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Sample records for based indentation technique

  1. A Load-Based Multiple-Partial Unloading Micro-Indentation Technique for Mechanical Property Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    C. Feng; J.M. Tannenbaum; B.S. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2009-07-23

    A load-based multiple-partial unloading microindentation technique has been developed for evaluating mechanical properties of materials. Comparing to the current prevailing nano/micro-indentation methods, which require precise measurements of the indentation depth and load, the proposed technique only measures indentation load and the overall indentation displacement (i.e. including displacement of the loading apparatus). Coupled with a multiple-partial unloading procedure during the indentation process, this technique results in a load-depth sensing indentation system capable of determining Young’s modulus of metallic alloys with flat, tubular, or curved architectures. Test results show consistent and correct elastic modulus values when performing indentation tests on standard alloys such as steel, aluminum, bronze, and single crystal superalloys. The proposed micro-indentation technique has led to the development of a portable loaddepth sensing indentation system capable of on-site, in-situ material property measurement.

  2. A Load-based Micro-indentation Technique for Mechanical Property and NDE Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Kang; Chuanyu Feng; Jared M. Tannenbaum; M.A. Alvin

    2009-06-04

    A load-based micro-indentation technique has been developed for evaluating mechanical properties of materials. Instead of using measured indentation depth or contact area as a necessary parameter, the new technique is based on the indentation load, coupled with a multiple-partial unloading procedure for mechanical property evaluation. The proposed load-based micro-indentation method is capable of determining Young’s modulus of metals, superalloys, and single crystal matrices, and stiffness of coated material systems with flat, tubular, or curved architectures. This micro-indentation technique can be viewed as a viable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for determining as-manufactured and process-exposed metal, superalloy, single crystal, and TBC-coated material properties. Based on this technique, several bond coated substrates were tested at various stages of thermal cycles. The time-series evaluation of test material surface stiffness reveals the status of coating strength without any alternation of the coating surface, making it a true time-series NDE investigation. The microindentation test results show good correlation with post mortem microstructural analyses. This technique also shows promise for the development of a portable instrument for on-line, in-situ NDE and mechanical properties measurement of structural components.

  3. A Load-based Depth-sensing Indentation Technique for NDE and Life Assessment of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    B. S.-J. Kang; C. Feng; J. M. Tannenbaum; M.A. Alvin

    2009-06-12

    In this paper, we present a load-based micro-indentation technique for evaluating material mechanical properties as well as degradation evaluation and debonding/spallation detection of thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials. Instead of using contact area as a necessary parameter, the new technique is based on the indentation load. Coupled with a multiple-partial unloading procedure during the indentation process, this technique results in a load-depth sensing indentation system capable of determining Young’s modulus of metals, superalloys, and single crystal matrices, and stiffness of coated material systems with flat, tubular, or curved architectures. This micro-indentation technique can be viewed as a viable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for determining as-manufactured and process-exposed metal, superalloy, single crystal, and TBC-coated material properties. This technique also shows promise for the development of a portable instrument for on-line, in-situ NDE and mechanical properties measurement of structural components.

  4. Viscoelastic properties of healthy human artery measured in saline solution by AFM based indentation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lundkvist, A.; Lilleodden, E.; Sickhaus, W.; Kinney, J.; Pruitt, L.; Balooch, M.

    1998-02-09

    Using an Atomic Force Microscope with an attachment for indentation, we have measured local, in vitro mechanical properties of healthy femoral artery tissue held in saline solution. The elastic modulus (34. 3 kPa) and viscoelastic response ({tau}sub{epsilon} {equals} 16.9 s and {tau}sub{sigma} {equals} 29.3 s) of the unstretched,intimal vessel wall have been determined using Sneddon theory and a three element model(standard linear solid) for viscoelastic materials. The procedures necessary to employ the indenting attachment to detect elastic moduli in the kPa range in liquid are described.

  5. Evaluation for rheological constitutive relations, using the indentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei

    1992-01-01

    A simple experimental method of determining the rheological constitutive relations is proposed. The method relies upon an analysis of the frictionless contact of a rigid spherical indenter and the rheological materials. The proposal addresses problems in two fields: rheological constitutive models and contact mechanics. It attempts to evaluate the rheological constitutive relations using an indentation technique. A systematic, optimization-based material parameter/function indentation model is proposed. The identification algorithm is based on a modified Marquardt-Levenberg method. A new integral constitutive equation for viscoelastic materials is derived. The derivation is carried out so that a damage function is included in the model in a relatively convenient form. Inclusion of damage effects makes this constitutive equation considerably more general than the widely accepted K-BKZ integral model. The single-step and double-step stress relaxation indentation experiments on asphalt materials were performed. The K-BKZ, Wagner, and nonlinear Volterra models were evaluated. It is demonstrated that the new integral constitutive model shows a very good agreement with the experimental data. The idea of damage function is introduced not only to have a better fit of data, but the damage (or irreversibility) is observed experimentally. Also, the creep indentation tests on composites were presented. A multiaxial theory of creep deformation for particle-strengthened metal matrix composites (Zhu-Weng Theory) was evaluated. The goal of the proposed research is to develop the indentation technique for use in basic mechanical studies. From the indentation test, material response is measured. The data are used in conjunction with the material parameter identification model to optimally back calculate the constitutive relations. indentation test and other experiment method demonstrates the viability of the proposed approach.

