and saturation magnetization 11.66 emu/g. The switching of fine spontaneous domains with applied dc bias has been observed using piezoresponse force microscopy in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films having 5% excess Bi. The results are important to identify optimum excess Bi concentration needed for the formation of single phase BiFeO{sub 3} thin films exhibiting the improved multiferroic properties.

  5. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  6. Study on aluminium-based single films.

    PubMed

    Vinod Kumar, G S; García-Moreno, F; Babcsán, N; Brothers, A H; Murty, B S; Banhart, J

    2007-12-28

    In the present paper the authors studied isolated metallic films made from the same material used for making metallic foams, and then characterised their properties. Metal films were made from a liquid aluminium alloy reinforced with ceramic particles of known concentration. Melts without such particles were also investigated. It is shown that stable films could not be made from Al-Si alloy having no particles, and just extremely thin and fragile films could be made from commercially-pure Al. In contrast, aluminium alloys containing particles such as SiC and TiB(2) allowed pulling thin, stable films, which did not rupture. Significant thinning of films was observed when the particle concentration in the melt decreased. By in situ X-ray monitoring of liquid films during pulling, film thickness and drainage effects within the liquid film could be studied. The morphology and microstructure of films was characterised after solidification. Our work shows that the question of how foams are stabilised can be studied using a simplified system such as a film, instead of having to deal with the multitude of different structural elements present in a foam. PMID:18060172

  7. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fasoyinu, Yemi; Griffin, John A.

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  8. INFLUENCE OF FILM STRUCTURE AND LIGHT ON CHARGE TRAPPING AND DISSIPATION DYNAMICS IN SPUN-CAST ORGANIC THIN-FILM TRANSISTORS MEASURED BY SCANNING KELVIN PROBE MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, L.; Moth, M.; Anthony, J.

    2012-05-03

    Herein, time-dependent scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of solution processed organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) reveals a correlation between film microstructure and OTFT device performance with the location of trapped charge within the device channel. The accumulation of the observed trapped charge is concurrent with the decrease in I{sub SD} during operation (V{sub G}=-40 V, V{sub SD}= -10 V). We discuss the charge trapping and dissipation dynamics as they relate to the film structure and show that application of light quickly dissipates the observed trapped charge.

  9. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  10. The use of fluidized sand bed as an innovative technique for heat treating aluminum based castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, Khaled

    The current study was carried out to arrive at a better understanding of the influences of the fluidized sand bed heat treatment on the tensile properties and quality indices of A356.2 and B319.2 casting alloys. For the purposes of validating the use of fluidized sand bed furnaces in industrial applications for heat treatment of 356 and 319 castings, the tensile properties and the quality indices of these alloys were correlated with the most common metallurgical parameters, such as strontium modification, grain refining, solutionizing time, aging parameters and quenching media. Traditional heat treatment technology, employing circulating air convection furnaces, was used to establish a relevant comparison with fluidized sand beds for the heat treatment of the alloys investigated, employing T6 continuous aging cycles or multi-temperature aging cycles. Quality charts were used to predict and/or select the best heat treatment conditions and techniques to be applied in industry in order to obtain the optimum properties required for particular engineering applications. The results revealed that the strength values achieved in T6-tempered 319 and 356 alloys are more responsive to fluidized bed (FB) heat treatment than to conventional convection furnace (CF) treatment for solution treatment times of up to 8 hours. Beyond this solution time, no noticeable difference in properties is observed with the two techniques. A significant increase in strength is observed in the FB heat-treated samples after short aging times of 0.5 and 1 hour, the trend continuing up to 5 hours. The 319 alloys show signs of overaging after 8 hours of aging using a conventional furnace, whereas with a fluidized bed, overaging occurs after 12 hours. Analysis of the tensile properties in terms of quality index charts showed that both modified and non-modified 319 and 356 alloys display the same, or better, quality, after only a 2-hr treatment in an FB compared to 10 hours when using a CF. The quality values of the 356 alloys are more responsive to the FB technique than 319 alloys through long aging times of up to 5 hours. The 319 alloys heat-treated in an FB, however, show better quality values after 0.5 hour of aging and for solution treatment times of up to 5 hours than those treated using a CF. With regard to the quality charts of 319 alloys, heat-treated samples show that increasing the aging time up to peak-strength, i.e. 8 and 12 hours in a CF and an FB, respectively, results in increasing in the alloy strength with a decrease in the quality values, for each of the solution heat treatment times used. The statistical analysis of the results reveals that modification and heating rate of the heat treatment technique have the greatest positive effects on the quality values of the 356 alloys. The use of a fluidized sand bed for the direct quenching-aging treatment of A356.2 and B319.2 casting alloys yields greater UTS and YS values compared to conventional furnace quenched alloys. The strength values of T6 tempered A356 and B319 alloys are greater when quenched in water compared to those quenched in an FB or CF. For the same aging conditions (170°C/4h), the fluidized bed quenched-aged 319 and 356 alloys show nearly the same or better strength values than those quenched in water and then aged in a CF or an FB. Based on the quality charts developed for alloys subjected to different quenching media, higher quality index values are obtained by water-quenched T6-tempered A356 alloys, and conventional furnace quenched-aged T6-tempered B319 alloys, respectively. The modification factor has the most significant effect on the quality results of the alloys investigated, for all heat treatment cycles, as compared to other metallurgical parameters. The results of alloys subjected to multi-temperature aging cycles reveal that the strength results obtained after the T6 continuous aging treatment of A356 alloys are not improved by means of multi-temperature aging cycles, indicating therefore that the optimum properties are obtained using a T6 aging treatment. The optimum strength properties of B319.2 alloys, however, is obtained by applying multi-temperature aging cycles such as, for example, 230°C/2h followed by 180°C/8h, rather than T6 aging treatment. In the case of multi-temperature aging cycles, the modification factor has the most significant role in improving the quality index values of 356 and 319 alloys. The FB heat-treated alloys have the highest strength values for all heat treatment cycles compared to CF heat-treated alloys; however, the FB has no significant effect on the quality values of 319 alloys compared to the CF. Regarding the interaction plots for multi-temperature aging cycles, the most significant factors that have a positive effect on the quality values of 356 alloys are modification and the 230°C/2h + 180°C/8h multi-temperature aging cycle. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Design of freeze-dried Soluplus/polyvinyl alcohol-based film for the oral delivery of an insoluble drug for the pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Shamma, Rehab; Elkasabgy, Nermeen

    2016-02-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a poorly water-soluble drug. Being poorly soluble affects its dissolution rate which in turn affects its oral bioavailability. This work aimed to prepare freeze-dried SL-Soluplus®/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) oral thin film in an attempt to enhance the drug solubility on one hand and at the same time prepare a solid dosage form convenient for the pediatric use. SL-Soluplus®/PVA films were prepared using polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as a plasticizer applying the solvent-casting technique. The prepared films were evaluated for their thickness, tensile strength, and in vitro dissolution studies. Box-Behnken design (17 runs) was applied to optimize the effects of the formulation variables on the film properties. The optimized film formulation was freeze-dried after casting so as to enhance the drug dissolution. Moreover, the optimized freeze-dried film was re-characterized in vitro and evaluated in vivo in human volunteers to investigate its palatability and satisfaction. The results showed that the optimized formulation composed of 10% polymer concentration containing Soluplus®:PVA (0.33:0.66) and plasticized with 30% PEG 400 possessed the highest desirability value (0.836). Freeze-drying of the optimized formulation succeeded to improve SL in vitro dissolution due to the preparation of a more porous film compared to the non-freeze-dried one. In vivo evaluation of the optimized freeze-dried film showed high satisfaction among the participating volunteers concerning the ease of administration and sensation thereafter, where all the film specimens dissolved without the need for water and no film residues remained in the mouth following film dissolution. In conclusion, freeze-dried Soluplus®/PVA-based oral thin film proved to be a successful carrier for the oral delivery of insoluble drugs like SL for pediatrics. PMID:24892631

  12. Flexible photocell array based on bacteriorhodopsin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei Wei; Knopf, George K.; Bassi, Amarjeet S.

    2006-09-01

    A bendable photocell array that exploits bioelectronic photoreceptors based on bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is described in this paper. Fabricating such a sensor array on a flexible plastic substrate introduces a new design approach that enables lightweight and durable non-planar sensing devices to be created with curved or spherical geometries. In this research, purple membrane patches obtained from wild-type bR are deposited onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate coated with a patterned ITO layer using Electrophoretic Sedimentation (EPS) technique. The current prototype consists of a flexible 4x4 pixel array and an amplification circuit that magnifies the small electrical signal arising from the charge displacement and recombination within the dried bR film. Each individual pixel is a 2mm x 2mm square separated by a 1mm distance between neighboring elements. The measured photoelectric response of an individual pixel is approximately linear over the light power range between 200μW and 12mW. These bR photocells respond primarily to visible light with a spectral peak response at 568nm. The response times of the photoelectric signals can reach up to the microsecond range. Preliminary tests have demonstrated that photoresponse characteristics are maintained while the flexible substrate is deformed up to a 10mm bending radius. Unfortunately, dried bR photocells are inherently susceptible to electrical noise because of their extremely high film resistance, necessitating the employment of a noise-filtering amplifier. The image processing capabilities of bR are demonstrated in a motion detection application. Specifically, Reichardt's delay-and-correlate algorithm is implemented and is used to detect both the speed and direction of a moving light spot.

  13. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  14. Reproducibility of ZrO2-based freeze casting for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Steven E; Fickas, Kate C; Maker, Yajur N; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    The processing technique of freeze casting has been intensely researched for its potential to create porous scaffold and infiltrated composite materials for biomedical implants and structural materials. However, in order for this technique to be employed medically or commercially, it must be able to reliably produce materials in great quantities with similar microstructures and properties. Here we investigate the reproducibility of the freeze casting process by independently fabricating three sets of eight ZrO2-epoxy composite scaffolds with the same processing conditions but varying solid loading (10, 15 and 20vol.%). Statistical analyses (One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests) run upon measurements of the microstructural dimensions of these composite scaffold sets show that, while the majority of microstructures are similar, in all cases the composite scaffolds display statistically significant variability. In addition, composite scaffolds where mechanically compressed and statistically analyzed. Similar to the microstructures, almost all of their resultant properties displayed significant variability though most composite scaffolds were similar. These results suggest that additional research to improve control of the freeze casting technique is required before scaffolds and composite scaffolds can reliably be reproduced for commercial or medical applications. PMID:26838830

  15. Resistivity-Based Evaluation of the Fatigue Behavior of Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, Holger; Starke, Peter; Eifler, Dietmar

    2012-08-01

    Cast irons are used in particular for highly stressed components in the automotive and commercial vehicle industry, e.g., for crankcases and in the wind power industry, e.g., for rotor hubs. The mechanical properties of cast irons are strongly influenced by parameters like phase composition of the matrix, graphite shape, micro-pinholes, and micro-cracks. The measurement of the electrical resistance in the unloaded state and its change during cyclic loading offers the possibility to get detailed information about the actual defect density and the cyclic deformation behavior. In the scope of the present work, stress-controlled load increase tests and constant amplitude tests were carried out at ambient temperature with specimens of the perlitic cast irons EN-GJL-250 (ASTM A48 35B), EN-GJV-400, and EN-GJS-600 (ASTM 80-55-06). Beside electrical measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the microstructure and to correlate the change of microstructural details with cyclic properties.

  16. Carbon nanotube based nanostructured thin films: preparation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Li; Yu, Aimin

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid thin films of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and titania were fabricated on quartz slides by alternatively depositing MWCNT and titanium(IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (TALH) via a solution based layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method followed by calcination to convert TALH to crystalline titania. The multilayer film build-up was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy which indicated the linear growth of the film with the bilayer number. XRD confirmed the formation of anantase titania after heat treatment. The photocatalytic property of the hybrid thin film was evaluated by its capacity to degrade rhodamine B under the UV illumination. Compared with pure TiO2 film, experiments showed that the MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid film had a much higher photocatalytic activity under the same conditions. The first order rate constant of photocatalysis of 30 bilayers of hybrid film was approximately 8-fold higher than that of 30 bilayers of pure TiO2 film. In addition, the degradation efficiency of MWCNT/TiO2 hybrid thin film increased with its thickness while pure titania film remained unchanged. A 30 bilayers hybrid thin film that contains about 0.2 mg MWCNT/TiO2 catalyst was capable of completely degrading 10 mL of 2 mg/L Rh B solution within 5 hours. The results also indicated that the hybrid catalyst could be reused for several cycles.

  17. Sprue design alterations and its effect on the properties of base metal alloy castings: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Geetha Prabhu, K. R.; Prabhu, R.; Maheswari, H.; Eswaran, M. A.; Phanikrishna, G.; Deepthi, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To study the effect of various sprue designs on the properties of base metal alloy castings. The base metal alloys are extensively used for their excellent properties such as an increase in hardness, high melting range, high elastic modulus, its compatibility with ceramic material and low cost. However, to improve the properties of the base metal alloys is an ongoing research leading to various modifications in their fabrication procedure – which include sprue designs and their mode of attachment to the wax pattern. Aims and Objectives: Study compared the effect of three sprue designs viz. conical sprue, cylindrical sprue and bottleneck sprue on the properties of mass and microhardness of base metal alloy castings. Materials and Methods: A prefabricated wax mesh pattern was selected for the fabrication of the alloy test samples in the study. The cylindrical sprue design was connected to the mesh pattern with a straight attachment. The bottleneck sprue design was connected to the mesh pattern with a constricted attachment. The conical sprue design was connected to the mesh pattern with a flared attachment. In this manner, ten samples for each of the three different sprue designs were prepared. Results: The obtained value for mass and microhardness were subjected to statistical analysis. ANOVA test was performed to determine the difference between the sprue designs. Conclusion: The bottleneck sprue, conical sprue, and cylindrical sprue designs did not exert any apparent influence on the mass and microhardness. PMID:26538911

  18. Creep-rupture behavior of a developmental cast-iron-base alloy for use up to 800 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Scheuermann, Coulson M.

    1987-01-01

    A promising iron-base cast alloy is being developed as part of the DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Systems Project under contract DEN 3-282 with the United Technologies Research Center. This report presents the results of a study at the Lewis Research Center of the alloy's creep-rupture properties. The alloy was tested under a variety of conditions and was found to exhibit the normal 3-stage creep response. The alloy compared favorably with others being used or under consideration for the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/regenerator housing.

  19. Birefringence gradient development during drying of solution cast functional films and their mechanical, optical and gas barrier properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, Orcun

    For the first time, the development of optical anisotropy gradient as a result of solvent evaporation for poly (amide-imide) (PAI) solution in Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) was investigated. Experiments were carried out using real time optical measurement with spectral birefringence technique coupled with off-line optical techniques such as Abbe refractometer and optical compensator method. Drying process induced temporal evolution of non-uniform out of plane birefringence profile through the thickness direction while in plane birefringence remained zero. The highest birefringence was observed at the substrate-solution interface at early stages of drying. Beyond a critical time, the formation of highly oriented layer was observed at the air-solution interface. This oriented layer progresses through the thickness direction as the solvent concentration is disproportionately reduced in these regions. Abbe refractometer results confirmed the anisotropy is preserved at longer drying times, air-solution interface birefringence becoming higher compared to substrate-solution interface. Overall, observations obtained by real-time measurement system agreed with off-line measurements. In additon, multifunctional single and triple-layer films exhibiting flexibility, high modulus and high gas barrier properties were developed using a soluble polyamide-imide (PAI) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with ammonium-modified montmorillonite (MMT, Cloisite 30B) mineral clay. The drying behavior and associated anisotropy development were determined real-time, using a newly developed real-time measurement system. Increase in organoclay content resulted in higher viscosity values. This behavior was reversed at high shear rates. Out-of-plane birefringence development occurred earlier for thinner neat samples caused by increased depletion rate of solvent. Addition of organoclay content resulted in a decrease in evaporation rate of solvent due to planar orientation of well exfoliated nanoplatelets as shown by TEM images and WAXS. This is in agreement with the out-of-plane anisotropy development observed during drying. Beyond a critical solid wt%, out-of-plane birefringence started to increase earlier with organoclay addition. In the case of multi-layer organoclay reinforced PAI films, the drying behavior of each individual layer was tracked and a complementary drying model is proposed. Planar orientation of nanoplatelets resulted in excellent helium-barrier properties. Mechanical properties were optimized at 3wt% clay content. In a similar way, multifunctional nanocomposite films exhibiting flexibility, high modulus and high gas barrier properties were developed using a soluble polyamide-imide (PAI) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with graphene-oxide nanosheets (GO). Addition of GO content resulted in increase in evaporation rate of solvent. This was attributed to increase in hydrophobicity of the films with increased GO content as shown by contact angle measurements. Overall He permeability of dried hybrid films decreased over 40% even with very small GO content. Multi-layered optical retarder film exhibiting low birefringence dispersion and high optical clarity was developed using a solutions of polysulfone (PSF), polycarbonate-co-polymer (PCC) and atactic polystyrene (PS) in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP). The uniaxial and biaxial deformation behavior and associated anisotropy development were determined real-time, using a newly developed real-time measurement system. Higher deformation rates generated lower out-of-plane birefringence with higher in-plane birefringence. Machine Direction (MD) stretching resulted in negative retardation values at high deformation rates. This behavior was reversed upon inception of Transverse Direction (TD) stretching. Optimum R th and R0 values were achieved at 1mm/sec stretch rate to compensate ECB-LCDs. Birefringence dispersion of multi-layer films was found to be flattened.

  20. A Winning Cast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

  1. Crystallization of zirconia based thin films.

    PubMed

    Stender, D; Frison, R; Conder, K; Rupp, J L M; Scherrer, B; Martynczuk, J M; Gauckler, L J; Schneider, C W; Lippert, T; Wokaun, A

    2015-07-28

    The crystallization kinetics of amorphous 3 and 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3YSZ and 8YSZ) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), spray pyrolysis and dc-magnetron sputtering are explored. The deposited films were heat treated up to 1000 °C ex situ and in situ in an X-ray diffractometer. A minimum temperature of 275 °C was determined at which as-deposited amorphous PLD grown 3YSZ films fully crystallize within five hours. Above 325 °C these films transform nearly instantaneously with a high degree of micro-strain when crystallized below 500 °C. In these films the t'' phase crystallizes which transforms at T > 600 °C to the t' phase upon relaxation of the micro-strain. Furthermore, the crystallization of 8YSZ thin films grown by PLD, spray pyrolysis and dc-sputtering are characterized by in situ XRD measurements. At a constant heating rate of 2.4 K min(-1) crystallization is accomplished after reaching 800 °C, while PLD grown thin films were completely crystallized already at ca. 300 °C. PMID:26119755

  2. Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Richard I; Malloy, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

  3. AC conductivity and electrochemical studies of PVA/PEG based polymer blend electrolyte films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polu, Anji Reddy; Kumar, Ranveer; Dehariya, Harsha

    2012-06-01

    Polymer blend electrolyte films based on Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)/Poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) and magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2) were prepared by solution casting technique. Conductivity in the temperature range 303-373 K and transference number measurements have been employed to investigate the charge transport in this polymer blend electrolyte system. The highest conductivity is found to be 9.63 × 10-5 S/cm at 30°C for sample with 30 weight percent of Mg(NO3)2 in PVA/PEG blend matrix. Transport number data shows that the charge transport in this polymer electrolyte system is predominantly due to ions. Using this electrolyte, an electrochemical cell with configuration Mg/(PVA+PEG+Mg(NO3)2)/(I2+C+electrolyte) was fabricated and its discharge characteristics profile has been studied.

  4. FILM E COPERTURE EDULI CON MATRICI A BASE DI FRUTTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Films based on pear puree were formed using thermal compression molding. Whey protein isolates and soy protein isolates were added to these films to improve their processing and strength. The effects of pear puree concentration, whey or soy protein concentration, moisture content and sorbitol cont...

  5. Millisecond Photoinduced Absorption Studies of Pyridine-Based Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplin, K. A.; Clark, D. T.; Jessen, S. W.; Epstein, A. J.; Fu, D.-K.; Swager, T. M.

    1997-03-01

    We present a study of the photoexcited states in copolymers of poly(p-pyridyl vinylene) and poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPyVPR_iV) with sidegroups R_1=C_12H_25 or R_2=COOC_12H_25 attached at the 2 and 5 positions of the phenyl ring. Previous studies discussed the millisecond photoinduced absorption (ms PA) characteristics of PPyVPR_iV powders(S.W. Jessen et al.), Synth. Met., in press.. In particular, triplet-triplet (T-T) transitions were observed at 1.6 eV for both materials. Additional polaron signatures were also observed in both the electronic ( ~ 0.85 eV) and infrared (1100 - 1600 cm-1) regions of the photoinduced spectrum. We compare these powder results with ms PA features for film morphologies of both the copolymers. We observe a weaker ( ~ 10X) T-T^* transition for copolymer films cast from xylene solution indicating a reduction in triplet exciton production as compared to powder samples. These results are contrasted with the behavior we reported(S.W. Jessen et al.), to be published. earlier for film and powder samples of the parent polymer poly(p-pyridyl vinylene).

  6. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M. ); Schultz, J.A. ); Schmidt, H.K. ); Chang, R.P.H. . Dept. of Materials Science)

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 [Angstrom]), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 [Angstrom] of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films.

  7. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-11-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 {Angstrom}), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 {Angstrom} of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films.

  8. Formulation, Casting, and Evaluation of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic and Novel Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Desain, John D.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Borduin, Russell; Koo, Joseph H.; Brady, Brian B.; Curtiss, Thomas J.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    This investigation studied the inclusion of various additives to paraffin wax for use in a hybrid rocket motor. Some of the paraffin-based fuels were doped with various percentages of LiAlH4 (up to 10%). Addition of LiAlH4 at 10% was found to increase regression rates between 7 - 10% over baseline paraffin through tests in a gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor. Mass burn rates for paraffin grains with 10% LiAlH4 were also higher than those of the baseline paraffin. RDX was also cast into a paraffin sample via a novel casting process which involved dissolving RDX into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and then drawing a vacuum on the mixture of paraffin and RDX/DMF in order to evaporate out the DMF. It was found that although all DMF was removed, the process was not conducive to generating small RDX particles. The slow boiling generated an inhomogeneous mixture of paraffin and RDX. It is likely that superheating the DMF to cause rapid boiling would likely reduce RDX particle sizes. In addition to paraffin/LiAlH4 grains, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were cast in paraffin for testing in a hybrid rocket motor, and assorted samples containing a range of MWNT percentages in paraffin were imaged using SEM. The fuel samples showed good distribution of MWNT in the paraffin matrix, but the MWNT were often agglomerated, indicating that a change to the sonication and mixing processes were required to achieve better uniformity and debundled MWNT. Fuel grains with MWNT fuel grains had slightly lower regression rate, likely due to the increased thermal conductivity to the fuel subsurface, reducing the burning surface temperature.

  9. Stereology-based modeling and analysis of equiaxed solidification in casting simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.P.; Richards, L.E.; Banerjee, D.

    1995-12-31

    A formalism has been developed for expressing micromodels in a consistent manner using stereological parameters to quantify the geometric characteristics of the developing microstructure. This approach provides a robust and physically consistent method for coupling local micromodels with the macroscopic fields, and allows direct implementation of micromodels having various forms into discrete numerical simulations. The macroscopic state variables at each finite-element node serve as global constraints on the local unit volume of microstructure, which allows information to be exchanged between the two regimes and greatly simplifies the incorporation of multiple mechanisms that occur during a single casting process. This approach has been used to develop a model of equiaxed solidification that combines the mechanisms of nucleation, dendritic growth, temperature-dependent solidification, and coarsening. Numerical results of this model are presented for an Al-7% Si brake drum casting and compared with a stereological analysis of the observed microstructure. Measurements of the specific surface area, S{sub v}, of the dendritic structure show very good agreement with simulation results derived from unfitted model parameters.

  10. Exciton dynamics reveal aggregates with intermolecular order at hidden interfaces in solution-cast organic semiconducting films.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cathy Y; Cotts, Benjamin L; Wu, Hao; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale organic electronics manufacturing requires solution processing. For small-molecule organic semiconductors, solution processing results in crystalline domains with high charge mobility, but the interfaces between these domains impede charge transport, degrading device performance. Although understanding these interfaces is essential to improve device performance, their intermolecular and electronic structure is unknown: they are smaller than the diffraction limit, are hidden from surface probe techniques, and their nanoscale heterogeneity is not typically resolved using X-ray methods. Here we use transient absorption microscopy to isolate a unique signature of a hidden interface in a TIPS-pentacene thin film, exposing its exciton dynamics and intermolecular structure. Surprisingly, instead of finding an abrupt grain boundary, we reveal that the interface can be composed of nanoscale crystallites interleaved by a web of interfaces that compound decreases in charge mobility. Our novel approach provides critical missing information on interface morphology necessary to correlate solution-processing methods to optimal device performance. PMID:25581561

  11. Exciton dynamics reveal aggregates with intermolecular order at hidden interfaces in solution-cast organic semiconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Cathy Y.; Cotts, Benjamin L.; Wu, Hao; Ginsberg, Naomi S.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale organic electronics manufacturing requires solution processing. For small-molecule organic semiconductors, solution processing results in crystalline domains with high charge mobility, but the interfaces between these domains impede charge transport, degrading device performance. Although understanding these interfaces is essential to improve device performance, their intermolecular and electronic structure is unknown: they are smaller than the diffraction limit, are hidden from surface probe techniques, and their nanoscale heterogeneity is not typically resolved using X-ray methods. Here we use transient absorption microscopy to isolate a unique signature of a hidden interface in a TIPS-pentacene thin film, exposing its exciton dynamics and intermolecular structure. Surprisingly, instead of finding an abrupt grain boundary, we reveal that the interface can be composed of nanoscale crystallites interleaved by a web of interfaces that compound decreases in charge mobility. Our novel approach provides critical missing information on interface morphology necessary to correlate solution-processing methods to optimal device performance.

  12. Antimicrobial nanostructured starch based films for packaging.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana S; Oliveira, M; de Sá, Arsénio; Rodrigues, Rui M; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A; Machado, A V

    2015-09-20

    Montmorillonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt C30B/starch nanocomposite (C30B/ST-NC), silver nanoparticles/starch nanocomposite (Ag-NPs/ST-NC) and both silver nanoparticles/C30B/starch nanocomposites (Ag-NPs/C30B/ST-NC) films were produced. The nanoclay (C30B) was dispersed in a starch solution using an ultrasonic probe. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs (0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0mM) were synthesized directly in starch and in clay/starch solutions via chemical reduction method. Dispersion of C30B silicate layers and Ag-NPs in ST films characterized by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of Ag-NPs enhanced clay dispersion. Color and opacity measurements, barrier properties (water vapor and oxygen permeabilities), dynamic mechanical analysis and contact angle were evaluated and related with the incorporation of C30B and Ag-NPs. Films presented antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans without significant differences between Ag-NPs concentrations. The migration of components from the nanostructured starch films, assessed by food contact tests, was minor and under the legal limits. These results indicated that the starch films incorporated with C30B and Ag-NPs have potential to be used as packaging nanostructured material. PMID:26050897

  13. Development of an antimicrobial material based on a nanocomposite cellulose acetate film for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Alejandra; Peñaloza, Ángela; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Galotto, María J; Guarda, Abel; Bruna, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biopolymers have been recognised as potential materials for the development of new ecofriendly food packaging. In addition, if these materials incorporate active substances in their structure, the potential applications are much higher. Therefore, this work was oriented to develop nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity based on cellulose acetate (CA), a commercial organoclay Cloisite30B (C30B), thymol (T) as natural antimicrobial component and tri-ethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser. Nanocomposites were prepared by a solvent casting method and consisted of 5% (w/w) of C30B, 5% (w/w) of TEC and variable content of T (0%, 0.5% and 2% w/w). To evaluate the effect of C30B into the CA matrix, CA films without this organoclay but with T were also prepared. All nanocomposites showed the intercalation of CA into the organoclay structure; furthermore this intercalation was favoured when 2% (w/w) of T was added to the nanocomposite. In spite of the observed intercalation, the presence of C30B inside the CA matrices increased the opacity of the films significantly. On the other hand, T showed a plasticiser effect on the thermal properties of CA nanocomposites decreasing glass transition, melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The presence of T in CA nanocomposites also allowed the control de Listeria innocua growth when these materials were placed in contact with this Gram-positive bacterium. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity was increased with the presence of C30B. Finally, studies on T release showed that the clay structure inside the CA matrix did not affect its release rate; however, this nanofiller affected the partition coefficient KP/FS which was higher to CA nanocomposites films than in CA films without organoclay. The results obtained in the present study are really promising to be applied in the manufacture of food packaging materials. PMID:24345085

  14. High-cycle fatigue-life of the cast nickel base-superalloys in 738 LC and IN 939

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffelner, W.

    1982-07-01

    The high cycle fatigue (HCF) properties of two cast nickel base-superalloys, IN 738 LC and IN 939, were investigated using both fracture mechanics samples and smooth specimens. The crack propagation behavior was studied in terms of linear fracture mechanics at RT and at 850 °C. In addition to the influence of temperature, the influences of frequency, mean stress, and environment (vacuum, air, sulfidizing atmosphere) were studied. At 850 °C, the fatigue thresholds were found to be higher in air than in vacuum. This could be explained by crack branching. The high scatter of fatigue crack propagation rates could be related also to this phenomenon. The S/N curves at 850 °C can be predicted treating crack growth from casting pores as the predominant failure mechanism. At RT the same method is not as successful. The reason for this may be that crack growth laws measured on long, branched cracks are not applicable to short, unbranched cracks. At RT, no significant influence of frequency on S/N-curves and fatigue crack growth rates was observed for frequencies up to 20 kHz.

  15. Cooling Process and Cast Structure of Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses Produced in Various Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saida, J.; Setyawan, A. D.; Kato, H.; Inoue, A.

    2011-06-01

    Cooling process in the production of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) was investigated in various chamber atmospheres in Cu mold casting. Two different cooling modes, consisting of the direct heat transfer between the melt and Cu mold in the high temperature and indirect transfer via cavity in the low-temperature regions, are suggested. In the later case, the cooling effect should depend on the chamber atmosphere, which results in the formation of glassy structure with large relaxation enthalpy casting under the ambient Ar and He atmospheres due to a good thermal conductivity. The less relaxed BMGs produced by an improved cooling effect are also expected to contain a large amount of free volume for significant deformability. Actually, it is clarified that the compressive plastic deformation is improved with an increase of the relaxation enthalpy. The present study indicates a necessity of development of the glassy structure, i.e., relaxation state, and provides a new technique of the formation of less relaxed glassy structure for the improvement of plasticity in BMGs.

  16. Anatase titanium dioxide thin film based carbon monoxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Homoudi, Ibrahim Abdullah

    2005-11-01

    Gas sensors are finding increasing number of applications in home, industrial and automotive areas. Incomplete combustion in gas and coal fired electricity plants can generate harmful gases and pollutants. The purpose of the proposed research was to develop titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film based materials for carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing to detect a very low concentration (20--100 ppm) of CO gas. Anatase TiO2 thin films (100--1000 nm) have been developed using pulsed DC magnetron reactive sputtering technique on glass, Si(100) and sapphire substrates. Optimum deposition parameters were determined by studying the crystalline quality of the films using X-ray diffraction. The x-ray photo-emission (XPS) studies indicated a good stoichiometric TiO 2 surface with O to Ti ratio of 1.95 +/- 0.05. Film residual stress was measured using curvature measurements of the substrates before and after deposition of the films. The anatase TiO2 thin films on sapphire showed lower stress compared to glass and Si substrates. Raman spectroscopy measurements were further used to study the correlation between the residual stress and Raman shifts of characteristic peaks to obtain a calibration factor. Anatase TiO2 thin films showed n-type electrical conductivity indicating the presence of shallow electron donors caused by oxygen vacancies. The response of films was tested for 100 ppm of CO in 100 sccm of N2 gas flow as a function of temperature, film thickness, and the substrate. The films show the highest response at 200°C. The films grown on sapphire substrates show the highest response. The response is higher for a film with 1000 nm thickness than the 250 nm thickness film. The CO sensor was tested as a function of CO concentration and as well as under different environs: The films respond to very low concentration, 20--100 ppm, of CO gas, with good reversibility. The response and recovery time were from 2 min to 1 min as the concentration increased from 20 to 100 ppm. It can be completely regenerated by turn off the CO gas without exposing it to oxygen or air. The sensor showed sensitivity for CO with as high as 2000 PPM of O2 concentration. It has the same response in dry and in humid environments. Furthermore, the anatase TiO2 thin film with no doping showed to have higher response than the doped films with Cu or La at 300°C.

