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Sample records for based fluid selection

  1. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  2. Magnetic field sensor based on selectively magnetic fluid infiltrated dual-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Bhardwaj, Vanita; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2016-02-01

    We reported the modeling result of selectively magnetic fluid infiltrated dual-core photonic crystal fiber based magnetic field sensor. Inside the cross-section of the designed photonic crystal fiber, the two fiber cores filled with magnetic fluid (Fe3O4) form two independent waveguides with mode coupling. The mode coupling under different magnetic field strengths is investigated theoretically. The sensitivity of the sensor as a function of the structural parameters of the photonic crystal fiber is calculated. The result shows that the proposed sensing device with 1 cm photonic crystal fiber length has a large sensitivity of 305.8 pm/Oe.

  3. Working fluid selection for space-based two-phase heat transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclinden, Mark O.

    1988-01-01

    The working fluid for externally-mounted, space-based two-phase heat transport systems is considered. A sequence of screening criteria involving freezing and critical point temperatures and latent heat of vaporization and vapor density are applied to a data base of 860 fluids. The thermal performance of the 52 fluids which pass this preliminary screening are then ranked according to their impact on the weight of a reference system. Upon considering other nonthermal criteria (flammability, toxicity, and chemical stability) a final set of 10 preferred fluids is obtained. The effects of variations in system parameters is investigated for these 10 fluids by means of a factorial design.

  4. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  5. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  6. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  7. Enantioselective simultaneous analysis of selected pharmaceuticals in environmental samples by ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid based chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-08-31

    In order to assess the true impact of each single enantiomer of pharmacologically active compounds (PACs) in the environment, highly efficient, fast and sensitive analytical methods are needed. For the first time this paper focuses on the use of ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid based chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer to develop multi-residue enantioselective methods for chiral PACs in environmental matrices. This technique exploits the advantages of supercritical fluid chromatography, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two coated modified 2.5 μm-polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases were investigated: an amylose tris-3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate column and a cellulose tris-3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate column. The effect of different chromatographic variables on chiral recognition is highlighted. This novel approach resulted in the baseline resolution of 13 enantiomers PACs (aminorex, carprofen, chloramphenicol, 3-N-dechloroethylifosfamide, flurbiprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen, ifosfamide, imazalil, naproxen, ofloxacin, omeprazole, praziquantel and tetramisole) and partial resolution of 2 enantiomers PACs (ibuprofen and indoprofen) under fast-gradient conditions (<10 min analysis time). The overall performance of the methods was satisfactory. The applicability of the methods was tested on influent and effluent wastewater samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first feasibility study on the simultaneous separation of chemically diverse chiral PACs in environmental matrices using ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid based chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:27506366

  8. A selected reaction monitoring-based analysis of acute phase proteins in interstitial fluids from experimental equine wounds healing by secondary intention.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, Louise; Bendixen, Emøke; Sørensen, Mette Aa; Harman, Victoria M; Beynon, Robert J; Petersen, Lars J; Jacobsen, Stine

    2016-05-01

    In horses, pathological healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) is a particular problem in limb wounds, whereas body wounds tend to heal without complications. Chronic inflammation has been proposed to be central to the pathogenesis of EGT. This study aimed to investigate levels of inflammatory acute phase proteins (APPs) in interstitial fluid from wounds in horses. A novel approach for absolute quantification of proteins, selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based mass spectrometry in combination with a quantification concatamer (QconCAT), was used for the quantification of five established equine APPs (fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and plasminogen) and three proposed equine APPs (prothrombin, α-2-macroglobulin, and α-1-antitrypsin). Wound interstitial fluid was recovered by large pore microdialysis from experimental body and limb wounds from five horses at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 after wounding and healing without (body) and with (limb) the formation of EGT. The QconCAT included proteotypic peptides representing each of the protein targets and was used to direct the design of a gene, which was expressed in Escherichia coli in a media supplemented with stable isotopes for metabolically labeling of standard peptides. Co-analysis of wound interstitial fluid samples with the stable isotope-labeled QconCAT tryptic peptides in known amounts enabled quantification of the APPs in absolute terms. The concentrations of fibrinogen, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, prothrombin, and α-1-antitrypsin in dialysate from limb wounds were significantly higher than in dialysate from body wounds. This is the first report of simultaneous analysis of a panel of APPs using the QconCAT-SRM technology. The microdialysis technique in combination with the QconCAT-SRM-based approach proved useful for quantification of the investigated proteins in the wound interstitial fluid, and the results indicated that there is a state of sustained inflammation in

  9. [Kidney, Fluid, and Acid-Base Balance].

    PubMed

    Shioji, Naohiro; Hayashi, Masao; Morimatsu, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Kidneys play an important role to maintain human homeostasis. They contribute to maintain body fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Especially in fluid control, we, physicians can intervene body fluid balance using fluid resuscitation and diuretics. In recent years, one type of fluid resuscitation, hydroxyl ethyl starch has been extensively studied in the field of intensive care. Although their effects on fluid resuscitation are reasonable, serious complications such as kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy occur frequently. Now we have to pay more attention to this important complication. Another topic of fluid management is tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist Recent randomized trial suggested that tolvaptan has a similar supportive effect for fluid control and more cost effective compared to carperitide. In recent years, Stewart approach is recognized as one important tool to assess acid-base balance in critically ill patients. This approach has great value, especially to understand metabolic components in acid-base balance. Even for assessing the effects of kidneys on acid-base balance, this approach gives us interesting insight. We should appropriately use this new approach to treat acid-base abnormality in critically ill patients. PMID:27319095

  10. Selective-fluid-filled photonic crystal fibers and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Liao, Changrui; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhengyong; Liu, Yingjie; Zhou, Jiangtao; Yang, Kaiming

    2013-08-01

    A selective-filling technique was demonstrated to improve the optical properties of photonic crystal fibres (PCFs). Such a technique can be used to fill one or more fluid samples selectively into desired air holes. The technique is based on drilling a hole or carving a groove on the surface of a PCF to expose selected air holes to atmosphere by the use of a micromachining system comprising of a femtosecond infrared laser and a microscope. The exposed section was immersed into a fluid and the air holes are then filled through the well-known capillarity action. Provided two or more grooves are fabricated on different locations and different orientation along the fibre surface, different fluids may be filled into different airholes to form a hybrid fibre. As an example, we filled half of a pure-silica PCF by a fluid with n=1.480 by carving a rectangular groove on the fibre. Consequently, the half-filled PCF became a bandgap-guiding structure (upper half), resulted from a higher refractive index in the fluid rods than in the fibre core, and three bandgaps were observed within the wavelength range from 600 to 1700 nm. Whereas, the lower half (unfilled holes) of the fibre remains an air/silica index-guiding structure. When the hybrid PCF is bent, its bandgaps gradually narrowed, resulted from the shifts of the bandgap edges. The bandgap edges had distinct bend-sensitivities when the hybrid PCF was bent toward different directions. Especially, the bandgaps are hardly affected when the half-filled PCF was bent toward the fluid-filled region. Such unique bend properties could be used to monitor simultaneously the bend directions and the curvature of the engineering structures.

  11. Experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of urea-based selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) in a pilot-scale flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh D.B. Nguyen; Young-Il Lim; Seong-Joon Kim; Won-Hyeon Eom; Kyung-Seun Yoo

    2008-11-15

    A turbulent reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model involving a droplet size distribution function in the discrete droplet phase is first built for selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) processes using urea solution as a NOx removal reagent. The model is validated with the experimental data obtained from a pilot-scale urea-based SNCR reactor installed with a 150 kW gas burner. New kinetic parameters of seven chemical reactions for the urea-based NOx reduction are identified and incorporated into the three-dimensional turbulent flow CFD model. The two-phase droplet model with the non-uniform droplet size is also combined with the CFD model to predict the trajectory of the droplets and to examine the mixing between the flue gas and reagents. The maximum NO reduction efficiency of about 80%, experimentally measured at the reactor outlet, is obtained at 940{degree}C and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) = 2.0 under the conditions of 11% excess air and low CO concentration (10-15 ppm). At the reaction temperature of 940{degree}C, the difference of a maximum of 10% between experiments and simulations of the NO reduction percentage is observed for NSR = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The ammonia slip is overestimated in CFD simulation at low temperatures, especially lower than 900{degree}C. However, the CFD simulation results above 900{degree}C show a reasonable agreement with the experimental data of NOx reduction and ammonia slip as a function of the NSR. 31 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Physicochemical properties of magnetic fluids based on synthetic oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, V. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Yashkova, V. I.; Balmasova, O. V.

    2013-04-01

    A technique for synthesizing magnetic fluids based on Alkaren synthetic oil is described. The optimum synthesis conditions for the magnetite are selected, and the magnetic phase-stabilizer quantitative ratio is calculated. A magnetic fluid based on synthetic hydrocarbon oil is synthesized, and its physicochemical characteristics are determined.

  13. Method of recovering oil-based fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

  14. Selected uses of enzymes with critical fluids in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charlotta; King, Jerry W; McKeon, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The use of enzymes coupled with supercritical fluid (SF)-based analytical techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), provides a safer environment platform for the analytical chemist and reduces the use of organic solvents. Incorporation of such techniques not only reduces the use of solvent in analytical laboratories, but it can also lead to overall method simplification and time savings. In this review, some of the fundamental aspects of using enzymes in the presence of SF media are discussed, particularly the influence of extraction (reaction) pressure, temperature, and water content of the extracting fluid and/or the sample matrix. Screening of optimal conditions for conducting reactions in the presence of SF media can be readily accomplished with automated serial or parallel SFE instrumentation, including selection of the proper enzyme. Numerous examples are cited, many based on lipase-initiated conversions of lipid substrates, to form useful analytical derivatives for gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, or SF chromatography analysis. In certain cases, enzymatic-aided processing of samples can permit the coupling of the extraction, sample preparation, and final analysis steps. The derived methods/techniques find application in nutritional food analyses, assays of industrial products, and micro analyses of specific samples. PMID:15295872

  15. Nanodiamond-based thermal fluids.

    PubMed

    Taha-Tijerina, Jose Jaime; Narayanan, Tharangattu Narayanan; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Lozano, Karen; Chipara, Mircea; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2014-04-01

    Dispersions of nanodiamond (average size ∼6 nm) within dielectric insulator mineral oil are reported for their enhanced thermal conductivity properties and potential applications in thermal management. Dynamic and kinematic viscosities-very important parameters in thermal management by nanofluids-are investigated. The dependence of the dynamic viscosity is well-described by the theoretical predictions of Einstein's model. The temperature dependence of the dynamic viscosity obeys an Arrhenius-like behavior, where the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor have an exponential dependence on the filler fraction of nanodiamonds. An enhancement in thermal conductivity up to 70% is reported for nanodiamond based thermal fluids. Additional electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis support the experimental data and their interpretation. PMID:24650328

  16. Clinically based implant selection.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1999-01-01

    A hierarchy of implant selection is presented, based on overcoming specific clinical challenges in a variety of situations, including maximization of the esthetic, comfort, and functional potentials of therapy. PMID:10709488

  17. Apparatus and method for selectively channeling a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Rightley, Michael Joseph

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus for selectively channeling a high temperature fluid without chemically reacting with the fluid. The apparatus includes an inlet and a membrane positioned adjacent to the inlet, each composed of a chemically inert material. The membrane is formed by compressive preloading techniques. The apparatus further includes a seat disposed on the inlet adjacent to the membrane. The seat is composed of a heat resistant and chemically inert material. Operation of the apparatus requires that the temperature of the fluid remains below the chemical characteristic melting point of the seat. The apparatus further includes an actuator coupled to the membrane for rendering the membrane in an open and a closed position with respect to the seat. Specifically, the actuator supplies a load in the normal direction to the membrane to selectively engage the membrane in a plurality of predetermined configurations. Operatively, the apparatus receives the fluid at the inlet. The fluid is received at a high temperature and is directed from the inlet to the membrane. In the closed position, the actuator engages the membrane to prevent the fluid from flowing from the inlet between the membrane and the seat. Alternatively, in the open position, the actuator engages the membrane to permit fluid flow from the inlet between the membrane and the seat to at least one outlet provided by the apparatus. In one exemplary embodiment, the fluid may be discharged from the at least one outlet to a sensor in fluid communication with the at least one outlet. Accordingly, the sensor may measure the fluid channeled through the heat resistant and chemically inert environment provided by the apparatus.

  18. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  19. Selective decay by Casimir dissipation in inviscid fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Holm, Darryl D.

    2013-02-01

    The problem of parameterizing the interactions of larger scales and smaller scales in fluid flows is addressed by considering a property of two-dimensional (2D) incompressible turbulence. The property we consider is selective decay, in which a Casimir of the ideal formulation (enstrophy in 2D flows, helicity in three-dimensional flows) decays in time, while the energy stays essentially constant. This paper introduces a mechanism that produces selective decay by enforcing Casimir dissipation in fluid dynamics. This mechanism turns out to be related in certain cases to the numerical method of anticipated vorticity discussed in Sadourny and Basdevant (1981 C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 292 1061-4, 1985 J. Atm. Sci. 2.0.CO2"42 1353-63). Several examples are given and a general theory of selective decay is developed that uses the Lie-Poisson structure of the ideal theory. A scale-selection operator allows the resulting modifications of the fluid motion equations to be interpreted in several examples as parametrizing the nonlinear, dynamical interactions between disparate scales. The type of modified fluid equation systems derived here may be useful in modelling turbulent geophysical flows where it is computationally prohibitive to rely on the slower, indirect effects of a realistic viscosity, such as in large-scale, coherent, oceanic flows interacting with much smaller eddies.

  20. Dispersant for water-based solids-containing fluids and a drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, H. III

    1986-04-08

    A dispersant is described for water-based, solids-containing fluids comprising a copolymer of a solufonated styrene monomer and a second monomer neutralized into having an amide substituent and being originally selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride, maleimide and dimethyl maleate, the copolymer having from 2 to 100 monomer units.

  1. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, P.

    1995-03-28

    A method is disclosed for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 1 figure.

  2. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets or hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  3. Smart prosthetics based on magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J. David; Matthis, Wilfried; Toscano, James R.

    2001-06-01

    One of the most exciting new applications for magnetorheological fluid technology is that of real-time controlled dampers for use in advanced prosthetic devices. In such systems a small magnetorheological fluid damper is used to control, in real-time, the motion of an artificial limb based on inputs from a group of sensors. A 'smart' prosthetic knee system based on a controllable magnetorheological fluid damper was commercially introduced to the orthopedics and prosthetics market in 2000. The benefit of such an artificial knee is a more natural gait that automatically adapts to changing gait conditions.

  4. Tactile dispay based on smart fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. J.; Davidson, R. I.; Taylor, P. M.

    2007-07-01

    A tactile display is programmable device to be detected by human touch. It has great potential applications in the field of virtual environment. The current research is the first step to develop a programmable tactile array based on ER/MR fluid technology. Prototypes of display incorporating controllable fluids such as electrrheological (ER) fluid and magnetorheological (MR) fluid have been developed and investigated. Surface force responses of these tactile displays under various electric/magnetic fields have been measured while a probe moving across the upper surface. As the applied external electric or magnetic field varied, the sensed surface profiles changed in synchronisation with the field strength. With the controllable fluid actuator, the displayed surface information is stable and repeatable.

  5. Selection on the Drosophila seminal fluid protein Acp62F

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alex; Rundle, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Sperm competition and sexual conflict are thought to underlie the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in many taxa. While comparative data are generally consistent with these hypotheses, few manipulative tests have been conducted and those that have provided contradictory results in some cases. Here, we use both comparative and experimental techniques to investigate the evolution of the Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protein Acp62F, a protease inhibitor for which extensive functional tests have yielded ambiguous results. Using between-species sequence comparisons, we show that Acp62F has been subject to recurrent positive selection. In addition, we experimentally evolved populations polymorphic for an Acp62F null allele over eight generations, manipulating the opportunities for natural and sexual selection. We found that the Acp62F null allele increased in frequency in the presence of natural selection, with no effect of sexual selection. PMID:23919141

  6. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  7. Physical-based non-Newtonian fluid animation using SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hai

    Fluids are commonly seen in our daily lives. They exhibit a wide range of motions, which depend on their physical properties, and often result in amazing visual phenomena. Hence, fluid animation is a popular topic in computer graphics. The animation results not only enrich a computer-generated virtual world but have found applications in generating special effects in motion pictures and in computer games. The three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equation is a comprehensive mechanical description of the fluid motions. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a popular particle-based fluid modeling formulation. In physical-based fluid animation, the fluid models are based on the 3D NS equation, which can be solved using SPH based methods. Non-Newtonian fluids form a rich class of fluids. Their physical behavior exhibits a strong and complex stress-strain relationship which falls outside the modeling range of Newtonian fluid mechanics. In physical-based fluid animation, most of the fluid models are based on Newtonian fluids, and hence they cannot realistically animate non-Newtonian fluid motions such as stretching, bending, and bouncing. Based on the 3D NS equation and SPH, three original contributions are presented in this dissertation, which address the following three aspects of fluid animation: (1) particle-based non-Newtonian fluids, (2) immiscible fluid-fluid collision, and (3) heating non-Newtonian fluids. Consequently, more varieties of non-Newtonian fluid motions can be animated, which include stretching, bending, and bouncing.

  8. Fluid technology (selected components, devices, and systems): A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Developments in fluid technology and hydraulic equipment are presented. The subjects considered are: (1) the use of fluids in the operation of switches, amplifiers, and servo devices, (2) devices and data for laboratory use in the study of fluid dynamics, and (3) the use of fluids as controls and certain methods of controlling fluids.

  9. Implementing stationary-phase optimized selectivity in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, Sander; Lynen, Frédéric

    2014-12-16

    The performance of stationary-phase optimized selectivity liquid chromatography (SOS-LC) for improved separation of complex mixtures has been demonstrated before. A dedicated kit containing column segments of different lengths and packed with different stationary phases is commercially available together with algorithms capable of predicting and ranking isocratic and gradient separations over vast amounts of possible column combinations. Implementation in chromatographic separations involving compressible fluids, as is the case in supercritical fluid chromatography, had thus far not been attempted. The challenge of this approach is the dependency of solute retention with the mobile-phase density, complicating linear extrapolation of retention over longer or shorter columns segments, as is the case in conventional SOS-LC. In this study, the possibilities of performing stationary-phase optimized selectivity supercritical fluid chromatography (SOS-SFC) are demonstrated with typical low density mobile phases (94% CO2). The procedure is optimized with the commercially available column kit and with the classical isocratic SOS-LC algorithm. SOS-SFC appears possible without any density correction, although optimal correspondence between prediction and experiment is obtained when isopycnic conditions are maintained. As also the influence of the segment order appears significantly less relevant than expected, the use of the approach in SFC appears as promising as is the case in HPLC. Next to the classical use of SOS for faster baseline separation of all solutes in a mixture, the benefits of the approach for predicting as wide as possible separation windows around to-be-purified solutes in semipreparative SFC are illustrated, leading to significant production rate improvements in (semi)preparative SFC. PMID:25393519

  10. Frequency selectivity without resonance in a fluid waveguide.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    This study analyzes a waveguide consisting of two parallel fluid-filled chambers connected by a narrow slit that is spanned by two coupled elastic beams. A stiffness gradient exists in the longitudinal direction. This simple linear system, which contains no lumped mass, is shown to act as a spectral analyzer. Fluid waves traveling in the waveguide exhibit a distinct amplitude peak at a longitudinal location that varies systematically with frequency. The peaking is not based on resonance, but entirely on wave dispersion. When entering its peak region, the wave undergoes a sharp deceleration associated with a transition in which two propagation modes exchange roles. It is proposed that this mode shape swapping underlies the frequency analysis of the mammalian cochlea. PMID:25237137

  11. Apparatus for selective disengagement of a fluid transmission conduit and for control of fluid transmission from a well zone

    SciTech Connect

    Mcstravick, D. M.; Roberts, W. M.

    1981-06-02

    An apparatus is provided for the selective disengagement of a fluid transmission conduit which is insertable through a second conduit for communication to a zone within a well bore, and for control of fluid transmission from the zone upon disengagement of the fluid transmission conduit. The apparatus defines a sealing means, usually a packer assembly, which communicates with the interior of the fluid transmission conduit for isolating an annular area between the fluid transmission conduit and the second conduit and above the zone. Valve means carried by the fluid transmission conduit and communicating with the sealing means is manipulatable between open and closed positions for selective isolation of fluid flow through the sealing means to the fluid transmission conduit. Conduit disengaging means are defined above the valve means for communication with and carriage by the fluid transmission conduit, the conduit disengaging means being responsive to manipulation of the fluid transmission conduit after manipulation of the valve means to closed position for disengagement of the fluid transmission conduit.

  12. Evaluation of Propylene Glycol-Based Fluids for Constellation Habitats and Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Two fluid life tests have been conducted to evaluate propylene glycol-based fluids for use in Constellation habitats and vehicles. The first test was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 to help determine the compatibility of the propylene glycol-based fluid selected for Orion at the time. When the first test uncovered problems with the fluid selection, an investigation and selection of a new fluid were conducted. A second test was started in March 2010 to evaluate the new selection. For the first test, the fluid was subjected to a thermal fluid loop that had flight-like properties, as compared to Orion. The fluid loop had similar wetted materials, temperatures, flow rates, and aluminum wetted surface area to fluid volume ratio. The test was designed to last for 10 years, the life expectancy of the lunar habitat. However, the test lasted less than two months. System filters became clogged with precipitate, rendering the fluid system inoperable. Upon examination of the precipitate, it was determined that the precipitate composition contained aluminum, which could have only come from materials in the test stand, as aluminum is not part of the original fluid composition. Also, the fluid pH was determined to have increased from 10.1, at the first test sample, to 12.2, at the completion of the test. This high of a pH is corrosive to aluminum and was certainly a contributing factor to the development of precipitate. Due to the problems encountered during this test, the fluid was rejected as a coolant candidate for Orion. A new propylene glycol-based fluid was selected by the Orion project for use in the Orion vehicle. The Orion project has conducted a series of screening tests to help verify that there will be no problems with the new fluid selection. To compliment testing performed by the Orion project team, a new life test was developed to test the new fluid. The new test bed was similar to the original test bed, but with some improvements based on experience

  13. [Determination of body fluid based on analysis of nucleic acids].

    PubMed

    Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological approaches of molecular genetics allow isolation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from negligible forensic samples. Analysis of these molecules may be used not only for individual identification based on DNA profiling but also for the detection of origin of the body fluid which (alone or in mixture with other body fluids) forms the examined biological trace. Such an examination can contribute to the evaluation of procedural, technical and tactical value of the trace. Molecular genetic approaches discussed in the review offer new possibilities in comparison with traditional spectrum of chemical, immunological and spectroscopic tests especially with regard to the interpretation of mixtures of biological fluids and to the confirmatory character of the tests. Approaches based on reverse transcription of tissue specific mRNA and their subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragmentation analysis are applicable on samples containing minimal amounts of biological material. Methods for body fluid discrimination based on examination of microRNA in samples provided so far confusing results therefore further development in this field is needed. The examination of tissue specific methylation of nucleotides in selected gene sequences seems to represent a promising enrichment of the methodological spectrum. The detection of DNA sequences of tissue related bacteria has been established and it provides satisfactory results mainly in combination with above mentioned methodological approaches. PMID:26419517

  14. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  15. Method of recovering oil-based fluid and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for recovering oil-based fluid from a surface having oil-based fluid thereon comprising the steps of: applying to the oil-based fluid on the surface an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fibers, the cloth having at least one napped surface that defines voids therein, the nap being formed of raised ends or loops of the fibers; absorbing, with the cloth, oil-based fluid; feeding the cloth having absorbed oil-based fluid to a means for applying a force to the cloth to recover oil-based fluid; and applying force to the cloth to recover oil-based fluid therefrom using the force applying means.

  16. Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Water-Based Nano-fluids for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.C.; Forrest, E.; Hu, L.W.; Buongiorno, J.

    2006-07-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate water-based nano-fluids for nuclear applications, preparation and characterization has been performed for nano-fluids being considered for MIT's nano-fluid heat transfer experiments. Three methods of generating these nano-fluids are available: creating them from chemical precipitation, purchasing the nano-particles in powder form and mixing them with the base fluid, and direct purchase of prepared nano-fluids. Characterization of nano-fluids includes colloidal stability, size distribution, concentration, and elemental composition. Quality control of the nano-fluids to be used for heat transfer testing is crucial; an exact knowledge of the fluid constituents is essential to uncovering mechanisms responsible for heat transport enhancement. Testing indicates that nano-fluids created by mixing a liquid with nano-particles in powder form are often not stable, although some degree of stabilization is obtainable with pH control and/or surfactant addition. Some commercially available prepared nano-fluids have been found to contain unacceptable levels of impurities and/or include a different weight percent of nano-particles compared to vendor specifications. Tools utilized to characterize and qualify nano-fluids for this study include neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Preparation procedures and characterization results for selected nano-fluids will be discussed in detail. (authors)

  18. Fluid-based radon mitigation technology development for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.V.; Gabor, J.D.; Holtz, R.E.; Gross, K.C.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the radon mitigation technology development effort is to develop an efficient and economical radon gas removal technology based on a fluid absorption process. The technology must be capable of cleaning up a wide range of radon gas stream concentrations to a level that meets EPA gas emission standards for residential and industrial applications. Argonne has recently identified a phenomenon that offers the possibility of radon recovery from the atmosphere with high efficiency at room temperature, and radon release at slightly elevated temperatures (50-60 degrees C.) such a device would offer numerous substantial advantages over conventional cryogenic charcoal systems for the removal of radon. Controlled sources of radon in Argonne`s radon research facility are being used to quantitatively assess the performance of a selected class of absorbing fluids over a range of radon concentrations. This paper will discuss the design of laboratory- and engineering-scale radon absorption units and present some preliminary experimental test results.

  19. Electrorheological Fluid Based Force Feedback Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeiffer, Charles; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Dolgin, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Parallel to the efforts to develop fully autonomous robots, it is increasingly being realized that there are applications where it is essential to have a fully controlled robot and "feel" its operating conditions, i.e. telepresence. This trend is a result of the increasing efforts to address tasks where humans can perform significantly better but, due to associated hazards, distance, physical limitations and other causes, only robots can be employed to perform these tasks. Such robots need to be assisted by a human that remotely controls the operation. To address the goal of operating robots as human surrogates, the authors launched a study of mechanisms that provide mechanical feedback. For this purpose, electrorheological fluids (ERF) are being investigated for the potential application as miniature haptic devices. This family of electroactive fluids has the property of changing the viscosity during electrical stimulation. Consequently, ERF can be used to produce force feedback haptic devices for tele-operated control of medical and space robotic systems. Forces applied at the robot end-effector due to a compliant environment are reflected to the user using an ERF device where a change in the system viscosity will occur proportionally to the transmitted force. Analytical model and control algorithms are being developed taking into account the non-linearities of these type of devices. This paper will describe the concept and the developed mechanism of ERF based force feedback. The test process and the physical properties of this device will be described and the results of preliminary tests will be presented.

  20. Fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm models.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy

    2012-04-01

    This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given

  1. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  2. High quality water base fracturing fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.D.; Chen, G.Y.; Zi, X.X.

    1982-01-01

    A new fracturing fluid is presented that contains partially hydrolyzed polymethylene acrylamide crosslinked with polyvalent metal ions as a thickening and friction reducing agent and persulfate, hydrogen peroxide, perborate or hydragine as a gel breaking agent. This fluid offers a number of advantages over conventional fracturing materials as it is free from any residues and possesses better thickening ability, shear stability, salt resistance, temperature-viscosity properties, etc. The new fluid was successfully used for hydraulic fracturing operations in low-permeable formations. 5 refs.

  3. Knowledge-based zonal grid generation for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E.

    1988-01-01

    Automation of flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards reducing the difficulty of three-dimensional grid generation in computational fluid dynamics. Using a knowledge-based approach makes sense, but problems arise which are caused by aspects of zoning involving perception, lack of expert consensus, and design processes. These obstacles are overcome by means of a simple shape and configuration language, a tunable zoning archetype, and a method of assembling plans from selected, predefined subplans. A demonstration system for knowledge-based two-dimensional flow field zoning has been successfully implemented and tested on representative aerodynamic configurations. The results show that this approach can produce flow field zonings that are acceptable to experts with differing evaluation criteria.

  4. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  5. Mass transfer in supercritical fluids instancing selected fluids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Miao; Benning, Rainer; Delgado, Antonio; Ertunc, Oezguer

    The research interests lie in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of diffusion and nucle-ation of organic solutes in near-and supercritical state of a solvent, which count as important means of mass transfer in the process engineering industry. The use of supercritical fluids in industrial processes, such as extraction and particle handling, has become a more and more popular method. Take a closer look at the two processes one would find that there are obviously two sub-processes involved in each of the process, namely the diffusion/nucleation as well as a phase transition procedure. Because of the operational limitations in the practice, this phase transition can-not be neglected. So it is also included in the theoretical approach. Classically to deduce conclusions from experiment results, mathematical/physical models outlining property changes and summarizing characteristics of the two processes are expected. In order to become an insight of these phenomena from the origin, and also to serve as a fundamental attribute for the numerical simulation later, the theories of statistical thermodynamics are adopted here as a proper means to describe the behaviors of the two processes. As the diffusion coefficients of the samples in our case are only of an order of approx. 10-8m2s-1, it can be assumed that the processes are in equilibrium (local changes are neglectably small), a model can be built on a general macroscopic approach for equilibrium systems, namely the Boltzmann-Gibbs distri-bution. And some rather general methods e.g. linear response theory can be applied. But as the transfer phenomena are genuinely not equilibrium systems, from this aspect a model can also be built based on the microscopic description -the kinetic theory of the behaviors of the particles of this non-equilibrium system. The characteristics under compensated gravity are also to be considered in the models. The differences and constraints between the models are to be compared and

  6. Spout States in the Selective Withdrawal of Immiscible Fluids through a Nozzle Suspended above a Two-Fluid Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Sarah C.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    2007-03-01

    In selective withdrawal, fluid is withdrawn through a nozzle suspended above the flat interface separating two immiscible, density-separated fluids of viscosities νupper and νlower=λνupper. At low withdrawal rates, the interface gently deforms into a hump. At a transition withdrawal rate, a spout of the lower fluid becomes entrained with the flow of the upper one into the nozzle. When λ=0.005, the spouts at the transition are very thin with features that are over an order of magnitude smaller than any observed in the humps. When λ=20, there is an intricate pattern of hysteresis and a spout appears which is qualitatively different from those seen at lower λ. No corresponding qualitative difference is seen in the hump shapes.

  7. Drugs in oral fluid in randomly selected drivers.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Swann, Philip; Boorman, Martin; Cairns, Ian

    2007-08-01

    There were 13,176 roadside drug tests performed in the first year of the random drug-testing program conducted in the state of Victoria. Drugs targeted in the testing were methamphetamines and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). On-site screening was conducted by the police using DrugWipe, while the driver was still in the vehicle and if positive, a second test on collected oral fluid, using the Rapiscan, was performed in a specially outfitted "drug bus" located adjacent to the testing area. Oral fluid on presumptive positive cases was sent to the laboratory for confirmation with limits of quantification of 5, 5, and 2 ng/mL for methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and THC, respectively. Recovery experiments conducted in the laboratory showed quantitative recovery of analytes from the collector. When oral fluid could not be collected, blood was taken from the driver and sent to the laboratory for confirmation. These roadside tests gave 313 positive cases following GC-MS confirmation. These comprised 269, 118, and 87 cases positive to MA, MDMA, and THC, respectively. The median oral concentrations (undiluted) of MA, MDMA, and THC was 1136, 2724, and 81 ng/mL. The overall drug positive rate was 2.4% of the screened population. This rate was highest in drivers of cars (2.8%). The average age of drivers detected with a positive drug reading was 28 years. Large vehicle (trucks over 4.5 t) drivers were older; on average at 38 years. Females accounted for 19% of all positives, although none of the positive truck drivers were female. There was one false positive to cannabis when the results of both on-site devices were considered and four to methamphetamines. PMID:17658711

  8. Interactive FORTRAN IV computer programs for the thermodynamic and transport properties of selected cryogens (fluids pack)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic and transport properties of selected cryogens had programmed into a series of computer routines. Input variables are any two of P, rho or T in the single phase regions and either P or T for the saturated liquid or vapor state. The output is pressure, density, temperature, entropy, enthalpy for all of the fluids and in most cases specific heat capacity and speed of sound. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are also given for most of the fluids. The programs are designed for access by remote terminal; however, they have been written in a modular form to allow the user to select either specific fluids or specific properties for particular needs. The program includes properties for hydrogen, helium, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and methane. The programs include properties for gaseous and liquid states usually from the triple point to some upper limit of pressure and temperature which varies from fluid to fluid.

  9. A comprehensive approach using fuzzy logic to select fracture fluid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, H.; Davidson, B.; Holditch, S.A.; Saunders, B.

    1997-01-01

    This system, which consists of several fuzzy logic evaluators, can also be applied to similar problems associated with drilling, completing and working over wells. With formation information, the fuzzy logic system first determines base fluid, viscosifying method and energization method before choosing the 3--5 best combinations of possible fluids. The system then determines polymer type and loading, crosslinker, gas type if necessary, and other additives for the fluid systems. Also using fuzzy logic, this system checks the compatibility of the fluid and additives with formation fluids and composition.

  10. Microscope-Based Fluid Physics Experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Malarik, Diane C.

    2000-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Microgravity Science Program is planning to conduct a large number of experiments on the International Space Station in both the Fluid Physics and Combustion Science disciplines, and is developing flight experiment hardware for use within the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility. Four fluids physics experiments that require an optical microscope will be sequentially conducted within a subrack payload to the Fluids Integrated Rack of the Fluids and Combustion Facility called the Light Microscopy Module, which will provide the containment, changeout, and diagnostic capabilities to perform the experiments. The Light Microscopy Module is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of experiments within International Space Station resources. This paper will focus on the four microscope-based experiments, specifically, their objectives and the sample cell and instrument hardware to accommodate their requirements.

  11. Selective activation of functional suppressor cells by human seminal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, S S

    1986-01-01

    The ability of seminal fluid (SF) to induce suppressor cell activity from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) was examined. PBMN were incubated with SF for 48 h, washed to remove SF components, treated with mitomycin C (mit C) and co-cultured with Raji cells, a lymphoblastoid cell line. Raji cell proliferation was inhibited by SF-treated PBMN proportionally to SF concentration. SF (50-200 micrograms), mit C-treated Raji cells or mit C-treated PBMN pre-incubated with phytohaemagglutinin were without effect on Raji cell growth. Suppressor T lymphocytes generated by incubation of PBMN with concanavalin A inhibited Raji cells to the same extent as did SF-treated PBMN. All activity was lost following heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min; freezing and thawing reduced the ability of SF to induce suppression by 50%. Dialysis of SF or treatment with antibody to prostaglandin E2 led to a 50% reduction in suppression. PMID:2943541

  12. The porcine ovarian follicle: I. Selected chemical analysis of follicular fluid at different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Jones, J D; Ellefson, R D; Ryan, R J

    1976-10-01

    Numerous parameters of the chemical composition of porcine follicular fluid, obtained at different stages of follicle development, were analyzed. The concentrations of electrolytes, glucose, uric acid, selected enzymes, lipids, amino acids, cyclic AMP, and steroid hormones were determined and compared with concentrations in serum. There were both quantitative and qualitative differences in the composition of follicular fluid and plasma. These differences are discussed with regard to follicular development. PMID:183842

  13. Dielectric breakdown in mineral oil ITO 100 based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudelcik, J.; Bury, P.; Kopcansky, P.; Timko, M.

    The development of dielectric breakdown and the DC dielectric breakdown voltage of magnetic fluids based on inhibited transformer oil ITO 100 were investigated in parallel orientations of external magnetic field. It was shown that the breakdown voltage is strongly influenced by the magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic fluids with the volume concentration 1and 0.2% had better dielectric properties than pure transformer oil. The increase of breakdown voltage was interpreted on the base of the bubble theory of breakdown.

  14. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications. PMID:26492498

  15. A magnetorheological fluid based orthopedic active knee brace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zite, Jamaal L.; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2006-03-01

    The disadvantage of current knee braces ranges from high cost for customization to a loss in physical mobility and limited rehabilitative value. One approach to solving this problem is to use a Magnetorheological (MR) device to make the knee brace have a controllable resistance. Our design solution is to replace the manufacturer's joint with an rotary MR fluid based shear damper. The device is designed based on a maximum yield stress, a corresponding magnetic field, a torque and the MR fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results show the advantages and the feasibility of using the proposed MR based controllable knee braces.

  16. Patch testing with components of water-based metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Koch, Patrick; Aschoff, Roland; Richter, Gerhard; Becker, Detlef; Eckert, Christian; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel; Fuchs, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs) may cause both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Several well-known MWF allergens are available for patch testing, but considering the wide variety of possible components used in MWF, our diagnostic arsenal covers only a small part of potential allergens. We therefore selected 13 frequently used MWF components that might be sensitizers and had not yet been tested routinely. In 5 centres, 233 dermatitis patients with present or past occupational exposure to MWF were patch tested with this and other panels. Only 7 patients showed positive reactions to the study panel. Allergic reactions to the emulsifier diglycolamine [syn. 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol] were seen in 5 patients, and 1 patient each reacted positively to 2-amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (AEPD) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Clinical relevance of the reactions to diglycolamine was unequivocally proven by its presence in the MWF from the patients' workplace in 3 cases. Diglycolamine seems to be an important MWF allergen, independently from monoethanolamine and diethanolamine. A test concentration of 1% petrolatum (pet.) appears to be appropriate. The importance of AEPD and MDEA as MWF allergens still remains to be established. The lack of positive test reactions to the other MWF components tested may be due to their low-sensitizing potential or too low a patch test concentration being used. PMID:14641356

  17. Underground fluid composition analysis based on the near infrared spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxi; Liao, Yanbiao; Zhang, Min

    2011-11-01

    The near-infrared spectrum is very practical for real-time analyzing in the field of industry. This paper describes the structure of optical system, which is a part of the well logging instruments. The optical system is designed to analyze the composition of underground fluid, using the differences between oil and water in near-infrared absorption. Using Beer- Lambert law, the article analyzes the light intensity when broad-spectrum light passes through the liquid. According to the results of analysis, a group of wavelength including center wavelength and bandwidth can be selected. With each selected wavelength, light intensity changes significantly as the concentration of liquid changes. By measuring the light intensity, the system can analyse the composition of underground fluid.

  18. An Image-Based Model of Fluid Flow Through Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Laura J; Heppell, James P; Clough, Geraldine F; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Roose, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system returns fluid to the bloodstream from the tissues to maintain tissue fluid homeostasis. Lymph nodes distributed throughout the system filter the lymphatic fluid. The afferent and efferent lymph flow conditions of lymph nodes can be measured in experiments; however, it is difficult to measure the flow within the nodes. In this paper, we present an image-based modelling approach to investigating how the internal structure of the node affects the fluid flow pathways within the node. Selective plane illumination microscopy images of murine lymph nodes are used to identify the geometry and structure of the tissue within the node and to determine the permeability of the lymph node interstitium to lymphatic fluid. Experimental data are used to determine boundary conditions and optimise the parameters for the model. The numerical simulations conducted within the model are implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element analysis software. The parameter fitting resulted in the estimate that the average permeability for lymph node tissue is of the order of magnitude of [Formula: see text]. Our modelling shows that the flow predominantly takes a direct path between the afferent and efferent lymphatics and that fluid is both filtered and absorbed across the blood vessel boundaries. The amount that is absorbed or extravasated in the model is dependent on the efferent lymphatic lumen fluid pressure. PMID:26690921

  19. Aptamer-Based Screens of Human Body Fluids for Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Albaba, Dania; Soomro, Sanam; Mohan, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aptamers have come to replace antibodies in high throughput multiplexed experiments. The aptamer-based biomarker screening technology, which kicked off in 2010, is capable of interrogating thousands of proteins in a very small sample volume. With this new technology, researchers hope to find clinically appropriate biomarkers for a myriad of illnesses by screening human body fluids. In this work, we have reviewed a total of eight studies utilizing aptamer-based biomarker screens of human body fluids, and have highlighted novel protein biomarkers discovered. PMID:27600232

  20. CO2-based mixtures as working fluids for geothermal turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven Alan; Conboy, Thomas M.; Ames, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for application to a variety of heat sources, including geothermal, solar, fossil, and nuclear power. This work is centered on the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power conversion cycle, which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources and is very compact-a feature likely to reduce capital costs. One promising approach is the use of CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid mixtures. The introduction of additives to CO{sub 2} alters the equation of state and the critical point of the resultant mixture. A series of tests was carried out using Sandia's supercritical fluid compression loop that confirmed the ability of different additives to increase or lower the critical point of CO{sub 2}. Testing also demonstrated that, above the modified critical point, these mixtures can be compressed in a turbocompressor as a single-phase homogenous mixture. Comparisons of experimental data to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Standard Reference Database predictions varied depending on the fluid. Although the pressure, density, and temperature (p, {rho}, T) data for all tested fluids matched fairly well to REFPROP in most regions, the critical temperature was often inaccurate. In these cases, outside literature was found to provide further insight and to qualitatively confirm the validity of experimental findings for the present investigation.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With... Subcategory Pt. 435, Subpt. A, App. 3 Appendix 3 to Subpart A of Part 435—Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids...) sediments with the base fluids that are used to formulate synthetic-based drilling fluids and other...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With... Subcategory Pt. 435, Subpt. A, App. 3 Appendix 3 to Subpart A of Part 435—Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids...) sediments with the base fluids that are used to formulate synthetic-based drilling fluids and other...

  3. [Exposure to vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids: health effects].

    PubMed

    Riva, M M; Bellini, M; Leghissa, P; Gambini, D; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our research is to study respiratory and dermatologic diseases (irritative and allergic) in a cohort of workers exposed to vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids of the latest generation. A cohort of 81 workers (mean age 34.5 years, seniority 17.4 years), with mean exposure to vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids of 2.8 years, has been subjected to clinical evaluations. The investigation did not reveal any disease or disorder of the respiratory system, any folluculitis or any allergic contact dermatitis caused by sensitization to vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids. On the contrary we documented 5 cases of irritant contact dermatitis, even if favored by an improper use of protection devices. According to early results, the introduction of vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids seems to reduce the risk to the worker's health. A longitudinal surveillance is still needed to confirm that even in the medium and long-term sensitizations will not occur. PMID:23405602

  4. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  5. Selective enrichment in bioactive compound from Kniphofia uvaria by super/subcritical fluid extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Duval, Johanna; Destandau, Emilie; Pecher, Virginie; Poujol, Marion; Tranchant, Jean-François; Lesellier, Eric

    2016-05-20

    Nowadays, a large portion of synthetic products (active cosmetic and therapeutic ingredients) have their origin in natural products. Kniphofia uvaria is a plant from Africa which has proved in the past by in-vivo tests an antioxidant activity due to compounds present in roots. Recently, we have observed anthraquinones in K. uvaria seeds extracts. These derivatives are natural colorants which could have interesting bioactive potential. The aim of this study was to obtain an extract enriched in anthraquinones from K. uvaria seeds which mainly contains glycerides. First, the separation of the seed compounds was studied by using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the goal to provide a rapid quantification method of these bioactive compounds. A screening of numerous polar stationary phases was achieved for selecting the most suited phase to the separation of the four anthraquinones founded in the seeds. A gradient elution was optimized for improving the separation of the bioactive compounds from the numerous other families of major compounds of the extracts (fatty acids, di- and triglycerides). Besides, a non-selective and green Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 was applied to seeds followed by a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The CPC system was optimized by using the Arizona phase system, to enrich the extract in anthraquinones. Two systems were selected to isolate the bioactive compounds from the oily extract with varied purity target. The effect of the injection mode for these very viscous samples was also studied. Finally, in order to directly apply a selective process of extraction to the seeds, the super/subcritical fluid extraction was optimized to increase the anthraquinone yield in the final extract, by studying varied modifier compositions and nature, as well as different temperatures and backpressures. Conditions suited to favour an enrichment factor bases on the ratio of anthraquinone and trilycerides extracted are

  6. Selective V(1a) agonism attenuates vascular dysfunction and fluid accumulation in ovine severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sousse, Linda; Bartha, Eva; Jonkam, Collette; Hasselbach, Anthony K; Traber, Lillian D; Cox, Robert A; Westphal, Martin; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Daniel L

    2012-11-15

    Vasopressin analogs are used as a supplement to norepinephrine in septic shock. The isolated effects of vasopressin agonists on sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction, however, remain controversial. Because V(2)-receptor stimulation induces vasodilation and procoagulant effects, a higher V(1a)- versus V(2)-receptor selectivity might be advantageous. We therefore hypothesized that a sole, titrated infusion of the selective V(1a)-agonist Phe(2)-Orn(8)-Vasotocin (POV) is more effective than the mixed V(1a)-/V(2)-agonist AVP for the treatment of vascular and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced, ovine sepsis. After the onset of hemodynamic instability, awake, chronically instrumented, mechanically ventilated, and fluid resuscitated sheep were randomly assigned to receive continuous infusions of either POV, AVP, or saline solution (control; each n = 6). AVP and POV were titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure above baseline - 10 mmHg. When compared with that of control animals, AVP and POV reduced neutrophil migration (myeloperoxidase activity, alveolar neutrophils) and plasma levels of nitric oxide, resulting in higher mean arterial pressures and a reduced vascular leakage (net fluid balance, chest and abdominal fluid, pulmonary bloodless wet-to-dry-weight ratio, alveolar and septal edema). Notably, POV stabilized hemodynamics at lower doses than AVP. In addition, POV, but not AVP, reduced myocardial and pulmonary tissue concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine, VEGF, and angiopoietin-2, thereby leading to an abolishment of cumulative fluid accumulation (POV, 9 ± 15 ml/kg vs. AVP, 110 ± 13 ml/kg vs. control, 213 ± 16 ml/kg; P < 0.001 each) and an attenuated cardiopulmonary dysfunction (left ventricular stroke work index, PaO(2)-to-FiO(2) ratio) versus control animals. Highly selective V(1a)-agonism appears to be superior to unselective vasopressin analogs for the treatment of sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction. PMID

  7. An EQT-based cDFT approach for a confined Lennard-Jones fluid mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Motevaselian, M. H.; Mashayak, S. Y.; Aluru, N. R.

    2015-09-28

    Empirical potential-based quasi-continuum theory (EQT) provides a route to incorporate atomistic detail into continuum framework such as the Nernst-Planck equation. EQT can also be used to construct a grand potential functional for classical density functional theory (cDFT). The combination of EQT and cDFT provides a simple and fast approach to predict the inhomogeneous density, potential profiles, and thermodynamic properties of confined fluids. We extend the EQT-cDFT approach to confined fluid mixtures and demonstrate it by simulating a mixture of methane and hydrogen inside slit-like channels of graphene. We show that the EQT-cDFT predictions for the structure of the confined fluid mixture compare well with the molecular dynamics simulation results. In addition, our results show that graphene slit nanopores exhibit a selective adsorption of methane over hydrogen.

  8. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, Doug W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  9. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  10. Agent-Based Chemical Plume Tracing Using Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarzhitsky, Dimitri; Spears, Diana; Thayer, David; Spears, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous evaluation of a novel, distributed chemical plume tracing algorithm. The algorithm is a combination of the best aspects of the two most popular predecessors for this task. Furthermore, it is based on solid, formal principles from the field of fluid mechanics. The algorithm is applied by a network of mobile sensing agents (e.g., robots or micro-air vehicles) that sense the ambient fluid velocity and chemical concentration, and calculate derivatives. The algorithm drives the robotic network to the source of the toxic plume, where measures can be taken to disable the source emitter. This work is part of a much larger effort in research and development of a physics-based approach to developing networks of mobile sensing agents for monitoring, tracking, reporting and responding to hazardous conditions.

  11. Design and development of magnetorheological fluid-based passive actuator.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, Elnaz; Price, Karl; Drake, James M; Goldenberg, Andrew A

    2015-08-01

    We present the design and experimental validation of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based passive actuator for tele-robotic bone biopsy procedures. With Finite Element Method Magnet (FEMM) software, the required uniform magnetic field circuit design was simulated. An 1100 turn 24 AWG copper wire coil wrapped around a magnetic core was used to create a magnetic field. The field strength was measured with a Hall effect sensor, and compared to the simulation. The maximum magnetic field flux produced by a constant current of 1.4 A was 0.2 T, similar to the simulation results. A series of quasi-static experiments were conducted to characterize the forces generated by the MR fluid-based actuator under various currents up to 12 N. An analytical model was developed to validate the measurements from the passive actuator. PMID:26737387

  12. Verification strategies for fluid-based plasma simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Shankar

    2012-10-01

    Verification is an essential aspect of computational code development for models based on partial differential equations. However, verification of plasma models is often conducted internally by authors of these programs and not openly discussed. Several professional research bodies including the IEEE, AIAA, ASME and others have formulated standards for verification and validation (V&V) of computational software. This work focuses on verification, defined succinctly as determining whether the mathematical model is solved correctly. As plasma fluid models share several aspects with the Navier-Stokes equations used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the CFD verification process is used as a guide. Steps in the verification process: consistency checks, examination of iterative, spatial and temporal convergence, and comparison with exact solutions, are described with examples from plasma modeling. The Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS), which has been used to verify complex systems of PDEs in solid and fluid mechanics, is introduced. An example of the application of MMS to a self-consistent plasma fluid model using the local mean energy approximation is presented. The strengths and weaknesses of the techniques presented in this work are discussed.

  13. Light-responsive viscoelastic fluids based on anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yechang; Zhou, Tengfei; Fan, Qing; Dong, Jinfeng; Li, Xuefeng

    2013-12-15

    A new class of light-responsive viscoelastic fluids based on anionic wormlike micelles is reported. The key components are sodium oleate (NaOA) and a cationic azobenzene dye, 1-[2-(4-phenylazo-phenoxy)-ethyl]-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C0AZOC2IMB). These binary systems are gel-like fluids at certain concentration ratios of [C0AZOC2IMB]/[NaOA], e.g. 35/100, owing to the formation of long, entangled wormlike micelles. The viscosity of these fluids can be controlled reversibly by light due to photo isomerization between trans-C0AZOC2IMB and cis-C0AZOC2IMB. For example, the zero-shear viscosity (η0) of an originally gel-like sample is high up to ~1300 Pa s when C0AZOC2IMB is in its trans from, whereas the mixture becomes a Newtonian fluid with η0 about 0.01 Pa s after UV light irradiation. For the post-irradiated cis-C0AZOC2IMB, short cylindrical micelles form, hence accounting for the lower viscosity. Evidence for the structural transition is provided by UV-vis spectra, rheology, (1)H NMR and cryo-transmission electronic microscopy measurements. PMID:24144381

  14. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with a soybean-based alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, B.; Rivera, P.

    1998-05-01

    Despite the best preventative measures, ruptured hoses, spills and leaks occur with use of all hydraulic equipment. Although these releases do not usually produce a RCRA regulated waste, they are often a reportable occurrence. Clean-up and subsequent administrative procedure involves additional costs, labor and work delays. Concerns over these releases, especially related to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) vehicles hauling waste on public roads prompted Fleet Services (FS) to seek an alternative to the standard petroleum based hydraulic fluid. Since 1996 SNL has participated in a pilot program with the University of Iowa (UNI) and selected vehicle manufacturers, notably John Deere, to field test hydraulic fluid produced from soybean oil in twenty of its vehicles. The vehicles included loaders, graders, sweepers, forklifts and garbage trucks. Research was conducted for several years at UNI to modify and market soybean oils for industrial uses. Soybean oil ranks first in worldwide production of vegetable oils (29%), and represents a tremendous renewable resource. Initial tests with soybean oil showed excellent lubrication and wear protection properties. Lack of oxidative stability and polymerization of the oil were concerns. These concerns were being addressed through genetic alteration, chemical modification and use of various additives, and the improved lubricant is in the field testing stage.

  15. Nonlinear hydrodynamic damping of sharp-edged cantilevers in viscous fluids undergoing multi-harmonic base excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facci, Andrea L.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate finite amplitude polychromatic flexural vibration of a thin beam oscillating in a quiescent viscous fluid. We consider a cantilever beam with rectangular cross section undergoing periodic base excitation in the form of a triangular wave. Experiments are performed on centimeter-size beams in water to elucidate the effect of the amplitude and the frequency of the base excitation on the fluid structure interaction. The fundamental frequency of the excitation is selected to induce structural resonance and the shape of the cantilevers is parametrically varied to explore different flow regimes. Experimental results demonstrate the presence of a frequency-dependent nonlinear hydrodynamic damping which tends to enhance higher frequency harmonics as compared to the fundamental harmonic. Such filtering effect produced by the encompassing fluid increases with both the frequency and amplitude of the base excitation. Experimental results are interpreted through available theoretical models, based on the notion of the complex hydrodynamic function, and pertinent computational fluid dynamics findings.