  6. Use of indentation technique to measure elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coating

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Sutaria, M.; Ferber, M.

    1997-01-01

    Elastic modulus of an yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) was evaluated with a Knoop indentation technique. The measured elastic modulus values for the coating ranged from 68.4 {+-} 22.6 GPa at an indentation load of 50 g to 35.7 {+-} 9.8 at an indentation load of 300 g. At higher loads, the elastic modulus values did not change significantly. This steady-state value of 35.7 GPa for ZrO{sub 2} TBC agreed well with literature values obtained by the Hertzian indentation method. Furthermore, the measured elastic modulus for the TBC is lower than that reported for bulk ZrO{sub 2} ({approx} 190 GPa). This difference is believed to be due to the presence of a significant amount of porosity and microcracks in the TBCs. Hardness was also measured.

  7. Measuring Depth-dependent Dislocation Densities and Elastic Strains in an Indented Ni-based Superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, O.M.; Santella, M.; Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Tischler, J.

    2011-12-14

    The indentation-induced elastic-plastic zone in an IN 740 Ni-based superalloy was studied by three-dimensional (3-D) x-ray microdiffraction and electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). Large lattice reorientations and the formation of geometrically necessary dislocations are observed in the area with a radius of {approx}75 {mu}m. A residual compression zone is found close to the indent edge. An elastic-plastic transition is observed at {approx}20 {mu}m from the indent edge. Depth dependent dislocation densities are determined at different distances from the indent edge.

  8. NON-DESTRUCTIVE THERMAL BARRIER COATING SPALLATION PREDICTION BY A LOADBASED MICRO-INDENTATION TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Tannenbaum; K. Lee; B. S.-J. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2010-11-18

    Currently, the durability and life cycle of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) applied to gas turbine blades and combustor components are limiting the maximum temperature and subsequent efficiency at which gas turbine engines operate. The development of new materials, coating technologies and evaluation techniques is required if enhanced efficiency is to be achieved. Of the current ceramic coating materials used in gas turbine engines, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is most prevalent, its low thermal conductivity, high thermal expansion coefficient and outstanding mechanical strength make it ideal for use in TBC systems. However, residual stresses caused by coefficients of thermal expansion mismatches within the TBC system and unstable thermally grown oxides are considered the primary causes for its premature and erratic spallation failure. Through finite element simulations, it is shown that the residual stresses generated within the thermally grown oxide (TGO), bond coat (BC), YSZ and their interfaces create slight variations in indentation unloading surface stiffness response prior to spallation failure. In this research, seven air plasma sprayed and one electron beam physical vapor deposition yttria partially stabilized zirconia TBCs were subjected to isothermal and cyclic loadings at 1100°C. The associated coating degradation was evaluated using a non-destructive multiple partial unloading micro-indentation procedure. The results show that the proposed non-destructive micro-indentation evaluation technique can be an effective and specimenindependent TBC failure prediction tool capable of determining the location of initial spallation failure prior to its actual occurrence.

  9. Mechanical Characterization of Copper-Copper Wires Joined by Friction Welding Using Instrumented Indentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M.; Xuriguera, E.; Martínez, M.; Padilla, J. A.; Molera, J.; Ferrer, N.; Segarra, M.; Espiell, F.

    2014-11-01

    Friction welding samples of both the fire-refined high-conductivity (FRHC) and electrolytically tough pitch (ETP) copper alloy wires have been mechanically characterized by instrumented indentation technique and tensile test. Hardness profiles in the perpendicular direction to the weld interface, in both the central and peripheral zones, of the as-welded FRHC-FRHC and ETP-ETP samples have been investigated at nano-/micrometric scale. The microstructures of welds have been observed using both the optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The results show the typical friction welding zones: the interface zone, the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and the transition zone between the TMAZ and the base metal zone (BMZ) that present a microstructure and hardness close to the base metal. No presence of a heat-affected zone is observed. Although both welds show the same tendency in hardness distribution, FHRC-FHRC weld presents a TMAZ narrower than ETP-ETP one, which produces a stronger drop in hardness with increasing of the distance from welding central line, and a higher difference in hardness between the central and peripheral zones. The tensile tests of ETP-ETP welds showed that all samples broke by the BMZ that is far away from the interface of the welded joint, while the most of the FRHC-FRHC welds are broken at the TMAZ region at low strengths. These appreciable differences in mechanical properties for the FHRC-FHRC welds are probably generated by a stronger variation in their microstructural properties. Therefore, it may justify the welding failures in the FHRC-FHRC weld at the typical tensile stress for an industrial cold-drawn process of wires.

  10. Determining interfacial properties of submicron low-k films on Si substrate by using wedge indentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, Kong Boon; Zeng, Kaiyang; Jiang, Haiyan; Shen, Lu; Chi, Dongzhi

    2007-06-01

    This article presents studies on using a wedge indentation technique to determine interfacial adhesion properties of low-k dielectric films, namely, methyl-silsesquioxane (MSQ) and black diamond (BD™)films, both on a Si substrate. Interfacial crack initiation and propagation processes in the MSQ/Si system are studied by using focused-ion-beam sectioning of the indentation impressions created by wedge tips with 90° and 120° of inclusion angles, respectively. Furthermore, the indentation induced stress is found to be proportional to the ratio of the indentation volume and the interface delamination crack volume for both plane strain and nonplane strain cases. With this analysis, the interface toughness of the MSQ/Si and BD/Si system, in terms of the strain energy release rate, is determined. The interface toughness for the MSQ/Si system is found to be a value of 1.89±0.28J/m2 for the 90° wedge tip indentation and 1.92±0.08J/m2 for the 120° wedge tip indentation. In addition, using the 120° wedge tip, the interface toughnesses of the BD films on the Si substrate with 200 and 500nm thicknesses are found to be the values of 6.62±1.52 and 6.35±2.27J/m2, respectively.