  17. CASTING FURNACES

    DOEpatents

    Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

  18. Alginate- and gellan-based edible films for probiotic coatings on fresh-cut fruits.

    PubMed

    Tapia, M S; Rojas-Graü, M A; Rodríguez, F J; Ramírez, J; Carmona, A; Martin-Belloso, O

    2007-05-01

    Alginate- (2% w/v) or gellan-based (0.5%) edible films, containing glycerol (0.6% to 2.0%), N-acetylcysteine (1%), and/or ascorbic acid (1%) and citric acid (1%), were formulated and used to coat fresh-cut apple and papaya cylinders. Water vapor permeability (WVP) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in alginate films (0.30 to 0.31 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2) than in the gellan ones (0.26 to 0.27 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2). Addition of 0.025% (w/v) sunflower oil decreased WVP of gellan films (0.20 to 0.22 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2). Water solubility of gellan and alginate films at 25 degrees C (0.47 to 0.59 and 0.74 to 0.79, respectively) and their swelling ratios (2.3 to 2.6 and 1.6 to 2.0, respectively) indicate their potential for coating high moisture fresh-cut fruits. Fresh-cut apple and papaya cylinders were successfully coated with 2% (w/v) alginate or gellan film-forming solutions containing viable bifidobacteria. WVP in alginate (6.31 and 5.52 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2) or gellan (3.65 and 4.89 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2) probiotic coatings of papaya and apple, respectively, were higher than in the corresponding cast films. The gellan coatings and films exhibited better water vapor properties in comparison with the alginate coatings. Values > 10(6) CFU/g B. lactis Bb-12 were maintained for 10 d during refrigerated storage of fresh-cut fruits, demonstrating the feasibility of alginate- and gellan-based edible coatings to carry and support viable probiotics on fresh-cut fruit. PMID:17995771

  19. Supercapacitors based on flexible graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composite films.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Xu, Yuxi; Yao, Zhiyi; Liu, Anran; Shi, Gaoquan

    2010-04-27

    Composite films of chemically converted graphene (CCG) and polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs) were prepared by vacuum filtration the mixed dispersions of both components. The composite film has a layered structure, and PANI-NFs are sandwiched between CCG layers. Furthermore, it is mechanically stable and has a high flexibility; thus, it can be bent into large angles or be shaped into various desired structures. The conductivity of the composite film containing 44% CCG (5.5 x 10(2) S m(-1)) is about 10 times that of a PANI-NF film. Supercapacitor devices based on this conductive flexible composite film showed large electrochemical capacitance (210 F g(-1)) at a discharge rate of 0.3 A g(-1). They also exhibited greatly improved electrochemical stability and rate performances. PMID:20355733

  20. p-channel thin-film transistors based on spray-coated Cu2O films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya; Thomas, Stuart; Adamopoulos, George; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2013-04-01

    Thin films of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) were grown using solution-based spray pyrolysis in ambient air and incorporated into hole-transporting thin-film transistors. The phase of the oxide was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements while the optical band gap of the films was determined to be ˜2.57 eV from optical transmission measurements. Electrical characterization of Cu2O films was performed using bottom-gate, bottom-contact transistors based on SiO2 gate dielectric and gold source-drain electrodes. As-prepared devices show clear p-channel operation with field-effect hole mobilities in the range of 10-4-10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 with some devices exhibiting values close to 1 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  1. Hydrophilic films based on poly(acrylic acid)-poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends cross-linked by gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurkeeva, Zauresh S.; Mun, Grigoriy A.; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V.; Dzhusupbekova, Aizhana B.

    2004-02-01

    Hydrophilic polymeric films based on blends of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) were prepared by casting technique and were cross-linked by gamma-radiation. The films are soft and elastic in a dry state and form hydrogels upon immersion in water. Effect of absorbed dose on the gel fraction as well as on the swelling of the films in aqueous solutions of different pH is studied. It was found that addition of lower molecular weight PVME decreases the gelation dose, which is likely related to a decrease in glass transition temperature of the blends. In acidic media the films have low swelling degree because of suppression of carboxylic groups ionisation and formation of additional physical cross-links via interpolymer hydrogen bonding.

  2. Methods for preparing colloidal nanocrystal-based thin films

    DOEpatents

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Koh, Weon-kyu; Kim, David K.; Oh, Soong Ju; Lai, Yuming; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Saudari, Sangameshwar Rao; Murray, Christopher B.

    2016-05-10

    Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.

  3. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific Design Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, V.K.; Pankiw, R.I.

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this program was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The higher strength H-Series of cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat-treating industry. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc. with research participation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies. Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) was also a partner in this project. Each team partner had well-defined roles. Duraloy Technologies led the team by identifying the base alloys that were to be improved from this research. Duraloy Technologies also provided an extensive creep data base on current alloys, provided creep-tested specimens of certain commercial alloys, and carried out centrifugal casting and component fabrication of newly designed alloys. Nucor Steel was the first partner company that installed the radiant burner tube assembly in their heat-treating furnace. Other steel companies participated in project review meetings and are currently working with Duraloy Technologies to obtain components of the new alloys. EIO is promoting the enhanced performance of the newly designed alloys to Ohio-based companies. The Timken Company is one of the Ohio companies being promoted by EIO. The project management and coordination plan is shown in Fig. 1.1. A related project at University of Texas-Arlington (UT-A) is described in Development of Semi-Stochastic Algorithm for Optimizing Alloy Composition of High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) for Desired Mechanical and Corrosion Properties (ORNL/TM-2005/81/R1). The final report on another related project at the University of Tennessee by George Pharr, Easo George, and Michael Santella has been published as Development of Combinatorial Methods for Alloy Design and Optimization (ORNL/TM-2005-133). The goal of the project was to increase the high-temperature strength by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C) of H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels. Meeting such a goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The goal of the project was achieved by using the alloy design methods developed at ORNL, based on precise microcharacterization and identification of critical microstructure/properties relationships and combining them with the modern computational science-based tools that calculate phases, phase fractions, and phase compositions based on alloy compositions. The combined approach of microcharacterization of phases and computational phase prediction would permit rapid improvement of the current alloy composition of an alloy and provide the long-term benefit of customizing alloys within grades for specific applications. The project was appropriate for the domestic industry because the current H-Series alloys have reached their limits both in high-temperature-strength properties and in upper use temperature. The desire of Duraloy's industrial customers to improve process efficiency, while reducing cost, requires that the current alloys be taken to the next level of strength and that the upper use temperature limit be increased. This project addressed a specific topic from the subject call: to develop materials for manufacturing processes that will increase high-temperature strength, fatigue resistance, corrosion, and wear resistance. The outcome of the project would benefit manufacturing processes in the chemical, steel, and heat-treating industries.

  4. Preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of a polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate based orodispersible film containing sildenafil citrate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Juan; Cao, Qing-Ri; Yang, Mingshi; Cui, Jing-Hao

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we developed a sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate (ALG-Na) based orodispersible film (ODF) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as the type and amount of plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODF, including the disintegration time, elastic modulus (EM) and percentage of elongation (E%). SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 25 mg in an area of 6 cm2 was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The surface morphology of ODF was visualized under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of ODF were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of PVA, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and ALG-Na (20:5:2, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20 s. However, the loading of drug extended the disintegration time (100 s) of ODF, while it still maintained satisfactory mechanical properties. SC was homogenously dispersed throughout the films and the crystalline form of drug changed, with strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The PVA/ALG-Na based ODF containing SC prepared by the simple solvent casting method might be an alternative to conventional SC tablets for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. PMID:24855822

  5. Design of mucoadhesive polymeric films based on blends of poly(acrylic acid) and (hydroxypropyl)cellulose.

    PubMed

    Dubolazov, Artem V; Nurkeeva, Zauresh S; Mun, Grigoriy A; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2006-05-01

    Mixing of aqueous solutions of poly(acrylic acid) and (hydroxypropyl)cellulose results in formation of hydrogen-bonded interpolymer complexes, which precipitate and do not allow preparation of homogeneous polymeric films by casting. In the present work the effect of pH on the complexation between poly(acrylic acid) and (hydroxypropyl)cellulose in solutions and miscibility of these polymers in solid state has been studied. The pH-induced complexation-miscibility-immiscibility transitions in the polymer mixtures have been observed. The optimal conditions for preparation of homogeneous polymeric films based on blends of these polymers have been found, and the possibility of radiation cross-linking of these materials has been demonstrated. Although the gamma-radiation treatment of solid polymeric blends was found to be inefficient, successful cross-linking was achieved by addition of N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide). The mucoadhesive potential of both soluble and cross-linked films toward porcine buccal mucosa is evaluated. Soluble films adhered to mucosal tissues undergo dissolution within 30-110 min depending on the polymer ratio in the blend. Cross-linked films are retained on the mucosal surface for 10-40 min and then detach. PMID:16677049

  6. Active microcantilevers based on piezoresistive ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Harish; Li, Mo; Garcia-Sanchez, Daniel; Zhao, Peng; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Tang, Hong X.

    2011-01-01

    We report the piezoresistivity in magnetic thin films of Fe0.7Ga0.3 and their use for fabricating self-transducing microcantilevers. The actuation occurs as a consequence of both the ferromagnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Fe0.7Ga0.3 thin films, while the deflection readout is achieved by exploiting the piezoresistivity of these films. This self-sensing self-actuating micromechanical system involves a very simple bilayer structure, which eliminates the need for the more complex piezoelectric stack that is commonly used in active cantilevers. Thus, it potentially opens opportunities for remotely actuated cantilever-based sensors.

  7. Integrated thick-film nanostructures based on spinel ceramics.

    PubMed

    Klym, Halyna; Hadzaman, Ivan; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Brunner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Integrated temperature-humidity-sensitive thick-film structures based on spinel-type semiconducting ceramics of different chemical compositions and magnesium aluminate ceramics were prepared and studied. It is shown that temperature-sensitive thick-film structures possess good electrophysical characteristics in the region from 298 to 358 K. The change of electrical resistance in integrated thick-film structures is 1 order, but these elements are stable in time and can be successfully used for sensor applications. PMID:24670141

  8. Integrated thick-film nanostructures based on spinel ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Integrated temperature-humidity-sensitive thick-film structures based on spinel-type semiconducting ceramics of different chemical compositions and magnesium aluminate ceramics were prepared and studied. It is shown that temperature-sensitive thick-film structures possess good electrophysical characteristics in the region from 298 to 358 K. The change of electrical resistance in integrated thick-film structures is 1 order, but these elements are stable in time and can be successfully used for sensor applications. PMID:24670141

  9. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  10. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  11. Effects of silicon on the oxidation, hot-corrosion, and mechanical behavior of two cast nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Cast specimens of nickel-base superalloys 713C and Mar-M200 with nominal additions of 0, 0.5, and 1 wt% Si were evaluated for oxidation and corrosion resistance, tensile and stress-rupture properties, microstructure, and phase relations. Results are compared with those of an earlier study of the effects of Si in B-1900. Si had similar effects on all three superalloys. It improves oxidation resistance but the improvement in 713C and Mar-M200 was considerably less than in B-1900. Hot-corrosion resistance is also improved somewhat. Si is, however, detrimental to mechanical properties, in particular, rupture strength and tensile ductility. Si has two obvious microstructural effects. It increases the amount of gamma-prime precipitated in eutectic nodules and promotes a Mo(Ni,Si)2 Laves phase in the alloys containing Mo. These microstructural effects do not appear responsible for the degradation of mechanical properties, however.

  12. CASTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  13. Fabrication of wrist-like SMA-based actuator by double smart soft composite casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigue, Hugo; Wei, Wang; Bhandari, Binayak; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    A new manufacturing method for smart soft composite (SSC) actuators that consists of double casting a SSC actuator to produce an actuator with non-linear shape memory alloy (SMA) wire positioning is proposed. This method is used to manufacture a tube-shaped SSC actuator in which the SMA wires follow the curvature of the tube and is capable of pure-twisting deformations while sustaining a cantilever load. The concept is tested by measuring the maximum twisting angle and a simple control method is proposed to control the twisting angle of the actuator. Then, a soft robotic wrist with a length of 18 cm is built, its load-carrying capability is tested by measuring the cantilever force required for deforming the actuator, and its load-carrying capability during actuation is tested by loading one end with different objects and actuating the actuator. This wrist actuator shows good repeatability, is capable of twisting deformations up to 25° while holding objects weighing 100 g, and can sustain loads above 2 N without undergoing buckling.

  14. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  15. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOEpatents

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  16. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case–Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R.; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. Methods and Findings We used data from a large population-based case–control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case–control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case–control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom) with 784 cases and 523 controls included between March 2003 and December 2008 and (2) the Milan study, a population-based case–control study with 2,117 cases and 2,088 controls selected between December 1993 and December 2010 at the Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda–Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy. The full model consisted of 32 predictors, including three genetic factors and six biomarkers. For this model, an AUC of 0.85 (95% CI 0.77–0.92) was found in individuals with plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. The AUC for the restricted model (containing 11 predictors, including two genetic factors and one biomarker) was 0.84 (95% CI 0.77–0.92). The clinical model (consisting of 14 environmental predictors) resulted in an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI 0.66–0.87). The clinical model was converted into a risk score, the L-TRiP(cast) score (Leiden–Thrombosis Risk Prediction for patients with cast immobilization score), which showed an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI 0.66–0.86). Validation in the THE-VTE study data resulted in an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI 0.58–0.96) for the L-TRiP(cast) score. Validation in the Milan study resulted in an AUC of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.00) for the full model, an AUC of 0.92 (95% CI 0.76–0.87) for the restricted model, and an AUC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.92–0.99) for the clinical model. The L-TRiP(cast) score resulted in an AUC of 0.95 (95% CI 0.91–0.99). Major limitations of this study were that information on thromboprophylaxis was not available for patients who had plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity and that blood was drawn 3 mo after the thrombotic event. Conclusions These results show that information on environmental risk factors, coagulation factors, and genetic determinants in patients with plaster casts leads to high accuracy in the prediction of VTE risk. In daily practice, the clinical model may be the preferred model as its factors are most easy to determine, while the model still has good predictive performance. These results may provide guidance for thromboprophylaxis and form the basis for a management study. PMID:26554832

  17. Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A total of 32 electroslag castings of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, type 316, and nickel aluminide were procured from four facilities for evaluation (Table 1). The most complex castings procured during this program were the valve bodies shown in Figure 2. The castings were subjected to various heat treatments (Table 2), checked for chemical composition uniformity from top to bottom, and subjected to macrostructural evaluation and mechanical properties testing. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Fabrication of hierarchically structured superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces by Cu and CuO casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Christopher P.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2015-10-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films decorated with hierarchically structured pillars are cast from large area copper and copper oxide negative molds. The molds are fabricated using a single patterning step and electroplating. The process of casting structured PDMS films is simpler and cheaper than alternatives based on deep reactive ion etching or laser roughening of bulk silicone. Texture imparted to the pillars from the mold walls renders the PDMS films superhydrophobic, with the contact angle/hysteresis of the most non-wetting surfaces measuring 164°/9° and 158°/10° for surfaces with and without application of a low surface energy coating. The usefulness of patterned PDMS films as a "self-cleaning" solar cell module covering is demonstrated and other applications are discussed.

  19. Predicting dermal penetration for ToxCast chemicals using in silico estimates for diffusion in combination with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predicting dermal penetration for ToxCast chemicals using in silico estimates for diffusion in combination with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.Evans, M.V., Sawyer, M.E., Isaacs, K.K, and Wambaugh, J.With the development of efficient high-throughput (HT) in ...

  20. AZO thin film-based UV sensors: effects of RF power on the films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Nihan; Ceren Baskose, U.; Kinaci, Baris; Cakmak, Mehmet; Ozcelik, Suleyman

    2015-06-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films of thickness 150 nm were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method under various RF powers in the range of 25-100 W. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscope, UV-Vis spectrometer and Hall effect measurement system. All the obtained films had a highly preferred orientation along [002] direction of the c-axis perpendicular to the flexible PET substrate and had a high-quality surface. The energy band gap ( E g) values of the films varied in the range of 3.30-3.43 eV. The minimum resistivity of 1.84 × 10-4 Ω cm was obtained at a 50 W RF power. The small changes in the RF power had a critical important role on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the sputtered AZO thin films on flexible PET substrate. In addition, UV sensing of the fabricated AZO thin film-based sensors was explored by using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The sensors were sensitive in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  1. Characterisation and modelling of defect formation in direct-chill cast AZ80 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, D.; Robson, J.D.; Withers, P.J.; Turski, M.

    2015-06-15

    Wrought magnesium alloys for demanding structural applications require high quality defect free cast feedstock. The aim of this study was to first identify and characterise typical defects in direct chill cast magnesium–aluminium–zinc (AZ) alloy billet and then use modelling to understand the origins of these defects so they can be prevented. Defects were first located using ultrasonic inspection and were then characterised using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and serial sectioning, establishing the presence of oxide films and intermetallic particles Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} in all defects. A model was developed to predict the flow patterns and growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases during casting, which influence the formation of defects. Simulation of the growth of the intermetallic particles demonstrated that precipitation from the liquid occurs in the mould. The combination of the entrained oxide films and intermetallic particles recirculates in the liquid metal and continues to grow, until large enough to settle, which is predicted to occur at the centre of the mould where the flow is the slowest. Based on these predictions, strategies to reduce the susceptibility to defect formation are suggested. - Highlights: • Casting defects in magnesium direct chill casting have been imaged and characterised in 3-dimensions. • The occurrences of co-located clusters of particles and oxide films have been characterised and explained. • A coupled model has been developed to help interpret the observed trend for defects located towards the centre of billets.

  2. SUBTLEX-ESP: Spanish Word Frequencies Based on Film Subtitles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuetos, Fernando; Glez-Nosti, Maria; Barbon, Analia; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that word frequency estimates obtained from films and television subtitles are better to predict performance in word recognition experiments than the traditional word frequency estimates based on books and newspapers. In this study, we present a subtitle-based word frequency list for Spanish, one of the most widely spoken…

  3. Instant Casting Movie Theater: The Future Cast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maejima, Akinobu; Wemler, Shuhei; Machida, Tamotsu; Takebayashi, Masao; Morishima, Shigeo

    We have developed a visual entertainment system called “Future Cast” which enables anyone to easily participate in a pre-recorded or pre-created film as an instant CG movie star. This system provides audiences with the amazing opportunity to join the cast of a movie in real-time. The Future Cast System can automatically perform all the processes required to make this possible, from capturing participants' facial characteristics to rendering them into the movie. Our system can also be applied to any movie created using the same production process. We conducted our first experimental trial demonstration of the Future Cast System at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan.

  4. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  5. Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. D.; Baek, U. H.; Han, J. W.

    2012-09-01

    High-pressure die casting is the preferred process for manufacturing Mg-alloy components used for numerous applications. High-pressure die casting is suitable for mass production and has the advantage of also being suitable for accurately fashioning objects of complicated shapes. One disadvantage of high-speed die casting is the occurrence of defects such as shrinkage or air entrainment. Gating system design must be very effective in actual manufacturing facilities to avoid the occurrence of such defects. The objective of this study is to present a methodology for obtaining optimal designs of 4-cavity thin electronic component housings. The fluid behavior and amount of air entrainment caused by the overflows and air vent designs were analyzed using a computer fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator. The effectiveness of the proposed system was demonstrated through CFD simulations and experiments using an actual manufacturing process. Also, the effect of vacuum systems on the porosity and mechanical properties of the castings was studied. The volume of porosity in the casting was found to be significantly reduced using vacuum assistance during die casting. As a result, the tensile strength and the elongation of the die casting products are improved.

  6. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikka, V. K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several value body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni (Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and where applicable, with data on sand castings.

  7. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and, where applicable, with data on sand castings. 22 figures.

  8. Melamine acoustic chemosensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer film.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Agnieszka; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; Chitta, Raghu; Zandler, Melvin E; D'Souza, Francis; Sannicolò, Francesco; Mussini, Patrizia R

    2009-12-15

    A melamine piezomicrogravimetric (acoustic) chemosensor using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film has been devised and tested. The MIP films were prepared by electropolymerization of the melamine complexed by the functional monomer of the bis(bithiophene) derivative bearing an 18-crown-6 substituent 4. The structure of the MIP-melamine complex was visualized by the DFT B3LYP/3-21G(*) energy optimization calculations. The sensitivity and selectivity of the MIP film was improved by cross-linking the polymer with the bithianaphthene monomer 5 and the presence of the porogenic ionic liquid in the prepolymerization solution. After electropolymerization, the melamine template was extracted from the MIP film with an aqueous strong base solution. The measurements of UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), DPV, and EIS as well as scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) imaging confirmed extraction of the melamine template from the MIP film and then rebinding of the melamine analyte while the film relative roughness and porosity was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, respectively. The analytical as well as kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the chemosensing were assessed under flow-injection analysis (FIA) conditions with piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) detection. The linear concentration range for melamine detection was 5 nM to at least 1 mM with a limit of detection of approximately 5 nM. The chemosensor successfully discriminated the cyanuric acid, cyromazine, and ammeline interfering agents. PMID:19925007

  9. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  10. A comparison of the marginal adaptation of cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium and cast base metal copings

    PubMed Central

    Wu, JC; Lai, LC; Sheets, CG; Earthman, J; Newcomb, R

    2011-01-01

    Statement of problem A new fabrication process has been developed where a titanium coping, which has a gold colored titanium nitride outer layer can be reliably fused to porcelain, but the marginal adaptation characteristics are still undetermined. Purpose The primary purpose of this study is to compare the rate of Clinically Acceptable Marginal Adaptation (CAMA-defined as a marginal gap mean ≤60 μm) of cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium with the CAMA rate for the cast base metal copings. In addition, the study will evaluate the marginal gap scores themselves to assess their mean difference between the two study groups. Finally, the study will present two analyses of group differences in variability to support the contention that the titanium copings perform more consistently than their base metal counterparts. Material and methods Thirty-seven cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium copings and 40 cast base metal copings were evaluated by computer-based image analysis using an optical microscope. The conventional lost wax technique was used to fabricate the 40 cast base metal copings that were 0.3 mm thick. The titanium copings were 0.3 mm thick and were formed by a collection of atomic titanium vapor onto a refractory die duplicate in a high vacuum chamber. Fifty vertical marginal gap measurements were collected from each of the 77 copings and the mean of these measurements was computed to form a gap score for each coping. Next, the gap score was compared to the 60 μm criterion to classify each coping as to whether it did or did not achieve Clinically Acceptable Marginal Adaption (CAMA). A comparison of the CAMA rates for each type of coping was used to address the primary purpose of this study. In addition, the gap scores themselves were used to test the (one-sided) hypothesis that the mean of the titanium gap scores is smaller than the mean of the base metal gap scores. Finally, the assertion that the titanium copings provide more consistency in their marginal gap performance was tested in two ways. First, the means of the titanium gap scores were compared to the means of the marginal gap scores for the base metal copings. Second, the standard deviations of the marginal gap scores for the titanium copings were compared with those for the base metal copings. Results Statistical comparison of the CAMA rates for each type of coping showed that the CAMA criterion was achieved by 24 of the 37 (64.86%) titanium copings, while 19 of the 40 (47.50%) base metal copings met this same standard. Noninferiority of the titanium copings was established by the 2-sided 90% Confidence Interval for the 17.36% difference in these rates (−0.95%, 35.68%) and noninferiority of titanium coping adaption was also demonstrated by the Wald Test rejection of the tentative hypothesis of inferiority (Z-score=1.9191, one-sided p=0.0275). The mean of the vertical marginal gap scores for the titanium copings (56.9025) was significantly less than the mean of the marginal gap scores for the base metal copings (71.9041) as shown by the Satterthwaite t-score=−2.29 (one-sided p=0.0126). To compare the adaption consistency of the titanium copings to the base metal counterparts the difference between the variance of the marginal gap scores for the titanium copings (594.843) and the variance of the marginal gap scores for the base metal copings (1510.901) was found to be statistically significant (Folded-F test score=2.63, p=0.0042). Our second method for showing that the titanium copings performed more consistently than the base metal comparisons was to use a one-sided test to show that the mean of the standard deviations of the vertical gap measurements for each titanium coping (29.9835) was significantly lower than the mean of the standard deviations of the vertical gap measurements for each base metal coping (36.1332). This test produced a Satterthwaite’s t-score of −2.24 (one-sided p=0.0141), indicating the titanium adaption was significantly more consistent. Conclusions Cathode-arc vapor deposited titanium copings exhibited a higher rate of Clinically Acceptable Marginal Adaption (CAMA) than the comparison base metal copings. Comparison of the coping marginal adaption score variances and direct assessment of the coping marginal adaption scores provided additional evidence that the titanium copings performed better and with more consistency than their base metal counterparts. PMID:21640242

  11. Bimorph micro heat engines based on carbon nanotube freestanding films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuno, Takashi; Fukano, Tatsuo; Higuchi, Kazuo; Takeda, Yasuhiko

    2015-11-01

    We have found that lightweight bimorph strips consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotube freestanding films (MWNT-FSFs) and Ni thin films exhibit a continuous bending-stretching motion on a hot plate even below the temperature of 100 °C in an environment at room temperature. In fact, the Ni/MWNT-FSFs exhibited this motion at a temperature difference of as small as 5 °C. The requirements of this motion have been qualitatively elucidated by a simulation based on a relaxation time approximation.

  12. Switchable mirrors based on nickel-magnesium films

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson,Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Armitage, Robert D.; Kostecki, Robert; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-01-16

    A new type of electrochromic mirror electrode based on reversible uptake of hydrogen in nickel magnesium alloy films is reported. Thin,magnesium-rich Ni-Mg films prepared on glass substrates by cosputtering from Ni and Mg targets are mirror-like in appearance and have low visible transmittance. Upon exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films take up hydrogen and become transparent. When hydrogen is removed, the mirror properties are recovered. The transition is believed to result from reversible formation of Mg2NiH4 and MgH2. A thin overlayer of palladium was found to enhance the kinetics of hydrogen insertion and extraction,and to protect the metal surface against oxidation.

  13. Nanocrystalline films of soft magnetic iron-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheftel', E. N.; Bannykh, O. A.

    2006-10-01

    The physicochemical and structural aspects of designing soft magnetic alloys Fe- MX (where M is a Group III V metal of the periodic table and X = C, N, O) in the form of nanocrystalline films precipitation-hardened by refractory interstitial phases are discussed and developed. The results of studying the structure and magnetic properties of Fe78Zr10N12 films are reported. The films in the amorphous state are produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. Upon annealing at 300 600°C, the amorphous films crystallize to form mainly a bcc α-Fe-based phase and the fcc ZrN phase. The grain size of the bcc phase is shown to increase from ˜3 nm to ˜30 nm as the annealing temperature increases; the grain size of the fcc phase does not exceed 2 3 nm. Films annealed at 400°C exhibit a record level of magnetic properties: H c = 5 6 A/m and B s = 1.7 1.8 T. The experimental results obtained confirm the validity of our scientific approach.

  14. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  15. Structural aspects of corrosion resistance in alloys based on the Fe3Al intermetallic phase in the cast state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachowicz, M. M.; Haimann, K.; Lachowicz, M. B.; Jasionowski, R.; Pawlak, S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of four cast alloys based on the Fe3Al intermetallic phase. Microstructure tests using light microscopy, electron scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods, have been performed. On this basis, a presence of particles rich in zirconium and molybdenum, and in case of the alloy with 28 at.% aluminium and 5 at.% chromium — the presence of sigma phase (FeCr), has been found. Also, the results of the study of the microstructure influence on the electrochemical corrosion resistance in the 5 % NaCl solution have been presented. The Fe-26Al-2Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% and Fe-26Al-5Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% alloys exhibited increased corrosion resistance in comparison to the Fe-23Al-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% alloy without chromium addition. The appearance of the sigma phase in the alloy of Fe-28Al-5Cr-1Mo-0.1Zr-0.005B at.% chemical composition resulted in lowering the corrosion resistance of this alloy and a change in corrosion character from the pitting to the intercrystalline one.

  16. An investigation on the creep and fracture behavior of cast nickel-base superalloy IN738LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianting, Guo; Ranucci, D.; Picco, E.; Strocchi, P. M.

    1983-11-01

    The creep-rupture properties of cast nickel-base superalloy IN738LC were studied over the temperature range 750 to 950 °C. Our results show that primary and steady-state creep should not be regarded as distinct stages and that they have basically the same deformation mechanism. The dependence of the steady-state creep rate, ɛs, on stress, δ, and on temperature, T, for this superalloy can be described as ɛs = Aδ nexp( -Qc/RT). n = 8.3 - 9.8 and Qc = 570 - 730 kJ mol-1 at high stress levels, whereas n = 4.1 - 4.9 and Qc = 370 - 420 kJ mol-1 at low stress levels. The observations of dislocation structures during steady-state creep confirm that the creep mechanism is different in the high and low stress regimes. The observations of the microstructure show that the initial acceleration in creep rate during the tertiary stage is connected with changes in the size and distribution of γ' particles during creep. Rupture occurs by the propagation of oxidized intergranular cracks which initiate at the specimen surface, and the rate of crack propagation is controlled by the deformation behavior of the superalloy.

  17. Effects of composition and testing conditions on oxidation behavior of four cast commercial nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Probst, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    Four cast nickel-base superalloys were oxidized at 1000 and 1100 C for times up to 100 hr in static air and a Mach 1 gas stream. The oxidation resistance was judged by weight change, metal thickness loss, depletion-zone formation, and oxide formation and morphology. The alloys which formed mostly nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) (B-1900, VIA, and to a lesser extent 713C) were more oxidation resistant. Poorer oxidation resistance was associated with the appearance of chromium sesquioxide (Cr2O3) and chromite spinel (738X). Refractory metal content had little effect on oxidation resistance. Refractory metals appeared in the scale as tapiolite (NiM2O6, where M represents the refractory metal). Thermal cycling in static air appeared to supply sufficient data for the evaluation of oxidation resistance, especially for alloys which form oxides of low volatility. For alloys of higher chromium levels with high propensities toward forming a chromium-bearing scale of higher volatility, testing under conditions of high gas velocity is necessary to assess fully the behavior of the alloy.

  18. Modeling of ultrasonic propagation in heavy-walled centrifugally cast austenitic stainless steel based on EBSD analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Luo, Zhongbing; Zhou, Quan; Zou, Longjiang; Lin, Li

    2015-05-01

    The ultrasonic inspection of heavy-walled centrifugally cast austenitic stainless steel (CCASS) is challenging due to the complex metallurgical structure. Numerical modeling could provide quantitative information on ultrasonic propagation and plays an important role in developing advanced and reliable ultrasonic inspection techniques. But the fundamental obstacle is the accurate description of the complex metallurgical structure. To overcome this difficulty, a crystal orientation map of a CCASS specimen in the 96 mm × 12 mm radial-axial cross section was acquired based on the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and it was used to describe the coarse-grained structure and grain orientation. A model of ultrasonic propagation for CCASS was built according to the EBSD map. The ultrasonic responses of the CCASS sample were also tested. Some experimental phenomena such as structural noise and signal distortion were reproduced. The simulated results showed a good consistence with the experiments. The modeling method is expected to be effective for the precise interpretation of ultrasonic propagation in the polycrystalline structures of CCASS. PMID:25670411

  19. Reconstruction and Quantitative Characterization of Multiphase, Multiscale Three-Dimensional Microstructure of a Cast Al-Si Base Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Gokhale, A. M.; Mao, Y.; Tewari, A.; Sachdev, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The serial sectioning technique is well known for the reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures of opaque materials. In recent years, techniques also have been developed for the reconstruction of high-fidelity, large-volume segments of 3D microstructures that use montage serial sections and robot-assisted automated acquisitions of montage serial sections. This article reports the reconstruction of the multiphase, multiscale 3D microstructure of a permanent mold cast unmodified Al-12 wt pct Si-1 wt pct Ni base alloy that contains eutectic Si platelets, coarse primary polyhedral Si particles, Fe-rich script intermetallic particles, and pores. These constituents are segmented, reconstructed, rendered, and characterized in three dimensions. The estimated 3D microstrucutral attributes include the distribution of eutectic platelet thickness; the mean volume, mean surface area, and mean thickness of the eutectic Si platelets; the mean volume and the mean surface area of the polyhedral primary Si particles; and the mean number of faces, edges, and corners on the polyhedral primary Si particles.

  20. Graphene-based hybrid films for plasmonic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhu, Yanwu

    2015-08-01

    Graphene, a one-atomic-layer-thick planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon configured in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, has attracted considerable research interest with regard to sensing-related applications owing to its extraordinary electronic, optical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Graphene plasmonics may be excited in the mid-infrared-to-terahertz regions with high spatial confinement, low loss, and excellent tunability. Meanwhile, graphene can be utilized to tune the plasmonic properties of conventional metallic nanostructures in the visible and near-infrared regions, allowing it to act as a versatile component in various plasmonic applications. This article reviews the recent progress in graphene-based hybrid films used for plasmonic sensing and detection. We particularly emphasize on the unique roles and advantages of graphene in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for bare graphene or graphene-metal hybrid films, and plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensing for graphene-metal or graphene-insulator hybrids, among other plasmonic sensing applications. The preparation of graphene-based hybrid films, their functionalization and signal detection techniques are also reviewed. Finally, the perspectives and current challenges in the use of graphene-based hybrid films for plasmonic sensing are outlined.

  1. Nonlinear optical properties of substituted pyridostyryl dye base films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayvoronsky, Vladimir Y.; Shepelyavyi, E.; Yakunin, S.; Brodyn, Mikhail S.; Grinko, D. O.; Kachkovsky, Alexey D.; Kudinova, M.; Tolmachev, Alexey I.; Slominsky, Yuri L.