  16. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  17. Supercritical fluid drying of carbohydrates: selection of suitable excipients and process conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Andréanne; Jovanović, Natasa; Hofland, Gerard W; Jiskoot, Wim; Mendes, Eduardo; Crommelin, Daan J A; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2008-03-01

    The processibility of 15 carbohydrates, more or less commonly used, was investigated as excipients in supercritical fluid drying. The focus was on the ability to produce amorphous powder, the stability of the powders towards crystallisation, and the residual water and ethanol content. The aqueous solutions were sprayed into a pressurised carbon dioxide-ethanol mixture flowing cocurrently through a coaxial two-fluid nozzle. The powder characteristics appeared to be influenced by the supersaturation level reached during the SCF-drying process and by the properties of the sugar species, such as water solubility and glass transition temperature, or the solution viscosities. The stability and the residual solvent content of a selected set of sugars and some mixtures were further analysed. The stability of amorphous powders was investigated at 4 degrees C, room temperature, 40 and 50 degrees C. Lactose, maltose, trehalose, raffinose, cyclodextrin, low-molecular-weight dextran and inulin could form free-flowing powders that remained amorphous during the 3-month stability study. Sucrose had to be mixed with other sugars to form a stable amorphous powder. Ethanol could be entrapped in supercritical fluid dried low-molecular-weight sugars, whereas polysaccharide powders were free of ethanol. Measures to prevent or overcome the presence of ethanol are discussed. PMID:17702554

  18. Concentrations of Mineral in Amniotic Fluid and Their Relations to Selected Maternal and Fetal Parameters.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, J; Kocyłowski, R; Komorowicz, I; Grzesiak, M; Bogdański, P; Barałkiewicz, D

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of various trace elements in amniotic fluid (AF) change over the course of pregnancy, with gestational age and fetus growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of selected essential and toxic elements in AF and their relations to maternal and fetal parameters. The study was carried out in 39 pregnant women, aged 34.6 ± 4.7 years, between weeks 16 and 26 of gestation. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained during the standard procedure of amniocentesis in high-risk patients for chromosomal abnormalities. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique was used to determine the levels of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, U, and V in AF. Body mass and blood pressure were measured in all the women. The basic parameters of fetal development were also assayed. It was found that the age of the mother, the gender of the fetus, and the week of the pregnancy may affect the concentrations of mineral in the amniotic fluid. Moreover, several significant correlations between the essential and toxic elements and maternal and fetal parameters were observed. In particular, negative and positive correlations between fetal parameters and magnesium and copper levels in AF, respectively, were seen. The present findings demonstrate the association between minerals in AF and fetal development. PMID:26547910

  19. Intestinal drug solubility estimation based on simulated intestinal fluids: comparison with solubility in human intestinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Clarysse, Sarah; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2011-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to validate both existing fasted and fed state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF and FeSSIF), and simpler, alternative media for predicting intraluminal drug solubility during drug discovery and early drug development. For 17 model drugs, the solubilizing capacity of FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) (subscript indicates the use of crude taurocholate) and different concentrations of D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) in phosphate buffer were correlated with the solubilizing capacity of human intestinal fluids (HIF) in the fasted and the early postprandial state. A good correlation between solubility in fasted HIF and FaSSIF(c) and between solubility in fed HIF and FeSSIF(c) was obtained, indicated by R(2) values of 0.91 and 0.86, respectively. Comparable values were obtained for 0.1% TPGS for the fasted state (R(2)=0.84) and 2% TPGS for the fed state (R(2)=0.84). Direct estimation of intestinal drug solubility by the measured solubilities in FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) was acceptable. However, better estimates were obtained by calculating solubilities based on the equations describing the relationship between solubilities in FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) as function of observed solubilities in HIF. Using this approach, the predictive value of the TPGS-based solvent system was also acceptable and comparable to that of FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c). In conclusion, FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) can be considered biorelevant media for intestinal solubility estimation. A simpler TPGS-based system may be a valuable alternative with improved stability and lower cost. PMID:21570465

  20. Visual Orientation Selectivity Based Structure Description.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinjian; Lin, Weisi; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Yazhong; Dong, Weisheng; Chen, Zhibo

    2015-11-01

    The human visual system is highly adaptive to extract structure information for scene perception, and structure character is widely used in perception-oriented image processing works. However, the existing structure descriptors mainly describe the luminance contrast of a local region, but cannot effectively represent the spatial correlation of structure. In this paper, we introduce a novel structure descriptor according to the orientation selectivity mechanism in the primary visual cortex. Research on cognitive neuroscience indicate that the arrangement of excitatory and inhibitory cortex cells arise orientation selectivity in a local receptive field, within which the primary visual cortex performs visual information extraction for scene understanding. Inspired by the orientation selectivity mechanism, we compute the correlations among pixels in a local region based on the similarities of their preferred orientation. By imitating the arrangement of the excitatory/inhibitory cells, the correlations between a central pixel and its local neighbors are binarized, and the spatial correlation is represented with a set of binary values, which is named the orientation selectivity-based pattern. Then, taking both the gradient magnitude and the orientation selectivity-based pattern into account, a rotation invariant structure descriptor is introduced. The proposed structure descriptor is applied in texture classification and reduced reference image quality assessment, as two different application domains to verify its generality and robustness. Experimental results demonstrate that the orientation selectivity-based structure descriptor is robust to disturbance, and can effectively represent the structure degradation caused by different types of distortion. PMID:26219097

  1. Nondisruptive micropatterning of fluid membranes through selective vesicular adsorption and rupture by nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Wook; Na, Yu-Jin; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2009-05-19

    We report on a nondisruptive method of patterning fluid membranes into micrometer-scale arrays through a selective vesicular rupture pathway by nanotopography. The site- and pathway-selective formation of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) was achieved by different vesicular adsorption and rupture processes between nanocorrugated and nanosmooth topographies. The SLBs were first developed in the nanocorrugated region due to fast vesicular adsorption and then grew into the nanosmooth region through bilayer edge-induced vesicular rupture. Our topographic approach provides a viable scheme, yet unattainable in conventional ways, of actively controlling the position and the coverage of the SLBs on a variety of substrates without disrupting two-dimensional fluidity for highly integrated membrane devices. PMID:19368337

  2. [Identification of transmission fluid based on NIR spectroscopy by combining sparse representation method with manifold learning].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-Lu; Luo, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Xin-Jie; Kong, Wen-Wen; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    An identification method based on sparse representation (SR) combined with autoencoder network (AN) manifold learning was proposed for discriminating the varieties of transmission fluid by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology. NIR transmittance spectra from 600 to 1 800 nm were collected from 300 transmission fluid samples of five varieties (each variety consists of 60 samples). For each variety, 30 samples were randomly selected as training set (totally 150 samples), and the rest 30 ones as testing set (totally 150 samples). Autoencoder network manifold learning was applied to obtain the characteristic information in the 600-1800 nm spectra and the number of characteristics was reduced to 10. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract several relevant variables to represent the useful information of spectral variables. All of the training samples made up a data dictionary of the sparse representation (SR). Then the transmission fluid variety identification problem was reduced to the problem as how to represent the testing samples from the data dictionary (training samples data). The identification result thus could be achieved by solving the L-1 norm-based optimization problem. We compared the effectiveness of the proposed method with that of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and sparse representation (SR) using the relevant variables selected by principal component analysis (PCA) and AN. Experimental results demonstrated that the overall identification accuracy of the proposed method for the five transmission fluid varieties was 97.33% by AN-SR, which was significantly higher than that of LDA or LS-SVM. Therefore, the proposed method can provide a new effective method for identification of transmission fluid variety. PMID:24783534

  3. The Chemical Behavior of Fluids Released during Deep Subduction Based on Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of current research on fluid inclusions in (HP-) UHP metamorphic rocks that, combined with existing experimental research and thermodynamic models, allow us to investigate the chemical and physical properties of fluids released during deep subduction, their solvent and element transport capacity, and the subsequent implications for the element recycling in the mantle wedge. An impressive number of fluid inclusion studies indicate three main populations of fluid inclusions in HP and UHP metamorphic rocks: i) aqueous and/or non-polar gaseous fluid inclusions (FI), ii) multiphase solid inclusions (MSI), and iii) melt inclusions (MI). Chemical data from preserved fluid inclusions in rocks match with and implement "model" fluids by experiments and thermodynamics, revealing a continuity behind the extreme variations of physico-chemical properties of subduction-zone fluids. From fore-arc to sub-arc depths, fluids released by progressive devolatilization reactions from slab lithologies change from relatively diluted chloride-bearing aqueous solutions (± N2), mainly influenced by halide ligands, to (alkali) aluminosilicate-rich aqueous fluids, in which polymerization probably governs the solubility and transport of major (e.g., Si and Al) and trace elements (including C). Fluid inclusion data implement the petrological models explaining deep volatile liberation in subduction zones, and their flux into the mantle wedge.

  4. Magnetorheology of dimorphic magnetorheological fluids based on nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombard, Antonio J. F.; Gonçalves, Flavia R.; Morillas, Jose R.; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-12-01

    We report a systematic experimental investigation on the use of nanofibers to enhance the magnetorheological (MR) effect in conventional (microsphere-based) MR fluids formulated in polyalphaolefin oil/1-octanol. Two kinds of nanofibers are employed that have very similar morphology but very different magnetic properties. On the one hand we use non-magnetic goethite nanofibers. On the other hand we employ magnetic chromium dioxide nanofibers. For appropriate concentrations the on-state relative yield stress increases up to 80% when incorporating the nanofibers in the formulation. A similar yield stress enhancement is found for both nanofibers investigated (magnetic and non-magnetic) suggesting that the main factor behind this MR enhancement is the particle shape anisotropy. The relative yield stresses obtained by partial substitution of carbonyl iron particles with nanofibers are significantly larger than those measured in previous works on MR fluids formulated by partial substitution with non-magnetic micronsized spherical particles. We also demonstrate that these dimorphic MR fluids also exhibit remarkably larger long-term sedimentation stability while keeping the same penetration and redispersibility characteristics.

  5. Plate-like iron particles based bidisperse magnetorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kruti; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) properties are experimentally investigated for bi-dispersion suspension of plate-like iron magnetic particles dispersed in carrier liquid to see the influence of small size particle on large size MR fluid. As a first step, structural, magnetic, and morphology of two different micron size magnetic particles are described in details. The three different weight fractions of MR fluid samples are then prepared, followed by measuring their magneto-viscous and visco-elastic properties. In the steady-state shear, the Bingham yield stress obtained by extrapolating the shear stress to the zero shear rate increases by augmenting the weight fraction of small micron size magnetic particles and the strength of magnetic field. In the oscillatory strain sweep test at an angular frequency of 10 rad s-1, a transition from visco-elastic solid to visco-elastic liquid is observed and a strong chain formation is proposed to explain the mechanism for transition. The storage modulus also increases with increasing weight fraction. From the frequency sweep test, the storage modulus is seen as independent of frequency, but depends on the magnetic field strength and weight fraction. The magneto-viscous sweep test indicates that both shear modulus and complex viscosity are independent with weight fraction at a high magnetic field. This experimental study reveals some very important physical parameters, rheological properties, and storage modulus of the plate-like iron particles based on MR fluid. The formation of less compact because of the anisotropy in iron particle creates weak sedimentation and good redispersibility of MR fluid. The results presented in this work are the key factors for devising how mechanical applications operated under static and dynamic conditions.

  6. Performance of magnetorheological fluids beyond the chain based shear limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Stephen G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids consist of magnetizable particles suspended in a carrier fluid, and upon application of a magnetic field, the particles form chains, and the so-called MR effect occurs, causing the fluid to develop a yield stress. However, calculations have shown that as the Mason number rises, the maximum stable chain length falls, and above a critical Mason number, no stable chains can form in the fluid, implying an upper limit on the existence of the MR effect. Using a standard simulation model for MR fluids, we find a significant reduction in fluid stress at the predicted Mason numbers for low volume fraction fluids.

  7. Oral fluid-based biomarkers in periodontal disease - part 2. Gingival crevicular fluid.

    PubMed

    AlRowis, Raed; AlMoharib, Hani S; AlMubarak, Abdulrahman; Bhaskardoss, Jagankumar; Preethanath, R S; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-09-01

    Periodontal diagnosis and treatment plan are based on the assessment of probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, suppuration, furcation involvement, mobility, and radiographic findings. However, these clinical parameters are not sufficiently sensitive and specific to identify disease activity in individual sites or to predict future attachment loss. Hence, attention is focused on the development of diagnostic tools that could screen and differentiate the active inflamed sites and predict future tissue destruction. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), has gained great interest on possible diagnostic value in periodontal disease. It contains a large number of proteins and peptides derived from inflamed host tissues. The analysis of the GCF components can reflect the disease status of individual sites and thus, identify potential biomarkers of periodontitis. A literature search was carried out to find out all the available tests that indicate periodontal disease markers in GCF. All major databases were searched to compile the information on published reports between 1999 and 2014. The list of GCF-biomarkers available to date is compiled and presented in a table format. Based on the available literature on GCF biomarkers, it can be concluded that several sensitive and reliable markers are present to detect the presence, severity, and response to treatment. Further studies are warranted to analyze the sensitivity and reliability of these indicators which might help in developing noninvasive tests that could help in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. PMID:25395809

  8. Fluid Analysis and Improved Structure of an ATEG Heat Exchanger Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. B.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a numerical model has been employed to analyze the internal flow field distribution in a heat exchanger applied for an automotive thermoelectric generator based on computational fluid dynamics. The model simulates the influence of factors relevant to the heat exchanger, including the automotive waste heat mass flow velocity, temperature, internal fins, and back pressure. The result is in good agreement with experimental test data. Sensitivity analysis of the inlet parameters shows that increase of the exhaust velocity, compared with the inlet temperature, makes little contribution (0.1 versus 0.19) to the heat transfer but results in a detrimental back pressure increase (0.69 versus 0.21). A configuration equipped with internal fins is proved to offer better thermal performance compared with that without fins. Finally, based on an attempt to improve the internal flow field, a more rational structure is obtained, offering a more homogeneous temperature distribution, higher average heat transfer coefficient, and lower back pressure.

  9. Efficient and selective chemical transformations under flow conditions: The combination of supported catalysts and supercritical fluids

    PubMed Central

    Burguete, M Isabel; García-Verdugo, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews the current trends in the combined use of supported catalytic systems, either on solid supports or in liquid phases and supercritical fluids (scFs), to develop selective and enantioselective chemical transformations under continuous and semi-continuous flow conditions. The results presented have been selected to highlight how the combined use of those two elements can contribute to: (i) Significant improvements in productivity as a result of the enhanced diffusion of substrates and reagents through the interfaces favored by the scF phase; (ii) the long term stability of the catalytic systems, which also contributes to the improvement of the final productivity, as the use of an appropriate immobilization strategy facilitates catalyst isolation and reuse; (iii) the development of highly efficient selective or, when applicable, enantioselective chemical transformations. Although the examples reported in the literature and considered in this review are currently confined to a limited number of fields, a significant development in this area can be envisaged for the near future due to the clear advantages of these systems over the conventional ones. PMID:22043246

  10. Modeling of Magma Dynamics Based on Two-Fluid Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-velocity multi-porous models are often used as a hydrodynamic basis to describe dynamics of fluid-magma systems. These models cover such problems as fast acoustic processes or large-scaled dynamics of magma systems having non-compressible magma. Nonlinear dynamics of magma as multiphase compressible medium has not been studied sufficiently. In this work we study nonlinear thermodynamically consistent two-liquid model of magma system dynamics, based on conservation law method. The model is restricted by short times of local heat balance between phases. Pressure balance between phases is absent. Two-fluid magma model have various rheological properties of the composing phases: viscous liquid and viscoelastic Maxwell medium. The dynamics of magna flows have been studied for two types of magma systems: magma channels and intraplate intermediate magma chambers. Numerical problem of the dynamics for such media is solved using the control volume method ensuring physical correctness of the solution. The solutions are successfully verified for benchmark one-velocity models. In this work we give the results of numerical modeling using CVM for a number of non-stationary problems of nonlinear liquid filtering through granulated medium in magma channels and problems two-liquid system convection in intraplate magma chambers for various parameters. In the last case the convection regimes vary depending on non-dimensional Rayleigh and Darcy numbers and the parameter field, where compressibility effects appear, is located. The given model can be used as a hydrodynamic basis to model the evolution of magma, fluid-magma systems to study thermo-acoustic influence on hydrodynamic flows in such systems. This work was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Grant #12-05-00625.

  11. Singularities and Topological Phase Transitions in Fluids: Breaking Away, Selective Withdrawal, and Islets in the Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, Sidney

    2007-01-17

    The exhilarating spray from waves crashing into the shore, the distressing sound of a faucet leaking in the night, and the indispensable role of bubbles dissolving gas into the oceans are but a few examples of the ubiquitous presence and profound importance of drop formation and splashing in our lives. During fission, a fluid forms a neck that becomes vanishingly thin at the point of breakup. This topological transition is accompanied by a dynamic singularity in which physical properties such as pressure diverge. Singularities of this sort often organize the overall dynamical evolution of nonlinear systems. I will first discuss the role of singularities in the breakup of droplets. I will then present a second experiment, selective withdrawal, in which we study the steady-state shape of a liquid as it is withdrawn by a nozzle through a surrounding fluid. Here, a change in topology may again be accompanied by a singularity. Applications of this geometry that rely on singular dynamical behavior are relevant for the coating of biological particles that may be of particular use in medical transplantation technologies.

  12. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  13. Orientation selectivity based structure for texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinjian; Lin, Weisi; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Yazhong; Lu, Liu

    2014-10-01

    Local structure, e.g., local binary pattern (LBP), is widely used in texture classification. However, LBP is too sensitive to disturbance. In this paper, we introduce a novel structure for texture classification. Researches on cognitive neuroscience indicate that the primary visual cortex presents remarkable orientation selectivity for visual information extraction. Inspired by this, we investigate the orientation similarities among neighbor pixels, and propose an orientation selectivity based pattern for local structure description. Experimental results on texture classification demonstrate that the proposed structure descriptor is quite robust to disturbance.

  14. Regional Multi-Fluid-Based Geophysical Excitation of Polar Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David A.; Gross, Richard

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing geophysical fluids geographic distribution, we can isolate the regional provenance for some of the important signals in polar motion. An understanding of such will enable us to determine whether certain climate signals can have an impact on polar motion. Here we have compared regional patterns of three surficial fluids: the atmosphere, ocean and land-based hydrosphere. The oceanic excitation function of polar motion was estimated with the ECCO/JPL data - assimilating model, and the atmospheric excitation function was determined from NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. The excitation function due to land hydrology was estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data by an indirect approach that determines water thickness. Our attention focuses on the regional distribution of atmospheric and oceanic excitation of the annual and Chandler wobbles during 1993-2010, and on hydrologic excitation of these wobbles during 2002.9-2011.5. It is found that the regions of maximum fractional covariance (those exceeding a value of 3 .10 -3) for the annual band are over south Asia, southeast Asia and south central Indian ocean, for hydrology, atmosphere and ocean respectively; and for the Chandler period, areas over North America, Asia, and South America; and scattered across the southern oceans for the atmosphere and oceans respectively

  15. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.

  16. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  17. Grid-Based Hydrodynamics in Astrophysical Fluid Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, Romain

    2015-08-01

    In this review, the equations of hydrodynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, and radiation hydrodynamics are presented, together with their corresponding nonideal source terms. I overview the current landscape of modern grid-based numerical techniques with an emphasis on numerical diffusion, which plays a fundamental role in stabilizing the solution but is also the main source of errors associated with these numerical techniques. I discuss in great detail the inclusion of additional important source terms, such as cooling and gravity. I also show how to modify classic operator-splitting techniques to avoid undesirable numerical errors associated with these additional source terms, in particular in the presence of highly supersonic flows. I finally present various mesh adaptation strategies that can be used to minimize these numerical errors. To conclude, I review existing astrophysical software that is publicly available to perform simulations for such astrophysical fluids.

  18. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  19. [Present status and trend of heart fluid mechanics research based on medical image analysis].

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianhong; Yin, Lixue; Xie, Shenghua; Li, Wenhua; Lu, Jing; Luo, Anguo

    2014-06-01

    With introduction of current main methods for heart fluid mechanics researches, we studied the characteristics and weakness for three primary analysis methods based on magnetic resonance imaging, color Doppler ultrasound and grayscale ultrasound image, respectively. It is pointed out that particle image velocity (PIV), speckle tracking and block match have the same nature, and three algorithms all adopt block correlation. The further analysis shows that, with the development of information technology and sensor, the research for cardiac function and fluid mechanics will focus on energy transfer process of heart fluid, characteristics of Chamber wall related to blood fluid and Fluid-structure interaction in the future heart fluid mechanics fields. PMID:25219260

  20. Active Path Selection of Fluid Microcapsules in Artificial Blood Vessel by Acoustic Radiation Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kohji; Muramatsu, Yusuke; Ueda, Sawami; Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Nakayashiki, Yusuke; Ishihara, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Micrometer-sized microcapsules collapse upon exposure to ultrasound. Use of this phenomenon for a drug delivery system (DDS), not only for local delivery of medication but also for gene therapy, should be possible. However, enhancing the efficiency of medication is limited because capsules in suspension diffuse in the human body after injection, since the motion of capsules in blood flow cannot be controlled. To control the behavior of microcapsules, acoustic radiation force was introduced. We detected local changes in microcapsule density by producing acoustic radiation force in an artificial blood vessel. Furthermore, we theoretically estimated the conditions required for active path selection of capsules at a bifurcation point in the artificial blood vessel. We observed the difference in capsule density at both in the bifurcation point and in alternative paths downstream of the bifurcation point for different acoustic radiation forces. Comparing the experimental results with those obtained theoretically, the conditions for active path selection were calculated from the acoustic radiation force and fluid resistance of the capsules. The possibility of controlling capsule flow towards a specific point in a blood vessel was demonstrated.

  1. Methods of use for sensor based fluid detection devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Methods of use and devices for detecting analyte in fluid. A system for detecting an analyte in a fluid is described comprising a substrate having a sensor comprising a first organic material and a second organic material where the sensor has a response to permeation by an analyte. A detector is operatively associated with the sensor. Further, a fluid delivery appliance is operatively associated with the sensor. The sensor device has information storage and processing equipment, which is operably connected with the device. This device compares a response from the detector with a stored ideal response to detect the presence of analyte. An integrated system for detecting an analyte in a fluid is also described where the sensing device, detector, information storage and processing device, and fluid delivery device are incorporated in a substrate. Methods for use for the above system are also described where the first organic material and a second organic material are sensed and the analyte is detected with a detector operatively associated with the sensor. The method provides for a device, which delivers fluid to the sensor and measures the response of the sensor with the detector. Further, the response is compared to a stored ideal response for the analyte to determine the presence of the analyte. In different embodiments, the fluid measured may be a gaseous fluid, a liquid, or a fluid extracted from a solid. Methods of fluid delivery for each embodiment are accordingly provided.

  2. Excess-entropy-based anomalies for a waterlike fluid.

    PubMed

    Errington, Jeffrey R; Truskett, Thomas M; Mittal, Jeetain

    2006-12-28

    Many thermodynamic and dynamic properties of water display unusual behavior at low enough temperatures. In a recent study, Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 130604 (2005)] identified a spherically symmetric two-scale potential that displays many of the same anomalous properties as water. More specifically, for select parametrizations of the potential, one finds that the regions where isothermal compression anomalously (i) decreases the fluid's structural order, (ii) increases its translational self-diffusivity, and (iii) increases its entropy form nested domes in the temperature-density plane. These property relationships are similar to those found for more realistic models of water. In this work, the authors provide evidence that suggests that the anomalous regions specified above can all be linked through knowledge of the excess entropy. Specifically, the authors show how entropy scaling relationships developed by Rosenfeld [Phys. Rev. A 15, 2545 (1977)] can be used to describe the region of diffusivity anomalies and to predict the state conditions for which anomalous viscosity and thermal conductivity behavior might be found. PMID:17199350

  3. Identification of selected apple pests based on selected graphical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.; Nowakowski, K.; Przybył, J.; Zaborowicz, M.; Raba, B.; Dach, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was a neural identification of selected apple tree orchard pests. The classification was conducted on the basis of graphical information coded in the form of selected geometric characteristics of agrofags, presented on digital images. A neural classification model is presented in this paper, optimized using learning sets acquired on the basis of information contained in digital photographs of pests. In particular, the problem of identifying 6 selected apple pests, the most commonly encountered in Polish orchards, has been addressed. In order to classify the agrofags, neural modelling methods were utilized, supported by digital analysis of image techniques.

  4. Reproducible and label-free biosensor for the selective extraction and rapid detection of proteins in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Sivanesan, Arumugam; Izake, Emad L; Agoston, Roland; Ayoko, Godwin A; Sillence, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein hormone of ∼ 34 kDa, is an important hematopoietic growth factor, mainly produced in the kidney and controls the number of red blood cells circulating in the blood stream. Sensitive and rapid recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) detection tools that improve on the current laborious EPO detection techniques are in high demand for both clinical and sports industry. A sensitive aptamer-functionalized biosensor (aptasensor) has been developed by controlled growth of gold nanostructures (AuNS) over a gold substrate (pAu/AuNS). The aptasensor selectively binds to rHuEPO and, therefore, was used to extract and detect the drug from horse plasma by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Due to the nanogap separation between the nanostructures, the high population and distribution of hot spots on the pAu/AuNS substrate surface, strong signal enhancement was acquired. By using wide area illumination (WAI) setting for the Raman detection, a low RSD of 4.92% over 150 SERS measurements was achieved. The significant reproducibility of the new biosensor addresses the serious problem of SERS signal inconsistency that hampers the use of the technique in the field. The WAI setting is compatible with handheld Raman devices. Therefore, the new aptasensor can be used for the selective extraction of rHuEPO from biological fluids and subsequently screened with handheld Raman spectrometer for SERS based in-field protein detection. PMID:26104688

  5. Controllable magneto-rheological fluid-based dampers for drilling

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, David W.; Elsayed, Mostafa Ahmed

    2006-05-02

    A damping apparatus and method for a drillstring comprising a bit comprising providing to the drillstring a damping mechanism comprising magnetorheological fluid and generating an electromagnetic field affecting the magnetorheological fluid in response to changing ambient conditions encountered by the bit.

  6. An investigation of thermal characteristics of a liquid-cooled magnetorheological fluid-based clutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daoming; Zi, Bin; Zeng, Yishan; Xie, Fangwei; Hou, Youfu

    2015-05-01

    Thermal characteristics have a critical influence on the working stability, control accuracy, and even service life of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based clutch. The present study aims to reveal the thermal characteristics of a proposed liquid-cooled MR clutch under various operating conditions. In this paper, theoretical analyses of heating and heat dissipation of the MR clutch was performed firstly. Then a steady temperature simulation was carried out on the MR clutch, followed by a detailed illustration of the experiments, including MR fluid selection, experimental content and procedure. Thereafter, several heating tests were conducted on the MR clutch, and experimental results concerning the slip power loss of the clutch, temperature variation of the MR fluid, temperature effect on the torque output, and maximum allowable slip power of the clutch were presented and discussed. Experimental results indicate that the proposed liquid cooling method can effectively assist in the heat dissipation of the clutch. Moreover, the temperature increase can lead to a reduction of both the viscous torque and total output torque, especially after long-term service. Furthermore, the allowable steady slip power of the clutch is 35 kW and the allowable transient slip power reaches up to 53.2 kW for a slip time of 120 s under the present experimental conditions.

  7. Highly selective electrode for potentiometric analysis of methadone in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Ardeshiri, Moslem; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop a fast and simple procedure for methadone analysis in biological fluids, a graphite paste electrode (GPE) was modified with the ion-pair of methadone-phosphotungstic acid, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Optimized composition of the electrode with respect to graphite powder:paraffin oil:MWCNTs:ion pair, was 58:30:8:4 (w/w%). The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of 58.9 ± 0.3 mV/decade for methadone in a wide linear range of 1.0 × 10(-8)-4.6 × 10(-3)M, with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-8)M. The electrode response was independent of pH in the range of 5-11, with a fast response time (~4s) at 25 °C. The sensor showed high selectivity and was successfully applied to the determination of sub-micromolar concentrations of methadone in human blood serum and urine samples, with recoveries in the range of 95-99.8%. The average recovery of methadone from tablets (5 mg/tablet) by using the proposed method was 98%. The life time of the modified electrode was more than 5 months, due to the characteristic of GPE which can be cut off and fresh electrode surface be available. A titration procedure was performed for methadone analysis by using phosphotungstic acid, as titrating agent, which showed an accurate end point and 1:1 stoichiometry for the ion-pair formed (methadone:phosphotungstic acid). The simple and rapid procedure as well as excellent detection limit and selectivity are some of the advantages of the proposed sensor for methadone. PMID:27040192

  8. FIXED DOSE COMBINATIONS WITH SELECTIVE BETA-BLOCKERS: QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS.

    PubMed

    Mahu, Ştefania Corina; Hăncianu, Monica; Agoroaei, Luminiţa; Grigoriu, Ioana Cezara; Strugaru, Anca Monica; Butnaru, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common causes of death, a complex and incompletely controlled disease for millions of patients. Metoprolol, bisoprolol, nebivolol and atenolol are selective beta-blockers frequently used in the management of arterial hypertension, alone or in fixed combination with other substances. This study presents the most used analytical methods for simultaneous determination in biological fluids of fixed combinations containing selective beta-blockers. Articles in Pub-Med, Science Direct and Wiley Journals databases published between years 2004-2014 were reviewed. Methods such as liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry--mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or high performance liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) were used for determination of fixed combination with beta-blockers in human plasma, rat plasma and human breast milk. LC-MS/MS method was used for simultaneous determination of fixed combinations of metoprolol with simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide or ramipril, combinations of nebivolol and valsartan, or atenolol and amlodipine. Biological samples were processed by protein precipitation techniques or by liquid-liquid extraction. For the determination of fixed dose combinations of felodipine and metoprolol in rat plasma liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was applied, using phenacetin as internal standard. HPLC-MS method was applied for the determination of bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma. For the determination of atenolol and chlorthalidone from human breast milk and human plasma the HPLC method was used. The analytical methods were validated according to the specialized guidelines, and were applied to biological samples, thing that confirms the permanent concern of researchers in this field. PMID:26204671

  9. Fast separation of selected cathinones and phenylethylamines by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Žihlová, Veronika; Borovcová, Lucie; Havlíček, Vladimír; Schug, Kevin; Lemr, Karel

    2015-12-01

    The chromatographic behaviour of eleven synthetic cathinones and four phenylethylamines under supercritical/subcritical fluid conditions was investigated. Four stationary phases with sub-2μm particles (Waters Acquity UPC(2) BEH silica, BEH 2-ethylpyridine, CSH Fluoro-Phenyl, and HSS C18SB) were evaluated in terms of isomer resolution, chromatographic peak shape, and analysis time. Methanol, water, formic acid, ammonium hydroxide, ammonium acetate, and ammonium formate were mixed with carbon dioxide to test their influence on analyte retention and peak shapes. Methanol and ammonium cations were essential for successful separations. Efficient separations of four isomeric pairs (R>1), and most of the remaining analytes, were achieved in less than 3.3min on BEH and Fluoro-Phenyl columns with gradient of methanolic ammonium hydroxide in CO2. Drugs were detected by positive electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode. Added detection specificity and faster separation of isomers on the BEH column using a steep gradient and high flow rate reduced analysis time of the mixture of 15 drugs to 1.6min. PMID:26585202

  10. Selection principles and pattern formation in fluid mechanics and nonlinear shell theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sather, Duane P.

    1987-01-01

    Research accomplishments are summarized and publications generated under the contract are listed. The general purpose of the research was to investigate various symmetry breaking problems in fluid mechanics by the use of structure parameters and selection principles. Although all of the nonlinear problems studied involved systems of partial differential equations, many of these problems led to the study of a single nonlinear operator equation of the form F(w, lambda, gamma) = 0, (w is an element of H), (lambda is an element of R1), (gamma is an element of R1). Instead of varying only the load parameter lambda, as is often done in the study of such equations, one of the main ideas used was to vary the structure parameter gamma in such a way that stable solutions were obtained. In this way one determines detailed stability results by making use of the structure of the model equations and the known physical parameters of the problem. The approach was carried out successfully for Benard-type convection problems, Taylor-like problems for short cylinders, rotating Couette-Poiseuille channel flows, and plane Couette flows. The main focus of the research was on wave theory of vortex breakdown in a tube. A number of preliminary results for inviscid axisymmetric flows were obtained.

  11. Effect of viscosity of base fluid on thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Kuo, Long-Sheng; Chen, Ping-Hei; Yang, Chin-Ting

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of viscosity of the base fluid on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles are suspended in the base fluid composed of diesel oil and polydimethylsiloxane. Viscosity of the base fluid is varied by changing the volumetric fractions between both fluids. The measured thermal conductivity of nanofluids gradually approaches the value predicted by the Maxwell equation by increasing the viscosity. It demonstrates that the viscosity of nanofluids does affect the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, and the Brownian motion of suspended particles could be an important factor that enhances the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

  12. Rheologically stable, nontoxic, high-temperature, water-based drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Elward-Berry, J.; Darby, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An exceptionally stable, high-temperature, water-based drilling fluid has been developed based on a fundamental redesign of drilling fluid components and functions, while still using commercially available materials. Rheological stability was characterized by extensive Fann 50C low-shear-rate viscosity vs. temperature studies and supporting viscoelastic rheological data. The fluid has been used in offshore and land applications, at temperatures as high as 420 F and densities as high as 15.5 lbm/gal.

  13. Solid-phase/supercritical-fluid extraction for liquid chromatography of phenolic compounds in freshwater microalgae and selected cyanobacterial species.

    PubMed

    Klejdus, B; Kopecký, J; Benesová, L; Vacek, J

    2009-01-30

    In the present paper a new extraction technique based on the combination of solid-phase/supercritical-fluid extraction (SPE/SFE) with subsequent reversed-phase HPLC is described. The SPE/SFE extractor was originally constructed from SPE-cartridge incorporated into the SFE extraction cell. Selected groups of benzoic acid derivatives (p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, gallic, vanillic and syringic acid), hydroxybenzaldehydes (4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde) and cinnamic acid derivatives (o-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and chlorogenic acid) were extracted. Cyclic addition of binary extraction solvent system based on methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and methanol/ammonia aqueous solution was used for extraction at 40MPa and 80 degrees C. The p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, caffeic and chlorogenic acid; 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde were identified by HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry in SPE/SFE extracts of acid hydrolyzates of microalga (Spongiochloris spongiosa) and cyanobacterial strains (Spirulina platensis, Anabaena doliolum, Nostoc sp., and Cylindrospermum sp.). For the identification and quantification of the compounds the quasi-molecular ions [M-H](-) and specific fragments were analysed by quadrupole mass spectrometry analyzer. Our analysis showed that the microalgae and cyanobacteria usually contained phenolic acids or aldehydes at microg levels per gram of lyophilized sample. The proposed SPE/SFE extraction method would be useful for the analysis of different plant species containing trace amount of polar fraction of phenols. PMID:19111311

  14. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. PMID:22136134

  15. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS ON BENTHIC ORGANISMS IN TEMPERATE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to enhance the efficiency of oil/gas drilling operations and to minimize hazards to marine ecosystems have resulted in the increased use of synthetic-based fluids (SBF). SBFs have performance characteristics closely related to oil-based fluids (OBF) however their lower PA...

  16. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert

    2000-09-01

    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  17. Ubbelohde viscometer measurement of water-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid prepared by coprecipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H.; Tang, X.; Hong, R. Y.; Feng, W. G.; Xie, H. D.; Chen, D. X.; Badami, D.

    2013-12-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and coated by sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) to obtain water-based magnetic fluid. The viscosity of the magnetic fluid was measured using an Ubbelohde viscometer. The effects of magnetic particles volume fraction, surfactant mass fraction and temperature on the viscosity were studied. Experimental results showed that the magnetic fluid with low magnetic particle volume fraction behaved as a Newtonian fluid and the viscosity of the magnetic fluid increased with an increase of the suspended magnetic particles volume fraction. The experimental data was compared with the results of a theoretically derived equation. The viscosity of the magnetic fluid also increased with an increase in surfactant mass portion, while it decreased with increasing temperature. Moreover, the viscosity increased with increasing the magnetic field intensity. Increasing the temperature and the surfactant mass fraction weakened the influence of the magnetic field on the viscosity of the magnetic fluid.

  18. Stability of double-diffusive convection induced by selective absorption of radiation in a fluid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, Thomas J.; Hill, Antony A.

    2012-05-01

    Linear and nonlinear stability analyses were performed on a fluid layer with a concentration-based internal heat source. Clear bimodal behaviour in the neutral curve (with stationary and oscillatory modes) is observed in the region of the onset of oscillatory convection, which is a previously unobserved phenomenon in radiation-induced convection. The numerical results for the linear instability analysis suggest a critical value γ c of γ, a measure for the strength of the internal heat source, for which oscillatory convection is inhibited when γ > γ c . Linear instability analyses on the effect of varying the ratio of the salt concentrations at the upper and lower boundaries conclude that the ratio has a significant effect on the stability boundary. A nonlinear analysis using an energy approach confirms that the linear theory describes the stability boundary most accurately when γ is such that the linear theory predicts the onset of mostly stationary convection. Nevertheless, the agreement between the linear and nonlinear stability thresholds deteriorates for larger values of the solute Rayleigh number for any value of γ.

  19. Modelling of Turbulent Flows of Newtonian Fluids Based on Analogies to Flows of Non-Newtonian Fluids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Ning

    In this work, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for turbulent secondary flows of a Newtonian fluid and necessary and sufficient conditions for laminar steady secondary flows of a Non-Newtonian fluid in a straight tube. It is found that there is a striking similarity between them. This similarity motivates the assumption used in developing a generalized non-linear K- epsilon model. Based on an analogy that exists between the constitutive relations for turbulent mean flows of a Newtonian fluid and that for laminar flows of a Non -Newtonian fluid, and making use of the constitutive framework of extended thermodynamics, we develop a generalized non -linear K-epsilon model with the same relaxation time as that which appears in the turbulence model proposed by Yakhot, Orszag, Thangam, Gatski and Speziale in 1992. We show that the non-linear K-epsilon model developed by Speziale in 1987 is unable to predict the relaxation phenomena of the Reynolds stresses because of involving no K and dotepsilon , and a coefficient of which leads to a negative relaxation time for the Reynolds stresses. To correct this deficiency, we resort to making use of the relaxation time in the model of Yakhot et al.. The approximate form of our generalized non-linear K-epsilon model, which can predict the relaxation phenomena of the Reynolds stresses and is frame indifferent, is an extension of the standard K-epsilon model and the non-linear K-epsilon model of Speziale.

  20. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    DOEpatents

    Li; ,Dongmei; Medlin, J. William; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Bastasz, Robert J.

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  1. Preparation and properties of low boiling point of alcohol and acetone-based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishiyama, H.; Jeyadevan, B.

    1999-07-01

    Ultra-fine magnetic particles are difficult to be dispersed in low boiling point solvents such as alcohol (C 1-C 4) and acetone. In this paper, we report the preparation methods of several alcohol and acetone-based magnetic fluids. The stability of magnetic fluid depended on the HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance) of the solvent and alkyl chain lengths of organic layers. The fluid was most stable only when the HLB value of surfactant and the solvents are similar.

  2. RGD-based Therapy: Principles of Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, Mikhail A; Syrkina, Marina S; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-01-01

    Design of selective anticancer drugs that are targeting RGD-binding integrin receptors which are known to be one of the perspective directions in the field of oncology. Significant progress in the development and application of these types compounds is already demonstrated. The accumulating body of basic and clinical evidence demonstrates potential significant effects on both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, the specific mechanism of action of these compounds is generally not a fully elucidated or the exact target responsible for the achievement of stated effects hasn't yet been defined sufficiently. To date eight types of integrin receptors, which are capable to recognize RGD-motif in natural ligands, has in fact been identified as (namely αIIbβ3, αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, α5β1, α8β1). Even so, the estimation of the affinity of one particular RGD-bearing anticancer agent is often based on the determination of the binding efficacy to only one or rarely two integrin receptors. Traditionally the range of targets is restricted by the integrins, which are known to be highly expressed in a particular model system. While potential interactions of such an agent with other RGD-recognizing receptors usually remain beyond the research. Nonetheless, such interactions may also affect the viability and behavior of cancer cells. In this review we attempt to critically analyze the principles of selectivity achievement in the case of RGD-bearing natural ligands and the applicability of these principles in the context of the anticancer drug design. PMID:26648463

  3. Investigating differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soil and soil components using selective supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Chai, Yunzhou; Grabanski, Carol B; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Miller, David J; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure carbon dioxide was performed at increasingly strong conditions to investigate differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two impacted soils, in their sieved size fractions, and in small (a few mg) samples of industry-related waste products separated from impacted soil. The binding strengths of PCDD/Fs were shown to be different in the two soils, and in their different soil particle size fractions. As might be expected based on surface area considerations, one soil showed the strongest binding in the smallest (<5μm) sieved fraction. However, the other soil showed the strongest binding in the larger sized fractions, possibly indicating that process-related particles could be controlling PCDD/F binding. Selective SFE of various types of particles including black carbon and charcoal (separated from soil), and from a suspected process anode residue did show different PCDD/F binding behavior ranging from quite weak binding (charcoal) to very strong binding (anode particles). Shifts to the stronger SFE fractions in the soils after activated carbon treatment agreed well with the decreases previously found in the uptake of PCDD/Fs by earthworms, as well as decreases in their freely-dissolved aqueous concentrations in soil/water slurries. These results show that, as previously demonstrated for PAHs and PCBs, selective SFE can be a useful tool to investigate differences in PCDD/F binding behaviors in impacted soils and sediments and their component parts, as well as a rapid tool for estimating the effectiveness of activated carbon treatments on decreasing the bioavailability of PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments. PMID:22406311

  4. Method for separating metal chelates from other materials based on solubilities in supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    A method for separating a desired metal or metalloi from impurities using a supercritical extraction process based on solubility differences between the components, as well as the ability to vary the solvent power of the supercritical fluid, is described. The use of adduct-forming agents, such as phosphorous-containing ligands, to separate metal or metalloid chelates in such processes is further disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones; phosphine oxides, such as trialkylphosphine oxides, triarylphosphine oxides and alkylarylphosphine oxides; phosphinic acids; carboxylic acids; phosphates, such as trialkylphosphates, triarylphosphates and alkylarylphosphates; crown ethers; dithiocarbamates; phosphine sulfides; phosphorothioic acids; thiophosphinic acids; halogenated analogs of these chelating agents; and mixtures of these chelating agents. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated.

  5. Nanometric Gap Structure with a Fluid Lipid Bilayer for the Selective Transport and Detection of Biological Molecules.

    PubMed

    Ando, Koji; Tanabe, Masashi; Morigaki, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    The biological membrane is a natural biosensing platform that can detect specific molecules with extremely high sensitivity. We developed a biosensing methodology by combining a model biological membrane and a nanometer-sized gap structure on a glass substrate. The model membrane comprised lithographically patterned polymeric and fluid lipid bilayers. The polymeric bilayer was bonded to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sheet by using an adhesion layer with a defined thickness (lipid vesicles). Extruded lipid vesicles having a biotin moiety on the surface were used as the adhesion layer in conjunction with the biotin-streptavidin linkage. A gap structure was formed between the fluid bilayer and PDMS (nanogap junction). The thickness of the gap structure was several tens of nanometers, as determined by the thickness of the adhesion layer. The nanogap junction acted as a sensitive biosensing platform. From a mixture of proteins (cholera toxin and albumin), the target protein (cholera toxin) was selectively transported into the gap by the specific binding to a glycolipid (GM1) in the fluid bilayer and lateral diffusion. The target protein molecules were then detected with an elevated signal-to-noise ratio due to the reduced background noise in the nanometric gap. The combination of selective transport and reduced background noise drastically enhanced the sensitivity toward the target protein. The nanogap junction should have broad biomedical applications by realizing highly selective and sensitive biosensing in samples having diverse coexisting molecules. PMID:27427950

  6. Vertical length scale selection for pancake vortices in strongly stratified viscous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Billant, Paul

    2004-04-01

    The evolution of pancake dipoles of different aspect ratio is studied in a stratified tank experiment. Two cases are reported here for values of the dipole initial aspect ratio alpha_0 = L_v/L_h (where L_v and L_h are vertical and horizontal length scales, respectively) of alpha_0 = 0.4 (case I) and alpha_0 = 1.2 (case II). In the first case, the usual decay scenario is observed where the dipole diffuses slowly with a growing thickness and a decaying circulation. In case II, we observed a regime where the thickness of the dipole decreases and the circulation in the horizontal mid-plane of the vortices remains constant. We show that this regime where the vertical length scale decreases can be explained by the shedding of two boundary layers at the top and bottom of the dipole that literally peel off vorticity layers. Horizontal advection and vertical diffusion cooperate in this regime and the decrease towards the viscous vertical length scale delta = L_hRe(-1/2) occurs on a time scale alpha_0 Re(1/2) T_A, T_A being the advection time L_h/U. From a scaling analysis of the equations for a stratified viscous fluid in the Boussinesq approximation, two dominant balances depending on the parameter R = ReF_h(2) are discussed, where F_h = U/NL_h is the horizontal Froude number and Re = UL_h/nu is the Reynolds number, U, N and nu being, respectively, the translation speed of the dipole, the Brunt Väisälä frequency and the kinematic viscosity. When R≫ 1 the vertical length scale is determined by buoyancy effects to be of order L_b = U/N. The experiments presented in this paper pertain to the case of small R, where viscous effects govern the selection of the vertical length scale. We show that if initially L_v ≤ delta, the flow diffuses on the vertical (case I), while if L_v ≫ delta (case II), vertically sheared horizontal advection decreases the vertical length scale down to delta. This viscous regime may explain results from experiments and numerical simulations on

  7. Properties of forced convection experimental with silicon carbide based nano-fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soanker, Abhinay

    With the advent of nanotechnology, many fields of Engineering and Science took a leap to the next level of advancements. The broad scope of nanotechnology initiated many studies of heat transfer and thermal engineering. Nano-fluids are one such technology and can be thought of as engineered colloidal fluids with nano-sized colloidal particles. There are different types of nano-fluids based on the colloidal particle and base fluids. Nano-fluids can primarily be categorized into metallic, ceramics, oxide, magnetic and carbon based. The present work is a part of investigation of the thermal and rheological properties of ceramic based nano-fluids. alpha-Silicon Carbide based nano-fluid with Ethylene Glycol and water mixture 50-50% volume concentration was used as the base fluid here. This work is divided into three parts; Theoretical modelling of effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of colloidal fluids, study of Thermal and Rheological properties of alpha-SiC nano-fluids, and determining the Heat Transfer properties of alpha-SiC nano-fluids. In the first part of this work, a theoretical model for effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of static based colloidal fluids was formulated based on the particle size, shape (spherical), thermal conductivity of base fluid and that of the colloidal particle, along with the particle distribution pattern in the fluid. A MATLAB program is generated to calculate the details of this model. The model is specifically derived for least and maximum ETC enhancement possible and thereby the lower and upper bounds was determined. In addition, ETC is also calculated for uniform colloidal distribution pattern. Effect of volume concentration on ETC was studied. No effect of particle size was observed for particle sizes below a certain value. Results of this model were compared with Wiener bounds and Hashin- Shtrikman bounds. The second part of this work is a study of thermal and rheological properties of alpha-Silicon Carbide based nano-fluids

  8. Preparation and Properties of ε-Fe3N-Based Magnetic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In this work, ε-Fe3N nanoparticles and ε-Fe3N-based magnetic fluid were synthesized by chemical reaction of iron carbonyl and ammonia gas. The size of ε-Fe3N nanoparticles was tested by TEM and XRD. Stable ε-Fe3N-based magnetic fluid was prepared by controlling the proper ratio of carrier liquid and surfactant. The saturation magnetization of stable ε-Fe3N-based magnetic fluid was calculated according to the volume fraction of the particles in the fluid. The result shows that both the calculated and measured magnetizations increase by increasing the particle concentration. With the increasing concentration of the ε-Fe3N particles, the measured value of the magnetic fluid magnetization gradually departs from the calculated magnetization, which was caused by agglomeration affects due to large volume fraction and large particle size.

  9. Fluorescent sensing of pyrophosphate anion in synovial fluid based on DNA-attached magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Li; Chen, Zhen-zhen; Jiang, Zhong-yao; Sun, Miao-miao; Li, Lu; Liu, Ju; Tang, Bo

    2015-10-15

    In this work, a new fluorescent method for sensitive detection of pyrophosphate anion (P2O7(4-), PPi) in the synovial fluid was developed using fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA-attached Fe3O4 NPs. The sensing approach is based on the strong affinity of PPi to Fe3O4 NPs and highly efficient fluorescent quenching ability of Fe3O4 NPs for fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA. In the presence of PPi, the fluorescence would enhance dramatically due to desorption of fluorophore labeled single-stranded DNA from the surface of Fe3O4 NPs, which allowed the analysis of PPi in a very simple manner. The proposed sensing system allows for the sensitive determination of PPi in the range of 2.0 × 10(-7)-4 × 10(-6)M with a detection limit of 76 nM. Importantly, the protocol exhibits excellent selectivity for the determination of PPi over other phosphate-containing compounds. The method was successfully applied to the determination of PPi in the synovial fluid, which suggests our proposed method has great potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25957830

  10. Size-selective chemical synthesis of tartrate stabilized cobalt ferrite ionic magnetic fluid.

    PubMed

    Neveu, S; Bee, A; Robineau, M; Talbot, D

    2002-11-15

    Ionic magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) is a stable suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in water. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are interesting in view of high-density recording storage. The size of the magnetic particles strongly influences the physical properties of the ferrofluids. In this study, we describe the synthesis of ionic magnetic fluid in the presence of tartrate ions. By varying the amount of organic ligands, nanoparticles in a large range of size are obtained: the mean diameter varies from 3 to 10 nm. The effect of tartrate ions on the stability of the ionic magnetic fluid is also studied in relation with the size of the magnetic particles and the amount of adsorbed ligand. PMID:12505076

  11. Whole body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte balance: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Matthew B

    2013-10-15

    A cellular compartment was added to our previous mathematical model of steady-state acid-base and fluid-electrolyte chemistry to gain further understanding and aid diagnosis of complex disorders involving cellular involvement in critically ill patients. An important hypothesis to be validated was that the thermodynamic, standard free-energy of cellular H(+) and Na(+) pumps remained constant under all conditions. In addition, a hydrostatic-osmotic pressure balance was assumed to describe fluid exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, including incorporation of compliance curves of vascular and interstitial spaces. The description of the cellular compartment was validated by close comparison of measured and model-predicted cellular pH and electrolyte changes in vitro and in vivo. The new description of plasma-interstitial fluid exchange was validated using measured changes in fluid volumes after isoosmotic and hyperosmotic fluid infusions of NaCl and NaHCO3. The validated model was used to explain the role of cells in the mechanism of saline or dilutional acidosis and acid-base effects of acidic or basic fluid infusions and the acid-base disorder due to potassium depletion. A module was created that would allow users, who do not possess the software, to determine, for free, the results of fluid infusions and urinary losses of water and solutes to the whole body. PMID:23884137

  12. The effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the thermal conductivities of various base fluids.

    PubMed

    Altan, Cem L; Bucak, Seyda

    2011-07-15

    Conventional heat transfer fluids have intrinsically poor heat transfer properties compared to solids. Enhancing the efficiency of heat transfer is of great interest for various industrial applications. Suspending solid particles in a fluid increases the thermal conductivity of the resulting suspension and enhances the heat transfer properties. In this work, changes in thermal conductivities of fluids upon the addition of magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated. Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles are synthesized using different synthesis methods and are suspended in various oils. The effect of the base fluid and the type of magnetic particle on the thermal conductivity is investigated in detail. Up to 28% increase in the thermal conductivity is obtained with 2.5 wt% magnetic particles in hexane. The thermal conductivity enhancement is found to depend on the particle concentration, method of preparation and base fluid. The enhancements obtained are higher than those estimated using any theoretical model present in the literature. PMID:21659690

  13. The effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the thermal conductivities of various base fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, Cem L.; Bucak, Seyda

    2011-07-01

    Conventional heat transfer fluids have intrinsically poor heat transfer properties compared to solids. Enhancing the efficiency of heat transfer is of great interest for various industrial applications. Suspending solid particles in a fluid increases the thermal conductivity of the resulting suspension and enhances the heat transfer properties. In this work, changes in thermal conductivities of fluids upon the addition of magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated. Fe3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized using different synthesis methods and are suspended in various oils. The effect of the base fluid and the type of magnetic particle on the thermal conductivity is investigated in detail. Up to 28% increase in the thermal conductivity is obtained with 2.5 wt% magnetic particles in hexane. The thermal conductivity enhancement is found to depend on the particle concentration, method of preparation and base fluid. The enhancements obtained are higher than those estimated using any theoretical model present in the literature.

  14. A new resonant based measurement method for squeeze mode yield stress of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Shah, Kruti; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-10-01

    A new approach to measure the field-dependent yield stress of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in squeeze mode using the resonance concept is proposed. The measurement system is designed using the piezolaminated cantilever beam coupled with an electromagnetic coil based MR fluid squeezing setup. The cantilever beam is maintained at resonance using simple closed-loop electronics. The magnetic field produced by the coil changes the viscosity of MR fluids and produces an additional stiffness to the resonating cantilever beam. The shift in resonant frequency due to the change in viscosity of the MR fluid is measured, and the shift in frequency is analytically related to the yield stress. Two types of MR fluids based on sphere and plate iron particles are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed measurement system.