  11. Indentation Behavior of Zr-Based Metallic-Glass Films via Molecular-Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Che; Wu, Chun-Yi; Chu, Jinn P.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2010-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) models of the Zr-based metallic-glass film (Zr47Cu31Al13Ni9, in atomic percent) were constructed by simulating sputter depositions on the titanium substrate. The as-deposited films were used as initial structures for subsequent nanoindentation simulations. For the deposition simulations, a many-body, tight-binding (TB) potential was adopted for interatomic interactions among the multiple species of atoms. The interactions between the metallic atoms and working gas (Ar+) were modeled with the pairwise Moliere potential. The TB potential parameters for unlike atoms were chosen to be the algebraic average of those for like ones, and hence, the MD simulations provide qualitative information. The deposition simulations revealed an amorphous morphology in the as-deposited films. Indentation simulations with a right-angle conical indenter tip showed a homogeneous flow to form pileups on the surface of the metallic glass around the indent. The pileup index calculated from MD is consistent with that obtained from the experiment. Moreover, our MD results show that the pileup index exhibits anomalies, which are defined as unusual changes in the values of the pileup index, around the experimentally found glass-transformation temperature through in situ indentation simulations at elevated temperatures. From indentation load-displacement curves at various temperatures, indentation modulus and hardness obtained from MD simulations were in qualitative agreement with experimental findings in terms of their decreasing rates with respect to the temperature. Three-dimensional atomic-strain calculations revealed strain localization and propagation of shear bands under the indenter tip at their initial evolution stages after the formation of shear transformation zones. In addition, higher loading rates decrease hardness, cause larger disturbed regions under the indent, and enlarge shear-banding patterns.

  12. Nano-indentation study on the (001) face of KDP crystal based on SPH method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoguang, Guo; Ziyuan, Liu; Hang, Gao; Dongming, Guo

    2015-08-01

    In order to avoid the defects of mesh distortion when dealing with large deformation problems through using the finite element method, a mess-free simulation method—smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been introduced. The material constitutive model of KDP crystal has been established based on the elastic-plastic theory. Then the nano-indentation on the (001) face of KDP crystal has been carried out using SPH method. Simulation results show that the maximum equivalent stress and the maximum plastic strain concentrate on the area that located near the tip of the indenter during the loading process. The distribution shape of Von Mises stress is similar to concentric circles. During the unloading process, no obvious variation of plastic strain distribution exists. The maximum Von Mises stress is mainly located at the indentation and its edge at the end of the unloading process. The approximate direct proportion relationship between the maximum indentation depth and the depth of the maximum Von Mises stress distribution has been discovered when the maximum load is lower than 8 mN. In addition, the nano-indentation experiments on KDP crystal's (001) face have been carried out. Both the material parameters and the adjusted stress-strain curve have been verified. The hindering role of the affected layer has been found and analyzed. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 51135002), and the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups (No. 51321004).

  13. Evaluation of flow properties in the weldments of vanadium alloys using a novel indentation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Lee, E.H.; King, J.F.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-10-01

    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) testing, was successfully employed to determine the flow properties of the fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and base metal of the gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welds of the V-4Cr-4Ti (large heat no. 832665) and the V-5Cr-5Ti (heat 832394) alloys. ABI test results showed a clear distinction among the properties of the fusion zone, HAZ, and base metal in both GTA and EB welds of the two alloys. GTA and EB welds of both V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys show strengthening of both the fusion zone and the HAZ (compared to base metal) with the fusion zone having higher strength than the HAZ. These data correlate well with the Brinell hardness. On the other hand, GTA welds of both alloys, after a post-weld heat treatment of 950{degrees}C for 2 h, show a recovery of the properties to base metal values with V-5Cr-5Ti showing a higher degree of recovery compared to V-4Cr-4Ti. These measurements correlate with the reported recovery of the Charpy impact properties.

  14. [Comparison of cell elasticity analysis methods based on atomic force microscopy indentation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Hao, Fengtao; Chen, Xiaohu; Yang, Zhouqi; Ding, Chong; Shang, Peng

    2014-10-01

    In order to investigate in greater detail the two methods based on Hertz model for analyzing force-distance curve obtained by atomic force microscopy, we acquired the force-distance curves of Hela and MCF-7 cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation in this study. After the determination of contact point, Young's modulus in different indentation depth were calculated with two analysis methods of "two point" and "slope fitting". The results showed that the Young's modulus of Hela cell was higher than that of MCF-7 cell,which is in accordance with the F-actin distribution of the two types of cell. We found that the Young's modulus of the cells was decreased with increasing indentation depth and the curve trends by "slope fitting". This indicated that the "slope fitting" method could reduce the error caused by the miscalculation of contact point. The purpose of this study was to provide a guidance for researcher to choose an appropriate method for analyzing AFM indentation force-distance curve. PMID:25764725