    2003-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the complex investigation of linear and nonlinear parameters of new organic compound type - polymethine dye base (PDB) - 1-pentafluorophenyl-4-phenyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)methylene]-quinoline. For the first time thin films on glass substrate from this material were deposited by physical evaporation in vacuum. Linear absorption spectra of base films and base solutions were investigated in the wavelength range 300 - 1100 nm. Nonlinear properties of three films with thickness of 247, 350, 535 nm were studied with Z-scan and spatial profile analysis techniques in picosecond range of pumping pulses duration at the fundamental wavelength of YAG:Nd3+ laser 1064 nm. We observed darkening/bleaching effects of different magnitude (2 - 20%) of total transmittance in dependence on films thickness. It was estimated effective third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) ~ 10-5 esu. Such high nonlinear response can be explained by presumable cascade process of PDB molecule excitation which is simultaneously in resonance with pump wavelength 1064 nm (1.17 eV) and its harmonics 355 nm (3.48 eV).

  2. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  3. Vertical Conducting Nanodomains Self-Assembled from Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-Based Diblock Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Y Lee; S Kim; H Yang; M Jang; S Hwang; H Lee; K Baek

    2011-12-31

    We have synthesized {pi}-conjugated poly(3-hexyl thiophene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (P3HT-b-PMMA) with a P3HT molecular weight of 11 kDa and a PMMA volume fraction of 0.53, which potentially has several organic electronic applications. Its phase-separation behavior was investigated for various thicknesses cast from organic solvents. When cast onto 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} dielectrics from toluene, in which the P3HT segments have limited solubility, the P3HT-b-PMMA films consist of nanofibrillar self-assemblies of laterally {pi}-stacked P3HT chains. In contrast, the P3HT segments were found to be highly mobile in chlorobenzene, generating a typical phase-separation morphology consisting of vertically conducting P3HT nanodomains on these dielectrics. As the thickness of the cast films increased, however, the topmost surface becomes covered with {pi}-conjugated nanofibrils that are laterally oriented with respect to the surface. Due to the anisotropic domain orientations of P3HT, top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) containing the P3HT-b-PMMA films exhibited enhanced electrical performance compared to bottom-gate OFETs.

  4. A space imaging concept based on a 4m structured spun-cast borosilicate monolithic primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, S. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Bauman, S.; Cuerden, B.; Granger, Z.; Olbert, B. H.

    2010-07-01

    Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) tasked The University of Arizona Steward Observatory (UASO) to conduct an engineering study to examine the feasibility of creating a 4m space telescope based on mature borosilicate technology developed at the UASO for ground-based telescopes. UASO has completed this study and concluded that existing launch vehicles can deliver a 4m monolithic telescope system to a 500 km circular orbit and provide reliable imagery at NIIRS 7-8. An analysis of such an imager based on a lightweight, high-performance, structured 4m primary mirror cast from borosilicate glass is described. The relatively high CTE of this glass is used to advantage by maintaining mirror shape quality with a thermal figuring method. Placed in a 290 K thermal shroud (similar to the Hubble Space Telescope), the orbit averaged figure surface error is 6nm rms when earth-looking. Space-looking optical performance shows that a similar thermal conditioning scheme combined with a 270 K shroud achieves primary mirror distortion of 10 nm rms surface. Analysis shows that a 3-point bipod mount will provide launch survivability with ample margin. The primary mirror naturally maintains its shape at 1g allowing excellent end-to-end pre-launch testing with e.g. the LOTIS 6.5m Collimator. The telescope includes simple systems to measure and correct mirror shape and alignment errors incorporating technologies already proven on the LOTIS Collimator. We have sketched a notional earth-looking 4m telescope concept combined with a wide field TMA concept into a DELTA IV or ATLAS 552 EELV fairing. We have combined an initial analysis of launch and space performance of a special light-weighted honeycomb borosilicate mirror (areal density 95 kg/m2) with public domain information on the existing launch vehicles.

  5. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-TiB Based Short-Fiber Composite Materials Manufactured by Casting and Subjected to Deformation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisin, R. A.; Imayev, V. M.; Imayev, R. M.; Gaisina, É. R.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-TiB based short-fiber composite materials manufactured by casting and subjected to deformation processing are investigated. Commercially pure VT1-0 titanium and two-phase VT8 alloys are used for matrix alloys. It is established that the short-fiber composite materials comprising about 10 vol.% of titanium monoboride can be successfully prepared by conventional casting. Regimes of deformation processing of the composite materials providing reorientation of titanium monoboride fibers with retention of a high length-to-diameter ratio are developed. The composite materials after deformation processing demonstrate higher strength characteristics and, as demonstrated for the VT8 based composite, high-temperature strength compared to the matrix material without a radical reduction of ductility.

  7. Antistaphylococcal Nanocomposite Films Based on Enzyme-Nanotube Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Pangule, Ravindra C.; Brooks, Sarah J.; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Salmon, Sharon L.; Zhu, Guangyu; Metzger, Dennis W.; Kane, Ravi S.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the primary causes of hospitalizations and deaths. To address this issue, we have designed antimicrobial coatings incorporating carbon nanotube-enzyme conjugates that are highly effective against antibiotic–resistant pathogens. Specifically, we incorporated conjugates of carbon nanotubes with lysostaphin, a cell wall degrading enzyme, into films to impart bactericidal properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. We fabricated and characterized nanocomposites containing different conjugate formulations and enzyme loadings. These enzyme–based composites were highly efficient in killing MRSA (>99% within 2 h) without release of the enzyme into solution. Additionally, these films were reusable and stable under dry storage conditions for a month. Such enzyme–based film formulations may be used to prevent growth of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms on various common surfaces in hospital settings. Polymer and paint films containing such antimicrobial conjugates, in particular, could be advantageous to prevent risk of staphylococcal-specific infection and biofouling. PMID:20604574

  8. 10B thin film based position sensitive neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Shraddha S.; Devan, Shylaja

    2013-02-01

    With the global crisis of He3, it is essential to explore the use of other alternatives as BF3 and boron coated detectors, particularly for neutron scattering applications. Performance of BF3 filled position sensitive detectors (PSD) is evaluated, mentioned elsewhere and novel designs are being tried for gain in efficiency. Whereas performance of boron film based detectors for use as PSD is being presently evaluated. Though efficiency of 10B film detector in equivalent dimensions is lower than that with BF3, main advantage of 10B film detectors is its non-toxic nature. A boron film based PSD in coaxial geometry is developed with 10B (90%enriched) coating thickness of 1 mg/cm2 on inner lining of cathode. Detailed characterization of a PSD is essential for further designs of large area PSD. Present PSD is evaluated for the pulse height, plateau characteristics, uniformity of coating thickness and position resolution. The position resolution improves with higher gas pressure, whereas multiple layers are essential to gain efficiency. Results from these characterizations of the PSD are presented.

  9. Femtosecond laser micromachining of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based piezo films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seongkuk; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.; Zeman, Marco J. F.

    2008-04-01

    Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than 40 years, but in recent years they have been recognized as smart materials for the fabrication of microsensors, microactuators and other micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In this work, femtosecond laser micromachining of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film, coated with NiCu on both sides, has been studied to understand selective patterning mechanisms of NiCu layers and ablation characteristics of PVDF films. A detailed characterization of morphological changes of the laser-irradiated areas has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Through morphological analysis, the multiple shot damage thresholds of a 28 µm thick PVDF film and 40 nm thick NiCu layer have been determined. Surface morphology examination indicates that NiCu layers are removed from the PVDF film through a sequence of cracking-peeling off-curling. In addition, the NiCu layer on the rear side was also removed by the partially transmitted laser energy. The PVDF film was removed in forms of bundles of filaments and solid fragments by a combination of pure ablation and explosive removal of material by bursting of bubbles; the role of the explosive removal becomes more dominant with the increase of laser fluence. Optimal process conditions for cutting of the PVDF film and patterning of the NiCu coating without damaging the PVDF polymer have been established and applied to fabricate a vibration microsensor prototype that shows significant potential in using PVDF-based functional microdevices for telecommunications, transportation and biomedical applications.

  10. Thin film display based on polymer waveguides.

    PubMed

    Park, Suntak; Park, Bong Je; Yun, Sungryul; Nam, Saekwang; Park, Seung Koo; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2014-09-22

    This paper reports thin, transparent, and soft displays based on polymer waveguides that are compliant with curvilinear interfaces. In order to prove a feasibility of optical waveguide for a flexible display, we suggest the waveguide fabricated by a multi-step lithography process using two photo-curable pre-polymers with different refractive index. The displays are composed of light sources, polymer waveguides, and scatter patterns. The light signal propagating through the waveguides forms images of the scatter patterns by deflecting the light signals to outer surface. The scatter patterns are configured to a seven-segment. The seven-segment design with a switching methodology of the light sources contributes to selectively representing all decimal numbers from 0 to 9 by combination of activated segments. For a large area display based on the proposed methodology, a single light source interconnected to multi-waveguide section is integrated with a QWERTY key pad design. The display shows high transparency and flexibility without visual distortion. PMID:25321812

  11. Advanced Production Process and Properties of Die Cast Magnesium Composites Based on AZ91D and SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsberg, German; Aghion, Eli; Kaya, Ali Arslan; Eliezer, Dan

    2009-10-01

    The driving force behind the efforts to develop magnesium metal matrix composites (MMC) via high-pressure die casting is the requirements for advanced applications under severe operational conditions in terms of stress, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Therefore this study aims to explore the mechanical properties of die cast Mg-MMC in terms of hardness and strength, as well as its corrosion resistance. AZ91D was chosen as the most commonly used magnesium alloy. The choice as the reinforcement agent that has to be an economical and non-reactive addition was silicon carbide particles (SiCP) with an average particle size of 10 μm. The challenge was production of high quality, homogeneous material with good mechanical properties and acceptable corrosion resistance. The results revealed the advantages of a die cast Mg-MMC as a new attractive alternative for advanced structural applications that can be used for mass production.

  12. Homogeneous bilayer graphene film based flexible transparent conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Liu, Chang-Hua; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising candidate to replace conventional transparent conductors due to its low opacity, high carrier mobility and flexible structure. Multi-layer graphene or stacked single layer graphenes have been investigated in the past but both have their drawbacks. The uniformity of multi-layer graphene is still questionable, and single layer graphene stacks require many transfer processes to achieve sufficiently low sheet resistance. In this work, bilayer graphene film grown with low pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a transparent conductor for the first time. The technique was demonstrated to be highly efficient in fabricating a conductive and uniform transparent conductor compared to multi-layer or single layer graphene. Four transfers of bilayer graphene yielded a transparent conducting film with a sheet resistance of 180 Ω□ at a transmittance of 83%. In addition, bilayer graphene films transferred onto the plastic substrate showed remarkable robustness against bending, with sheet resistance change less than 15% at 2.14% strain, a 20-fold improvement over commercial indium oxide films.Graphene is considered as a promising candidate to replace conventional transparent conductors due to its low opacity, high carrier mobility and flexible structure. Multi-layer graphene or stacked single layer graphenes have been investigated in the past but both have their drawbacks. The uniformity of multi-layer graphene is still questionable, and single layer graphene stacks require many transfer processes to achieve sufficiently low sheet resistance. In this work, bilayer graphene film grown with low pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a transparent conductor for the first time. The technique was demonstrated to be highly efficient in fabricating a conductive and uniform transparent conductor compared to multi-layer or single layer graphene. Four transfers of bilayer graphene yielded a transparent conducting film with a sheet resistance of 180 Ω□ at a transmittance of 83%. In addition, bilayer graphene films transferred onto the plastic substrate showed remarkable robustness against bending, with sheet resistance change less than 15% at 2.14% strain, a 20-fold improvement over commercial indium oxide films. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Preparation of bilayer graphene based transparent conductor, multilayer graphene synthesis, Raman spectroscopy, transmittance measurement, and sheet resistance measurement. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11574j

  13. Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications of Graphene-based Flexible Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Gautam

    Scientific interest in the field of nanotechnology has increased multifold since the discovery of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the early 1990s. This further received a tremendous boost with the isolation of graphene, a single layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, in 2004. Graphene has exceptional mechanical and electrical properties, which makes it an attractive candidate for electronics and composites. In order to realize the implementation of graphene for such applications, scalable production of graphene-based materials needs to be accomplished. Graphene oxide, the product of oxidation and exfoliation of graphite, is a promising precursor for bulk-production of graphene and graphene-like materials. The oxidation of graphite to synthesize graphene oxide results in the decoration of the basal plane of graphene with oxygen-containing functional groups. The presence of these functional groups makes graphene oxide strongly hydrophilic, making it soluble in water and a good candidate for solution-based processing. This hydrophilic nature of graphene oxide can also be utilized to fabricate highly sensitive and flexible humidity sensors, the results of which are included in this research. The fabricated humidity sensors show high sensitivity and a fast response time. A difference in response is observed at low and high humidity, with hysteresis observed at high humidity levels. A method to "reset" the sensor and a mechanism to explain the response is also proposed. Although the hydrophilic nature of graphene oxide makes it suitable for bulk processing, the presence of functional groups makes it defective and insulating. Graphene oxide needs to be reduced to make it electrically active. Numerous methodologies proposed for reduction of graphene oxide result in the simultaneous reduction and exfoliation of graphene oxide films. But for instances where flexible graphene films are required for certain applications, a method for reduction of graphene oxide flexible films while maintaining its structural integrity is essential. A method for thermal reduction of flexible graphene oxide films under stress confinement is described. Reduction of graphene oxide flexible films is carried out in a MTS testing machine equipped with a controlled atmosphere furnace. The reduced films show higher carbon-to-oxygen ratio and an increase in conductivity by over five orders in magnitude. An electromechanical application of these reduced graphene oxide films for strain sensing is also demonstrated, with high and tunable gauge factors, which are three orders of magnitude higher than conventional metal foil strain gauges. A mechanism and model to explain the strain sensing is also described. Lastly, quantification of the degree of photoreduction and characterization of thermal properties of graphene-based flexible films is conducted. The temperature distribution on the surface of the graphene oxide flexible film is recorded using an infrared thermal camera. Effective reduction using a laser is achieved in a very short duration at low power and temperature. The thermal properties are calculated using the transient temperature response, and are found to be orders of magnitude lower than pristine graphene. The photoreduction method is a promising route for roll-to-roll production of reduced graphene oxide flexible films.

  14. Bacteria counting method based on polyaniline/bacteria thin film.

    PubMed

    Zhihua, Li; Xuetao, Hu; Jiyong, Shi; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Xucheng, Zhou; Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Holmes, Mel; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-07-15

    A simple and rapid bacteria counting method based on polyaniline (PANI)/bacteria thin film was proposed. Since the negative effects of immobilized bacteria on the deposition of PANI on glass carbon electrode (GCE), PANI/bacteria thin films containing decreased amount of PANI would be obtained when increasing the bacteria concentration. The prepared PANI/bacteria film was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique to provide quantitative index for the determination of the bacteria count, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed to further investigate the difference in the PANI/bacteria films. Good linear relationship of the peak currents of the CVs and the log total count of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) could be established using the equation Y=-30.413X+272.560 (R(2)=0.982) over the range of 5.3×10(4) to 5.3×10(8)CFUmL(-1), which also showed acceptable stability, reproducibility and switchable ability. The proposed method was feasible for simple and rapid counting of bacteria. PMID:26921555

  15. Hybrid Thin Films Based Upon Polyoxometalates-Polymer Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Na; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) and polyoxometalates (POMs) have been used individually as building blocks for design and synthesis of novel functional materials. POM nanoclusters, the assemblies of transition metal oxides with well-defined atomic coordination structure, have been recently explored as novel nanomaterials... for catalysis, semiconductors, and even anti-cancer treatment due to their unique chemical, optical and electrical characteristics. We have explored the blending of inorganic POM nanocluster with BCPs into hierarchaically structured inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposites. Using polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) thin films as the template, we have observed that the spatial organization of BCP thin films is modified by molybdenum based POM nanocluster to form 2D in-plane hexagonal ordered or 3D ordered network of POM-BCP assemblies, depending on the concentration ratio of POM to PS-b-PEO. The dielectric properties of such hybrid thin films can be enhanced by embedded POMs but show a strong dependence on the supramolecular structures of POM-polymer complexes. The assembly of nanoclusters in BCP-templated thin films could pave a new path to design new hybrid nanocomposites with uniquely combined functionality and material properties.

  16. Immunosensor systems with the Langmuir-film-based fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chudinova, G K; Nagovitsyn, I A; Savranskii, V V; Karpov, R E

    2003-09-30

    A method is developed for detecting protein antigens for fluorescent immunoassay using a model system based on the technique for preparation of Langmuir films. Fluorescein isothiocyanate and donor-acceptor energy-transfer pairs of markers (the Yb complex of tetraphenyl porphyrin - benzoyl trifluoroacetoneisothiocyanate and derivatives of tetra(carboxyphenyl) porphyrin - cyanine dye containing a five-membered polyene chain), which were nor studied earlier, were used as markers for detecting the binding of an antigen on the surface of Langmuir films of antibodies. Fluorescence was detected in the near-IR region (for the first pair) and in the visible spectral range (for the second pair). To reduce the nonspecific sorption of a protein (antigen), a method was proposed for the preparation of a nonpolar surface by applying an even number of layers of stearic acid as a substrate for the Langmuir - Blodgett film. A high sensitivity of model systems to a protein antigen in solution was achieved ({approx}10{sup -11} M), the assay time being 6 - 8 min. The model system with the first donor - acceptor pair was tested in analysis of the blood plasma. The fluorescence of the Dy{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and Yb{sup 3+} complexes of tetraphenyl porphyrin sensitised by diketonate complexes of lanthanides was studied for the first time and the enhancement of the IR fluorescence of these complexes in a Langmuir film was demonstrated. (papers devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  17. Team-based thin-film CIS research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the team-based thin-film copper indium diselenide (CIS) research activities. The CIS team was formed in December 1994 in Kona, Hawaii. Originally, the team had two working groups: the {open_quotes}Junction{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}Absorber{close_quotes} groups. Currently, there are four working groups the Present Junction, New Junction, Substrate/Mo Impact, and the Transient Effect groups. We have completed extensive data compilation of CIS-based films and solar cells using various techniques such as Auger, photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, secondary-ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage, light and dark current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Studies are under way to understand the fundamental mechanisms that demonstrate a total-area, high efficiency of 17.7{percent} in CuInGaSe{sub 2} devices using chemical-bath deposition (CBD) CdS. Alternate buffer layers are also being investigated to replace the CBD CdS. The impact of various Mo substrates from the various industrial partners has been investigated, and the results are reported. A study is under way to investigate the transient effects in encapsulated/laminated thin-film CIS-based devices. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7, physical properties, and storage stability of novel carvacrol-containing edible tomato films.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2008-09-01

    Edible films containing plant antimicrobials are gaining importance as potential treatment to extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on contaminated food surfaces. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities, storage stabilities, and physical-chemical-mechanica1 properties of novel edible films made from tomatoes containing carvacrol, the main constituent of oregano oil. The antimicrobial activities against E. coli O157:H7 and the stability of carvacrol were evaluated during the preparation and storage of tomato-based films made by 2 different casting methods, continuous casting and batch casting. Antimicrobial assays of tomato films indicated that optimum antimicrobial effects occurred with carvacrol levels of approximately 0.75% added to tomato purees before film preparation. HPLC analysis of the films indicated that the carvacrol concentrations and bactericidal effect of the films remained unchanged over the storage period of up to 98 d at 5 and 25 degrees C. Carvacrol addition to the tomato puree used to prepare the films increased water vapor permeability of tomato films. The continuous method for casting of the films appears more suitable for large-scale use than the batch method. This 1st report on tomato-based edible antimicrobial tomato films suggests that these films have the potential to prevent adverse effects of contaminated food and promote human health associated with the consumption of tomatoes. PMID:18803723

  19. Preparation and properties of films cast from mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and submicron particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of starch in polymer composites for film production has been studied extensively for increasing biodegradability, improving film properties and reducing cost. Starch nanoparticles have received much attention, primarily those obtained by acid hydrolysis of starch granules. In this study, nan...

  20. Polycrystalline Silicon Films and Thin-Film Transistors Using Solution-Based Metal-Induced Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhiguo; Zhao, Shuyun; Wu, Chunya; Zhang, Bo; Wong, Man; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2006-09-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films consisting of dish-like and wadding-like domains were obtained with solution-based metal-induced crystallization (SMIC) of amorphous silicon. The Hall mobility of poly-Si was much higher in dish-like domains than in wadding-like domains. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been prepared using those two kinds of poly-Si films as the active layer, followed by the phosphosilicate glass (PSG) nickel gettering. The field effect mobility of dish-like domain poly-Si TFTs and wadding-like poly-Si TFTs were 70 ~ 80 cm2/V · s and 40 ~ 50 cm2/V · s, respectively. With a multi-gate structure, the leakage current of poly-Si TFTs was reduced by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, the gate-induced drain leakage current (GIDL) and uniformity of the drain current distribution were also improved. P-type TFTs fabricated using SMIC exhibited excellent reliability.

  1. MEMS-based thin-film fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2003-10-28

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  2. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Effects of the Exposure to Corrosive Salts on the Frictional Behavior of Gray Cast Iron and a Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Truhan, Jr., John J; Kenik, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of increasingly aggressive road-deicing chemicals has created significant and costly corrosion problems for the trucking industry. From a tribological perspective, corrosion of the sliding surfaces of brakes after exposure to road salts can create oxide scales on the surfaces that affect friction. This paper describes experiments on the effects of exposure to sodium chloride and magnesium chloride sprays on the transient frictional behavior of cast iron and a titanium-based composite sliding against a commercial brake lining material. Corrosion scales on cast iron initially act as abrasive third-bodies, then they become crushed, spread out, and behave as a solid lubricant. The composition and subsurface microstructures of the corrosion products on the cast iron were analyzed. Owing to its greater corrosion resistance, the titanium composite remained scale-free and its frictional response was markedly different. No corrosion scales were formed on the titanium composite after aggressive exposure to salts; however, a reduction in friction was still observed. Unlike the crystalline sodium chloride deposits that tended to remain dry, hygroscopic magnesium chloride deposits absorbed ambient moisture from the air, liquefied, and retained a persistent lubricating effect on the titanium surfaces.

  4. Identification and annotation of erotic film based on content analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Donghui; Zhu, Miaoliang; Yuan, Xin; Qian, Hui

    2005-02-01

    The paper brings forward a new method for identifying and annotating erotic films based on content analysis. First, the film is decomposed to video and audio stream. Then, the video stream is segmented into shots and key frames are extracted from each shot. We filter the shots that include potential erotic content by finding the nude human body in key frames. A Gaussian model in YCbCr color space for detecting skin region is presented. An external polygon that covered the skin regions is used for the approximation of the human body. Last, we give the degree of the nudity by calculating the ratio of skin area to whole body area with weighted parameters. The result of the experiment shows the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 μm of static displacement, with 80–90 μm displacements being typical, using four 920 μm long by 70 μm legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy. PMID:25506130

  6. Dendritic wideband metamaterial absorber based on resistance film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Gong, Bo Yi; Wang, Mei; Weng, Bin; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-03-01

    A type of dendritic wideband metamaterial absorber was designed and constructed from resistance film composed of indium-tin oxide conductive film having a dendritic metamaterial structure, dielectric layer made of polymethacrylimide foam, and metallic sheet based on the equivalent circuit model. In terms of normal incidence, the simulation using the absorber yielded operating absorption rates >80 % in the frequency range of 8-27.9 GHz. In addition, the experimental measurements verified 8-17 GHz range of more than 80 % absorption rate, whereas its relative bandwidth reached 72 %. Moreover, this reasonable absorption performance was maintained for oblique incidences of <60°. The effects of dielectric layer thickness on absorption properties were verified.

  7. Usefulness of gel-casting method in the fabrication of nonstoichiometric CaZrO{sub 3}-based electrolytes for high temperature application

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Magdalena

    2009-09-15

    Hydrogels obtained from lower toxicity monomers of N-(hydroxymethyl)acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide were applied to form nonstoichiometric CaZrO{sub 3}-based electrolytes. A coprecipitation-calcination method with ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in concentrated NH{sub 3} aqueous solution was used to synthesise CaZrO{sub 3} involving 51 mol.% CaO (CZ-51) powder. The gas-tight CaZrO{sub 3}-based rods were prepared by the gel-casting method with 45 vol.% suspension and then sintered at 1500 deg. C-2 h. It was found that in low oxygen partial pressure, the nonstoichiometric CaZrO{sub 3} obtained by gel-casting method were pure oxide ion conductors. These samples exhibited comparable electrical conductivity values to isostatically compressed pellets starting from the same powder. The results of experiments on thermochemical stability of CZ-51 gel-cast shapes at high temperatures in air or gas mixtures involving 2-50 vol.% H{sub 2}, as well as the corrosion resistance in exhaust gases from a self-ignition engine were also presented and discussed. The thermal resistance of CaZrO{sub 3} obtained rods against molten nickel or iron was also examined. Based upon these investigations, it is evident that only in hydrogen-rich gas atmospheres can the stability of CaZrO{sub 3} shapes be limited due to the presence of CaO precipitation as a second phase. The nonstoichiometric CaZrO{sub 3} (CZ-51) gel-cast materials were also tested in solid galvanic cells, designed to study thermodynamic properties of oxide materials, important for SOFC and energy technology devices. In this way, the Gibbs energy of NiM{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M = Cr, Fe, at 650-1000 deg. C was determined. The CaZrO{sub 3} involving 51 mol.% CaO gel-cast sintered shapes seems to be promising solid electrolytes for electrochemical oxygen probes in control of metal processing and thermodynamic studies of materials important for the development of the energy industry.

  8. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable films prepared from Schiff bases of zein.

    PubMed

    Soliman, E A; Khalil, A A; Deraz, S F; El-Fawal, G; Elrahman, S Abd

    2014-10-01

    Pure zein is known to be very hydrophobic, but is still inappropriate for coating and film applications because of their brittle nature. In an attempt to improve the flexibility and the antimicrobial activity of these coatings and films, Chemical modification of zein through forming Schiff bases with different phenolic aldhydes was tried. Influence of this modifications on mechanical, topographical, wetting properties and antimicrobial activity of zein films were evaluated. The chemical structure of the Schiff bases films were characterized by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The results indicate an improvement in mechanical properties with chemically modification of zein to form Schiff bases leading to a reduction in the elastic modulus. An increase in the elongation at break has been observed, but with slight influence on tensile strength. Plasticized zein films have similar initial contact angle (∼40°). An increase in reaction temperature and time increases film's affinity towards water. As shown by contact angle measurements, a noticeable relation was found between film composition and the hydrophilicity. Surface topography also varied by forming Schiff bases, becoming rougher than zein-based films. The antibacterial activities of zein and Schiff bases of zein-based films were investigated against gram-positive bacteria (Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium sporogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica). It was found that the antibacterial activity of the Schiff bases-based films was more effective than that of zein-based films. PMID:25328181

  11. Simultaneous Modification of Bottom-Contact Electrode and Dielectric Surfaces for Organic Thin-Film Transistors Through Single-Component Spin-Cast Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    O Acton; M Dubey; t Weidner; K OMalley; T Kim; G Ting; D Hutchins; J Baio; T Lovejoy; et al.

    2011-12-31

    An efficient process is developed by spin-coating a single-component, self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to simultaneously modify the bottom-contact electrode and dielectric surfaces of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This efficient interface modification is achieved using n-alkyl phosphonic acid based SAMs to prime silver bottom-contacts and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) dielectrics in low-voltage OTFTs. Surface characterization using near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectroscopic ellipsometry suggest this process yields structurally well-defined phosphonate SAMs on both metal and oxide surfaces. Rational selection of the alkyl length of the SAM leads to greatly enhanced performance for both n-channel (C60) and p-channel (pentacene) based OTFTs. Specifically, SAMs of n-octylphos-phonic acid (OPA) provide both low-contact resistance at the bottom-contact electrodes and excellent interfacial properties for compact semiconductor grain growth with high carrier mobilities. OTFTs based on OPA modifi ed silver electrode/HfO{sub 2} dielectric bottom-contact structures can be operated using < 3V with low contact resistance (down to 700 Ohm-cm), low subthreshold swing (as low as 75 mV dec{sup -1}), high on/off current ratios of 107, and charge carrier mobilities as high as 4.6 and 0.8 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, for C60 and pentacene, respectively. These results demonstrate that this is a simple and efficient process for improving the performance of bottom-contact OTFTs.

  12. Bismuth pyrochlore-based thin films for dielectric energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.

    The drive towards the miniaturization of electronic devices has created a need for dielectric materials with large energy storage densities. These materials, which are used in capacitors, are a critical component in many electrical systems. Here, the development of dielectric energy storage materials for pulsed power applications, which require materials with the ability to accumulate a large amount of energy and then deliver it to the system rapidly, is explored. The amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored by a material is a function of the induced polarization and the dielectric breakdown strength of the material. An ideal energy storage dielectric would possess a high relative permittivity, high dielectric breakdown strength, and low loss tangent under high applied electric fields. The bismuth pyrochlores are a compositionally tunable family of materials that meet these requirements. Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate, were fabricated using a novel solution chemistry based upon the Pechini method. This solution preparation is advantageous because it avoids the use of teratogenic solvents, such as 2-methoxyethanol. Crystalline films fabricated using this solution chemistry had very small grains that were approximately 27 nm in lateral size and 35 nm through the film thickness. Impedance measurements found that the resistivity of the grain boundaries was two orders of magnitude higher than the resistivity of the grain interior. The presence of many resistive grain boundaries impeded conduction through the films, resulting in high breakdown strengths for these materials. In addition to high breakdown strengths, this family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities of between 55 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 5, for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 +/- 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum end member increased the dielectric breakdown strength. This combination of a high breakdown strength and a moderate permittivity led to a high discharged energy storage density for all film compositions. For example, at a measurement frequency of 10 kHz, bismuth zinc niobate exhibited a maximum recoverable energy storage density of 60.8 +/- 2.0 J/cm 3, while bismuth zinc tantalate exhibited a recoverable energy storage density of 60.7 +/- 2.0 J/cm3. Intermediate compositions of bismuth zinc niobate tantalate were explored to maximize the energy storage density of the substitutional solid solution. At an optimized concentration of ten mole percent tantalum, the maximum recoverable 10 kHz energy storage density was ˜66.9 +/- 2.4 J/cm3. These films of bismuth zinc niobate tantalate (Bi1.5Zn0.9Nb1.35Ta0.15O 6.9) sustained a maximum field of 5.5 MV/cm at 10 kHz, and demonstrated a relative permittivity of 122 +/- 4. The films maintained a high energy storage density above 20 J/cm3 though temperatures of 200°C. The second major objective of this work was to integrate complex oxides processed at temperatures below 350°C onto flexible polyimide substrates for potential use in flexible energy storage applications. Nanocomposite films consisting of a nanocrystalline fluorite related to delta-bismuth oxide in an amorphous matrix were prepared by reducing the citric acid concentration of the precursor solution, relative to the crystalline films. These solutions were batched with the composition Bi1.5Zn0.9Nb 1.35Ta0.15O6.9. The nanocomposite had a relative permittivity of 50 +/- 2 and dielectric losses on the order of 0.03 +/- 0.01. For measurement frequencies of 1 kHz and 10 kHz, the nanocomposite demonstrated a breakdown strength of 3.8 MV/cm, and a room-temperature energy storage density of approximately 40.2 +/- 1.7 J/cm3. To determine the suitability of the nanocomposite films for use in flexible applications, free-standing flexible nanocomposite films underwent repetitive compressive and tensile bending around a minimum bend diameter of 7 mm, which corresponded to a strain of 0.10%. After bending the films 30,000 times, the energy storage density of the films was unchanged, indicating that nanocomposite bismuth zinc niobate tantalate films may be suitable for flexible energy storage applications. To demonstrate the broader applicability of the nanocomposite approach to developing energy storage dielectrics at low processing temperatures, films of nanocomposite lead titanate, Pb1.1TiO3.1, were deposited using an inverted mixing order solution preparation, and annealed at a maximum temperature of 400°C. X-ray diffraction indicated the presence of nanocrystalline ordering, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the nucleation of isolated nanocrystals of lead oxide in an amorphous lead titanate matrix. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... outer layer is usually made of plaster or fiberglass. Fiberglass casts are made of fiberglass, which is a plastic that can be shaped. Fiberglass casts come in many different colors — if you' ...

  14. A biomimetic tactile sensing system based on polyvinylidene fluoride film.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yi; Tian, Hongying; Guo, Chao; Li, Xiang; Sun, Hongshuai; Wang, Peiyuan; Qian, Chenghui; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film has been widely investigated as a sensing material due to its outstanding properties such as biocompatibility, high thermal stability, good chemical resistance, high piezo-, pyro- and ferro-electric properties. This paper reports on the design, test, and analysis of a biomimetic tactile sensor based on PVDF film. This sensor consists of a PVDF film with aluminum electrodes, a pair of insulating layers, and a "handprint" friction layer with a copper foil. It is designed for easy fabrication and high reliability in outputting signals. In bionics, the fingerprint of the glabrous skin plays an important role during object handling. Therefore, in order to enhance friction and to provide better manipulation, the ridges of the fingertips were introduced into the design of the proposed tactile sensor. And, a basic experimental study on the selection of the high sensitivity fingerprint type for the biomimetic sensor was performed. In addition, we proposed a texture distinguish experiment to verify the sensor sensitivity. The experiment's results show that the novel biomimetic sensor is effective in discriminating object surface characteristics. Furthermore, an efficient visual application program (LabVIEW) and a quantitative evaluation method were proposed for the verification of the biomimetic sensor. The proposed tactile sensor shows great potential for contact force and slip measurements. PMID:26931883

  15. A biomimetic tactile sensing system based on polyvinylidene fluoride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yi; Tian, Hongying; Guo, Chao; Li, Xiang; Sun, Hongshuai; Wang, Peiyuan; Qian, Chenghui; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film has been widely investigated as a sensing material due to its outstanding properties such as biocompatibility, high thermal stability, good chemical resistance, high piezo-, pyro- and ferro-electric properties. This paper reports on the design, test, and analysis of a biomimetic tactile sensor based on PVDF film. This sensor consists of a PVDF film with aluminum electrodes, a pair of insulating layers, and a "handprint" friction layer with a copper foil. It is designed for easy fabrication and high reliability in outputting signals. In bionics, the fingerprint of the glabrous skin plays an important role during object handling. Therefore, in order to enhance friction and to provide better manipulation, the ridges of the fingertips were introduced into the design of the proposed tactile sensor. And, a basic experimental study on the selection of the high sensitivity fingerprint type for the biomimetic sensor was performed. In addition, we proposed a texture distinguish experiment to verify the sensor sensitivity. The experiment's results show that the novel biomimetic sensor is effective in discriminating object surface characteristics. Furthermore, an efficient visual application program (LabVIEW) and a quantitative evaluation method were proposed for the verification of the biomimetic sensor. The proposed tactile sensor shows great potential for contact force and slip measurements.