  15. Long Duration Life Test of Propylene Glycol Water Based Thermal Fluid Within Thermal Control Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Hung; Hill, Charles; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of thermal properties and resistance to microbial growth concluded that 50% Propylene Glycol (PG)-based fluid and 50% de-ionized water mixture was desirable for use as a fluid within a vehicle s thermal control loop. However, previous testing with a commercial mixture of PG and water containing phosphate corrosion inhibitors resulted in corrosion of aluminum within the test system and instability of the test fluid. This paper describes a follow-on long duration testing and analysis of 50% Propylene Glycol (PG)-based fluid and 50% de-ionized water mixture with inorganic corrosion inhibitors used in place of phosphates. The test evaluates the long-term fluid stability and resistance to microbial and chemical changes

  16. Low-temperature, selective catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil in supercritical fluid media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Hong-Shik; Hong, Moon Hyun; Lim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jaehoon

    2014-02-01

    The effects of supercritical fluids on the production of renewable diesel-range hydrocarbons from natural triglycerides were investigated. Various supercritical fluids, which included CO2 (scCO2 ), propane (scC3 H8 ) and n-hexane (scC6 H14 ), were introduced with H2 and soybean oil into a fixed-bed reactor that contained pre-activated CoMo/γ-Al2 O3 . Among these supercritical fluids, scC3 H8 and scC6 H14 efficiently allowed the reduction of the reaction temperature by as much as 50 °C as a result of facilitated heat and mass transfer and afforded similar yields to reactions in the absence of supercritical fluids. The compositional analyses of the gas and liquid products indicated that the addition of scC3 H8 during the hydrotreatment of soybean oil promoted specific deoxygenation pathways, decarbonylation and decarboxylation, which consumed less H2 than the hydrodeoxygenation pathway. As a result, the quantity of H2 required to obtain a high yield of diesel-range hydrocarbons could be reduced to 57 % if scC3 H8 was used. As decarboxylation and decarbonylation are mildly endothermic reactions, the reduced heat transfer resistance in scC3 H8 may drive the deoxygenation reaction to thermodynamically favourable pathways. PMID:24339322

  17. Hybrid propulsion based on fluid-controlled solid gas generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Norman S.; Strand, Leon D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of fuel-rich solid (gas generator-type) propellants for hybrid propulsion affords some design and utilization efficiency advantages. Both forward and aft liquid injection control concepts are evaluated from the operational standpoints of ballistics, throttling, stability and extinguishment. Steady-state and non-steady ballistics analyses are employed for this evaluation. Stability of solid motor operation is enhanced by fluid injection with adequate injector pressure drop. Efficient throttling and reliable extinguishment are attained through a combination of solid propellant combustion tailoring, grain design, control valves and sensors. Initial results from a laboratory-scale slab combustor, combining a gas generator propellant with gaseous oxygen injection, are also presented.

  18. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With...—Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646) This procedure describes a method for amending uncontaminated and nontoxic (control) sediments with the base fluids that are used to...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With...—Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646) This procedure describes a method for amending uncontaminated and nontoxic (control) sediments with the base fluids that are used to...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With...—Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646) This procedure describes a method for amending uncontaminated and nontoxic (control) sediments with the base fluids that are used to...

  2. Micropatterned TiO₂ nanotube surfaces for site-selective nucleation of hydroxyapatite from simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Pittrof, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian; Schmuki, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    TiO₂ nanotube layers can provide greatly enhanced kinetics for hydroxyapatite formation from simulated body fluid compared with smooth, compact TiO₂ surfaces. In the present work we show how this contrast in reactivity can be used to create highly defined lateral microstructures where bone-like hydroxyapatite can be deposited with very high selectivity. For this we used a photolithographic approach to produce micropatterned TiO₂ nanotube layers surrounded by compact oxide that were then immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Not only the tubular vs. flat geometry but also the finding that compact oxides created in phosphate electrolytes in particular suppress apatite deposition are crucial for a very high reactivity contrast. Overall the results show the feasibility of stimulating hydroxyapatite deposition at surface locations where needed or desired. This provides a valuable tool for biomedical device design. PMID:20883841

  3. FTOC-Based Analysis of Negative Selection.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Cody A; Teixeiro, Emma; Daniels, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Potentially harmful T cell precursors are removed from the conventional T cell pool by negative selection. This process can involve the induction of apoptosis, anergy, receptor editing or deviation into a regulatory T cell lineage. As such this process is essential for the health of an organism through its contribution to central and peripheral tolerance. While a great deal is known about the process, the precise mechanisms that regulate negative selection are not clear. Furthermore, the signals that distinguish the different forms of negative selection are not fully understood. Numerous models exist with the potential to address these questions in vitro and in vivo. This chapter describes methods of fetal thymic organ culture designed to analyze the signals that determine these unique cell fates. PMID:26294405

  4. Investigation of the breakdown products produced from electrical discharge in selected CFC replacement fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley-Fedder, R.; Goerz, D.; Koester, C.; Wilson, M.

    1996-04-01

    LLNL personnel have designed and constructed a special purpose electrical test stand to evaluate CFCs and CFC replacement fluids under simulated AC, DC, and pulsed breakdown conditions. The test stand includes an electrical diagnostic system which allows the measurement of breakdown voltage, discharge current, arc power, and energy associated with each pulse. The appropriate data that is collected in order to correlate the quantity of by-products produced with the pertinent control variables, such as voltage, current, pulse width, pulse repetition frequency, and energy. Along with the electrical test stand, LLNL has extensive chemical analysis facilities that enable us to perform gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of various fluids to identify and quantify the breakdown products formed under various scenarios of electrical energy deposition.

  5. Selective chelation and extraction of lanthanides and actinides with supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, R.D.; Carleson, T.E.; Harrington, J.D.; Jean, F.; Jiang, H.; Lin, Y.; Wai, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report is made up of three independent papers: (1) Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Thorium and Uranium with Fluorinated Beta-Diketones and Tributyl Phosphate, (2) Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lanthanides with Beta-Diketones and Mixed Ligands, and (3) A Group Contribution Method for Predicting the Solubility of Solid Organic Compounds in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Experimental data are presented demonstrating the successful extraction of thorium and uranium using fluorinated beta-diketones to form stable complexes that are extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide. The conditions for extracting the lanthanide ions from liquid and solid materials using supercritical carbon dioxide are presented. In addition, the Peng-Robison equation of state and thermodynamic equilibrium are used to predict the solubilities of organic solids in supercritical carbon dioxide from the sublimation pressure, critical properties, and a centric factor of the solid of interest.

  6. Hole-cleaning capabilities of an ester-based drilling fluid system

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.; Hemphill, T.

    1996-03-01

    Well 33/9-C02, located in the Statfjord field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, held the world record in extended-reach drilling from 1993--95. To successfully drill a well of this type, an efficient drilling fluid is required to suspend the weighting material and provide good carrying capacity. The ester-based mud system used in the 12{1/4}- and 8{1/2}-in. hole sections of this well exhibited excellent hole-cleaning capabilities. This paper describes the fluid`s performance in the field and in the laboratory where the fluid was tested under down-hole conditions. Fluid rheological behavior is described with the more accurate yield-power law. (YPL) (Herschel-Bulkley) model.

  7. Robust feature selection for microarray data based on multicriterion fusion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Mao, K Z

    2011-01-01

    Feature selection often aims to select a compact feature subset to build a pattern classifier with reduced complexity, so as to achieve improved classification performance. From the perspective of pattern analysis, producing stable or robust solution is also a desired property of a feature selection algorithm. However, the issue of robustness is often overlooked in feature selection. In this study, we analyze the robustness issue existing in feature selection for high-dimensional and small-sized gene-expression data, and propose to improve robustness of feature selection algorithm by using multiple feature selection evaluation criteria. Based on this idea, a multicriterion fusion-based recursive feature elimination (MCF-RFE) algorithm is developed with the goal of improving both classification performance and stability of feature selection results. Experimental studies on five gene-expression data sets show that the MCF-RFE algorithm outperforms the commonly used benchmark feature selection algorithm SVM-RFE. PMID:21566255

  8. Development of bearings and a damper based on magnetically controllable fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guldbakke, J. M.; Hesselbach, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents two different kinds of magnetically controllable fluid bearings and a new magnetorheological fluid damper based upon open porous metallic foams. For the bearings, it will distinguish between a magnetohydrostatic bearing and a hydrostatic bearing with a magnetically controllable fluid. The magnetohydrostatic bearings get their load bearing capacity from the magnetohydrostatic pressure that is generated by the gradient of the magnetic field along a fluid surface. With such magnetohydrostatic bearings a specific load up to 1.6 N cm2 can be reached. To support heavier loads hydrostatic bearings with magnetically controllable fluids can be used. This bearing concept makes it possible to achieve a constant bearing gap even if the load of the bearing changes. For this purpose the fluids are used as a hydraulic medium. Due to the magnetically controlled rheological behaviour of the fluid the bearing gap remains constant. The great advantage of this closed loop system compared to that of common hydrostatic bearings using valves is the quicker response to payload changes. The reason for that is that the active element (i.e. the fluid) acts directly inside the bearing gap and not outside like in the case of valves. The foam damper developed uses the fluid to produce controllable damping forces. The open porous foam is directly placed in the active volume of the damper. By moving the foam piston the magnetically controllable fluid is pressed through the pores. The flow in the pores can be controlled by changing the fluid viscosity by applying a magnetic field. With this damper structure it is possible to reach higher damping forces whilst featuring a small design space.

  9. Acridine-intercalator based hypoxia selective cytotoxins

    DOEpatents

    Papadopoulou-Rosenzweig, Maria; Bloomer, William D.; Bloomer, William D.

    1994-01-01

    Hypoxia selective cytotoxins of the general formula ##STR1## wherein n is from 1 to 5, and NO.sub.2 is in at least one of the 2, 4 or 5-positions of the imidazole. Such compounds have utility as radiosensitizers and chemosensitizers.

  10. Acridine-intercalator based hypoxia selective cytotoxins

    DOEpatents

    Papadopoulou-Rosenzweig, M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    Hypoxia selective cytotoxins of the general formula STR1 wherein n is from 1 to 5, and NO[sub 2] is in at least one of the 2, 4 or 5-positions of the imidazole are developed. Such compounds have utility as radiosensitizers and chemosensitizers. 9 figs.

  11. Self-selecting fluid intake while maintaining high carbohydrate availability does not impair half-marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J C; Hammond, K M; Vasdev, A; Poole, K L; Impey, S G; Close, G L; Morton, J P

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that self-selecting fluid intake but maintaining high exogenous CHO availability (60 g/h) does not compromise half-marathon performance. 15 participants completed 3 half-marathons while drinking a 6% CHO solution to guidelines (DRINK) or a non-caloric solution in self-selected volumes when consuming 3×glucose (20 g) gels (G-GEL) or glucose-fructose (13 g glucose+7 g fructose) gels (GF-GEL) per hour. Fluid intake (DRINK: 1 557±182, G-GEL: 473±234, GF-GEL: 404±144 ml) and percent body mass loss (DRINK: - 0.8±0.9, G-GEL: - 2.0±0.6, GF-GEL: -2.3±1.1) were different (P<0.05) between conditions, though race time did not differ (DRINK: 110.6±14.4, G-GEL: 110.3±14.6, GF-GEL: 113.7±12.8 min). In G-GEL, there was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between body mass loss and race time. Plasma glucose was lower (P<0.05) in GF-GEL compared with other conditions, and total CHO oxidation (DRINK: 3.2±0.5, G-GEL: 3.0±0.4, GF-GEL: 2.6±0.4 g/min) was lower (P=0.06) in this trial. Self-selecting fluid intake but maintaining high CHO availability does not impair half-marathon performance. Additionally, consuming glucose-fructose mixtures in sub-optimal amounts reduces plasma glucose and total rates of CHO oxidation. PMID:25144431

  12. Sterically stabilized water based magnetic fluids: Synthesis, structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Marinică, Oana; Socoliuc, Vlad; Bălăsoiu, Maria; Garamus, Vasil M.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic fluids (MFs), prepared by chemical co-precipitation followed by double layer steric and electrostatic (combined) stabilization of magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in water, are presented. Several combinations of surfactants with different chain lengths (lauric acid (LA), myristic acid (MA), oleic acid (OA) and dodecyl-benzene-sulphonic acid (DBS)) were used, such as LA+LA, MA+MA, LA+DBS, MA+DBS, OA+DBS, OA+OA and DBS+DBS. Static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, small angle neutron scattering, magnetic and magneto-rheological measurements revealed that MFs with MA+MA or LA+LA biocompatible double layer covered magnetite nanoparticles are the most stable colloidal systems among the investigated samples, and thus suitable for biomedical applications.

  13. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics of Endoscopically-Collected Pancreatic Fluid in Chronic Pancreatitis Research

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Lee, Linda S.; Wu, Bechien; Banks, Peter A.; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based investigation of pancreatic fluid enables the high-throughput identification of proteins present in the pancreatic secretome. Pancreatic fluid is a complex admixture of digestive, inflammatory, and other proteins secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum, and thus is amenable to mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Recent advances in endoscopic techniques, in particular the endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT), have improved the collection methodology of pancreatic fluid for proteomic analysis. Here, we provide an overview of mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques as applied to the study of pancreatic fluid. We address sample collection, protein extraction, mass spectrometry sample preparation and analysis, and bioinformatic approaches and summarize current mass spectrometry-based investigations of pancreatic fluid. We then examine the limitations and the future potential of such technologies in the investigation of pancreatic disease. We conclude that pancreatic fluid represents a rich reservoir of potential biomarkers and that the study of the molecular mechanisms of chronic pancreatitis may benefit substantially from mass spectrometry-based proteomics. PMID:21360826

  14. 40 CFR Appendix 7 to Subpart A of... - Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by a Retort Chamber (Derived From API Recommended Practice 13B-2) (EPA Method 1674) 7 Appendix 7 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  15. [A comparative analysis of occupational risk in industry employees based on concentrations of some elements in teeth and body fluids].

    PubMed

    Poczatek, Michał; Machoy, Zygmunt; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Work safety and hygiene is a set of basic measures to protect workers from the negative effects of manufacturing processes. So far, numerous procedures for assessment of occupational health risk have been described. We measured the concentrations of some elements in teeth and body fluids of employees working in three different industries with an established production profile: Zakłady Naprawcze Taboru Kolejowego (repairs of rail vehicles), Philips Lighting Poland (production of lighting systems) and Metalplast (build ing furbishing factory). Different technologies were in place at each of these plants. Basing on laboratory analyses, the risk of exposure to chemical substances was evaluated. The study material included 100 extracted teeth, as well as body fluid samples (saliva, urine and blood) collected during routine health checks. Whenever possible, concentrations of the following elements were measured: calcium, magnesium, fluorine, phosphorus in the form of phosphates, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead. Metal elements were measured spectrophotometrically (ASA), fluorine with an ion-selective electrode, and phosphates with a colorimetric method. We found that concentrations of the elements in teeth and body fluids differed depending on the industry. For teeth, statistically significant differences applied to magnesium, phosphates, zinc, sodium, and potassium. In body fluids, statistically significant differences were found for calcium (blood and urine), magnesium (blood, urine and saliva), zinc (blood, urine and saliva), iron, lead and copper (urine). In conclusion, our findings may be helpful for monitoring safety at work in industrial plants. PMID:16871749

  16. Magnetic wire-based sensors for the microrheology of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Chevry, L; Sampathkumar, N K; Cebers, A; Berret, J-F

    2013-12-01

    We propose a simple microrheology technique to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of complex fluids. The method is based on the use of magnetic wires of a few microns in length submitted to a rotational magnetic field. In this work, the method is implemented on a surfactant wormlike micellar solution that behaves as an ideal Maxwell fluid. With increasing frequency, the wires undergo a transition between a steady and a hindered rotation regime. The study shows that the average rotational velocity and the amplitudes of the oscillations obey scaling laws with well-defined exponents. From a comparison between model predictions and experiments, the rheological parameters of the fluid are determined. PMID:24483443

  17. Hydrodynamics of chains in ferrofluid-based magnetorheological fluids under rotating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh; Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2009-07-01

    Ferrofluid-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid is prepared by dispersing micron-size magnetic spheres in a ferrofluid. We report here the mechanism of chain formation in ferrofluid based MR fluid, which is quite different from conventional MR fluid. Some of the nanomagnetic particles of ferrofluid filled inside the microcavities are formed due to association of large particles, and some of them are attached at the end of large particles. Under rotating magnetic field, fragmentation of a single chain into three parts is observed. Two of them are chains of micron-size magnetic particles which are suspended in a ferrofluid, and the third one is the chain of nanomagnetic particles of ferrofluid, which may be the connecting bridge between the two chains of larger magnetic particles. The rupture of a single chain provides evidence for the presence of nanomagnetic particles within the magnetic field-induced chainlike structure in this bidispersed MR fluid. PMID:19658750

  18. Quantification of selected synthetic cannabinoids and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Ana; Piñeiro, Beatriz; Lendoiro, Elena; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2013-06-21

    An LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of the synthetic cannabinoids JWH-200, JWH-250, JWH-073, JWH-018, HU-211, CP 47,497 and CP 47,497-C8, and THC in oral fluid was developed and validated. Samples (0.5 mL) were extracted using Strata X cartridges (Phenomenex). Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Sunfire™ IS column (20×2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) (Waters Corp.), with formic acid 0.1% and acetonitrile as mobile phase. A different chromatographic gradient was applied for the separation of the analytes depending on the ionization mode employed, with a total chromatographic run of 14 min. Detection was performed in a Quattro Micro™ API ESCI (Waters Corp.), using electrospray in the positive mode (ESI+) for JWH-200, JWH-250, JWH-073, JWH-018 and THC, and ESI- for HU-211, CP 47,497, and CP 47,497-C8. Validation of the method included the assessment of selectivity, linearity (0.1-2.5 to 200 ng/mL), limits of detection (0.025-1 ng/mL) and quantification (0.1-2.5 ng/mL), imprecision (%CV≤14.4%), accuracy (91.8-109.7% of target concentration), extraction recovery (65.4-105.6%) and Quantisal recovery (56.1-66.7%), and matrix effect (neat oral fluid: -56.0% to 38.5%; oral fluid in Quantisal buffer: -15.1% to -71.7%). The application of this method to oral fluid samples from roadside testing will provide unique information on the use of these new synthetic drugs by Spanish drivers. PMID:23680386

  19. EEG feature selection method based on decision tree.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lijuan; Ge, Hui; Ma, Wei; Miao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to solve automated feature selection problem in brain computer interface (BCI). In order to automate feature selection process, we proposed a novel EEG feature selection method based on decision tree (DT). During the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing, a feature extraction method based on principle component analysis (PCA) was used, and the selection process based on decision tree was performed by searching the feature space and automatically selecting optimal features. Considering that EEG signals are a series of non-linear signals, a generalized linear classifier named support vector machine (SVM) was chosen. In order to test the validity of the proposed method, we applied the EEG feature selection method based on decision tree to BCI Competition II datasets Ia, and the experiment showed encouraging results. PMID:26405856

  20. Mineralizing conditions and source fluid composition of base metal sulfides in the Lon District, southeastern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, C. H.; Thomas, D.; García del Real, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Bird, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal base metal mineralization is rare in Iceland due to the scarcity of evolved magma bodies that discharge metal-rich aqueous fluids into bedrock. One exception is the Lon District of southeastern Iceland, where explosively emplaced rhyolitic breccias host base metal sulfide minerals. We performed petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses on samples collected in Lon to constrain the conditions of sulfide mineral formation. Based on outcrop and hand sample observations, hot, early-stage hydrothermal fluids precipitated sulfide minerals, quartz, and epidote in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. Cooler late-stage fluids precipitated carbonates and quartz in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. The order of precipitation of the sulfides was: galena, sphalerite, then chalcopyrite. Homogenization temperatures of liquid-dominated multi-phase fluid inclusions in hydrothermal early-stage quartz coeval with chalcopyrite cluster around 303 °C and 330 °C, indicating precipitation of metallic sulfides in two main hydrothermal fluid pulses early in the period of hydrothermal activity in the Lon District. Freezing point depression analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz show that the sulfide minerals precipitated from a solution that was 4 wt. % NaCl. The 𝛿34S values of sulfides indicate that early-stage hydrothermal sulfur was derived from igneous rocks, either through leaching by non-magmatic hydrothermal fluids or by exsolution of magmatic waters. Early stage epidote 𝛿D values were on average -65.96 per mil, about 14 per mil higher than reported values in epidotes from elsewhere in southeastern Iceland. The 𝛿13C and 𝛿18O values of late-stage carbonates indicate that late stage hydrothermal fluids were meteoric in origin. Collectively, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses suggest that early-stage aqueous fluids derived from a mixture of magmatic waters exsolved from the proximal Geitafell intrusion and meteoric

  1. Selection in sugarcane based on inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    de Azeredo, A A C; Bhering, L L; Brasileiro, B P; Cruz, C D; Barbosa, M H P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the gene action associated with yield-related traits, including mean stalk weight (MSW), tons of sugarcane per hectare (TCH), and fiber content (FIB) in sugarcane. Moreover, the viability of individual reciprocal recurrent selection (RRSI-S1) was verified, and the effect of inbreeding depression on progenies was checked. The results were also used to select promising genotypes in S1 progenies. Eight clones (RB925345, RB867515, RB739359, SP80-1816, RB928064, RB865230, RB855536, and RB943365) and their respective progenies, derived from selfing (S1), were evaluated. Several traits, including the number of stalks, MSW, soluble solids content determined in the field, stalk height, stalk diameter, TCH, soluble solids content determined in the laboratory, sucrose content, and FIB were evaluated in a randomized block design with hierarchical classification. The results showed that the traits with predominant gene action associated with the dominance variance of MSW and TCH were most affected by inbreeding depression. The FIB, with predominant additive control, was not affected by selfing of the clones, and the RB867515⊗, RB928064⊗, RB739359⊗ and RB925345⊗ progenies performed best. Therefore, the use of S1 progenies for RRSI-S1 in sugarcane breeding programs is promising, and it should be explored for the future breeding of clones with high FIB levels. PMID:27323098

  2. Fluid sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studenick, D. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inlet leak is described for sampling gases, more specifically, for selectively sampling multiple fluids. This fluid sampling device includes a support frame. A plurality of fluid inlet devices extend through the support frame and each of the fluid inlet devices include a longitudinal aperture. An opening device that is responsive to a control signal selectively opens the aperture to allow fluid passage. A closing device that is responsive to another control signal selectively closes the aperture for terminating further fluid flow.

  3. Adaptive Cognitive-Based Selection of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Lin, Taiyu; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Kinshuk

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive cognitive-based selection is recognized as among the most significant open issues in adaptive web-based learning systems. In order to adaptively select learning resources, the definition of adaptation rules according to the cognitive style or learning preferences of the learners is required. Although some efforts have been reported in…

  4. 44 CFR 321.2 - Selection of the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of the mobilization base. 321.2 Section 321.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.2 Selection of the mobilization base. (a) The...

  5. Physics-based preconditioners for two-fluid electrostatic and electromagnetic models with charge separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibs, C.; Chacon, L.; Knoll, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    Recently, fluid acceleration of a fully implicit kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation has been successfully demonstrated. Central to these algorithms is robust preconditioning of the fluid system. In the context of kinetic simulations, the fluid system features conservation equations for both ions and electrons, plus field evolution equations, and must allow for charge separation effects. In this work, we concern ourselves with electrostatic and electromagnetic two-fluid models in multiple dimensions. Electromagnetic fields are prescribed via the Darwin approximation to project out spurious light-wave time scales. Disparate time scales remain among the abundance of supported plasma waves. The resulting nonlinear, stiff hyperbolic PDE systems are effectively preconditioned using physics-based preconditioning ideas, whereby their linearized form is transformed into parabolic PDEs that target the fast wave behavior. These elliptic systems can be efficiently inverted by multigrid methods. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach via numerical experiments. Work funded by LANL LDRD program.

  6. Particle-based simulation of hydraulic fracture and fluid/heat flow in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Peter; Wang, Yucang; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Realizing the potential of geothermal energy as a cheap, green, sustainable resource to provide for the planet's future energy demands that a key geophysical problem be solved first: how to develop and maintain a network of multiple fluid flow pathways for the time required to deplete the heat within a given region. We present the key components for micro-scale particle-based numerical modeling of hydraulic fracture, and fluid and heat flow in geothermal reservoirs. They are based on the latest developments of ESyS-Particle - the coupling of the Lattice Solid Model (LSM) to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of complex solids with the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) applied to the nonlinear dynamics of coupled fluid and heat flow in the complex solid-fluid system. The coupled LSM/LBM can be used to simulate development of fracture systems in discontinuous media, elastic stress release, fluid injection and the consequent slip at joint surfaces, and hydraulic fracturing; heat exchange between hot rocks and water within flow pathways created through hydraulic fracturing; and fluid flow through complex, narrow, compact and gouge-or powder-filled fracture and joint systems. We demonstrate the coupled LSM/LBM to simulate the fundamental processes listed above, which are all components for the generation and sustainability of the hot-fractured rock geothermal energy fracture systems required to exploit this new green-energy resource.

  7. Computer-Based Information Networks: Selected Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    The history, purpose, and operation of six computer-based information networks are described in general and nontechnical terms. In the introduction the many definitions of an information network are explored. Ohio College Library Center's network (OCLC) is the first example. OCLC began in 1963, and since early 1973 has been extending its services…

  8. Selecting supplier combination based on fuzzy multicriteria analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhi-Qiu; Luo, Xin-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Wu-E.

    2015-07-01

    Existing multicriteria analysis (MCA) methods are probably ineffective in selecting a supplier combination. Thus, an MCA-based fuzzy 0-1 programming method is introduced. The programming relates to a simple MCA matrix that is used to select a single supplier. By solving the programming, the most feasible combination of suppliers is selected. Importantly, this result differs from selecting suppliers one by one according to a single-selection order, which is used to rank sole suppliers in existing MCA methods. An example highlights such difference and illustrates the proposed method.

  9. A Pressure Based Multi-Fluid Algorithm for Multiphase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, P. J.; Zhang, W. P.; Lei, G. D.; Zhu, M. G.

    A new finite volume-based numerical algorithm for predicting multiphase flow phenomena is presented. The method is formulated on an orthogonal coordinate system in collocated primitive variables. The SIMPLE-like algorithms are based on the prediction and correction procedure, and they are extended for all speed range. The object of the present work is to extent single phase SIMPLE algorithm to multiphase flow. The overview of the algorithm is described and relevant numerical issues are discussed extensively, including implicit process of the moment interaction with “partial elimination” (of the drag term), introduction of under-relaxation factor, formulation of momentum interpolation, and pressure correction equation. This model is based on the k-ɛ model assumed that the turbulence is dictated by the continuous phase. Thus only the transport equation for the continuous phase turbulence energy kc needed to be solved while a algebraic turbulence model is used for dispersed phase. The present author also designed a general program with FORTRAN90 program language for the new algorithm based on the household code General Transport Equation Analyzer (GTEA). The performance of the new method is assessed by solving a 3D bubbly two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. A good agreement is achieved between the numerical result and experimental data in the literature.

  10. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED EXTRACTION PROCEDURE: COMPARISON OF FIVE FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the performance of soil remediation technologies has been evaluated based on the total amount of extractable contaminants. However, some have argued that remedial treatments may alter the bioavailability as well as the mass of contaminants. For example, it has been...

  11. Fluid viscous damping as an alternative to base isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, G.; Lee, D.

    1996-12-01

    Base isolation is an effective way to protect large structures from earthquake damage. It is a costly approach, as the entire structure must be supported on elastomeric or sliding bearings. Viscous dampers distributed throughout the otherwise conventional structure can achieve the same result at significantly lower cost. This paper describes how to install viscous dampers in a structure, and gives several examples.

  12. Fluid identification in tight sandstone reservoirs based on a new rock physics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianmeng; Wei, Xiaohan; Chen, Xuelian

    2016-08-01

    To identify pore fluids, we establish a new rock physics model named the tight sandstone dual-porosity model based on the Voigt–Reuss–Hill model, approximation for the Xu–White model and Gassmann’s equation to predict elastic wave velocities. The modeling test shows that predicted sonic velocities derived from this rock physics model match well with measured ones from logging data. In this context, elastic moduli can be derived from the model. By numerical study and characteristic analyzation of different elastic properties, a qualitative fluid identification method based on Poisson’s ratio and the S–L dual-factor method based on synthetic moduli is proposed. Case studies of these two new methods show the applicability in distinguishing among different fluids and different layers in tight sandstone reservoirs.

  13. Theoretical bases of radar (selected pages)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirman, Ya. D.; Golikov, V. N.; Busygin, I. N.; Kostin, G. A.; Manshos, V. N.

    1987-06-01

    A textbook is presented for radio engineering departments of schools of higher education, which prepare specialists in radar. The use of statistical methods of analysis as the single base is it special feature. The principles are given of construction and the theory of the devices/equipment of optimum detection in the presence of interferences; the methods are examined for obtaining the radar information taking into account achievements in the region of the optimum working/treatment of serrated radar signals, laws governing secondary radiation and radiowave propagation. A large number of examples, which permits the reader to more rapidly master main questions of theory and its application, are given.

  14. An evaluation of selected oral fluid point-of-collection drug-testing devices.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Dennis J; Walsh, J M; Flegel, Ron; Cangianelli, Leo; Baudys, Jakub; Atkins, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Point-of-collection oral fluids drug-testing devices are being marketed for a variety of medico-legal purposes where they may complement existing technologies and be used to detect drugs following recent ingestion. To assess the utility of these devices for use in drugged-driving investigations, we performed a laboratory evaluation of four devices and those results were published previously. In the study reported here, two more devices, Oratect(R) (Branan) and Uplink(R) (OraSure), were evaluated for their ability to detect amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and cannabinoids. An additional device, Drugwipe (Securtec), was evaluated for the detection of cocaine and cannabinoids. Each of the devices was assessed for their ability to meet the manufacturers' claimed cutoff concentrations and to meet cutoffs proposed for federal workplace programs. In general, the Branan and OraSure devices detected amphetamine, methamphetamine, opiates, and cannabinoid metabolite (THC-COOH) well in the concentration ranges approximating those proposed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), but all three devices performed poorly in detecting Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at the proposed SAMHSA cutoff. The ability to accurately and reliably detect cocaine was dependent on the individual device, and the Branan and Securetec devices were more effective than OraSure at detecting parent cocaine. PMID:15975256

  15. Viscous fluid damping in a laterally oscillating finger of a comb-drive micro-resonator based on micro-polar fluid theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azma, Sahra; Rezazadeh, Ghader; Shabani, Rasoul; Alizadeh-Haghighi, Elnaz

    2016-06-01

    Viscous damping is a dominant source of energy dissipation in laterally oscillating micro-structures. In micro-resonators in which the characteristic dimensions are comparable to the dimensions of the fluid molecules, the assumption of the continuum fluid theory is no longer justified and the use of micro-polar fluid theory is indispensable. In this paper a mathematical model was presented in order to predict the viscous fluid damping in a laterally oscillating finger of a micro-resonator considering micro-polar fluid theory. The coupled governing partial differential equations of motion for the vibration of the finger and the micro-polar fluid field have been derived. Considering spin and no-spin boundary conditions, the related shape functions for the fluid field were presented. The obtained governing differential equations with time varying boundary conditions have been transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions and have been discretized using a Galerkin-based reduced order model. The effects of physical properties of the micro-polar fluid and geometrical parameters of the oscillating structure on the damping ratio of the system have been investigated.

  16. Viscous fluid damping in a laterally oscillating finger of a comb-drive micro-resonator based on micro-polar fluid theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azma, Sahra; Rezazadeh, Ghader; Shabani, Rasoul; Alizadeh-Haghighi, Elnaz

    2016-02-01

    Viscous damping is a dominant source of energy dissipation in laterally oscillating micro-structures. In micro-resonators in which the characteristic dimensions are comparable to the dimensions of the fluid molecules, the assumption of the continuum fluid theory is no longer justified and the use of micro-polar fluid theory is indispensable. In this paper a mathematical model was presented in order to predict the viscous fluid damping in a laterally oscillating finger of a micro-resonator considering micro-polar fluid theory. The coupled governing partial differential equations of motion for the vibration of the finger and the micro-polar fluid field have been derived. Considering spin and no-spin boundary conditions, the related shape functions for the fluid field were presented. The obtained governing differential equations with time varying boundary conditions have been transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions and have been discretized using a Galerkin-based reduced order model. The effects of physical properties of the micro-polar fluid and geometrical parameters of the oscillating structure on the damping ratio of the system have been investigated.

  17. Multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection for hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mahesh

    2012-02-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of three feature selection methods based on multinomial logistic regression, and compares the performance of the best multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approach with the support vector machine based recurring feature elimination approach. Two hyperspectral datasets, one consisting of 65 features (DAIS data) and other with 185 features (AVIRIS data) were used. Result suggests that a total of between 15 and 10 features selected by using the multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approach as proposed by Cawley and Talbot achieve a significant improvement in classification accuracy in comparison to the use of all the features of the DAIS and AVIRIS datasets. In addition to the improved performance, the Cawley and Talbot approach does not require any user-defined parameter, thus avoiding the requirement of a model selection stage. In comparison, the other two multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approaches require one user-defined parameter and do not perform as well as the Cawley and Talbot approach in terms of (i) the number of features required to achieve classification accuracy comparable to that achieved using the full dataset, and (ii) the classification accuracy achieved by the selected features. The Cawley and Talbot approach was also found to be computationally more efficient than the SVM-RFE technique, though both use the same number of selected features to achieve an equal or even higher level of accuracy than that achieved with full hyperspectral datasets.

  18. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  19. Novel optical devices based on the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Yuyan; Lv, Riqing; Wang, Qi

    2011-12-01

    As a new type of functional material, magnetic fluid (MF) is a stable colloid of magnetic nanoparticles, dressed with surfactant and dispersed in the carrier liquid uniformly. The MF has many unique optical properties, and the most important one is its tunable refractive index property. This paper summarizes the properties of the MF refractive index and the related optical devices. The refractive index can be easily controlled by external magnetic field, temperature, and so on. But the tunable refractive index of MF has a relaxation effect. As a result, the response time is more than milliseconds and the MF is only suitable for low speed environment. Compared with the traditional optical devices, the magnetic fluid based optical devices have the tuning ability. Compared with the tunable optical devices (the electro-optic devices (LiNbO3) of more than 10 GHz modulation speed, acoustic-optic devices (Ge) of more than 20 MHz modulation speed), the speed of the magnetic fluid based optical devices is low. Now there are many applications of magnetic fluid based on the refractive index in the field of optical information communication and sensing technology, such as tunable beam splitter, optical-fiber modulator, tunable optical gratings, tunable optical filter, optical logic device, tunable interferometer, and electromagnetic sensor. With the development of the research and application of magnetic fluid,a new method, structure and material to improve the response time can be found, which will play an important role in the fields of optical information communication and sensing technology.

  20. Tactile refreshable screen based on magneto-rheological fluids for map exploration and navigation tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzmacher, C.; Changeon, G.; Plaud, V.; Roselier, S.; Lozada, J.; Hafez, M.

    2011-06-01

    Human-machine interfaces can convey information via visual, audio and/or haptic cues during a navigation task. The visual and audio technologies are mature, whereas research has to be focused on haptic technologies for mobile devices. In this work, a tactile refreshable screen is proposed which allows its user the exploration of maps and navigational tasks in an egocentric perspective. The proposed device consists of an array of actuators which can display various patterns. The actuation technology is based on a magneto-rheological fluid which is injected in a chamber with an elastomeric membrane using a micro pump. The fluid pressure deforms the membrane in order to display a pattern. The fluid properties are used to form a valve in each cell. A permanent magnet, a ferromagnetic core, and a coil form a closed magnetic circuit with a gap where the magneto-rheological fluid can flow; the magnetic field interacts with the fluid and prevents the filling or draining of the chamber. Applying a current to the coil counteracts the magnetic field generated by the magnet and the fluid can circulate freely in order to inflate or deflate the membrane. The design, fabrication and integration of the device in addition to the results of finite element simulations and experimental measurements are reported.

  1. Selective effect of mannitol-induced hyperosmolality on brain interstitial fluid and water content in white matter

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, G.A.; Barrett, J.; Estrada, E.; Brayer, J.; Kyner, W.T.

    1988-09-01

    We studied the effect of mannitol-induced hyperosmolality on brain interstitial fluid (ISF) by autoradiography. Adult cats underwent intracerebral infusion of the extracellular marker, /sup 14/C-sucrose. Nine animals were given 2g/kg of mannitol intravenously, and another nine animals without mannitol were controls. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osmolalities were measured. After 2 hr the brains were removed for determination of water and electrolyte content and for preparation of the autoradiograms. Diffusion coefficients were calculated for intracerebral transport with equations for radial diffusion. We found that mannitol increased the plasma osmolality but did not affect that of the CSF. Water and potassium contents were significantly lower in the white matter of mannitol-treated animals than in controls. Diffusion was reduced in the direction of gray matter into the white matter. We conclude that lower doses of mannitol control CSF pressure by selectively removing water from white matter, reducing the CSF volume, and affecting molecular transport at the gray/white interface.

  2. A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of selected biogenic amines and amino acids in mammalian decomposition fluid.

    PubMed

    Swann, L M; Forbes, S L; Lewis, S W

    2010-06-15

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of selected biogenic amines (tyramine and tryptamine) and amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine) in mammalian decomposition fluids is presented. Separations were carried out in a fused silica capillary (75microm i.d., total length 65cm, effective length 56cm) with detection by ultraviolet absorbance spectrophotometry at 200nm. In order to improve resolution and total analysis time, the method was subjected to optimisation utilising a chemometric approach. A screening design was carried out followed by a central composite design (CCD), using peak resolution and total analysis time as response factors. The influences of four experimental variables (pH, background electrolyte concentration, percentage of organic modifier (methanol) and applied voltage) were investigated. Optimum separation conditions were determined to be; a background electrolyte of boric acid (70mM) adjusted to pH 9.5 with 0.1M sodium hydroxide with 32% methanol (v/v). Applied voltage was 30kV, with the resulting current being less than 26microA. Under these conditions the analytes were separated within 12min. Tryptamine, tyramine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine were identified by migration time and spiking in porcine decomposition fluids. PMID:20441960

  3. Cloned, CD117 selected human amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response.

    PubMed

    Moorefield, Emily C; McKee, Elizabeth E; Solchaga, Luis; Orlando, Guisseppe; Yoo, James J; Walker, Steve; Furth, Mark E; Bishop, Colin E

    2011-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells are broadly multipotent, can be expanded extensively in culture, are not tumorigenic and can be readily cryopreserved for cell banking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) show immunomodulatory activity and secrete a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines that suppress inflammatory responses, block mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) and other immune reactions, and have proven therapeutic against conditions such as graft-versus-host disease. AFS cells resemble MSCs in many respects including surface marker expression and differentiation potential. We therefore hypothesized that AFS cells may exhibit similar immunomodulatory capabilities. We present data to demonstrate that direct contact with AFS cells inhibits lymphocyte activation. In addition, we show that cell-free supernatants derived from AFS cells primed with total blood monocytes or IL-1β, a cytokine released by monocytes and essential in mediation of the inflammatory response, also inhibited lymphocyte activation. Further investigation of AFS cell-free supernatants by protein array revealed secretion of multiple factors in common with MSCs that are known to be involved in immune regulation including growth related oncogene (GRO) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) family members as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6). AFS cells activated by PBMCs released several additional cytokines as compared to BM-MSCs, including macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α), MIP-1α and Activin. AFS cells also released higher levels of MCP-1 and lower levels of MCP-2 compared to BM-MSCs in response to IL-1β activation. This suggests that there may be some AFS-specific mechanisms of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. Our results indicate that AFS cells are able to suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and that soluble factors are an essential component in the communication between lymphocytes and AFS cells. Their extensive self-renewal capacity, possibility for banking and absence of

  4. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  5. On Rayleigh-Plesset based cavitation modelling of fluid film bearings using the Reynolds equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Troy A.; Braun, Minel J.; Pierson, Kristopher

    2015-12-01

    In the ‘universe’ of the general cavitation phenomena the issue of cavitation in bearings, due to its particular application and the mostly non-homogeneous working fluids associated with it, has presented a rather specialized challenge. The present paper models the phenomenon of pseudo-cavitation in fluid film bearings and offers a physics-based approach that conserves mass while solving the Reynolds (RE) and Rayleigh-Plesset (RP) equations in a coupled, fully transient environment. The RP solution calculates a time dependent void fraction synchronized with the RE transient solution, where density and viscosity are (re)calculated at every grid point of this homogeneous two-phase fluid. The growth and evolution of the cavitation zone expanse is physics-based and thus can accommodate evaporation, diffusion, or pseudocavitation as separate processes. This is a step beyond the present available cavitation models both for the RE and the Navier-Stokes equations.

  6. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s⁻¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol⁻¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

  7. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  8. Shield support selection based on geometric characteristics of coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    K. Goshtasbi; K. Oraee; F. Khakpour-yeganeh

    2006-01-15

    The most initial investment in longwall face equipping is the cost of powered support. Selection of proper shields for powered supports is based on load, geometric characterization of coal seams and economical considerations.

  9. Adaptive registration of magnetic resonance images based on a viscous fluid model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Herng-Hua; Tsai, Chih-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    This paper develops a new viscous fluid registration algorithm that makes use of a closed incompressible viscous fluid model associated with mutual information. In our approach, we treat the image pixels as the fluid elements of a viscous fluid governed by the nonlinear Navier-Stokes partial differential equation (PDE) that varies in both temporal and spatial domains. We replace the pressure term with an image-based body force to guide the transformation that is weighted by the mutual information between the template and reference images. A computationally efficient algorithm with staggered grids is introduced to obtain stable solutions of this modified PDE for transformation. The registration process of updating the body force, the velocity and deformation fields is repeated until the mutual information reaches a prescribed threshold. We have evaluated this new algorithm in a number of synthetic and medical images. As consistent with the theory of the viscous fluid model, we found that our method faithfully transformed the template images into the reference images based on the intensity flow. Experimental results indicated that the proposed scheme achieved stable registrations and accurate transformations, which is of potential in large-scale medical image deformation applications. PMID:25176596

  10. Phantom-based experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations on cerebral aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Qi; Groth, Alexandra; Bertram, Matthias; Waechter, Irina; Bruijns, Tom; Hermans, Roel; Aach, Til

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Recently, image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been applied to investigate the hemodynamics inside human cerebral aneurysms. The knowledge of the computed three-dimensional flow fields is used for clinical risk assessment and treatment decision making. However, the reliability of the application specific CFD results has not been thoroughly validated yet. Methods: In this work, by exploiting a phantom aneurysm model, the authors therefore aim to prove the reliability of the CFD results obtained from simulations with sufficiently accurate input boundary conditions. To confirm the correlation between the CFD results and the reality, virtual angiograms are generated by the simulation pipeline and are quantitatively compared to the experimentally acquired angiograms. In addition, a parametric study has been carried out to systematically investigate the influence of the input parameters associated with the current measuring techniques on the flow patterns. Results: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate good agreement between the simulated and the real flow dynamics. Discrepancies of less than 15% are found for the relative root mean square errors of time intensity curve comparisons from each selected characteristic position. The investigated input parameters show different influences on the simulation results, indicating the desired accuracy in the measurements. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive validation method of CFD simulation for reproducing the real flow field in the cerebral aneurysm phantom under well controlled conditions. The reliability of the CFD is well confirmed. Through the parametric study, it is possible to assess the degree of validity of the associated CFD model based on the parameter values and their estimated accuracy range.

  11. Biennial Fluid Dynamics Symposium on Advanced Problems and Methods in Fluid Mechanics, 19th, Kozubnik, Poland, Sept. 3-8, 1989, Selected Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent advances in experimental and computational fluid mechanics are discussed in a series of review essays. Topics addressed include transitions to complex flow in thermal convection, optimum hypersonic wings and wave riders, relativistic hydrodynamics, and wind-tunnel wall corrections for unsteady flow (steady wall adaptation and CFD techniques). Consideration is given to axisymmetric laminar interacting boundary layers, differential forms and fluid dynamics, breaking water waves, strong temperature gradients in turbulent wakes, and liquid-crystal 'blue' phases.

  12. Novel optical devices based on the transmission properties of magnetic fluid and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Lv, Riqing; Zhang, Yuyan; Wang, Qi

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic fluid has many unique optical properties. It has numerous potential applications in developing optical devices because of its versatile optical properties. This paper summarizes the physical origins and control mechanisms of the MF transmission properties, and the related optical devices based on the transmission properties of magnetic fluid. In recent years, there are many applications in optical information communication and sensing technology, such as optical switches, tunable optical gratings, coarse wavelength-division multiplexing, magnetic-field sensors, current sensor. The qualitative and quantitative analysis about the physical configuration, the operating principle, and the characteristics of those optical devices are given. The valuable potential problems and the solutions that are related to optical properties and optical devices based on magnetic fluid are expounded in detail, and potential new types of MF-based optical devices are proposed. It can be concluded that the transmission properties of MF will be improved greatly, and the characteristics of present optical devices based on magnetic fluid will be made better continually and it will play an important role in the fields of optical information communication and sensing technology.

  13. Delayed cerebrospinal fluid sterilization, in vitro bactericidal activities, and side effects of selected beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Dajani, A S; Pokowski, L H

    1990-01-01

    Ampicillin (or penicillin G) plus chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime have been used in the treatment of bacterial meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Review of recent data from the USA and Europe indicates that delayed CSF sterilization occurs significantly more often with ampicillin/chloramphenicol and cefuroxime than with ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Delayed CSF sterilization is associated with an increased morbidity and neurological complications. Previously reported in vitro interactions between chloramphenicol and various beta-lactam antibiotics indicate that for bacteria where chloramphenicol is only bacteriostatic, the combination of chloramphenicol with beta-lactams is antagonistic. Killing rates of various beta-lactams were compared against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cidal activity of some beta-lactams was inoculum dependent. There was a good correlation between in vitro activity and ability to sterilize CSF. Ceftriaxone is highly protein bound and its use in newborns is discouraged. Diarrhea occurs significantly more often after cefriaxone use than after the use of other agents. Ceftriaxone is uniquely associated with a high frequency of biliary pseudolithiasis which may be symptomatic and can cause measureable morbidity. In selecting the "proper" antimicrobial agent for the treatment of bacterial meningitis considerations should be given to proven clinical efficacy, prompt CSF sterilization, rapid in vitro cidal activity, safety and cost. We recommend cefotaxime as the agent of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. PMID:2091255

  14. Magnetic field sensor based on fiber taper coupler coated with magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Song, Binbin; Liu, Bo; Lin, Yandong; Liu, Haifeng; Miao, Yinping; Liu, Yange

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated a magnetic field sensor based on the fiber taper coupler coated with Magnetic fluid. The proposed sensor is fabricated by immersing a fiber taper coupler into the Magnetic fluid and then sealing it with the paraffin. The sensor exhibits high response as a function of the magnetic field with sensitivities of 0.154 nm/Oe with measurement range from 50 Oe to 200 Oe and -0.06301 dB/ Oe from 75 Oe to 200 Oe. Owing to the advantages of high sensitivity, small footprint, and ease of fabrication, the proposed sensor would find potential applications in magnetic field sensing field.

  15. Skull Base Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Control with a Fibrin-Based Composite Tissue Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Jack P.; Sierra, David H.; Castro-Moure, Frederico; Jiang, Feng

    1996-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks can be responsible for significant patient morbidity and mortality. While the majority of leaks induced after head trauma will seal without intervention, spontaneous or surgically-induced leaks often require operative repair. Many modifications on standard surgical technique are available for repair of CSF fistulae, but none assures adequate closure. We have studied the efficacy of a novel fibrin-based composite tissue adhesive (CTA) for closure of experimentally-induced CSF leaks in rats. Fistulae were created in two groups of animals. Two weeks after creation of the leaks, the animals were sacrificed and analyzed for persistence of leak. A 58% leakage rate was noted in the control group (n = 12), and no leaks were noted in the experimental group closed after application of CTA to the surgical defect followed by skin closure (n = 11). Comparing the control group to the experimental group, results were statistically significant (p = 0.015). These data suggest that CTA may be effective as an adjunct for the closure of CSF fistulae. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17170969

  16. Evaluation of water based intelligent fluids for resist stripping in single wafer cleaning tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Esche, Silvio; Hohle, Christoph; Schumann, Dirk; Steinke, Philipp; Thrun, Xaver; von Sonntag, Justus

    2016-03-01

    The application of phasefluid based intelligent fluids® in the field of photoresist stripping was studied. Due to their highly dynamic inner structure, phasefluids penetrate into the polymer network of photoresists and small gaps between resist layer and substrate and lift off the material from the surface. These non-aggressive stripping fluids were investigated regarding their efficiency in various resist stripping applications including initial results on copper metallization. Furthermore intelligent fluids® have been evaluated on an industry standard high volume single wafer cleaner. A baseline process on 300 mm wafers has been developed and characterized in terms of metallic and ionic impurities and defect level. Finally a general proof of concept for removal of positive tone resist from 300 mm silicon wafers is demonstrated.

  17. Yield shear stress model of magnetorheological fluids based on exponential distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chu-wen; Chen, Fei; Meng, Qing-rui; Dong, Zi-xin

    2014-06-01

    The magnetic chain model that considers the interaction between particles and the external magnetic field in a magnetorheological fluid has been widely accepted. Based on the chain model, a yield shear stress model of magnetorheological fluids was proposed by introducing the exponential distribution to describe the distribution of angles between the direction of magnetic field and the chain formed by magnetic particles. The main influencing factors were considered in the model, such as magnetic flux density, intensity of magnetic field, particle size, volume fraction of particles, the angle of magnetic chain, and so on. The effect of magnetic flux density on the yield shear stress was discussed. The yield stress of aqueous Fe3O4 magnetreological fluids with volume fraction of 7.6% and 16.2% were measured by a device designed by ourselves. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used for calculation of yield shear stress with acceptable errors.

  18. Dielectric properties of transformer paper impregnated by mineral oil based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timko, M.; Kopčanský, P.; Marton, K.; Tomčo, L.; Koneracká, M.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of combined magnetic and electric field on permittivity of transformer paper used in power transformers was observed. Transformer paper was impregnated by pure transformer oil ITO 100 and magnetic fluids based on transformer oil ITO 100 with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles. The measurements were carried out with help of high precision capacitance bridge. The electric intensity between circular planar electrodes was in the region of weak electric field (E > 106 V/m). The increase of electric permittivity of transformer paper impregnated by magnetic fluid opposite pure transformer paper was observed. The experiments showed that permittivity of insulator system consisting of pure transformer paper and impregnated transformer paper naturally depends on number of paper layers. The magnetodielectric effect was found to be dependent on magnetite nanoparticles concentration in magnetic fluids.

  19. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Shafrir, Shai N.; Romanofsky, Henry J.; Skarlinski, Michael; Wang, Mimi; Miao, Chunlin; Salzman, Sivan; Chartier, Taylor; Mici, Joni; Lambropoulos, John C.; Shen Rui; Yang Hong; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was {approx}50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. ''Free'' nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a period of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.

  20. A vorticity based approach to handle the fluid-structure interaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahbakhsh, Iman; Ghassemi, Hassan; Sabetghadam, Fereidoun

    2016-02-01

    A vorticity based approach for the numerical solution of the fluid-structure interaction problems is introduced in which the fluid and structure(s) can be viewed as a continuum. Retrieving the vorticity field and recalculating a solenoidal velocity field, specially at the fluid-structure interface, are the kernel of the proposed algorithm. In the suggested method, a variety of constitutive equations as a function of left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor can be applied for modeling the structure domain. A nonlinear Mooney-Rivlin and Saint Venant-Kirchhoff model are expressed in terms of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor and the presented method is able to model the behavior of a visco-hyperelastic structure in the incompressible flow. Some numerical experiments, with considering the neo-Hookean model for structure domain, are executed and the results are validated via the available results from literature.

  1. Paper-based surfaced enhanced Raman spectroscopy for drug level testing with tear fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kenji; Yokoyama, Moe; Jeong, Hieyong; Kido, Michiko; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to show the effectiveness of therapeutic drug level testing by Paper-based Surfaced Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (PSERS) for artificial lacrimal fluid. We have been used substrates which consist of a common filter paper and gold nano-rods. The targets were Phenobarbital (PB) which dissolved in artificial lacrimal fluid. We measured them using PSERS which the wavelength was 785nm, the power was 30mW. It was found that there were the strong peaks of PB at 997cm-1 and 1026cm-1 which corresponded with solid PB spectral peak for 1mM artificial lacrimal fluid. The results demonstrated the usefulness of this method. It is concluded that our method for therapeutic drug level testing is very efficient.

  2. Design of a broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on a fluid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Jiang, Ping

    2014-10-01

    A broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on fluid medium was designed and numerically implemented with homogeneous metamaterials according to the transformation acoustics. In the present work, fluid medium as the body of the inclusion could be tuned by changing the fluid to satisfy the variant acoustic parameters instead of redesign the whole cloak. The effective density and bulk modulus of the composite materials were designed to agree with the parameters calculated from the coordinate transformation methodology by using the effective medium theory. Numerical simulation results showed that the sound propagation and scattering signature could be controlled in the broadband ultra-large area acoustic invisibility cloak, and good cloaking performance has been achieved and physically realized with homogeneous materials. The broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloaking properties have demonstrated great potentials in the promotion of the practical applications of acoustic cloak.