  15. Analysis of Indentation-Derived Power-Law Creep Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Nicholas J.; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-03-01

    The use of instrumented indentation to characterize power-law creep is studied by computational modeling. Systematic finite element analyses were conducted to examine how indentation creep tests can be employed to retrieve the steady-state creep parameters pertaining to regular uniaxial loading. The constant indentation load hold and constant indentation-strain-rate methods were considered, first using tin (Sn)-based materials as a model system. The simulated indentation-strain rate-creep stress relations were compared against the uniaxial counterparts serving as model input. It was found that the constant indentation-strain-rate method can help establish steady-state creep, and leads to a more uniform behavior than the constant-load hold method. An expanded parametric analysis was then performed using the constant indentation-strain-rate method, taking into account a wide range of possible power-law creep parameters. The indentation technique was found to give rise to accurate stress exponents, and a certain trend for the ratio between indentation strain rate and uniaxial strain rate was identified. A contour-map representation of the findings serves as practical guidance for determining the uniaxial power-law creep response based on the indentation technique.

  16. Probing mechanical properties of thin film and ceramic materials in micro- and nano-scale using indentation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charitidis, Costas A.

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we report on the mechanical properties, failure and fracture modes in two cases of engineering materials; that is transparent silicon oxide thin films onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) membranes and glass-ceramic materials. The first system was studied by the quazi-static indentation technique at the nano-scale and the second by the static indentation technique at the micro-scale. Nanocomposite laminates of silicon oxide thin films onto PET were found to sustain higher scratch induced stresses and were effective as protective coating material for PET membranes. Glass-ceramic materials with separated crystallites of different morphologies sustained a mixed crack propagation pattern in brittle fracture mode.

  17. Inference of the phase-to-mechanical property link via coupled X-ray spectrometry and indentation analysis: Application to cement-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Wilson, William; James, Simon; Musso, Simone; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2015-01-15

    A novel approach for the chemo-mechanical characterization of cement-based materials is presented, which combines the classical grid indentation technique with elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). It is illustrated through application to an oil-well cement system with siliceous filler. The characteristic X-rays of major elements (silicon, calcium and aluminum) are measured over the indentation region and mapped back on the indentation points. Measured intensities together with indentation hardness and modulus are considered in a clustering analysis within the framework of Finite Mixture Models with Gaussian component density function. The method is able to successfully isolate the calcium-silica-hydrate gel at the indentation scale from its mixtures with other products of cement hydration and anhydrous phases; thus providing a convenient means to link mechanical response to the calcium-to-silicon ratio quantified independently via X-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. A discussion of uncertainty quantification of the estimated chemo-mechanical properties and phase volume fractions, as well as the effect of chemical observables on phase assessment is also included.

  18. Experimental layering development by indenter technique and application to fault rheology differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratier, J. P.; Noiriel, C. N.; Renard, F.

    2014-12-01

    Natural deformation of rocks is often associated with differentiation processes leading to irreversible transformations of their microstructural thus leading in turn to modifications of their rheological properties. The mechanisms of development of such processes at work during diagenesis, metamorphism or fault differentiation are poorly known as they are not easy to reproduce in the laboratory due to the long duration required for most of chemically controlled differentiation processes. Here we show that experimental compaction with layering development, similar to what happens in natural deformation, can be obtained in the laboratory by indenter techniques. Samples of plaster mixed with clay and samples of diatomite loosely interbedded with clays were loaded during several months at 40°C (plaster) and 150°C (diatomite) in presence of their saturated solutions. High-resolution X-ray tomography and SEM studies show that the layering development is a self-organized process. Stress driven dissolution of the soluble minerals (gypsum in plaster, silica in diatomite) is initiated in the zones initially richer in clays because the kinetics of diffusive mass transfer along the clay/soluble mineral interfaces is much faster than along the healed boundaries of the soluble minerals. The passive concentration of the clay minerals amplifies the localization of the dissolution along some layers oriented perpendicular to the maximum compressive stress component. Conversely, in the areas with initial low content in clay and clustered soluble minerals, dissolution is more difficult as the grain boundaries of the soluble species are healed together. These areas are less deformed and they act as rigid objects that concentrate the dissolution near their boundaries thus amplifying the differentiation. Applications to fault processes are discussed: i) localized pressure solution and sealing processes may lead to fault rheology differentiation with a partition between two end

  19. Review of Instrumented Indentation

    PubMed Central

    VanLandingham, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumented indentation, also known as depth-sensing indentation or nanoindentation, is increasingly being used to probe the mechanical response of materials from metals and ceramics to polymeric and biological materials. The additional levels of control, sensitivity, and data acquisition offered by instrumented indentation systems have resulted in numerous advances in materials science, particularly regarding fundamental mechanisms of mechanical behavior at micrometer and even sub-micrometer length scales. Continued improvements of instrumented indentation testing towards absolute quantification of a wide range of material properties and behavior will require advances in instrument calibration, measurement protocols, and analysis tools and techniques. In this paper, an overview of instrumented indentation is given with regard to current instrument technology and analysis methods. Research efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) aimed at improving the related measurement science are discussed.