  16. Engineered pigments based on iridescent cellulose nanocrystal films.

    PubMed

    Bardet, Raphael; Roussel, Francine; Coindeau, Stéphane; Belgacem, Naceur; Bras, Julien

    2015-05-20

    A simple method to produce biobased iridescent pigments from cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films is reported. The process consists of forming nanostructured films from a CNC liquid-crystalline suspension and an appropriate dry grinding. The features of the iridescent pigments are described; they have a flake-like morphology with a thickness of 25 μm. However, because of the presence of sulfate groups, thermal degradation and high redispersion in water occur, which affect the iridescent property of these biobased pigments. To overcome such limitations, two post-treatments are proposed. The sulfate ester groups are removed from the iridescent pigments with vacuum overdrying. The mass loss of iridescent pigment in water is reduced with an increase of the ionic strength in the aqueous medium by NaCl addition. These post-treatments have proven to be efficient and engineered pigments based on CNC films can be used to add anticounterfeiting features to packaging manufactured by classical paper techniques or extrusion. PMID:25817681

  17. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific and Design Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2006-06-30

    The goal of this project was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and the upper use temperature by 86 to 140 degrees fahrenheit (30 to 60 degrees celsius). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 35 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of approximately $230 million/year. The higher-strength H-Series cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat treating industry, including radiant burner tubes. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc., with research participation by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies.

  18. Slip Casting of α-Sialon/AlN/BN Powder Carbothermally Prepared by Boron-rich Slag-based Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-bin, Wu; Xiang-xin, Xue; Tao, Jiang; Qing, Zhang

    2011-10-01

    With boron-rich slag, silica fume, bauxite chalmette and carbon black as starting materials, α-Sialon/AlN/BN powder was prepared by carbothermal reduction-nitridation. The powder was attrition milled to submicron size and suspended in water. The effects of yttrium oxide as a sintering aid, pH, and addition of deflocculant on the suspensions were study. Optimum slip casting properties, i.e. lowest viscosity values, the highest absolute zeta potential values, the smallest floc size and sediment volume were found at pH 10 for the powder. The suspensions were used to slip cast discs which were sintered in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1700°C for 2h. The strength was about 230MPa, the toughness 3.6 MPa·m1/2 and the hardness about 13.8GPa.

  19. LLNL casting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  20. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  1. Development of Bismuth-based Lead-free Piezoelectric Materials: Thin Film Piezoelectric Materials via PVD and CSD Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Yu Hong

    Piezoelectric materials have been widely used in electromechanical actuators, sensors, and ultrasonic transducers. Among these materials, lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) has been primarily investigated due to its excellent piezoelectric properties. However, environmental concerns due to the toxicity of PbO have led to investigations into alternative materials systems. Bismuth-based perovskite piezoelectric materials such as (Bi0.5,Na0.5)TiO3 - (Bi0.5K 0.5)TiO3 (BNT - BKT), (Bi0.5,Na0.5 )TiO3 - (Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 - BaTiO3(BNT - BKT - BT), (Bi0.5K 0.5)TiO3 - Bi(Zn0.5,Ti0.5)O 3 (BKT - BZT), and (Bi0.5,Na0.5)TiO 3 - (Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 - Bi(Mg 0.5,Ti0.5)O3 (BNT - BKT - BMgT) have been explored as potential alternatives to PZT. These materials systems have been extensively studied in bulk ceramic form, however many of the ultimate applications will be in thin film embodiments (i.e., microelectromechanical systems). For this reason, in this thesis these lead-free piezoelectrics are synthesized in thin film form to understand the structure-property-processing relationships and their impact on the ultimate device response. Fabrication of high quality of 0.95BKT - 0.05BZT thin films on platinized silicon substrates was attempted by pulsed laser deposition. Due to cation volatility, deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, deposition pressure, and target-substrate distance, as well as target overdoping were explored to achieve phase pure materials. This route led to high dielectric loss, indicative of poor ferroelectric behavior. This was likely a result of the poor thin film morphology observed in films deposited via this method. Subsequently, 0.8BNT - 0.2BKT, 85BNT - 10BKT - 5BT, and 72.5BNT - 22.5BKT - 5BMgT (near morphotropic phase boundary composition) were synthesized via chemical solution deposition. To compensate the loss of A-site cations, overdoped precursor solutions were prepared. Crystallization after each spin cast layer were required to produce phase pure material. Good permittivities and low dielectric loss over the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz were obtained. Dependent upon annealing conditions, various film morphologies and compositional distributions were observed via electron microscopy and composition measurements. As opposed to previously reported work, good ferroelectric response at low frequency (200 Hz) were found. For BNT - BKT - BMgT, the maximum polarization was over 50 μC/cm2 with high d33,fof 75 pm/V were obtained. Additionally, the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the dielectric response for solution-derived BNT - BKT and BNT - BKT - BMgT films were studied via Rayleigh analysis. For sub-switching fields a good agreement between predicted polarization behavior from Rayleigh analysis and experimentally measured polarization indicated the validity of this approach for BNT-based thin films. Results of this thesis proved that high quality bismuth-based piezoelectric thin films with good electrical response can be fabricated with suppression of cation volatility for various processing conditions. Furthermore, these thin films can be considered as alternatives to PZT thin films as potential candidates for piezoelectric-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  2. Tantalum-based thin film coatings for wear resistant arthroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Balagna, C; Faga, M G; Spriano, S

    2011-10-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys with high carbon content (HC-CoCrMo) are widely used as materials for arthroprosthesis, in particular in metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. In spite of their good wear and corrosion resistance, production of metallic wear particles and metal ion release will occur on a large time-scale. An enhancement of the metal ion level in the patient's blood and urine is often reported in clinical data. Hypersensitivity, inflammatory response and cell necrosis can occur as consequence. So implants on young patients and women on childbearing age are not so widespread. The aim of this research is the realization of a thin film coating in order to improve the biocompatibility of Co-based alloys and to reduce debris production, ion release and citotoxicity. The innovative process consists of a thermal treatment in molten salts, in order to obtain a tantalum enriched thin film coating. Tantalum is chosen because it is considered a biocompatible metal with high corrosion resistance and low ion release. Three HC-CoCrMo alloys, produced by different manufacturing processes, are tested as substrates. The coating is a thin film of TaC or it can be composed by a multilayer of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum, depending on the temperature of the treatment and on the carbon content of the substrate. The thin films as well the substrates are characterized from the structural, chemical and morphological point of view. Moreover mechanical behaviour of treated and untreated materials is analyzed by means of nanohardness, scratch and ball-on-disc wear tests. The coating increases the mechanical and tribological properties of HC-CoCrMo. PMID:22400292

  3. Functional properties and antifungal activity of films based on gliadins containing cinnamaldehyde and natamycin.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Fajardo, Paula; Gartner, Hunter; Gomez-Estaca, Joaquin; Gavara, Rafael; Almenar, Eva; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2014-03-01

    Gliadin films cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde (1.5, 3, and 5%) and incorporated with natamycin (0.5%) were prepared by casting, and their antifungal activity, water resistance, and barrier properties were characterized. Incorporation of natamycin gave rise to films with greater water uptake, weight loss and diameter gain, and higher water vapor and oxygen permeabilities. These results may be associated to a looser packing of the protein chains as a consequence of the presence of natamycin. The different cross-linking degree of the matrices influenced the natamycin migration to the agar test media, increasing from 13.3 to 23.7 (μg/g of film) as the percentage of cinnamaldehyde was reduced from 5% to 1.5%. Antifungal activity of films was assayed against common food spoilage fungi (Penicillium species, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum acutatum). The greatest effectiveness was obtained for films containing natamycin and treated with 5% of cinnamaldehyde. The level of cinnamaldehyde reached in the head-space of the test assay showed a diminishing trend as a function of time, which was in agreement with fungal growth and cinnamaldehyde metabolization. Developed active films were used in the packaging of cheese slices showing promising results for their application in active packaging against food spoilage. PMID:24412960

  4. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  5. Effects of Fluorine and BaO on the Crystallization Behavior of Lime-Alumina-Based Mold Flux for Casting High-Al Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Boxun; Wang, Wanlin

    2015-04-01

    With the development of advanced high-strength steel, the slag/steel reaction problems introduced by the addition of aluminum into steel become a challenge for the continuous casting process. An investigation aims to improve the crystallization property of lime-alumina-based mold flux for casting high Al-bearing steels which was carried out through the study of effects of fluorine and BaO on the crystallization behaviors of the mold flux. The single/double hot thermocouple technique and SEM, EDS were employed in the study. The results indicated that the decrease of fluorine content would promote the crystallization behaviors in the lime-alumina-based system which is different to that in the conventional lime-silica-based system, while BaO substituted for CaO can inhibit the crystallization of the lime-alumina-based mold flux. Moreover, the crystallization behavior of mold flux under simulated thermal gradient was in well accordance with TTT results, including the crystallization process and three-layered (liquid, crystalline, glassy) distribution of mold flux.

  6. Low cycle fatigue life of two nickel-base casting alloys in a hydrogen environment. [for high-pressure oxidizer turbopump turbine nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of two nickel-base casting alloys, Mar-M-246 (a Martin Company alloy) and 713LC (a low-carbon modification of the alloy 713C developed by International Nickel Company) were tested as candidate materials for the high-pressure fuel and high-pressure oxidizer turbopump turbine nozzles. The samples were subjected to tensile tests and to low cycle fatigue tests in high-pressure hydrogen to study the influence of the hydrogen environment. The Mar-M-246 material was found to have a three times higher cyclic life in hydrogen than the 713LC alloy, and was selected as the nozzle material.

  7. Investigation on the Interface Characteristics of Al/Mg Bimetallic Castings Processed by Lost Foam Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenming; Li, Guangyu; Fan, Zitian; Wang, Long; Liu, Fuchu

    2016-02-01

    The lost foam casting (LFC) process was used to prepare the A356 aluminum and AZ91D magnesium bimetallic castings, and the interface characteristics of the reaction layer between aluminum and magnesium obtained by the LFC process were investigated in the present work. The results indicate that a uniform and compact interface between the aluminum and magnesium was formed. The reaction layer of the interface with an average thickness of approximately 1000 μm was mainly composed of Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds, including the Al3Mg2 layer adjacent to the aluminum insert, the Al12Mg17 middle layer, and the Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layer adjacent to the magnesium base. Meanwhile, the Mg2Si intermetallic compound was also detected in the reaction layer. An oxide film mainly containing C, O, and Mg elements generated at the interface between the aluminum and magnesium, due to the decomposed residue of the foam pattern, the oxidations of magnesium and aluminum alloys as well as the reaction between the magnesium melt and the aluminum insert. The microhardness tests show that the microhardnesses at the interface were obviously higher than those of the magnesium and aluminum base metals, and the Al3Mg2 layer at the interface had a high microhardness compared with the Al12Mg17 and Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layers, especially the eutectic layer.

  8. Investigation on the Interface Characteristics of Al/Mg Bimetallic Castings Processed by Lost Foam Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenming; Li, Guangyu; Fan, Zitian; Wang, Long; Liu, Fuchu

    2016-05-01

    The lost foam casting (LFC) process was used to prepare the A356 aluminum and AZ91D magnesium bimetallic castings, and the interface characteristics of the reaction layer between aluminum and magnesium obtained by the LFC process were investigated in the present work. The results indicate that a uniform and compact interface between the aluminum and magnesium was formed. The reaction layer of the interface with an average thickness of approximately 1000 μm was mainly composed of Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds, including the Al3Mg2 layer adjacent to the aluminum insert, the Al12Mg17 middle layer, and the Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layer adjacent to the magnesium base. Meanwhile, the Mg2Si intermetallic compound was also detected in the reaction layer. An oxide film mainly containing C, O, and Mg elements generated at the interface between the aluminum and magnesium, due to the decomposed residue of the foam pattern, the oxidations of magnesium and aluminum alloys as well as the reaction between the magnesium melt and the aluminum insert. The microhardness tests show that the microhardnesses at the interface were obviously higher than those of the magnesium and aluminum base metals, and the Al3Mg2 layer at the interface had a high microhardness compared with the Al12Mg17 and Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layers, especially the eutectic layer.

  9. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdi, M. R.; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D.; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  10. Magnesium-lithium casting alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

  11. Evolution of nano-rheological properties of Nafion¯ thin films during pH modification by strong base treatment: A static and dynamic force spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Babak; López-Guerra, Enrique A.; Raftari, Maryam; Solares, Santiago D.

    2016-04-01

    Addition of a strong base to Nafion® proton exchange membranes is a common practice in industry to increase their overall performance in fuel cells. Here, we investigate the evolution of the nano-rheological properties of Nafion thin films as a function of the casting pH, via characterization with static and dynamic, contact and intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The addition of KOH causes non-monotonic changes in the viscoelastic properties of the films, which behave as highly dissipative, softer materials near neutral pH values, and as harder, more elastic materials at extreme pH values. We quantify this behavior through calculation of the temporal evolution of the compliance and the glassy compliance under static AFM measurements. We complement these observations with dynamic AFM metrics, including dissipated power and virial (for intermittent-contact-mode measurements), and contact resonance frequency and quality factor (for dynamic contact-mode measurements). We explain the non-monotonic material property behavior in terms of the degree of ionic crosslinking and moisture content of the films, which vary with the addition of KOH. This work focuses on the special case study of the addition of strong bases, but the observed mechanical property changes are broadly related to water plasticizing effects and ionic crosslinking, which are also important in other types of films.

  12. Advances in aluminum casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tiryakioglu, M.; Campbell, J.

    1998-01-01

    This symposium focuses on the improvements of aluminum casting quality and reliability through a better understanding of processes and process variables, and explores the latest innovations in casting-process design that allow increasing use of the castings to replace complex assemblies and heavy steel and cast-iron components in aerospace and automotive applications. Presented are 35 papers by international experts in the various aspects of the subject. The contents include: Semisolid casting; Computer-aided designing of molds and castings; Casting-process modeling; Aluminum-matrix composite castings; HIPing of castings; Progress in the US car project; Die casting and die design; and Solidification and properties.

  13. A comparison of mechanical properties of all-ceramic alumina dental crowns prepared from aqueous- and non-aqueous-based tape casting.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Lee, M H; Lee, D Y; Han, J S

    2000-01-01

    Alumina-glass dental composites were prepared by aqueous- and non-aqueous-based tape casting and sintering at 1120 degrees C, followed by glass infiltration at 1100 degrees C. Flexural strength and fracture toughness of the composites were investigated in terms of influence of tape constituents, namely, alumina powder, binder, and plasticizer on the mechanical properties. For the alumina-glass composites prepared from the aqueous-based tapes, both strength and toughness increased with increasing alumina fraction ratio in tape constituents including organic substances, a/a+o, and binder content ratio in binder/binder + plasticizer mixture, b/b+p. For the composites prepared from the non-aqueous-based tapes, on the other hand, both strength and toughness increased with increasing the a/a+o ratio but decreased with increasing the b/b+p ratio. These observations were consistent with influence of the constituents on mean alumina particle distance in tapes, suggesting that high strength of the glass infiltrated alumina composites is related to toughening by crack bowing. The optimized strength of the aqueous and nonaqueous tape cast composites was 559 and 508 MPa, and the fracture toughness was 3.3 and 3.1 MPam(1/2), respectively. PMID:10898872

  14. Fast-response humidity-sensing films based on methylene blue aggregates formed on nanoporous semiconductor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Ryota; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2016-05-01

    We prepared fast-response colorimetric humidity-sensing (vapochromic) films based on methylene blue adsorption onto nanoporous semiconductor (TiO2, Al2O3) films. Color changes caused by changes of humidity could be easily identified visually. A characteristic feature of the vapochromic films was their fast response to changes of humidity. We found that the response began to occur within 10 ms. The response was rapid because all the methylene blue molecules attached to the nanoporous semiconductor surface were directly exposed to the environment. We also deduced that the color changes were caused by structural changes of the methylene blue aggregates on the surface.

  15. PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based self-charging power cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yujing; Xue, Xinyu; Cui, Chunxiao; He, Bin; Nie, Yuxin; Deng, Ping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-03-01

    A novel PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film has been proposed and used as a piezoseparator in self-charging power cells (SCPCs). The structure, composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT), provides a high piezoelectric output, because PZT in this nanocomposite film can improve the piezopotential compared to the pure PVDF film. The SCPC based on this nanocomposite film can be efficiently charged up by the mechanical deformation in the absence of an external power source. The charge capacity of the PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based SCPC in 240 s is 0.010 ?A h, higher than that of a pure PVDF film based SCPC (0.004 ?A h). This is the first demonstration of using PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film as a piezoseparator for SCPC, and is an important step for the practical applications of SCPC for harvesting and storing mechanical energy.

  16. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings. Equipment and procedure for real time X-Ray radiography of molten aluminum flow into permanent molds have been developed. Other studies have been conducted using water flow and behavior of liquid aluminum in sand mold using real time photography. This investigation utilizes graphite molds transparent to X-Rays making it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented grating systems. These have included systems that are choked at the base of a rounded vertical sprue and vertical gating systems with a variety of different ingates into the bottom of a mold cavity. These systems have also been changed to include gating systems with vertical and horizontal gate configurations. Several conclusions can be derived from this study. A sprue-well, as designed in these experiments, does not eliminate the vena contracta. Because of the swirling at the sprue-base, the circulating metal begins to push the entering metal stream toward the open runner mitigating the intended effect of the sprue-well. Improved designs of sprue-wells should be evaluated. In order for a runner extension to operate efficiently, it must have a small squared cross-section. If it is tapered, the first metal to enter the first metal to enter the system is not effectively trapped. If the cross section is large, there is less turbulence when the aluminum enters the mold cavity in comparison to the smaller cross sectioned, squared runner. However, a large runner reduces yield. In bottom-feeding gating systems, a filter can significantly improve the filling of the casting. The filter helps to slow the metal flow rate enough to reduce jetting into the mold cavity. In top feeding gating systems, a filter can initially slow the metal flow rate, but because the metal drops after passing the filter, high velocities are achieved during free fall when a filter is in place. Side feeding gating systems provide less turbulent flow into the mold cavity. The flow is comparable to a bottom-feeding gating system with a filter. Using properly designed side-gating system instead of a bottom-feeding system with a filter can potentially save the cost of the filter. Rough coatings promote better fill than smooth coatings. This conclusion seems at first counter intuitive. One tends to assume a rough coating creates more friction resistance to the flow of molten metal. In actuality the molten aluminum stream flows inside an oxide film envelope. When this film rests on top of the ridges of a rough coating the microscopic air pockets between the coating and the oxide film provide more thermal insulation than in a smooth coating. This insulation promotes longer feeding distances in the mold as demonstrated in the experiments. Much of this work is applicable to vertically parted sand molds as well, although the heat transfer conditions do vary from a metal mold generally used in permanent molding of aluminum. The flow measurements were conducted using graphite molds and real time X-Ray radiography recorded at a rate of 30 images per second through those molds. The facilities at Arrow Aluminum Foundry were used in the study. The results will be employed to demonstrate to the American Foundry Industry how molten aluminum flows in permanent molds of different designs and characteristics. The results of these experiments were compared with computer mold and simulation models. The Procast and Magmasoft flow and solidification simulation programs were employed to predict the flow behavior under the different conditions that can prevail in permanent mold gating. The development of a valid computer model that can correctly and accurately predict this flow is much more intricate than generally realized. To provide accurate predictions such programs require significant adjustments and verification with experimental data.

  17. Process Modeling of Low-Pressure Die Casting of Aluminum Alloy Automotive Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, C.; Duan, J.; Yao, L.; Maijer, D. M.; Cockcroft, S. L.

    2013-09-01

    Although on initial inspection, the aluminum alloy automotive wheel seems to be a relatively simple component to cast based on its shape, further insight reveals that this is not the case. Automotive wheels are in a select group of cast components that have strict specifications for both mechanical and aesthetic characteristics due to their important structural requirements and their visibility on a vehicle. The modern aluminum alloy automotive wheel continues to experience tightened tolerances relating to defects to improve mechanical performance and/or the physical appearance. Automotive aluminum alloy wheels are assessed against three main criteria: wheel cosmetics, mechanical performance, and air tightness. Failure to achieve the required standards in any one of these categories will lead to the wheel either requiring costly repair or being rejected and remelted. Manufacturers are becoming more reliant on computational process modeling as a design tool for the wheel casting process. This article discusses and details examples of the use of computational process modeling as a predictive tool to optimize the casting process from the standpoint of defect minimization with the emphasis on those defects that lead to failure of aluminum automotive wheels, namely, macroporosity, microporosity, and oxide films. The current state of applied computational process modeling and its limitations with regard to wheel casting are discussed.

  18. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of morphology and internal microstructural features of primary silicon crystals in a cast Al-Si base alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Gokhale, A. M.; Mao, Y.; Tewari, A.; Sachdev, A. K.

    2009-09-01

    Primary Si crystals are usually present in the cast microstructures of near-eutectic, eutectic, and hyper-eutectic Al-Si base alloys. Three-dimensional digital images of individual primary Si crystals present in a permanent mold cast unmodified Al-12 wt% Si-1 wt% Ni base alloy are reconstructed using a combination of montage serial sectioning and three-dimensional digital image processing techniques. Octahedral, prismatic, and plate-like three-dimensional morphologies of the primary Si crystals are present in the microstructure. Some of the primary Si crystals contain interior regions/islands of Al-alloy that are completely enclosed in the corresponding Si crystals indicating certain variations in the crystal growth velocities during the evolution of these crystals. The boundaries of these interior regions/islands are non-faceted smooth and curved indicating re-melting of the Al-rich islands and re-dissolution of some Si near these internal boundaries in the Al-alloy as a result of the heat generated by liquid-to-solid transformation of Si away from the islands.

  19. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based natural synthetic hybrid copolymer films: A small-angle neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, L. John R.; Knott, Robert; Sanguanchaipaiwong, Vorapat; Holden, Peter J.

    2006-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates have attracted attention as biodegradable alternatives to conventional thermoplastics and as biomaterials. Through modification of their biosynthesis using Pseudomonas oleovorans, we have manipulated the material properties of these biopolyesters and produced a natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer of polyhydroxyoctanoate- block-diethylene glycol (PHO- b-DEG). A mixture of PHO and PHO-DEG were solvent cast from analytical grade chloroform and analysed using small-angle neutron scattering. A scattering pattern, easily distinguished above the background, was displayed by the films with a diffraction ring at q∼0.12 Å -1. This narrow ring of intensity is suggestive of a highly ordered system. Analysis of the diffraction pattern supported this concept and showed a d-spacing of approximately 50 Å. In addition, conformation of the hybrid polymer chains can be manipulated to support their self-assembly into ordered microporous films.

  20. Carbon nanotube thin film transistors based on aerosol methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodchikova, Marina Y.; Kulmala, Tero; Nasibulin, Albert G.; Ermolov, Vladimir; Franssila, Sami; Grigoras, Kestutis; Kauppinen, Esko I.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate a fabrication method for high-performance field-effect transistors (FETs) based on dry-processed random single-walled carbon nanotube networks (CNTNs) deposited at room temperature. This method is an advantageous alternative to solution-processed and direct CVD grown CNTN FETs, which allows using various substrate materials, including heat-intolerant plastic substrates, and enables an efficient, density-controlled, scalable deposition of as-produced single-walled CNTNs on the substrate directly from the aerosol (floating catalyst) synthesis reactor. Two types of thin film transistor (TFT) structures were fabricated to evaluate the FET performance of dry-processed CNTNs: bottom-gate transistors on Si/SiO2 substrates and top-gate transistors on polymer substrates. Devices exhibited on/off ratios up to 105 and field-effect mobilities up to 4 cm2 V-1 s-1. The suppression of hysteresis in the bottom-gate device transfer characteristics by means of thermal treatment in vacuum and passivation by an atomic layer deposited Al2O3 film was investigated. A 32 nm thick Al2O3 layer was found to be able to eliminate the hysteresis.

  1. Large area radiation detectors based on II VI thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The development of low temperature device technologies that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible, low metal content, sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, neutron/gamma-ray/x-ray detectors, etc. In this talk, our efforts to develop novel CMOS integration schemes, circuits, memory, sensors as well as novel contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors for flexible electronics are presented. In particular, in this presentation we discuss fundamental materials properties including crystalline structure, interfacial reactions, doping, etc. defining performance and reliability of II-VI-based radiation sensors. We investigate the optimal thickness of a semiconductor diode for thin-film solid state thermal neutron detectors. Besides II-VI materials, we also evaluated several diode materials, Si, CdTe,GaAs, C (diamond), and ZnO, and two neutron converter materials,10B and 6LiF. We determine the minimum semiconductor thickness needed to achieve maximum neutron detection efficiency. By keeping the semiconductor thickness to a minimum, gamma rejection is kept as high as possible. In this way, we optimize detector performance for different thin-film semiconductor materials.

  2. Printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Saumen; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-06-01

    Organic electronics is moving ahead on its journey towards reality. However, this technology will only be possible when it is able to meet specific criteria including flexibility, transparency, disposability and low cost. Printing is one of the conventional techniques to deposit thin films from solution-based ink. It is used worldwide for visual modes of information, and it is now poised to enter into the manufacturing processes of various consumer electronics. The continuous progress made in the field of functional organic semiconductors has achieved high solubility in common solvents as well as high charge carrier mobility, which offers ample opportunity for organic-based printed integrated circuits. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of all-printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits, mainly ring oscillators. First, the necessity of all-printed organic integrated circuits is discussed; we consider how the gap between printed electronics and real applications can be bridged. Next, various materials for printed organic integrated circuits are discussed. The features of these circuits and their suitability for electronics using different printing and coating techniques follow. Interconnection technology is equally important to make this product industrially viable; much attention in this review is placed here. For high-frequency operation, channel length should be sufficiently small; this could be achievable with a combination of surface treatment-assisted printing or laser writing. Registration is also an important issue related to printing; the printed gate should be perfectly aligned with the source and drain to minimize parasitic capacitances. All-printed organic inverters and ring oscillators are discussed here, along with their importance. Finally, future applications of all-printed organic integrated circuits are highlighted.

  3. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  4. Bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis)-based thin film, a novel biomass material with high performances.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Xu, Chen; Bao, Wen-Yi; Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-03-30

    Exploration of biomass based materials to replace conventional petroleum based ones has been a trend in recent decades. In this work, bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) with abundant resources was used for the first time to prepare films in the presence of cellulose. The effects of weight ratio of bamboo/cellulose on the appearances and properties of the films were investigated. It was confirmed there existed strong interactions between bamboo and cellulose, which were favorable to formation of homogeneous structure of blend films. Particularly, the presence of bamboo could improve the surface hydrophobicity, water resistance and thermal stability of blend films, and the films possessed an excellent oxygen barrier property, compared with generally used commercial packaging films. The bamboo biomass, therefore, is successfully used to create a new film material with a good application prospect in the fields of packaging, coating, and food industry. PMID:25563957

  5. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  6. Photosensitive properties of composite films based on copper chloride in polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbreders, A.; Bulanovs, A.; Sledevskis, E.; Gerbreders, V.; Teteris, J.

    2013-12-01

    The composite films based on PMMA and CuCl2 were prepared. Transmission spectra of the films before and after illumination by different laser lines (405, 448, 456 nm) were measured. The reversible character of the composite photosensitivity was fixed. The phenomenon of direct surface relief formation after laser beam illumination of composite films was described. The holographic gratings were recorded by different exposure (200 - 500 J/cm2) in the films with different concentration (8 and 20 wt. %) of copper salt. The film sensitivity dependence on polymer molecular weight was studied. Surface relief of the gratings was measured by AFM.

  7. Graphene-based electrodes for enhanced organic thin film transistors based on pentacene.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sarbani; Lee, Mu Chen; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) and pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with monolayer graphene source-drain (S-D) electrodes. The electrodes are patterned using conventional photolithographic techniques combined with reactive ion etching. The monolayer graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition on Cu foil was transferred on a Si dioxide surface using a polymer-supported transfer method to fabricate bottom-gate, bottom-contact OTFTs. The pentacene OTFTs with graphene S-D contacts exhibited superior performance with a mobility of 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on-off ratio of 10(5) compared with OTFTs with Au-based S-D contacts, which had a mobility of 0.01 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on-off ratio of 10(3). The crystallinity, grain size, and microscopic defects (or the number of layers of graphene films) of the TIPS-pentacene/pentacene films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The feasibility of using graphene as an S-D electrode in OTFTs provides an alternative material with high carrier injection efficiency, chemical stability, and excellent interface properties with organic semiconductors, thus exhibiting improved device performance of C-based electronic OTFTs at a reduced cost. PMID:25000388

  8. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  9. LTCC Phase Shifters Based on Tunable Ferroelectric Composite Thick Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikfalazar, M.; Kohler, C.; Heunisch, A.; Wiens, A.; Zheng, Y.; Schulz, B.; Mikolajek, M.; Sohrabi, M.; Rabe, T.; Binder, J. R.; Jakoby, R.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents, the investigation of tunable components based on LTCC technology, implementing ferroelectric tunable thick-film dielectric. The tunable loaded line phase shifters are fabricated with metal-insulator-metal (MIM) varactors to demonstrate the capabilities of this method for packaging of the tunable components. The MIM varactors consist of one tunable dielectric paste layer that is printed between two silver layers. The tunable ferroelectric paste is optimized for LTCC sintering temperature around 850°C. The phase shifters are fabricated in two different process. They were achieved a figure of merit of 24°/dB (phase shift 192°) at 3 GHz and 18°/dB (phase shift 98°) at 4.4 GHz by using seven unit cells that each unit cell consisting of two MIM varactors.

  10. Thin-film-technology-based micro-Fourier spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, Dietmar; Stiebig, Helmut; Bhalotra, Sameer R.; Kung, Helen L.; Miller, David A. B.

    2003-01-01

    A novel Fourier spectrometer using thin film technology was developed. The spectrometer based on a semi transparent thin film detector in combination with a tunable micro machined mirror. The semi transparent detector is introduced into a standing wave created in front of the mirror to sample the profile of the standing wave. Varying the position of the mirror results in a shift of the phase of the standing waves and thus in a change of the optical generation profile within the semi transparent detector. The active region of the sensor (thickness-absorption) is thinner than the wavelength of the incoming light, so that the modulation of the intensity results in a modulation of the overall photocurrent. The spectral information of the incoming light can be determined by the Fourier transformation of the sensor signal. Based on the linear arrangement of the sensor and the mirror, the spectrometer facilitates the realization of 1D and 2D arrays of spectrometers combining medium range spectral resolution with medium range spatial resolution. The novel device is filling the gap between solid-state camera technology with only three-color channels (red, green and blue) but high spatial resolution on one hand and precision spectrometers with high spectral resolution but no spatial resolution on the other hand. An analytical optical model of the spectrometer was applied to evaluate different detector concepts. The model was used to study the performance of different device designs regarding the spectral resolution of the spectrometer, the spectral range and the linearity of the response. The calculations will be compared with experimental results of semi transparent amorphous silicon detectors.

  11. A fast and efficient adaptive parallel ray tracing based model for thermally coupled surface radiation in casting and heat treatment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainberg, J.; Schaefer, W.

    2015-06-01

    A new algorithm for heat exchange between thermally coupled diffusely radiating interfaces is presented, which can be applied for closed and half open transparent radiating cavities. Interfaces between opaque and transparent materials are automatically detected and subdivided into elementary radiation surfaces named tiles. Contrary to the classical view factor method, the fixed unit sphere area subdivision oriented along the normal tile direction is projected onto the surrounding radiation mesh and not vice versa. Then, the total incident radiating flux of the receiver is approximated as a direct sum of radiation intensities of representative “senders” with the same weight factor. A hierarchical scheme for the space angle subdivision is selected in order to minimize the total memory and the computational demands during thermal calculations. Direct visibility is tested by means of a voxel-based ray tracing method accelerated by means of the anisotropic Chebyshev distance method, which reuses the computational grid as a Chebyshev one. The ray tracing algorithm is fully parallelized using MPI and takes advantage of the balanced distribution of all available tiles among all CPU's. This approach allows tracing of each particular ray without any communication. The algorithm has been implemented in a commercial casting process simulation software. The accuracy and computational performance of the new radiation model for heat treatment, investment and ingot casting applications is illustrated using industrial examples.