  3. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics.

    PubMed

    Shafrir, Shai N; Romanofsky, Henry J; Skarlinski, Michael; Wang, Mimi; Miao, Chunlin; Salzman, Sivan; Chartier, Taylor; Mici, Joni; Lambropoulos, John C; Shen, Rui; Yang, Hong; Jacobs, Stephen D

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was approximately 50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. "Free" nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a period of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained. PMID:20011021

  4. Dielectrophoresis-magnetophoresis force driven magnetic nanoparticle movement in transformer oil based magnetic fluids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Sangyoup

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic fluid is a stable colloidal mixture contained magnetic nanoparticles coated with a surfactant. Recently, it was found that the fluid has properties to increase heat transfer and dielectric characteristics due to the added magnetic nanoparticles in transformer oils. The magnetic nanoparticles in the fluid experience an electrical force directed toward the place of maximum electric field strength when the electric field is applied. And when the external magnetic field is applied, the magnetic nanoparticles form long chains oriented along the direction of the field. The behaviors of magnetic nanoparticles in both the fields must play an important role in changing the heat transfer and dielectric characteristics of the fluids. In this study, we visualized the movement of magnetic nanoparticles influenced by both the fields applied in-situ. It was found that the magnetic nanoparticles travel in the region near the electrode by the electric field and form long chains along the field direction by the magnetic field. It can be inferred that the movement of magnetic nanoparticles appears by both the fields, and the breakdown voltage of transformer oil based magnetic fluids might be influenced according to the dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:24205624

  5. Indirect on-line determination of Newtonian fluid viscosity based on numerical flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, C.; Dantan, Ph.; Flaud, P.

    2003-01-01

    A new indirect method of determining the viscosity of a Newtonian fluid flowing in a tube with a geometrical singularity is proposed. Due to this singularity, the shape of the dimensionless velocity profiles is closely correlated with the Reynolds number of the flow. Newtonian fluid flows were simulated numerically with various Reynolds numbers. Based on the results of these calculations, an abacus was plotted showing the relationship between the dimensionless velocity and the dimensionless viscosity. On the other hand, dimensionless velocities were also obtained by measuring velocity profiles on a hydrodynamic bench with an ultrasonic Doppler velocimeter. These experimental values were plotted on the abacus and the viscosity of the actual fluid was thus determined. Comparisons were made with viscometer measurements in order to assess the accuracy of the method and its range of validity. This method is of great potential interest for application to industrial plans when it is necessary to know the viscosity of a fluid undergoing a transformation without interrupting the process by taking fluid samples.

  6. Beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits in social support: the role of ability based emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Annamaria Di

    2015-01-01

    Social support represents an important individual resource that has been associated with multiple indices of adaptive functioning and resiliency. Existing research has also identified an association between emotional intelligence (EI) and social support. The present study builds on prior research by investigating the contributions of ability based EI to social support, beyond the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI test (MSCEIT), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were administered to 149 Italian high school students. The results showed that ability based EI added significant incremental variance in explaining perceived social support, beyond the variance due to fluid intelligence and personality traits. The results underline the role of ability based EI in relation to perceived social support. Since ability based EI can be increased through specific training, the results of the present study highlight new possibilities for research and intervention in a preventive framework. PMID:25904886

  7. Beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits in social support: the role of ability based emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Annamaria Di

    2015-01-01

    Social support represents an important individual resource that has been associated with multiple indices of adaptive functioning and resiliency. Existing research has also identified an association between emotional intelligence (EI) and social support. The present study builds on prior research by investigating the contributions of ability based EI to social support, beyond the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI test (MSCEIT), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were administered to 149 Italian high school students. The results showed that ability based EI added significant incremental variance in explaining perceived social support, beyond the variance due to fluid intelligence and personality traits. The results underline the role of ability based EI in relation to perceived social support. Since ability based EI can be increased through specific training, the results of the present study highlight new possibilities for research and intervention in a preventive framework. PMID:25904886

  8. A method for selecting training samples based on camera response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leihong; Li, Bei; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-09-01

    In the process of spectral reflectance reconstruction, sample selection plays an important role in the accuracy of the constructed model and in reconstruction effects. In this paper, a method for training sample selection based on camera response is proposed. It has been proved that the camera response value has a close correlation with the spectral reflectance. Consequently, in this paper we adopt the technique of drawing a sphere in camera response value space to select the training samples which have a higher correlation with the test samples. In addition, the Wiener estimation method is used to reconstruct the spectral reflectance. Finally, we find that the method of sample selection based on camera response value has the smallest color difference and root mean square error after reconstruction compared to the method using the full set of Munsell color charts, the Mohammadi training sample selection method, and the stratified sampling method. Moreover, the goodness of fit coefficient of this method is also the highest among the four sample selection methods. Taking all the factors mentioned above into consideration, the method of training sample selection based on camera response value enhances the reconstruction accuracy from both the colorimetric and spectral perspectives.

  9. A Molecular Selection Index Method Based on Eigenanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Rojas, J. Jesús; Castillo-González, Fernando; Sahagún-Castellanos, Jaime; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio; Benítez-Riquelme, Ignacio; Crossa, José

    2008-01-01

    The traditional molecular selection index (MSI) employed in marker-assisted selection maximizes the selection response by combining information on molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) and phenotypic values of the traits of the individuals of interest. This study proposes an MSI based on an eigenanalysis method (molecular eigen selection index method, MESIM), where the first eigenvector is used as a selection index criterion, and its elements determine the proportion of the trait's contribution to the selection index. This article develops the theoretical framework of MESIM. Simulation results show that the genotypic means and the expected selection response from MESIM for each trait are equal to or greater than those from the traditional MSI. When several traits are simultaneously selected, MESIM performs well for traits with relatively low heritability. The main advantages of MESIM over the traditional molecular selection index are that its statistical sampling properties are known and that it does not require economic weights and thus can be used in practical applications when all or some of the traits need to be improved simultaneously. PMID:18716338

  10. Nucleotide kinase-based selection system for genetic switches.

    PubMed

    Ike, Kohei; Umeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Ever-increasing repertories of RNA-based switching devices are enabling synthetic biologists to construct compact, self-standing, and easy-to-integrate regulatory circuits. However, it is rather rare that the existing RNA-based expression controllers happen to have the exact specification needed for particular applications from the beginning. Evolutionary design of is powerful strategy for quickly tuning functions/specification of genetic switches. Presented here are the steps required for rapid and efficient enrichment of genetic switches with desired specification using recently developed nucleoside kinase-based dual selection system. Here, the library of genetic switches, created by randomizing either the part or the entire sequence coding switching components, is subjected to OFF (negative) selection and ON (positive) selection in various conditions. The entire selection process is completed only by liquid handling, facilitating the parallel and continuous operations of multiple selection projects. This automation-liable platform for genetic selection of functional switches has potential applications for development of RNA-based biosensors, expression controllers, and their integrated forms (genetic circuits). PMID:24549617

  11. Feature Selection for Neural Network Based Stock Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugunnasil, Prompong; Somhom, Samerkae

    We propose a new methodology of feature selection for stock movement prediction. The methodology is based upon finding those features which minimize the correlation relation function. We first produce all the combination of feature and evaluate each of them by using our evaluate function. We search through the generated set with hill climbing approach. The self-organizing map based stock prediction model is utilized as the prediction method. We conduct the experiment on data sets of the Microsoft Corporation, General Electric Co. and Ford Motor Co. The results show that our feature selection method can improve the efficiency of the neural network based stock prediction.

  12. Selected Styles in Web-Based Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Bruce, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Selected Styles in Web-Based Educational Research" is concerned with the most common research styles in Web-based teaching or learning. It is intended for practitioners, educators and students, who wish to learn how to conduct research in online teaching and learning, and helps define style in educational research methodology. To enhance…

  13. GWAS-based pathway analysis differentiates between fluid and crystallized intelligence.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, A; Espeseth, T; Davies, G; Fernandes, C P D; Giddaluru, S; Mattheisen, M; Tenesa, A; Harris, S E; Liewald, D C; Payton, A; Ollier, W; Horan, M; Pendleton, N; Haggarty, P; Djurovic, S; Herms, S; Hoffman, P; Cichon, S; Starr, J M; Lundervold, A; Reinvang, I; Steen, V M; Deary, I J; Le Hellard, S

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive abilities vary among people. About 40-50% of this variability is due to general intelligence (g), which reflects the positive correlation among individuals' scores on diverse cognitive ability tests. g is positively correlated with many life outcomes, such as education, occupational status and health, motivating the investigation of its underlying biology. In psychometric research, a distinction is made between general fluid intelligence (gF) - the ability to reason in novel situations - and general crystallized intelligence (gC) - the ability to apply acquired knowledge. This distinction is supported by developmental and cognitive neuroscience studies. Classical epidemiological studies and recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have established that these cognitive traits have a large genetic component. However, no robust genetic associations have been published thus far due largely to the known polygenic nature of these traits and insufficient sample sizes. Here, using two GWAS datasets, in which the polygenicity of gF and gC traits was previously confirmed, a gene- and pathway-based approach was undertaken with the aim of characterizing and differentiating their genetic architecture. Pathway analysis, using genes selected on the basis of relaxed criteria, revealed notable differences between these two traits. gF appeared to be characterized by genes affecting the quantity and quality of neurons and therefore neuronal efficiency, whereas long-term depression (LTD) seemed to underlie gC. Thus, this study supports the gF-gC distinction at the genetic level and identifies functional annotations and pathways worthy of further investigation. PMID:24975275

  14. GWAS-based pathway analysis differentiates between fluid and crystallized intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Christoforou, A; Espeseth, T; Davies, G; Fernandes, C P D; Giddaluru, S; Mattheisen, M; Tenesa, A; Harris, S E; Liewald, D C; Payton, A; Ollier, W; Horan, M; Pendleton, N; Haggarty, P; Djurovic, S; Herms, S; Hoffman, P; Cichon, S; Starr, J M; Lundervold, A; Reinvang, I; Steen, V M; Deary, I J; Le Hellard, S

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive abilities vary among people. About 40–50% of this variability is due to general intelligence (g), which reflects the positive correlation among individuals' scores on diverse cognitive ability tests. g is positively correlated with many life outcomes, such as education, occupational status and health, motivating the investigation of its underlying biology. In psychometric research, a distinction is made between general fluid intelligence (gF) – the ability to reason in novel situations – and general crystallized intelligence (gC) – the ability to apply acquired knowledge. This distinction is supported by developmental and cognitive neuroscience studies. Classical epidemiological studies and recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have established that these cognitive traits have a large genetic component. However, no robust genetic associations have been published thus far due largely to the known polygenic nature of these traits and insufficient sample sizes. Here, using two GWAS datasets, in which the polygenicity of gF and gC traits was previously confirmed, a gene- and pathway-based approach was undertaken with the aim of characterizing and differentiating their genetic architecture. Pathway analysis, using genes selected on the basis of relaxed criteria, revealed notable differences between these two traits. gF appeared to be characterized by genes affecting the quantity and quality of neurons and therefore neuronal efficiency, whereas long-term depression (LTD) seemed to underlie gC. Thus, this study supports the gF–gC distinction at the genetic level and identifies functional annotations and pathways worthy of further investigation. PMID:24975275

  15. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of a synthetic polyalphaolefin-based hydraulic fluid. Technical report, June 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kinkead, E.R.; Culpepper, B.T.; Henry, S.S.; Pollard, D.L.; Kimmel, E.C.

    1987-11-01

    In contingency planning for alternative hydraulic fluids in the event that critical shortages should occur in the supply of petroleum based fluids, the US Navy has investigated various synthetic compounds including polyalphaolefins. Earlier toxicity assessments (1983) on five formulations of polyalphaolefin hydraulic fluids and a base fluid indicated that one formation (N501) was toxic via inhalation. This material was reformulated (now designated B85-174) and retested along with its base polyalphaolefin (R-1061-3). The LC50 values for the reformulated hydraulic fluid B85-174 were 1.60 and 1.37 mg/L for male and female rats, respectively. Nor was the material irritating to the skin or eyes of treated rabbits. Similar results were obtained from tests on the base polyalphaolefin used for comparison. In contrast, the previous base material demonstrates con inhalation toxicity. THe 1983 and 1986 polyalphaolefin base materials were obtained form different suppliers and infrared analysis demonstrated compositional differences.

  16. Research on Routing Selection Algorithm Based on Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guohong; Zhang, Baojian; Li, Xueyong; Lv, Jinna

    The hereditary algorithm is a kind of random searching and method of optimizing based on living beings natural selection and hereditary mechanism. In recent years, because of the potentiality in solving complicate problems and the successful application in the fields of industrial project, hereditary algorithm has been widely concerned by the domestic and international scholar. Routing Selection communication has been defined a standard communication model of IP version 6.This paper proposes a service model of Routing Selection communication, and designs and implements a new Routing Selection algorithm based on genetic algorithm.The experimental simulation results show that this algorithm can get more resolution at less time and more balanced network load, which enhances search ratio and the availability of network resource, and improves the quality of service.

  17. Optimization of the working fluid for a sorption-based Joule-Thomson cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zalewski, D. R.; ter Brake, Marcel

    2012-06-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson coolers operate vibration-free, have a potentially long life time, and cause no electromagnetic interference. Therefore, they are appealing to a wide variety of applications, such as cooling of low-noise amplifiers, superconducting electronics, and optical detectors. The required cooling temperature depends on the device to be cooled and extends into the cryogenic range well below 80 K. This paper presents the optimization of the working fluid for sorption-based JT coolers. For specific combination of the cold and warm-end temperatures, the working fluid is optimized based on the overall coefficient of performance that is defined as the heat rejected to the cold tip (i.e. the cooling energy) per unit of the heat supplied to the sorption compressor. In this study, saran carbon is considered as the sorbent material.

  18. Optimization of the working fluid for a sorption-based Joule-Thomson cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zalewski, D. R.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson coolers operate vibration-free, have a potentially long life time, and cause no electromagnetic interference. Therefore, they are appealing to a wide variety of applications, such as cooling of low-noise amplifiers, superconducting electronics, and optical detectors. The required cooling temperature depends on the device to be cooled and extends into the cryogenic range well below 80 K. This paper presents a generalized methodology for optimization in a sorption-based JT cooler. The analysis is based on the inherent properties of the fluids and the adsorbent. By using this method, the working fluid of a JT cooler driven by a single-stage sorption compressor is optimized for two ranges of cold-tip operating temperatures: 65-160 K and 16-38 K. The optimization method is also extended to two-stage compression and specifically nitrogen and carbon monoxide are considered.

  19. Magneto-optical and rheological behaviors of oil-based ferrofluids and magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzie, Travis

    The magneto-optical and rheological behaviors of magnetic fluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been investigated. A magneto-optical apparatus was constructed which enabled us to investigate the birefringence and dichroism of ferrofluids at various levels of applied magnetic field. Specifically, the effects of the film thickness of oil-based ferrofluids and the concentration of surfactant in the oil-based ferrofluids on their magneto-optical behavior were investigated. A commercial magneto-rheological instrument (Physica MCR 301, Anton Paar) equipped with a cone-and-plate fixture was employed to investigate the transient and steady-state shear flow of both ferrofluids and MR fluids as a function of shear rate at various levels of applied magnetic fields. The rheological investigation has enabled us to determine the effect of applied magnetic field on the shear viscosity and yield stress of ferrofluids and MR fluids. A special ferrofluid was prepared by filtering out nearly all of the surfactant and small particles in an oil-based ferrofluid. We then compared its magneto-optical and rheological behaviors with those of an unfiltered ferrofluid. Further, we have found that the ferrofluid with a lower concentration of surfactant gave rise to larger birefringence and yield stress, and stronger shear thinning behavior than the ferrofluid containing a higher concentration of surfactant. This observation has lead us to conclude that an increase in unbound surfactant in a ferrofluid hindered chain formation of magnetic particles, leading to a decrease in the optical and rheological behaviors of the ferrofluid. Optical microscopy confirmed no visible chain formation of magnetic particles in the ferrofluid having a high concentration of surfactant owing to weak yield stress, birefringence, and shear thinning. On the other hand, we observed from optical microscopy that the filtered ferrofluid gave rise to larger yield stress, birefringence, and stronger shear thinning

  20. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  1. Evaluation of an amide-based stationary phase for supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Borges-Muñoz, Amaris C; Colón, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    J. Sep. Sci. 2016, 39, 3469-3476 A stationary phase containing an amide group embedded in a hydrophobic backbone (i.e., C18-amide) attached to silica particles was characterized by means of the linear solvation energy relationship model, which relates the chromatographic retention factor to specific solute interactions. The evaluationwas conducted under supercritical fluid chromatographic conditions using a mobile phase composition of carbon dioxide and methanol as co-solvent. The stationary phase showed to provide an alternate separation selectivity that is attractive to separate drug-like polar compounds in a relatively fast analysis time. PMID:27598573

  2. Physics based simulation of seismicity induced in the vicinity of a high-pressure fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, J.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G. S.; Bean, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure fluid injection into subsurface is known, in some cases, to induce earthquakes in the surrounding volume. The increasing importance of ';fracking' as a potential source of hydrocarbons has made the seismic hazard from this effect an important issue the adjudication of planning applications and it is likely that poor understanding of the process will be used as justification of refusal of planning in Ireland and the UK. Here we attempt to understand some of the physical controls on the size and frequency of induced earthquakes using a physics-based simulation of the process and examine resulting earthquake catalogues The driver for seismicity in our simulations is identical to that used in the paper by Murphy et al. in this session. Fluid injection is simulated using pore fluid movement throughout a permeable layer from a high-pressure point source using a lattice Boltzmann scheme. Diffusivities and frictional parameters can be defined independently at individual nodes/cells allowing us to reproduce 3-D geological structures. Active faults in the model follow a fractal size distribution and exhibit characteristic event size, resulting in a power-law frequency-size distribution. The fluid injection is not hydraulically connected to the fault (i.e. fluid does not come into physical contact with the fault); however stress perturbations from the injection drive the seismicity model. The duration and pressure-time function of the fluid injection can be adjusted to model any given injection scenario and the rate of induced seismicity is controlled by the local structures and ambient stress field as well as by the stress perturbations resulting from the fluid injection. Results from the rate and state fault models of Murphy et al. are incorporated to include the effect of fault strengthening in seismically quite areas. Initial results show similarities with observed induced seismic catalogues. Seismicity is only induced where the active faults have not been

  3. A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography Algorithm Based on Navier-Stokes Fluid Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, Nathan S.; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a fluid mechanics based tractography method for estimating the most likely connection paths between points in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volumes. We customize the Navier-Stokes equations to include information from the diffusion tensor and simulate an artificial fluid flow through the DTI image volume. We then estimate the most likely connection paths between points in the DTI volume using a metric derived from the fluid velocity vector field. We validate our algorithm using digital DTI phantoms based on a helical shape. Our method segmented the structure of the phantom with less distortion than was produced using implementations of heat-based partial differential equation (PDE) and streamline based methods. In addition, our method was able to successfully segment divergent and crossing fiber geometries, closely following the ideal path through a digital helical phantom in the presence of multiple crossing tracts. To assess the performance of our algorithm on anatomical data, we applied our method to DTI volumes from normal human subjects. Our method produced paths that were consistent with both known anatomy and directionally encoded color (DEC) images of the DTI dataset. PMID:19244007

  4. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  5. Spatial Mutual Information Based Hyperspectral Band Selection for Classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information involved in hyperspectral imaging is large. Hyperspectral band selection is a popular method for reducing dimensionality. Several information based measures such as mutual information have been proposed to reduce information redundancy among spectral bands. Unfortunately, mutual information does not take into account the spatial dependency between adjacent pixels in images thus reducing its robustness as a similarity measure. In this paper, we propose a new band selection method based on spatial mutual information. As validation criteria, a supervised classification method using support vector machine (SVM) is used. Experimental results of the classification of hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate results. PMID:25918742

  6. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 3: Heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Abstracts of selected technical reports and publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, A. F. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Selected information is presented from an assemblage of reports and publications on heat transfer and fluid dynamics with direct applicability to oxygen systems. For each document cited, an abstract has been prepared together with key words and a listing of most important references found in the document. Additionally, an author index, a subject index, and a key word index have been provided to simplify the retrieval of specific information from this work. In each subject area - e.g., boiling heat transfer - the individual citations are listed alphabetically by first author, with review papers dually noted under the appropriate subject category and under review papers. Of the documents reviewed and evaluated for inclusion in this publication, coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. However, work not specifically oxygen-designated but considered applicable to oxygen by the reviewer e.g., a two-phase friction factor correlation derived from nitrogen experiments is occasionally given where no actual oxygen data exist, as an aid to the reader. Approximately 130 abstracts are listed.

  7. An Improved Feature Selection Based on Effective Range for Classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is a key issue in the domain of machine learning and related fields. The results of feature selection can directly affect the classifier's classification accuracy and generalization performance. Recently, a statistical feature selection method named effective range based gene selection (ERGS) is proposed. However, ERGS only considers the overlapping area (OA) among effective ranges of each class for every feature; it fails to handle the problem of the inclusion relation of effective ranges. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel efficient statistical feature selection approach called improved feature selection based on effective range (IFSER) is proposed in this paper. In IFSER, an including area (IA) is introduced to characterize the inclusion relation of effective ranges. Moreover, the samples' proportion for each feature of every class in both OA and IA is also taken into consideration. Therefore, IFSER outperforms the original ERGS and some other state-of-the-art algorithms. Experiments on several well-known databases are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24688449

  8. Novel magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluids infiltrated dual-core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Wang, Rong; Wang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Baofu; Xu, Zhiyong; Wang, Huali

    2014-03-01

    Novel magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluids infiltrated dual-core Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) is proposed in this paper. Inside the cross-section of the designed PCFs, the two fiber cores filled with magnetic fluids (Fe3O4) are separated by an air hole, and then form two independent waveguides with mode coupling. The mode coupling under different magnetic field strength is investigated theoretically. A novel and simple magnetic field sensing system is proposed and its sensing performances have been studied numerically. The results show that the magnetic field sensor with 15-cm PCFs has a large sensing range and high sensitivity of 4.80 pm/Oe. It provides a new feasible method to design PCF-based magnetic field sensor.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Based Design Optimization Method for Archimedes Screw Blood Pumps.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai; Janiga, Gábor; Thévenin, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    An optimization method suitable for improving the performance of Archimedes screw axial rotary blood pumps is described in the present article. In order to achieve a more robust design and to save computational resources, this method combines the advantages of the established pump design theory with modern computer-aided, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based design optimization (CFD-O) relying on evolutionary algorithms and computational fluid dynamics. The main purposes of this project are to: (i) integrate pump design theory within the already existing CFD-based optimization; (ii) demonstrate that the resulting procedure is suitable for optimizing an Archimedes screw blood pump in terms of efficiency. Results obtained in this study demonstrate that the developed tool is able to meet both objectives. Finally, the resulting level of hemolysis can be numerically assessed for the optimal design, as hemolysis is an issue of overwhelming importance for blood pumps. PMID:26526039

  10. Dynamically coupled fluid body interactions in vorticity-based numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2008-11-01

    A novel method is presented for robustly simulating coupled dynamics in fluid-body interactions with vorticity-based flow solvers. In this work, the fluid dynamics are simulated with a viscous vortex particle method. In the first substep of each time increment, the fluid convective and diffusive processes are treated, while a predictor is used to independently advance the body configuration. An iterative corrector is then used to simultaneously remove the spurious slip - via vorticity flux - and compute the end-of-step body configuration. Fluid inertial forces are isolated and combined with body inertial terms to ensure robust treatment of dynamics for bodies of arbitrary mass. The method is demonstrated for dynamics of articulated rigid bodies, including a falling cylinder, flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder and free swimming of a three-link 'fish'. The error and momentum conservation properties of the method are explored. In the case of the vibrating cylinder, comparison with previous work demonstrates good agreement.

  11. Rheological investigations of water based drilling fluid system developed using synthesized nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajat; Mahto, Triveni K.; Mahto, Vikas

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PA-g-XG/MWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized by free radical polymerization technique using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The polyacrylamide was grafted on xanthan gum backbone in the presence of MWCNT. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR). The morphological characteristics of the nanocomposite were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Also, its temperature resistance property was observed with Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of nanocomposite on the rheological properties of the developed drilling fluid system was analyzed with a strain controlled rheometer and Fann viscometer. Flow curves were drawn for the developed water based drilling fluid system at elevated temperatures. The experimental data were fitted to Bingham, power-law, and Herschel Bulkley flow models. It was observed that the Herschel Bulkley flow model predict the flow behavior of the developed system more accurately. Further, nanocomposite exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning flow behavior in the developed drilling fluid system. Nanocomposite showed high temperature stability and had a significant effect on the rheological properties of the developed drilling fluid system as compared to conventionally used partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) polymer.

  12. [Orthogonal projection divergence-based hyperspectral band selection].

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-jun; Sheng, Ye-hua; Yang, He; Du, Qian

    2011-05-01

    Due to the high data dimensionality of a hyperspectral image, dimensionality reduction algorithm has attracted much attention in hyperspectral image analysis. Band selection algorithm, which selects appropriate bands from the original set of spectral bands, can preserve original information from the data and is useful for image classification and recognition. In the present paper, a novel band selection algorithm based on orthogonal projection divergence (OPD) is proposed, it aims to discriminate the interesting objects from background and noise information, maximize the spectral similarity between different spectral vectors by projecting the original data to feature space. Two HYDICE Washington DC Mall images and an HYMAP Purdue campus image data were experimented, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for classification. The selected band number varies from 5 to 40 in order to study the impacts of different band selection algorithms on different features. For the computation complex, the sequential floating forward search (SFFS) was used to get the appropriate bands. The experiments have proved that our proposed OPD algorithm can outperform other traditional band selection methods such as SAM, ED, SID, and LCMV-BCC for hyperspectral image analysis. It is proven that OPD band selection is effective and robust in hyperspectral remote sensing dimensionality reduction PMID:21800589

  13. Towards Understanding the Fluid Dynamic Phenomenon of Interest to Rocket Base Heating: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, E.; Park, C.; Palmer, G.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The significance of the base heating problem for rockets during ascent is due to the complex interaction between the rocket nozzle plumes and the external-flow which can change the flow characteristics in the base region dramatically. At lower altitudes the external-flow merges with the plume-flow, without the formation of a large separated flow region, and the cooler external-flow promotes convective cooling of the base wall. Under these conditions the majority of the base heating is due to radiative heating from the shock heated plume gases. At higher altitudes, however, the process of base heating is not so straightforward. The plume and the base flow expands dramatically and separated flow regions occur in the base area. Hot exhaust gases from the rocket nozzle will be entrained into the separated flow regions and produce a convective component to the base wall heating. Further, if the rocket exhaust-gas contains soot, the soot can increase the emission from the gas and dramatically increase the wall absorption coefficient for radiative heating if it is deposited on the walls . In addition, if the rocket exhaust gas is fuel rich, the fuel can bum in the separated flow regions and further increase the base heating. The base burning phenomenon, and the increased base heating caused by it at higher altitudes, have been observed for the Space Shuttle and Saturn Rocket. Under these conditions, the total heating is significantly higher than the heating without separated flow in the base region, and the increase in heating is directly attributable to the fluid dynamic complexity of the base region. Realistic simulation of the base heating requires that the calculated flow environment reproduce the fluid dynamic flow features accurately. Thus, it will be necessary to introduce into the CFD codes the capability for the flow to respond to the complex vehicle geometry, the effect of turbulence, the ability to accurately reproduce the plume shock/shear layer structures and

  14. Filter selection based on light source for multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Haisong

    2016-07-01

    In multispectral imaging, it is necessary to select a reduced number of filters to balance the imaging efficiency and spectral reflectance recovery accuracy. Due to the combined effect of filters and light source on reflectance recovery, the optimal filters are influenced by the employed light source in the multispectral imaging system. By casting the filter selection as an optimization issue, the selection of optimal filters corresponding to the employed light source proceeds with respect to a set of target samples utilizing one kind of genetic algorithms, regardless of the detailed spectral characteristics of the light source, filters, and sensor. Under three light sources with distinct spectral power distributions, the proposed filter selection method was evaluated on a filter-wheel based multispectral device with a set of interference filters. It was verified that the filters derived by the proposed method achieve better spectral and colorimetric accuracy of reflectance recovery than the conventional one under different light sources.

  15. Direct numerical simulation of viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluid turbulent channel flow with heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan-Cheng; Li, Feng-Chen; Cai, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Na; Yu, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Our previous experimental studies have confirmed that viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluid (VFBN) prepared by suspending nanoparticles in a viscoelastic base fluid (VBF, behaves drag reduction at turbulent flow state) can reduce turbulent flow resistance as compared with water and enhance heat transfer as compared with VBF. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed in this study to explore the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement (HTE) and flow drag reduction (DR) for the VFBN turbulent flow. The Giesekus model is used as the constitutive equation for VFBN. Our previously proposed thermal dispersion model is adopted to take into account the thermal dispersion effects of nanoparticles in the VFBN turbulent flow. The DNS results show similar behaviors for flow resistance and heat transfer to those obtained in our previous experiments. Detailed analyses are conducted for the turbulent velocity, temperature, and conformation fields obtained by DNSs for different fluid cases, and for the friction factor with viscous, turbulent, and elastic contributions and heat transfer rate with conductive, turbulent and thermal dispersion contributions of nanoparticles, respectively. The mechanisms of HTE and DR of VFBN turbulent flows are then discussed. Based on analogy theory, the ratios of Chilton-Colburn factor to friction factor for different fluid flow cases are investigated, which from another aspect show the significant enhancement in heat transfer performance for some cases of water-based nanofluid and VFBN turbulent flows. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51276046), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561037), and the President Fund of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. Y3510213N00).

  16. Controllable modification of the lignocellulose fiber surface with a water-based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekalo, K. A.; Shutava, T. G.; Zhavnerko, G. K.; Agabekov, V. E.

    2008-06-01

    New magnetic adsorbents have been developed on the basis of lignocellulose fibers. The properties of original materials were supplemented with magnetic ones by a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly of magnetite nanoparticles from a water-based magnetic fluid stabilized by tetramethylammonium hydroxide and polyelectrolytes (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or polyethylenimine). Sorption capacity of designed materials on heavy metal ions has been evaluated. Tables 2, Figs 4, Refs 11.

  17. Preparation of water-soluble nanographite and its application in water-based cutting fluid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble nanographite was prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization using methacrylate as polymeric monomer. The dispersion stability and dispersion state of graphite particles were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The water-soluble nanographite was then added into the water-based cutting fluid as lubricant additive. The lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid with the nanographite additive was studied on four-ball friction tester and surface tensiometer. Results indicate that the modification method of in situ emulsion polymerization realizes the uniform and stabilized dispersion of nanographite in aqueous environment. The optimal polymerization condition is 70°C (polymerization temperature) and 5 h (polymerization time). The addition of nanographite decreases the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 44% and 49%. Meanwhile, the maximum non-seizure load (PB) increases from 784 to 883 N, and the value of surface tension (32.76 × 10−3 N/m) is at low level. Nanographite additive improves apparently the lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid. PMID:23351483

  18. The interior working mechanism and temperature characteristics of a fluid based micro-vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhao, Shougen; Wu, Dafang; Jing, Xingjian

    2016-01-01

    Micro-vibration isolation is a hot topic in spacecraft vibration control, and fluid based vibration isolators alternatively provide a good and reliable solution to this challenging issue. In this paper, a novel fluid based micro-vibration isolator (FBMVI) is investigated. According to its inherent working principle and deformation pattern, the generation mechanisms of the damping and stiffness characteristics are derived, which are nonlinear functions of the environmental temperature. Then a lumped parameter model which is expressed by the physical design parameters (PDPs) is constructed, and the corresponding performance objective indices (POIs) are also obtained by applying the equivalence of mechanical impedance. Based on the finite element analysis of the internal damping component, a single variable method is further adopted to carry out the parametric study, and the influences of each PDP on the POIs are analyzed in details. Finally, experiments are conducted to identify the variation of fluid bulk modulus with the outside environmental temperature, and to validate the performance of the isolator under different temperature environments. The tested results show great consistence compared with the predicted tendencies of the parametric study. The results of this study can provide a very useful insight into and/or an important guidance for the design and application of this type of FBMVIs in engineering practice.

  19. Magmatogene fluids of metal-bearing reefs in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Based on research data on fluid inclusions in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitova, L. M.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Gora, M. P.; Shevko, E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in the Merensky Reef quartz and later pegmatite veins crosscutting the Platreef rocks of the Bushveld Complex are studied by a suite of advanced high-precision methods. Based on the conducted studies, we identify a few types of fluids, some having been separated during the crystallization of volatile matter-rich residual melt of original basic magma, while others are derivatives of later felsic (granite) melts that formed crosscutting veins in fully devitrified ultrabasic and basic rocks. The earliest fluid is captured by quartz in symplectitic intergrowths with intercumulus plagioclase from the Merensky Reef pyroxenite occurs as a homogenous dense dry reduced gas (CH4-N2 ± CO2) mixture separated from the aluminosilicate melt at 800-900°C and 3050 bar. The following heterophase highly concentrated fluids (60-80 wt % NaCl eq.) separated at over 550°C and below 3050 bar transport a large number of metals. Major saline components of such fluids included Na, K, Fe, Ca, and Mn chlorides, Ca and Na sulphates and carbonates. According to LA ICP-MS analysis data, inclusions of these fluids contain high concentrations of Fe, Cr, K, and Na at the level of a few wt % and also significant contents of Cu, Sn, Sb, Mo, Au, Ag, Bi, and Ni in a concentration range from a few to thousands of ppm. Relatively lower-temperature (much higher than 450°C) fluids accompanying the crystallization of crosscutting quartz-feldspar pegmatite veins at the Platreef are also highly concentrated (from 70-80% to 40-14 wt % NaCl eq.), oxidized and metal-bearing. High concentrations of metals such as Na, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Pb at the level of wt % and also Ni, Co, Cu, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, and Bi (1-500 ppm) in inclusions in quartz of later pegmatite veins suggest the possible participation of magmatogene fluids related to later felsic intrusions in the redistribution of primary magmatic concentrations of metals. The oxidation of reduced heterophase fluids may be the most important

  20. Feature Selection with Neighborhood Entropy-Based Cooperative Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones. PMID:25276120

  1. Interest area selection for navigation based on structured edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Li, ShaoJun; Dou, Hao; Tian, JinWen; Ming, Delie

    2015-12-01

    The scene matching based navigation is an important precision navigation technology for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Selection of interest area where reference image is made has an important influence on the precision of matching result besides the performance of match algorithm. In this paper, a method to select interest area based on structured edge detection is proposed. We use a data driven approach that classifies each pixel with a typical structured edge label. We propose a method that combines these labels into a feature measuring suitable to match of a region. Then a SVM classifier is trained to classify the features and get the final result of the selection of interest area. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is valid and effective.

  2. Multiobjective Evolutionary Path Planning via Sugeno-Based Tournament Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Gerry; McCullough, Shaun; Homaifar, Abdollah; Esterline, Albert

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces a new tournament selection algorithm that can be used for evolutionary path planning systems. The fuzzy (Sugeno) tournament selection algorithm (STSA) described in this paper selects candidate paths (CPs) to be parents and undergo reproduction based on: (1) path feasibility, (2) the euclidean distance of a path from the origin to its destination, and (3) the average change in the slope of a path. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of the fuzzy inference system used in the STSA as well as some examples of its usefulness. We then use 12 instances of our STSA to rank a population of CPs based on the above criteria. We also show how the STSA can obviate the need for the development of an explicit (lexicographic multiobjective) evaluation function and use it to develop multiobjective motion paths.

  3. [Electroencephalogram Feature Selection Based on Correlation Coefficient Analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinzhi; Tang, Xiaofang

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of classification with small amount of motor imagery training data on the development of brain-computer interface (BCD systems, we proposed an analyzing method to automatically select the characteristic parameters based on correlation coefficient analysis. Throughout the five sample data of dataset IV a from 2005 BCI Competition, we utilized short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and correlation coefficient calculation to reduce the number of primitive electroencephalogram dimension, then introduced feature extraction based on common spatial pattern (CSP) and classified by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Simulation results showed that the average rate of classification accuracy could be improved by using correlation coefficient feature selection method than those without using this algorithm. Comparing with support vector machine (SVM) optimization features algorithm, the correlation coefficient analysis can lead better selection parameters to improve the accuracy of classification. PMID:26710441

  4. Spin-selected focusing and imaging based on metasurface lens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Xinke; Kan, Qiang; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Qu, Shiliang; Zhang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Spin of light provides a route to control photons. Spin-based optical devices which can manipulate photons with different spin states are imperative. Here we experimentally demonstrated a spin-selected metasurface lens based on the spin-orbit interaction originated from the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase. The optimized PB phase enables the light with different spin states to be focused on two separated points in the preset plane. Furthermore, the metasurface lens can perform the spin-selected imaging according to the polarization of the illuminating light. Such a spin-based device capacitates a lot of advanced applications for spin-controlled photonics in quantum information processing and communication based on the spin and orbit angular momentum. PMID:26480156

  5. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea; Purdie, Thomas G. Jaffray, David A.; Levinshtein, Alex; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia; Pekar, Vladimir

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  6. State machine components selection based on minimal transversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanowicz, Łukasz; Mróz, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    The article relates to the problem of State Machine Components selection using hypergraphs theory. The base method of exact transversals was presented as well as exact transversal and simple transversal computation. Due to limitations of xt-hypergraph application, authors proposed to extend the baseline method by usage of minimal transversals.

  7. Health Effects Profiles for Searching Selected Lockheed DIALOG Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Linda Lee

    This preliminary study attempted to determine the most effective search strategies for the topic "health effects" in relation to specific chemicals and/or pollutants--in this case, asbestos--for each of five selected Lockheed DIALOG data bases: BIOSIS Previews, Chemical Abstracts Condensates (Chemcon), NTIS, Enviroline, and Pollution Abstracts.…

  8. Competency-Based Evaluation for Selecting a Counselor Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes an approach to faculty selection in a competency-based human development counseling program, the development of which enabled candidates to demonstrate their actual level of mastery for a wide range of skills associated with professional effectiveness. Successes and setbacks of this model are presented. (Author)

  9. Object-based attentional selection modulates anticipatory alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Knakker, Balázs; Weiss, Béla; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Visual cortical alpha oscillations are involved in attentional gating of incoming visual information. It has been shown that spatial and feature-based attentional selection result in increased alpha oscillations over the cortical regions representing sensory input originating from the unattended visual field and task-irrelevant visual features, respectively. However, whether attentional gating in the case of object based selection is also associated with alpha oscillations has not been investigated before. Here we measured anticipatory electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations while participants were cued to attend to foveal face or word stimuli, the processing of which is known to have right and left hemispheric lateralization, respectively. The results revealed that in the case of simultaneously displayed, overlapping face and word stimuli, attending to the words led to increased power of parieto-occipital alpha oscillations over the right hemisphere as compared to when faces were attended. This object category-specific modulation of the hemispheric lateralization of anticipatory alpha oscillations was maintained during sustained attentional selection of sequentially presented face and word stimuli. These results imply that in the case of object-based attentional selection-similarly to spatial and feature-based attention-gating of visual information processing might involve visual cortical alpha oscillations. PMID:25628554

  10. Guide for Selecting A Computer-Based Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A systematic process for selecting computer-based instructional systems and incorporating them into school programs is presented in this guide. The 8-step process which is outlined includes: (1) specification of goals and objectives, (2) assessment of student needs, (3) review of the curriculum framework, (4) determination of computer…

  11. A Predictive Based Regression Algorithm for Gene Network Selection

    PubMed Central

    Guerrier, Stéphane; Mili, Nabil; Molinari, Roberto; Orso, Samuel; Avella-Medina, Marco; Ma, Yanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Gene selection has become a common task in most gene expression studies. The objective of such research is often to identify the smallest possible set of genes that can still achieve good predictive performance. To do so, many of the recently proposed classification methods require some form of dimension-reduction of the problem which finally provide a single model as an output and, in most cases, rely on the likelihood function in order to achieve variable selection. We propose a new prediction-based objective function that can be tailored to the requirements of practitioners and can be used to assess and interpret a given problem. Based on cross-validation techniques and the idea of importance sampling, our proposal scans low-dimensional models under the assumption of sparsity and, for each of them, estimates their objective function to assess their predictive power in order to select. Two applications on cancer data sets and a simulation study show that the proposal compares favorably with competing alternatives such as, for example, Elastic Net and Support Vector Machine. Indeed, the proposed method not only selects smaller models for better, or at least comparable, classification errors but also provides a set of selected models instead of a single one, allowing to construct a network of possible models for a target prediction accuracy level. PMID:27379155

  12. A Predictive Based Regression Algorithm for Gene Network Selection.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, Stéphane; Mili, Nabil; Molinari, Roberto; Orso, Samuel; Avella-Medina, Marco; Ma, Yanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Gene selection has become a common task in most gene expression studies. The objective of such research is often to identify the smallest possible set of genes that can still achieve good predictive performance. To do so, many of the recently proposed classification methods require some form of dimension-reduction of the problem which finally provide a single model as an output and, in most cases, rely on the likelihood function in order to achieve variable selection. We propose a new prediction-based objective function that can be tailored to the requirements of practitioners and can be used to assess and interpret a given problem. Based on cross-validation techniques and the idea of importance sampling, our proposal scans low-dimensional models under the assumption of sparsity and, for each of them, estimates their objective function to assess their predictive power in order to select. Two applications on cancer data sets and a simulation study show that the proposal compares favorably with competing alternatives such as, for example, Elastic Net and Support Vector Machine. Indeed, the proposed method not only selects smaller models for better, or at least comparable, classification errors but also provides a set of selected models instead of a single one, allowing to construct a network of possible models for a target prediction accuracy level. PMID:27379155

  13. Recursive SAM-based band selection for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuanlei; Liu, Daizhi; Yi, Shihua

    2010-10-01

    Band selection has been widely used in hyperspectral image processing for dimension reduction. In this paper, a recursive SAM-based band selection (RSAM-BBS) method is proposed. Once two initial bands are given, RSAM-BBS is performed in a sequential manner, and at each step the band that can best describe the spectral separation of two hyperspectral signatures is added to the bands already selected until the spectral angle reaches its maximum. In order to demonstrate the utility of the proposed band selection method, an anomaly detection algorithm is developed, which first extracts the anomalous target spectrum from the original image using automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA), followed by maximum spectral screening (MSS) to estimate the background average spectrum, then implements RSAM-BBS to select bands that participate in the subsequent adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) target detection. As shown in the experimental result on the AVIRIS dataset, less than five bands selected by the RSAM-BBS can achieve comparable detection performance using the full bands.

  14. Wellbore fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-06-19

    The water loss properties of well completion and well workover fluids are improved by the addition of an effective amount of at least one adjuvant selected from (1) sodium carbonate with either sodium bicarbonate or an organic polycarboxylic acid or polycarboxylic acid anhydride or (2) sodium bicarbonate alone. In another embodiment, the adjuvants are added to stabilize water loss control agents in wellbore fluids, especially at elevated temperatures.

  15. A selective optical sensor based on [9]mercuracarborand-3, a new type of ionophore with a chloride complexing cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badr, I. H.; Johnson, R. D.; Diaz, M.; Hawthorne, M. F.; Bachas, L. G.; Daunert, S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    A highly selective optical sensor for chloride, based on the multidentate Lewis acid ionophore [9]mercuracarborand-3, is described herein. This sensor is constructed by embedding the mercuracarborand ionophore, a suitable pH-sensitive lipophilic dye, and lipophilic cationic sites in a plasticized polymeric membrane. The multiple complementary interactions offered by the preorganized complexing cavity of [9]mercuracarborand-3 is shown to control the anion selectivity pattern of the optical film. The film exhibits a significantly enhanced selectivity for chloride over a variety of lipophilic anions such as perchlorate, nitrate, salicylate, and thiocyanate. Furthermore, the optical selectivity coefficients obtained for chloride over other biologically relevant anions are shown to meet the selectivity requirements for the determination of chloride in physiological fluids, unlike previously reported chloride optical sensors. In addition, the optical film responds to chloride reversibly over a wide dynamic range (16 microM-136 mM) with fast response and recovery times.

  16. Development Of Sputtering Models For Fluids-Based Plasma Simulation Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth; Beckwith, Kristian; Stoltz, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Rf-driven plasma devices such as ion sources and plasma processing devices for many industrial and research applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling. Simulation of these devices using explicit PIC codes is difficult due to inherent separations of time and spatial scales. One alternative type of model is fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics, that are applicable to modeling higher-density plasmas in the time domain, but can relax time step requirements. To accurately model plasma-surface processes, such as physical sputtering and secondary electron emission, kinetic particle models have been developed, where particles are emitted from a material surface due to plasma ion bombardment. In fluid models plasma properties are defined on a cell-by-cell basis, and distributions for individual particle properties are assumed. This adds a complexity to surface process modeling, which we describe here. We describe the implementation of sputtering models into the hydrodynamic plasma simulation code USim, as well as methods to improve the accuracy of fluids-based simulation of plasmas-surface interactions by better modeling of heat fluxes. This work was performed under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Award #DE-SC0009585.

  17. Fabrication and hyperthermia effect of magnetic functional fluids based on amorphous particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuncheng; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Jingyu; Guo, Tongxiao; Zhao, Shuchun

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study conducted on the preparation and hyperthermia effect of magnetic functional fluids based on Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 amorphous particles, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in water is presented. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometer methods have been used to characterize the morphology, structure and magnetic property of the amorphous particles. It is disclosed that the Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 particles are still amorphous after being milled for 48 h. Moreover, the saturation magnetization of metallic glass particles is approximately 75% and 50% larger than that of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, respectively. The hyperthermia experiment results show that when alternating electrical current is 150 A, the temperature of the functional fluids based on amorphous particles could rise to 33 °C in 1500 s. When the current is 300 A, the final stable temperature could reach to 60 °C. This study demonstrates that the Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 magnetic functional fluids may have potential on biomedical applications.

  18. Structure of nanoparticles in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids, anisotropy of acoustic attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-08-01

    The anisotropy of acoustic attenuation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the external magnetic field was studied to discover the structure of nanoparticles. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids and the concentration of nanoparticles also have very important influence on the structural changes. The measurement of the dependence of the acoustic attenuation on the angle between the magnetic field direction and acoustic wave vector (anisotropy) can give the useful information about the structure of magnetic nanoparticles formations. In the present, the results of anisotropy measurements of the transformer oil-based magnetic fluids are described and using appropriate theory the basic parameters of clusters are calculated. On the basis of the performed calculations, the proportion of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom was also established.

  19. Polymer dynamics and fluid flow in actin-based cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theriot, Julie

    2005-03-01

    In living cells, nonequilibrium protein polymerization reactions are frequently used to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy and thereby generate useful force for cellular movements. We have examined the polymer and fluid dynamics in two biological cases where the assembly of branched actin filament networks generates force: the intracellular movement of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, and the extension of the leading edge of skin epithelial cells during wound-healing. In both cases, net actin filament assembly occurs at the front of the network structure and net disassembly occurs at the rear. Actin protein subunits and other network components must be recycled through the fluid phase to the front of the polymerizing network in order for forward movement to continue at steady state. For actin-based movement of Listeria monocytogenes, we have found that actin recycling is not rate-limiting; instead, the speed of movement is governed by the cooperative dissociation of groups of noncovalent protein-protein bonds attaching the filamentous network to the bacterial surface. In contrast, rapid actin-based extension at the leading edge of moving epithelial cells is associated with unusual perturbations in intracellular fluid flow.

  20. Fluid-structural dynamics of ground-based and microgravity caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Oas, J. G.; Deserranno, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab1 mission produced nystagmus results with an intensity comparable to those elicited during post- and pre- flight tests, thus contradicting the basic premise of Barany's convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. In this work, we present a dynamic fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal based on two simultaneous driving forces for the endolymphatic flow: natural convection driven by the temperature-dependent density variation in the bulk fluid and expansive convection caused by direct volumetric displacement of the endolymph during the thermal irrigation. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, the natural convection mechanism is dominant. But in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing cupular displacement. A series of transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the differences between the dynamics of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The impact of these different flow dynamics on the endolymph-cupula fluid-structural interactions is also analyzed based on the time evolutions of cupular displacement and velocity and the transcupular pressure differences.

  1. Lacuna-based Artificial Boundary Condition And Uncertainty Quantification of the Two-Fluid Plasma Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Eder; Shumlak, Uri; Lin, Guang

    2011-10-01

    Modeling open boundaries is useful for truncating extended or infinite simulation domains to regions of greatest interest. However, artificial wave reflections at the boundaries can result for oblique wave intersections. The lacuna-based artificial boundary condition (ABC) method is applied to numerical simulations of the two-fluid plasma model on unbounded domains to avoid unphysical reflections. The method is temporally nonlocal and can handle arbitrary boundary shapes with no fitting needed nor accuracy loss. The algorithm is based on the presence of lacunae (aft fronts of the waves) in wave-type solutions in odd- dimensional space. The method is applied to Maxwell's equations of the two-fluid model. Placing error bounds on numerical simulations results is important for accurate comparisons, therefore, the multi-level Monte Carlo method is used to quantify the uncertainty of the two-fluid plasma model as applied to the GEM magnetic reconnection problem to study the sensitivity of the problem to uncertainty on the mass ratio, speed of light to Alfven speed ratio and the magnitude of the magnetic field initial perturbation.

  2. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Profiling of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Epileptic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, Tetsuya; SUMITA, Maho; HORITANI, Yusuke; TAMAI, Reo; TANAKA, Katsuhiro; KOMORI, Masayuki; TAKENAKA, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with seizures, but diagnostic approaches in veterinary clinics remain limited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid used for diagnosis in veterinary medicine. In this study, we explored canine epilepsy diagnostic biomarkers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling of CSF and multivariate data analysis. Profiles for subjects with idiopathic epilepsy differed significantly from those of healthy controls and subjects with symptomatic epilepsy. Among 60 identified metabolites, the levels of 20 differed significantly among the three groups. Glutamic acid was significantly increased in idiopathic epilepsy, and some metabolites including ascorbic acid were changed in both forms of epilepsy. These findings show that metabolic profiles of CSF differ between idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy and that metabolites including glutamic acid and ascorbic acid in CSF may be useful for diagnosis of canine epilepsy. PMID:24334864

  3. Variable stiffness and damping semi-active vibration control technology based on magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiyu; Deng, Huaxia; Zhang, Jin; Sun, ShuaiShuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Vibration is a source to induce uncertainty for the measurement. The traditional passive vibration control method has low efficiency and limited working conditions. The active vibration control method is not practical for its power demanding, complexity and instability. In this paper, a novel semi-active vibration control technology based on magnetorheological (MR) fluid is presented with dual variable stiffness and damping capability. Because of the rheological behavior depending on the magnetic field intensity, MR fluid is used in many damping semi-active vibration control systems. The paper proposed a structure to allow the both overall damping and stiffness variable. The equivalent damping and stiffness of the structure are analyzed and the influences of the parameters on the stiffness and damping changing are further discussed.

  4. Particle-particle interactions in electrorheological fluids based on surface conducting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Foulc, J.-N.; Atten, P.; Boissy, C.

    1999-12-01

    We develop a simple, analytical conduction model for the case of electrorheological fluids based on surface conducting particles. By modeling two contacting spheres in a dielectric liquid by a distributed impedances network we derive analytical expressions for the potential and current at the spheres surface, and for the electric field and the current in the liquid phase. The knowledge of the electric field in the dielectric liquid allows us to calculate the interparticle interaction force as a function of the applied voltage. The theoretical interaction force is compared with experimental results obtained on insulating spheres coated with a thin conducting polyaniline film. We find a good agreement between the theory and experiment. The materials properties which govern the response of the system are outlined. In this regard, the product of the liquid conductivity by the sheet resistance of the surface coating appears as a key parameter. Some applications of this model for the practical design of electrorheological fluids are given.

  5. Methods for simulation-based analysis of fluid-structure interaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Payne, Jeffrey L.

    2005-10-01

    Methods for analysis of fluid-structure interaction using high fidelity simulations are critically reviewed. First, a literature review of modern numerical techniques for simulation of aeroelastic phenomena is presented. The review focuses on methods contained within the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework for coupling computational fluid dynamics codes to computational structural mechanics codes. The review treats mesh movement algorithms, the role of the geometric conservation law, time advancement schemes, wetted surface interface strategies, and some representative applications. The complexity and computational expense of coupled Navier-Stokes/structural dynamics simulations points to the need for reduced order modeling to facilitate parametric analysis. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)/Galerkin projection approach for building a reduced order model (ROM) is presented, along with ideas for extension of the methodology to allow construction of ROMs based on data generated from ALE simulations.