  20. Indentation of a Punch with Chemical or Heat Distribution at Its Base into Transversely Isotropic Half-Space: Application to Local Thermal and Electrochemical Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Karapetian, E.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    The exact solution to the coupled problem of indentation of the punch, subjected to either heat or chemical substance distribution at its base, into three-dimensional semi-infinite transversely isotropic material is presented. The entire set of field components are derived in terms of integrals of elementary functions using methods of the potential theory and recently obtained, by the authors, results for the general solution of the field equations in terms of four harmonic potential functions. The exact solution for the stiffness relations that relate applied force, total chemical diffusion/heat flux in the domain of the contact, with indenter displacement, temperature, or chemical substance distribution of diffusing species at the base, and materials' chemo/thermo-elastic properties are obtained in closed form and in terms of elementary functions. These results can be used to understand the image formation mechanisms in techniques such as thermal scanning probe microscopy and electrochemical strain microscopy

  1. Indentation of a punch with chemical or heat distribution at its base into transversely isotropic half-space: Application to local thermal and electrochemical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetian, Edgar; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2013-05-01

    The exact solution to the coupled problem of indentation of the punch, subjected to either heat or chemical substance distribution at its base, into three-dimensional semi-infinite transversely isotropic material is presented. The entire set of field components are derived in terms of integrals of elementary functions using methods of the potential theory and recently obtained, by the authors, results for the general solution of the field equations in terms of four harmonic potential functions. The exact solution for the stiffness relations that relate applied force, total chemical diffusion/heat flux in the domain of the contact, with indenter displacement, temperature, or chemical substance distribution of diffusing species at the base, and materials' chemo/thermo-elastic properties are obtained in closed form and in terms of elementary functions. These results can be used to understand the image formation mechanisms in techniques such as thermal scanning probe microscopy and electrochemical strain microscopy.

  2. Single fiber push-out characterization of interfacial mechanical properties in unidirectional CVI-C/SiC composites by the nano-indentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Ren, Chengzu; Zhou, Changling; Xu, Hongzhao; Jin, Xinmin

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of interfaces in woven ceramic matrix composites is one of the most challenging problems in composite application. In this investigation, a new model material consisting of the chemical vapor infiltration unidirectional C/SiC composites with PyC fiber coating were prepared and evaluated to predict the interfacial mechanic properties of woven composites. Single fiber push-out/push-back tests with the Berkovich indenter were conducted on the thin sliced specimens using nano-indentation technique. To give a detailed illustration of the interfacial crack propagation and failure mechanism, each sector during the push-out process was analyzed at length. The test results show that there is no detectable difference between testing a fiber in a direct vicinity to an already tested fiber and testing a fiber in vicinity to not-pushed fibers. Moreover, the interface debonding and fiber sliding mainly occur at the PyC coating, and both the fiber and surrounding matrix have no plastic deformation throughout the process. Obtained from the load-displacement curve, the interfacial debonding strength (IDS) and friction stress (IFS) amount to, respectively, 35 ± 5 MPa and 10 ± 1 MPa. Based on the findings, the interfacial properties with PyC fiber coating can be predicted. Furthermore, it is expected to provide a useful guideline for the design, evaluation and optimal application of CVI-C/SiC.

  3. Microscopic Shape Memory and Superelastic Effects in Shape Memory Alloys and Thin Films Studied by Indentation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Wangyang; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Grummon, David S.

    2003-03-01

    Although shape memory alloys were discovered more than 50 years ago, there is a growing interest in shape memory thin films and coatings for applications ranging from MEMs to tribology. While the macroscopic shape memory (SM) and superelastic (SE) behavior of NiTi alloys are well known, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the SM and SE effects at the micro- and nano-meter length scales. In this presentation, instrumented indentation experiments with spherical, Vickers, and Berkovich indenters were used to study the mechanical behavior of NiTi alloys and thin films at the micro- and nano- meter scales. The indentation load-displacement curves for the shape memory and superelastic NiTi were obtained under a range of indentation conditions. The SM effect was quantified by the depth recovery ratio of the indents measured by a surface profilometer and atomic force microscope; the SE effect was determined by the ratio of reversible work to total work. We show that SM and SE effects exist under both spherical and pyramidal indenters for a wide range of indentation loads and depths. However, the magnitude of these effects depends strongly on indenter geometry. These observations were rationalized using the concept of representative strain and maximum strain under the spherical and pyramidal indenters. These studies provide new insights into the mechanisms of SM and SE effects at multiple length scales.

  4. Temperature-dependent indentation behavior of transformation-toughened zirconia-based ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1991-01-01

    Indentation behavior of Ce-TZP, Y-TZP, and Mg-PSZ between room temperature and 1300 C was investigated. Hardness decreased with increasing temperature for all three materials, but indentation cracking increased with increasing temperature. The opposing temperature dependences are discussed in terms of dislocation and transformation plasticity.