  12. Evolution of halictine castes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knerer, Gerd

    1980-03-01

    Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

  13. Characteristics of film based on protein isolate from red tilapia muscle with negligible yellow discoloration.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Songtipya, Ponusa

    2011-06-01

    The properties of film from fish protein isolate (FPI) prepared by prior washing followed by alkaline solubilization process (ASP) from red tilapia muscle were monitored during the storage of 20 days at 50% RH and 25°C, in comparison with those of films from washed mince. Lipid, heme iron and non-heme iron contents in FPI were decreased by 98.8, 36.8 and 91.9%, respectively in comparison with those of washed mince (p<0.05). Films from FPI had higher tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB) than those from washed mince for both pH (3 and 11) used for film preparation (p<0.05). Film from FPI at pH 3 showed the highest TS, while that from washed mince at pH 11 had the lowest TS (p<0.05). Nevertheless, films from FPI had higher WVP than those from washed mince for both pH used (p<0.05). At the same pH used for film preparation (3 or 11), films from FPI showed the lower TBARS values than those from washed mince (p<0.05). Nevertheless, films from both FPI and washed mince had the higher TBARS values when pH 3 was used for film preparation, compared with pH 11 (p<0.05). Among all films, those from FPI prepared at pH 3 had the highest transparency and no yellow discoloration was observed during the storage of 20 days, in comparison with other films (p<0.05). Conversely, film from washed mince prepared at pH 3 had the higher increase in b*-value and ΔE*-value than other films. Therefore, FPI could serve as a potential material for film preparation with lower contents of lipid and prooxidants, thereby preventing the yellow discoloration of the fish myofibrillar protein-based film during extended storage. PMID:21382405

  14. Tungsten oxide proton conducting films for low-voltage transparent oxide-based thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Wan, Qing; Wan, Changjin; Wu, Guodong; Zhu, Liqiang

    2013-02-01

    Tungsten oxide (WOx) electrolyte films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering showed a high room temperature proton conductivity of 1.38 × 10-4 S/cm with a relative humidity of 60%. Low-voltage transparent W-doped indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors gated by WOx-based electrolytes were self-assembled on glass substrates by one mask diffraction method. Enhancement mode operation with a large current on/off ratio of 4.7 × 106, a low subthreshold swing of 108 mV/decade, and a high field-effect mobility 42.6 cm2/V s was realized. Our results demonstrated that WOx-based proton conducting films were promising gate dielectric candidates for portable low-voltage oxide-based devices.

  15. Precipitation of β-Al5FeSi Phase Platelets in Al-Si Based Casting Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Mohamed, A. M. A.; Samuel, A. M.; Samuel, F. H.; Doty, H. W.; Valtierra, S.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present work has been to investigate the factors affecting the precipitation of the β-Al5FeSi iron intermetallic phase of directionally solidified A356- and 319-type alloys as a function of the iron content, a Sr addition of ~250 ppm, and superheating or cooling rates. The iron levels selected varied from 0.12 to 0.8 wt pct and cover the range of Fe levels in commercial casting alloys. The use of an end-chill mold provided different cooling rates along the height of the same casting, with dendritic arm spacing values that varied from ~15 to 85 μm, corresponding to levels of 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 mm above the chill end. The microstructure and phase identification were monitored using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques. An image analyzer was used in conjunction with the optical microscope for quantification purposes. The results showed that, for the range of cooling rates covered in the present study, the highest cooling rate (at a 5-mm distance from the chill) is the more significant parameter in controlling the size and distribution of the β-Al2FeSi intermetallic phase in the nonmodified 319 and 356 alloys. The addition of strontium leads to fragmentation of coeutectic or posteutectic β platelets. This effect diminishes with an increase in the iron concentration, and further strontium addition leads to the precipitation of Al2Si2Sr phase particles, instead.

  16. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  17. High performance thin film transistors based on regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene)-sorted large diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Qian, Long; Xu, Wenya; Nie, Shuhong; Gu, Weibing; Zhang, Jianhui; Zhao, Jianwen; Lin, Jian; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Zheng

    2013-05-01

    In this work, a simple and rapid method to selectively sort semiconducting-SWCNTs (sc-SWCNTs) with large diameters using regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (rr-P3DDT) is presented. The absorption spectra and Raman spectra demonstrated that metallic species of arc discharge SWCNTs were effectively removed after interaction with rr-P3DDT in toluene with the aid of sonication and centrifugation. The sorted sc-SWCNT inks have been directly used to fabricate thin film transistors (TFTs) by dip-coating, drop-casting and inkjet printing. TFTs with an effective mobility of ~34 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on-off ratios of ~107 have been achieved by dip coating and drop casting the ink on SiO2/Si substrates with pre-patterned interdigitated gold electrode arrays. The printed devices also showed excellent electrical properties with a mobility of up to 6.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on-off ratios of up to 105. Printed inverters based on the TFTs have been constructed on glass substrates, showing a maximum voltage gain of 112 at a Vdd of -5 V. This work paves the way for making printable logic circuits for real applications.In this work, a simple and rapid method to selectively sort semiconducting-SWCNTs (sc-SWCNTs) with large diameters using regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (rr-P3DDT) is presented. The absorption spectra and Raman spectra demonstrated that metallic species of arc discharge SWCNTs were effectively removed after interaction with rr-P3DDT in toluene with the aid of sonication and centrifugation. The sorted sc-SWCNT inks have been directly used to fabricate thin film transistors (TFTs) by dip-coating, drop-casting and inkjet printing. TFTs with an effective mobility of ~34 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on-off ratios of ~107 have been achieved by dip coating and drop casting the ink on SiO2/Si substrates with pre-patterned interdigitated gold electrode arrays. The printed devices also showed excellent electrical properties with a mobility of up to 6.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on-off ratios of up to 105. Printed inverters based on the TFTs have been constructed on glass substrates, showing a maximum voltage gain of 112 at a Vdd of -5 V. This work paves the way for making printable logic circuits for real applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34304a

  18. Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuyun; Zhang, Hui; Yao, Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic thin films of Ta/NiO/Ni81Fe19/NiO/Ta were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method. The effects of NiO layer thickness and substrate temperature on the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and the magnetic field sensitivity of these Ni81Fe19 films have been investigated. The results show that the AMR of 20-nm Ni81Fe19 film with 4-nm NiO achieves 5.02% at 450°C, while the magnetic field sensitivity achieves 9.00% × 10-3 m A-1 at the same conditions. These enhanced 40% and 230% comparing with the film without NiO layer, respectively.

  19. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications. PMID:26787952

  20. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  1. Nanostructured biocomposite films of high toughness based on native chitin nanofibers and chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Mushi, Ngesa E.; Utsel, Simon; Berglund, Lars A.

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan is widely used in films for packaging applications. Chitosan reinforcement by stiff particles or fibers is usually obtained at the expense of lowered ductility and toughness. Here, chitosan film reinforcement by a new type of native chitin nanofibers is reported. Films are prepared by casting from colloidal suspensions of chitin in dissolved chitosan. The nanocomposite films are chitin nanofiber networks in chitosan matrix. Characterization is carried out by dynamic light scattering, quartz crystal microbalance, field emission scanning electron microscopy, tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis. The polymer matrix nanocomposites were produced in volume fractions of 8, 22, and 56% chitin nanofibers. Favorable chitin-chitosan synergy for colloidal dispersion is demonstrated. Also, lowered moisture sorption is observed for the composites, probably due to the favorable chitin-chitosan interface. The highest toughness (area under stress-strain curve) was observed at 8 vol% chitin content. The toughening mechanisms and the need for well-dispersed chitin nanofibers is discussed. Finally, desired structural characteristics of ductile chitin biocomposites are discussed. PMID:25478558

  2. Air-Flow Navigated Crystal Growth for TIPS Pentacene-Based Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhengran; Chen, Jihua; Sun, Zhenzhong; Szulczewski, Greg; Li, Dawen

    2012-01-01

    6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS pentacene) is a promising active channel material of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) due to its solubility, stability, and high mobility. However, the growth of TIPS pentacene crystals is intrinsically anisotropic and thus leads to significant variation in the performance of OTFTs. In this paper, air flow is utilized to effectively reduce the TIPS pentacene crystal anisotropy and enhance performance consistency in OTFTs, and the resulted films are examined with optical microscopy, grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, and thin-film transistor measurements. Under air-flow navigation (AFN), TIPS pentacene drop-cast from toluene solution has been observed to form thin films with improved crystal orientation and increased areal coverage on substrates, which subsequently lead to a four-fold increase of average hole mobility and one order of magnitude enhancement in performance consistency defined by the ratio of average mobility to the standard deviation of the field-effect mobilities.

  3. Optical Sensors Based on Single Arm Thin Film Waveguide Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Diggs, D.; Curley, M.; Adamovsky, Grigory (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Single-arm double-mode double-order optical waveguide interferometer utilizes interference between two propagating modes of different orders. Sensing effect results from the change in propagation conditions of the modes caused by the environment. The waveguide is made as an open asymmetric slab structure containing a dye-doped polymer film onto a fused quartz substrate. It is more sensitive to the change of environment than its conventional polarimetric analog using orthogonal modes (TE and TM) of the same order. The sensor still preserves the option of operating in polarimetric regime using a variety of mode combinations such as TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 0) (conventional), TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1), TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 0), or TE(sub 1)/TM(sub 1) but can also work in nonpolarimetric regime using combinations TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1) or TE(sub 0)/TM(sub 1). Utilization of different mode combinations simultaneously makes the device more versatile. Application of the sensor to gas sensing is based on doping polymer film with an organic indicator dye sensitive to a particular gas. Change of optical absorption spectrum of the dye caused by the gaseous pollutant results change of the reactive index of the dye-doped polymer film that can be detected by the sensor. As an indicator dyes, we utilize Bromocresol Purple doped into polymer poly(methyl) methacrylate, which shows a reversible growth of the absorption peak neat 600 nm after exposure to wet ammonia. We have built a breadboard prototype of the sensor with He-Ne laser as a light source and with a single mode fiber input and a multimode fiber output. The prototype showed sensitivity to temperature change of the order of 2 C per one full oscillation of the signal. The sensitivity of the sensor to the presence of wet ammonia is 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. The further improvements include switching to a longer wavelength laser source (750-nm semiconductor laser), substitution of poly(methyl) methacrylate with hydrophilic high-temperature polyimide, and increase the doping rate of indicator dye. All these improvements are expected to bring sensitivity to 10 ppm of ammonia per one full oscillation of signal independent on the humidity of ambient air. The proposed sensor can be used as a robust and inexpensive stand-alone instrument for continuous environment pollution monitoring.

  4. Optical properties of porous-silicon-based structures with modified nanodiamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzova, V. A.; Korets, A. Ya.; Merkushev, F. F.; Semenova, O. V.

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the optical properties of silicon-based sandwich structures with diamond-like films deposited by electrophoresis from aqueous suspensions of modified detonation nanodiamonds. It is shown that these films can be used as antireflection and protective coatings for silicon-based solar cells.

  5. Organic Solar Cells Based on Electrodeposited Polyaniline Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kei; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2012-04-01

    Polyaniline thin films as hole transporting layers were fabricated on transparent indium-tin-oxide electrodes by electrodeposition of aniline in an aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte solution. Emerald-green polyaniline films were obtained, which showed stable redox waves. A mixed solution of polythiophene and fullerene derivative was spin-coated onto the electrodeposited polyaniline film. After the modification of titanium oxide film on the surface of the polythiophene/fullerene layer, an aluminum electrode was fabricated by vacuum deposition. The obtained solar cells generated stable photocurrent and photovoltage under light illumination.

  6. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity. PMID:26344323

  7. Investigation of thin films of organic-based magnets grown by physical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Li, B.; Lu, Y.; Yoo, J.-W.; Epstein, A. J.

    2014-10-01

    Thin films of organic-based magnet, V[TCNE]x (TCNE: tetracyanoethylene), were deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) based reactive evaporation. The growth conditions were studied in detail. A saturated composition of V[TCNE]˜1.9 was determined by optimizing the growth condition. Two sets of films with different V to TCNE ratios were characterized. Both films were magnetic ordered up to 400 K and held coercive field of 60 Oe at room temperature. With the presence of excess vanadium within the film, the increase of defects created by PVD results in significant change in electronic property.

  8. Investigation of thin films of organic-based magnets grown by physical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C. Y.; Lu, Y.; Li, B.; Yoo, J.-W.; Epstein, A. J.

    2014-10-06

    Thin films of organic-based magnet, V[TCNE]{sub x} (TCNE: tetracyanoethylene), were deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) based reactive evaporation. The growth conditions were studied in detail. A saturated composition of V[TCNE]{sub ∼1.9} was determined by optimizing the growth condition. Two sets of films with different V to TCNE ratios were characterized. Both films were magnetic ordered up to 400 K and held coercive field of 60 Oe at room temperature. With the presence of excess vanadium within the film, the increase of defects created by PVD results in significant change in electronic property.

  9. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  10. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  11. High-Tc/high-coupling relaxed PZT-based single crystal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasa, K.; Matsushima, T.; Adachi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Yanagitani, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2015-03-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)-based ferroelectric ceramics exhibit high piezoelectricity, however, their Curie temperature (Tc) values are not so high, i.e., Tc < 400 °C. PZT-based piezoelectric thin films with higher Tc would be beneficial for improved micro actuators, sensors, memories, and piezoelectric micro-electro mechanical systems. In-plane biaxial strained PZT thin films in a laminated composite structure are known to exhibit enhanced Tc; however, the thickness of PZT-based thin films is limited to below a critical thickness typically <50 nm. The Tc of relaxed PZT-based thin films with thicknesses greater than the critical thickness is the same as bulk Tc. However, a sort of relaxed PZT-based single-crystal thin films exhibit extraordinary high Tc, Tc = ˜600 °C. In addition, the films show extremely low dielectric constant, ɛ/ɛo ˜ 100 with high coupling factor, kt ˜ 0.7, and large remnant polarization, Pr ˜ 100 μC/cm2. These exotic properties would result from the single-domain/single-crystal structure. The enhanced Tc is possibly caused by the highly stable interface between the PZT-based thin films and substrates. Their ferroelectric performances are beyond those of conventional PZT. The high-Tc/high-coupling performances are demonstrated, and the possible mechanisms of the high Tc behavior in relaxed PZT-based single-crystal thin films are discussed.

  12. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  13. Solution based synthesis of cadmium tungstate scintillation films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Huamei

    In this dissertation, I will summarize my experimental study on the fabrication of oxide scintillation films for X-rays, gamma-rays, and neutrons detection through microstructure engineering by low cost solution methods. The research work has been focused mainly on the fabrication of oxide scintillation films with sol-gel processing, hydrothermal method, taking CdWO4 (CWO) as a model system because of its high light output and relative simplicity of chemical composition. There are three main parts in this dissertation. First, CWO films were made by sol-gel processing by introducing some doping elements in the film. Doping of Li+, B3+ and Bi3+ in the films resulted in appreciably reduced grain size and porosity in sol-gel films, leading to enhanced optical transmittance and relatively high density. Preliminary neutron detection experiments revealed that boron doped CWO film is a promising candidate for neutron detection. Various sintering conditions have also been studied to improve the densification, crystallinity and optical properties of CWO films. In the second part of this dissertation we developed a new sol-gel recipe with tungstic acid and cadmium nitrate as precursors, hydrogen peroxide as solvent. A rapid sintering process was investigated and found necessary to make dense and optically transparent nanocrystalline CWO films. These films were uniform, fully dense, and crack-free. The thickness, density, grain size and crystallinity of CWO films are all found to be strongly dependent on the sintering conditions and in turn affect optical and X-ray scintillation properties. Sol-gel derived dense CWO films demonstrated high photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray excitation optical luminescence (XEOL) intensity. In the last part, thicker films CWO with columnar structure were prepared by hydrothermal method to achieve high capture ability and spatial resolution. Crack free and dense CWO films with textured structure and thickness up to 10 mum formed at 150°C and 180°C. PL and XEOL measurements revealed that highly textured CWO thick films possess good luminescence properties. The growth mechanism and preferred orientation or textured structured as well as the relations between textured structure and PL property have been discussed.

  14. The influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing and alternate heat treatment on the structure and properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    A development program has been conducted to improve the cyclic properties of the PWA 1480 single-crystal superalloy by reducing or entirely eliminating casting porosity at fatigue-initiation sites, through the use of improved casting process parameters and HIPing; potential mechanical property improvements in a high-pressure hydrogen environment were also sought in alternatives to the standard coating and heat-treatment cycle. High thermal gradient casting was found to yield a reduction in overall casting porosity density and pore sizes. The most dramatic mechanical property improvement resulted from HIPing.

  15. Evaluation of the Influence of Formulation and Process Variables on Mechanical Properties of Oral Mucoadhesive Films Using Multivariate Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Landová, Hana; Gajdziok, Jan; Doležel, Petr; Muselík, Jan; Dvořáčková, Kateřina; Jekl, Vladimír; Hauptman, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is an attractive region for the local and systemic application of many drugs. Oral mucoadhesive films are preferred for their prolonged time of residence, the improved bioavailability of the drug they contain, their painless application, their protection against lesions, and their nonirritating properties. This work was focused on preparation of nonmedicated carmellose-based films using both solvent casting and impregnation methods, respectively. Moreover, a modern approach to evaluation of mucoadhesive films applying analysis of texture and subsequent multivariate data analysis was used. In this experiment, puncture strength strongly correlated with tensile strength and could be used to obtain necessary information about the mechanical film characteristics in films prepared using both methods. Puncture work and tensile work were not correlated in films prepared using the solvent casting method, as increasing the amount of glycerol led to an increase in the puncture work in thinner films. All measured texture parameters in films prepared by impregnation were significantly smaller compared to films prepared by solvent casting. Moreover, a relationship between the amount of glycerol and film thickness was observed, and a greater recalculated tensile/puncture strength was needed for an increased thickness in films prepared by impregnation. PMID:25136560

  16. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  17. Reduced graphene oxide based silver sulfide hybrid films formed at a liquid/liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bramhaiah, K. John, Neena S.

    2014-04-24

    Free-standing, ultra-thin films of silver sulfide and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based silver sulfide hybrids are prepared at a liquid/liquid interface employing in situ chemical reaction strategy. Ag{sub 2}S and RGO−Ag{sub 2}S hybrid films are characterized by various techniques such as UV-visible and photo luminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of hybrid films consists of Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals on RGO surface while Ag{sub 2}S films contains branched network of dendritic structures. RGO−Ag{sub 2}S exhibit interesting optical and electrical properties. The hybrid films absorb in the region 500–650 nm and show emission in the red region. A higher conductance is observed for the hybrid films arising from the RGO component. This simple low cost method can be extended to prepare other RGO based metal sulfides.

  18. Thin-film chemical sensors based on electron tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.; Leduc, H. G.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The physical mechanisms underlying a novel chemical sensor based on electron tunneling in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions were studied. Chemical sensors based on electron tunneling were shown to be sensitive to a variety of substances that include iodine, mercury, bismuth, ethylenedibromide, and ethylenedichloride. A sensitivity of 13 parts per billion of iodine dissolved in hexane was demonstrated. The physical mechanisms involved in the chemical sensitivity of these devices were determined to be the chemical alteration of the surface electronic structure of the top metal electrode in the MIM structure. In addition, electroreflectance spectroscopy (ERS) was studied as a complementary surface-sensitive technique. ERS was shown to be sensitive to both iodine and mercury. Electrolyte electroreflectance and solid-state MIM electroreflectance revealed qualitatively the same chemical response. A modified thin-film structure was also studied in which a chemically active layer was introduced at the top Metal-Insulator interface of the MIM devices. Cobalt phthalocyanine was used for the chemically active layer in this study. Devices modified in this way were shown to be sensitive to iodine and nitrogen dioxide. The chemical sensitivity of the modified structure was due to conductance changes in the active layer.

  19. High efficiency THz-wave modulators based on conjugated polymer-based organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ting; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Guo-cui; Zang, Meng-di; Hou, Yan-bing; Shen, Jing-ling

    2016-02-01

    A study of the modulation mechanisms of conjugated polymer-based organic films and high-efficiency, broadband and all-optically controlled terahertz modulators based on these films is presented in this paper. Under very low-level external laser excitation, modulation efficiency of more than 99% is achieved using MEH-PPV/Si, PFO/Si and F8BT/Si bilayers. By analyzing the changes in the photo-excited carrier density and photoconductivity with changes in the external laser intensity, we introduce a nonlinear photo-induced absorption process to explain the strong attenuation mechanism for the transmitted terahertz waves. Finally, a simple THz communication test is carried out to demonstrate the potential future applications of the high-efficiency all-optically controlled terahertz modulator.

  20. Optical and electric properties of composite films based on alicyclic polyimide and polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhubanov, B. A.; Matnishyan, A. A.; Kravtsova, V. D.; Umerzakova, M. B.; Iskakov, R. M.; Prikhod'ko, O. Yu.; Alpysbaeva, B. E.

    2015-04-01

    Composite films based on alicyclic polyimide with nanosized polyaniline are studied. It is shown that the new film material has a high transmission in the visible and UV spectral regions. Hybrid films that include up to 12 wt % of polyaniline in the polyimide matrix, are stable upon heating in air up to 360-370°C, and have electric conductivity of 5.0 × 10-2 Ω-1cm-1 are obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline.

  1. Decomposition of the γ solid solution in a nickel-based cast alloy at a high uniform pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, A. N.; Alad'Ev, N. A.; Talanova, G. V.; Padalko, A. G.

    2010-03-01

    The formation of γ' particles in an as-cast nickel alloy at barothermal treatment temperatures of 1235, 1260, and 1320°C and a pressure of 175 MPa for an action time of 2 h (isobar-isothermal holding (IIH)) is studied by quantitative metallography using optical and electron microscopy and image processing computer programs. An analysis of images of the dendritic structure of the alloy, which is formed by the morphology and sizes of γ' particles, demonstrates an increase in the degree of homogeneity of the alloy with the IIH temperature. The concentration of γ' particles is determined in the initial alloy and after barothermal treatment (BTT) at temperatures of 1235, 1260, and 1320°C, and the volume fraction of the γ' phase is found to significantly decrease as the IIH temperature increases. An activation mechanism is suggested for the formation of the nucleation centers of γ' particles in the γ solid solution, and the activation energy of the dissolution/coalescence of γ' precipitates is determined. The fraction of nonequilibrium γ' particles is determined in the material in the initial state and after BTT at three IIH temperatures. The precipitation of γ' particles is characterized by a bimodal character with the formation of nanoparticles in the initial material and upon BTT at temperatures of 1235 and 1260°C.

  2. Erosive Wear Behavior of Nickel-Based High Alloy White Cast Iron Under Mining Conditions Using Orthogonal Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh

    2013-09-01

    Nihard Grade-4, a nickel-bearing cast iron widely used in slurry pumps and hydrodynamic components, is evaluated for its erosive wear response under mining conditions using a statistical approach. Experiments were conducted by varying the factors namely velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH in three levels, using L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance was used to rank the factors influencing erosive wear. The results indicate that velocity is the most influencing factor followed by the angle of impingement, slurry concentration, and pH. Interaction effects of velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH on erosion rate have been discussed. Wear morphology was also studied using SEM characterization technique. At lower angle (30°) of impingement, the erosion of material is by micro fracture and shallow ploughing with the plastic deformation of the ductile austenitic matrix. At the normal angle (90°) of impingement, the material loss from the surface is found because of deep indentation, forming protruded lips which are removed by means of repeated impact of the erodent.

  3. Effect of adhesive primers on bonding strength of heat cure denture base resin to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Sung; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The poor chemical bonding of a denture base resin to cast titanium framework often introduces adhesive failure and increases microleakage. PURPOSE This study evaluated the shear bond strengths of a heat cure denture base resin to commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy using two adhesive primers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Disks of commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy were cast. Specimens without the primer were also prepared and used as the controls. The shear bond strengths were measured on a screw-driven universal testing machine. RESULTS The primers significantly (P < .05) improved the shear bond strengths of the heat cure resin to all metals. However, the specimens primed with the Alloy primer® (MDP monomer) showed higher bond strength than those primed with the MR bond® (MAC-10 monomer) on titanium. Only adhesive failure was observed at the metal-resin interface in the non-primed specimens, while the primed specimens showed mixed failure of adhesive and cohesive failure. CONCLUSIONS The use of appropriate adhesive metal primers makes it possible not only to eliminate the need for surface preparation of the metal framework before applying the heat cure resins, but also reduce the need for retentive devices on the metal substructure. In particular, the Alloy primer®, which contains the phosphoric acid monomer, MDP, might be clinically more acceptable for bonding a heat cure resin to titanium than a MR bond®, which contains the carboxylic acid monomer, MAC-10. PMID:21165254

  4. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing 0-25% (wt%) of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along wi...

  5. Structural studies on drop-cast film based on functionalized gold nanoparticles network: The effect of thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Laura; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Venditti, Iole; Ksenzov, Dmitriy; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Grigorian, Souren

    2016-04-01

    In the present work the role of the thermal treatment on the reorganization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with a π-conjugated dithiol ligand, namely 9,9-didodecyl-2,7-bis-thiofluorene, is studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction technique. For a detailed investigation of the structural changes and reorganization occurring in the AuNPs network and of the monitoring of complex interactions between nanoparticles, the line profiles are analyzed in out-of-plane and in-plane directions. The obtained data support the idea of the formation of a uniform network of nanoparticles that after annealing are extended from hexagonal to cubic arrangement.

  6. Multielectrocatalysis by layer-by-layer films based on pararosaniline and vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdate.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Diana M; Teixeira, Alexandra; Freire, Cristina

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid multilayer films based on the two molecular species pararosaniline (PR) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate K5[PMo11VO40)] (PMo11V) were prepared on different substrates using the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The film buildup, monitored by electronic spectroscopy, showed a regular stepwise growth, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data confirmed the presence of both molecular components within the LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed a completely covered surface with a nonuniform distribution of film components, and atomic force microscopy images confirmed a rough surface. The film electrochemical responses and permeability were studied by cyclic voltammetry. Films revealed three Mo-based redox processes (Mo(VI) → Mo(V)) and one V-based redox process (V(V) → V(IV)) in the potential range between 0.8 and -0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Studies with the redox probes [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH3)6](3+/2+) showed that the films maintain the permeability even after six bilayers. Furthermore, the {PR/PMo11V}n multilayer films exhibit excellent Mo-based electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of iodate and V-based electrocatalytic activity toward ascorbic acid oxidation, thus acting as a versatile multielectrocatalyst. PMID:25603457

  7. Versatile fluoride substrates for Fe-based superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, F.; Reich, E.; Hänisch, J.; Ichinose, A.; Tsukada, I.; Hühne, R.; Trommler, S.; Engelmann, J.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.; Iida, K.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate the growth of Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) thin films on CaF2 (001), SrF2 (001), and BaF2 (001) single crystal substrates using pulsed laser deposition. All films are grown epitaxially despite of a large misfit of -10.6% for BaF2 substrate. For all films, a reaction layer is formed at the interface confirmed by X-ray diffraction and for the films grown on CaF2 and BaF2 additionally by transmission electron microscopy. The superconducting transition temperature of the film on CaF2 is around 27 K, whereas the corresponding values of the films on SrF2 and BaF2 are around 22 K and 21 K, respectively. The Ba-122 on CaF2 shows almost identical crystalline quality and superconducting properties as films on Fe-buffered MgO.

  8. Effect of modifying a methyl siloxane-based dielectric by a polymer thin film for pentacene thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sang-Il; Kwon, Jae-Hong; Seo, Jung-Hoon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2008-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) utilizing a spun methyl siloxane-based spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric and show that these devices can give a similar electrical performance as achieved by using pentacene TFTs with a silicon dioxide (SiO 2) dielectric. To improve the electrical performance of pentacene TFTs with the SOG dielectric, we employed a hybrid dielectric of an SOG/cross-linked poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) polymer. The PVP film was deposited onto the spun SOG dielectric prior to pentacene evaporation, resulting in an improvement of the saturation field effect mobility ( μsat) from 0.01 cm 2/(V s) to 0.76 cm 2/(V s). The good surface morphology and the matching surface energy of the SOG dielectric that was modified with the polymer thin film allow the optimized growth of crystalline pentacene domains whose nuclei are embedded in an amorphous phase.

  9. Casting in sport.

    PubMed

    Decarlo, M; Malone, K; Darmelio, J; Rettig, A

    1994-03-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the "least hard" of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. PMID:16558257

  10. Antimicrobial and in vitro wound healing properties of novel clay based bionanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Ramasamy, K; Lim, S M; Ismail, M F; Majeed, A B A

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates the development of methyl cellulose (MC)-sodium alginate (SA)-montmorillonite (MMT) clay based bionanocomposite films with interesting wound healing properties. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the composite films revealed presence of single glass transition temperature (Tg) confirming the miscible nature of the ternary blended films. The increase in MMT ratio in the composite films reduced the mobility of biopolymer chains (MC/SA) which increased the Tg of the film. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that dispersion of clay (MMT) at nano level significantly delayed the weight loss that correlated with higher thermal stability of the composite films. It was observed that the developed films were able to exhibit antimicrobial activity against four typical pathogenic bacteria found in the presence of wound. The developed films were able to significantly inhibit (10mg/ml) the growth of Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro scratch assay indicated potential wound closure activities of MC-2-4 bionanocomposite films at their respective highest subtoxic doses. In conclusion, these ternary bionanocomposite films were found to be promising systems for wound healing applications. PMID:24831081

  11. Tl-based films: A comparison of processing procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.; Tigges, C.P.; Ginley, D.S.; Volk, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties are compared for three superconducting Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films prepared by different deposition and sintering protocols. One film containing a mixture of Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and Tl{sub 2}Cu{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub y} structural phases has the best superconducting properties. Deposition of a Tl-free Ca-Ba-Cu-O precursor film followed by sintering in Tl-O vapor may be the preferred protocol to obtain a single structural phase.

  12. Tl-based films: A comparison of processing procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.; Tigges, C.P.; Ginley, D.S.; Volk, S.R.

    1992-07-01

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties are compared for three superconducting Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films prepared by different deposition and sintering protocols. One film containing a mixture of Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and Tl{sub 2}Cu{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub y} structural phases has the best superconducting properties. Deposition of a Tl-free Ca-Ba-Cu-O precursor film followed by sintering in Tl-O vapor may be the preferred protocol to obtain a single structural phase.

  13. Perylene Diimide Based ``Nanofabric'' Thin Films for Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Austin; Park, June Hyoung; Min, Yong; Epstein, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We report progress in using a perylene diimide (PDI) nanofabric as an effective electron accepting nanostructure for organic photovoltaics (OPV). A key challenge in OPV continues to be the recovery of electrons after charge separation due to the relatively poor mobility of C60 and related materials. A series of PDI compounds and complexes have been synthesized and used to fabricate nanofibers and thin films using solution and vacuum deposition techniques. Overlaping PDI-based nanofibers form a fast electron-transporting ``nanofabric'' that has been characterized (AFM, PL, UV-vis, etc.) and can be blended with electron donating materials. A solution-processible OPV configuration containing a nanofabric heterojunction (FHJ) of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and the PDI nanofabric was investigated. We observed a significant improvement in power-conversion efficiency due in part to expansion of the interfacial area and the presence of high mobility electron pathways to the LiF/Al electrode. This work is supported by the Wright Center for Photovoltaic Innovation and Commercialization, the Institute for Materials Research and the Center for Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymeric Biomedical Devices.

  14. Infrared optics applications of thin polyaniline emeraldine base films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Pogreb, Roman; Sutovski, Semion; Shulzinger, Alexander; Sheshnev, Avigdor; Izakson, Gregory; Katzir, Abraham

    2003-07-01

    The use of polyaniline emeraldine base films as antireflection coating for near and middle IR optics elements was studied. The optical quality of ZnSe substrates spin-coated with thin PANI EB layers were studied using a Linnik interferometer. The spectral properties of PANI coated ZnSe plates were investigated in broad IR band with FTIR spectrometer. It was shown that PANI coating allows a significant decrease of Fresnel losses in the near and middle IR bands (1.0-6.25 μm). The coating allowed continuous transmission of high power density of IR radiation produced by CO2 laser. The transmission coefficient doesn't depend on the incident laser beam power density (up to 3 W/mm2). The laser irradiation damage threshodl of the PNAI EB coating was studied at a wavelength of 1.5 μm and established as high as 0.1 GW/mm2 (τ=12 10-9s) for PANI EB coating wtih a thickness of 150 nm. Microhardness of the PANI EB coated ZnSe plates was established as satisfactory.