  6. Selective detector of cosmic particles based on diamond sensitive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altukhov, A. A.; Zaharchenko, K. V.; Kolyubin, V. A.; Lvov, S. A.; Nedosekin, P. G.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ibragimov, R. F.; Kadilin, V. V.; Nikolaev, I. V.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the device for selective registration of electrons, protons and heavy ions fluxes from the solar and galactic cosmic rays in the twelve energy ranges, built on a base of diamond detector. The use of the diamond detectors allowed for the creation a device for registration of cosmic particles fluxes at the external spacecraft surface with the resource not less than 20 years. Selective detector is aimed for continuous monitoring of radiation situation on board the spacecrafts, in order to predict the residual life of their work and prompt measures to actively protect the spacecraft when the flow of cosmic particles is sharply increased.

  7. New solar selective coating based on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abendroth, Thomas; Leupolt, Beate; Mäder, Gerrit; Härtel, Paul; Grählert, Wulf; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be applied to assemble a new type of solar selective coating system for solar thermal applications. In this work the predominant absorption processes occurring by interaction with π-plasmon and Van Hove singularities (VHS) were investigated by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Not only optical properties for as deposited SWCNT thin films itself, but also the potential for systematic tailoring will be presented. Besides low cost technologies required, the adjustability of optical properties, as well as their thermal stability render CNT based solar selective coatings as promising alternative to commercially available coating systems.

  8. A threshold selection method based on edge preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Liantang; Dan, Wei; Chen, Jiaqi

    2015-12-01

    A method of automatic threshold selection for image segmentation is presented. An optimal threshold is selected in order to preserve edge of image perfectly in image segmentation. The shortcoming of Otsu's method based on gray-level histograms is analyzed. The edge energy function of bivariate continuous function is expressed as the line integral while the edge energy function of image is simulated by discretizing the integral. An optimal threshold method by maximizing the edge energy function is given. Several experimental results are also presented to compare with the Otsu's method.

  9. Model selection based on robustness criterion with measurement application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahim-Belhouari, Sofiane; Fleury, Gilles; Davoust, Marie-Eve

    1999-06-01

    Huber's approach to robust estimation is highly fruitful for solving estimation problems with contaminated data or under incomplete information according to the error structure. A simple selection procedure based on robustness to variations of the errors distribution from the assumed one, is proposed. Minimax M-estimator is used to estimate efficiently the parameters and the measurement quantity. A performance deviation criterion is computed by the mean of the Monte Carlo method improved by the Latin Hypercube Sampling. The selection produced is applied to a real measurement problem, grooves dimensioning using Remote Field Eddy Current inspection.

  10. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids related to their complex permeability are disclosed. A microwave probe is provided for exposure to the fluids. The probe can be non-intrusive or can also be positioned at the location where measurements are to be made. The impedance of the probe is determined. in part. by the complex dielectric constant of the fluids at the probe. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids. Multiple probes may be selectively positioned to monitor the behavior of the fluids including their flow rate. Fluids may be identified as between two or more different fluids as well as multiple phases of the same fluid based on differences between their complex permittivities.

  11. Process-Based Characterizations of Subsurface Fluid Pressures for a Devil's Slide-like System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M.; Loague, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal margins commonly host slope stability hazards that are influenced by hydrologic, geologic, and / or anthropogenic perturbations. A firm foundation for rigorously understanding the component contributions and process-based linkages among hydrologic and geomorphic response is comprehensive physics-based simulation. This study is motivated by the hydrologically-driven, creeping and episodic deep-seated bedrock slides that intersect a former section of the Pacific Coast Highway in the active landslide zone at Devil's Slide near Pacifica, California. For this study, deterministic-conceptual hydrogeologic simulation was employed to estimate fluid pressures for saturated three-dimensional (3D) subsurface systems. One-dimensional (1D) vertical, transient, variably-saturated simulations were conducted to establish the position of the water table (i.e., the upper boundary condition) for the 3D steady-state saturated problems which encode the geologic information for heterogeneous and anisotropic systems. The concept-development effort undertaken here demonstrates that, for a Devil's Slide-like system: (i) specific climatic conditions facilitate variable lag times associated with water-table dynamics, (ii) recharge is the most sensitive parameter to establish risk-averse estimates of fluid pressure, (iii) nuances in the 3D flow field related to fault zone characteristics markedly influence fluid pressures, and (iv) it is unlikely that seasonal fluctuations in the regional water table account for severe failure modes. The simulated fluid pressures encourage new interdisciplinary data discovery to investigate the spatial and temporal persistence of perched water in the study area. To capture event-driven failures for the Devil's Slide site, future efforts should develop characterizations of the unsaturated near surface with a rigor similar to the treatment of the saturated zone demonstrated by this study.

  12. Model-based sensor location selection for helicopter gearbox monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jammu, Vinay B.; Wang, Keming; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced to quantify the significance of accelerometer locations for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. The basis for this methodology is an influence model which represents the effect of various component faults on accelerometer readings. Based on this model, a set of selection indices are defined to characterize the diagnosability of each component, the coverage of each accelerometer, and the relative redundancy between the accelerometers. The effectiveness of these indices is evaluated experimentally by measurement-fault data obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. These data are used to obtain a ranking of individual accelerometers according to their significance in diagnosis. Comparison between the experimentally obtained rankings and those obtained from the selection indices indicates that the proposed methodology offers a systematic means for accelerometer location selection.

  13. Academic Success in Context-Based Chemistry: Demonstrating fluid transitions between concepts and context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna Therese; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2013-05-01

    Curriculum developers and researchers have promoted context-based programmes to arrest waning student interest and participation in the enabling sciences at high school and university. Context-based programmes aim for student connections between scientific discourse and real-world contexts to elevate curricular relevance without diminishing conceptual understanding. This interpretive study explored the learning transactions in one 11th grade context-based chemistry classroom where the context was the local creek. The dialectic of agency/structure was used as a lens to examine how the practices in classroom interactions afforded students the agency for learning. The results suggest that first, fluid transitions were evident in the student-student interactions involving successful students; and second, fluid transitions linking concepts to context were evident in the students' successful reports. The study reveals that the structures of writing and collaborating in groups enabled students' agential and fluent movement between the field of the real-world creek and the field of the formal chemistry classroom. Furthermore, characteristics of academically successful students in context-based chemistry are highlighted. Research, teaching, and future directions for context-based science teaching are discussed.

  14. Organic rankine cycle coupled to a solar pond by direct-contact heat exchange - selection of a working fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. D.

    1982-06-01

    Heat from a solar pond may be used to drive an organic Rankine cycle and produce electricity. Due to the inherent low efficiency of low temperature cycles, large amounts of heat must be transferred, and heat exchangers may account for up to 50% of the plant cost. Use of a direct contact boiler, in which the organic fluid is bubbled through a stream of pond brine, may reduce the plant cost by about 25%. The choice of a working fluid affects plant efficiency, turbine cost, and the loss rate of the organic fluid. Low vapor pressure fluids maximize cycle efficiency by minimizing pumping requirements, but require a larger turbine. Efficiency affects the size and cost of the entire plant and low pressure fluids are preferred. The saturated and halogenated hydrocarbons were evaluated for use as working fluids. It is found that the working fluid is best suited to this application, because of high efficiency, low solubility in the pond, and a reasonable turbine cost.

  15. Chemical Characterization and Thermal Stressing Studies of Perfluorohexane Fluids for Space-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William A.; Hartman, Thomas G.; McQuillen, John

    2006-01-01

    exposure of perfluorohexane fluids to high temperatures is the production of perfluoroisobutene (PFiB), which is extremely toxic. An ultra-high sensitivity PFiB-specific analysis based on GC-MS with negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) detection was used to evaluate the samples following thermal stressing. The perfluorohexanes examined here under conditions reflective of the ISS TCCS environment showed no signs of PFiB production with an analytical detection limit of 10 part per billion (ppb v/v).

  16. Selection of Construction Methods: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Skibniewski, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method' selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS) was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods' selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects. PMID:24453925

  17. Improvement of Rice Biomass Yield through QTL-Based Selection

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ishii, Takuro; Tanaka, Junichi; Tsunematsu, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Matsumura, Osamu; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Toshio; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Biomass yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important breeding target, yet it is not easy to improve because the trait is complex and phenotyping is laborious. Using progeny derived from a cross between two high-yielding Japanese cultivars, we evaluated whether quantitative trait locus (QTL)-based selection can improve biomass yield. As a measure of biomass yield, we used plant weight (aboveground parts only), which included grain weight and stem and leaf weight. We measured these and related traits in recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic values for these traits showed a continuous distribution with transgressive segregation, suggesting that selection can affect plant weight in the progeny. Four significant QTLs were mapped for plant weight, three for grain weight, and five for stem and leaf weight (at α = 0.05); some of them overlapped. Multiple regression analysis showed that about 43% of the phenotypic variance of plant weight was significantly explained (P < 0.0001) by six of the QTLs. From F2 plants derived from the same parental cross as the recombinant inbred lines, we divergently selected lines that carried alleles with positive or negative additive effects at these QTLs, and performed successive selfing. In the resulting F6 lines and parents, plant weight significantly differed among the genotypes (at α = 0.05). These results demonstrate that QTL-based selection is effective in improving rice biomass yield. PMID:26986071

  18. Thermo-adjustable mechanical properties of polymer, lipid-based complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Millicent; Lee, Sungwon

    2012-02-01

    Combined rheology (oscillatory and steady shear) and SAXS studies reveal details on the temperature-dependent, reversible mechanical properties of nonionic polymer, lipid-based complex fluids. Compositions prepared by introduction of the polymer as either a lipid conjugate or a triblock copolymer form an elastic gel as the temperature is increased to 18 C. The network is produced from PEO chain entanglement and physical crosslinks confined within the intervening aqueous layers of a multilamellar structured lyotropic mesophase. Although the complex fluids are weak gels, tuning of the gel strength can be achieved by temperature adjustment. The sol state formed at reduced temperature arises as a consequence of the well-solvated PEO chains adopting a non-interacting, conformational state. Complex fluids prepared with the triblock copolymers exhibit greater tunability in viscoelasticity than those containing the PEGylated-lipid conjugate because of the temperature-dependent water solubility of the central PPO block. The water solubility of PPO at reduced temperatures results in the polymer being expelled from the self-assembled amphiphilic bilayer, causing collapse of the swollen lamellar structure and loss of the PEO network. At elevated temperatures, the triblock reinserts into the bilayer producing an elastic gel. These studies identify macromolecular architectures for the facile preparation of dynamic soft materials possessing a range of mechanical properties that can be tuned by modest temperature control.

  19. Structure of transformer oil-based magnetic fluids studied using acoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Drga, Jozef; Kopčanský, Peter; Závišová, Vlasta; Timko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The structural changes in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the effect of an external magnetic field and temperature were studied by acoustic spectroscopy. The attenuation of acoustic wave was measured as a function of the magnetic field in the range of 0-300 mT and in the temperature range of 15-35 °C for various magnetic nanoparticles concentrations. The effect of anisotropy of the acoustic attenuation was determined, too. The both strong influence of the magnetic field on the acoustic attenuation and its hysteresis were observed. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles occurs, leading to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids also has very important influence on the structural changes because of the mechanism of thermal motion that acts against the cluster creation. The observed influences of both magnetic field and temperature on the investigated magnetic fluid structure are discussed.

  20. CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluids as environmentally-friendly processing solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-03-01

    The production of integrated circuits involves a number of discrete steps that utilize hazardous or regulated solvents. Environmental, safety and health considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign, solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) is an excellent choice for IC manufacturing processes since it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, and is compatible with all substrate and metallizations systems. Also, conditions of temperature and pressure needed to achieve the supercritical state are easily achievable with existing process equipment. The authors first describe the general properties of supercritical fluids, with particular emphasis on their application as alternative solvents. Next, they review some of the work which has been published involving the use of supercritical fluids, and particularly CO{sub 2}, as they may be applied to the various steps of IC manufacture, including wafer cleaning, thin film deposition, etching, photoresist stripping, and waste treatment. Next, they describe the research work conducted at Los Alamos, on behalf of Hewlett-Packard, on the use of SCCO{sub 2} in a specific step of the IC manufacturing process: the stripping of hard-baked photoresist.

  1. Magnetically assisted surface-enhanced raman scattering selective determination of dopamine in an artificial cerebrospinal fluid and a mouse striatum using Fe(3)O(4)/Ag nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Ranc, Vaclav; Markova, Zdenka; Hajduch, Marian; Prucek, Robert; Kvitek, Libor; Kaslik, Josef; Safarova, Klara; Zboril, Radek

    2014-03-18

    The dopaminergic neural system is a crucial part of the brain responsible for many of its functions including mood, arousal, and other roles. Dopamine is the key neurotransmitter of this system, and a determination of its level presents a demanding task needed for a deeper understanding of the processes, even pathological, involving this brain part. In this work, we present a method for a fast analysis of dopamine levels in samples of cerebrospinal fluid and mouse striatum. The method is based on a nanocomposite composed of magnetite and silver nanoparticles, whose surface is modified with iron nitriloacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-a dopamine-selective compound. The magnetic properties of this nanocomposite enable simple separation of targeted molecules from a complex matrix while the silver acts as a platform for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Silver and magnetite nanoparticles are joined by carboxymethyl chitosan, useful in biological environments and enhancing the sensitivity due to the presence of carboxyl groups. This system reveals a good stability and reproducibility. Moreover, rapid and simple quantitative experiments show an improvement in the detection of dopamine levels in biological assays at low femtomolar concentrations. The comparative data performed with clinical samples of mouse striatum show that the developed magnetic SERS is a strong alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) with even several superior aspects including faster and cheaper analysis and no necessity of sample preconcentration or derivatization. PMID:24555681

  2. Context-Based Chemistry: Creating Opportunities for Fluid Transitions between Concepts and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Nationally and internationally, context-based programs have been implemented in an attempt to engage students in chemistry through connecting the canonical science with the real world. In Queensland, a context-based approach to chemistry was trialled in selected schools from 2002 but there is little research that investigates how students learn in…

  3. Self-reconfigurable ship fluid-network modeling for simulation-based design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyungjin

    Our world is filled with large-scale engineering systems, which provide various services and conveniences in our daily life. A distinctive trend in the development of today's large-scale engineering systems is the extensive and aggressive adoption of automation and autonomy that enable the significant improvement of systems' robustness, efficiency, and performance, with considerably reduced manning and maintenance costs, and the U.S. Navy's DD(X), the next-generation destroyer program, is considered as an extreme example of such a trend. This thesis pursues a modeling solution for performing simulation-based analysis in the conceptual or preliminary design stage of an intelligent, self-reconfigurable ship fluid system, which is one of the concepts of DD(X) engineering plant development. Through the investigations on the Navy's approach for designing a more survivable ship system, it is found that the current naval simulation-based analysis environment is limited by the capability gaps in damage modeling, dynamic model reconfiguration, and simulation speed of the domain specific models, especially fluid network models. As enablers of filling these gaps, two essential elements were identified in the formulation of the modeling method. The first one is the graph-based topological modeling method, which will be employed for rapid model reconstruction and damage modeling, and the second one is the recurrent neural network-based, component-level surrogate modeling method, which will be used to improve the affordability and efficiency of the modeling and simulation (M&S) computations. The integration of the two methods can deliver computationally efficient, flexible, and automation-friendly M&S which will create an environment for more rigorous damage analysis and exploration of design alternatives. As a demonstration for evaluating the developed method, a simulation model of a notional ship fluid system was created, and a damage analysis was performed. Next, the models

  4. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Velthuis, A G J

    2014-02-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process standards. To select farms for an audit that present higher risks, a statistical analysis was conducted to test the relationship between the outcome of farm audits and bulk milk laboratory results before the audit. The analysis comprised 28,358 farm audits and all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. The overall outcome of each farm audit was classified as approved or rejected. Laboratory results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acids (FFA), and cleanliness of the milk (CLN). The bulk milk laboratory results were significantly related to audit outcomes. Rejected audits are likely to occur on dairy farms with higher mean levels of SCC, TBC, ADR, and BAB. Moreover, in a multivariable model, maxima for TBC, SCC, and FPD as well as standard deviations for TBC and FPD are risk factors for negative audit outcomes. The efficiency curve of a risk-based selection approach, on the basis of the derived regression results, dominated the current random selection approach. To capture 25, 50, or 75% of the population with poor process standards (i.e., audit outcome of rejected), respectively, only 8, 20, or 47% of the population had to be sampled based on a risk-based selection approach. Milk quality information can thus be used to preselect high-risk farms to be audited more frequently. PMID:24290823

  5. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  6. Model-based rational strategy for chromatographic resin selection.

    PubMed

    Nfor, Beckley K; Zuluaga, Diego S; Verheijen, Peter J T; Verhaert, Peter D E M; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Ottens, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    A model-based rational strategy for the selection of chromatographic resins is presented. The main question being addressed is that of selecting the most optimal chromatographic resin from a few promising alternatives. The methodology starts with chromatographic modeling,parameters acquisition, and model validation, followed by model-based optimization of the chromatographic separation for the resins of interest. Finally, the resins are rationally evaluated based on their optimized operating conditions and performance metrics such as product purity, yield, concentration, throughput, productivity, and cost. Resin evaluation proceeds by two main approaches. In the first approach, Pareto frontiers from multi-objective optimization of conflicting objectives are overlaid for different resins, enabling direct visualization and comparison of resin performances based on the feasible solution space. The second approach involves the transformation of the resin performances into weighted resin scores, enabling the simultaneous consideration of multiple performance metrics and the setting of priorities. The proposed model-based resin selection strategy was illustrated by evaluating three mixed mode adsorbents (ADH, PPA, and HEA) for the separation of a ternary mixture of bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and amyloglucosidase. In order of decreasing weighted resin score or performance, the top three resins for this separation were ADH [PPA[HEA. The proposed model-based approach could be a suitable alternative to column scouting during process development, the main strengths being that minimal experimentation is required and resins are evaluated under their ideal working conditions, enabling a fair comparison. This work also demonstrates the application of column modeling and optimization to mixed mode chromatography. PMID:22238769

  7. [Experimental studies on the influence of selected preparations on secretion of tear fluid. I. Schirmer test I and lysozyme test].

    PubMed

    Oleszczyńska-Prost, E

    1994-01-01

    In the paper the influence of ambroxol, betanechol and mesna on the production of tear fluid by the lacrimal gland in rabbits was studied and compared with the effectiveness of bromhexine hydrochloride. Tear secretion was stimulated by the Schirmer I and lysozyme tests. The obtained results indicate that all four examined drugs stimulate the production of tear fluid. The greatest stimulation of secretion was observed after mesna and then after betanechol and ambroxol. The least potent drug was bromhexine. PMID:7915765

  8. Computation of stress distribution in a mixed flow pump based on fluid-structure interaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, F. F.; Chen, T.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    The internal flow evolution of the pump was induced with impeller movement. In various conditions, the peak load on centrifugal blade under the change of rotational speed or flow rate was also changed. It would cause an error when inertia load with a safety coefficient (that was difficult to ascertain) was applied in structure design. In order to accurately analyze the impeller stress under various conditions and improve the reliability of pump, based on a mixed flow pump model, the stress distribution characteristic was analyzed under different flow rates and rotational speeds. Based on a three-dimensional calculation model including impeller, guide blade, inlet and outlet, the three-dimension incompressible turbulence flow in the centrifugal pump was simulated by using the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Based on the sequentially coupled simulation approach, a three-dimensional finite element model of impeller was established, and the fluid-structure interaction method of the blade load transfer was discussed. The blades pressure from flow simulation, together with inertia force acting on the blade, was used as the blade loading on solid surface. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to calculate the stress distribution of the blade respectively under inertia load, or fluid load, or combined load. The results showed that the blade stress changed with flow rate and rotational speed. In all cases, the maximum stress on the blade appeared on the pressure side near the hub, and the maximum static stress increased with the decreasing of the flow rate and the increasing of rotational speed. There was a big difference on the static stress when inertia load, fluid load and combined loads was applied respectively. In order to more accurately calculate the stress distribution, the structure analysis should be conducted due to combined loads. The results could provide basis for the stress analysis and structure optimization of pump.

  9. Environment-based selection effects of Planck clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyra, R.; Gruen, D.; Seitz, S.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, A.; Bender, R.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate whether the large-scale structure environment of galaxy clusters imprints a selection bias on Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalogues. Such a selection effect might be caused by line of sight (LoS) structures that add to the SZ signal or contain point sources that disturb the signal extraction in the SZ survey. We use the Planck PSZ1 union catalogue in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region as our sample of SZ-selected clusters. We calculate the angular two-point correlation function (2pcf) for physically correlated, foreground and background structure in the RedMaPPer SDSS DR8 catalogue with respect to each cluster. We compare our results with an optically selected comparison cluster sample and with theoretical predictions. In contrast to the hypothesis of no environment-based selection, we find a mean 2pcf for background structures of -0.049 on scales of ≲40 arcmin, significantly non-zero at ˜4σ, which means that Planck clusters are more likely to be detected in regions of low background density. We hypothesize this effect arises either from background estimation in the SZ survey or from radio sources in the background. We estimate the defect in SZ signal caused by this effect to be negligibly small, of the order of ˜10-4 of the signal of a typical Planck detection. Analogously, there are no implications on X-ray mass measurements. However, the environmental dependence has important consequences for weak lensing follow up of Planck galaxy clusters: we predict that projection effects account for half of the mass contained within a 15 arcmin radius of Planck galaxy clusters. We did not detect a background underdensity of CMASS LRGs, which also leaves a spatially varying redshift dependence of the Planck SZ selection function as a possible cause for our findings.

  10. Antibiotic Selection Pressure Determination through Sequence-Based Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    El-Hadidi, Mohamed; Huson, Daniel H.; Schütz, Monika; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Peter, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The human gut forms a dynamic reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Treatment with antimicrobial agents has a significant impact on the intestinal resistome and leads to enhanced horizontal transfer and selection of resistance. We have monitored the development of intestinal ARGs over a 6-day course of ciprofloxacin (Cp) treatment in two healthy individuals by using sequenced-based metagenomics and different ARG quantification methods. Fixed- and random-effect models were applied to determine the change in ARG abundance per defined daily dose of Cp as an expression of the respective selection pressure. Among various shifts in the composition of the intestinal resistome, we found in one individual a strong positive selection for class D beta-lactamases which were partly located on a mobile genetic element. Furthermore, a trend to a negative selection has been observed with class A beta-lactamases (−2.66 hits per million sample reads/defined daily dose; P = 0.06). By 4 weeks after the end of treatment, the composition of ARGs returned toward their initial state but to a different degree in both subjects. We present here a novel analysis algorithm for the determination of antibiotic selection pressure which can be applied in clinical settings to compare therapeutic regimens regarding their effect on the intestinal resistome. This information is of critical importance for clinicians to choose antimicrobial agents with a low selective force on their patients' intestinal ARGs, likely resulting in a diminished spread of resistance and a reduced burden of hospital-acquired infections with multidrug-resistant pathogens. PMID:26369961

  11. An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present

  12. Impact compressibility of a poly(ethylene glycol)-based nanocomposite fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragov, A. M.; Igumnov, L. A.; Konstantinov, A. Yu.; Lomunov, A. K.; Antonov, F. K.; Mossakovskii, P. A.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of a poly(ethylene glycol)-based nanocomposite shear thickening fluid (STF) under impact loading conditions has been experimentally studied using the Kolsky method and related techniques. The dependence of the pressure in the STF on the volume strain magnitude has been determined. It is established that the radial and axial components of the stress tensor almost coincide, which shows that the material behaves like an incompressible liquid. The character of the stress-strain curves (hysteresis) indicates that the STF is characterized by some energy dissipation in the load-unload cycle.

  13. In situ Raman-based detections of the hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Du, Zengfeng; Zheng, Ronger; Luan, Zhendong; Qi, Fujun; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Bing; Ye, Wangquan; Liu, Xiaorui; Chen, Changan; Guo, Jinjia; Li, Ying; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, and their associated biological communities play an important role in global carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles. Most of the studies of fluid composition geochemistry are based on recovered samples, both with gas-tight samplers and as open specimens, but the in situ conditions are difficult to maintain in recovered samples. Determination in situ of the chemical signals of the emerging fluids are challenging due to the high pressure, often strongly acidic and temperature in which few sensors can survive. Most of those sensors used so far are based on electrochemistry, and can typically detect only a few chemical species. Here we show that direct measurement of critical chemical species of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps can be made rapidly and in situ by means of a new hybrid version of earlier deep-sea pore water Raman probe carried on the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian. The fluid was drawn through the probe by actuating a hydraulic pump on the ROV, and measured at the probe optical cell through a sapphire window. We have observed the concentrations of H2S, HS‑, SO42‑, HSO4‑, CO2, and H2 in hydrothermal vent fluids from the Pacmanus and Desmos vent systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea. Two black smokers (279° C and 186° C) at the Pacmanus site showed the characteristic loss of SO42‑, and the increase of CO2 and well resolved H2S and HS‑ peaks. At the white smoker of Onsen site the strong HSO4‑peak observed at high temperature quickly dropped with strong accompanying increase of SO42‑and H2 peaks when the sample contained in the Raman sensing cell was removed from the hot fluid due to rapid thermal deprotonation. We report here also the finding of a new lower temperature (88° C) white smoker "Kexue" field at the Desmos site with strong H2S, HS‑ and CO2 signals. We also have detected the concentrations of CH4,H2S, HS‑, SO42‑, and S8 in cold seep fluids and the surrounding

  14. Supersonic flutter suppression of electrorheological fluid-based adaptive panels resting on elastic foundations using sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminejad, Seyyed M.; Nezami, M.; Aryaee Panah, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    Brief reviews on suppressing panel flutter vibrations by various active control strategies as well as utilization tunable electrorheological fluids (ERFs) for vibration control of structural systems are presented. Active suppression of the supersonic flutter motion of a simply supported sandwich panel with a tunable ERF interlayer, and coupled to an elastic foundation, is subsequently investigated. The structural formulation is based on the classical beam theory along with the Winkler-Pasternak foundation model, the ER fluid core is modeled as a first-order Kelvin-Voigt material, and the quasi-steady first-order supersonic piston theory is employed to describe the aerodynamic loading. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive a set of fully coupled dynamic equations of motion. The generalized Fourier expansions in conjunction with the Galerkin method are then employed to formulate the governing equations in the state space domain. The critical dynamic pressures at which unstable panel oscillations (coalescence of eigenvalues) occur are obtained via the p-method for selected applied electric field strengths (E = 0,2,4 kV mm-1). The classical Runge-Kutta time integration algorithm is subsequently used to calculate the open-loop aeroelastic response of the system in various basic loading configurations (i.e. uniformly distributed blast, gust, sonic boom, and step loads), with or without an interacting soft/stiff elastic foundation. Finally, a sliding mode control synthesis (SMC) involving the first six natural modes of the structural system is set up to actively suppress the closed-loop system response in supersonic flight conditions and under the imposed excitations. Simulation results demonstrate performance, effectiveness, and insensitivity with respect to the spillover of the proposed SMC-based control system. Limiting cases are considered and good agreements with the data available in the literature as well as with the computations made by using the Rayleigh

  15. Highly efficient SERS-based detection of cerebrospinal fluid neopterin as a diagnostic marker of bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Evelin; Kowalska, Aneta; Skoczyńska, Anna; Gawryszewska, Iwona; Guziewicz, Elżbieta; Snigurenko, Dymitr; Waluk, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    A highly efficient recognition unit based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed as a promising, fast, and sensitive tool for detection of meningococcal meningitis, which is an extremely serious and often fatal disease of the nervous system (an inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). The results of this study confirmed that there were specific differences in SERS spectra between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples infected by Neisseria meningitidis and the normal CSF, suggesting a potential role for neopterin in meningococcal meningitis detection and screening applications. To estimate the best performance of neopterin as a marker of bacterial infection, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed in a selected region (640-720 cm(-1)) where the most prominent SERS peak at 695 cm(-1) arising from neopterin was observed. The calculated specificity of 95 % and sensitivity of 98 % clearly indicate the effective diagnostic efficiency for differentiation between infected and control samples. Additionally, the limit of detection (LOD) of neopterin in CSF clinical samples was estimated. The level of neopterin was significantly higher in CSF samples infected by N. meningitidis (48 nmol/L), compared to the normal (control) group (4.3 nmol/L). Additionally, this work presents a new type of SERS-active nanostructure, based on polymer mats, that allows simultaneous filtration, immobilization, and enhancement of the Raman signal, enabling detection of spectra from single bacterial cells of N. meningitidis present in CSF samples. This provides a new possibility for fast and easy detection of bacteria in CSF and other clinical body fluids on a time scale of seconds. This method of detection produces consistent results faster and cheaper than traditional laboratory techniques, demonstrates the powerful potential of SERS for detection of disease, and shows the viability of future development in healthcare applications. PMID

  16. A knowledge-based approach to automated flow-field zoning for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Alison Andrews

    1989-01-01

    An automated three-dimensional zonal grid generation capability for computational fluid dynamics is shown through the development of a demonstration computer program capable of automatically zoning the flow field of representative two-dimensional (2-D) aerodynamic configurations. The applicability of a knowledge-based programming approach to the domain of flow-field zoning is examined. Several aspects of flow-field zoning make the application of knowledge-based techniques challenging: the need for perceptual information, the role of individual bias in the design and evaluation of zonings, and the fact that the zoning process is modeled as a constructive, design-type task (for which there are relatively few examples of successful knowledge-based systems in any domain). Engineering solutions to the problems arising from these aspects are developed, and a demonstration system is implemented which can design, generate, and output flow-field zonings for representative 2-D aerodynamic configurations.

  17. Voxel selection in FMRI data analysis based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Namburi, Praneeth; Yu, Zhuliang; Guan, Cuntai; Feng, Jianfeng; Gu, Zhenghui

    2009-10-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis approaches toward detection of brain regions from fMRI data have been gaining attention recently. In this study, we introduce an iterative sparse-representation-based algorithm for detection of voxels in functional MRI (fMRI) data with task relevant information. In each iteration of the algorithm, a linear programming problem is solved and a sparse weight vector is subsequently obtained. The final weight vector is the mean of those obtained in all iterations. The characteristics of our algorithm are as follows: 1) the weight vector (output) is sparse; 2) the magnitude of each entry of the weight vector represents the significance of its corresponding variable or feature in a classification or regression problem; and 3) due to the convergence of this algorithm, a stable weight vector is obtained. To demonstrate the validity of our algorithm and illustrate its application, we apply the algorithm to the Pittsburgh Brain Activity Interpretation Competition 2007 functional fMRI dataset for selecting the voxels, which are the most relevant to the tasks of the subjects. Based on this dataset, the aforementioned characteristics of our algorithm are analyzed, and a comparison between our method with the univariate general-linear-model-based statistical parametric mapping is performed. Using our method, a combination of voxels are selected based on the principle of effective/sparse representation of a task. Data analysis results in this paper show that this combination of voxels is suitable for decoding tasks and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:19567340

  18. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  19. Experimental Measurement of Settling Velocity of Spherical Particles in Unconfined and Confined Surfactant-based Shear Thinning Viscoelastic Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sahil; Sharma, Mukul M.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to measure the terminal settling velocities of spherical particles in surfactant based shear thinning viscoelastic (VES) fluids. The measurements are made for particles settling in unbounded fluids and fluids between parallel walls. VES fluids over a wide range of rheological properties are prepared and rheologically characterized. The rheological characterization involves steady shear-viscosity and dynamic oscillatory-shear measurements to quantify the viscous and elastic properties respectively. The settling velocities under unbounded conditions are measured in beakers having diameters at least 25x the diameter of particles. For measuring settling velocities between parallel walls, two experimental cells with different wall spacing are constructed. Spherical particles of varying sizes are gently dropped in the fluids and allowed to settle. The process is recorded with a high resolution video camera and the trajectory of the particle is recorded using image analysis software. Terminal settling velocities are calculated from the data. The impact of elasticity on settling velocity in unbounded fluids is quantified by comparing the experimental settling velocity to the settling velocity calculated by the inelastic drag predictions of Renaud et al.1 Results show that elasticity of fluids can increase or decrease the settling velocity. The magnitude of reduction/increase is a function of the rheological properties of the fluids and properties of particles. Confining walls are observed to cause a retardation effect on settling and the retardation is measured in terms of wall factors. PMID:24430257

  20. Shape-based feature selection for microcalcification evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Joan; Cufi, Xavier; Regincos, Jordi; Espanol, Josep; Pont, Josep; Barcelo, Carles

    1998-06-01

    This work focuses on the selection of a set of shape-based features in order to assist radiologists in differentiating between malignant and benignant clustered microcalcifications in mammograms. The results obtained allow the creation of a model for the evaluation of the benignant or malignant character of the microcalcifications in a mammogram, based exclusively on the following parameters: number of clusters, number of holes, area, Feret elongation, roughness and elongation. The performance of the classification scheme is close to the mean performance of three expert radiologists, which allows to consider the proposed method for assisting the diagnosis and encourages to continue the investigation in this field. Additionally, the work is based on an unpublished database formed by patients of the Regional Health Area of Girona, which in the future may contribute to increase the digital mammogram databases.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  2. Numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction for axial flow blade based on weak coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. B.; Guo, P. C.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    Numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow in whole flow passage of axial flow hydraulic turbine was conducted based on the Reynolds-averaged N-S equations and the standard k-ε model. Stress analysis of axial flow blade were carried on by elasticity unsteady FEM. The fluid domain and solid domain were calculated by sequential iteration. Based on weak coupling technology, the fluid-structure interaction analysis of the axial flow blade was conducted. Instantaneous flow field characteristic and stress distribution on blade were analyzed. According to the comparing with the results of pure flow numerical simulation, the pressure difference between press side and suction side increases after considering the FSI, to a certain extent, which will worsen cavitations performance of the blade. Meanwhile, stress distribution on the blades do not change significantly, but the maximum stress value increases markedly, and the maximum displacement reduces slightly. The research demonstrates that the FSI not only changes the distribution of the flow field in blade area, but also have a greater impact on the stress of the blades.

  3. Dissipativity analysis of the base isolated benchmark structure with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkus, Baris; Johnson, Erik A.

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates the dissipativity and performance characteristics of the semiactive control of the base isolated benchmark structure with magnetorheological (MR) fluid dampers. Previously, the authors introduced the concepts of dissipativity and dissipativity indices in the semiactive control of structures with smart dampers and studied the dissipativity characteristics of simple structures with idealized dampers. To investigate the effects of semiactive controller dissipativity characteristics on the overall performance of the base isolated benchmark building, a clipped optimal control strategy with a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller and a 20 ton MR fluid damper model is used. A cumulative index is proposed for quantifying the overall dissipativity of a control system with multiple control devices. Two control designs with different dissipativity and performance characteristics are considered as the primary controller in clipped optimal control. Numerical simulations reveal that the dissipativity indices can be classified into two groups that exhibit distinct patterns. It is shown that the dissipativity indices identify primary controllers that are more suitable for application with MR dampers and provide useful information in the semiactive design process that complements other performance indices. The computational efficiency of the proposed dissipativity indices is verified by comparing computation times.

  4. Estimation of the probability of exposure to machining fluids in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Armenti, Karla R; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    We describe an approach for estimating the probability that study subjects were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer. Study subject reports on the frequency of machining and use of specific MWFs (straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic) were used to estimate exposure probability when available. Those reports also were used to develop estimates for job groups, which were then applied to jobs without MWF reports. Estimates using both cases and controls and controls only were developed. The prevalence of machining varied substantially across job groups (0.1->0.9%), with the greatest percentage of jobs that machined being reported by machinists and tool and die workers. Reports of straight and soluble MWF use were fairly consistent across job groups (generally 50-70%). Synthetic MWF use was lower (13-45%). There was little difference in reports by cases and controls vs. controls only. Approximately, 1% of the entire study population was assessed as definitely exposed to straight or soluble fluids in contrast to 0.2% definitely exposed to synthetic/semi-synthetics. A comparison between the reported use of the MWFs and U.S. production levels found high correlations (r generally >0.7). Overall, the method described here is likely to have provided a systematic and reliable ranking that better reflects the variability of exposure to three types of MWFs than approaches applied in the past. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a list of keywords in the occupational histories that were used to link study subjects to the metalworking fluids (MWFs) modules; recommendations from the literature on selection of MWFs based on type of machining operation, the metal being machined and decade; popular additives to MWFs; the number and proportion of controls who

  5. Size-dependent characteristics of electrostatically actuated fluid-conveying carbon nanotubes based on modified couple stress theory

    PubMed Central

    Rastgoo, Abbas; Ahmadian, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Summary The paper presents the effects of fluid flow on the static and dynamic properties of carbon nanotubes that convey a viscous fluid. The mathematical model is based on the modified couple stress theory. The effects of various fluid parameters and boundary conditions on the pull-in voltages are investigated in detail. The applicability of the proposed system as nanovalves or nanosensors in nanoscale fluidic systems is elaborated. The results confirm that the nanoscale system studied in this paper can be properly applied for these purposes. PMID:24367746

  6. A New Method Based on the F-Curve for Characterizing Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting Tundishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxia; Cui, Heng; Liu, Yang; Tian, Enhua; Du, Jianxin

    2016-04-01

    "Combined Model" is often applied to characterize the fluid flow in tundishes. There are different ways to manage the calculation of this model, while the most recently used is introduced by SAHAI and EMI. But this approach may lead to incorrect results in some special cases. In this paper, a new method based on the F-Curve is proposed to analyze the fluid flow in tundishes, and the relationship between E-Curve and F-Curve is concerned. In the end, their application to tundish fluid flow has been outlined. The dead volume calculated by the new method is much close to the results of dye experiment and the numerical simulation.

  7. Reversible Photodynamic Chloride-Selective Sensor Based on Photochromic Spiropyran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report here for the first time on a reversible photodynamic bulk optode sensor based on the photoswitching of a spiropyran derivative (Sp). The photoswitching of Sp induces a large basicity increase in the polymeric phase, which triggers the extraction of Cl– and H+. Cl– is stabilized by a lipophilic chloride-selective ionophore inside the membrane, while H+ binds with the open form of Sp and induces a spectral change, hence providing the sensor signal. The system was studied with spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. PMID:23036043

  8. Site-Selective Reactions with Peptide-Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Michael W; Miller, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    The problem of catalyst-controlled site-selectivity can potentially require a catalyst to overcome energetic barriers larger than those associated with enantioselective reactions. This challenge is a signature of substrates that present reactive sites that are not of equivalent reactivity. Herein we present a narrative of our laboratory's efforts to overcome this challenge using peptide-based catalysts. We highlight the interplay between understanding the inherent reactivity preferences of a given target molecule and the development of catalysts that can overcome intrinsic preferences embedded within a substrate. PMID:26307403

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine Flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daines, Russell L.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques are used to study the flowfield of a fixed geometry Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine operating in rocket ejector mode. Heat addition resulting from the combustion of injected fuel causes the subsonic engine flow to choke and go supersonic in the slightly divergent combustor-mixer section. Reacting flow computations are undertaken to predict the characteristics of solutions where the heat addition is determined by the flowfield. Here, adaptive gridding is used to improve resolution in the shear layers. Results show that the sonic speed is reached in the unheated portions of the flow first, while the heated portions become supersonic later. Comparison with results from another code show reasonable agreement. The coupled solutions show that the character of the combustion-based thermal choking phenomenon can be controlled reasonably well such that there is opportunity to optimize the length and expansion ratio of the combustor-mixer.

  10. Magnetorheological fluid based on submicrometric silica-coated magnetite particles under an oscillatory magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín-Serrano, R.; Donado, F.; Rubio-Rosas, E.

    2013-06-01

    An experimental study conducted on the rheological properties of a magnetorheological fluid based on submicrometric silica-coated magnetite particles dispersed in silicone oil is presented. We investigated the rheological behaviour when the system is simultaneously exposed to a static field and a sinusoidal field used as a perturbation. The results show that the perturbation modifies the rheological behaviour of the system and can be used to control its physical properties; however, the changes that are induced are smaller than expected from previous results for the aggregation of particles under magnetic perturbations. We discussed this difference in terms of the ratio between the magnetic energy and the thermal energy. We observed that a threshold magnetic field exists; below it, the yield stress is practically zero, whereas above it, the yield stress grows quickly. We discuss this result in terms of a model based on chain length distribution.

  11. Halide based shock-wave treatment of fluid-rich natural phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlothauer, T.; Schimpf, C.; Brendler, E.; Keller, K.; Kroke, E.; Heide, G.

    2015-11-01

    For the synthesis of high pressure phases from natural minerals and the shock wave treatment of fluid bearing phases a halide based method was developed. The experiments were performed in the pressure range between 25 and 162 GPa with a success rate for the new method of 100% for the new method. Based on the Impedance Corrected Sample Recovery Capsule under avoiding the adiabatic decompression a direct comparison between different loading paths and sample holder geometries is possible. The recovered samples show neither indications of melting in the case of kaolinite and very limited degassing in the case of carbonates. The recovery of amorphous water bearing Al-Si-phases with Aluminum in four-, five- and six-fold coordination was possible. The samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, nuclear-magnetic-resonance- and infra-red-spectroscopy and the results were directly compared.

  12. Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Micci, Michael M; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16K×8K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity. PMID:26465581

  13. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak after septoplasty: A potential complication of occult anterior skull base encephalocele

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Resha S.; Choudhry, Osamah J.; Liu, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea after septoplasty is a known entity resulting from errors in surgical technique and improper handling of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. When these occur, urgent management is necessary to prevent deleterious sequelae such as meningitis, intracranial abscess, and pneumocephalus. Encephaloceles are rare occurrences characterized by herniation of intracranial contents through a skull base defect that can predispose patients to CSF rhinorrhea. In this report, we present a case of CSF rhinorrhea occurring 2 weeks after septoplasty likely from manipulation of an occult anterior skull base encephalocele. To our knowledge, no previous similar case has been reported in the literature. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the possibility of occult encephaloceles while performing septoplasties because minimal manipulation of these entities may potentially result in postoperative CSF leakage. PMID:23772326

  14. Magnetic Field Sensing Based on Magnetic-Fluid-Clad Multimode-Singlemode-Multimode Fiber Structures

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiali; Pu, Shengli; Dong, Shaohua; Luo, Longfeng

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber structures is proposed and experimentalized. The structures are fabricated out using fiber fusion splicing techniques. The sensing principle is based on the interference between the core mode and cladding modes. Two interference dips are observed in our spectral range. Experimental results indicate that the magnetic field sensing sensitivities of 215 pm/mT and 0.5742 dB/mT are obtained for interference dip around 1595 nm. For interference dip around 1565 nm, the sensitivities are 60.5 pm/mT and 0.4821 dB/mT. The response of temperature is also investigated. The temperature sensitivity for the dip around 1595 nm is obtained to be 9.93 pm/°C. PMID:25317761

  15. Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micci, Michael M.; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16 K ×8 K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity.

  16. Irrigation of human prepared root canal – ex vivo based computational fluid dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Šnjarić, Damir; Čarija, Zoran; Braut, Alen; Halaji, Adelaida; Kovačević, Maja; Kuiš, Davor

    2012-01-01

    Aim To analyze the influence of the needle type, insertion depth, and irrigant flow rate on irrigant flow pattern, flow velocity, and apical pressure by ex-vivo based endodontic irrigation computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Methods Human upper canine root canal was prepared using rotary files. Contrast fluid was introduced in the root canal and scanned by computed tomography (CT) providing a three-dimensional object that was exported to the computer-assisted design (CAD) software. Two probe points were established in the apical portion of the root canal model for flow velocity and pressure measurement. Three different CAD models of 27G irrigation needles (closed-end side-vented, notched open-end, and bevel open-end) were created and placed at 25, 50, 75, and 95% of the working length (WL). Flow rates of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL/s were simulated. A total of 60 irrigation simulations were performed by CFD fluid flow solver. Results Closed-end side-vented needle required insertion depth closer to WL, regarding efficient irrigant replacement, compared to open-end irrigation needle types, which besides increased velocity produced increased irrigant apical pressure. For all irrigation needle types and needle insertion depths, the increase of flow rate was followed by an increased irrigant apical pressure. Conclusions The human root canal shape obtained by CT is applicable in the CFD analysis of endodontic irrigation. All the analyzed values –irrigant flow pattern, velocity, and pressure – were influenced by irrigation needle type, as well as needle insertion depth and irrigant flow rate. PMID:23100209

  17. Development of a fully integrated analysis system for ions based on ion-selective optodes and centrifugal microfluidics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Badr, I. H.; Barrett, G.; Lai, S.; Lu, Y.; Madou, M. J.; Bachas, L. G.; Daunert, S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    A fully integrated, miniaturized analysis system for ions based on a centrifugal microfluidics platform and ion-selective optode membranes is described. The microfluidic architecture is composed of channels, five solution reservoirs, a measuring chamber, and a waste reservoir manufactured onto a disk-shaped substrate of poly(methyl methacrylate). Ion-selective optode membranes, composed of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) impregnated with an ionophore, a proton chromoionophore, and a lipophilic anionic additive, were cast, with a spin-on device, onto a support layer and then immobilized on the disk. Fluid propulsion is achieved by the centrifugal force that results from spinning the disk, while a system of valves is built onto the disk to control flow. These valves operate based on fluid properties and fluid/substrate interactions and are controlled by the angular frequency of rotation. With this system, we have been able to deliver calibrant solutions, washing buffers, or "test" solutions to the measuring chamber where the optode membrane is located. An analysis system based on a potassium-selective optode has been characterized. Results indicate that optodes immobilized on the platform demonstrate theoretical responses in an absorbance mode of measurement. Samples of unknown concentration can be quantified to within 3% error by fitting the response function for a given optode membrane using an acid (for measuring the signal for a fully protonated chromoionophore), a base (for fully deprotonated chromoionophore), and two standard solutions. Further, the ability to measure ion concentrations by employing one standard solution in conjunction with acid and base and with two standards alone were studied to delineate whether the current architecture could be simplified. Finally, the efficacy of incorporating washing steps into the calibration protocol was investigated.

  18. Glass nanopore-based ion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jun Ho; Kim, Juneho; Cha, Geun Sig; Nam, Hakhyun; White, Ryan J; White, Henry S; Brown, Richard B

    2007-05-15

    Glass nanopore-based all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have been developed to probe the distribution of ionic species at micro- or submicrometer-length scales, e.g., mapping of ion flux through micrometer-sized pores. The all-solid-state ISE was fabricated by sealing a conically etched platinum wire (d = 25-microm; radius of etched tip <10 nm) into a soda lime glass capillary. A Pt disk was exposed by gentle polishing the glass and the disk etched to form a conical pore of submicrometer dimension (radius < approximately 500 nm; depth < approximately 30 microm). Ag was electroplated on the Pt electrode in the pore and gently chloridated to obtain a AgCl/Ag layer within the pore. The AgCl/Ag layer-coated ISE was used as a highly selective Cl- probe in scanning electrochemical microscope experiments to map the ion flux through a micropore. The same ISE was also used as the base transducer of the neutral carrier-doped solvent polymeric membrane. The optimized polymer membranes used for the glass nanopore-based all-solid-state ISE require a higher ratio of plasticizer/polymer (9/1) compared to those for conventional ISE (2/1). An ISE based on deposition of an IrO2 layer at the base of a glass nanopore electrode exhibited a highly sensitive response (79.7 +/- 2.3 mV/pH) to variations in pH and could be used for approximately 3 weeks. PMID:17411008

  19. Preparation and application of a novel molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction monolith for selective enrichment of cholecystokinin neuropeptides in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Li, Dan; Li, Hua

    2015-08-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith for highly selective extraction of cholecystokinin (CCK) neuropeptides was prepared in a micropipette tip. The MIPs were synthesized by epitope imprinting technique and the polymerization conditions were investigated and optimized. The synthesized MIPs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyzer and scanning electron microscope. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction (MI-μ-SPE) method was developed for the extraction of CCK neuropeptides in aqueous solutions. The parameters affecting MI-μ-SPE were optimized. The results indicated that this MIP monolith exhibited specific recognition capability and high enrichment efficiency for CCK neuropeptides. In addition, it showed excellent reusability. This MIP monolith was used for desalting and enrichment of CCK4, CCK5 and CCK8 from human cerebrospinal fluid prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, and the results show that this MIP monolith can be a useful tool for effective purification and highly selective enrichment of multiple homologous CCK neuropeptides in cerebrospinal fluid simultaneously. By employing MI-μ-SPE combined with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, endogenous CCK4 in human cerebrospinal fluid was quantified. PMID:25616243

  20. A Database Selection Expert System Based on Reference Librarian's Database Selection Strategy: A Usability and Empirical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a prototype Web-based database selection expert system at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign that is based on reference librarians' database selection strategy which allows users to simultaneously search all available databases to identify those most relevant to their search using free-text keywords or…

  1. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  2. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yuxia; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  3. Rough-Fuzzy Clustering and Unsupervised Feature Selection for Wavelet Based MR Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Pradipta; Roy, Shaswati

    2015-01-01

    Image segmentation is an indispensable process in the visualization of human tissues, particularly during clinical analysis of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. For many human experts, manual segmentation is a difficult and time consuming task, which makes an automated brain MR image segmentation method desirable. In this regard, this paper presents a new segmentation method for brain MR images, integrating judiciously the merits of rough-fuzzy computing and multiresolution image analysis technique. The proposed method assumes that the major brain tissues, namely, gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid from the MR images are considered to have different textural properties. The dyadic wavelet analysis is used to extract the scale-space feature vector for each pixel, while the rough-fuzzy clustering is used to address the uncertainty problem of brain MR image segmentation. An unsupervised feature selection method is introduced, based on maximum relevance-maximum significance criterion, to select relevant and significant textural features for segmentation problem, while the mathematical morphology based skull stripping preprocessing step is proposed to remove the non-cerebral tissues like skull. The performance of the proposed method, along with a comparison with related approaches, is demonstrated on a set of synthetic and real brain MR images using standard validity indices. PMID:25848961

  4. Optimal design and selection of magneto-rheological brake types based on braking torque and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Lang, V. T.; Choi, S. B.

    2015-06-01

    In developing magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), it is well known that the braking torque and the mass of the MRBs are important factors that should be considered in the product’s design. This research focuses on the optimal design of different types of MRBs, from which we identify an optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. In the optimization, common types of MRBs such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-type, and T-shape types are considered. The optimization problem is to find an optimal MRB structure that can produce the required braking torque while minimizing its mass. After a brief description of the configuration of the MRBs, the MRBs’ braking torque is derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the magnetorheological fluid. Then, the optimal designs of the MRBs are analyzed. The optimization objective is to minimize the mass of the brake while the braking torque is constrained to be greater than a required value. In addition, the power consumption of the MRBs is also considered as a reference parameter in the optimization. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is used to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs with different required braking torque values are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, we discuss the optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass.

  5. Adapting SAFT-γ perturbation theory to site-based molecular dynamics simulation. I. Homogeneous fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

    2013-12-21

    In this work, we aim to develop a version of the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT)-γ equation of state (EOS) that is compatible with united-atom force fields, rather than experimental data. We rely on the accuracy of the force fields to provide the relation to experimental data. Although, our objective is a transferable theory of interfacial properties for soft and fused heteronuclear chains, we first clarify the details of the SAFT-γ approach in terms of site-based simulations for homogeneous fluids. We show that a direct comparison of Helmholtz free energy to molecular simulation, in the framework of a third order Weeks-Chandler-Andersen perturbation theory, leads to an EOS that takes force field parameters as input and reproduces simulation results for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE) calculations. For example, saturated liquid density and vapor pressure of n-alkanes ranging from methane to dodecane deviate from those of the Transferable Potential for Phase Equilibria (TraPPE) force field by about 0.8% and 4%, respectively. Similar agreement between simulation and theory is obtained for critical properties and second virial coefficient. The EOS also reproduces simulation data of mixtures with about 5% deviation in bubble point pressure. Extension to inhomogeneous systems and united-atom site types beyond those used in description of n-alkanes will be addressed in succeeding papers.

  6. A case study of fluid flow in fractured rock mass based on 2-D DFN modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jisu; Noh, Young-Hwan; Um, Jeong-Gi; Choi, Yosoon

    2014-05-01

    A two dimensional steady-state fluid flow through fractured rock mass of an abandoned copper mine in Korea is addressed based on discrete fracture network modeling. An injection well and three observation wells were installed at the field site to monitor the variations of total heads induced by injection of fresh water. A series of packer tests were performed to estimate the rock mass permeability. First, the two dimensional stochastic fracture network model was built and validated for a granitic rock mass using the geometrical and statistical data obtained from surface exposures and borehole logs. This validated fracture network model was combined with the fracture data observed on boreholes to generate a stochastic-deterministic fracture network system. Estimated apertures for each of the fracture sets using permeability data obtained from borehole packer tests were discussed next. Finally, a systematic procedure for fluid flow modeling in fractured rock mass in two dimensional domain was presented to estimate the conductance, flow quantity and nodal head in 2-D conceptual linear pipe channel network. The results obtained in this study clearly show that fracture geometry parameters (orientation, density and size) play an important role in the hydraulic behavior of fractured rock masses.