  5. Determination of the mechanical and physical properties of cartilage by coupling poroelastic-based finite element models of indentation with artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Campoli, Gianni; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-03-21

    One of the most widely used techniques to determine the mechanical properties of cartilage is based on indentation tests and interpretation of the obtained force-time or displacement-time data. In the current computational approaches, one needs to simulate the indentation test with finite element models and use an optimization algorithm to estimate the mechanical properties of cartilage. The modeling procedure is cumbersome, and the simulations need to be repeated for every new experiment. For the first time, we propose a method for fast and accurate estimation of the mechanical and physical properties of cartilage as a poroelastic material with the aid of artificial neural networks. In our study, we used finite element models to simulate the indentation for poroelastic materials with wide combinations of mechanical and physical properties. The obtained force-time curves are then divided into three parts: the first two parts of the data is used for training and validation of an artificial neural network, while the third part is used for testing the trained network. The trained neural network receives the force-time curves as the input and provides the properties of cartilage as the output. We observed that the trained network could accurately predict the properties of cartilage within the range of properties for which it was trained. The mechanical and physical properties of cartilage could therefore be estimated very fast, since no additional finite element modeling is required once the neural network is trained. The robustness of the trained artificial neural network in determining the properties of cartilage based on noisy force-time data was assessed by introducing noise to the simulated force-time data. We found that the training procedure could be optimized so as to maximize the robustness of the neural network against noisy force-time data. PMID:26944689

  6. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  7. Reference point indentation is not indicative of whole mouse bone measures of stress intensity fracture toughness

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Alessandra; Bruse, Jan L.; Oldknow, Karla J.; Millán, José Luis; Farquharson, Colin; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility is a concern for aged and diseased bone. Measuring bone toughness and understanding fracture properties of the bone are critical for predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease and for preclinical testing of therapies. A reference point indentation technique (BioDent) has recently been developed to determine bone's resistance to fracture in a minimally invasive way by measuring the indentation distance increase (IDI) between the first and last indentations over cyclic indentations in the same position. In this study, we investigate the relationship between fracture toughness KC and reference point indentation parameters (i.e. IDI, total indentation distance (TID) and creep indentation distance (CID)) in bones from 38 mice from six types (C57Bl/6, Balb, oim/oim, oim/+, Phospho1−/− and Phospho1 wild type counterpart). These mice bone are models of healthy and diseased bone spanning a range of fracture toughness from very brittle (oim/oim) to ductile (Phospho1−/−). Left femora were dissected, notched and tested in 3-point bending until complete failure. Contralateral femora were dissected and indented in 10 sites of their anterior and posterior shaft surface over 10 indentation cycles. IDI, TID and CID were measured. Results from this study suggest that reference point indentation parameters are not indicative of stress intensity fracture toughness in mouse bone. In particular, the IDI values at the anterior mid-diaphysis across mouse types overlapped, making it difficult to discern differences between mouse types, despite having extreme differences in stress intensity based toughness measures. When more locations of indentation were considered, the normalised IDIs could distinguish between mouse types. Future studies should investigate the relationship of the reference point indentation parameters for mouse bone in other material properties of the bone tissue in order to determine their use for measuring bone quality. PMID:25280470

  8. An analysis of fully plastic Brinell indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biwa, Shiro; Storåkers, Bertil

    1995-08-01

    Indentation of a hard sphere into inelastic solids, Brinell indentation, is examined theoretically and numerically by aid of classical plastic flow theory. With the main interest focused on fully plastic behaviour at indentation the mechanical analysis is carried out for power-law hardening rigid-plastic materials where self-similarity features play a dominant role. It is explained in detail how the problem of a moving contact boundary may be reduced to a stationary one by an appropriate transformation of field variables. Within this setting classical empirical findings by Meyer (1908) and O'Neill (1944) are established on a rigorous theoretical ground. In particular, it is shown to advantage also for nonlinear materials how intermediate solutions for a flat die may by cumulative superposition generate solutions for a class of curved indenters. In the case of perfect plasticity it turns out in the present context that indentation hardness is independent of die profiles. For hardening solids when the material behaviour is history dependent, reduction to a stationary geometry is achieved also by expressing the accumulated strain by cumulative superposition. The intermediate flat die problem is then solved for a variety of hardening exponents by a finite element procedure designed to account for material incompressibility. With finite element computations as a basis desired solutions are obtained by straightforward numerical superposition procedures. Detailed results are then given for bulk quantities such as the mean contact pressure as well as relevant field variables. The influence of hardening characteristics on sinking-in and piling-up of indented surfaces and contact pressure distributions are discussed in the light of earlier findings based on deformation theory of plasticity and available discriminating experiments. Correlation is particularly sought with the celebrated universal hardness parameters proposed by Tabor (1951) and the existence of representative

  9. Determination of fracture toughness of calcium phosphate coatings deposited onto Ti6Al4V substrate by using indentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Cetinel, Hakan; Pasinli, Ahmet

    2012-09-01

    In this study, fracture toughness values of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings deposited onto Ti6Al4V substrate were determined by using Vickers indentation method. In this new patent holding method, the activation processes were performed with NaOH and NaOH+H2O2 on the Ti6Al4V material surface. Thicknesses of CaP coatings were measured from cross-sections of the samples by using optical microscopy. Vickers indentation tests were performed by using microhardness tester. Young's modulus values of the coatings were determined by using ultra microhardness tester. As a result, fracture toughness (K1C) values of the CaP coatings produced by using two different activation processes, were calculated by using experimental study results. These were found to be 0.43 MPa m1/2 and 0.39 MPa m1/2, respectively. It was determined that the CaP coating on Ti6Al4V activated by NaOH+H2O2 had higher fracture toughness than the CaP coating on Ti6Al4V activated by NaOH.