  15. Tunneling Nanoelectromechanical Switches Based on Compressible Molecular Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Niroui, Farnaz; Wang, Annie I; Sletten, Ellen M; Song, Yi; Kong, Jing; Yablonovitch, Eli; Swager, Timothy M; Lang, Jeffrey H; Bulović, Vladimir

    2015-08-25

    Abrupt switching behavior and near-zero leakage current of nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches are advantageous properties through which NEMs can outperform conventional semiconductor electrical switches. To date, however, typical NEMs structures require high actuation voltages and can prematurely fail through permanent adhesion (defined as stiction) of device components. To overcome these challenges, in the present work we propose a NEM switch, termed a "squitch," which is designed to electromechanically modulate the tunneling current through a nanometer-scale gap defined by an organic molecular film sandwiched between two electrodes. When voltage is applied across the electrodes, the generated electrostatic force compresses the sandwiched molecular layer, thereby reducing the tunneling gap and causing an exponential increase in the current through the device. The presence of the molecular layer avoids direct contact of the electrodes during the switching process. Furthermore, as the layer is compressed, the increasing surface adhesion forces are balanced by the elastic restoring force of the deformed molecules which can promote zero net stiction and recoverable switching. Through numerical analysis, we demonstrate the potential of optimizing squitch design to enable large on-off ratios beyond 6 orders of magnitude with operation in the sub-1 V regime and with nanoseconds switching times. Our preliminary experimental results based on metal-molecule-graphene devices suggest the feasibility of the proposed tunneling switching mechanism. With optimization of device design and material engineering, squitches can give rise to a broad range of low-power electronic applications. PMID:26244821

  16. Electrophoretically deposited polyaniline nanotubes based film for cholesterol detection.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Chetna; Solanki, Pratima R; Pandey, Manoj K; Datta, Monika; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2010-11-01

    Polyaniline nanotube (PANI-NT) based films have been fabricated onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates via electrophoretic technique. These PANI-NT/ITO electrodes have been utilized for covalent immobilization of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) using glutaraldehyde (Glu) as cross-linker. Structural, morphological and electrochemical characterization of PANI-NT/ITO electrode and ChOx/Glu/PANI-NT/ITO bioelectrode have been done using FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Response studies of the ChOx/Glu/PANI-NT/ITO bioelectrode have been carried out using both linear sweep voltammetry and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The results of the biosensing studies reveal that this bioelectrode can be used to detect cholesterol in wide detection range of 25-500 mg/dL with high sensitivity of 3.36 mA mg(-1) dL and fast response time of 30 s at pH 7.4. This bioelectrode exhibits very low value of Michaelis-Menten constant of 1.18 mM indicating enhanced interactions between cholesterol and ChOx immobilized onto this nanostructured PANI matrix. PMID:21077243

  17. Elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula based on X-ray measurements with a synthetic paraffinic oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula for heavily loaded contacts based upon X-ray film thickness measurements made with a synthetic paraffinic oil is presented. The deduced relation was found to adequately reflect the high load dependence exhibited by the measured minimum film thickness data at high Hertizian contact stresses, that is, above 1.04 x 10 to the ninth N/sq m (150,000 psi). Comparisons were made with the numerical results from a theoretical isothermal film thickness formula. The effects of changes in contact geometry, material, and lubricant properties on the form of the empirical model are also discussed.

  18. Measurement of phase retardation of optical multilayer films based on laser feedback system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiyang; Niu, Yanxiong; Niu, Haisha

    2016-01-11

    The phase property of optical films is becoming a new research focus in optoelectronics. The retardation caused by reflection on multilayer optical films can be utilized to make phase retarders and modulate the polarization state of optical systems. In this paper, a novel method based on laser feedback is presented to measure the retardance. The laser feedback system can realize fast and stable measurement with high accuracy. Two samples of K9 glass covered with different multilayer optical films are measured at different angles of incidence. The results show that the retardance is sensitive to the incident angle and can provide guidance for the usage of reflective optical films. PMID:26832271

  19. New scintillation detectors based on oxide single crystal films for biological microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu; Konstankevych, I.; Globus, M.; Grinyov, B.; Lyubinskiy, V.

    2003-06-01

    Scintillation characteristics of the Lu 3Al 5O 12-based single crystal films, grown on the Y 3Al 5O 12 (YAG) substrate by liquid phase epitaxy, were explored and improved for the application in biological microtomography as X-ray image screens. To achieve a high spatial resolution, the film must be of about 1 μm thickness, a large effective atomic number Zeff being necessary for a sufficient absorption in the X-ray range. The Lu 3Al 5O 12:Ce 3+ garnet ( Zeff≈60) is a proper heavy material for such films. However, a stable growth of this film on the YAG substrate is hampered by the lattice mismatch between the film and substrate. This mismatch was duly reduced with the use of specially chosen isoelectronic impurities which simultaneously enhance the light yield of the film, and the overlap of its luminescence spectrum with the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceiver (CCD camera).

  20. Thin film porous membranes based on sol-gel chemistry for catalytic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.; Patel, S.V.; Jenkins, M.W.; Boyle, T.J.; Gardner, T.J.; Brinker, C.J.

    1998-05-01

    Nanoporous sol-gel based films are finding a wide variety of uses including gas separations and supports for heterogeneous catalysts. The films can be formed by spin or dip coating, followed by relatively low temperature annealing. The authors used several types of these films as coatings on the Pd alloy thin film sensors they had previously fabricated and studied. The sol-gel films have little effect on the sensing response to H{sub 2} alone. However, in the presence of other gases, the nanoporous film modifies the sensor behavior in several beneficial ways. (1) They have shown that the sol-gel coated sensors were only slightly poisoned by high concentrations of H{sub 2}S while uncoated sensors showed moderate to severe poisoning effects. (2) For a given partial pressure of H{sub 2}, the signal from the sensor is modified by the presence of O{sub 2} and other oxidizing gases.

  1. Structure-Modification Model of Porogen-Based Porous SiOC Film with Ultraviolet Curing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Yoshihiro; Uedono, Akira; Goto, Kinya; Hirose, Yukinori; Matsuura, Masazumi; Fujisawa, Masahiko; Asai, Koyu

    2011-05-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) curing on film properties of porogen based porous SiOC (P-SiOC) film was investigated. The P-SiOC films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using alkoxysilane and porogen (hydrocarbon). UV curing time was changed from 0 s to 1000 s. The variation of the k value and elastic modulus on the P-SiOC film with UV curing can be classified into three phases. From the behavior of pore density and free volume rate evaluated by using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), the multiphase model for structural modification of P-SiOC film by UV curing was proposed. In addition, the optimum UV curing time for obtaining a superior P-SiOC film with lower k value and higher mechanical strength was determined.

  2. Electrodeposited Fe-Co films prepared from a citric-acid-based plating bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, T.; Uto, H.; Shimokawa, T.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-06-01

    Electrodeposited Fe-Co films are commonly prepared in a boric-acid-based bath. In this research, we applied citric acid instead of boric acid for the plating of Fe-Co films because boron in the waste bath is restricted by environmental-protection regulations in Japan. We evaluated the effect of citric acid on the magnetic and structural properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the Fe-Co films slightly increased while the Fe content in the Fe-Co films decreased with increasing citric acid concentration. The lowest coercivity value of 240 A/m was obtained at a citric acid concentration of 100 g/L. The plating bath with this citric acid concentration enabled us to obtain Fe-Co films with high saturation magnetizations and smooth surface morphologies.

  3. Fabrication of transparent and ultraviolet shielding composite films based on graphene oxide and cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Ana Carolina Mazarin; Andrade, Patricia Fernanda; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; Simões, Mateus Batista; Salomão, Francisco Carlos Carneiro Soares; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; Gonçalves, Maria do Carmo; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2015-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been considered a promising filler material for building polymeric nanocomposites because of its excellent dispersibility and high surface area. In this work, we present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding composite films based on GO and cellulose acetate (CA). GO sheets were found to be well-dispersed throughout the CA matrix, providing smooth and homogeneous composite films. Moreover, the GO sheets were completely embedded within the CA matrix and no presence of this nanomaterial was found at the surface. Nevertheless, CAGO composite films offered an improved high energy light-shielding capacity when compared to pristine CA films. Particularly for UVC irradiation, the CAGO film containing 0.50wt% GO displayed a UV-shielding capacity of 57%, combined with 79% optical transparency under visible light. These CAGO composite films can be potentially applied as transparent UV-protective coatings for packing biomedical, pharmaceutical, and food products. PMID:25843853

  4. Optical characterization of TiAlON-based film used for solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minglin; Lian, Jie; Sun, Zhaozong; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Wenfu; Hu, Juanjuan; Li, Mengmeng

    2014-09-01

    Optical characterization of TiAlON film applied in solar energy is presented in this paper. TiAlON-based films with different thicknesses have been deposited by magnetron sputtering. The spectrophotometer and spectroscopic ellipsometry (GES5) have been used to study the samples. Surface morphology and component of the films were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical constants and film thicknesses of TiAlON films with different thicknesses have been obtained by theoretical modeling analysis fitting (Cauchy model) and point-to-point analysis fitting. Results show that the refraction coefficient and extinction coefficient change with the film thickness increased. Those optical properties are useful for selecting the layers with adequate optical constants and thickness to design a solar selective absorber.

  5. Potential of Kaolin-based Particle Film Barriers for Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of three particle film products on Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated in feeding, tunneling, and contact assays. The particle films, hydrophobic M96-018 and hydrophilic Surround and Surround WP are based on the inert clay mineral kaolin. In 2-week ...

  6. Immunosensor for the detection of cancer biomarker based on percolated graphene thin film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghui; Gong, Shaoqin

    2010-08-21

    A simple and sensitive immunosensor for the detection of cancer biomarker prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been developed. Around the percolation threshold of the graphene film, the conductivity of the graphene film varies significantly with the surface adsorption of molecules, which can be used for the detection of proteins based on antibody-antigen binding. PMID:20585690

  7. Achromatic circular polarizer in the 482-535 nm range based on polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muravsky, Al. A.; Murauski, An. A.; Agabekov, V. E.; Chuvasheva, O. O.; Ivanova, N. A.

    2012-11-01

    We present a design for an achromatic circular polarizer based on polypropylene films. The circular polarizer, having eccentricity ≥0.92 in the 482-535 nm range and ideally circular for the wavelength of ~505 nm, is obtained by combining BOPP C2-25 and BOPP C2-35 films of thickness 23 m and 33 μm.

  8. One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructure based thin-film partial composite formed by transfer implantation for high-performance flexible and printable electronics at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Lee, Tae-Il; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Jeon, Joohee; Kang, Youn Hee; Kar, Jyoti Prakash; Kang, Jung Han; Yun, Ilgu; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-01-25

    Having high bending stability and effective gate coupling, the one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures (ODSNs)-based thin-film partial composite was demonstrated, and its feasibility was confirmed through fabricating the Si NW thin-film partial composite on the poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) layer, obtaining uniform and high-performance flexible field-effect transistors (FETs). With the thin-film partial composite optimized by controlling the key steps consisting of the two-dimensional random dispersion on the hydrophilic substrate of ODSNs and the pressure-induced transfer implantation of them into the uncured thin dielectric polymer layer, the multinanowire (NW) FET devices were simply fabricated. As the NW density increases, the on-current of NW FETs increases linearly, implying that uniform NW distribution can be obtained with random directions over the entire region of the substrate despite the simplicity of the drop-casting method. The implantation of NWs by mechanical transfer printing onto the PVP layer enhanced the gate coupling and bending stability. As a result, the enhancements of the field-effect mobility and subthreshold swing and the stable device operation up to a 2.5 mm radius bending situation were achieved without an additional top passivation. PMID:21174391

  9. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of citral and quercetin incorporated kafirin-based bioactive films.

    PubMed

    Giteru, Stephen Gitonga; Coorey, Ranil; Bertolatti, Dean; Watkin, Elizabeth; Johnson, Stuart; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of kafirin-based bioactive films incorporating the plant essential oil citral and the polyphenol quercetin. The addition of quercetin and citral both imparted a yellowish colour to the films. The tensile strength of films significantly decreased and elongation at break increased when citral was incorporated, whereas addition of quercetin did not alter these two film parameters. The rate of water vapour transmission of the films decreased with citral incorporation but the water vapour permeability was not affected by either citral or quercetin incorporation. Furthermore, incorporation of citral and quercetin significantly lowered the oxygen permeability of the films. Film made of kafirin alone had antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, however, films incorporating citral exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni, L. monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. These results suggest that kafirin-based films incorporating citral and quercetin have potential as bioactive packaging to improve food safety and quality. PMID:25172719

  10. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  11. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  12. Corrosive wear of cast iron under reciprocating lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Yahagi, Y.; Nagasawa, Y.; Hotta, S.; Mizutani, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the wear of cylinder bore fundamentally, a reciprocating friction tester was produced and utilized. The friction between a cast iron and a piston-ring and the wear of the cast iron were examined under the corrosive oil with sulphuric acid. The findings indicate that the friction and wear around TDC and BDC was confirmed to be greater than between these reversal points and the friction and wear around the reversal points increased with the sulphuric acid which has caused the deficiency of oil film and the corrosion of the cast iron.

  13. Molecular and culture-based analyses of prokaryotic communities from an agricultural soil and the burrows and casts of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michelle A; Singleton, David R; Coleman, David C; Whitman, William B

    2002-03-01

    The microbial populations in no-till agricultural soil and casts of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were examined by culturing and molecular methods. Clone libraries of the 16S rRNA genes were prepared from DNA isolated directly from the soil and earthworm casts. Although no single phylum dominated the soil library of 95 clones, the largest numbers of clones were from Acidobacteria (14%), Cytophagales (13%), Chloroflexi (8%), and gamma-Proteobacteria (8%). While the cast clone library of 102 clones was similar to the soil library, the abundances of several taxa were different. Representatives of the Pseudomonas genus as well as the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes increased in number, and one group of unclassified organisms found in the soil library was absent in the cast library. Likewise, soil and cast archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were similar, although the abundances of some groups were different. Two hundred and thirty aerobic bacteria were also isolated on general heterotrophic media from casts, burrows, and soil. The cast isolates were both phenotypically and genotypically different from the soil isolates. The cast isolates were more likely to reduce nitrate, grow on acetate and Casamino Acids, and utilize fewer sugars than the soil isolates. On the basis of their ribotypes, the cast isolates were dominated by Aeromonas spp. (28%), which were not found in the soil isolates, and other gamma-Proteobacteria (49%). In contrast, the soil isolates were mostly Actinobacteria (53%), Firmicutes (16%), and gamma-Proteobacteria (19%). Isolates obtained from the sides of earthworm burrows were not different from the soil isolates. Diversity indices for the collections of isolates as well as rRNA gene libraries indicated that the species richness and evenness were decreased in the casts from their levels in the soil. These results were consistent with a model where a large portion of the microbial population in soil passes through the gastrointestinal tract of the earthworm unchanged while representatives of some phyla increase in abundance. PMID:11872477

  14. Molecular and Culture-Based Analyses of Prokaryotic Communities from an Agricultural Soil and the Burrows and Casts of the Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Michelle A.; Singleton, David R.; Coleman, David C.; Whitman, William B.

    2002-01-01

    The microbial populations in no-till agricultural soil and casts of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were examined by culturing and molecular methods. Clone libraries of the 16S rRNA genes were prepared from DNA isolated directly from the soil and earthworm casts. Although no single phylum dominated the soil library of 95 clones, the largest numbers of clones were from Acidobacteria (14%), Cytophagales (13%), Chloroflexi (8%), and γ-Proteobacteria (8%). While the cast clone library of 102 clones was similar to the soil library, the abundances of several taxa were different. Representatives of the Pseudomonas genus as well as the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes increased in number, and one group of unclassified organisms found in the soil library was absent in the cast library. Likewise, soil and cast archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were similar, although the abundances of some groups were different. Two hundred and thirty aerobic bacteria were also isolated on general heterotrophic media from casts, burrows, and soil. The cast isolates were both phenotypically and genotypically different from the soil isolates. The cast isolates were more likely to reduce nitrate, grow on acetate and Casamino Acids, and utilize fewer sugars than the soil isolates. On the basis of their ribotypes, the cast isolates were dominated by Aeromonas spp. (28%), which were not found in the soil isolates, and other γ-Proteobacteria (49%). In contrast, the soil isolates were mostly Actinobacteria (53%), Firmicutes (16%), and γ-Proteobacteria (19%). Isolates obtained from the sides of earthworm burrows were not different from the soil isolates. Diversity indices for the collections of isolates as well as rRNA gene libraries indicated that the species richness and evenness were decreased in the casts from their levels in the soil. These results were consistent with a model where a large portion of the microbial population in soil passes through the gastrointestinal tract of the earthworm unchanged while representatives of some phyla increase in abundance. PMID:11872477

  15. Chitosan based edible films and coatings: a review.

    PubMed

    Elsabee, Maher Z; Abdou, Entsar S

    2013-05-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable biocompatible polymer derived from natural renewable resources with numerous applications in various fields, and one of which is the area of edible films and coatings. Chitosan has antibacterial and antifungal properties which qualify it for food protection, however, its weak mechanical properties, gas and water vapor permeability limit its uses. This review discusses the application of chitosan and its blends with other natural polymers such as starch and other ingredients for example essential oils, and clay in the field of edible films for food protection. The mechanical behavior and the gas and water vapor permeability of the films are also discussed. References dealing with the antimicrobial behavior of these films and their impact on food protection are explored. PMID:23498203

  16. Water-based preparation of highly oleophobic thin films through aggregation of nanoparticles using layer-by-layer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Shingo; Shiratori, Seimei

    2012-12-01

    The layer-by-layer (LBL) adsorption technique has potential for controlling the surface wettability. In this study, we controlled surface wettability between "superhydrophobic and oleophobic" and "hydrophobic and oleophilic" by LBL process on TiO2 nanoparticle with hydrophobic polymer and hydrophilic polymer. From the cast coating with LBL process on TiO2 nanoparticle, the surface showed "superhydophobic and oleophobic" when the top surface was hydrophobic polymer, on the other hand, the surface showed "hydrophobic and oleophilic" when the top surface was hydrophilic polymer. The LBL process also affected to the structure of TiO2 nanoparticle/polymer composite, and TiO2 nanoparticle were aggregated with polymers in LBL process. In the condition of the aggregated diameter of TiO2 nanoparticle/polymer composite around 10 μm in solution, the oleohobicity of spray coated film was enhanced with its hierarchical structure (static contact angles of rapeseed oil of 150° and hexadecane of 145°) "Superhydrophobic and high oleophobic" surfaces generated from all water-based dispersions are expected for application in technologies that need to avoid organic solvents.

  17. Edible antimicrobial films based on microencapsulated lemongrass oil.

    PubMed

    Bustos C, Rubén O; Alberti R, Francesca V; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2016-01-01

    Edible films and coatings have been proposed as viable alternatives for the preservation of fresh food such as fruit, meat, fish and cheese. They can be designed to contain natural antioxidants, vitamins and antimicrobials in order to extend shelf life of the product keeping the natural sensorial properties. Essential oils have been targeted as potential active principles for edible films and coatings given their well-recognized antioxidant, antimicrobial and sensory properties. In the present work, lemongrass oil (LMO) microcapsules were prepared by the emulsification-separation method using sodium caseinate as wall material. Microcapsules had an average size of 22 μm and contained over 51 % oil in their nucleus. The release kinetics of the LMO components was studied for both, microcapsules and microcapsule containing films. Experimental data for the controlled release of LMO components showed good correlation with Peppas and Weibull models. The effect of the alginate matrix on the release parameters of the mathematical models could be detected by the modification of the b constant of the Weibull equation which changed from 0.167 for the microcapsules to 0.351 for the films. Films containing LMO at concentrations of 1250, 2500 and 5000 ppm were able to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Listeria monocytogenes ISP 65-08 in liquid cultures. A possible future application of these films for shelf life extension of fresh food is discussed. PMID:26788005

  18. High performance thin film transistors based on regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene)-sorted large diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Qian, Long; Xu, Wenya; Nie, Shuhong; Gu, Weibing; Zhang, Jianhui; Zhao, Jianwen; Lin, Jian; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Zheng

    2013-05-21

    In this work, a simple and rapid method to selectively sort semiconducting-SWCNTs (sc-SWCNTs) with large diameters using regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (rr-P3DDT) is presented. The absorption spectra and Raman spectra demonstrated that metallic species of arc discharge SWCNTs were effectively removed after interaction with rr-P3DDT in toluene with the aid of sonication and centrifugation. The sorted sc-SWCNT inks have been directly used to fabricate thin film transistors (TFTs) by dip-coating, drop-casting and inkjet printing. TFTs with an effective mobility of ∼34 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and on-off ratios of ∼10(7) have been achieved by dip coating and drop casting the ink on SiO2/Si substrates with pre-patterned interdigitated gold electrode arrays. The printed devices also showed excellent electrical properties with a mobility of up to 6.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and on-off ratios of up to 10(5). Printed inverters based on the TFTs have been constructed on glass substrates, showing a maximum voltage gain of 112 at a V(dd) of -5 V. This work paves the way for making printable logic circuits for real applications. PMID:23595234

  19. Design of camouflage material for visible and near infrared based on thin film technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lei; Shi, Jia-ming; Zhao, Da-peng; Liu, Hao; Wang, Chao; Xu, Yan-liang

    2015-11-01

    Visible light and near infrared based camouflage materials achieve good stealth under traditional optical detection equipment but its spectral differences with green plants can be taken advantage of by high spectrum based detection technologies. Based on the thin structure of bandpass filter, we designed an optical film with both green and near infrared spectrum. We conducted simulations using transfer matrix methods and optimized the result by simplex methods. The spectral reflectance curve of the proposed thin film matches that of green plants, and experiments show that the proposed thin film achieve good invisibility under visible light and near infrared in a wide viewing angle.

  20. Toward highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes: fabricating a good-quality emissive layer cast from suitable solvents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongxin; Duan, Lian; Qiu, Yong

    2016-04-14

    Spin-cast from various solvents, emissive layers show different film morphologies and performances in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here we fabricated and demonstrated highly efficient blue OLEDs based on bis[3,5-difluoro-2-(2-pyridyl)phenyl]-(2-carboxypyridy)iridium(iii) by choosing several kinds of solvents for spin-coating. Experiments indicate that the single-layer device with an emissive film cast from chlorobenzene shows its best performance with a highest current efficiency of 18.99 cd A(-1), a maximum luminance of 20.5 × 10(3) cd m(-2) and an emission band centered at 474 nm. The efficiency achieved is the highest reported for solution-processed simple-manufactured OLEDs doped with transition metal phosphors emitting in the blue region. PMID:26575150

  1. LiMn2O4-based cathode thin films for Li thin-film batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Haena; Shin, Dong-Wook; Choi, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    Substitution methods for Mn3+ in a spinel lithium manganese oxide with other cations have been used to prevent capacity degradation during the electrochemical charge and discharge of Li-batteries by increasing the average valence of Mn. In particular, in this review we outlin the effects of Sn substitution on the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 thin films that can be used as positive electrode in Li-batteries. The thin films were prepared by using pulsed laser deposition and solution deposition with regard to the structural and the electro-chemical characteristics.

  2. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Surface Roughness of Castings Produced Using ZCast Direct Metal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, M.; Singh, R.

    2015-04-01

    Aim of this investigation is to develop a mathematical model for predicting surface roughness of castings produced using ZCast process by employing Buckingham's π-theorem. A relationship has been proposed between surface roughness of castings and shell wall thickness of the shell moulds fabricated using 3D printer. Based on model, experiments were performed to obtain the surface roughness of aluminium, brass and copper castings produced using ZCast process based on 3D printing technique. Based on experimental data, three best fitted third-degree polynomial equations have been established for predicting the surface roughness of castings. The predicted surface roughness values were then calculated using established best fitted equations. An error analysis was performed to compare the experimental and predicted data. The average prediction errors obtained for aluminium, brass and copper castings are 10.6, 2.43 and 3.12 % respectively. The obtained average surface roughness (experimental and predicted) values of castings produced are acceptable with the sand cast surface roughness values range (6.25-25 µm).

  4. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  5. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  6. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  7. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to deliver to industry a computer program in which all three systems are coupled for determining the dimensions of the wax pattern, the shell mold, and casting in a sequential but coupled manner.

  8. Characterization of films based on chitosan lactate and its blends with oxidized starch and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Dariusz; Kordowska-Wiater, Monika; Nowak, Jakub; Baraniak, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chitosan lactate (CHL) was tested against bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi. Then, the structural, physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of films based on CHL, oxidized potato starch (OPS), and gelatin (GEL) were investigated. With the exception of Rhizopus nigricans, CHL was effective against the target organisms. Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) were more sensitive to CHL than Gram-negative bacteria (Pectobacterium carotovorum and Escherichia coli). Cryo-SEM images showed total miscibility between the polymers in the blends and the ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that there was an interaction among the polymeric components. Pure CHL films displayed the highest moisture content (25.51%), water vapor permeability (48.78gmmm(-2)d(-1)kPa(-1)), and the lowest tensile and puncture strength (2.00 and 1.45MPa, respectively) among the studied films. CHL50/GEL50 films had lower permeability, higher mechanical strength, and lower elongation compared to CHL50/OPS50 films. Films obtained from CHL and CHL50/GEL50 were completely water-soluble and did not show sorbitol recrystallization. The incorporation of CHL into OPS and GEL films did not affect their transparency and improved UV-blocking capacity. CHL films were the only ones that exhibited antibacterial efficiency. Antifungal activities against Alternaria alternata and Monilinia fructigena were detected for CHL and CHL50/GEL50 films. PMID:25841370

  9. Oxide-based method of making compound semiconductor films and making related electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Kapur, Vijay K.; Basol, Bulent M.; Leidholm, Craig R.; Roe, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming a compound film includes the steps of preparing a source material, depositing the source material on a base and forming a preparatory film from the source material, heating the preparatory film in a suitable atmosphere to form a precursor film, and providing suitable material to said precursor film to form the compound film. The source material includes oxide-containing particles including Group IB and IIIA elements. The precursor film includes non-oxide Group IB and IIIA elements. The compound film includes a Group IB-IIIA-VIA compound. The oxides may constitute greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IB elements and greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IIIA elements in the source material. Similarly, non-oxides may constitute greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IB elements and greater than about 95 molar percent of the Group IIIA elements in the precursor film. The molar ratio of Group IB to Group IIIA elements in the source material may be greater than about 0.6 and less than about 1.0, or substantially greater that 1.0, in which case this ratio in the compound film may be reduced to greater than about 0.6 and less than about 1.0. The source material may be prepared as an ink from particles in powder form. The oxide-containing particles may include a dopant, as may the compound film. Compound films including a Group IIB-IVA-VA compound may be substituted using appropriate substitutions in the method. The method, also, is applicable to fabrication of solar cells and other electronic devices.

  10. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Robert Alan; Schaeffer, Jon Conrad; Lee, Ching-Pang; Abuaf, Nesim; Hasz, Wayne Charles

    2002-01-01

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  11. Elevated temperature mechanical properties and residual tensile properties of two cast superalloys and several nickel-base oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The elevated temperature tensile, stress-rupture and creep properties and residual tensile properties after creep straining have been determined for two cast superalloys and several wrought Ni-16Cr-4Al-yttria oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. The creep behavior of the ODS alloys is similar to that of previously studied ODS nickel alloys. In general, the longitudinal direction is stronger than the long transverse direction, and creep is at least partially due to a diffusional creep mechanism as dispersoid-free zones were observed after creep-rupture testing. The tensile properties of the nickel-base superalloy B-1900 and cobalt-base superalloy MAR-M509 are not degraded by prior elevated temperature creep straining (at least up to 1 pct) between 1144 and 1366 K. On the other hand, the room temperature tensile properties of ODS nickel-base alloys can be reduced by prior creep strains of 0.5 pct or less between 1144 and 1477 K, with the long transverse direction being more susceptible to degradation than the longitudinal direction.

  12. Fabrication of photosensitive multilayer films based on polyoxometalate and diazoresin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuhua; Peng, Jun; Han, Zhangang; Ma, Huiyuan

    2005-06-15

    A novel photosensitive organic-inorganic composite film incorporating polyoxometalate, K7[SiW11O39Co(H3P2O7)] (SiW11CoPP), and diazoresin (DR) has been prepared via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly. Under UV irradiation, followed the decomposition of diazonium in DR, the ionic bonds between the adjacent interfaces of the multilayer film convert to covalent bonds. The LBL multilayers were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), FTIR spectrum, cyclic voltammograms (CV), and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. UV spectroscopy shows that the deposition process is regular and highly reproducible from layer to layer. XPS spectra confirm the incorporation of DR and SiW(11)CoPP into the films. Atomic force microscopy image indicates that the film surface is uniform and smooth. Solvent etching experiment proves that the film has significant stability towards polar solvent. Electrochemical behavior of the multilayers is investigated. PMID:15897075

  13. Flow Meter Based on Freely Suspended Smectic Liquid Crystal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Adam; Qi, Zhiyuan; Park, Cheol; Glaser, Matthew; Maclennan, Joseph; Clark, Noel

    We present the realization of a idealized 2D hydrodynamic system coupled to air-flow, and show that freely suspended films (FSF) of smectic liquid crystals can be used as a novel flow-meter. Freely-suspended films of liquid crystals are one of the closest physical realizations of an idealized 2D fluid. The velocity of air-flow above a film suspended above a channel can be inferred by studying the velocity profile of the smectic film. This velocity profile can be measured using digital video microscopy to track the inclusions present in the moving film. The velocity profile is then fitted to the coupled 2D solutions of an embedded fluid in air, and the velocity of the air can then be extracted. This flow meter serves as a demonstration of a robust test-bed for further exploration of 2D hydrodynamics. This work was supported by NASA Grant No. NNX-13AQ81G, NSF MRSEC Grant No. DMR-0820579, and DMR-1420736.

  14. The surface structure and thermal properties of novel polymer composite films based on partially phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) with aluminum phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Saat, Asmalina; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2014-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA) with aluminum phosphate (ALPO4) composites was synthesized by solution casting technique to produce (PPVA)(100-y) - (ALPO4)(y) (y = 0, 1, and 2). The surface structure and thermal properties of the films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the films have higher thermal stability with strong bonding between PPVA and ALPO4. PMID:25506069

  15. Microstructure and stress-rupture life of polycrystal, directionally solidified, and single crystal castings of nickel-based IN 939 superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, M.T.; Miskovic, Z.; Lukic, B.

    1998-04-01

    A comparative investigation of microstructural and mechanical properties (stress-rupture life) in conventionally cast, directionally solidified, and single crystal IN 939 superalloy has been undertaken. Directional castings possess only a few columnar grains, all oriented in the <100> crystallographic direction, whereas only one grain is present in a single crystal. Single crystals are characterized by the highest values of stress-rupture life, much higher than those of directionally solidified and, especially, polycrystal castings, which is accounted for by the absence of grain boundaries.

  16. Fabrication and nano-imprintabilities of Zr-, Pd- and Cu-based glassy alloy thin films.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Kana; Saidoh, Noriko; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-03-11

    With the aim of investigating nano-imprintability of glassy alloys in a film form, Zr(49)Al(11)Ni(8)Cu(32), Pd(39)Cu(29)Ni(13)P(19) and Cu(38)Zr(47)Al(9)Ag(6) glassy alloy thin films were fabricated on Si substrate by a magnetron sputtering method. These films exhibit a very smooth surface, a distinct glass transition phenomenon and a large supercooled liquid region of about 80 K, which are suitable for imprinting materials. Moreover, thermal nano-imprintability of these obtained films is demonstrated by using a dot array mold with a dot diameter of 90 nm. Surface observations revealed that periodic nano-hole arrays with a hole diameter of 90 nm were successfully imprinted on the surface of these films. Among them, Pd-based glassy alloy thin film indicated more precise pattern imprintability, namely, flatter residual surface plane and sharper hole edge. It is said that these glassy alloy thin films, especially Pd-based glassy alloy thin film, are one of the promising materials for fabricating micro-machines and nano-devices by thermal imprinting. PMID:21289400

  17. Magnetic Fe-Co films electroplated in a deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohgai, T.; Nakano, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukunaga, H.

    2015-05-01

    We fabricated Fe-Co films from a deep eutectic solvent (DES)-based plating bath and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2.4H2O, and CoCl2.6H2O. The composition of the plated films depended on the amount of FeCl2.4H2O in the plating bath, and Fe content of the films was varied from 0 to 100 at. %. Depending on the Fe content, the saturation magnetization and the coercivity of the films varied. The Fe76Co24 film shows high saturation magnetization and smooth surface, and the change in the saturation magnetization shows good agreement with the expected change by the Slater-Pauling curve. High current efficiency (>90%) could be obtained in the wide film composition. From these results, we concluded that the DES-based plating bath is one of effective baths for the Fe-Co films with high current efficiency.

  18. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  19. A Naphthalenediimide-Based Metal-Organic Framework and Thin Film Exhibiting Photochromic and Electrochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi-Xin; Zhao, Wen-Na; Li, Guo-Chang; Liu, Peng-Fei; Han, Lei

    2016-01-19

    A multifunctional metal-organic framework, NBU-3, has been explored as a 2D three-connected network based on a naphthalenediimide-based ligand. The NBU-3 crystals display photochromic properties, and NBU-3 thin films on FTO substrates exhibit electrochromic properties. NBU-3 is the first example of MOF materials containing both photochromic and electrochromic properties, which can be desirable for thin film devices. PMID:26713454

  20. High Tc superconducting films from metallo-organic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, W. W.; Shyu, S. G.; Buchanan, R. C.

    High Tc superconducting films of heavy metal soaps (derived from carboxylic acid precursors) have been prepared on Si and other substrates. The precursors were synthesized and mixed in appropriate molar ratios to form the high Tc compound YBa2Cu3O(7-x), using a high boiling point common solvent base. The precursor solution was deposited by a spin casting technique on the substrates. Film thicknesses of 0.1-1.0 micron were achieved after heat treatment at 550-850 C at not longer than 4 hours. Films were analyzed as to orientation, appropriate phase, interfacial reaction, and superconducting properties.