  7. A Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic Fluid-Filled FP-FBG Structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Shuidong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic magnetic-controlled refractive index property, in this paper, a magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium to detect the magnetic field in the fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The temperature compensation in fiber Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor is demonstrated and achieved. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid varies with the applied magnetic field and external temperature, and a cross-sensitivity effect of the temperature and magnetic field occurs in the Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements is affected by the thermal effect. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a modified sensor structure. With a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in the insert fiber end of the Fabry-Perot cavity, the FBG acts as a temperature compensation unit for the magnetic field measurement and it provides an effective solution to the cross-sensitivity effect. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of magnetic field detection improves from 0.23 nm/mT to 0.53 nm/mT, and the magnetic field measurement resolution finally reaches 37.7 T. The temperature-compensated FP-FBG magnetic sensor has obvious advantages of small volume and high sensitivity, and it has a good prospect in applications in the power industry and national defense technology areas. PMID:27136564

  8. A Multi-Phase Based Fluid-Structure-Microfluidic interaction sensor for Aerodynamic Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher; Dutta, Diganta; Bashirzadeh, Yashar; Ahmed, Kareem; Qian, Shizhi

    2014-11-01

    A novel innovative microfluidic shear stress sensor is developed for measuring shear stress through multi-phase fluid-structure-microfluidic interaction. The device is composed of a microfluidic cavity filled with an electrolyte liquid. Inside the cavity, two electrodes make electrochemical velocimetry measurements of the induced convection. The cavity is sealed with a flexible superhydrophobic membrane. The membrane will dynamically stretch and flex as a result of direct shear cross-flow interaction with the seal structure, forming instability wave modes and inducing fluid motion within the microfluidic cavity. The shear stress on the membrane is measured by sensing the induced convection generated by membrane deflections. The advantages of the sensor over current MEMS based shear stress sensor technology are: a simplified design with no moving parts, optimum relationship between size and sensitivity, no gaps such as those created by micromachining sensors in MEMS processes. We present the findings of a feasibility study of the proposed sensor including wind-tunnel tests, microPIV measurements, electrochemical velocimetry, and simulation data results. The study investigates the sensor in the supersonic and subsonic flow regimes. Supported by a NASA SBIR phase 1 contract.

  9. PRECISION CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES USING CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    J. RUBIN; L. SIVILS; A. BUSNAINA

    1999-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, on behalf of the Hewlett-Packard Company, is conducting tests of a closed-loop CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid process, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover (SCORR). We have shown that this treatment process is effective in removing hard-baked, ion-implanted photoresists, and appears to be fully compatible with metallization systems. We are now performing experiments on production wafers to assess not only photoresist removal, but also residual surface contamination due to particulate and trace metals. Dense-phase (liquid or supercritical) CO{sub 2}, since it is non-polar, acts like an organic solvent and therefore has an inherently high volubility for organic compounds such as oils and greases. Also, dense CO{sub 2} has a low-viscosity and a low dielectric constant. Finally, CO{sub 2} in the liquid and supercritical fluid states can solubilize metal completing agents and surfactants. This combination of properties has interesting implications for the removal not only of organic films, but also trace metals and inorganic particulate. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using CO{sub 2} as a precision-cleaning solvent, with particular emphasis on semiconductor surfaces.

  10. On the application of a physically based higher order fluid model for low-temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Nathan; White, Ron; Robson, Robert; Nicoletopoulos, Peter; Dujko, Sasa

    2012-10-01

    We present a high resolution, computationally efficient non-local fluid model of a low-temperature parallel plate plasma discharge. The non-local model uses low-order velocity moments of the Boltzmann equation representing particle, momentum and energy balance equations, coupled with Poisson's equations to determine space-charge fields. The system of equations is closed used a physically sound heat flux ansatz [1]. A new scheme is implemented for prescribing the relevant collisional terms in the balance equations, based on available electron swarm transport coefficients [2]. The model is applied to simulation of various configurations including the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference cell and compared to previous models of the system. Results of the model yield spatial and temporal profiles of electron densities, flux and energy in addition to electric field distributions inside the GEC reference cell. In this paper, we highlight differences associated with local and non-local fluid equation treatments, as well as highlight the importance of correct implementation of electron swarm transport data. [1] R.E. Robson, R.D. White and Z. Lj. Petrovic, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1303 (2005) [2] R.E. Robson, P. Nicoletopoulos, M. Hildebrandt and R.D. White, J. Chem. Phys. (sub

  11. A Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic Fluid-Filled FP-FBG Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Shuidong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic magnetic-controlled refractive index property, in this paper, a magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium to detect the magnetic field in the fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The temperature compensation in fiber Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor is demonstrated and achieved. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid varies with the applied magnetic field and external temperature, and a cross-sensitivity effect of the temperature and magnetic field occurs in the Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements is affected by the thermal effect. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a modified sensor structure. With a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in the insert fiber end of the Fabry-Perot cavity, the FBG acts as a temperature compensation unit for the magnetic field measurement and it provides an effective solution to the cross-sensitivity effect. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of magnetic field detection improves from 0.23 nm/mT to 0.53 nm/mT, and the magnetic field measurement resolution finally reaches 37.7 T. The temperature-compensated FP-FBG magnetic sensor has obvious advantages of small volume and high sensitivity, and it has a good prospect in applications in the power industry and national defense technology areas. PMID:27136564

  12. Reference View Selection in DIBR-Based Multiview Coding.

    PubMed

    Maugey, Thomas; Petrazzuoli, Giovanni; Frossard, Pascal; Cagnazzo, Marco; Pesquet-Popescu, Beatrice

    2016-04-01

    Augmented reality, interactive navigation in 3D scenes, multiview video, and other emerging multimedia applications require large sets of images, hence larger data volumes and increased resources compared with traditional video services. The significant increase in the number of images in multiview systems leads to new challenging problems in data representation and data transmission to provide high quality of experience on resource-constrained environments. In order to reduce the size of the data, different multiview video compression strategies have been proposed recently. Most of them use the concept of reference or key views that are used to estimate other images when there is high correlation in the data set. In such coding schemes, the two following questions become fundamental: 1) how many reference views have to be chosen for keeping a good reconstruction quality under coding cost constraints? And 2) where to place these key views in the multiview data set? As these questions are largely overlooked in the literature, we study the reference view selection problem and propose an algorithm for the optimal selection of reference views in multiview coding systems. Based on a novel metric that measures the similarity between the views, we formulate an optimization problem for the positioning of the reference views, such that both the distortion of the view reconstruction and the coding rate cost are minimized. We solve this new problem with a shortest path algorithm that determines both the optimal number of reference views and their positions in the image set. We experimentally validate our solution in a practical multiview distributed coding system and in the standardized 3D-HEVC multiview coding scheme. We show that considering the 3D scene geometry in the reference view, positioning problem brings significant rate-distortion improvements and outperforms the traditional coding strategy that simply selects key frames based on the distance between cameras. PMID

  13. Commercial facility site selection simulating based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi; Li, Qingquan; Zheng, Guizhou

    2008-10-01

    The location of commercial facility decides the benefit of the operator to a large degree. Existing location methods can express the static relationships between site selection result and location factors, but there still are some limites when express the dynamic and uncertain relationship between them. Hence, a dynamic, stochastic and forecastable location model should be built which can introduce the customer's behavior into the model and combine the macro pattern and micro spatial interaction. So the authors proposes Geosim-LM based on MAS. Geosim-LM has 3 kinds of agents, CustAgent, SiteAgent and GovAgent. They represent the customers, commercial fercilities and government. The land type, land price and traffic are the model environment. Then Geosim-LM is applied in the bank branches site evaluation and selection in Liwan district, Guangzhou. In existing bank branches site evaluation, there are 70% consistent in score grade between result of Geosim-LM after 200 round runing and actual rebust location. It proves the model is reliable and feasible. The conclusions can be get from the paper. MAS have advantages in location choice than existed methods. The result of Geosim-LM running can powerfully proves that building location model based on MAS is feasible.

  14. Selectively Encrypted Pull-Up Based Watermarking of Biometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, S. A.; Patel, Kushal S.

    2012-10-01

    Biometric authentication systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential usage in information security. However, digital biometric data (e.g. thumb impression) are themselves vulnerable to security attacks. There are various methods are available to secure biometric data. In biometric watermarking the data are embedded in an image container and are only retrieved if the secrete key is available. This container image is encrypted to have more security against the attack. As wireless devices are equipped with battery as their power supply, they have limited computational capabilities; therefore to reduce energy consumption we use the method of selective encryption of container image. The bit pull-up-based biometric watermarking scheme is based on amplitude modulation and bit priority which reduces the retrieval error rate to great extent. By using selective Encryption mechanism we expect more efficiency in time at the time of encryption as well as decryption. Significant reduction in error rate is expected to be achieved by the bit pull-up method.

  15. Alginate microbead-encapsulated silver complexes for selective delivery of broad-spectrum silver-based microbicides.

    PubMed

    Damelin, Leonard H; Fernandes, Manuel A; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2015-10-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are predominantly acquired via heterosexual contact, and women are at greatest risk of being infected. This region also has the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) per capita worldwide; STIs are strongly associated with increased HIV transmission. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for microbicides that are active against HIV and STIs. Silver compounds exhibit broad antimicrobial activity, making them potentially ideal broad-spectrum microbicides. However, for silver compounds to be effective microbicides, they must be active within seminal fluid and the delivery vehicle used must protect the silver microbicide from vaginal fluid components but selectively release it during intercourse and/or following ejaculation. In this study, silver complexes were synthesised from the ligands saccharin, benzimidazole and 8-hydroxyquinoline and their microbicidal activity was assessed. We show that a silver saccharinate-benzimidazole complex (AgSB) exhibited activity against HIV-1, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at concentrations significantly below LD(50) levels for the vaginal mucosal cell line SiHa. Furthermore, we show that alginate microbeads are stable in vaginal fluid simulant but rapidly dissolve in seminal fluid simulant. Finally, we have established that microbead-encapsulated AgSB, dissolved in seminal fluid simulant, is active against the above pathogens, albeit at higher concentrations for HIV-1. This research therefore highlights, for the first time, the potential use of silver complexes encapsulated in alginate microbeads as a novel system for the delivery and selective release of broad-spectrum silver-based microbicides within the vaginal milieu during sexual intercourse/after ejaculation. PMID:26184337

  16. Development of an achiral supercritical fluid chromatography method with ultraviolet absorbance and mass spectrometric detection for impurity profiling of drug candidates. Part II. Selection of an orthogonal set of stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Lemasson, Elise; Bertin, Sophie; Hennig, Philippe; Boiteux, Hélène; Lesellier, Eric; West, Caroline

    2015-08-21

    Impurity profiling of organic products that are synthesized as possible drug candidates requires complementary analytical methods to ensure that all impurities are identified. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a very useful tool to achieve this objective, as an adequate selection of stationary phases can provide orthogonal separations so as to maximize the chances to see all impurities. In this series of papers, we have developed a method for achiral SFC-MS profiling of drug candidates, based on a selection of 160 analytes issued from Servier Research Laboratories. In the first part of this study, focusing on mobile phase selection, a gradient elution with carbon dioxide and methanol comprising 2% water and 20mM ammonium acetate proved to be the best in terms of chromatographic performance, while also providing good MS response [1]. The objective of this second part was the selection of an orthogonal set of ultra-high performance stationary phases, that was carried out in two steps. Firstly, a reduced set of analytes (20) was used to screen 23 columns. The columns selected were all 1.7-2.5μm fully porous or 2.6-2.7μm superficially porous particles, with a variety of stationary phase chemistries. Derringer desirability functions were used to rank the columns according to retention window, column efficiency evaluated with peak width of selected analytes, and the proportion of analytes successfully eluted with good peak shapes. The columns providing the worst performances were thus eliminated and a shorter selection of columns (11) was obtained. Secondly, based on 160 tested analytes, the 11 columns were ranked again. The retention data obtained on these columns were then compared to define a reduced set of the best columns providing the greatest orthogonality, to maximize the chances to see all impurities within a limited number of runs. Two high-performance columns were thus selected: ACQUITY UPC(2) HSS C18 SB and Nucleoshell HILIC. PMID:26195036

  17. Verification Benchmarks to Assess the Implementation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Hemolysis Prediction Models.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Prasanna; D'Souza, Gavin; Horner, Marc; Malinauskas, Richard A; Myers, Matthew R

    2015-09-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop verification and validation (V&V) standards for using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the evaluation of medical devices, we have developed idealized flow-based verification benchmarks to assess the implementation of commonly cited power-law based hemolysis models in CFD. Verification process ensures that all governing equations are solved correctly and the model is free of user and numerical errors. To perform verification for power-law based hemolysis modeling, analytical solutions for the Eulerian power-law blood damage model (which estimates hemolysis index (HI) as a function of shear stress and exposure time) were obtained for Couette and inclined Couette flow models, and for Newtonian and non-Newtonian pipe flow models. Subsequently, CFD simulations of fluid flow and HI were performed using Eulerian and three different Lagrangian-based hemolysis models and compared with the analytical solutions. For all the geometries, the blood damage results from the Eulerian-based CFD simulations matched the Eulerian analytical solutions within ∼1%, which indicates successful implementation of the Eulerian hemolysis model. Agreement between the Lagrangian and Eulerian models depended upon the choice of the hemolysis power-law constants. For the commonly used values of power-law constants (α  = 1.9-2.42 and β  = 0.65-0.80), in the absence of flow acceleration, most of the Lagrangian models matched the Eulerian results within 5%. In the presence of flow acceleration (inclined Couette flow), moderate differences (∼10%) were observed between the Lagrangian and Eulerian models. This difference increased to greater than 100% as the beta exponent decreased. These simplified flow problems can be used as standard benchmarks for verifying the implementation of blood damage predictive models in commercial and open-source CFD codes. The current study only used power-law model as an illustrative example to emphasize the need

  18. Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  19. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  20. Heating Characteristics of Transformer Oil-Based Magnetic Fluids of Different Magnetic Particle Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skumiel, A.; Hornowski, T.; Józefczak, A.

    2011-04-01

    The heating ability of mineral oil-based magnetic fluids with different magnetic particle concentrations is studied. The calorimetric measurements were carried out in an alternating magnetic field of 500 A · m-1 to 2500 A · m-1 amplitude and of 1500 kHz frequency. The revealed H n law-type dependence of the temperature increase rate, (d T/d t) t=0, on the amplitude of the magnetic field indicates the presence of superparamagnetic and partially ferromagnetic particles in the tested samples since n > 2. The specific absorption rate (SAR) defined as the rate of energy absorption per unit mass increases with a decrease of the volume fraction of the dispersed phase. This can be explained by the formation of aggregates in the samples with a higher concentration of magnetic particles.

  1. Prediction of plasma rotation and neoclassical toroidal viscosity in KSTAR discharges based on plasma fluid formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Cheonho; Stacey, Weston

    2015-11-01

    Braginskii's flow rate of strain tensor formalism, as extended first to low collisional plasmas in axisymmetric circular toroidal flux surface geometry, then to elongated axisymmetric flux surface geometry, has recently been extended to 3-D non-axisymmetric toroidal flux surface geometry. In toroidally non-axisymmetric plasmas, the leading order neoclassical parallel viscosity terms in the flow rate of strain tensor do not vanish to cause flux surface averaged toroidal angular momentum damping and eventually slow down the plasma rotation. The formalism of Ref. 5 provides a means to systematically evaluate the ``neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV)'' in curvilinear plasma geometry based on the plasma fluid equations. As the first step of its application, a practical formalism for circular plasmas, given in the appendix of Ref. 5, will be applied to KSTAR discharges to predict the rotation and NTV, which can also be compared with actual rotation measurements to numerically validate the NTV damping effects.

  2. Perturbation theory for multicomponent fluids based on structural properties of hard-sphere chain mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hlushak, Stepan

    2015-09-28

    An analytical expression for the Laplace transform of the radial distribution function of a mixture of hard-sphere chains of arbitrary segment size and chain length is used to rigorously formulate the first-order Barker-Henderson perturbation theory for the contribution of the segment-segment dispersive interactions into thermodynamics of the Lennard-Jones chain mixtures. Based on this approximation, a simple variant of the statistical associating fluid theory is proposed and used to predict properties of several mixtures of chains of different lengths and segment sizes. The theory treats the dispersive interactions more rigorously than the conventional theories and provides means for more accurate description of dispersive interactions in the mixtures of highly asymmetric components.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of a magnetorheological-fluid-based active suspension system for a neonatal transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Amit; Bailey Van Kuren, Michael

    2004-07-01

    A neonatal transport cart is used by hospitals to transport critical infants. The ride during ground transportation generates severe vibrations which have been found to adversely affect the infant's physiological symptoms. This work is the first attempt to design a vibration isolation system using magneto-rheological fluid damper-based suspension system for the neonatal transport cart. In this paper the effect of various system and control parameters on the two-degree-of-freedom model are numerically studied for parametric bifurcation stability behavior. It is shown that system can undergo loss of stability via Hopf bifurcation and exhibit limit cycle oscillations which is counter to the goal of the proposed suspension design.

  4. Knowledge-base for interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid data patterns. Essentials in neurology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Reiber, Hansotto

    2016-06-01

    The physiological and biophysical knowledge base for interpretations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data and reference ranges are essential for the clinical pathologist and neurochemist. With the popular description of the CSF flow dependent barrier function, the dynamics and concentration gradients of blood-derived, brain-derived and leptomeningeal proteins in CSF or the specificity-independent functions of B-lymphocytes in brain also the neurologist, psychiatrist, neurosurgeon as well as the neuropharmacologist may find essentials for diagnosis, research or development of therapies. This review may help to replace the outdated ideas like "leakage" models of the barriers, linear immunoglobulin Index Interpretations or CSF electrophoresis. Calculations, Interpretations and analytical pitfalls are described for albumin quotients, quantitation of immunoglobulin synthesis in Reibergrams, oligoclonal IgG, IgM analysis, the polyspecific ( MRZ- ) antibody reaction, the statistical treatment of CSF data and general quality assessment in the CSF laboratory. The diagnostic relevance is documented in an accompaning review. PMID:27332077

  5. Drilling fluids based on a mixture of a sulfonated thermoplastic polymer and a sulfonated elastomeric polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.R.; Lundberg, R.D.; Peiffer, D.G.; Thaler, W.A.; Walker, T.O.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to mixtures of sulfonated thermoplastic polymers and sulfonated elastomeric polymers which function as viscosification agents when added to oil-based drilling muds which are the fluids used to maintain pressure, cool drill bits, and lift cuttings from the holes in the drilling operation for oil and gas wells. The sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers both have about 5 to about 200 meq. of sulfonate groups per 100 grams of the sulfonated thermoplastic or elastomeric polymers, wherein the sulfonated groups are neutralized with a metallic cation or an amine or ammonium counterion. A polar cosolvent can optionally be added to the mixture of oil drilling mud and sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers, wherein the polar cosolvent increases the solubility of the sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymer in the oil drilling mud by decreasing the strong ionic interactions between the sulfonate groups of the sulfonated polymers.

  6. Personal computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processsed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes commputation.

  7. Study of magneto-dielectric and magneto-optical effects in mineral oil based magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopcansky, P.; Horvath, D.; Kellnerova, V.; Koneracka, M.; Svidron, V.; Tima, T.; Slanco, P.; Macko, D.; Kasparkova, M.

    1994-03-01

    The magneto-dielectric effect and magneto-optical effect (absorption coefficient in infrared range) were studied for mineral oil based magnetic fluids with magnetite particles in the volume concentration range from phi = 0.0125 to phi = 0.2. The anisotropy parameter - g defined as a ratio of change of dielectric constant Delta epsilon(sub parallel)(H) (absorption coefficient Delta A(sub parallel)(H)) for E parallel H with respect to zero magnetic field dielectric constant and change of dielectric constant Delta epsilon(sub perpendicular) (H) for E perpendicular H (Delta A(sub perpendicular)(H)) has been calculated from the experimental data for both effects. The values of g nearly equal 2 has been found in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  8. Combining Computational Fluid Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling: A New Approach to Evacuation Planning

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joshua M.; Pankajakshan, Ramesh; Hammond, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel hybrid of two fields—Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Agent-Based Modeling (ABM)—as a powerful new technique for urban evacuation planning. CFD is a predominant technique for modeling airborne transport of contaminants, while ABM is a powerful approach for modeling social dynamics in populations of adaptive individuals. The hybrid CFD-ABM method is capable of simulating how large, spatially-distributed populations might respond to a physically realistic contaminant plume. We demonstrate the overall feasibility of CFD-ABM evacuation design, using the case of a hypothetical aerosol release in Los Angeles to explore potential effectiveness of various policy regimes. We conclude by arguing that this new approach can be powerfully applied to arbitrary population centers, offering an unprecedented preparedness and catastrophic event response tool. PMID:21687788

  9. Introduction of an innovative water based photoresist stripping process using intelligent fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Thrun, Xaver; Schumann, Dirk; Hoehne, Anita; Esche, Silvio; Hohle, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    The usage of phasefluid based stripping agents to remove photoresists from silicon substrates was studied. Due to their highly dynamic inner structure phasefluids offer a new working principle, they are penetrating layers through smallest openings and lift off the material from the surface. These non-aggressive stripping fluids were investigated regarding their cleaning efficiency as well as contamination behavior to enable usage in semiconductor and MEMS manufacturing. A general proof of concept for the usage of phasefluids in resist stripping processes is shown on silicon coupons and BKM's are given for different resist types. In addition a baseline process on 12inch wafers has been developed and characterized in terms of metallic and ionic impurities and defect level.

  10. An attempt to use the peritoneal cavity fluid in the diagnostics of acid-base balance disorders in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sławuta, P; Glińska-Suchocka, K

    2013-01-01

    The acid-base balance parameters (ABB) of blood are used in the diagnostics and therapy of acidosis or alkalosis type disorders. Nowadays, some reports on the attempts to use the body cavity fluid for the diagnostics of the ABB disorders have appeared in the human medicine. The study has aimed at comparing the acid-base balance parameters (ABB): pH, pCO2, and HCO3(-) determined in the arterial blood and the fluid from the peritoneal cavity in dogs. The study was carried out on 20 dogs suffering from ascites developed as a result of the chronic renal failure. 1 ml of full blood was drawn from each dog from its femoral artery to a heparinized syringe equipped with a needle with an internal diameter of 0.7 mm and the puncture of the abdominal cavity was carried out in the white line. In the sample of arterial blood and the sample of the abdominal cavity fluid drawn the ABB parameters were determined. In the group examined, the ABB parameters determined for the arterial blood and the fluid had comparable numeric values and the same nature of the ABB disorder diagnosed on the basis of them. The conclusions are as follows: the results of the effusion fluid gasometry depend on the mechanism of the fluid formation and, in the case when it comes from the developed capillary network, a pressure of gases and remaining ABB parameters are similar to those determined for the arterial blood. PMID:24195280

  11. Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter observations for lunar base site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, James B.; Bufton, Jack L.

    1992-01-01

    One of the critical datasets for optimal selection of future lunar landing sites is local- to regional-scale topography. Lunar base site selection will require such data for both engineering and scientific operations purposes. The Lunar Geoscience Orbiter or Lunar Observer is the ideal precursory science mission from which to obtain this required information. We suggest that a simple laser altimeter instrument could be employed to measure local-scale slopes, heights, and depths of lunar surface features important to lunar base planning and design. For this reason, we have designed and are currently constructing a breadboard of a Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument capable of acquiring contiguous-footprint topographic profiles with both 30-m and 300-m along-track resolution. This instrument meets all the severe weight, power, size, and data rate limitations imposed by Observer-class spacecraft. In addition, LOLA would be capable of measuring the within-footprint vertical roughness of the lunar surface, and the 1.06-micron relative surface reflectivity at normal incidence. We have used airborne laser altimeter data for a few representative lunar analog landforms to simulate and analyze LOLA performance in a 100-km lunar orbit. We demonstrate that this system in its highest resolution mode (30-m diameter footprints) would quantify the topography of all but the very smallest lunar landforms. At its global mapping resolution (300-m diameter footprints), LOLA would establish the topographic context for lunar landing site selection by providing the basis for constructing a 1-2 km spatial resolution global, geodetic topographic grid that would contain a high density of observations (e.g., approximately 1000 observations per each 1 deg by 1 deg cell at the lunar equator). The high spatial and vertical resolution measurements made with a LOLA-class instrument on a precursory Lunar Observer would be highly synergistic with high-resolution imaging datasets, and

  12. Vibration-based damage detection for filament wound pressure vessel filled with fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Wu, Z.; Li, H.

    2008-03-01

    Filament wound pressure vessels have been extensively used in industry and engineering. The existing damage detection and health monitoring methods for these vessels, such as X-ray and ultrasonic scan, can not meet the requirement of online damage detection; moreover optical grating fibre can only sense the local damage, but not the damage far away from the location of sensors. Vibration-based damage detection methods have the potential to meet such requirements. There methods are based on the fact that damages in a structure results in a change in structural dynamic characteristics. A damage detection method based on a residual associated with output-only subspace-based modal identification and global or focused chi^2-tests built on that residual has been proposed and successfully experimented on a variety of test cases. The purpose of this work is to describe the damage detection method and apply this method to assess the composite structure filled with fluid. The results of identification and damage detection will be presented.

  13. Mobility-Based Mobile Relay Selection in MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gilnam; Lee, Hyoungjoo; Lee, Kwang Bok

    The future wireless mobile communication networks are expected to provide seamless wireless access and data exchange to mobile users. In particular, it is expected that the demand for ubiquitous data exchange between mobile users will increase with the widespread use of various wireless applications of the intelligent transportation system (ITS) and intelligent vehicles. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are one of the representative research areas pursuing the technology needed to satisfy the increasing mobile communication requirements. However, most of the works on MANET systems do not take into account the continuous and dynamic changes of nodal mobility to accommodate system design and performance evaluation. The mobility of nodes limits the reliability of communication between the source and the destination node since a link between two continuously moving nodes is established only when one node enters the transmission range of the other. To alleviate this problem, mobile relay has been studied. In particular, it is shown that relay selection is an efficient way to support nodal mobility in MANET systems. In this paper, we propose a mobility-based relay selection algorithm for the MANET environment. Firstly, we define the lifetime as the maximum link duration for which the link between two nodes remains active. Therefore, the lifetime indicates the reliability of the relay link which measures its capability to successfully support relayed communication when requested by the source node. Furthermore, we consider a series of realistic scenarios according to the randomness of nodal mobility. Thus, the proposed algorithm can be easily applied in practical MANET systems by choosing the appropriate node mobility behavior. The numerical results show that the improved reliability of the proposed algorithm's relayed communication is achieved with a proper number of mobile relay nodes rather than with the conventional selection algorithm. Lastly, we show that random

  14. A weight based genetic algorithm for selecting views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebian, Seyed H.; Kareem, Sameem A.

    2013-03-01

    Data warehouse is a technology designed for supporting decision making. Data warehouse is made by extracting large amount of data from different operational systems; transforming it to a consistent form and loading it to the central repository. The type of queries in data warehouse environment differs from those in operational systems. In contrast to operational systems, the analytical queries that are issued in data warehouses involve summarization of large volume of data and therefore in normal circumstance take a long time to be answered. On the other hand, the result of these queries must be answered in a short time to enable managers to make decisions as short time as possible. As a result, an essential need in this environment is in improving the performances of queries. One of the most popular methods to do this task is utilizing pre-computed result of queries. In this method, whenever a new query is submitted by the user instead of calculating the query on the fly through a large underlying database, the pre-computed result or views are used to answer the queries. Although, the ideal option would be pre-computing and saving all possible views, but, in practice due to disk space constraint and overhead due to view updates it is not considered as a feasible choice. Therefore, we need to select a subset of possible views to save on disk. The problem of selecting the right subset of views is considered as an important challenge in data warehousing. In this paper we suggest a Weighted Based Genetic Algorithm (WBGA) for solving the view selection problem with two objectives.

  15. Wet-chemistry based selective coatings for concentrating solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimon, Eran; Kribus, Abraham; Flitsanov, Yuri; Shkolnik, Oleg; Feuermann, Daniel; Zwicker, Camille; Larush, Liraz; Mandler, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2013-09-01

    Spectrally selective coatings are common in low and medium temperature solar applications from solar water heating collectors to parabolic trough absorber tubes. They are also an essential element for high efficiency in higher temperature Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems. Selective coatings for CSP are usually prepared using advanced expensive methods such as sputtering and vapor deposition. In this work, coatings were prepared using low-cost wet-chemistry methods. Solutions based on Alumina and Silica sol gel were prepared and then dispersed with black spinel pigments. The black dispersions were applied by spray/roll coating methods on stainless steel plates. The spectral emissivity of sample coatings was measured in the temperature range between 200 and 500°C, while the spectral absorptivity was measured at room temperature and 500°C. Emissivity at wavelengths of 0.4-1.7 μm was evaluated indirectly using multiple measurements of directional reflectivity. Emissivity at wavelengths 2-14 μm was measured directly using a broadband IR camera that acquires the radiation emitted from the sample, and a range of spectral filters. Emissivity measurement results for a range of coated samples will be presented, and the impact of coating thickness, pigment loading, and surface preparation will be discussed.

  16. Knowledge based system for Satellite data product selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, R.; Jayasudha, T.; Pandey, P.; Rama Devi, D.; Rebecca, A.; Manju Sarma, M.; Lakshmi, B.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, the use of satellite data for geospatial applications has multiplied and contributed significantly towards development of the society. Satellite data requirements, in terms of spatial and spectral resolution, periodicity of data, level of correction and other parameters, vary for different applications. For major applications, remote sensing data alone may not suffice and may require additional data like field data. An application user, even though being versatile in his application, may not know which satellite data is best suited for his application, how to use the data and what information can be derived from the data. Remote sensing domain experts have the proficiency of using appropriate data for remote sensing applications. Entrenching domain expertise into the system and building a knowledge base system for satellite data product selection is vital. Non specialist data users need a user-friendly software which guides them to the most suitable satellite data product on the basis of their application. Such tool will aid the usage for apt remote sensed data for various sectors of application users. Additionally, the consumers will be less concerned about the technical particulars of the platforms that provide satellite data, instead focusing on the content and values in the data product, meeting the timelines and ease of access. Embedding knowledge is a popular and effective means of increasing the power of using a system. This paper describes a system, driven by the built-in knowledge of domain experts, for satellite data products selection for geospatial applications.

  17. A prototype of behavior selection mechanism based on emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Zushu

    2007-12-01

    In bionic methodology rather than in design methodology more familiar with, summarizing the psychological researches of emotion, we propose the biologic mechanism of emotion, emotion selection role in creature evolution and a anima framework including emotion similar to the classical control structure; and consulting Prospect Theory, build an Emotion Characteristic Functions(ECF) that computer emotion; two more emotion theories are added to them that higher emotion is preferred and middle emotion makes brain run more efficiently, emotional behavior mechanism comes into being. A simulation of proposed mechanism are designed and carried out on Alife Swarm software platform. In this simulation, a virtual grassland ecosystem is achieved where there are two kinds of artificial animals: herbivore and preyer. These artificial animals execute four types of behavior: wandering, escaping, finding food, finding sex partner in their lives. According the theories of animal ethnology, escaping from preyer is prior to other behaviors for its existence, finding food is secondly important behavior, rating is third one and wandering is last behavior. In keeping this behavior order, based on our behavior characteristic function theory, the specific functions of emotion computing are built of artificial autonomous animals. The result of simulation confirms the behavior selection mechanism.

  18. Vaccine Adjuvants Alter TCR-Based Selection Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Malherbe, Laurent; Mark, Linda; Fazilleau, Nicolas; McHeyzer-Williams, Louise J.; McHeyzer-Williams, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY How TCR specificity evolves in vivo following protein vaccination is central to the development of T helper cell function. Most models of clonal selection in the T helper cell compartment favor TCR affinity-based thresholds. Here, we demonstrate that depot-forming vaccine adjuvants do not require TLR agonists to induce clonal dominance in antigen-specific T helper cell responses. However, readily dispersible adjuvants using TLR-9 and TLR-4 agonists skew TCR repertoire usage by increasing TCR selection thresholds and enhancing antigen-specific clonal expansion. In this manner, vaccine adjuvants control the local accumulation of T helper cells expressing TCR with the highest peptide MHC class II binding. Clonal composition was altered by mechanisms that blocked the local propagation of clonotypes independent of antigen dose and not as a consequence of inter-clonal competition. This capacity of adjuvants to modify antigen-specific Th cell clonal composition has fundamental implications for the design of future protein sub-unit vaccines. PMID:18450485

  19. Duplex-Selective Ruthenium-based DNA Intercalators

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Chad M.; Kennedy, Robert D.; Rouge, Jessica L.; Rosen, Mari S.; Wang, Mary X.; Seo, Soyoung E.; Clingerman, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and synthesis of small molecules that exhibit enhanced luminescence in the presence of duplex rather than single-stranded DNA. The local environment presented by a well-known [Ru(dipyrido[2,3-a:3',2'-c]phenazine)L2]2+-based DNA intercalator was modified by functionalizing the bipyridine ligands with esters and carboxylic acids. By systematically varying the number and charge of the pendant groups, it was determined that decreasing the electrostatic interaction between the intercalator and the anionic DNA backbone reduced single-strand interactions and translated to better duplex specificity. In studying this class of complexes, a single RuII complex emerged that selectively luminesces in the presence of duplex DNA with little to no background from interacting with single stranded DNA. This complex shows promise as a new dye capable of selectively staining double versus single-stranded DNA in gel electrophoresis, which cannot be done with conventional SYBR dyes. PMID:26119581

  20. Perturbation theory for non-spherical fluids based on discretization of the interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gámez, Francisco; Benavides, Ana Laura

    2013-03-01

    An extension of the discrete perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides and A. Gil-Villegas, Mol. Phys. 97(12), 1225 (1999), 10.1080/00268979909482924] accounting for non-spherical interactions is presented. An analytical expression for the Helmholtz free energy for an equivalent discrete potential is given as a function of density, temperature, and intermolecular parameters with implicit shape dependence. The presented procedure is suitable for the description of the thermodynamics of general intermolecular potential models of arbitrary shape. The overlap and dispersion forces are represented by a discrete potential formed by a sequence of square-well and square-shoulders potentials of shape-dependent widths. By varying the intermolecular parameters through their geometrical dependence, some illustrative cases of square-well spherocylinders and Kihara fluids are considered, and their vapor-liquid phase diagrams are tested against available simulation data. It is found that this theoretical approach is able to reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively well the Monte Carlo data for the selected potentials, except near the critical region.

  1. Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

  2. Isotope-selective sensor for medical diagnostics based on PAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M.; Groninga, H. G.; Harde, H.

    2005-06-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Of the permanently increasing number of non-invasive 13C-breath tests, the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is the most prominent. However, many recent developments go beyond gastroenterological applications. We present a new detection scheme for breath analysis that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. Using a wavelength-modulated DFB-diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive isotope-selective measurements on CO2. Detection limits for 13CO2 of a few ppm and for the variation of the 13CO2 concentration of approximately 1% were achieved.

  3. Copper selective adsorption with a microemulsion-based resin

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.H.K.; Burban, J.H.; Cussler, E.L.

    1995-05-01

    Cross-linked terpolymers of allyl acetylacetone, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were synthesized in the oil phase of a bicontinuous microemulsion stabilized with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide. The resulting material is porous, with a surface area of 58 m{sup 2}/dry g. It selectively adsorbs copper, picking up 0.07 meq/dry g from a 0.1-M solution. This is less than the total apparent capacity of 0.65 meq/dry g inferred from titration with base and much less than the amount in conventional, nonselective resins, which is typically 5 meq/dry g. Breakthrough curves in packed beds and across membranes of this material seem consistent with uptake controlled by chemical reaction compromised by dispersion. Nonporous membranes of this material do not show facilitated transport.

  4. Infrared transparent frequency selective surface based on metallic meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Miao; Xu, Nianxi; Liu, Hai; Gao, Jinsong

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents an infrared transparent frequency selective surface (ITFSS) based on metallic meshes. In this ITFSS structure, periodic cross-slot units are integrated on square metallic meshes empowered by coating and UV-lithography. A matching condition is proposed to avoid the distortion of units. Experimental results show that this ITFSS possesses a good transmittance of 80% in the infrared band of 3–5 μm, and also a stable band-pass behavior at the resonance frequency of 36.4 GHz with transmittance of −0.56 dB. Theoretical simulations about the ITFSS diffractive characteristics and frequency responses are also investigated. The novel ITFSS will attract renewed interest and be exploited for applications in various fields.

  5. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow

  6. Measurement of the Density of Base Fluids at Pressures 0.422 to 2.20 Gpa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Jacobson, B. O.; Bergstroem, S. I.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pressure on the density of six base fluids is experimentally studied for a range of pressures from 0.422 to 2.20 GPa. An important parameter used to describe the results is the change in relative volume with change in pressure dv sub r/dp. For pressures less than the solidification pressure (p ps) a small change in pressure results in a large change in dv sub r/ps. For pressures greater than the solidification pressure (p ps) there is no change in dv sub r/dp with changing pressure. The solidification pressures of the base fluids varies considerably, as do the slopes that the experimental data assumes for p ps. A new formula is developed that describes the effect of pressure on density in terms of four constants. These constants vary for the different base fluids tested.

  7. Unsupervised Feature Selection Based on the Morisita Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golay, Jean; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Recent breakthroughs in technology have radically improved our ability to collect and store data. As a consequence, the size of datasets has been increasing rapidly both in terms of number of variables (or features) and number of instances. Since the mechanism of many phenomena is not well known, too many variables are sampled. A lot of them are redundant and contribute to the emergence of three major challenges in data mining: (1) the complexity of result interpretation, (2) the necessity to develop new methods and tools for data processing, (3) the possible reduction in the accuracy of learning algorithms because of the curse of dimensionality. This research deals with a new algorithm for selecting the smallest subset of features conveying all the information of a dataset (i.e. an algorithm for removing redundant features). It is a new version of the Fractal Dimensionality Reduction (FDR) algorithm [1] and it relies on two ideas: (a) In general, data lie on non-linear manifolds of much lower dimension than that of the spaces where they are embedded. (b) The situation describes in (a) is partly due to redundant variables, since they do not contribute to increasing the dimension of manifolds, called Intrinsic Dimension (ID). The suggested algorithm implements these ideas by selecting only the variables influencing the data ID. Unlike the FDR algorithm, it resorts to a recently introduced ID estimator [2] based on the Morisita index of clustering and to a sequential forward search strategy. Consequently, in addition to its ability to capture non-linear dependences, it can deal with large datasets and its implementation is straightforward in any programming environment. Many real world case studies are considered. They are related to environmental pollution and renewable resources. References [1] C. Traina Jr., A.J.M. Traina, L. Wu, C. Faloutsos, Fast feature selection using fractal dimension, in: Proceedings of the XV Brazilian Symposium on Databases, SBBD, pp. 158

  8. A Fluid Membrane-Based Soluble Ligand Display System for Live CellAssays

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Nair, Pradeep N.; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.; Groves, Jay T.

    2005-10-14

    Cell communication modulates numerous biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, invasion and differentiation. Correspondingly, there has been significant interest in the development of surface display strategies for the presentation of signaling molecules to living cells. This effort has primarily focused on naturally surface-bound ligands, such as extracellular matrix components and cell membranes. Soluble ligands (e.g. growth factors and cytokines) play an important role in intercellular communications, and their display in a surface-bound format would be of great utility in the design of array-based live cell assays. Recently, several cell microarray systems that display cDNA, RNAi, or small molecules in a surface array format were proven to be useful in accelerating high-throughput functional genetic studies and screening therapeutic agents. These surface display methods provide a flexible platform for the systematic, combinatorial investigation of genes and small molecules affecting cellular processes and phenotypes of interest. In an analogous sense, it would be an important advance if one could display soluble signaling ligands in a surface assay format that allows for systematic, patterned presentation of soluble ligands to live cells. Such a technique would make it possible to examine cellular phenotypes of interest in a parallel format with soluble signaling ligands as one of the display parameters. Herein we report a ligand-modified fluid supported lipid bilayer (SLB) assay system that can be used to functionally display soluble ligands to cells in situ (Figure 1A). By displaying soluble ligands on a SLB surface, both solution behavior (the ability to become locally enriched by reaction-diffusion processes) and solid behavior (the ability to control the spatial location of the ligands in an open system) could be combined. The method reported herein benefits from the naturally fluid state of the supported membrane, which allows

  9. Pharmaceutical-enantiomers resolution using immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Klerck, Katrijn; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Mangelings, Debby

    2014-02-01

    Since their introduction on the market the applicability of immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases in high-performance liquid chromatography has been thoroughly investigated. These immobilized phases have the benefit to be applicable with a wide range of modifiers, potentially extending the application range of the polysaccharide-based stationary phases. Because an increasing number of stationary phases are being introduced in the field of chiral chromatography it is important to evaluate their enantioselectivity in different techniques in order to get an idea about their applicability. In this study, three immobilized chiral polysaccharide-based stationary phases (Chiralpak IA, IB, and IC) are evaluated in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with a test set of pharmaceutical racemates. This is done in a three-fold manner: their performance is evaluated (1) using traditional modifiers, (2) using mixtures of atypical modifiers, and (3) the results were compared to those on coated stationary phases with an equivalent chiral selector. To get a visual overview of the enantioselective patterns of the different chromatographic systems (mobile and stationary phase combinations), a Principal Component Analysis is performed, which allows determining the (dis)similarity between individual systems. To assess the complementarity cumulative success rates are determined. The immobilized chiral stationary phases prove to yield high cumulative success rates. PMID:24438871

  10. Methods and Compositions Based on Culturing Microorganisms in Low Sedimental Fluid Shear Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Wilson, James W.; Sarker, Shameema; Nauman, Eric A.; Schurr, Michael J.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of applying a low sedimental fluid shear environment to manipulate microorganisms were examined. Microorganisms obtained from a low sedimental fluid shear culture, which exhibit modified phenotypic and molecular genetic characteristics, are useful for the development of novel and improved diagnostics, therapeutics, vaccines, and bio-industrial products. Furthermore, application of low sedimental fluid conditions to microorganisms permits identification of molecules uniquely expressed under these conditions, providing a basis for the design of new therapeutic targets.

  11. Predicting multidimensional annular flow with a locally based two-fluid model

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, S.P.; Edwards, D.P.; Strayer, T.D.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to: develop a methodology to predict annular flows using a multidimensional four-field, two-fluid Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer code; develop closure models which use the CFD predicted local velocities, phasic volume fractions, etc...; implement a numerical method which allows the discretized equations to have the same characteristics as the differential form; and compare predicted results to local flow field data taken in a R-134a working fluid test section.

  12. A cell-based sensor of fluid shear stress for microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sarvesh; Voldman, Joel

    2015-03-21

    Microsystems designed for cell-based studies or applications inherently require fluid handling. Flows within such systems inevitably generate fluid shear stress (FSS) that may adversely affect cell health. Simple assays of cell viability, morphology or growth are typically reported to indicate any gross disturbances to cell physiology. However, no straightforward metric exists to specifically evaluate physiological implications of FSS within microfluidic devices, or among competing microfluidic technologies. This paper presents the first genetically encoded cell sensors that fluoresce in a quantitative fashion upon FSS pathway activation. We picked a widely used cell line (NIH3T3s) and created a transcriptional cell-sensor where fluorescence turns on when transcription of a relevant FSS-induced protein is initiated. Specifically, we chose Early Growth Factor-1 (a mechanosensitive protein) upregulation as the node for FSS detection. We verified our sensor pathway specificity and functionality by noting induced fluorescence in response to chemical induction of the FSS pathway, seen both through microscopy and flow cytometry. Importantly, we found our cell sensors to be inducible by a range of FSS intensities and durations, with a limit of detection of 2 dynes cm(-2) when applied for 30 minutes. Additionally, our cell-sensors proved their versatility by showing induction sensitivity when made to flow through an inertial microfluidic device environment with typical flow conditions. We anticipate these cell sensors to have wide application in the microsystems community, allowing the device designer to engineer systems with acceptable FSS, and enabling the end-user to evaluate the impact of FSS upon their assay of interest. PMID:25648195

  13. Inter-operator Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of Cerebrospinal Fluid Motion in the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryn A; Yiallourou, Theresia I; Pahlavian, Soroush Heidari; Thyagaraj, Suraj; Bunck, Alexander C; Loth, Francis; Sheffer, Daniel B; Kröger, Jan Robert; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    For the first time, inter-operator dependence of MRI based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cervical spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) is evaluated. In vivo MRI flow measurements and anatomy MRI images were obtained at the cervico-medullary junction of a healthy subject and a Chiari I malformation patient. 3D anatomies of the SSS were reconstructed by manual segmentation by four independent operators for both cases. CFD results were compared at nine axial locations along the SSS in terms of hydrodynamic and geometric parameters. Intraclass correlation (ICC) assessed the inter-operator agreement for each parameter over the axial locations and coefficient of variance (CV) compared the percentage of variance for each parameter between the operators. Greater operator dependence was found for the patient (0.19 < ICC < 0.99) near the craniovertebral junction compared to the healthy subject (ICC > 0.78). For the healthy subject, hydraulic diameter and Womersley number had the least variance (CV = ~2%). For the patient, peak diastolic velocity and Reynolds number had the smallest variance (CV = ~3%). These results show a high degree of inter-operator reliability for MRI-based CFD simulations of CSF flow in the cervical spine for healthy subjects and a lower degree of reliability for patients with Type I Chiari malformation. PMID:26446009

  14. Phengite-based chronology of K- and Ba-rich fluid flow in two paleosubduction zones.

    PubMed

    Catlos, E J; Sorensen, S S

    2003-01-01

    Subduction recycles aqueous fluids from slab and sediment to the mantle. Subduction zones are long-lived, but time scales for fluid-rock interaction within subduction complexes are uncertain. Large-ion lithophile elements (potassium and barium) were added to eclogite (subducted basalt) during high pressure/temperature metamorphism via phengite crystallization from subduction zone fluids. Phengite grains from eclogite blocks and their metasomatic selvages yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages across grains and between samples that indicate 25 and 60 million years of fluid-rock interaction in the Samana Complex, Dominican Republic, and the Franciscan Complex, California, respectively. PMID:12511647

  15. Organosiloxane working fluids for the liquid droplet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buch, R. R.; Huntress, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    Siloxane-based working fluids for advanced space radiators requiring direct fluid exposure to the space environment are evaluated. Isolation of five candidate fluids by vacuum distillation from existing siloxane polymers is discussed. The five fluids recovered include a polydimethylsiloxane, three phenyl-containing siloxanes, and a methylhexylsiloxane. Vapor pressures and viscosities for the five fluids are reported over the temperature range of 250 to 400 K. Use of thermal-gravimetric analysis to reliably estimate vapor pressures of 10 to the -8 power Pascals is described. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethylphenylsiloxane (PMPS) are selected from the five candidate fluids based on favorable vapor pressure and viscosity, as well as perceived stability in low-Earth orbit environments. Characterization of these fluids by infrared spectroscopy, Si-29 NMR, gel-permeation chromatography, and liquid chromatography is presented. Both fluids consist of narrow molecular weight distributions, with average molecular weights of about 2500 for PDMS and 1300 for PMPS.

  16. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of selected synthetic cathinones and two piperazines in oral fluid. Cross reactivity study with an on-site immunoassay device.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Ana; Lendoiro, Elena; Fernández-Vega, Hadriana; Steinmeyer, Stefan; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Cruz, Angelines

    2014-12-29

    Since the past few years, several synthetic cathinones and piperazines have been introduced into the drug market to substitute illegal stimulant drugs such as amphetamine and derivatives or cocaine due to their unregulated situation. These emerging drugs are not usually included in routine toxicological analysis. We developed and validated a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of methedrone, methylone, mephedrone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), fluoromethcathinone, fluoromethamphetamine, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) in oral fluid. Sample extraction was performed using Strata X cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 10min using an Atlantis(®) T3 column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm), and formic acid 0.1% and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The method was satisfactorily validated, including selectivity, linearity (0.2-0.5 to 200ng/mL), limits of detection (0.025-0.1ng/mL) and quantification (0.2-0.5ng/mL), imprecision and accuracy in neat oral fluid (%CV=0.0-12.7% and 84.8-103.6% of target concentration, respectively) and in oral fluid mixed with Quantisal™ buffer (%CV=7.2-10.3% and 80.2-106.5% of target concentration, respectively), matrix effect in neat oral fluid (-11.6 to 399.7%) and in oral fluid with Quantisal™ buffer (-69.9 to 131.2%), extraction recovery (87.9-134.3%) and recovery from the Quantisal™ (79.6-107.7%), dilution integrity (75-99% of target concentration) and stability at different conditions (-14.8 to 30.8% loss). In addition, cross reactivity produced by the studied synthetic cathinones in oral fluid using the Dräger DrugTest 5000 was assessed. All the analytes produced a methamphetamine positive result at high concentrations (100 or 10μg/mL), and fluoromethamphetamine also at low concentration (0.075μg/mL). PMID:25482853

  17. Mutual information-based feature selection for radiomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oubel, Estanislao; Beaumont, Hubert; Iannessi, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Background The extraction and analysis of image features (radiomics) is a promising field in the precision medicine era, with applications to prognosis, prediction, and response to treatment quantification. In this work, we present a mutual information - based method for quantifying reproducibility of features, a necessary step for qualification before their inclusion in big data systems. Materials and Methods Ten patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) lesions were followed over time (7 time points in average) with Computed Tomography (CT). Five observers segmented lesions by using a semi-automatic method and 27 features describing shape and intensity distribution were extracted. Inter-observer reproducibility was assessed by computing the multi-information (MI) of feature changes over time, and the variability of global extrema. Results The highest MI values were obtained for volume-based features (VBF). The lesion mass (M), surface to volume ratio (SVR) and volume (V) presented statistically significant higher values of MI than the rest of features. Within the same VBF group, SVR showed also the lowest variability of extrema. The correlation coefficient (CC) of feature values was unable to make a difference between features. Conclusions MI allowed to discriminate three features (M, SVR, and V) from the rest in a statistically significant manner. This result is consistent with the order obtained when sorting features by increasing values of extrema variability. MI is a promising alternative for selecting features to be considered as surrogate biomarkers in a precision medicine context.

  18. Model validation and selection based on inverse fuzzy arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Thomas; Carvajal González, Sergio; Hanss, Michael

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a method for the validation of models in general, and the selection of the most appropriate model in particular, is presented. As an industrially relevant example, a Finite Element (FE) model of a brake pad is investigated and identified with particular respect to uncertainties. The identification is based on inverse fuzzy arithmetic and consists of two stages. In the first stage, the eigenfrequencies of the brake pad are considered, and for three different material models, a set of fuzzy-valued parameters is identified on the basis of measurement values. Based on these identified parameters and a resimulation of the system with these parameters, a model validation is performed which takes into account both the model uncertainties and the output uncertainties. In the second stage, the most appropriate material model is used in the FE model for the computation of frequency response functions between excitation point and three measurement points. Again, the parameters of the model are identified on the basis of three corresponding measurement signals and a resimulation is conducted.

  19. Novel class of highly selective divanillin-based PACs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Arturo N.; Ferreira, Lawrence; Tadros, Sobhy P.; Sizensky, Joseph J.; Fregeolle, M.; Blakeney, Andrew J.; Toukhy, Medhat A.

    1996-06-01

    A new class of diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) photoactive compounds (PACs) based on the divanillin core is introduced in this paper. The general structure of these PAC backbones is shown in Formula 1. The divanillin structure possesses unique electronic characteristics which influence its DNQ-SO2Cl esterification reactions to be highly selective. The most reactive site for esterification in Formula 1 is one of the divanillin hydroxyls despite the typically higher steric hindrance. Surprisingly, the esterification product is then significantly deactivated towards esterification at the other previously equivalent divanillin OH. The result of using 3 equivalents of DNQ-SO2Cl to esterify tetraphenolic species is the formation of high percentages of the specific triester in which the second divanillyl OH remains unesterified. The deactivation of the second divanillin OH after the initial esterification indicates some interaction between the two o,o-biphenol rings despite its inability to be coplanar for conjugation of (pi) electrons because of steric hindrance. Possible explanations for this interaction are explored using molecular simulation tools. Diverse members of the divanillin PAC family have been prepared from phenols of varying structure and hydrophobicities. These PACs were tested lithographically and the results correlated with PAC backbone structure. The characteristic dissolution rate behavior of the resist formulations based on triesterified PACs, measured as a function of exposure dose, generally show high discrimination and strong inhibition, even with the more hydrophilic PACs. These formulations typically exhibited high resolution, wide focus latitude, and exposure margins greater than 2.0 in lithographic screening.