  10. A different type of indentation size effect

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Sang Hoon; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Pharr, George Mathews

    2008-01-01

    Pop-in during nanoindentation, which indicates the onset of dislocation plasticity, was systematically investigated in annealed and pre-strained single crystals of nickel using spherical indenters with different tip radii. As the indenter radius and pre-strain decrease, the maximum shear stresses determined from the pop-in loads increase. This represents a new type of indentation size effect (ISE), based not on the measured hardness as in conventional ISE, but on the stress needed to initiate dislocation plasticity.

  11. Viscoelastic Characterization of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Polymer by Sharp Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Felicia; Munteanu, Ana V.; Fetecau, Catalin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, indentation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer with a sharp indenter is investigated in order to identify the material parameters. The indentation creep, i.e., the relative change of the indentation depth under constant load, is investigated based on a hereditary integral and on a rheological model which describes a viscoelastic plastic response. Experimental data were fitted to the model in order to identify the model parameters.

  12. Identification and design of novel polymer-based mechanical transducers: A nano-structural model for thin film indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian; Sirbuly, Donald J.

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical characterization is important for understanding small-scale systems and developing devices, particularly at the interface of biology, medicine, and nanotechnology. Yet, monitoring sub-surface forces is challenging with current technologies like atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or optical tweezers due to their probe sizes and sophisticated feedback mechanisms. An alternative transducer design relying on the indentation mechanics of a compressible thin polymer would be an ideal system for more compact and versatile probes, facilitating measurements in situ or in vivo. However, application-specific tuning of a polymer's mechanical properties can be burdensome via experimental optimization. Therefore, efficient transducer design requires a fundamental understanding of how synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight and grafting density influence the bulk material properties that determine the force response. In this work, we apply molecular-level polymer scaling laws to a first order elastic foundation model, relating the conformational state of individual polymer chains to the macroscopic compression of thin film systems. A parameter sweep analysis was conducted to observe predicted model trends under various system conditions and to understand how nano-structural elements influence the material stiffness. We validate the model by comparing predicted force profiles to experimental AFM curves for a real polymer system and show that it has reasonable predictive power for initial estimates of the force response, displaying excellent agreement with experimental force curves. We also present an analysis of the force sensitivity of an example transducer system to demonstrate identification of synthetic protocols based on desired mechanical properties. These results highlight the usefulness of this simple model as an aid for the design of a new class of compact and tunable nanomechanical force transducers.

  13. Identification and design of novel polymer-based mechanical transducers: A nano-structural model for thin film indentation

    SciTech Connect

    Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian; Sirbuly, Donald J.

    2014-09-14

    Mechanical characterization is important for understanding small-scale systems and developing devices, particularly at the interface of biology, medicine, and nanotechnology. Yet, monitoring sub-surface forces is challenging with current technologies like atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or optical tweezers due to their probe sizes and sophisticated feedback mechanisms. An alternative transducer design relying on the indentation mechanics of a compressible thin polymer would be an ideal system for more compact and versatile probes, facilitating measurements in situ or in vivo. However, application-specific tuning of a polymer's mechanical properties can be burdensome via experimental optimization. Therefore, efficient transducer design requires a fundamental understanding of how synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight and grafting density influence the bulk material properties that determine the force response. In this work, we apply molecular-level polymer scaling laws to a first order elastic foundation model, relating the conformational state of individual polymer chains to the macroscopic compression of thin film systems. A parameter sweep analysis was conducted to observe predicted model trends under various system conditions and to understand how nano-structural elements influence the material stiffness. We validate the model by comparing predicted force profiles to experimental AFM curves for a real polymer system and show that it has reasonable predictive power for initial estimates of the force response, displaying excellent agreement with experimental force curves. We also present an analysis of the force sensitivity of an example transducer system to demonstrate identification of synthetic protocols based on desired mechanical properties. These results highlight the usefulness of this simple model as an aid for the design of a new class of compact and tunable nanomechanical force transducers.

  14. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study.

    PubMed

    Passeri, D; Bettucci, A; Biagioni, A; Rossi, M; Alippi, A; Tamburri, E; Lucci, M; Davoli, I; Berezina, S

    2009-11-01

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. PMID:19674843

  15. Evaluation of coating adhesion using a radial speckle interferometer combined with a micro-indentation test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendela, Lucas P.; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a technique to investigate coating adhesion which combines a radial in-plane speckle interferometer and a micro-indentation test. The proposed technique is based on the measurement of the radial in-plane displacement field produced by a micro-indentation introduced on the coated surface of the specimen. Using steel specimens coated with a thin coating of epoxy paint and subjected to different adhesive conditions, it is demonstrated that digital speckle pattern interferometry can be successfully used to measure the small local deformations generated by a micro-indentation. An empirical model, which allows to quantify the adhesion of a given coated-substrate system by the proposed combined technique, is finally presented.