  1. 3D stress simulation and parameter design during twin-roll casting of 304 stainless steel based on the Anand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Li-gang; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Qing-xiang

    2014-07-01

    This study first investigated cracks on the surface of an actual steel strip. Formulating the Anand model in ANSYS software, we then simulated the stress field in the molten pool of type 304 stainless steel during the twin-roll casting process. Parameters affecting the stress distribution in the molten pool were analyzed in detail and optimized. After twin-roll casting, a large number of transgranular and intergranular cracks resided on the surface of the thin steel strip, and followed a tortuous path. In the molten pool, stress was enhanced at the exit and at the roller contact positions. The stress at the exit decreased with increasing casting speed and pouring temperature. To ensure high quality of the fabricated strips, the casting speed and pouring temperature should be controlled above 0.7 m/s and 1520°C, respectively.

  2. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  3. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique. [CF8M

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-01-01

    ELectroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and sand castings.

  4. Modeling the mechanics of graphene-based polymer composite film measured by the bulge test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Sun, You-yi; Li, Dian-sen; Cao, Yang; Wang, Zuo; Ma, Jing; Zhao, Gui-Zhe

    2015-10-01

    Graphene-based polymer composite films have wide-ranging potential applications, such as in sensors, electromagnetic shielding, absorbing materials, corrosion resistance and so on. In addition, the practical applications of graphene-based polymer composite films are closely related to their mechanical properties. However, the mechanical properties of graphene-based polymer composite films are difficult to characterize with tensile tests. In this paper, the bugle test was used to investigate the mechanical properties of graphene-based polymer composite films. The experimental results show that the Young’s modulus of polymer composite films increases non-linearly with an increase in the doping content of graphene, and viscoelastic deformation is induced under cyclic loading conditions. Moreover, in order to describe their mechanical behavior, an ‘Arruda-Boyce’ finite-strain constitutive model (modified BPA model), based on the strain amplification hypothesis, and a traditional ‘Arruda-Boyce’ model was proposed, which incorporated many of the features of previous theories. The numerical treatment of the modified BPA model associated with finite element analysis is also discussed. This new model is shown to be able to predict the experimentally observed mechanical behavior of graphene based polymer composite films measured by the bugle test effectively.

  5. Physical Simulation of Investment Casting of Complex Shape Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimian, Mehdi; Milenkovic, Srdjan; Maestro, Laura; De Azua, Aitor Eguidazu Ruiz; Sabirov, Ilchat

    2015-05-01

    Development of investment casting process has been a challenge for manufacturers of complex shape parts. Numerous experimental casting trials are typically carried out to determine the optimum casting parameters for fabrication of high-quality products. In this work, it is demonstrated that physical simulation of investment casting can successfully predict microstructure and hardness in as-cast complex shape parts. The physical simulation tool consists of a thermal model and melting/solidification experiments in thermo-mechanical simulator. The thermal model is employed to predict local cooling rate during solidification at each point of a casting. Melting/solidification experiments are carried out under controlled cooling rates estimated by the thermal model. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of the solidified specimens is performed; the obtained results predict the local microstructure and mechanical properties of the casting. This concept is applied to investment casting of complex shape nozzle guide vanes from Mar-M247 Ni-based superalloy. Experimental casting trials are performed and the outcomes of physical simulation tool are validated against experimental results. It is shown that phase composition, secondary dendrite arm spacing, grain size, γ/ γ' eutectic size and volume fraction, size and shape of carbide particles, and local microhardness can be predicted at each point of the casting via physical simulation.

  6. X-ray computed tomography for casting development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgeson, Gary E.; Crews, Alan R.; Bossi, Richard H.

    1992-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate specific sand casting product examples for technical and economic benefits. The representative results are applicable to other casting technologies as well. CT has been shown to be cost effective in the development of new castings. The areas which would benefit include internal dimensional measurements (eliminating destructive sectioning), specific region inspections, flaw characterization in critical regions (to allow passing or informed repair of castings), and geometric acquisition for CAD/CAM. The quantitative capability of CT allows an engineering evaluation of castings based upon a correlation with performance. This quantitative measurement capability has also been used to measure the benefit of hot isostatic pressing in casting production. CT is also cost effective for engineering design and analysis by providing rapid geometry acquisition for input to computer aided design systems. This is particularly beneficial for components that do not have existing drawings or cannot be adequately defined until they are made for any reason. Presently CT can serve as an engineering aid to casting manufacturing. In order for CT evaluation to become routine in foundry applications, however, casting designers need to call it out as a measurement technique in the original casting design drawings, specifications on the application of CT must be written, contracts must include CT evaluation as a means for accepting casting quality, and lower cost CT systems must be available.

  7. Atomic Oxygen Sensors Based on Nanograin ZnO Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yunfei; Chen Xuekang; Li Zhonghua; Zheng Kuohai; Wang Lanxi; Feng Zhanzu; Yang Shengsheng

    2009-01-05

    High-quality nanograin ZnO thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films under different deposition temperature have been investigated before and after atomic oxygen (AO) treatment. XRD has shown that the intensity of the (0 0 2) peak increases and its FWHM value decreases after AO treatment. The AO sensing characteristics of nano ZnO film also has been investigated in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation facility. The results show that the electrical conductivity of nanograin ZnO films decreases with increasing AO fluence and that the conductivity of the films can be recovered by heating.

  8. Stress Relaxation in Sn-Based Films: Effects of Pb Alloying, Grain Size, and Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Nitin; Wasserman, Jacob; Pei, Fei; Chason, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Stress is believed to provide the driving force for growth of Sn whiskers, so stress relaxation in the Sn layer plays a key role in their formation. To understand and enhance stress relaxation in Sn-based films, the effects of Pb alloying and microstructure on their mechanical properties have been studied by observing the relaxation of thermal expansion-induced strain. The relaxation rate is found to increase with film thickness and grain size in pure Sn films, and it depends on the microstructure in Pb-alloyed Sn films. Measurements of multilayered structures (Sn on Pb-Sn and Pb-Sn on Sn) show that changing the surface layer alone is not sufficient to enhance the relaxation, indicating that the Pb enhances relaxation in the bulk of the film and not by surface modification. Implications of our results for whisker mitigation strategies are discussed.

  9. Ultraviolet Photoconductive Detectors Based on A-Plane ZnO Film Grow by Hydrothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naisen; Dong, Dapeng; Qi, Yan; Wu, Yunfeng; Chen, Lu

    2016-02-01

    A-plane ZnO film was grown on a-plane GaN/r-sapphire template by using the hydrothermal growth method. The film was characterized for the structural and morphological properties by means of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results show the a-plane ZnO film with a very uniform striated morphology was achieved. Meanwhile, an ultraviolet (UV) photoconductive detector based on the as-grown a-plane film was fabricated, and the detector current was increased by more than 17 times under 5 V bias upon UV illumination. Moreover, it also showed good reproducibility and stability, which confirms the film as a good potential material for UV optoelectronic devices.

  10. Wet Etching of TiO2-Based Precursor Amorphous Films for Transparent Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Junpei; Hirose, Yasushi; Sakai, Enju; Nakao, Shoichiro; Hitosugi, Taro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    We investigated wet etching of Nb-doped anatase TiO2 (TNO) transparent conducting thin films and their precursors in an amorphous phase deposited by rf sputtering on glass substrates. The polycrystalline TNO films showed a very low etching rate of less than 0.06 nm/min in concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) even at elevated temperatures up to 95 °C. In contrast, H2SO4 etched the precursor films at a rate of 1.4 nm/min at 95 °C. The etching rate of the amorphous films followed the Arrhenius equation, leading us to conjecture that a much higher etching rate of ˜230 nm/min can be achieved at 170 °C. These results indicate that wet-etching of precursor amorphous films prior to crystallization represents a practical and low-cost lithographic technique for patterning TiO2-based transparent electrodes.

  11. Theoretical investigation of acoustic wave devices based on different piezoelectric films deposited on silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ge, Huan; Zhang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    Performances of acoustic wave (AW) devices based on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates are theoretically studied, in which two types of piezoelectric films of ZnO and AlN deposited on 4H-SiC and 3C-SiC substrates are adopted. The phase velocities (PV), electromechanical coupling coefficients (ECC), and temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF) for three AW modes (Rayleigh wave, A0 and S0 modes of Lamb wave) often used in AW devices are calculated based on four types of configurations of interdigital transducers (IDTs). It is found that that the ZnO piezoelectric film is proper for the AW device operating in the low-frequency range because a high ECC can be realized using a thin ZnO film. The AlN piezoelectric film is proper for the device operating in the high-frequency range in virtue of the high PV of AlN, which can increase the finger width of the IDT. Generally, in the low-frequency Lamb wave devices using ZnO piezoelectric films with small normalized thicknesses of films to wavelengths hf/λ, thin SiC substrates can increase ECCs but induce high TCFs simultaneously. In the high-frequency device with a large hf/λ, the S0 mode of Lamb wave based on the AlN piezoelectric film deposited on a thick SiC substrate exhibits high performances by simultaneously considering the PV, ECC, and TCF.

  12. Homogeneous bilayer graphene film based flexible transparent conductor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Liu, Chang-Hua; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2012-01-21

    Graphene is considered as a promising candidate to replace conventional transparent conductors due to its low opacity, high carrier mobility and flexible structure. Multi-layer graphene or stacked single layer graphenes have been investigated in the past but both have their drawbacks. The uniformity of multi-layer graphene is still questionable, and single layer graphene stacks require many transfer processes to achieve sufficiently low sheet resistance. In this work, bilayer graphene film grown with low pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a transparent conductor for the first time. The technique was demonstrated to be highly efficient in fabricating a conductive and uniform transparent conductor compared to multi-layer or single layer graphene. Four transfers of bilayer graphene yielded a transparent conducting film with a sheet resistance of 180 Ω(□) at a transmittance of 83%. In addition, bilayer graphene films transferred onto the plastic substrate showed remarkable robustness against bending, with sheet resistance change less than 15% at 2.14% strain, a 20-fold improvement over commercial indium oxide films. PMID:22146772

  13. Memory switches based on metal oxide thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    MnO.sub.2-x thin films (12) exhibit irreversible memory switching (28) with an OFF/ON resistance ratio of at least about 10.sup.3 and the tailorability of ON state (20) resistance. Such films are potentially extremely useful as a connection element in a variety of microelectronic circuits and arrays (24). Such films provide a pre-tailored, finite, non-volatile resistive element at a desired place in an electric circuit, which can be electrically turned OFF (22) or disconnected as desired, by application of an electrical pulse. Microswitch structures (10) constitute the thin film element, contacted by a pair of separate electrodes (16a, 16b) and have a finite, pre-selected ON resistance which is ideally suited, for example, as a programmable binary synaptic connection for electronic implementation of neural network architectures. The MnO.sub.2-x microswitch is non-volatile, patternable, insensitive to ultraviolet light, and adherent to a variety of insulating substrates (14), such as glass and silicon dioxide-coated silicon substrates.

  14. Gafchromic EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode with a novel plan-based calibration method

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, I.; Hartman, V.; Hudej, R.; Strojnik, A.; Casar, B.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose:A dosimetric system formed by Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film and Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was commissioned for dosimetry. In this paper, several open questions concerning the commissioning of radiochromic films for dosimetry were addressed: (a) is it possible to employ this dosimetric system in reflection mode; (b) if so, can the methods used in transmission mode also be used in reflection mode; (c) is it possible to obtain accurate absolute dose measurements with Gafchromic EBT2 films; (d) which calibration method should be followed; (e) which calibration models should be used; and (f) does three-color channel dosimetry offer a significant improvement over single channel dosimetry. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify these questions. Methods: In this study, films were scanned in reflection mode, the effect of surrounding film was evaluated and the feasibility of EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode was studied. EBT2's response homogeneity has been reported to lead to excessive dose uncertainties. To overcome this problem, a new plan-based calibration method was implemented. Plan-based calibration can use every pixel and each of the three color channels of the scanned film to obtain the parameters of the calibration model. A model selection analysis was conducted to select lateral correction and sensitometric curve models. The commonly used calibration with fragments was compared with red-channel plan-based calibration and with three-channel plan-based calibration. Results: No effect of surrounding film was found in this study. The film response inhomogeneity in EBT2 films was found to be important not only due to differences in the fog but also due to differences in sensitivity. The best results for lateral corrections were obtained using absolute corrections independent of the dose. With respect to the sensitometric curves, an empirical polynomial fit of order 4 was found to obtain results equivalent to a gamma-distributed single hit model based on physical assumptions. Three-channel dosimetry was found to be substantially superior to red-channel dosimetry. Conclusions: Reflection mode with Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film was found to be a viable alternative to transmission mode. The same methods that are used in transmission mode can be followed in reflection mode. A novel plan-based method was developed for calibration and multichannel dosimetry. This novel method offers increased robustness against film response inhomogeneities and reduces considerably the time required for calibration.

  15. Verification of Gamma Knife extend system based fractionated treatment planning using EBT2 film

    SciTech Connect

    Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Bisht, Raj Kishor

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This paper presents EBT2 film verification of fractionated treatment planning with the Gamma Knife (GK) extend system, a relocatable frame system for multiple-fraction or serial multiple-session radiosurgery.Methods: A human head shaped phantom simulated the verification process for fractionated Gamma Knife treatment. Phantom preparation for Extend Frame based treatment planning involved creating a dental impression, fitting the phantom to the frame system, and acquiring a stereotactic computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan (Siemens, Emotion 6) of the phantom was obtained with following parameters: Tube voltage—110 kV, tube current—280 mA, pixel size—0.5 × 0.5 and 1 mm slice thickness. A treatment plan with two 8 mm collimator shots and three sectors blocking in each shot was made. Dose prescription of 4 Gy at 100% was delivered for the first fraction out of the two fractions planned. Gafchromic EBT2 film (ISP Wayne, NJ) was used as 2D verification dosimeter in this process. Films were cut and placed inside the film insert of the phantom for treatment dose delivery. Meanwhile a set of films from the same batch were exposed from 0 to 12 Gy doses for calibration purposes. An EPSON (Expression 10000 XL) scanner was used for scanning the exposed films in transparency mode. Scanned films were analyzed with inhouse written MATLAB codes.Results: Gamma index analysis of film measurement in comparison with TPS calculated dose resulted in high pass rates >90% for tolerance criteria of 1%/1 mm. The isodose overlay and linear dose profiles of film measured and computed dose distribution on sagittal and coronal plane were in close agreement.Conclusions: Through this study, the authors propose treatment verification QA method for Extend frame based fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery using EBT2 film.

  16. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  17. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  18. Bipolar strain sensor based on an ultra-thin film of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong-Won; Kim, Beom Soo; Park, Serin; Choi, Won-Jin; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2014-02-01

    A bipolar strain sensor based on an ultra-thin film of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been fabricated. First, a random network of SWNTs was grown on a Si substrate with thermal oxide by using chemical vapor deposition and then transferred to a transparent poly(dimethyl)siloxane (PDMS) film. A mechanical load was applied by pressing the PDMS-SWNT film with a blunt micrometer tip, and its electrical conductance was found to decrease linearly with increasing pressure. Upward bending of the flexible PDMS-SWNT film was found to yield increases in conductance whereas downward bending of the film was found to result in decreases in the conductance. We modeled the SWNT network on the PDMS film with a two-dimensional percolation system, and found that the increases (decreases) in the conductance of the film upon bending could be explained in terms of stick-density changes in the 2-D percolation system. Finally, because PDMS swells with certain organic vapors, a PDMS-SWNT film can be used as a chemical sensor for volatile organic compounds. Unlike for three-dimensional composites of SWNTs and polymers, the bipolar response upon bending and simple fabrication process for the system introduced here mean that it is an attractive candidate for tactile and motion sensor applications.

  19. Carbon films from polyacrylonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C.L.; Sylwester, A.P.; Salgado, L.V.

    1989-03-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films have been fabricated by both spin and solvent casting techniques, and pyrolyzed to produce carbon films in the thickness range of 200--50 000 A. These films have higher electrical conductivities than carbon films produced from most other precursors at similar temperatures. The chemical structure of the films at different stages of processing was investigated by UV, IR, Raman, and XPS spectroscopies. An extra degree of control over the final electrical conductivity was obtained by varying the PAN content of copolymer precursors. Oxidation rates and an activation energy were determined. Finally, processing techniques are described which allow both dry and wet film transfer and lithographic patterning.

  20. Informing Selection of Nanomaterial Concentrations for ToxCast In Vitro Testing based on Occupational Exposure Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little justification is generally provided for selection of in vitro assay testing concentrations for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Selection of concentration levels for hazard evaluation based on real-world exposure scenarios is desirable. We reviewed published ENM concentr...

  1. Investigating the nature of graphene-based films prepared by vacuum filtration of graphene dispersions.

    PubMed

    Yi, Min; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei; Shen, Zhigang; Zheng, Yiting; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2014-07-01

    Though the graphene-based films prepared by vacuum filtration of graphene dispersions can be well and easily prepared so far and show great prospects in conductive, transparent, and flexible devices and coatings, the nature of these films has been rarely investigated. In order to reveal how graphene flakes constitute these films, herein we prepared a thin graphene-based film by vacuum filtering graphene dispersions and characterized the film by diverse techniques. Microscopic analyses evidenced the layer structure nature of the film. Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction results indicate that the film is neither graphene nor graphite, but intrinsically a graphene block constituted by numerous graphene flakes which are randomly stacked. Though aggregation of graphene flakes happens in the filtration process, the aggregation is not a process to drive graphene flakes stacked in Bernal AB style to form bulk graphite. The adjoining graphene flakes are poorly coupled, likely due to the interlayer adventitious impurities introduced from liquid-phase processing. PMID:24757968

  2. High melt strength, tear resistant blown film based on poly(lactic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Neil R.; Plimmer, Peter N.; Tanner, Chris

    2015-05-01

    A major problem associated with the commercial manufacture of thin films from PLA is inferior processing characteristics on blown film lines compared to low density polyethylene. PLA has poor melt strength (leading to bubble instability) and develops a permanent crease in the flattened film as it exits the tower of the film line. In addition, the thin film product has poor tear strength and an unacceptable `noise' level when converted into flexible packaging. Furthermore, fabricated articles based on PLA are known to show an unattractive tendency toward dimensional instability. This behaviour is associated with `cold crystallization', a phenomenon which also causes exudation of any plasticizer added for improving flexibility. Blow moulded articles based on PLA also exhibit dimensional sensitivity above 60°C. All of these issues have been overcome by the technology described in this paper. This has been accomplished without loss of the valuable compostability characteristic of PLA; this was confirmed by evaluation of film in a commercial composting operation. These results have been achieved through novel reactive compounding technology which: (a) Creates a PLA-rich structure containing long chain crosslinks, (b) generates a low glass transition temperature phase covalently bonded to the PLA structure, and (c) provides a material which performs like LDPE in a blown film manufacturing operation. The technology developed is covered by NZ Patent 580231 (3). The patent is held by UniServices Ltd, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

  3. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Kotaro; Akiyoshi, Toshiki; Azuma, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ohgai, Takeshi; Morimura, Takao; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ṡ 4H2O, NiCl2 ṡ 6H2O and CoCl2 ṡ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 %) in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  4. Zein-based films and their usage for controlled delivery: Origin, classes and current landscape.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Lili; Che, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Heng; Shi, Nianqiu; Li, Chunlei; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2015-05-28

    Zein is a class of alcohol-soluble prolamine proteins present in maize endosperm, which was approved as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) excipient in 1985 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) for film coating of pharmaceuticals, e.g., tablets. Despite its long-term application in tablet production, effects of zein coating on tablet properties are still not fully understood. Moreover, many studies have also been conducted to illustrate its potential as an active ingredient of direct compressed tablets and film-based delivery carriers. In addition, the use of zein as a functional film coating material for new biomedical applications was also widely investigated in recent reports, which involved medical devices, nanoparticles, quantum dots and nanofibers. In this review, the present status of zein in the form of a thin film and uniform layer for use as a biomedical material is discussed. In addition, studies related to the behaviors and properties of zein films are also summarized and analyzed based on published works to gain mechanistic insights into the relationship between zein film and various improved profiles. This review will benefit future prospects of the use of zein film in drug delivery and biomedical applications. PMID:25828699

  5. Ammonia gas sensors based on poly (3-hexylthiophene)-molybdenum disulfide film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; Xie, Guangzhong; Su, Yuanjie; Hongfei, Du; Ye, Zongbiao; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-02-01

    In this work, in order to enhance the recovery performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) ammonia (NH3) sensors, poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) were combined as sensitive materials. Different sensitive film structures as active layers of OTFTs, i.e., P3HT-MoS2 composite film, P3HT/MoS2 bilayer film and MoS2/P3HT bilayer film were fabricated by spray technology. OTFT gas sensors based on P3HT-MoS2 composite film showed a shorter recovery time than others when the ammonia concentration changed from 4 to 20 ppm. Specifically, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and UV-visible absorption were employed to explore the interface properties between P3HT and single-layer MoS2. Through the complementary characterization, a mechanism based on charge transfer is proposed to explain the physical originality of these OTFT gas sensors: closer interlayer d-spacing and better π-π stacking of the P3HT chains in composite film have ensured a short recovery time of OTFT gas sensors. Moreover, sensing mechanisms of OTFTs were further studied by comparing the device performance in the presence of nitrogen or dry air as a carrier gas. This work not only strengthens the fundamental understanding of the sensing mechanism, but provides a promising approach to optimizing the OTFT gas sensors.

  6. Ammonia gas sensors based on poly (3-hexylthiophene)-molybdenum disulfide film transistors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Xie, Guangzhong; Su, Yuanjie; Hongfei, Du; Ye, Zongbiao; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-02-12

    In this work, in order to enhance the recovery performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) ammonia (NH3) sensors, poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) were combined as sensitive materials. Different sensitive film structures as active layers of OTFTs, i.e., P3HT-MoS2 composite film, P3HT/MoS2 bilayer film and MoS2/P3HT bilayer film were fabricated by spray technology. OTFT gas sensors based on P3HT-MoS2 composite film showed a shorter recovery time than others when the ammonia concentration changed from 4 to 20 ppm. Specifically, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and UV-visible absorption were employed to explore the interface properties between P3HT and single-layer MoS2. Through the complementary characterization, a mechanism based on charge transfer is proposed to explain the physical originality of these OTFT gas sensors: closer interlayer d-spacing and better π-π stacking of the P3HT chains in composite film have ensured a short recovery time of OTFT gas sensors. Moreover, sensing mechanisms of OTFTs were further studied by comparing the device performance in the presence of nitrogen or dry air as a carrier gas. This work not only strengthens the fundamental understanding of the sensing mechanism, but provides a promising approach to optimizing the OTFT gas sensors. PMID:26762711

  7. Characteristics of deep penetration laser welding of dissimilar metal Ni-based cast superalloy K418 and alloy steel 42CrMo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiu-Bo; Pang, Ming; Zhang, Zhen-Guo; Ning, Wei-Jian; Zheng, Cai-Yun; Yu, Gang

    2007-09-01

    Experimental trials of autogenous deep penetration welding between dissimilar cast Ni-based superalloy K418 and alloy steel 42CrMo flat plates with 5.0 mm thickness were conducted using a 3 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser. The influences of laser output power, welding velocity and defocusing distance on the morphology, welding depth and width as well as quality of the welded seam were investigated. Results show that full keyhole welding is not formed on both K418 and 42CrMo side, simultaneously, due to the relatively low output power. Partial fusion is observed on the welded seam near 42CrMo side because of the large disparity of thermal-physical and high-temperature mechanical properties of these two materials. The microhardness of the laser-welded joint was also examined and analyzed. It is suggested that applying negative defocusing in the range of Raylei length can increase the welding depth and improve the coupling efficiency of the laser materials interaction.

  8. Three-dimensional registration of synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography images with advanced laboratory micro-computed tomography data from murine kidney casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, Peter; Hieber, Simone E.; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Khimchenko, Anna; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Olgac, Ufuk; Marmaras, Anastasios; Kuo, Willy; Meyer, Eric P.; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia; Ehrbar, Stefanie; Müller, Bert

    2014-09-01

    Malfunction of oxygen regulation in kidney and liver may lead to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In kidney, it is hypothesized that renal gas shunting from arteries to veins eliminates excess oxygen. Such shunting is highly dependent on the structure of the renal vascular network. The vascular tree has so far not been quantified under maintenance of its connectivity as three-dimensional imaging of the vessel tree down to the smallest capillaries, which in mouse model are smaller than 5 μm in diameter, is a challenging task. An established protocol uses corrosion casts and applies synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography (SRμCT), which provides the desired spatial resolution with the necessary contrast. However, SRμCT is expensive and beamtime access is limited. We show here that measurements with a phoenix nanotomrm (General Electric, Wunstorf, Germany) can provide comparable results to those obtained with SRμCT, except for regions with small vessel structures, where the signal-to-noise level was significantly reduced. For this purpose the nanotom®m measurement was compared with its corresponding measurement acquired at the beamline P05 at PETRA III at DESY, Hamburg, Germany.

  9. Reactive coating of soybean oil-based polymer on nanofibrillated cellulose film for water vapor barrier packaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Weiwei; Gong, Glen

    2014-10-13

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) easily forms a high strength film but is unable to withstand the influence of water vapor when used in high moisture situations. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a NFC film was as high as 5088 g/m(2)24h (38 °C, 90% RH). The addition of beeswax latex in a NFC casting film (NFX) lowered the WVTR to 3918 g/m(2)24h. To further reduce the WVTR, a coating agent comprised of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was applied onto the NFX film using a rod coater. A combination of the suitable AESO/APTS ratio, initiator dosing, curing time and temperature could reduce the WVTR to 188 g/m(2) 24h when the coat weight was 5 g/m(2). Moreover, the coated NFX film was highly hydrophobic along with the improved transparency and thermal stability. This biodegradable polymer-coated NFC film can be used as potential packaging barrier in certain areas. PMID:25037383

  10. Brain-based decoding of mentally imagined film clips and sounds reveals experience-based information patterns in film professionals.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Aline W; Valente, Giancarlo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Tikka, Pia

    2016-04-01

    In the perceptual domain, it has been shown that the human brain is strongly shaped through experience, leading to expertise in highly-skilled professionals. What has remained unclear is whether specialization also shapes brain networks underlying mental imagery. In our fMRI study, we aimed to uncover modality-specific mental imagery specialization of film experts. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis we decoded from brain activity of professional cinematographers and sound designers whether they were imagining sounds or images of particular film clips. In each expert group distinct multi-voxel patterns, specific for the modality of their expertise, were found during classification of imagery modality. These patterns were mainly localized in the occipito-temporal and parietal cortex for cinematographers and in the auditory cortex for sound designers. We also found generalized patterns across perception and imagery that were distinct for the two expert groups: they involved frontal cortex for the cinematographers and temporal cortex for the sound designers. Notably, the mental representations of film clips and sounds of cinematographers contained information that went beyond modality-specificity. We were able to successfully decode the implicit presence of film genre from brain activity during mental imagery in cinematographers. The results extend existing neuroimaging literature on expertise into the domain of mental imagery and show that experience in visual versus auditory imagery can alter the representation of information in modality-specific association cortices. PMID:26826515

  11. Aligned and exchange-coupled FePt-based films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; George, T. A.; Skomski, Ralph; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2011-10-24

    Two-phase nanostructures of hard L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt and soft iron-rich fcc Fe-Pt are investigated experimentally and by model calculations. The Fe-Pt thin films were produced by epitaxial co-sputtering onto MgO and have a thickness of about 10 nm. They form two-phase dots that cover a large fraction of the surface but are separated from each other. X-ray diffraction and TEM show that the c-axis of the phase FePt is aligned in the direction normal to the film plane. The experimental and theoretical hysteresis loops indicate archetypical exchange coupling, and excellent magnetic properties are obtained. The largest values of coercivity, saturation magnetization, and nominal energy product obtained in the samples studied are 51 kOe, 1287 emu/cc, and 54 MGOe, respectively.

  12. Laser Deposition of YBCO Films Onto Ni-Based Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoro, M.; Coppedè, N.; Camposeo, A.; Labardi, M.; Pardi, L.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.; Arimondo, E.; Baldini, A.; Botarelli, A.; Lancia, M.; Masciarelli, G.

    We have applied pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to fabricate YBCO/YSZ films (short length) onto biaxially textured NiFe substrates. Macroscopic characterization of the samples has been carried out by electrical measurements, XRD patterns and pole figures. Our best films are characterized by Tcs around 89 K and transition widths around 5-6 K. Bragg-Brentano spectra and pole figures acquired on the {111} peak for YSZ and {013} for YBCO show the achievement of the correct crystalline structure and stoichiometry both in YSZ and in YBCO layers. They are largely in-plane textured (respectively (001) <110> for YSZ and (001) <100> for YBCO), and the superconducting YBCO layer exhibits a relatively low mosaicity. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed the presence of large grains (1-2 μm typical dimensions), and the occurrence of a complex morphology in the YBCO layer.

  13. Chemical sensing employingpH sensitive emeraldine base thin film for carbon dioxide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai

    Respiration, or CO2 evolution, is a universal indicator for all the biological activities. Among many potential applications, the measurement of CO2 evolution has been found to be a rapid and nondestructive means for examining microbial contamination of food. The sensor developed in this work consists of a thin emeraldine base-polyaniline (EB-PAni) film. In the first half of the project the effect of carbon dioxide over the conductivity of a composite film of emeraldine base polyaniline and poly(vinyl alcohol) in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) respectively was tested. Argon gas or mixture of argon and 5% CO2 were circulated through the glass cell containing the polymer film deposited on interdigitated electrode and exposed to specific humidity levels fixed by aqueous supersaturated salt solutions. In the second half of the project, a thin emeraldine base film in NMP was directly deposited on interdigitated electrode and the respective sensor inserted in water. Carbonic acid solutions of various pHs were generated by bubbling specific mixtures of carbon dioxide and argon. Conductivity measurements were performed by impedance spectroscopy throughout the project. The sensing mechanism is based on intermediate stages of the transformation of the emeraldine base polyaniline to a conductive salt type (ES-PAni). This EB-ES transformation is the consequence of the exposure of EB-PAni to a protonic acid and is accompanied by a change in the conductivity of the polymer film. Carbonic acid, unfortunately, is a very weak acid and is unable to induce a conductivity change, but the intermediate steps that predetermine this transformation are detected by impedance spectroscopy even when the overall conductivity of the film is unchanged. The composite thin film developed in the first part of the project showed poor sensing characteristics: limited dynamic range, drift, instability and slow time response. However, the sensor design employed in the second half of this work, coupled with impedance spectroscopy measurements, revealed valuable information about conduction mechanisms at pH levels were the overall conductivity of the film remained unchanged. Typical impedance spectra for the emeraldine thin films for a frequency sweep between 3.2 E7 to 1 Hz shows a single semicircle. The overall conductivity of the film (5x10-4 S/cm) does not change when CO 2 is bubbled through the water in which the sensor is immersed, but an additional semicircle starts to appear at low (less than 200 Hz) frequency corresponding to lowering the pH of the solution below 5.0. The original semicircle diminishes in size but maintains its initial peak frequency. The EB film is very sensitive to pH changes, therefore an additional semicircle appears in unpurified argon gas due to the reduction of the pH of water solution to 4.65. The same mechanism is displayed in hydrochloric acid solutions of various pH. The formation of the second semicircle depends on the initial conductivity of the emeraldine base film, a film displaying an initial conductivity of 4.8 x 10-3 S/cm forming the second semicircle at a pH of 5.85. The appearance of the second semicircle is most likely due to a preferential protonation in the insulating matrix of the polymer film. The overall conductivity of the film increases when the level of protonation in the insulating portion of the film reached a level close to the protonation level in the scattered metallic islands, allowing the electron-hopping mechanism to became active. The sensor output is stable and reproducible even after 11 months passed from the polymer film deposition.

  14. Oxygen reduction activity of N-doped carbon-based films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Yoshikawa, Masahito

    2010-12-01

    Carbon-based films with nitrogen species on their surface were prepared on a glassy carbon (GC) substrate for application as a non-platinum cathode catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Cobalt and carbon were deposited in the presence of N 2 gas using a pulsed laser deposition method and then the metal Co was removed by HCl-washing treatment. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was electrochemically determined using a rotating disk electrode system in which the film samples on the GC substrate were replaceable. The ORR activity increased with the temperature of the GC substrate during deposition. A carbon-based film prepared at 600 °C in the presence of N 2 at 66.7 Pa showed the highest ORR activity among the tested samples (0.66 V vs. NHE). This film was composed of amorphous carbons doped with pyridine type nitrogen atoms on its surface.

  15. Hydrogen gas sensor based on palladium and yttrium alloy ultrathin film.

    PubMed

    Yi, Liu; You-Ping, Chen; Han, Song; Gang, Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Compared with the other hydrogen sensors, optical fiber hydrogen sensors based on thin films exhibits inherent safety, small volume, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and distributed remote sensing capability, but slower response characteristics. To improve response and recovery rate of the sensors, a novel reflection-type optical fiber hydrogen gas sensor with a 10 nm palladium and yttrium alloy thin film is fabricated. The alloy thin film shows a good hydrogen sensing property for hydrogen-containing atmosphere and a complete restorability for dry air at room temperature. The variation in response value of the sensor linearly increases with increased natural logarithm of hydrogen concentration (ln[H(2)]). The shortest response time and recovery response time to 4% hydrogen are 6 and 8 s, respectively. The hydrogen sensors based on Pd(0.91)Y(0.09) alloy ultrathin film have potential applications in hydrogen detection and measurement. PMID:23278019

  16. Comparison among performance of strain sensors based on different semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Mariana A.; Furlan, Humber; Pessoa, Rodrigo S.