  20. A GIS-based methodology for selecting stormwater disconnection opportunities.

    PubMed

    Moore, S L; Stovin, V R; Wall, M; Ashley, R M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a geographic information system (GIS)-based decision support tool that assists the user to select not only areas where (retrofit) sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) could be implemented within a large catchment (>100 ha), but also to allow discrimination between suitable SuDS techniques based on their likely feasibility and effectiveness. The tool is applied to a case study catchment within London, UK, with the aim of increasing receiving water quality by reducing combined sewer overflow (CSO) spill frequency and volume. The key benefit of the tool presented is to allow rapid assessment of the retrofit SuDS potential of large catchments. It is not intended to replace detailed site investigations, but may help to direct attention to sites that have the greatest potential for retrofit SuDS implementation. Preliminary InfoWorks CS modelling of 'global disconnections' within the case study catchment, e.g. the removal of 50% of the total impervious area, showed that CSO spill volume could be reduced by 55 to 78% during a typical year. Using the disconnection hierarchy developed by the authors, the feasibility of retrofit SuDS deployment within the case study catchment is assessed, and the implications discussed. PMID:22699330

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of bovine ovarian follicular fluid at four selected times of the oestrous cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sarty, Gordon E.; Kendall, Edward J.; Adams, Gregg P.; Pierson, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral features of ovarian follicular fluid were correlated with the physiological status of follicles so that we could assess the feasibility of using NMR spectroscopy during assisted reproduction therapy. Thirty-five sexually mature, nullparious heifers were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to assess their follicle wave status during the oestrous cycle. Ovariectomies were performed on Day 3 of wave 1 (D3W1, n = 10), Day 6 of wave 1 (D6W1, n = 9), Day 1 of wave 2 (D1W2, n = 9), or in the immediate preovulatory period of at least 17 days after ovulation (D ≥ 17, n = 9). Follicle status was determined to be dominant or subordinate. Follicular fluid was extracted from the follicles and NMR spectra were collected. Principal components were extracted from ratios of line amplitudes and tested for effects of follicle status (dominant v. subordinate) and cycle time point (D1W3, D1W6, D1W2 and D ≥ 17) using multivariate analysis of variance. For most line ratio combinations, main effects of status, time point and their interaction were found (P < 0.05). We concluded that NMR spectra may be used for the determination of ovarian follicle physiological status. PMID:16836963

  2. Magnetically modulated refractive index of a magnetic fluid film based on cigar-shaped ferrite submicron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormile, P.; Petti, L.; Rippa, M.; Guo, J.; Song, W.; Zhou, J.

    2010-10-01

    Light beam propagation at a prism-magnetic fluid film interface is experimentally studied. The magnetic fluid is made through dispersion of synthesized cigar-shaped sub-micron particles of Fe2O3 in an oil solution. This was injected into a glass cell with an active area of 10mm2 and a depth ranging from 10 microns to 30 microns whose base is a glass microscope slide and on the top it was covered with a glass prism. The set up was developed by one of the authors to measure light switching at a prism-liquid crystal interface in a previous publication.1 Polarized Light (TE or TM) from a He-Ne laser impinges at the prism-magnetic film interface. The external reflected light is detected by a photodiode connected to a data acquisition system. Since the properties of the magnetic fluid can be modulated by external magnetic fields, we investigated the effects of the magnetic field on the refractive index of the magnetic fluid. For our magnetic fluid, the reflection of light has been investigated as a function of particles concentration and thickness of the films with a wavelength of 633nm and both TE and TM polarization, and applied magnetic fields up to 25 Oe. It was found that the intensity of reflected light increases with increasing magnetic field up to 4 times the initial value, and saturates at 20 Oe for TE light, while decreases with increasing magnetic field up to 4 times less for TM light with the same saturation value. Moreover, under a given magnetic field, the output light increases with the increasing film thickness in TE polarization, and decreases with the increasing film thickness in TM case. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid depends on the concentration of the dilute oil-based magnetic fluid under zero field. These behaviors are explained in terms of the organization of the submicron particles when the magnetic field is applied.2 The cigar-shaped sub-micron particles are oriented along their long axis to form an organized mesostructure. The

  3. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework. PMID:25594487

  4. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  5. Teaching topography-based and selection-based verbal behavior to developmentally disabled individuals: Some considerations

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Esther

    1993-01-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication systems are widely recommended for nonvocal developmentally disabled individuals, with selection-based systems becoming increasingly popular. However, theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that topography-based communication systems are easier to learn. This paper discusses research relevant to the ease of acquisition of topography-based and selection-based systems. Additionally, current practices for choosing and designing communication systems are reviewed in order to investigate the extent to which links have been made with available theoretical and experimental knowledge. A stimulus equivalence model is proposed as a clearer direction for practitioners to follow when planning a communication training program. Suggestions for future research are also offered. PMID:22477085

  6. Laboratory development and field application of a novel water-based drill-in fluid for geopressured horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.W.; Harrison, J.C.; Hale, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Research has identified a novel water-based drill-in fluid for drilling and completing geopressured horizontal wells. This fluid has a unique combination of properties which make it especially suitable for geopressured applications. They include the use of calcium and/or zinc bromide as a base brine, minimal concentration of calcium carbonate as bridging material, low plastic viscosity, tight fluid loss control, good filter cake properties, and excellent return permeability. This drill-in fluid has been used successfully to drill a 1,200 foot production interval, 4.75 inch diameter wellbore in the Gulf of Mexico with a system weight of 13.2 lbm/gal, bottom hole temperature of 185{degrees} F., and a 1400 to 1700 psi overbalance. The system functioned very well in both the drilling and completion operations. Fluid rheology was easily maintainable and the hole conditions were excellent without torque or drag problems. Initial production data suggests that the well is producing at expected rates with low drawdown pressure.

  7. Prospects of Supercritical Fluids in Realizing Graphene-Based Functional Materials.

    PubMed

    Padmajan Sasikala, Suchithra; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical-fluids science and technology predate all the approaches that are currently established for graphene production by several decades in advanced materials design. However, it has only recently been proposed as a plausible approach for graphene processing. Since then, supercritical fluids have emerged into contention as an alternative to existing technologies because of their scalability and versatility in processing graphene materials, which include composites, aerogels, and foams. Here, an overview is presented of such materials prepared through supercritical fluids from an advanced materials science standpoint, with a discussion on their fundamental properties and technological applications. The benefits of supercritical-fluid processing over conventional liquid-phase processing are presented. The benefits include not only better performances for advanced applications but also environmental issues associated with the synthesis process. Nevertheless, the limitations of supercritical-fluid processing are also stressed, along with challenges that are still faced toward the achievement of the great expectations from graphene materials. PMID:26879938

  8. Recent advances in quantitative analysis of fluid interfaces in multiphase fluid flow measured by synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, S.; Sheppard, A.; Wildenschild, D.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging of fluid interfaces in three-dimensional porous media via x-ray microtomography is an efficient means to test thermodynamically derived predictions on the relationship between capillary pressure, fluid saturation and specific interfacial area (Pc-Sw-Anw) in partially saturated porous media. Various experimental studies exist to date that validate the uniqueness of the Pc-Sw-Anw relationship under static conditions and with current technological progress direct imaging of moving interfaces under dynamic conditions is also becoming available. Image acquisition and subsequent image processing currently involves many steps each prone to operator bias, like merging different scans of the same sample obtained at different beam energies into a single image or the generation of isosurfaces from the segmented multiphase image on which the interface properties are usually calculated. We demonstrate that with recent advancements in (i) image enhancement methods, (ii) multiphase segmentation methods and (iii) methods of structural analysis we can considerably decrease the time and cost of image acquisition and the uncertainty associated with the measurement of interfacial properties. In particular, we highlight three notorious problems in multiphase image processing and provide efficient solutions for each: (i) Due to noise, partial volume effects, and imbalanced volume fractions, automated histogram-based threshold detection methods frequently fail. However, these impairments can be mitigated with modern denoising methods, special treatment of gray value edges and adaptive histogram equilization, such that most of the standard methods for threshold detection (Otsu, fuzzy c-means, minimum error, maximum entropy) coincide at the same set of values. (ii) Partial volume effects due to blur may produce apparent water films around solid surfaces that alter the specific fluid-fluid interfacial area (Anw) considerably. In a synthetic test image some local segmentation methods

  9. [Experimental studies on the influence of selected preparations on secretion of tear fluid. II: Light and transmission electron microscopy].

    PubMed

    Oleszczyńska-Prost, E

    1994-01-01

    In the paper the influence of ambroxol, bethanechol, mesna and bromhexine hydrochloride on the morphologic appearance of the lacrimal glands in rabbits was studied with the use of light and transmission electron microscopy. The examination of the lacrimal glands in light microscopy has shown in comparison with the control group an increase in the number of secretory granules in rabbit glands after treatment with different drugs. In electron microscopy in animals, after treatment, much more prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum with a considerable distention of the cisternae and increase of the number of secretory granules in the cytoplasm of the cells were seen. The greatest stimulation of the production of tear fluid was observed after treatment with mesna. Nearly similar results were obtained after bethanechol and slightly worse after ambroxol. The least potent drug was bromhexine. PMID:7915766

  10. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa-Santillán, Liliana I.; Sánchez-Escobar, Juan J.; Calixto-Romo, M. Angeles; Barbosa-Santillán, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP) approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides). Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2). ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2. PMID:27366202

  11. Bayesian Model Selection with Network Based Diffusion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Andrew; Hoppitt, William J E

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have used Network Based Diffusion Analysis (NBDA) to detect the role of social transmission in the spread of a novel behavior through a population. In this paper we present a unified framework for performing NBDA in a Bayesian setting, and demonstrate how the Watanabe Akaike Information Criteria (WAIC) can be used for model selection. We present a specific example of applying this method to Time to Acquisition Diffusion Analysis (TADA). To examine the robustness of this technique, we performed a large scale simulation study and found that NBDA using WAIC could recover the correct model of social transmission under a wide range of cases, including under the presence of random effects, individual level variables, and alternative models of social transmission. This work suggests that NBDA is an effective and widely applicable tool for uncovering whether social transmission underpins the spread of a novel behavior, and may still provide accurate results even when key model assumptions are relaxed. PMID:27092089

  12. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Santillán, Liliana I; Sánchez-Escobar, Juan J; Calixto-Romo, M Angeles; Barbosa-Santillán, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP) approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides). Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2). ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2. PMID:27366202

  13. Terahertz wave filter based on frequency-selective surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chao; Li, Jiu-sheng

    2011-11-01

    Terahertz radiations, which refer to the frequencies from 100GHz to 10THz, lie in the frequency gap between the infrared and microwave, have received considerable attention during the past decades. Due to their special prosperties, THz radiations have been applied in many fields such as gases, semiconductors, explosives materials, and environment pollutants. The technique is based on recording the time dependence of the electric field of a short electromagnetic pulse transmitted through a sample. The ratio of the Fourier transforms of the data recorded with and without the sample yields the complex transmission coefficient of the sample in the frequency domain. The absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the material studied are directly related to the amplitude and phase respectively of the transmitted field. Terahertz wave filter, a frequency-selective surface structure, has been characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the region from 0.1 to 3THz. We have compared THz-TDS measurement and calculation results of the mode-matching theory of the terahertz wave filter, and find that the two data sets agree very closely. The peak of the transmittance of about 90.5%occurs at 0.45THz for the first case and the peak of the transmittance of about 89.4% occurs at 0.79THz for the second case.

  14. Towards an Automatic and Application-Based EigensolverSelection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yeliang; Li, Xiaoye S.; Marques, Osni

    2005-09-09

    The computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is an important and often time-consuming phase in computer simulations. Recent efforts in the development of eigensolver libraries have given users good algorithms without the need for users to spend much time in programming. Yet, given the variety of numerical algorithms that are available to domain scientists, choosing the ''best'' algorithm suited for a particular application is a daunting task. As simulations become increasingly sophisticated and larger, it becomes infeasible for a user to try out every reasonable algorithm configuration in a timely fashion. Therefore, there is a need for an intelligent engine that can guide the user through the maze of various solvers with various configurations. In this paper, we present a methodology and a software architecture aiming at determining the best solver based on the application type and the matrix properties. We combine a decision tree and an intelligent engine to select a solver and a preconditioner combination for the application submitted by the user. We also discuss how our system interface is implemented with third party numerical libraries. In the case study, we demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of our system with a simplified linear solving system. Our experiments show that our proposed intelligent engine is quite adept in choosing a suitable algorithm for different applications.

  15. Bayesian predictive modeling for genomic based personalized treatment selection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junsheng; Stingo, Francesco C; Hobbs, Brian P

    2016-06-01

    Efforts to personalize medicine in oncology have been limited by reductive characterizations of the intrinsically complex underlying biological phenomena. Future advances in personalized medicine will rely on molecular signatures that derive from synthesis of multifarious interdependent molecular quantities requiring robust quantitative methods. However, highly parameterized statistical models when applied in these settings often require a prohibitively large database and are sensitive to proper characterizations of the treatment-by-covariate interactions, which in practice are difficult to specify and may be limited by generalized linear models. In this article, we present a Bayesian predictive framework that enables the integration of a high-dimensional set of genomic features with clinical responses and treatment histories of historical patients, providing a probabilistic basis for using the clinical and molecular information to personalize therapy for future patients. Our work represents one of the first attempts to define personalized treatment assignment rules based on large-scale genomic data. We use actual gene expression data acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas in the settings of leukemia and glioma to explore the statistical properties of our proposed Bayesian approach for personalizing treatment selection. The method is shown to yield considerable improvements in predictive accuracy when compared to penalized regression approaches. PMID:26575856

  16. Terahertz wave filter based on frequency-selective surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chao; Li, Jiu-sheng

    2012-03-01

    Terahertz radiations, which refer to the frequencies from 100GHz to 10THz, lie in the frequency gap between the infrared and microwave, have received considerable attention during the past decades. Due to their special prosperties, THz radiations have been applied in many fields such as gases, semiconductors, explosives materials, and environment pollutants. The technique is based on recording the time dependence of the electric field of a short electromagnetic pulse transmitted through a sample. The ratio of the Fourier transforms of the data recorded with and without the sample yields the complex transmission coefficient of the sample in the frequency domain. The absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the material studied are directly related to the amplitude and phase respectively of the transmitted field. Terahertz wave filter, a frequency-selective surface structure, has been characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the region from 0.1 to 3THz. We have compared THz-TDS measurement and calculation results of the mode-matching theory of the terahertz wave filter, and find that the two data sets agree very closely. The peak of the transmittance of about 90.5%occurs at 0.45THz for the first case and the peak of the transmittance of about 89.4% occurs at 0.79THz for the second case.

  17. Feature-based attention across saccades and immediate postsaccadic selection.

    PubMed

    Eymond, Cécile; Cavanagh, Patrick; Collins, Thérèse

    2016-07-01

    Before each eye movement, attentional resources are drawn to the saccade goal. This saccade-related attention is known to be spatial in nature, and in this study we asked whether it also evokes any feature selectivity that is maintained across the saccade. After a saccade toward a colored target, participants performed a postsaccadic feature search on an array displayed at landing. The saccade target either had the same color as the search target in the postsaccadic array (congruent trials) or a different color (incongruent or neutral trials). Our results show that the color of the saccade target did not prime the subsequent feature search. This suggests that "landmark search", the process of searching for the saccade target once the eye lands (Deubel in Visual Cognition, 11, 173-202, 2004), may not involve the attentional mechanisms that underlie feature search. We also analyzed intertrial effects and observed priming of pop-out (Maljkovic & Nakayama in Memory & Cognition, 22, 657-672, 1994) for the postsaccadic feature search: the detection of the color singleton became faster when its color was repeated on successive trials. However, search performance revealed no effect of congruency between the saccade and search targets, either within or across trials, suggesting that the priming of pop-out is specific to target repetitions within the same task and is not seen for repetitions across tasks. Our results support a dissociation between feature-based attention and the attentional mechanisms associated with eye movement programming. PMID:27084700

  18. Bayesian Model Selection with Network Based Diffusion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Andrew; Hoppitt, William J. E.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have used Network Based Diffusion Analysis (NBDA) to detect the role of social transmission in the spread of a novel behavior through a population. In this paper we present a unified framework for performing NBDA in a Bayesian setting, and demonstrate how the Watanabe Akaike Information Criteria (WAIC) can be used for model selection. We present a specific example of applying this method to Time to Acquisition Diffusion Analysis (TADA). To examine the robustness of this technique, we performed a large scale simulation study and found that NBDA using WAIC could recover the correct model of social transmission under a wide range of cases, including under the presence of random effects, individual level variables, and alternative models of social transmission. This work suggests that NBDA is an effective and widely applicable tool for uncovering whether social transmission underpins the spread of a novel behavior, and may still provide accurate results even when key model assumptions are relaxed. PMID:27092089

  19. Fabrication and characterization of mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/polypyrrole-based nanocomposite for electrorheological fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Chuan; Zhu Yihua Jin Yi; Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong

    2008-12-01

    Mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/polypyrrole (PPy)-based nanocomposite for electrorheological fluid was synthesized through one-pot method. By exploiting the combination conductivity of PPy and high dielectric constant of TiO{sub 2}, the ER fluid exhibited an enhanced effect. The shear stress was 3.3 times as high as that of mesoporous TiO{sub 2}. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the as-made samples. Using a modified rotational viscometer, the electrorheological effect was measured. Dielectric spectra were also given to explain the mechanism.

  20. Sagittal acoustic waves in finite solid-fluid superlattices: Band-gap structure, surface and confined modes, and omnidirectional reflection and selective transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hassouani, Y.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Aynaou, H.

    2008-11-01

    Using a Green’s function method, we present a comprehensive theoretical analysis of the propagation of sagittal acoustic waves in superlattices (SLs) made of alternating elastic solid and ideal fluid layers. This structure may exhibit very narrow pass bands separated by large stop bands. In comparison with solid-solid SLs, we show that the band gaps originate both from the periodicity of the system (Bragg-type gaps) and the transmission zeros induced by the presence of the solid layers immersed in the fluid. The width of the band gaps strongly depends on the thickness and the contrast between the elastic parameters of the two constituting layers. In addition to the usual crossing of subsequent bands, solid-fluid SLs may present a closing of the bands, giving rise to large gaps separated by flat bands for which the group velocity vanishes. Also, we give an analytical expression that relates the density of states and the transmission and reflection group delay times in finite-size systems embedded between two fluids. In particular, we show that the transmission zeros may give rise to a phase drop of π in the transmission phase, and therefore, a negative delta peak in the delay time when the absorption is taken into account in the system. A rule on the confined and surface modes in a finite SL made of N cells with free surfaces is demonstrated, namely, there are always N-1 modes in the allowed bands, whereas there is one and only one mode corresponding to each band gap. Finally, we present a theoretical analysis of the occurrence of omnidirectional reflection in a layered media made of alternating solid and fluid layers. We discuss the conditions for such a structure to exhibit total reflection of acoustic incident waves in a given frequency range for all incident angles. Also, we show how this structure can be used as an acoustic filter that may transmit selectively certain frequencies within the omnidirectional gaps. In particular, we show the possibility of

  1. Wireline fluid sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, J.; Moody, M.; Shwe, T.

    1995-12-31

    Accurate PVT data are crucial to well completion and production, formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. This is especially true for initial reservoir characterization where the PVF sample needs to be obtained prior to production. It is essential that the fluid sample be recovered as closely as possible to in-situ conditions whether by drill stem or wireline formation for. The need to remove drilling mud filtrate prior to collecting a sample has been widely recognized. Wireline testers which can pump fluid from a formation until filtrate is reduced to a minimum overcome this problem. While reducing sample contamination has been addressed, little emphasis has been placed on the need to control inlet pressure during filtrate removal or during sampling. Reducing contamination is important; however, there is equal need to determine the critical sampling pressure. The purpose is to prevent phase separation in the formation by regulating the sampling process based on this information and thereby obtain a more representative reservoir fluid sample. A recently introduced wireline instrument provides the capability of measuring the critical pressure prior to sampling, of controlling the sample pressure and of increasing the pressure in the sample container to compensate for temperature decline during delivery of that sample to a testing laboratory. Example of pressure tests while pumping and during pressure buildup are presented along with indicated sample properties. Introduction Wireline Formation Testers (WFT) provide an cost effective means to determine pressure as a function of depth and to recover samples of fluid from formations at selected depths. No other method can provide this type of information. Pressure data are used to estimate mobility, fluid contact and fluid density.

  2. Magnetorheological fluids based on a hyperbranched polycarbosilane matrix and iron microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, V. G.; Sheremetyeva, N. A.; Buzin, M. I.; Turenko, D. V.; Papkov, V. S.; Klepikov, I. A.; Razumovskaya, I. V.; Muzafarov, A. M.; Kramarenko, E. Yu

    2016-05-01

    Magnetorheological fluids (MFs) based on hyperbranched polycarbosilanes as a carrier medium and micron-sized carbonyl iron particles as filler have been synthesized for the first time. Their magnetorheological (MR) behavior has been studied in steady-state flow regime and under dynamic torsion oscillations on a commercial rheometer. At zero magnetic field, in spite of a rather high molecular mass, the hyperbranched polymers as well as their magnetic compositions with up to 72 mass% of magnetic filler demonstrate Newtonian behavior, and their viscosity considerably increases with magnetic filler content. In magnetic fields MFs show a huge MR response. Namely, in steady-state flow experiments a five orders of magnitude increase in viscosity was observed accompanied by magnetic-field-induced well-pronounced non-Newtonian behavior and a non-zero yield stress. Dynamic experiments demonstrate the transition from liquid-like to solid-like behavior of MFs with a large increase in both the storage and loss moduli under application of a magnetic field. In magnetic fields, the rheological behavior of the obtained MF resembles that of soft MR elastomers being mainly determined by the magnetic particle network formed due to magnetic interactions. In particular, like MR elastomers the MFs exhibit the Payne effect, i.e. dependence of the dynamic modulus on the strain amplitude.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics based Fault Simulations of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoo-seon; Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh

    2012-05-01

    Due to depleting fossil fuels and a rapid increase in the fuel prices globally, the search for alternative energy sources is becoming more and more significant. One of such energy source is the wind energy which can be harnessed with the use of wind turbines. The fundamental principle of wind turbines is to convert the wind energy into first mechanical and then into electrical form. The relatively simple operation of such turbines has stirred the researchers to come up with innovative designs for global acceptance and to make these turbines commercially viable. Furthermore, the maintenance of wind turbines has long been a topic of interest. Condition based monitoring of wind turbines is essential to maintain continuous operation of wind turbines. The present work focuses on the difference in the outputs of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) under different operational conditions. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique has been used for various blade configurations of a VAWT. The results indicate that there is significant degradation in the performance output of wind turbines as the number of blades broken or missing from the VAWT increases. The study predicts the faults in the blades of VAWTs by monitoring its output.

  4. European cerebrospinal fluid consensus group--a TeamRoom (Lotus Notes)-based communication network.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P; Reiber, H; Brennan, C

    2000-08-01

    A group of clinical neurochemists from all over Europe used TeamRoom to share information and to trace their discussions in a computer network. TeamRoom is a Lotus Notes based groupware tool enabling collaboration amongst geographically dispersed teams. As a result of this work a picture is emerging in the virtual TeamRoom space that represents a new kind of consensus in the use of cerebrospinal fluid analysis for diagnosis of neurological diseases. This kind of consensus differs from the conventional written report in giving a more complex and potentially richer representation of the field, in which both common views and minority perspectives are revealed. If direct access to this work is made available to other clinical neurochemists for consultation via a website, they may see their own practice in a wider context. This approach to improving different evolving traditions is more suitable for a global multicultural environment than a singular view of best practice produced by a more traditional process of group discussion. We refer to the benefits of a mixture of face to face meetings, collaboration in TeamRoom and teleconferencing for work in a non-hierarchical, multicultural and multilingual group. We suggest that the TeamRoom concept is a valuable model for enhancing self-organized harmonization across the developing European Union. PMID:11071068

  5. Shear time dependent viscosity of polystyrene-ethylacrylate based shear thickening fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qian; Xuan, Shouhu; Jiang, Wanquan; Cao, Saisai; Gong, Xinglong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of the shear rate and shear time on the transient viscosity of polystyrene-ethylacrylate based shear thickening fluid (STF) is investigated. If the shear rate is stepwise changed, it is found that both the viscosity and critical shear rate are affected by the shear time. Above the critical shear rate, the viscosity of the STF with larger power law exponent (n) increases faster. However, the viscosity tends to decrease when the shear time is long enough. This phenomenon can be responsible for the reversible structure buildup and the break-down process. An effective volume fraction (EVF) mechanism is proposed to analyze the shear time dependent viscosity and it is found that viscosity changes in proportion to EVF. To further clarify the structure evolution, a structural kinetic model is studied because the structural kinetic parameter (λ) could describe the variation in the effective volume fraction. The theoretical results of the structural kinetic model agree well with the experimental results. With this model, the change in viscosity and EVF can be speculated from the variation of λ and then the structure evolution can be better illustrated.

  6. Standard and high-throughput microfluidic disposables based on laminar fluid diffusion interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Morris, Chris; Kesler, Natasa; Battrell, Fred; Bardell, Ron L.

    2002-06-01

    Laminar Fluid Diffusion Interfaces are generated when tow or more streams flow in parallel in a microfluidic structure. This technology can be used for diffusion-based separation and detection applications, for example: DNA desalting, the extraction of small proteins from whole-blood samples, and the detection of various constituents in while blood. Additional applications are the establishment of stable concentration gradients, and the exposure of chemical constituents or biological particles to these concentration gradients, enabling the uniform and controlled exposure of cells to lysing agents, allowing the differentiation of cells by their sensitivity to specific agents in an on-chip cytometer coupled directly to the lysing structure. We have developed integrated systems using machine-controlled disposable cartridges and passive self-contained disposable cards including particle separators, flow cytometers, valves, detection channels, mixers, and diluters that are used in a hematology analyzer, stand-alone blood plasma separators, and a variety of chemical and biological assays. Microfluidic arrays compatible with common well-plate formats have been designed for high-throughout toxicology screening applications. All these devices were manufactured using Micronics' unique rapid-prototyping process yielding low-cost plastic disposable microfluidic chips.

  7. Hemodynamics in stented vertebral artery ostial stenosis based on computational fluid dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aike; Dai, Xuan; Niu, Jing; Jiao, Liqun

    2016-08-01

    Hemodynamic factors may affect the potential occurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after intervention procedure of vertebral artery ostial stenosis (VAOS). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of stent protrusion length in implantation strategy on the local hemodynamics of the VAOS. CTA images of a 58-year-old female patient with posterior circulation transient ischemic attack were used to perform a 3D reconstruction of the vertebral artery. Five models of the vertebral artery before and after the stent implantation were established. Model 1 was without stent implantation, Model 2-5 was with stent protruding into the subclavian artery for 0, 1, 2, 3 mm, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics simulations based on finite element analysis were employed to mimic the blood flow in arteries and to assess hemodynamic conditions, particularly the blood flow velocity and wall shear stress (WSS). The WSS and the blood flow velocity at the vertebral artery ostium were reduced by 85.33 and 35.36% respectively after stents implantation. The phenomenon of helical flow disappeared. Hemodynamics comparison showed that stent struts that protruded 1 mm into the subclavian artery induced the least decrease in blood speed and WSS. The results suggest that stent implantation can improve the hemodynamics of VAOS, while stent struts that had protruded 1 mm into the subclavian artery would result in less thrombogenesis and neointimal hyperplasia and most likely decrease the risk of ISR. PMID:26691981

  8. Lateral aggregation induced by magnetic perturbations in a magnetorheological fluid based on non-Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, R E; Donado, F; Arauz-Lara, J L

    2013-09-01

    A study of lateral aggregation, induced by an oscillatory field, in a magnetorheological fluid based on non-Brownian magnetic particles is presented. We investigate the behavior of chains formed by the particles, due to the simultaneous application of a static magnetic field and a sinusoidal magnetic field transverse to each other. We show that the effective oscillating field enhances the aggregation process. We discuss this result in terms of an effective particle concentration induced by the oscillating field when chains oscillate angularly and sweep the area around them. The oscillating field produces a lateral aggregation similar to that observed in systems composed of Brownian particles which is induced by thermal fluctuations. We study the effect of the oscillating field on the angular amplitude described by single chains. It is observed that the angular amplitude decreases as the frequency of the oscillating field increases; we discuss this behavior numerically in terms of a simple model for this system. Lateral aggregation is studied in detail in isolated pairs of chains of equal length at several conditions of separation and displacement. From the results, a phase diagram is obtained showing the conditions under which aggregation is possible. PMID:24125266

  9. Trajectory-based modeling of fluid transport in a medium with smoothly varying heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasco, D. W.; Pride, Steven R.; Commer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Using an asymptotic methodology, valid in the presence of smoothly varying heterogeneity and prescribed boundaries, we derive a trajectory-based solution for tracer transport. The analysis produces a Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation for the phase of the propagating tracer front. The trajectories follow from the characteristic equations that are equivalent to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The paths are determined by the fluid velocity field, the total porosity, and the dispersion tensor. Due to their dependence upon the local hydrodynamic dispersion, they differ from conventional streamlines. This difference is borne out in numerical calculations for both uniform and dipole flow fields. In an application to the computational X-ray imaging of a saline tracer test, we illustrate that the trajectories may serve as the basis for a form of tracer tomography. In particular, we use the onset time of a change in attenuation for each volume element of the X-ray image as a measure of the arrival time of the saline tracer. The arrival times are used to image the spatial variation of the effective hydraulic conductivity within the laboratory sample.

  10. Teaching statics of fluids in bioengineering: a multidisciplinary proposal based on competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alborch, A.; Puzzella, A.; Lopez, N.; Cabrera, L.; Zabala, A.; Demartini, H.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this work is to share the findings of an educational experience undertaken by first-year university students of bioengineering, oriented towards the model of Competence-based Education. Different aspects on integrative education pursued in the subject goals are explicitly focused here by designing a strategy within a contextualized and multidisciplinary approach that combines knowledge from Physics, Chemistry and Biology. The topic chosen for the work is Static of Fluids, because it allows relating pressure to its biological effects on human beings. After evaluating a pre-test, new interrelated strategies are implemented. Due to the motivation audiovisuals generate in adolescents, we start showing an argumentative film entitled 'The Big Blue', and continue with different individual and/or group activities, finishing with a post-test to assess the development of the competences proposed. Results are encouraging as regards the level of specific competences acquired and, complementarily, basic and professional competences in general. Besides, the experience met expectations as regards student motivation, interest and commitment to learning, which ensured the path taken by the academicians by means of implementing innovative strategies.

  11. Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  12. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  13. Numerical simulation of blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumor microcirculation based on tumor-induced angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gaiping; Wu, Jie; Xu, Shixiong; Collins, M. W.; Long, Quan; König, Carola S.; Jiang, Yuping; Wang, Jian; Padhani, A. R.

    2007-10-01

    A coupled intravascular transvascular interstitial fluid flow model is developed to study the distributions of blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumor microcirculation based on a tumor-induced microvascular network. This is generated from a 2D nine-point discrete mathematical model of tumor angiogenesis and contains two parent vessels. Blood flow through the microvascular network and interstitial fluid flow in tumor tissues are performed by the extended Poiseuille’s law and Darcy’s law, respectively, transvascular flow is described by Starling’s law; effects of the vascular permeability and the interstitial hydraulic conductivity are also considered. The simulation results predict the heterogeneous blood supply, interstitial hypertension and low convection on the inside of the tumor, which are consistent with physiological observed facts. These results may provide beneficial information for anti-angiogenesis treatment of tumor and further clinical research.

  14. Determining the Capacity of Time-Based Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Derrick G.; Kunar, Melina A.

    2012-01-01

    In visual search, a set of distractor items can be suppressed from future selection if they are presented (previewed) before a second set of search items arrive. This "visual marking" mechanism provides a top-down way of prioritizing the selection of new stimuli, at the expense of old stimuli already in the field (Watson & Humphreys, 1997).…

  15. Association-Based Genomic Selection in Cultivated Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In genomic selection, the effects of all markers are estimated on a training data set with marker genotypes and trait phenotypes. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) are then calculated for any genotyped individual. We evaluated genomic selection using marker data from barley to determine, at m...

  16. Disposable nitrate-selective optical sensor based on fluorescent dye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, disposable thin-film optical nitrate sensor was developed. The sensor was fabricated by applying a nitrate-selective polymer membrane on the surface of a thin polyester film. The membrane was composed of polyvinylchloride (PVC), plasticizer, fluorescent dye, and nitrate-selective ionophore...

  17. Improved HBT performance by base width reduction and selective extrinsic base regrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Yue-Ming

    Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have many advantages, including high current gain, low base resistance, and high cutoff frequency (fsb{T}). For the further improvement of HBT performance, it is worthwhile to scale down device dimensions (in both vertical and lateral directions). The objective of this dissertation is to improve HBT performance by (1) using very thin base layers (down to 200A) which provide higher current gain and higher cutoff frequency; and (2) regrowing extrinsic base layers which provide lower base resistance and higher fsb{max}. This objective has been implemented by using very thin base width HBTs followed by extrinsic base regrowth to retain the advantages of thin base layers. One of the difficulties in lateral scaling of HBTs is associated with recombination at the edges of the emitter, which leads to reduced current gain in small devices. HBTs with base layer thickness scaled down to 200A were found to have both base surface recombination current and base bulk recombination current significantly lower than in comparable devices with greater base width. Base width reduction also reduces base transit time and thus increases fsb{T}. Undesirable side effects from base width reduction are increased base resistance and difficulty in accessing the thin base layer. It is shown this processing difficulty can be alleviated by using InGaP/GaAs layers to form HBTs instead of AlGaAs/GaAs layers, because of the excellent etching selectivity possible between InGaP and GaAs. Also fabricated InGaP/GaAs HBTs demonstrate significantly lower surface recombination current, since with selective etching solution the InGaP emitter layer can be removed, but etching stops on the thin GaAs base layer, resulting in less exposed base-emitter junction area. But thin base InGaP/GaAs HBTs still suffer from high base resistance. The problems of high base resistance and processing difficulty can be eliminated simultaneously by using external base regrowth to reduce

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Culture Positivity and Clinical Outcomes After Amphotericin-Based Induction Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Rolfes, Melissa A; Rhein, Joshua; Schutz, Charlotte; Taseera, Kabanda; Nabeta, Henry W; Huppler Hullsiek, Kathy; Akampuira, Andrew; Rajasingham, Radha; Musubire, Abdu; Williams, Darlisha A; Thienemann, Friedrich; Bohjanen, Paul R; Muzoora, Conrad; Meintjes, Graeme; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Amphotericin-based combination antifungal therapy reduces mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis. However, 40%-50% of individuals have positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal cultures at completion of 2 weeks of amphotericin induction therapy. Residual CSF culture positivity has historically been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We investigated whether persistent CSF fungemia was associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in a contemporary African cohort. Methods.  Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals with cryptococcal meningitis in Uganda and South Africa received amphotericin (0.7-1.0 mg/kg per day) plus fluconazole (800 mg/day) for 2 weeks, followed by "enhanced consolidation" therapy with fluconazole 800 mg/day for at least 3 weeks or until cultures were sterile, and then 400 mg/day for 8 weeks. Participants were randomized to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) either 1-2 or 5 weeks after diagnosis and observed for 6 months. Survivors were classified as having sterile or nonsterile CSF based on 2-week CSF cultures. Mortality, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), and culture-positive relapse were compared in those with sterile or nonsterile CSF using Cox regression. Results.  Of 132 participants surviving 2 weeks, 57% had sterile CSF at 2 weeks, 23 died within 5 weeks, and 40 died within 6 months. Culture positivity was not significantly associated with mortality (adjusted 6-month hazard ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.3; P = .28). Incidence of IRIS or relapse was also not significantly related to culture positivity. Conclusions.  Among patients, all treated with enhanced consolidation antifungal therapy and ART, residual cryptococcal culture positivity was not found to be associated with poor clinical outcomes. PMID:26716103

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid Culture Positivity and Clinical Outcomes After Amphotericin-Based Induction Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Rolfes, Melissa A.; Rhein, Joshua; Schutz, Charlotte; Taseera, Kabanda; Nabeta, Henry W.; Huppler Hullsiek, Kathy; Akampuira, Andrew; Rajasingham, Radha; Musubire, Abdu; Williams, Darlisha A.; Thienemann, Friedrich; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Muzoora, Conrad; Meintjes, Graeme; Meya, David B.; Boulware, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Amphotericin-based combination antifungal therapy reduces mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis. However, 40%–50% of individuals have positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal cultures at completion of 2 weeks of amphotericin induction therapy. Residual CSF culture positivity has historically been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We investigated whether persistent CSF fungemia was associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in a contemporary African cohort. Methods. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals with cryptococcal meningitis in Uganda and South Africa received amphotericin (0.7–1.0 mg/kg per day) plus fluconazole (800 mg/day) for 2 weeks, followed by “enhanced consolidation” therapy with fluconazole 800 mg/day for at least 3 weeks or until cultures were sterile, and then 400 mg/day for 8 weeks. Participants were randomized to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) either 1–2 or 5 weeks after diagnosis and observed for 6 months. Survivors were classified as having sterile or nonsterile CSF based on 2-week CSF cultures. Mortality, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), and culture-positive relapse were compared in those with sterile or nonsterile CSF using Cox regression. Results. Of 132 participants surviving 2 weeks, 57% had sterile CSF at 2 weeks, 23 died within 5 weeks, and 40 died within 6 months. Culture positivity was not significantly associated with mortality (adjusted 6-month hazard ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.6–2.3; P = .28). Incidence of IRIS or relapse was also not significantly related to culture positivity. Conclusions. Among patients, all treated with enhanced consolidation antifungal therapy and ART, residual cryptococcal culture positivity was not found to be associated with poor clinical outcomes. PMID:26716103

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Method Developed for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Renewed interest in hypersonic propulsion systems has led to research programs investigating combined cycle engines that are designed to operate efficiently across the flight regime. The Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine is a propulsion system under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This engine integrates a high specific impulse, low thrust-to-weight, airbreathing engine with a low-impulse, high thrust-to-weight rocket. From takeoff to Mach 2.5, the engine operates as an air-augmented rocket. At Mach 2.5, the engine becomes a dual-mode ramjet; and beyond Mach 8, the rocket is turned back on. One Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine variation known as the "Strut-Jet" concept is being investigated jointly by NASA Lewis, the U.S. Air Force, Gencorp Aerojet, General Applied Science Labs (GASL), and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Work thus far has included wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigations with the NPARC code. The CFD method was initiated by modeling the geometry of the Strut-Jet with the GRIDGEN structured grid generator. Grids representing a subscale inlet model and the full-scale demonstrator geometry were constructed. These grids modeled one-half of the symmetric inlet flow path, including the precompression plate, diverter, center duct, side duct, and combustor. After the grid generation, full Navier-Stokes flow simulations were conducted with the NPARC Navier-Stokes code. The Chien low-Reynolds-number k-e turbulence model was employed to simulate the high-speed turbulent flow. Finally, the CFD solutions were postprocessed with a Fortran code. This code provided wall static pressure distributions, pitot pressure distributions, mass flow rates, and internal drag. These results were compared with experimental data from a subscale inlet test for code validation; then they were used to help evaluate the demonstrator engine net thrust.

  1. Initial susceptibility and viscosity properties of low concentration ɛ-Fe3 N based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Wu, Jianmin; Guo, Wei; Li, Rong; Cui, Liya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, the initial susceptibility of ɛ-Fe3N magnetic fluid at volume concentrations in the range Φ = 0.0 ˜ 0.0446 are measured. Compared with the experimental initial susceptibility, the Langevin, Weiss and Onsager susceptibility were calculated using the data obtained from the low concentration ɛ-Fe3N magnetic fluid samples. The viscosity of the ɛ-Fe3N magnetic fluid at the same concentrations is measured. The result shows that, the initial susceptibility of the low concentration ɛ-Fe3N magnetic fluid is proportional to the concentration. A linear relationship between relative viscosity and the volume fraction is observed when the concentration Φ < 0.02.

  2. Silica-coated carbonyl iron microsphere based magnetorheological fluid and its damping force characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. D.; Lee, J.; Choi, S. B.; Choi, H. J.

    2013-06-01

    Silica-coated soft magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) particles with a reduced density and enhanced anti-corrosion properties compared to pristine CI were synthesized and applied as magneto-responsive particles in a magnetorheological (MR) fluid in this study. The MR fluids containing both pristine CI and silica-coated CI particles were injected into a custom-designed MR damper, and their damping characteristics, such as damping force as a function of time, displacement and velocity, were investigated, since vibration attenuation using mechanical damper systems is one of the main applications of MR fluids. Under the same magnetic field strength applied, the damping characteristics of the two MR fluids were observed to be directly related to their yield stresses.

  3. Dependence of particle size on the effective thermal diffusivity and conductivity of nanofluids: role of base fluid properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisha, M. R.; Philip, J.

    2012-10-01

    Effect of nanoparticle size on effective thermal diffusivity and conductivity of polymeric and water based nanofluids are investigated following thermal wave interference technique. Two sets of nanofluids, prepared by dispersing TiO2 nanoparticles, with average sizes in the range 5-100 nm, in polyvinyl alcohol and water show opposing particle size dependences. Variations are explained invoking effective medium theory, including size of nanoparticles, molecular weight of base fluid and effects associated with it.

  4. FPGA-based RF spectrum merging and adaptive hopset selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, R. K.; Flatley, B. N.; Silvius, M. D.; Hopkinson, K. M.

    The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a limited resource. Spectrum allotment disputes stem from this scarcity as many radio devices are confined to a fixed frequency or frequency sequence. One alternative is to incorporate cognition within a reconfigurable radio platform, therefore enabling the radio to adapt to dynamic RF spectrum environments. In this way, the radio is able to actively sense the RF spectrum, decide, and act accordingly, thereby sharing the spectrum and operating in more flexible manner. In this paper, we present a novel solution for merging many distributed RF spectrum maps into one map and for subsequently creating an adaptive hopset. We also provide an example of our system in operation, the result of which is a pseudorandom adaptive hopset. The paper then presents a novel hardware design for the frequency merger and adaptive hopset selector, both of which are written in VHDL and implemented as a custom IP core on an FPGA-based embedded system using the Xilinx Embedded Development Kit (EDK) software tool. The design of the custom IP core is optimized for area, and it can process a high-volume digital input via a low-latency circuit architecture. The complete embedded system includes the Xilinx PowerPC microprocessor, UART serial connection, and compact flash memory card IP cores, and our custom map merging/hopset selection IP core, all of which are targeted to the Virtex IV FPGA. This system is then incorporated into a cognitive radio prototype on a Rice University Wireless Open Access Research Platform (WARP) reconfigurable radio.

  5. Acid-Base and Plasma Biochemical Changes Using Crystalloid Fluids in Stranded Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, María; Quintana, María del Pino; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and effects on acid-base and electrolyte status of several crystalloid fluids in 57 stranded juvenile loggerhead turtles. Methods Within a rehabilitation program four different crystalloid fluids were administered (0.9% Na Cl solution; 5% dextrose + 0.9% Na Cl solutions 1:1; 0.9% Na Cl + lactated Ringer's solutions 1:1; lactated Ringer's solution). Crystalloid fluids were intracoelomically administered during three days (20 ml/kg/day). Animals were sampled at three different moments: Upon admission for evaluating the type of acid-base or biochemical disorder, post-fluid therapy treatment for controlling the evolution of the disorder, and post-recovery period for obtaining the baseline values for rehabilitated loggerhead turtles. Each sample was analyzed with a portable electronic blood analyzer for pH, pO2, pCO2, lactate, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and BUN concentration. Admission and post-fluid therapy treatment values were compared with those obtained for each turtle immediately before release. Results The highest percentage of acid-base recovery and electrolyte balance was observed in turtles treated with mixed saline-lactated Ringer’s solution (63.6%), followed by turtles treated with physiological saline solution (55%), lactated Ringer’s solution (33.3%), and dextrose-saline solutions (10%). Most turtles treated with lactated Ringer’s solution had lower lactate concentrations compared with their initial values; however, 66.6% of turtles treated with lactated Ringer’s solution had metabolic alkalosis after therapy. Significant higher concentrations of glucose were detected after saline-dextrose administration compared with all the remaining fluids. Conclusions This is the first study evaluating the effects of several crystalloid fluids on the acid-base status and plasma biochemical values in stranded loggerhead sea turtles. Reference convalescent venous blood gas, acid-base, and plasma

  6. Artificial immune system based on adaptive clonal selection for feature selection and parameters optimisation of support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Hashemipour, Maryam; Soleimani, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm based on clonal selection method can be defined as a soft computing method inspired by theoretical immune system in order to solve science and engineering problems. Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular pattern classification method with many diverse applications. Kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure along with the feature selection significantly impacts on the classification accuracy rate. In this study, AIS based on Adaptive Clonal Selection (AISACS) algorithm has been used to optimise the SVM parameters and feature subset selection without degrading the SVM classification accuracy. Several public datasets of University of California Irvine machine learning (UCI) repository are employed to calculate the classification accuracy rate in order to evaluate the AISACS approach then it was compared with grid search algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental results show that the feature reduction rate and running time of the AISACS approach are better than the GA approach.

  7. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  8. 34 CFR 75.209 - Selection criteria based on statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Selection criteria based on statutory provisions. 75.209 Section 75.209 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Selection of New Projects § 75.209 Selection criteria based on statutory provisions. (a) The Secretary may evaluate applications...

  9. Impact of Menu Sequencing on Internet-Based Educational Module Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, Robert; Brusk, John J.; Rivas, Jason; Anderson, Judith V.

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of Internet-based menu item selection can occur for a number of reasons, many of which may not be based on interest in topic. It then becomes important to ensure menu order is devised in a way that ensures the greatest accuracy in matching user need with selection. This study examined the impact of menu rotation on the selection of…

  10. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    ); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness, Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries, and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, and ICP calculated by MRI). On the ground, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas LBNP will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. This study has been selected for flight implementation and is one of the candidate investigations being considered for the one year mission.

  11. Detecting fluid leakage of a reservoir dam based on streaming self-potential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seo Young; Kim, Bitnarae; Nam, Myung Jin; Lim, Sung Keun

    2015-04-01

    Between many reservoir dams for agriculture in suburban area of South Korea, water leakage has been reported several times. The dam under consideration in this study, which is located in Gyeong-buk, in the south-east of the Korean Peninsula, was reported to have a large leakage at the right foot of downstream side of the reservoir dam. For the detection of the leakage, not only geological survey but also geophysical explorations have been made for precision safety diagnosis, since the leakage can lead to dam failure. Geophysical exploration includes both electrical-resistivity and self-potential surveys, while geological surveys water permeability test, standard penetration test, and sampling for undisturbed sample during the course of the drilling investigation. The geophysical explorations were made not only along the top of dam but also transverse the heel of dam. The leakage of water installations can change the known-heterogeneous structure of the dam body but also cause streaming spontaneous (self) potential (SP) anomaly, which can be detected by electrical resistivity and SP measurements, respectively. For the interpretation of streaming SP, we used trial-and-error method by comparing synthetic SP data with field SP data for model update. For the computation, we first invert the resistivity data to obtain the distorted resistivity structure of the dam levee then make three-dimensional electrical-resistivity modeling for the streaming potential distribution of the dam levee. Our simulation algorithm of streaming SP distribution based on the integrated finite difference scheme computes two-dimensional (2D) SP distribution based on the distribution of calculated flow velocities of fluid for a given permeability structure together with physical properties. This permeability is repeatedly updated based on error between synthetic and field SP data, until the synthetic data match the field data. Through this trial-and-error-based SP interpretation, we locate the

  12. Amniotic fluid is important for the maintenance of maternal responsiveness and the establishment of maternal selectivity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Poindron, P; Otal, J; Ferreira, G; Keller, M; Guesdon, V; Nowak, R; Lévy, F

    2010-12-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) is important for the establishment of maternal behaviour in inexperienced ewes, but its role in experienced mothers remains to be studied. Here, the maintenance of post-partum maternal responsiveness and the establishment of exclusive bonding was investigated in multiparous ewes when AF was removed from the neonate or/and physical contact with the young was precluded for the first 4 h post partum. Maintenance of maternal responsiveness and establishment of exclusive bonding were measured by the proportion of mothers accepting their own lamb and alien lambs that had been either washed or not washed, and by comparing an acceptance score for each type of lamb. The acceptance score was computed by summing standardised variables of acceptance (low bleats, acceptance at udder, nursing and licking time) and subtracting standardised variables of rejection (high-pitched bleats, rejection at the udder and aggressive behaviour). Washing the neonate reduced its acceptance score, but the proportion of mothers rejecting their own lamb was reduced only when washing the neonate and prevention of physical contact for 4 h were combined (7/15 v. 0/10 in controls, P = 0.02). In addition, washing the neonate increased the acceptance score of the washed alien lamb, but not of the unwashed alien. However, washing and privation of physical contact did not increase significantly the proportion of mothers accepting an alien lamb at 4 h post partum. We conclude that AF is important in experienced ewes for the establishment of maternal responsiveness, as already found in primiparous mothers. In addition, our results indicate that AF also carries some chemosensory information facilitating exclusive bonding. PMID:22445380

  13. A selected ion monitoring GC/MS assay for 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide and its metabolites in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Gruenke, L D; Craig, J C; Wester, R C; Maibach, H I; North-Root, H; Corbin, N C

    1987-01-01

    A selected ion monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method for the quantitative determination of 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide (TCC) and its major metabolites (the 2'-hydroxy sulfate and the N- and N'-glucuronides) in human plasma and urine was developed using the deuterium-labelled compounds as internal standards. Limits of detection of 3 ng/mL in urine for the N-glucuronides and of 1.5 ng/mL in plasma for the 2'-hydroxy sulfate were attained. Use of the method was illustrated in a study in human subjects employing TCC-containing bar soaps. PMID:3573729

  14. A knowledge-based system for materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    Trethewey, K.R.; Puget, Y.; Wood, R.J.K.; Roberge, P.R.

    1997-12-01

    Materials selection is a process obviously suitable for computerization. The growing list of available materials makes a choice increasingly susceptible to the vagaries of human decision making, as evidenced by the continued incidence of high corrosion costs and unacceptable failures. A methodology for computerization of the materials selection process is described and evaluated by an example involving the choice of a polymeric paint coating for seawater service.

  15. Glucose microfluidic fuel cell based on silver bimetallic selective catalysts for on-chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas-Muñiz, F. M.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Esquivel, J. P.; Sabaté, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.

    2012-10-01

    A glucose microfluidic fuel cell with outstanding performance at zero flow condition is presented. Polarization tests showed that bimetallic materials based in silver (AuAg/C as anode, PtAg/C as cathode) exhibit tolerance to byproducts and crossover effect. This allowed achieving one of the highest power densities reported for glucose fuel cells, up to a value of 630 μW cm-2 using two separated laminar flows of reactants. Furthermore, the tolerance to crossover effect caused by the selectivity of PtAg/C to oxygen reduction reaction in presence of glucose permitted using a single flow containing a mixture of glucose/oxygen, yielding a performance as high as 270 μW cm-2. Microfluidic fuel cell was further evaluated with a simulated body fluid solution that contained salts commonly present in the human blood plasma, reaching a power of 240 μW cm-2 at zero flow. These results envisage the incorporation of this fuel cell as a portable power source in Lab-on-a-Chip devices without the need of external pumps.

  16. Probing Reliability of Transport Phenomena Based Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Analysis in Autogeneous Fusion Welding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, S.; de, A.

    2010-09-01

    The transport phenomena based heat transfer and fluid flow calculations in weld pool require a number of input parameters. Arc efficiency, effective thermal conductivity, and viscosity in weld pool are some of these parameters, values of which are rarely known and difficult to assign a priori based on the scientific principles alone. The present work reports a bi-directional three-dimensional (3-D) heat transfer and fluid flow model, which is integrated with a real number based genetic algorithm. The bi-directional feature of the integrated model allows the identification of the values of a required set of uncertain model input parameters and, next, the design of process parameters to achieve a target weld pool dimension. The computed values are validated with measured results in linear gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) weld samples. Furthermore, a novel methodology to estimate the overall reliability of the computed solutions is also presented.

  17. Computational fluid dynamics study on the decomposition of ammonia in a selective porous membrane - article no. 42

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasios Sideridis; Dimitrios Koutsonikolas; Dimitrios Missirlis

    2008-07-01

    The development of alternative technologies for the removal of gas pollutants is an important aspect for the environmental friendliness of energy production. During coal gasification, N{sub 2} contained in coal is converted to NH{sub 3} and, as much as 50% of the ammonia in the fuel gas can be converted to nitrogen oxides (NOx). At these conditions, decomposition seems to be the only applicable solution for the removal of NH{sub 3}. The application of a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor process appears to offer an efficient and cost effective method of removing the NH{sub 3} from coal gasification gas streams. The present work examines the operation of such a selective membrane, used for the decomposition of NH{sub 3}, under a 2-D axissymetric CFD approach where the flow field, the chemical reactions and the selective porous membrane behavior are being modeled and computed. The main target of this effort was to obtain a more detailed view of the flow field and to investigate the decomposition of ammonia in comparison with a simpler 1-D modeling approach and, thus, to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging-based computational fluid dynamics/fluid-structure interaction pilot study to detect early vascular changes in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Samyn, Margaret M; Dholakia, Ronak; Wang, Hongfeng; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Yan, Ke; Widlansky, Michael E; LaDisa, John F; Simpson, Pippa; Alemzadeh, Ramin

    2015-04-01

    We hypothesized that pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes have cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detectable differences in thoracic aortic wall properties and hemodynamics leading to significant local differences in indices of wall shear stress, when compared with age-matched control subjects without diabetes. Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes were recruited from Children's Hospital of Wisconsin and compared with controls. All underwent morning CMR scanning, 4-limb blood pressure, brachial artery reactivity testing, and venipuncture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics modeling with fluid-structure interaction, based on CMR data, determined regional time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). Twenty type 1 diabetic subjects, median age 15.8 years (11.6-18.4) and 8 controls 15.4 years (10.3-18.2) were similar except for higher glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and triglycerides for type 1 diabetic subjects. Lower flow-mediated dilation was seen for those with type 1 diabetes (6.5) versus controls (7.8), p = 0.036. For type 1 diabetic subjects, the aorta had more regions with high TAWSS when compared to controls. OSI maps appeared similar. Flow-mediated dilation positively correlated with age at diabetes diagnosis (r = 0.468, p = 0.038) and hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.472, p = 0.036), but did not correlate with aortic distensibility, TAWSS, or OSI. TAWSS did not correlate with any clinical parameter for either group. CMR shows regional differences in aortic wall properties for young diabetic patients. Some local differences in wall shear stress indices were also observed, but a longitudinal study is now warranted. PMID:25577225

  19. Relative Fluid Novelty Differentially Alters the Time Course of Limited-Access Ethanol and Water Intake in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol) drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future ethanol consumption might be a genetically-regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive ethanol abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge-ethanol consumption over repeated Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) ethanol access sessions (i.e. ‘front-loading’). The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate identical parameters in High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice to determine if similar temporal alterations in limited-access ethanol drinking develop in a population selected for high ethanol preference/intake under continuous (24hr) access conditions. Methods Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given one day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter administered ethanol. Results The amount of ethanol consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, ethanol front-loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of ethanol access. Conclusions These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access ethanol consumption, and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of ethanol and water consumption

  20. The physiological effects of selection in rainbow trout selected for growth on plant-based feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proven that rainbow trout can selectively be improved to more efficiently process and utilize nutrients from different sources. A stock of rainbow trout has been developed to grow faster on a diet formulated without fishmeal and the protein sources coming completely from plant material. ...

  1. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers' knowledge-based selective word learning.

    PubMed

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-11-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory-of-mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children's preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children's developing social cognition and early learning. PMID:26211504

  2. Development of a magneto-rheological fluid based hybrid actuation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Shaju

    A hybrid hydraulic actuation system is proposed as an active pitch link for rotorcraft applications. Such an active pitch link can be used to implement Individual Blade Control (IBC) techniques for vibration and noise reduction, in addition to providing primary control for the helicopter. Conventional technologies like electric motors and hydraulic actuators have major disadvantages when it come to applications on a rotating environment. Centralized hydraulic system require the use of mechanically complex hydraulic slip rings and electric motors have high precision mechanical moving parts that make them unattractive in application with high centrifugal load. The high energy density of smart materials can be used to design hydraulic actuators in a compact package. MagnetoRheological (MR) fluids can be used as the working fluid in such a hybrid hydraulic actuation system to implement a valving system with no moving parts. Thus, such an actuation system can be theoretically well-suited for application in a rotating environment. To develop an actuation system based on an active material stack and MR fluidic valves, a fundamental understanding of the hydraulic circuit is essential. In order to address this issue, a theoretical model was developed to understand the effect of pumping chamber geometry on the pressure losses in the pumping chamber. Three dimensional analytical models were developed for steady and unsteady flow and the results were correlated to results obtained from Computation Fluid Dynamic simulation of fluid flow inside the pumping chamber. Fundamental understanding regarding the pressure losses in a pumping chamber are obtained from the modeling process. Vortices that form in the pumping chamber (during intake) and the discharge tube (during discharge) are identified as a major cause of pressure loss in the chamber. The role of vortices during dynamic operation is also captured through a frequency domain model. Extensive experimental studies were

  3. The physical vulnerability of elements at risk: a methodology based on fluid and classical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzorana, B.; Fuchs, S.; Levaggi, L.

    2012-04-01

    The impacts of the flood events occurred in autumn 2011 in the Italian regions Liguria and Tuscany revived the engagement of the public decision makers to enhance in synergy flood control and land use planning. In this context, the design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation critically relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of both, the immobile and mobile elements at risk potentially exposed to flood hazards. Based on fluid and classical mechanics notions we developed computation schemes enabling for a dynamic vulnerability and risk analysis facing a broad typological variety of elements at risk. The methodological skeleton consists of (1) hydrodynamic computation of the time-varying flood intensities resulting for each element at risk in a succession of loading configurations; (2) modelling the mechanical response of the impacted elements through static, elasto-static and dynamic analyses; (3) characterising the mechanical response through proper structural damage variables and (4) economic valuation of the expected losses as a function of the quantified damage variables. From a computational perspective we coupled the description of the hydrodynamic flow behaviour and the induced structural modifications of the elements at risk exposed. Valuation methods, suitable to support a correct mapping from the value domains of the physical damage variables to the economic loss values are discussed. In such a way we target to complement from a methodological perspective the existing, mainly empirical, vulnerability and risk assessment approaches to refine the conceptual framework of the cost-benefit analysis. Moreover, we aim to support the design of effective flood risk mitigation strategies by diminishing the main criticalities within the systems prone to flood risk.

  4. Oral fluid nanosensor test (OFNASET) with advanced electrochemical-based molecular analysis platform.

    PubMed

    Gau, Vincent; Wong, David

    2007-03-01

    High-impact diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease, are challenging to diagnose without supplementing clinical evaluation with laboratory testing. Even with laboratory tools, definitive diagnosis often remains elusive. The lack of three crucial elements presents a road block to achieving the potential of clinical diagnostic tests: (1) definitive disease-associated protein and genetic markers, (2) easy and inexpensive sampling methods with minimal discomfort for the subject, and (3) an accurate and quantitative diagnostic platform. Our aim is to develop and validate a solution for requirement (3) and also to develop a portable system. Requirements (1) and (2) will be addressed through the utilization of novel and highly specific oral cancer saliva proteomic and genomic biomarkers and the use of saliva as the biofluid of choice, respectively. The Oral Fluid NanoSensor Test (OFNASET) technology platform combines cutting-edge technologies, such as self-assembled monolayers (SAM), bionanotechnology, cyclic enzymatic amplification, and microfluidics, with several well-established techniques including microinjection molding, hybridization-based detection, and molecular purification. The intended use of the OFNASET is for the point of care multiplex detection of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer. We have demonstrated that the combination of two salivary proteomic biomarkers (thioredoxin and IL-8) and four salivary mRNA biomarkers (SAT, ODZ, IL-8, and IL-1b) can detect oral cancer with high specificity and sensitivity. Our preliminary studies have shown compelling results. We sequentially delivered a serial dilution of IL-8 antigen, probe solution, wash, enzyme solution, wash, and mediator solution to sensor reaction chambers housed in a prototype cartridge and demonstrated strong signal separation at 50 pg/mL above a negative control. PMID:17435145

  5. GoDisco: Selective Gossip Based Dissemination of Information in Social Community Based Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anwitaman; Sharma, Rajesh

    We propose and investigate a gossip based, social principles and behavior inspired decentralized mechanism (GoDisco) to disseminate information in online social community networks, using exclusively social links and exploiting semantic context to keep the dissemination process selective to relevant nodes. Such a designed dissemination scheme using gossiping over a egocentric social network is unique and is arguably a concept whose time has arrived, emulating word of mouth behavior and can have interesting applications like probabilistic publish/subscribe, decentralized recommendation and contextual advertisement systems, to name a few. Simulation based experiments show that despite using only local knowledge and contacts, the system has good global coverage and behavior.

  6. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  7. Process observation in fiber laser-based selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, Ulrich; Gatej, Alexander; Pereira, Milton

    2015-01-01

    The process observation in selective laser melting (SLM) focuses on observing the interaction point where the powder is processed. To provide process relevant information, signals have to be acquired that are resolved in both time and space. Especially in high-power SLM, where more than 1 kW of laser power is used, processing speeds of several meters per second are required for a high-quality processing results. Therefore, an implementation of a suitable process observation system has to acquire a large amount of spatially resolved data at low sampling speeds or it has to restrict the acquisition to a predefined area at a high sampling speed. In any case, it is vitally important to synchronously record the laser beam position and the acquired signal. This is a prerequisite that allows the recorded data become information. Today, most SLM systems employ f-theta lenses to focus the processing laser beam onto the powder bed. This report describes the drawbacks that result for process observation and suggests a variable retro-focus system which solves these issues. The beam quality of fiber lasers delivers the processing laser beam to the powder bed at relevant focus diameters, which is a key prerequisite for this solution to be viable. The optical train we present here couples the processing laser beam and the process observation coaxially, ensuring consistent alignment of interaction zone and observed area. With respect to signal processing, we have developed a solution that synchronously acquires signals from a pyrometer and the position of the laser beam by sampling the data with a field programmable gate array. The relevance of the acquired signals has been validated by the scanning of a sample filament. Experiments with grooved samples show a correlation between different powder thicknesses and the acquired signals at relevant processing parameters. This basic work takes a first step toward self-optimization of the manufacturing process in SLM. It enables the

  8. Development of new critical fluid-based processing methods for nutraceuticals and natural products

    SciTech Connect

    King, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The development of new supercritical fluid processing technology as applied to nutraceuticals and natural products is no longer confined to using just supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}). Recently reported advances have been focused on modifying natural products and improving functionality of an end product using newer experimental techniques and fluid phases. In this presentation four focus areas will be emphasized: (1) control of particle size/morphology and encapsulation of the nutraceutical ingredients, (2) the use of combinatorial methodology to optimize critical fluid processing, (3) application of sub-critical water as a complementary medium for processing natural products, and (4) an assessment of the current state of products and processing which use critical fluid to produce nutraceutical and natural products for the food and cosmetic marketplace. Application of the various particle fomiation processes conducted in the presence of critical fluid media, such as: CPF, SAS, DELOS, RESS, PGSS, and GAS, can be used to produce particles of small and uniform distribution, having unique morphologies, that facilitate rapid dissolution or sustained release of many nutraceutical ingredients. These substances have included: therapeutic spices, phystosterols, vitamins, phospholpids, and carotenoids. Accelerating the development of critical fluid processing has been the application of combinatorial methodology to optimize extraction, fractionation, and/or reactions in near-, SC-, or subcritical fluid media. This is frequently accomplished by using sequential or multichannel automated instrumentation that was originally designed for analytical purposes. Several examples will be provided of rapidly assessing the extraction of anthocyanins with sub-critical water and the SFE of natural products. However, differences do exist in conducting experiments on the above instrumentation vs. scaled-up continuous processes, which

  9. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  10. Study on an alternating current electrothermal micropump for microneedle-based fluid delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rumi; Jullien, Graham A.; Dalton, Colin

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a modeling study of an AC electrothermal (ACET) micropump with high operating pressures as well as fast flow rates. One specific application area is for fluid delivery using microneedle arrays which require higher pressures and faster flow rates than have been previously reported with ACET devices. ACET is very suitable for accurate actuation and control of fluid flow, since the technique has been shown to be very effective in high conductivity fluids and has the ability to create a pulsation free flow. However, AC electrokinetic pumps usually can only generate low operating pressures of 1 to 100 Pa, where flow reversal is likely to occur with an external load. In order to realize a high performance ACET micropump for continuous fluid delivery, applying relatively high AC operating voltages (20 to 36 Vrms) to silicon substrate ACET actuators and using long serpentine channel allows the boosting of operating pressure as well as increasing the flow rates. Fast pumping flow rates (102-103 nl/s) and high operating pressures (1-12 kPa) can be achieved by applying both methods, making them of significant importance for continuous fluid delivery applications using microneedle arrays and other such biomedical devices.

  11. A Selective Encryption Algorithm Based on AES for Medical Information

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ju-Young; Chon, Ki-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The transmission of medical information is currently a daily routine. Medical information needs efficient, robust and secure encryption modes, but cryptography is primarily a computationally intensive process. Towards this direction, we design a selective encryption scheme for critical data transmission. Methods We expand the advandced encrytion stanard (AES)-Rijndael with five criteria: the first is the compression of plain data, the second is the variable size of the block, the third is the selectable round, the fourth is the optimization of software implementation and the fifth is the selective function of the whole routine. We have tested our selective encryption scheme by C++ and it was compiled with Code::Blocks using a MinGW GCC compiler. Results The experimental results showed that our selective encryption scheme achieves a faster execution speed of encryption/decryption. In future work, we intend to use resource optimization to enhance the round operations, such as SubByte/InvSubByte, by exploiting similarities between encryption and decryption. Conclusions As encryption schemes become more widely used, the concept of hardware and software co-design is also a growing new area of interest. PMID:21818420

  12. Agent-Based vs. Equation-based Epidemiological Models:A Model Selection Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Nutaro, James J

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the need to design model validation strategies for epidemiological disease-spread models. We consider both agent-based and equation-based models of pandemic disease spread and study the nuances and complexities one has to consider from the perspective of model validation. For this purpose, we instantiate an equation based model and an agent based model of the 1918 Spanish flu and we leverage data published in the literature for our case- study. We present our observations from the perspective of each implementation and discuss the application of model-selection criteria to compare the risk in choosing one modeling paradigm to another. We conclude with a discussion of our experience and document future ideas for a model validation framework.

  13. a Genetic Algorithm Based on Sexual Selection for the Multidimensional 0/1 Knapsack Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varnamkhasti, Mohammad Jalali; Lee, Lai Soon

    In this study, a new technique is presented for choosing mate chromosomes during sexual selection in a genetic algorithm. The population is divided into groups of males and females. During the sexual selection, the female chromosome is selected by the tournament selection while the male chromosome is selected based on the hamming distance from the selected female chromosome, fitness value or active genes. Computational experiments are conducted on the proposed technique and the results are compared with some selection mechanisms commonly used for solving multidimensional 0/1 knapsack problems published in the literature.

  14. Computational intelligence-based polymerase chain reaction primer selection based on a novel teaching-learning-based optimisation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Huei

    2014-12-01

    Specific primers play an important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, and therefore it is essential to find specific primers of outstanding quality. Unfortunately, many PCR constraints must be simultaneously inspected which makes specific primer selection difficult and time-consuming. This paper introduces a novel computational intelligence-based method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimisation, to select the specific and feasible primers. The specified PCR product lengths of 150-300 bp and 500-800 bp with three melting temperature formulae of Wallace's formula, Bolton and McCarthy's formula and SantaLucia's formula were performed. The authors calculate optimal frequency to estimate the quality of primer selection based on a total of 500 runs for 50 random nucleotide sequences of 'Homo species' retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The method was then fairly compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) and memetic algorithm (MA) for primer selection in the literature. The results show that the method easily found suitable primers corresponding with the setting primer constraints and had preferable performance than the GA and the MA. Furthermore, the method was also compared with the common method Primer3 according to their method type, primers presentation, parameters setting, speed and memory usage. In conclusion, it is an interesting primer selection method and a valuable tool for automatic high-throughput analysis. In the future, the usage of the primers in the wet lab needs to be validated carefully to increase the reliability of the method. PMID:25429503

  15. Mechanically Tunable Slippery Behavior on Soft Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Anisotropic Wrinkles Infused with Lubricating Fluid.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pritam Kumar; Pant, Reeta; Nagarajan, Arun Kumar; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-06-14

    We demonstrate a novel technique to fabricate mechanically tunable slippery surfaces using one-dimensional (anisotropic) elastic wrinkles. Such wrinkles show tunable topography (amplitude) on the application of mechanical strain. Following Nepenthes pitcher plants, lubricating fluid infused solid surfaces show excellent slippery behavior for test liquid drops. Therefore, combining the above two, that is, infusing suitable lubricating fluid on elastic wrinkles, would enable us to fabricate mechanically tunable slippery surfaces. Completely stretched (flat) wrinkles have uniform coating of lubricating fluid, whereas completely relaxed (full amplitude) wrinkles have most of the lubricating oil in the wrinkle grooves. Therefore, water drops on completely stretched surface show excellent slippery behavior, whereas on completely relaxed surface they show reduced slippery behavior. Therefore, continuous variation of wrinkle stretching provides reversibly tunable slippery behavior on such a system. Because the wrinkles are one-dimensional, they show anisotropic tunability of slippery behavior depending upon whether test liquid drops slip parallel or perpendicular to the wrinkles. PMID:27221199

  16. Game theory based band selection for hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Aiye; He, Zhenyu; Huang, Fengchen

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a new evaluation criterion for band selection for hyperspectral imagery. The combination of information and class separability is used to be as a new evaluation criterion, at the same time, the correlation between bands is used as a constraint condition. In addition, the game theory is introduced into the band selection to coordinate the potential conflict of search the optimal band combination using information and class separability these two evaluation criteria. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective on AVIRIS hyperspectral data.

  17. Physics-based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Seismicity Induced by Fluid Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxall, W.; Hutchings, L. J.; Johnson, S.; Savy, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Risk associated with induced seismicity (IS) is a significant factor in the design, permitting and operation of enhanced geothermal, geological CO2 sequestration and other fluid injection projects. Whereas conventional probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis (PSHA, PSRA) methods provide an overall framework, they require adaptation to address specific characteristics of induced earthquake occurrence and ground motion estimation, and the nature of the resulting risk. The first problem is to predict the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution of induced events for PSHA required at the design and permitting stage before the start of injection, when an appropriate earthquake catalog clearly does not exist. Furthermore, observations and theory show that the occurrence of earthquakes induced by an evolving pore-pressure field is time-dependent, and hence does not conform to the assumption of Poissonian behavior in conventional PSHA. We present an approach to this problem based on generation of an induced seismicity catalog using numerical simulation of pressure-induced shear failure in a model of the geologic structure and stress regime in and surrounding the reservoir. The model is based on available measurements of site-specific in-situ properties as well as generic earthquake source parameters. We also discuss semi-empirical analysis to sequentially update hazard and risk estimates for input to management and mitigation strategies using earthquake data recorded during and after injection. The second important difference from conventional PSRA is that in addition to potentially damaging ground motions a significant risk associated with induce seismicity in general is the perceived nuisance caused in nearby communities by small, local felt earthquakes, which in general occur relatively frequently. Including these small, usually shallow earthquakes in the hazard analysis requires extending the ground motion frequency band considered to include the high

  18. Numerical investigation and quantitative loss analysis of typical wet steam spontaneous condensation based on two-fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ke; Song, Yan-Ping; Chen, Huan-Long; Chen, Fu; Ooyama, Hiroharu

    2016-07-01

    A two-fluid model with the influence of inter-phase velocity-slip taken into account is proposed and a modified realizable k- ɛ turbulence model is put forward as well to make the equation set of two-fluid model closed. Based on this two-fluid model, numerical simulations are implemented on typical wet steam flow in different cases. Good consistency between numerical result and the experimental result implies that this two-fluid model is provided with high accuracy and wide applicability. The flow field analysis also shows that there exist several particular sites along the flow direction. These particular sites could illustrate the development mechanism of nucleation and droplet growing. In addition, further discussion about the flow in cascade then indicates that the presence of condensation has strong impact on the flow while the impact of inter-phase velocity-slip is relatively weaker. The composition of total pressure loss is present here, the majority of total pressure loss brought by condensation is about 8.78 % of inlet total pressure while the inter-phase velocity-slip just results in a small part of about 0.42 % of inlet total pressure, the rest of the total pressure loss is caused by pneumatic factors and this part is about 3.95 % of inlet total pressure.

  19. Computations of two-fluid models based on a simple and robust hybrid primitive variable Riemann solver with AUSMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yang-Yao

    2016-03-01

    This paper is to continue our previous work in 2008 on solving a two-fluid model for compressible liquid-gas flows. We proposed a pressure-velocity based diffusion term original derived from AUSMD scheme of Wada and Liou in 1997 to enhance its robustness. The proposed AUSMD schemes have been applied to gas and liquid fluids universally to capture fluid discontinuities, such as the fluid interfaces and shock waves, accurately for the Ransom's faucet problem, air-water shock tube problems and 2D shock-water liquid interaction problems. However, the proposed scheme failed at computing liquid-gas interfaces in problems under large ratios of pressure, density and volume of fraction. The numerical instability has been remedied by Chang and Liou in 2007 using the exact Riemann solver to enhance the accuracy and stability of numerical flux across the liquid-gas interface. Here, instead of the exact Riemann solver, we propose a simple AUSMD type primitive variable Riemann solver (PVRS) which can successfully solve 1D stiffened water-air shock tube and 2D shock-gas interaction problems under large ratios of pressure, density and volume of fraction without the expensive cost of tedious computer time. In addition, the proposed approach is shown to deliver a good resolution of the shock-front, rarefaction and cavitation inside the evolution of high-speed droplet impact on the wall.

  20. Conditional Covariance-Based Subtest Selection for DIMTEST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Amy G.; Habing, Brian

    2008-01-01

    DIMTEST is a nonparametric hypothesis-testing procedure designed to test the assumptions of a unidimensional and locally independent item response theory model. Several previous Monte Carlo studies have found that using linear factor analysis to select the assessment subtest for DIMTEST results in a moderate to severe loss of power when the exam…

  1. Selecting ICT Based Solutions for Quality Learning and Sustainable Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosper, Maree; Woo, Karen; Muir, Helen; Dudley, Christine; Nakazawa, Kayo

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a project involving software selection in the context of a curriculum redesign of a university level Japanese language program. The project aimed to improve learning outcomes, increase flexibility in student access, and increase flexibility in approaches to teaching and learning, through the use of a variety of software…

  2. Uncovering Molecular Bases Underlying Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Inhibitor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Alsamarah, Abdelaziz; LaCuran, Alecander E.; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Hao, Jijun; Luo, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal alteration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is implicated in many types of diseases including cancer and heterotopic ossifications. Hence, small molecules targeting BMP type I receptors (BMPRI) to interrupt BMP signaling are believed to be an effective approach to treat these diseases. However, lack of understanding of the molecular determinants responsible for the binding selectivity of current BMP inhibitors has been a big hindrance to the development of BMP inhibitors for clinical use. To address this issue, we carried out in silico experiments to test whether computational methods can reproduce and explain the high selectivity of a small molecule BMP inhibitor DMH1 on BMPRI kinase ALK2 vs. the closely related TGF-β type I receptor kinase ALK5 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) tyrosine kinase. We found that, while the rigid docking method used here gave nearly identical binding affinity scores among the three kinases; free energy perturbation coupled with Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics (FEP/H-REMD) simulations reproduced the absolute binding free energies in excellent agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the binding poses identified by FEP/H-REMD led to a quantitative analysis of physical/chemical determinants governing DMH1 selectivity. The current work illustrates that small changes in the binding site residue type (e.g. pre-hinge region in ALK2 vs. ALK5) or side chain orientation (e.g. Tyr219 in caALK2 vs. wtALK2), as well as a subtle structural modification on the ligand (e.g. DMH1 vs. LDN193189) will cause distinct binding profiles and selectivity among BMP inhibitors. Therefore, the current computational approach represents a new way of investigating BMP inhibitors. Our results provide critical information for designing exclusively selective BMP inhibitors for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for diseases caused by aberrant BMP signaling. PMID:26133550

  3. Comparison of automated and manual purification of total RNA for mRNA-based identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Kitayama, Tetsushi; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Silica column-based RNA purification procedures have widespread use in mRNA profiling for body fluid identification in forensic samples. Also, automated RNA purification systems employing magnetic bead technology have recently become available. In this preliminary study, to ascertain which RNA purification technology is more suitable for the identification of body fluids by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative analyses of the yield and quality of total RNA were performed between automated purification using an EZ1 Advanced Instrument and manual purification using an RNeasy Mini Kit. The yield and size distribution of total RNA were compared by gene expression analysis of two different sized fragments of the β-actin gene. In addition, the relative amounts of several target genes were compared between the purification methods, and the integrity of total RNA was determined by chip-based electrophoresis. The results of this study suggest that RNeasy can purify higher-quality RNA as compared with automated purification using EZ1. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR analysis, however, was higher in the EZ1-purified samples, likely due to the relative efficiency of EZ1 in extracting short-length RNA from degraded samples. We also show that the quantification of relative levels of body fluid-specific genes could be influenced by the purification procedure. Our results indicate that although use of high-quality RNA is generally required for reproducible results in gene expression analysis, the forensic relevance of short RNA fragments in highly degraded samples cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, our results suggest that automated purification procedures as well as silica column-based manual purification procedures can be used for mRNA-based body fluid identification in forensic samples. PMID:25270217

  4. Mantle heat drives hydrothermal fluids responsible for carbonate-hosted base metal deposits: evidence from 3He/4He of ore fluids in the Irish Pb-Zn ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidheiser-Kroll, B.; Stuart, F. M.; Boyce, A. J.

    2014-06-01

    There is little consensus on whether carbonate-hosted base metal deposits, such as the world-class Irish Zn + Pb ore field, formed in collisional or extensional tectonic settings. Helium isotopes have been analysed in ore fluids trapped in sulphides samples from the major base metal deposits of the Irish Zn-Pb ore field in order to quantify the involvement of mantle-derived volatiles that require melting to be realised, as well as test prevailing models for the genesis of the ore fields. 3He/4He ratios range up to 0.2 R a, indicating that a small but clear mantle helium contribution is present in the mineralising fluids trapped in galena and marcasite. Sulphides from ore deposits with the highest fluid inclusion temperatures (~200 °C) also have the highest 3He/4He (>0.15 R a). Similar 3He/4He are recorded in fluids from modern continental regions that are undergoing active extension. By analogy, we consider that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for the carbonate-hosted Irish base metal mineralization circulated in thinned continental crust undergoing extension and demonstrate that enhanced mantle heat flow is ultimately responsible for driving fluid convection.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics for propulsion technology: Geometric grid visualization in CFD-based propulsion technology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziebarth, John P.; Meyer, Doug

    1992-01-01

    The coordination is examined of necessary resources, facilities, and special personnel to provide technical integration activities in the area of computational fluid dynamics applied to propulsion technology. Involved is the coordination of CFD activities between government, industry, and universities. Current geometry modeling, grid generation, and graphical methods are established to use in the analysis of CFD design methodologies.

  6. Stability and magnetorheological behaviour of magnetic fluids based on ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Arco, Laura; López-López, Modesto T.; Durán, Juan D. G.; Zubarev, Andrey; Chirikov, Dmitrij

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports the preparation of magnetic fluids consisting of magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in an ionic liquid. Different additives were used in order to stabilize the fluids. Colloidal stability was checked by magnetic sedimentation, centrifugation and direct observation. The results of these tests showed that a true ferrofluid was only obtained when the nanoparticles were coated with a layer of surfactant compatible with the ionic liquid. These experiments also showed that stability could not be reached just by electrostatic repulsion. The conclusions of the stability tests were confirmed by calculations of the interparticle energies of interaction. The rheological behaviour of the magnetic fluids upon magnetic field application was also investigated. The experimental magnetoviscous response was fitted by a microstructural model. The model considered that the fluids consisted of two populations of particles, one with a magnetic core diameter of 9 nm, and another with a larger diameter. Upon field application chain-like structures are supposed to be induced. According to estimations particles of 9 nm are too small to aggregate upon field application. The results of the calculations showed that the intensity of the magnetoviscous response depends on the concentration and size of the large particles, and on the thickness of the surfactant layers.

  7. Stability and magnetorheological behaviour of magnetic fluids based on ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arco, Laura; López-López, Modesto T; Durán, Juan D G; Zubarev, Andrey; Chirikov, Dmitrij

    2011-11-16

    This paper reports the preparation of magnetic fluids consisting of magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in an ionic liquid. Different additives were used in order to stabilize the fluids. Colloidal stability was checked by magnetic sedimentation, centrifugation and direct observation. The results of these tests showed that a true ferrofluid was only obtained when the nanoparticles were coated with a layer of surfactant compatible with the ionic liquid. These experiments also showed that stability could not be reached just by electrostatic repulsion. The conclusions of the stability tests were confirmed by calculations of the interparticle energies of interaction. The rheological behaviour of the magnetic fluids upon magnetic field application was also investigated. The experimental magnetoviscous response was fitted by a microstructural model. The model considered that the fluids consisted of two populations of particles, one with a magnetic core diameter of 9 nm, and another with a larger diameter. Upon field application chain-like structures are supposed to be induced. According to estimations particles of 9 nm are too small to aggregate upon field application. The results of the calculations showed that the intensity of the magnetoviscous response depends on the concentration and size of the large particles, and on the thickness of the surfactant layers. PMID:21971064

  8. A novel enzyme-based acidizing system: Matrix acidizing and drilling fluid damage removal

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, D.M.; Moses, V.

    1995-12-31

    A novel acidizing process is used to increase the permeability of carbonate rock cores in the laboratory and to remove drilling fluid damage from cores and wafers. Field results show the benefits of the technology as applied both to injector and producer wells.

  9. Chemical properties and consumer perception of fluid milk from conventional and pasture-based production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract: The continued popularity of organic and natural foods has generated interest in organic milk, and use of pasture for dairy cattle is a requirement for organic production. This process may improve the health benefits of fluid milk via increases in the unsaturated fatty acid cont...

  10. Resolution of Chronic Aspiration Pneumonitis Following Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Justin; Babadjouni, Arash; Wrobel, Bozena B.; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to a skull base defect requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Multiple surgical options are available for repairing the fistula, including the two-layer “fascial apposition” method and use of a pedicled nasal-septal flap. A 44-year-old obese woman presented with 4 months of progressive cough, exertional dyspnea, hoarseness, and intermittent fluid drainage from the right nostril. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging and bronchoscopy showed chronic pneumonitis, which was confirmed by pulmonary wedge resection. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the skull base, as well as laboratory analysis of the nasal fluid for β2-transferrin, confirmed a skull base defect causing CSF rhinorrhea. During surgery, insertion of a lumbar drain with the intrathecal fluorescein administration was performed, followed by endoscopic endonasal repair using an autologous fascial apposition graft and pedicled nasal-septal flap. Both the CSF leak and the pulmonary complications resolved following the operation with no symptoms at 11-month follow-up. This is the first reported case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea complicated by chronic aspiration and pneumonitis. Increased diagnostic complexity due to chronic pulmonary complications resulted in unnecessary interventions and treatment delays. Prompt recognition of spontaneous CSF leaks is essential to prevent potentially harmful complications. PMID:27247911

  11. Resolution of Chronic Aspiration Pneumonitis Following Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula of the Skull Base.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Justin; Babadjouni, Arash; Wrobel, Bozena B; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to a skull base defect requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Multiple surgical options are available for repairing the fistula, including the two-layer "fascial apposition" method and use of a pedicled nasal-septal flap. A 44-year-old obese woman presented with 4 months of progressive cough, exertional dyspnea, hoarseness, and intermittent fluid drainage from the right nostril. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging and bronchoscopy showed chronic pneumonitis, which was confirmed by pulmonary wedge resection. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the skull base, as well as laboratory analysis of the nasal fluid for β2-transferrin, confirmed a skull base defect causing CSF rhinorrhea. During surgery, insertion of a lumbar drain with the intrathecal fluorescein administration was performed, followed by endoscopic endonasal repair using an autologous fascial apposition graft and pedicled nasal-septal flap. Both the CSF leak and the pulmonary complications resolved following the operation with no symptoms at 11-month follow-up. This is the first reported case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea complicated by chronic aspiration and pneumonitis. Increased diagnostic complexity due to chronic pulmonary complications resulted in unnecessary interventions and treatment delays. Prompt recognition of spontaneous CSF leaks is essential to prevent potentially harmful complications. PMID:27247911

  12. Silicon-Based Chemical Motors: An Efficient Pump for Triggering and Guiding Fluid Motion Using Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple yet highly efficient chemical motor that can be controlled with visible light. The motor made from a noble metal and doped silicon acts as a pump, which is driven through a light-activated catalytic reaction process. We show that the actuation is based on electro-osmosis with the electric field generated by chemical reactions at the metal and silicon surfaces, whereas the contribution of diffusio-osmosis to the actuation is negligible. Surprisingly, the pump can be operated using water as fuel. This is possible because of the large ζ-potential of silicon, which makes the electro-osmotic fluid motion sizable even though the electric field generated by the reaction is weak. The electro-hydrodynamic process is greatly amplified with the addition of reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide, which generates higher electric fields. Another remarkable finding is the tunability of silicon-based pumps. That is, it is possible to control the speed of the fluid with light. We take advantage of this property to manipulate the spatial distribution of colloidal microparticles in the liquid and to pattern colloidal microparticle structures at specific locations on a wafer surface. Silicon-based pumps hold great promise for controlled mass transport in fluids. PMID:26349036

  13. Silicon-Based Chemical Motors: An Efficient Pump for Triggering and Guiding Fluid Motion Using Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Esplandiu, Maria J; Farniya, Ali Afshar; Bachtold, Adrian

    2015-11-24

    We report a simple yet highly efficient chemical motor that can be controlled with visible light. The motor made from a noble metal and doped silicon acts as a pump, which is driven through a light-activated catalytic reaction process. We show that the actuation is based on electro-osmosis with the electric field generated by chemical reactions at the metal and silicon surfaces, whereas the contribution of diffusio-osmosis to the actuation is negligible. Surprisingly, the pump can be operated using water as fuel. This is possible because of the large ζ-potential of silicon, which makes the electro-osmotic fluid motion sizable even though the electric field generated by the reaction is weak. The electro-hydrodynamic process is greatly amplified with the addition of reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide, which generates higher electric fields. Another remarkable finding is the tunability of silicon-based pumps. That is, it is possible to control the speed of the fluid with light. We take advantage of this property to manipulate the spatial distribution of colloidal microparticles in the liquid and to pattern colloidal microparticle structures at specific locations on a wafer surface. Silicon-based pumps hold great promise for controlled mass transport in fluids. PMID:26349036

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Cremer; Dave Wang; Connie Senior; Andrew Chiodo; Steven Hardy; Paul Wolff

    2005-07-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project was to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. The focus of this project was to quantify the potential impacts of ''fine level'' controls rather than that of ''coarse level'' controls (i.e. combustion tuning). Although it is well accepted that combustion tuning will generally improve efficiency and emissions of an ''out of tune'' boiler, it is not as well understood what benefits can be derived through active multiburner measurement and control systems in boiler that has coarse level controls. The approach used here was to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner air and fuel flow rates. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center have been active participants in this project. CFD simulations were completed for five coal fired boilers as planned: (1) 150 MW wall fired, (2) 500 MW opposed wall fired, (3) 600 MW T-Fired, (4) 330 MW cyclone-fired, and (5) 200 MW T-Fired Twin Furnace. In all cases, the unit selections were made in order to represent units that were descriptive of the utility industry as a whole. For each unit, between 25 and 44 furnace simulations were completed in order to evaluate impacts of burner to burner variations in: (1) coal and primary air flow rate, and (2) secondary air flow rate. The parametric matrices of cases that were completed were

  15. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy; Riley, Jim

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flow-off characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 deg. angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24% on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3% on the PIWT model at 8 deg. angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2%. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3% to 9.2%, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  16. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Riley, James T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24 percent on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3 percent on the PIWT model at 8 angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2 percent. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3 to 9.2 percent, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  17. Bedrock Channel and Cave Evolution Models Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perne, M.; Covington, M. D.; Cooper, M.

    2014-12-01

    Models of bedrock channel cross-section evolution typically rely on simple approximations of boundary shear stress to calculate erosion rates across the channel. While such models provide a useful tool for gaining general insight into channel dynamics, they also exhibit a narrower range of behaviors than seen in nature and scale experiments. Recent computational advances enable use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to relax many of the assumptions used in these simple models by simulating the full 3D flow field and resulting erosion. We have developed a model of bedrock channel evolution at the reach scale, using CFD, that alternates flow simulation steps with channel evolution steps and evolves the channel in time according to shear stresses calculated from the CFD runs. Caves provide an ideal field setting for studying bedrock channel dynamics, because long records of incision are often preserved in the form of channel widths, meander patterns, and sculpted forms, such as scallops, that indicate flow velocity and direction. However, most existing numerical models of cave formation investigate processes on larger scales, treat conduits as simple shapes, such as cylinders, and deal with the early stages of speleogenesis when sediment transport and erosion mechanisms other than dissolution do not have to be taken into account. Therefore, initial applications of the CFD model focus on the dynamics of cave channels, and particularly on the controls of channel width. While discharge, base level, sediment supply, and the ratio of dissolution to mechanical erosion, are likely to play important roles in determining channel width, we lack a quantitative understanding for the importance of these various factors. Notches in passage walls are thought to result from lateral erosion during periods of increased sediment load when the bed is armored. Modeling is used to check the plausibility of this explanation, and examine whether other mechanisms may also produce notches

  18. Neural bases of behavior selection without an objective correct answer.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Takashi; Osumi, Takahiro; Ohira, Hideki; Kasuya, Yukinori; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro

    2009-07-31

    Life choice (e.g. occupation choice) often includes situations with two or more possible answers. How does the brain respond to such conflict-ridden situations? We investigated whether the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) evaluates the degree of conflict between possible answers. Additionally, we investigated whether the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) or the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has a function in behavior selection with plural possible answers. We used an occupational choice task (e.g. which occupation do you think you could do better?-dancer or chemist) with two possible answers and a word-length task (e.g. which word is longer?-dentist or comedian) that has a correct answer. The conflicts in each task were manipulated. Results showed that the dACC and the MTL were activated when the conflict during occupational choice was large, and that the MPFC and posterior cingulate cortex were activated more in the occupational choice task than in the word-length task. Our results show that the dACC evaluates the degree of conflict between possible answers, and that the MTL, MPFC, and posterior cingulate cortex have a function in behavior selection without an objective correct answer. It is thought that the MTL functions to reduce conflict when a large-conflict is detected in the dACC. Furthermore, the MPFC and posterior cingulate are thought to have a function of biasing any of the plural answers in behavior selection without an objective answer. PMID:19409960

  19. Multilevel selection in a resource-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2013-07-01

    In the present work we investigate the emergence of cooperation in a multilevel selection model that assumes limiting resources. Following the work by R. J. Requejo and J. Camacho [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.038701 108, 038701 (2012)], the interaction among individuals is initially ruled by a prisoner's dilemma (PD) game. The payoff matrix may change, influenced by the resource availability, and hence may also evolve to a non-PD game. Furthermore, one assumes that the population is divided into groups, whose local dynamics is driven by the payoff matrix, whereas an intergroup competition results from the nonuniformity of the growth rate of groups. We study the probability that a single cooperator can invade and establish in a population initially dominated by defectors. Cooperation is strongly favored when group sizes are small. We observe the existence of a critical group size beyond which cooperation becomes counterselected. Although the critical size depends on the parameters of the model, it is seen that a saturation value for the critical group size is achieved. The results conform to the thought that the evolutionary history of life repeatedly involved transitions from smaller selective units to larger selective units.

  20. Dynamic Educational e-Content Selection Using Multiple Criteria in Web-Based Personalized Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouselis, Nikos; Sampson, Demetrios

    This paper focuses on the way a multi-criteria decision making methodology is applied in the case of agent-based selection of offered learning objects. The problem of selection is modeled as a decision making one, with the decision variables being the learner model and the learning objects' educational description. In this way, selection of…

  1. Development of Novel Glucose Sensing Fluids with Potential Application to Microelectromechanical Systems-Based Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Siqi; Huang, Xian; Davis, Erin N.; Lin, Qiao; Wang, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Background We have previously presented a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) viscometric sensor for continuous glucose monitoring. The sensing fluid used therein was based on protein concanavalin A, which is known to have significant drawbacks, such as immunotoxicity and instability. To address this issue, a stable, biocompatible polymeric sensing fluid has been developed. Methods In the polymeric sensing system, glucose reversibly formed strong ester bonds with the phenylboronic acid moiety on the poly(acrylamide-ran-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) (PAA-ran-PAAPBA) polymer backbone, resulting in cross-linking of the copolymers and an increase in the solution viscosity. The copolymers were synthesized via classic free radical copolymerization processes. The viscosity of the PAA-ran-PAAPBA, dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline buffer and in the presence of glucose at physiologically relevant concentrations, was measured by an Ubbelodhe viscometer and a prototype MEMS viscometric device. Results Experimental results showed that the polymer molecular weight and composition depended on the solvent quantity, while the sensing fluid viscosity was determined by the polymer molecular weight and percentage composition of PAAPBA. The study of the temperature effect on viscosity showed that the polymer sensed glucose effectively under physiological conditions, although the high temperature lowered its sensitivity. Through proper adjustment of these parameters, a distinctive viscosity increase was observed when the glucose concentration increased from 0 to 450 mg/dl, which was detectable by our prototype MEMS device. Conclusions We have successfully developed a stable, biocompatible polymeric system for the sensitive detection of glucose. MEMS experiments demonstrated that the sensing fluid was able to sense glucose at different concentrations. This sensing system can potentially enable highly reliable, continuous monitoring of glucose in interstitial fluid from

  2. A new mechanism for fluid migration in midcrustal shear zones based on viscous grain boundary sliding and creep cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusseis, F.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Liu, J.

    2009-04-01

    showed that along the strain gradient, towards the shear zone center, the total porosity doubled from ~2.5% to >4% and that the relative frequency of the smallest detectable pores (1.3-3.9 microns) increases from <25% to more than 35%. At the same time it revealed a change in the character and distribution of pores: In low-strain segments of the shear zone margin large pores (> tens of microns) tend to cluster in plagioclase grains, a form of porosity that is associated with feldspar decay and a removal of chemical components. Towards the shear zone center, pores are smaller (micron-sized and below) and generally occur along grain boundaries. Most pores occur in ‘pore sheets' that characterize the multiphase ultramylonitic layers. These grain boundary pores often occur at triple junctions. Lobes extending into neighboring grains and pockmarked surfaces evidence dissolution; little crystallites in grain boundary pores indicate precipitation and mineral growth. Both observations indicate the presence of a fluid. Our observations show that the transition in the dominant viscous deformation mechanism coincides with a change in the amount, character and distribution of porosity. We interpret the porosity in the shear zone center to result from a combination of creep cavitation (Fusseis et al., in review) and dissolution. Based in this, we develop a model for fluid migration in the shear zone center: The relative motion of grains during viscous grain boundary sliding is responsible for the simultaneous opening and closure of fluid-filled grain boundary pores by creep cavitation. Assuming at least partially open grain boundaries in the stressed aggregates, grain boundary sliding thereby gives rise to minute grain-scale pressure differences between neighboring pores. These pressure differences initiate a granular fluid pump. The fluid pressure in the individual cavities is the sum of the mechanical pumping term and a ‘virtual' pressure caused by the solution reactions and

  3. Activity-Based Proteome Profiling Probes Based on Woodward's Reagent K with Distinct Target Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yong; Schürmann, Marc; Janning, Petra; Hedberg, Christian; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-06-27

    Woodward's reagent K (WRK) is a reactive heterocyclic compound that has been employed in protein chemistry to covalently and unspecifically label proteins at nucleophilic amino acids, notably at histidine and cysteine. We have developed a panel of WRK-derived activity-based probes and show that surprisingly and unexpectedly, these probes are fairly selective for a few proteins in the human proteome. The WRK-derived probes show unique reactivity towards the catalytic N-terminal proline in the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and can be used to label and, if equipped with a fluorophore, to image MIF activities in living cells. PMID:27159346

  4. Investigations of microscale fluid-thermal phenomena based on the deterministic Boltzmann-ESBGK model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaohui

    Fluid and thermal problems are widely encountered in micro/nano-scale devices, the characteristic lengths of which are from hundreds of microns down to tens of nanometers. A great number of such devices involve fundamental components like microchannels, capillaries, membranes and cantilever beams. Continuum assumptions that lead to classical governing equations such as Navier-Stokes equations and Fourier Laws break down when the characteristic size shrinks by an order of millions. In addition, conventional sensors, actuators and controllers turn to be insufficient to depict the flow, thermal, or electrical fields in micro-devices without impacting the original conditions greatly. Therefore, the development of numerical methods becomes indispensable in design and performance analysis of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The main goal of this PhD research is the development, implementation and application of comprehensive deterministic Boltzmann-ESBGK modeling framework to micro-scale fluid-thermal phenomena. Investigation of gas flows in short rectangular microchannels has been carried out to understand the rarefaction effects on the reduced mass-flow-rate as well as the non-equilibrium effects on the temperature components. At high Knudsen numbers, the reduced mass-flow-rate only depends on the pressure ratio and the temperature components deviate at the channel exit. For gas flows in long microchannels with and without constrictions, the Navier-Stokes equations with first-order slip boundary conditions are solved. Numerical results accurately predict the entrance pressure drop comparing to high-resolution experimental data using pressure-sensitive-paint (PSP). Simultions show clearly that the compressibility effects become less important than the rarefaction effects at low pressures. The coupled gas-phonon Boltzmann solver has been developed. The reduced distribution functions are used in the two-dimensional code to reduce the computational cost. The

  5. 44 CFR 321.2 - Selection of the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Department of Defense mobilization base, consideration shall be given to their vulnerability to nuclear attack, with particular attention to the possibility of (1) minimizing vulnerability of...

  6. 44 CFR 321.2 - Selection of the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Department of Defense mobilization base, consideration shall be given to their vulnerability to nuclear attack, with particular attention to the possibility of (1) minimizing vulnerability of...

  7. 44 CFR 321.2 - Selection of the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Department of Defense mobilization base, consideration shall be given to their vulnerability to nuclear attack, with particular attention to the possibility of (1) minimizing vulnerability of...

  8. 44 CFR 321.2 - Selection of the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Department of Defense mobilization base, consideration shall be given to their vulnerability to nuclear attack, with particular attention to the possibility of (1) minimizing vulnerability of...

  9. GeneRIF indexing: sentence selection based on machine learning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF) describes novel functionality of genes. GeneRIFs are available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene database. GeneRIF indexing is performed manually, and the intention of our work is to provide methods to support creating the GeneRIF entries. The creation of GeneRIF entries involves the identification of the genes mentioned in MEDLINE®; citations and the sentences describing a novel function. Results We have compared several learning algorithms and several features extracted or derived from MEDLINE sentences to determine if a sentence should be selected for GeneRIF indexing. Features are derived from the sentences or using mechanisms to augment the information provided by them: assigning a discourse label using a previously trained model, for example. We show that machine learning approaches with specific feature combinations achieve results close to one of the annotators. We have evaluated different feature sets and learning algorithms. In particular, Naïve Bayes achieves better performance with a selection of features similar to one used in related work, which considers the location of the sentence, the discourse of the sentence and the functional terminology in it. Conclusions The current performance is at a level similar to human annotation and it shows that machine learning can be used to automate the task of sentence selection for GeneRIF annotation. The current experiments are limited to the human species. We would like to see how the methodology can be extended to other species, specifically the normalization of gene mentions in other species. PMID:23725347

  10. Liquid accumulation in vibrating vocal fold tissue: A simplified model based on a fluid-saturated porous solid theory

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J.; Czerwonka, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The human vocal fold is treated as a continuous, transversally isotropic, porous solid saturated with liquid. A set of mathematical equations, based on the theory of fluid-saturated porous solids, is developed to formulate the vibration of the vocal fold tissue. As the fluid-saturated porous tissue model degenerates to the continuous elastic tissue model when the relative movement of liquid in the porous tissue is ignored, it can be considered a more general description of vocal fold tissue than the continuous, elastic model. Using the fluid-saturated porous tissue model, the vibration of a bunch of one-dimensional fibers in the vocal fold is analytically solved based on the small amplitude assumption. It is found that the vibration of the tissue will lead to the accumulation of excess liquid in the midmembranous vocal fold. The degree of liquid accumulation is positively proportional to the vibratory amplitude and frequency. The correspondence between the liquid distribution predicted by the porous tissue theory and the location of vocal nodules observed in clinical practice, provides theoretical evidence for the liquid accumulation hypothesis of vocal nodule formation (Jiang, Ph. D., dissertation, 1991, University of Iowa). PMID:19660905

  11. Inhibition of Return and Object-Based Attentional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Alexandra; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    Visual attention research has revealed that attentional allocation can occur in space- and/or object-based coordinates. Using the direct and elegant design of R. Egly, J. Driver, and R. Rafal (1994), the present experiments tested whether space- and object-based inhibition of return (IOR) emerge under similar time courses. The experiments were…

  12. Comment on 'Vibration analysis of fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotubes based on nonlocal elastic theory'.

    PubMed

    Tounsi, Abdeloauhed; Heireche, Houari; Benzair, Abdelnour; Mechab, Ismail

    2009-11-01

    Most recently, Lee and Chang (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 115302) combined nonlocal theory and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in the study of the vibration of the fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotube. In this recent published work, the importance of using nonlocal stress tensors consistently has been overlooked, and some ensuring relations were still presented based on the local stress components. Therefore, the governing equations and applied forces obtained in this manner are either inconsistent or incomplete. In this comment, the consistent governing equations for modelling free transverse vibration of the fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotube using the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model are derived. PMID:21832479

  13. Solid-phase extraction strategies to surmount body fluid sample complexity in high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bladergroen, Marco R; van der Burgt, Yuri E M

    2015-01-01

    For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods that involve solid-phase extraction (SPE) including affinity enrichment strategies have been automated. Obtained peptide and protein fractions can be mass analyzed by direct infusion into an electrospray ionization (ESI) source or by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) without further need of time-consuming liquid chromatography (LC) separations. PMID:25692071

  14. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  15. Refractive-Index-Based Sorting of Colloidal Particles Using a Subwavelength Optical Fiber in a Static Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2013-07-01

    An optical-fiber-based technique is presented for refractive-index-based sorting of colloidal particles in a static fluid. The method employs the different optical scattering forces exerted by a subwavelength optical fiber on colloidal particles with different refractive indices. By launching two counterpropagating laser beams at wavelengths of 808 and 1047 nm into a fiber of 800 nm diameter, the resultant scattering forces acting on polystyrene and SiO2 particles can be in opposite directions, which leads to a countertransport of the particles along the fiber. Experiments are performed using the fiber to sort the particles of 650 nm size.

  16. Optimal search-based gene subset selection for gene array cancer classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiexun; Su, Hua; Chen, Hsinchun; Futscher, Bernard W

    2007-07-01

    High dimensionality has been a major problem for gene array-based cancer classification. It is critical to identify marker genes for cancer diagnoses. We developed a framework of gene selection methods based on previous studies. This paper focuses on optimal search-based subset selection methods because they evaluate the group performance of genes and help to pinpoint global optimal set of marker genes. Notably, this paper is the first to introduce tabu search (TS) to gene selection from high-dimensional gene array data. Our comparative study of gene selection methods demonstrated the effectiveness of optimal search-based gene subset selection to identify cancer marker genes. TS was shown to be a promising tool for gene subset selection. PMID:17674622

  17. Simulation of single microorganism motion in fluid based on granular model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viridi, S.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Microorganism model for simulating its motion is proposed in this work. It consists of granular particles which can interact to each other through linear spring mimicking microorganism muscles, which is simpler than other model. As a part of the organism organ is moving, while the other remains at its position, it will push the surrounding fluid through Stoke's force and as reaction the fluid pushes back the microorganism. Contracting force is used to change the distance between two points in the organ. Gravity influence is simply neglected in this work. All the considered forces are used to get motion parameters of organism through molecular dynamics method. It is observed that the use of contracting (push-pull) organ constructs slightly more effective model than shrink- and swell-organs as previously investigated, if weighted effectiveness formula is used as function of number of considered forces and involved particles.

  18. Liquid Gallium based temperature sensitive functional fluid dispersing chemically synthesized FeMB nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. S.; Cao, L. F.; Dodbiba, G.; Fujita, T.

    2009-02-01

    In this work, FeMB (M = Nb, V) nanoparticles were first reported to be synthesized by a chemical method, from reduction of FeCl2, NbF5 (and NH4VO3) using NaBH4 as a reducing agent in aqueous solution. A new temperature sensitive functional fluid was then prepared by dispersing silica coated FeNbVB nanoparticles in liquid gallium. The result shows that the FeNbVB nanoparticles exhibit an oxidation resistance better than that of FeNbB nanoparticles. The FeNbVB nanoparticles were in the size range of 30 - 50 nm and the thickness of silica layer was observed about 10 nm by means of transmission electron microscopy. The magnetization of the synthesized particles and fluid shows a temperature dependency within the testing temperature range of 293 - 353 K, which indicated their application potential in magneto-caloric energy conversion devices.

  19. NMR Mechanisms and Fluid Typing Based on Numerical Simulation in Gas-Bearing Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, M.; Xu, J.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-01

    In Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) survey of oil- or gas-bearing shales, the relaxation is so fast and the diffusion is so low, and oil or gas typing is difficult to distinguish from each other using the previous analysis method. To study the NMR responses in gas-bearing shale, we supposed an ideal shale model including incredible water, free and adsorbed gas, and kerogen. Firstly, we supposed a series of ideal shale models with incredible water, free and adsorbed gas, and kerogen. Then, some simulations are performed for two-dimensional T2-D plots, and NMR characteristics are summarized successfully. Then, a series of simulations of different models with different adsorbed gas fractions are made, and the NMR responses are analyzed, from which we can identify the adsorbed gas and free gas. In inversion, a hybrid method with LSQR and TSVD is proved suitable for D-T2 NMR of gas shale with slow and fast diffusion, and short and long relaxation. It is noticed that the activation sequence of NMR is also important for accurate fluid typing in gas-bearing shale. We design a series of activation sequences, and simulate the corresponding NMR echo decays, and invert the fluid properties to search for an optimal activation sequence for fluid typing purpose. Figure 1 SEM picture and petrophysical model of organic shale. (a) 2D SEM shows pore and kerogen within shale. Black deposits pore, and dark gray is kerogen, light grey is matrix including clay and silica; (b) Petrophysical model Figure 2 Comparison of 2D-NMR simulations with different adsorbed gas fractions, (a) ɛ =0.0, (b) ɛ =0.2, (c) ɛ=0.4, t (d) ɛ =0.6, (e) ɛ =0.8, and (f) ɛ=1.0. From D-T2 plots, the position and amplitude of signals in T2-D plots indicate the fluid typing and fraction of the gas or adsorbed gas.

  20. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.