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the piezoresistive properties of different semiconductor thin films, with chemical and mechanical stability, have been studied in order to use them as base material in the fabrication of strain sensors for high temperature applications. In this context, this work compares the performance of strain sensors based on sputter-deposited semiconductor thin films such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), silicon carbide (SiC) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) operated at temperatures up to 250°C. The structure of each sensor consists of four thin-film resistors, configured in Wheatstone bridge, with Ti/Au electrical contacts. These strain sensors reported here differ from our previous works in the types of materials used and in the quantity/configuration of the thin-film resistors. The strain sensors were fabricated by photolithography techiques in conjunction with lift-off processes. The beam-bending experiments were performed to characterize the sensors.

  17. Predicting the optoelectronic properties of nanowire films based on control of length polydispersity.

    PubMed

    Large, Matthew J; Burn, Jake; King, Alice A; Ogilvie, Sean P; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the optoelectronic properties of percolating thin films of silver nanowires (AgNWs) are predominantly dependent upon the length distribution of the constituent AgNWs. A generalized expression is derived to describe the dependence of both sheet resistance and optical transmission on this distribution. We experimentally validate the relationship using ultrasonication to controllably vary the length distribution. These results have major implications where nanowire-based films are a desirable material for transparent conductor applications; in particular when application-specific performance criteria must be met. It is of particular interest to have a simple method to generalize the properties of bulk films from an understanding of the base material, as this will speed up the optimisation process. It is anticipated that these results may aid in the adoption of nanowire films in industry, for applications such as touch sensors or photovoltaic electrode structures. PMID:27158132

  18. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  19. Predicting the optoelectronic properties of nanowire films based on control of length polydispersity

    PubMed Central

    Large, Matthew J.; Burn, Jake; King, Alice A.; Ogilvie, Sean P.; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the optoelectronic properties of percolating thin films of silver nanowires (AgNWs) are predominantly dependent upon the length distribution of the constituent AgNWs. A generalized expression is derived to describe the dependence of both sheet resistance and optical transmission on this distribution. We experimentally validate the relationship using ultrasonication to controllably vary the length distribution. These results have major implications where nanowire-based films are a desirable material for transparent conductor applications; in particular when application-specific performance criteria must be met. It is of particular interest to have a simple method to generalize the properties of bulk films from an understanding of the base material, as this will speed up the optimisation process. It is anticipated that these results may aid in the adoption of nanowire films in industry, for applications such as touch sensors or photovoltaic electrode structures. PMID:27158132

  20. Synthesis and Electrochemical Behavior of Ceria Based Bi-Layer Films by Dip Coating Technique.

    PubMed

    Chinnu, M Karl; Anand, K Vijai; Kumar, R Mohan; Alagesan, T; Jayavel, R

    2015-01-01

    Ceria based bi-layer films of CeO2-CdS and CeO2-TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel based hydrothermal route combined with dip-coating. The synthesized samples were subjected to various characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence studies. The prepared materials were dissolved in naffion solution and disposed as a thin film on glassy carbon electrode by dip coating technique. Electrochemical Li+ intercalation/deintercalation was performed by cyclic voltammetry and these results indicate that the CeO2/LiClO4 system is electrochemically reversible. The total intercalation/deintercalation of the CeO2 film, CeO2-CdS and CeO2-TiO2 bi-layer films was determined by cyclic voltammetry, which showed increased charge storage capacity. PMID:26328361

  1. Heterojunction thin films based on multifunctional metal oxides for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, M.; Soundararajan, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Marikkannan, M.; Mayandi, J.

    2014-04-24

    Metal oxides based multifunctional heterojunction thin films of ZnO/SnO{sub 2} and ZnO/SnO{sub 2}/CuO QDs were prepared by spin-coating technique. The crystallographic properties and the surface morphologies of the films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The optical absorption studies revealed that the film thickness has considerable effect on the band gap values and is found to be in the range of 3.73–3.48 eV. The photoluminescence spectra showed several weak visible emission peaks related to the deep level defects (450-575 nm). Finally, the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristic of ZnO/SnO{sub 2}/CuO QDs (ZSCI) based heterojunction thin film coated on ITO is also reported.

  2. Mimetic marine antifouling films based on fluorine-containing polymethacrylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qianhui; Li, Hongqi; Xian, Chunying; Yang, Yihang; Song, Yanxi; Cong, Peihong

    2015-07-01

    Novel methacrylate copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl pendant side groups were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl methacrylamide (DMA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFME) with α,α‧-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. A series of copolymers with different content of TFME ranging from 3% to 95% were obtained by changing the molar ratio of DMA to TFME from 25:1 to 1:25. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the copolymers, which displayed a certain degree of hardness and outstanding thermostability reflected from their high glass transition temperatures. The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals due to introduction of catechol groups as multivalent hydrogen bonding anchors. Water contact angle on the polymer films was up to 117.4°. Chemicals resistance test manifested that the polymer films possessed excellent resistance to water, salt, acid and alkali. Moreover, the polymer films displayed fair antifouling property and might be used as promising environmentally friendly marine antifouling coatings.

  3. The potential of centrifugal casting for the production of near net shape uranium parts

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.

    1993-09-01

    This report was written to provide a detailed summary of a literature survey on the near net shape casting process of centrifugal casting. Centrifugal casting is one potential casting method which could satisfy the requirements of the LANL program titled Near Net Shape Casting of Uranium for Reduced Environmental, Safety and Health Impact. In this report, centrifugal casting techniques are reviewed and an assessment of the ability to achieve the near net shape and waste minimization goals of the LANL program by using these techniques is made. Based upon the literature reviewed, it is concluded that if properly modified for operation within a vacuum, vertical or horizontal centrifugation could be used to safely cast uranium for the production of hollow, cylindrical parts. However, for the production of components of geometries other than hollow tubes, vertical centrifugation could be combined with other casting methods such as semi-permanent mold or investment casting.

  4. Conductivity of Thin Films Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybakov, M. S.; Kosobutsky, A. V.; Sevostyanov, O. G.; Russakov, D. M.; Lomakin, M. V.; Chirkova, I. M.; Shandakov, S. D.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical and optical properties of thin films of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) obtained by aerosol chemical vapor deposition using ethanol, ferrocene, and sulfur are studied. Structural and geometrical characteristics of the synthesis products are determined by the methods of Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of sulfur on the properties of the SWCNTs and thin films based on them is found.

  5. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  6. Sealing micropores in thin castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

  7. The mechanisms of plant stress mitigation by kaolin-based particle films and its applications in horticultural and agricultural crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kaolin-based particle films have utility in reducing insect, heat, light, and uv stress in plants due to the reflective nature of the particles. Particle films with a residue density of 1 to 3 g/ square meter have been evaluated in a range of crops and agricultural environments. The particle film ...

  8. An Iron-based Film for Highly Efficient Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution from Neutral Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxing; Wu, Yizhen; Han, Yongzhen; Lin, Xiaohuan; Sun, Junliang; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Rui

    2015-10-01

    An ultrathin Fe-based film was prepared by electrodeposition from an Fe(II) solution through a fast and simple cyclic voltammetry method. The extremely low Fe loading of 12.3 nmol cm(-2) on indium tin oxide electrodes is crucial for high atom efficiency and transparence of the resulted film. This Fe-based film was shown to be a very efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution from neutral aqueous solution with remarkable activity and stability. In a 34 h controlled potential electrolysis at 1.45 V (vs NHE) and pH 7.0, impressive turnover number of 5.2 × 10(4) and turnover frequency of 1528 h(-1) were obtained. To the best of our knowledge, these values represent one of the highest among electrodeposited catalyst films for water oxidation under comparable conditions. The morphology and the composition of the catalyst film was determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which all confirmed the deposition of Fe-based materials with Fe(III) oxidation state on the electrode. This study is significant because of the use of iron, the fast and simple cyclic voltammetry electrodeposition, the extremely low catalyst loading and thus the transparency of the catalyst film, the remarkable activity and stability, and the oxygen evolution in neutral aqueous media. PMID:26368828

  9. Understanding the distribution of natural wax in starch-wax films using synchrotron-based FTIR (S-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Muscat, Delina; Tobin, Mark J; Guo, Qipeng; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-02-15

    High amylose starch-glycerol (HAG) films were produced incorporating beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax in the presence and absence of Tween-80 in order to determine the distribution of wax in the films during the film formation process. The distribution of these waxes within the film was studied using Synchrotron based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (S-FTIR) which provided 2D mapping along the thickness of the film. The incorporation of 5% and 10% wax in HAG films produced randomly distributed wax or wax-rich domains, respectively, within these films. Consequently, the addition of these waxes to HAG increased the surface roughness and hydrophobicity of these films. The addition of Tween-80 caused variations in wax-rich bands within the films. The HAG+carnauba wax+Tween-80 films exhibited domed wax-rich domains displayed with high integrated CH2 absorption value at the interior of the films, rougher surface and higher contact angle values than the other films. The S-FTIR 2D images indicated that the distribution of wax in starch-wax films correlated with the roughness and hydrophobicity of the starch-wax films. PMID:24507264

  10. Composite film polarizer based on the oriented assembly of electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongliang; Ma, Zhijun; Peng, Mingying; He, Xin; Zhang, Hang; Li, Yang; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-04-01

    Polarizers are widely applied in antiglare glasses, planner displays, photography filters and optical communications, etc. In this investigation, we propose a new strategy for the preparation of a flexible film polarizer based on the electrospinning technique. An aligned assembly of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) nanofibers was electrospun and collected by a fast-rotating drum, then soaked in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solution and dried thoroughly to obtain a transparent PVA-PMMA composite film polarizer. The morphology, structure and optical performance of the PVA nanofibers and the film polarizers were characterized with a scanning electron microscope, UV-vis-IR spectrometer and polarized Raman spectra, etc. The PVA-PMMA film polarizer demonstrated efficient polarizing activity toward visible and near-infrared light, while keeping fair transparency in the range of 400-1400 nm. Due to the protection from the hydrophobic PMMA matrix, the PVA-PMMA film polarizers show high moisture resistance, making it applicable in a humid environment. Considering the scalability and versatility of the strategy employed here, the PVA-PMMA film polarizer prepared could replace the conventional film polarizers in a wide range of applications. PMID:26894877

  11. Characterization of constitutional liquid film migration in nickel-base alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Acoff, V.L.; Thompson, R.G.

    1996-09-01

    When multiphase alloys are rapidly heated, it is possible to cause melting of the interface between phases. This is called constitutional liquation if, during melting, the bulk composition is in a nonliquid region of the phase diagram but the tie-line between the liquating phases passes through a liquid region. The liquid produced during constitutional liquation can spread along grain boundaries and promote liquid film migration (LFM). This is known as constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), which is thermodynamically similar to liquid film migration; however, mechanistically there are significant differences. Nickel-base alloy 718 has been studied to show the features of migration that are unique to CLFM. Experimentation consisted of heat-treating rods of alloy 718 to promote the trapping of niobium carbide particles on the grain boundaries. These samples were then subjected to isothermal treatments above their constitutional-liquation temperature, which produced CLFM of the grain boundaries. The movement of the liquid films away from their centers of curvature, the formation of a new solid solution behind the migrated liquid films, and the reversals of curvature of the migrated liquid films confirmed that CLFM was the phenomenon observed. The concentration of niobium behind the migrated liquid films for isothermal treatments below the solidus temperature was shown to be greater than the niobium concentration in the matrix. Above the solidus temperature, there was no increase in niobium concentration. The validity of the coherency strain hypothesis as the driving force for CLFM in alloy 718 is discussed.

  12. Composite film polarizer based on the oriented assembly of electrospun nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhongliang; Ma, Zhijun; Peng, Mingying; He, Xin; Zhang, Hang; Li, Yang; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-04-01

    Polarizers are widely applied in antiglare glasses, planner displays, photography filters and optical communications, etc. In this investigation, we propose a new strategy for the preparation of a flexible film polarizer based on the electrospinning technique. An aligned assembly of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) nanofibers was electrospun and collected by a fast-rotating drum, then soaked in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solution and dried thoroughly to obtain a transparent PVA-PMMA composite film polarizer. The morphology, structure and optical performance of the PVA nanofibers and the film polarizers were characterized with a scanning electron microscope, UV-vis-IR spectrometer and polarized Raman spectra, etc. The PVA-PMMA film polarizer demonstrated efficient polarizing activity toward visible and near-infrared light, while keeping fair transparency in the range of 400-1400 nm. Due to the protection from the hydrophobic PMMA matrix, the PVA-PMMA film polarizers show high moisture resistance, making it applicable in a humid environment. Considering the scalability and versatility of the strategy employed here, the PVA-PMMA film polarizer prepared could replace the conventional film polarizers in a wide range of applications.

  13. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  14. Antimicrobial effects of alginate-based film containing essential oils for the preservation of whole beef muscle.

    PubMed

    Oussalah, Mounia; Caillet, Stéphane; Salmiéri, Stéphane; Saucier, Linda; Lacroix, Monique

    2006-10-01

    Alginate-based edible films containing 1% (wt/vol) essential oils of Spanish oregano, Chinese cinnamon, or savory were immersed in 2% (wt/vol) or 20% (wt/vol) CaCl2 solution and then applied to beef muscle slices to control the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. Whole beef muscle surfaces were inoculated with one of these strains at 10(3) CFU/cm2. During the 5 days of storage, samples of meat were obtained periodically for microbiological analysis. The availability of active compounds from essential oils present in films was evaluated by determination of total phenolic compounds for oregano- and savory-based films and of total aldehydes for cinnamon-based films during storage. After 5 days of storage, films containing oregano or cinnamon essential oils were the most effective against Salmonella Typhimurium regardless of the type of pretreatment used (2 or 20% CaCl2). During the same period, meat inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and coated with films treated with 2% CaCl2 had significantly fewer bacteria (P < or = 0.05) when oregano-based films were used than when cinnamon- and savory-based films were used. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration was higher at the end of the storage period when films were pretreated with 20% CaCl2. Evaluation of the active compounds in films revealed that availability in oregano- and savory-based films was significantly more important (P < or = 0.05) than that in cinnamon-based films regardless of the type of pretreatment used (2 or 20% CaCl2). At the end of storage, release rates of 40, 60, and 77% were noted in oregano-, savory-, and cinnamon-based films in 2% CaCl2 and rates of 65, 62, and 90% were noted in the same films in 20% CaCl2. PMID:17066914

  15. Mix/Cast Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallentine, M.

    2005-01-01

    Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

  16. A New Method Based on the F-Curve for Characterizing Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting Tundishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxia; Cui, Heng; Liu, Yang; Tian, Enhua; Du, Jianxin

    2016-04-01

    "Combined Model" is often applied to characterize the fluid flow in tundishes. There are different ways to manage the calculation of this model, while the most recently used is introduced by SAHAI and EMI. But this approach may lead to incorrect results in some special cases. In this paper, a new method based on the F-Curve is proposed to analyze the fluid flow in tundishes, and the relationship between E-Curve and F-Curve is concerned. In the end, their application to tundish fluid flow has been outlined. The dead volume calculated by the new method is much close to the results of dye experiment and the numerical simulation.

  17. A New Method Based on the F-Curve for Characterizing Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting Tundishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxia; Cui, Heng; Liu, Yang; Tian, Enhua; Du, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    "Combined Model" is often applied to characterize the fluid flow in tundishes. There are different ways to manage the calculation of this model, while the most recently used is introduced by SAHAI and EMI. But this approach may lead to incorrect results in some special cases. In this paper, a new method based on the F-Curve is proposed to analyze the fluid flow in tundishes, and the relationship between E-Curve and F-Curve is concerned. In the end, their application to tundish fluid flow has been outlined. The dead volume calculated by the new method is much close to the results of dye experiment and the numerical simulation.

  18. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  19. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  20. Optical multilayer films based on an amorphous fluoropolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Ward, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Multilayered coatings were made by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, Teflon AF2400, and with other optical materials. A high reflector for 1064 nm light was made with ZnS and AF2400. An all-organic 1064 nm reflector was made from AF2400 and polyethylene. Oxide (HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}) compatibility with AF2400 was also tested. The multilayer morphologies were influenced by coating stress and unintentional temperature rises from the PVD process. Analysis by liquid nuclear magnetic resonance of the thin films showed slight compositional variations between the coating and starting materials of perfluorinated amorphous polymers.

  1. Evaluation of cast creep occurring during simulated clubfoot correction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Tamara L; Altiok, Haluk; Wang, Mei; McGrady, Linda M; Krzak, Joseph; Graf, Adam; Tarima, Sergey; Smith, Peter A; Harris, Gerald F

    2013-08-01

    The Ponseti method is a widely accepted and highly successful conservative treatment of pediatric clubfoot involving weekly manipulations and cast applications. Qualitative assessments have indicated the potential success of the technique with cast materials other than standard plaster of Paris. However, guidelines for clubfoot correction based on the mechanical response of these materials have yet to be investigated. The current study sought to characterize and compare the ability of three standard cast materials to maintain the Ponseti-corrected foot position by evaluating cast creep response. A dynamic cast testing device, built to model clubfoot correction, was wrapped in plaster of Paris, semi-rigid fiberglass, and rigid fiberglass. Three-dimensional motion responses to two joint stiffnesses were recorded. Rotational creep displacement and linearity of the limb-cast composite were analyzed. Minimal change in position over time was found for all materials. Among cast materials, the rotational creep displacement was significantly different (p < 0.0001). The most creep displacement occurred in the plaster of Paris (2.0°), then the semi-rigid fiberglass (1.0°), and then the rigid fiberglass (0.4°). Torque magnitude did not affect creep displacement response. Analysis of normalized rotation showed quasi-linear viscoelastic behavior. This study provided a mechanical evaluation of cast material performance as used for clubfoot correction. Creep displacement dependence on cast material and insensitivity to torque were discovered. This information may provide a quantitative and mechanical basis for future innovations for clubfoot care. PMID:23636764

  2. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Co-Based Full Heusler Alloy Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, X. G.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full Heusler alloys have been qualified as promising functional materials in spintronic devices due to their high spin polarization. The lack of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is one of the biggest obstacles restricting their application in next generation ultrahigh density storage such as magnetic random access memory (MARM). How to induce the PMA in Co-based full Heusler alloy thin films has attracted much research interest of scientists. This paper presents an overview of recent progress in this research area. We hope that this paper would provide some guidance and ideas to develop highly spin-polarized Co-based Heusler alloy thin films with PMA.

  3. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5% in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  4. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the fast identification of PVC-based films.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, M; Rantanen, J; Harmia-Pulkkinen, T; Michiels, E; Hiltunen, R; Räsänen, M; Vuorela, H

    2001-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a non-destructive and rapid qualitative method for the analysis of plastic films used by the pharmaceutical industry for blistering. Three types of films were investigated: 250 microm PVC [poly(vinyl chloride)] films, 250 microm PVC films coated with 40 g m(-2) of PVDC [poly(vinylidene dichloride)] and 250 microm PVC films coated with 5 g m(-2) of TE (Thermoelast) and 90 g m(-2) of PVDC. Three analyses were carried out using different pre-treatment options and a PLS (partial least squares) algorithm. Each analysis was aimed at identifying one type of film and rejecting all types of false sample (different thickness, colour or layer). True and false samples from four plastics manufacturers were included in the calibration sets in order to obtain robust methods that were suitable regardless of the supplier. Specificity was demonstrated by testing validation sets against the methods. The tests showed 0% of type I (false negative identification) and 1% of type II errors (false positive identification) for the PVC method, 13 and 3%, respectively, for the PVC-PVDC method and no error for the PVC-TE-PVDC method. Type II errors, mostly due to the slight sensitivity of the methods to film thickness, are easily corrected by simple thickness measurements. This study demonstrates that NIR spectroscopy is an excellent tool for the identification of PVC-based films. The three methods can be used by the pharmaceutical industry or plastics manufacturers for the quality control of films used in blister packaging. PMID:11478647

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 20: CTDI Measurements using a Radiochromic Film-based clinical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, C.; Bekerat, H.; DeBlois, F.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was evaluating accuracy and reproducibility of a radiochromic film-based protocol to measure computer tomography dose index (CTDI) as a part of annual QA on CT scanners and kV-CBCT systems attached to linear accelerators. Energy dependence of Gafchromic XR-QA2 ® film model was tested over imaging beam qualities (50 – 140 kVp). Film pieces were irradiated in air to known values of air-kerma (up to 10 cGy). Calibration curves for each beam quality were created (Film reflectance change Vs. Air-kerma in air). Film responses for same air-kerma values were compared. Film strips were placed into holes of a CTDI phantom and irradiated for several clinical scanning protocols. Film reflectance change was converted into dose to water and used to calculate CTDIvol values. Measured and tabulated CTDIvol values were compared. Average variations of ±5.2% in the mean film reflectance change were observed in the energy range of 80 to 140 keV, and 11.1% between 50 and 140 keV. Measured CTDI values were in average 10% lower than tabulated CTDI values for CT-simulators, and 44% higher for CBCT systems. Results presented a mean variation for the same machine and protocol of 2.6%. Variation of film response is within ±5% resulting in ±15% systematic error in dose estimation if a single calibration curve is used. Relatively large discrepancy between measured and tabulated CTDI values strongly support the trend towards replacing CTDI value with equilibrium dose measurement in the center of cylindrical phantom, as suggested by TG- 111.

  6. A new approach to the weldability of nickel-base As-cast and power metallurgy superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Haafkens, M.H.; Matthey, J.H.G.

    1982-11-01

    The repair of nickel-base superalloys such as those used in the first and second stages of the rotating sections of a gas turbine is examined. Welding is affected by stress and temperature levels of the blade, wall thickness, and material composition. Steps to achieve crack-free welds include preheating above 600C (1112F) for GTA and plasma arc welding and above 900C (1652F) for EB welding. It is concluded that crack formation can be prevented by controlling the cooling rate during welding; that hardness measurements provide useful results for crack-free welding using GTA, plasma, friction, and electron beams; and that small differences in chemical composition and homogeneity can have a decisive effect on weld behavior.

  7. Methodology for cost analysis of film-based and filmless portable chest systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melson, David L.; Gauvain, Karen M.; Beardslee, Brian M.; Kraitsik, Michael J.; Burton, Larry; Blaine, G. James; Brink, Gary S.

    1996-05-01

    Many studies analyzing the costs of film-based and filmless radiology have focused on multi- modality, hospital-wide solutions. Yet due to the enormous cost of converting an entire large radiology department or hospital to a filmless environment all at once, institutions often choose to eliminate film one area at a time. Narrowing the focus of cost-analysis may be useful in making such decisions. This presentation will outline a methodology for analyzing the cost per exam of film-based and filmless solutions for providing portable chest exams to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The methodology, unlike most in the literature, is based on parallel data collection from existing filmless and film-based ICUs, and is currently being utilized at our institution. Direct costs, taken from the perspective of the hospital, for portable computed radiography chest exams in one filmless and two film-based ICUs are identified. The major cost components are labor, equipment, materials, and storage. Methods for gathering and analyzing each of the cost components are discussed, including FTE-based and time-based labor analysis, incorporation of equipment depreciation, lease, and maintenance costs, and estimation of materials costs. Extrapolation of data from three ICUs to model hypothetical, hospital-wide film-based and filmless ICU imaging systems is described. Performance of sensitivity analysis on the filmless model to assess the impact of anticipated reductions in specific labor, equipment, and archiving costs is detailed. A number of indirect costs, which are not explicitly included in the analysis, are identified and discussed.

  8. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  9. Tunable electrical conductivity in oriented thin films of tetrathiafulvalene-based covalent organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, SL; Zhang, YB; Pun, AB; He, B; Yang, JH; Toma, FM; Sharp, ID; Yaghi, OM; Fan, J; Zheng, SR; Zhang, WG; Liu, Y

    2014-09-16

    Despite the high charge-carrier mobility in covalent organic frameworks (COFs), the low intrinsic conductivity and poor solution processability still impose a great challenge for their applications in flexible electronics. We report the growth of oriented thin films of a tetrathiafulvalene-based COF (TTF-COF) and its tunable doping. The porous structure of the crystalline TTF-COF thin film allows the diffusion of dopants such as I-2 and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) for redox reactions, while the closely packed 2D grid sheets facilitate the cross-layer delocalization of thus-formed TTF radical cations to generate more conductive mixed-valence TTF species, as is verified by UV-vis-NIR and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Conductivity as high as 0.28 S m(-1) is observed for the doped COF thin films, which is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the pristine film and is among the highest for COF materials.

  10. Structure and photosensitive homojunctions based on Pb1- x Sn x Se epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuriev, I. R.; Nazarov, A. M.; Faradzhev, N. V.

    2012-03-01

    The growth of epitaxial films of Pb1 - x Sn x Se solid solutions of different chemical compositions ( x = 0.02-0.05) on freshly cleaved BaF2(111) faces and the structure of these films have been investigated. Photosensitive p- n homojunctions have been prepared on their basis. The homojunctions are fabricated in a unified technological cycle without breaking vacuum based on n- and p-type films of high structural quality ( W 1/2 = 90-100″) that were grown using an additional selenium vapor source. The photosensitivity peak is found to shift to longer wavelengths with an increase in the Sn content in the films grown; this effect is explained by narrowing the band gap with a change in the composition.

  11. A sensitive film structure improvement of reduced graphene oxide based resistive gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Xie, GuangZhong; Xie, Tao; Yuan, Huan; Tai, HuiLing; Jiang, YaDong; Chen, Zhi

    2014-07-01

    This study was focused on how to improve the gas sensing properties of resistive gas sensors based on reduced graphene oxide. Sol-airbrush technology was utilized to prepare reduced graphene oxide films using porous zinc oxide films as supporting materials mainly for carbon dioxide sensing applications. The proposed film structure improved the sensitivity and the response/recovery speed of the sensors compared to those of the conventional ones and alleviated the restrictions of sensors' performance to the film thickness. In addition, the fabrication technology is relatively simple and has potential for mass production in industry. The improvement in the sensitivity and the response/recovery speed is helpful for fast detection of toxic gases or vapors in environmental and industrial applications.

  12. Solution-based assembly of conductive gold film on flexible polymer substrates.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Lakshmi; Claus, Richard O

    2004-09-28

    Conductive films of gold were assembled on flexible polymer substrates such as Kapton and polyethylene using a solution-based process. The polymer substrates were modified by using argon plasma and subsequent coupling of silanes with amino- or mercapto- terminal groups. These modified surfaces were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Colloidal gold was assembled onto the silane-modified surface from solution. The gold particles are attached to the surface by covalent interactions with the thiol or amine group. Formation of a conductive film is achieved by increasing the coverage of gold by using a "seeding" method to increase the size of the attached gold particles. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to follow the growth of the film. The surface resistance of the films, measured using a four-point probe, was about 1 Omega/sq. PMID:15379520

  13. Structural and optical investigation of Te-based chalcogenide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rita Sharma, Shaveta; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M.; Chander, Ravi; Kumar, Praveen

    2015-05-15

    We report the structural and optical properties of thermally evaporated Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and InBiTe{sub 3} films by using X-ray diffraction, optical and Raman Spectroscopy techniques. The as-prepared thin films were found to be Semi-crystalline by X-ray diffraction. Particle Size and Strain has been calculated from XRD data. The optical constants, film thickness, refractive index and optical band gap (E{sub g}) has been reported for In{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, InBiTe{sub 3} films. Raman Spectroscopy was performed to investigate the effect of Bi, In, on lattice vibration and chemical bonding in Te based chalcogenide glassy alloys.

  14. Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based flexible transparent conducting film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hong-Zhang; Kim, Ki Kang; Lee, Young Hee

    2008-08-01

    Flexible transparent conducting films (TCFs) were fabricated on a PET substrate by various methods using carbon nanotubes dispersed in organic or water-based solution. Thin multi-walled carbon nanotubes, double-walled carbon nanotubes, and single-walled carbon nanotubes were used to compare the performance for TCFs. Optimal design rules for types of nanotubes, surfactants, the degree of dispersion, and film preparation methods were discussed. The TCFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, TGA, Raman, optical absorption spectra, and sheet resistance. The dispersion of CNTs in water and in bisolvent has been tried. A simple acid treatment on the TCF film increased the conductivity by about four times. Doping and functionalization techniques will be further introduced to improve the conductivity of the film.

  15. Nanometric thin polymeric films based on molecularly imprinted technology: towards electrochemical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg-Turgeman, Roni; Mandler, Daniel

    2010-09-28

    A new approach for assembling selective electrodes based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is presented. The approach is based on the radical polymerization of a mixture of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of an initiator, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and an activator, N,N'-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMpT) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. To form nanometric thin polymeric films the polymerization solution was spin-coated in the course of polymerization. The different physical and chemical parameters that affected the properties of the films, such as the spinning rate and the EGDMA:MAA ratio, were studied and optimized. A variety of techniques, e.g., rheoscopy, SEM, AFM, profilometry and electrochemistry, were used to characterize the films and the polymerization process. By optimizing the conditions very thin and reproducible films could be prepared and imprinted. The electrochemical behavior of the films showed that they were permeable to water-soluble electroactive species providing that either polyethylene glycol or template species were added to the polymerization mixture. Finally, we demonstrated that films imprinted with ferrocenylmethyl alcohol (Fc-MeOH) successfully extracted the imprinted species after their removal from MIPs. PMID:20668737

  16. The Effect of Temperature and Rotational Speed on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Cu Base Alloy (Cu-Al-Si-Fe) Welded by Semisolid Stir Joining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferasat, Keyvan; Aashuri, Hossein; Kokabi, Amir Hossein; Shafizadeh, Mahdi; Nikzad, Siamak

    2015-12-01

    Semisolid stir joining has been under deliberation as a possible method for joining of copper alloys. In this study, the effect of temperature and rotational speed of stirrer on macrostructure evaluation and mechanical properties of samples were investigated. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction were performed for macro and microstructural analysis. A uniform micro-hardness profile was attained by semisolid stir joining method. The ultimate shear strength and bending strength of welded samples were improved in comparison with the cast sample. There is also lower area porosity in welded samples than the cast metal. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing temperature and rotational speed of the joining process.

  17. ACCURATE QUANTIFICATION OF DRIED RESIDUE THIN FILMS USING X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    C. WORLEY; G. HAVRILLA

    2000-09-01

    An XRF specimen preparation method was developed to quantify the concentration of gallium in plutonium metal while minimizing the risk of contaminating the instrument with radioactive material. To ensure that homogeneous specimens are examined, plutonium is dissolved in dilute HCl and HNO{sub 3} prior to analysis. In the preliminary work here, non-radioactive aqueous gallium standards were prepared, and zinc was added as an internal standard to improve the accuracy and precision. Aliquots from these solutions were cast on Mylar XRF films and air dried prior to analysis. Two methods of casting the solutions were evaluated: (1) casting as a thin layer using a surfactant to wet the support film and (2) casting multiple small spots on the support film. Aqueous gallium standards were prepared and cast as dried residue specimens using each method. These specimens were then analyzed, and calibration curves were prepared. Highly linear calibrations were obtained for each preparation method when zinc was used as the internal standard (RMS values {le}1% of the standards concentration range in both cases). Based on this preliminary work, this dried residue process appears very promising for the accurate quantification of gallium in plutonium.

  18. SICS. A Sensor-Based In-Line Control System for the Surfaces of Continuously Cast Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh

    2013-09-23

    The Phase II project has been carried out in accordance to the proposed tasks and budget, based on the original and extended schedule. The R&D team designed and implemented the test unit for the full width coverage, installed the unit in a caster. The development work further included enhanced image processing, in-depth defect study and process control models. The function, operation, and maintenance of the SICS was thoroughly studied during the Phase II research. The experience indicates additional hardware and procedures are required to make the SICS a commercially ready product in operation and maintenance aspect. Such developments have been finished and the team is contacting potential customers for the first commercial installation of SICS. Additionally, OGT is exploring the possibility to team up with a US company that specializes in surface cleaning for slabs/blooms/billets such that the in-line surface inspection can be integrated with in-line surface clean up for the maximum benefit to the steel industry.

  19. Affective Realism of Animated Films in the Development of Simulation-Based Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Fors, Uno; Ramberg, Robert; Ziemke, Tom; Backlund, Per; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on comparing real actors based scenarios and animated characters based scenarios with respect to their similarity in evoking psychophysiological activity for certain events by measuring galvanic skin response (GSR). In the experiment, one group (n = 11) watched the real actors' film whereas another group (n…

  20. Robust digital watermarking using random casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Seob; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a new digital watermarking scheme based-on the random casting method in the DCT domain is proposed. In the conventional watermarking methods, the DCT-transformed watermark is casting to the high frequency coefficients of the original cover image and the watermark is sequentially embedded in the casting frequency. But this kind of watermarking scheme can be attacked easily by the pirates and unlawful users, because these methods might have some structured patterns by the sequential embedding and the fixed casting domain. Also this method might get the damaged stego-image and is not robust to the image compression algorithms. Therefore, in this paper, a new robust digital watermarking scheme is proposed. In this algorithm, the frequency coefficients of the DCT-transformed original cover-image in which the watermark is inserted are randomly selected. These random position values of the casting frequencies can be used as another secret-key together with the watermark-key. From some experimental results the proposed method is found to be more robust to the possible attacks than those of the conventional methods.