  16. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  17. Shear-banding Induced Indentation Size Effect in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y. M.; Sun, B. A.; Zhao, L. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Shear-banding is commonly regarded as the “plasticity carrier” of metallic glasses (MGs), which usually causes severe strain localization and catastrophic failure if unhindered. However, through the use of the high-throughput dynamic nanoindentation technique, here we reveal that nano-scale shear-banding in different MGs evolves from a “distributed” fashion to a “localized” mode when the resultant plastic flow extends over a critical length scale. Consequently, a pronounced indentation size effect arises from the distributed shear-banding but vanishes when shear-banding becomes localized. Based on the critical length scales obtained for a variety of MGs, we unveil an intrinsic interplay between elasticity and fragility that governs the nanoscale plasticity transition in MGs. Our current findings provide a quantitative insight into the indentation size effect and transition mechanisms of nano-scale plasticity in MGs. PMID:27324835

  18. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of the wedge indentation of films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, D. S.; Deshpande, V. S.; Needleman, A.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2006-11-01

    The plane strain indentation of single crystal films on a rigid substrate by a rigid wedge indenter is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. The crystals have three slip systems at ±35.3∘ and 90∘ with respect to the indentation direction. The analyses are carried out for three values of the film thickness, 2, 10 and 50 μm, and with the dislocations all of edge character modeled as line singularities in a linear elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and dislocation annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of indentation depths considered, the indentation pressure for the 10 and 50 μm thick films decreases with increasing contact size and attains a contact size-independent value for contact lengths A>4 μm. On the other hand, for the 2 μm films, the indentation pressure first decreases with increasing contact size and subsequently increases as the plastic zone reaches the rigid substrate. For the 10 and 50 μm thick films sink-in occurs around the indenter, while pile-up occurs in the 2 μm film when the plastic zone reaches the substrate. Comparisons are made with predictions obtained from other formulations: (i) the contact size-independent indentation pressure is compared with that given by continuum crystal plasticity; (ii) the scaling of the indentation pressure with indentation depth is compared with the relation proposed by Nix and Gao [1998. Indentation size effects in crystalline materials: a law for strain gradient plasticity. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 43, 411-423]; and (iii) the computed contact area is compared with that obtained from the estimation procedure of Oliver and Pharr [1992. An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic-modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments, J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564-1583].

  19. Application of reference point indentation for micro-mechanical surface characterization of calcium silicate based dental materials.

    PubMed

    Antonijević, Djordje; Milovanović, Petar; Riedel, Christoph; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Busse, Björn; Djurić, Marija

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate micromechanical properties of Biodentine and two experimental calcium silicate cements (CSCs) using Reference Point Indentation (RPI). Biomechanical characteristics of the cement type and the effects of a radiopacifier, liquid components, acid etching treatment and bioactivation in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated by measuring the microhardness, average unloading slope (Avg US) and indentation distance increase (IDI). Biodentine had a greater microhardness than the experimental CSCs, while the Avg US and IDI values were not significantly different among investigated materials. There was a statistically significant difference in microhardness and IDI values between pure CSCs and radiopacified cements (p < 0.05). Micromechanical properties were not affected by different liquid components used. Acid-etching treatment reduced Biodentine's microhardness while cements' immersion in SBF resulted in greater microhardness and higher IDI values compared to the control group. Clearly, the physiological environment and the cements' composition affect their surface micromechanical properties. The addition of calcium chloride and CSCs' immersion in SBF are beneficial for CSCs' micromechanical performance, while the addition of radiopacifiers and acid etching treatment weaken the CSCs' surface. Application of RPI aids with the characterization of micromechanical properties of synthetic materials' surfaces. PMID:26888441

  20. Evaluation of the degradation of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings using nano-indentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Jin; Cho, Sung-Keun; Choi, Jung-Hun; Koo, Jae-Mean; Seok, Chang-Sung; Kim, Moon-Young

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the disk type of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system for a gas turbine blade was isothermally aged at 1100 degrees C for various times up to 400 hours. For each aging condition, the thickness of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) was measured by optical microscope and mechanical properties such as the elastic modulus and hardness were measured by micro-indentation and nano-indentation on the cross-section of a coating specimen. In the case of micro-indentation, the mechanical properties of a Ni-base superalloy substrate and MCrAlY bond coat material did not significantly change with an increase in exposure time. In the case of nano-indentation, the gamma-Ni phase and beta-NiAl phase in the bond coat and top coat material show no significant change in their properties. However, the elastic modulus and the hardness of TGO show a remarkable decrease from 100 h to 200 h then remain nearly constant after 200 h due to the internal delamination of TBC. It has been confirmed that the nano-indentation technique is a very effective way to evaluate the degradation of a thermal barrier coating system. PMID:19908771

  1. Plastically deformed region around indentations on Si angle crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, M.

    1994-12-01

    Expansion of a hemispherical shell by inner pressure has been widely applied for the model of the deformation by an indentation on a flat surface; however, the deformed region is not necessarily spherically symmetric, especially in anisotropic materials such as single crystals. Therefore, whether the spherical model is applicable in an indentation process for objective materials must always be kept in mind. Indentations have been made on the (111) surface of silicon crystal at various temperatures. The three-dimensional shape of the plastically deformed region was experimentally measured by means of an etching technique and its difference from the hemisphere was observed. It was never spherical but much more complicated, similar to a bottle gourd. The slip mechanism, which resulted in the observed shape of the plastic region, is discussed further. The plastic region was analytically obtained also on the assumption that the stress distribution was spherically symmetrical. The result is approximately in accordance with the observed shape. It is therefore concluded that the stress distribution is nearly spherical although the plastic region is far from it. The yield strength of silicon crystals and their temperature dependence were obtained based on the spherical model.

  2. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y.; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young’s modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r2 > 0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r2 = 0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI = 2.62  ±  0.41 kPa, compared to EMechTesting = 4.2  ±  2.58 kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens.

  3. Non-contact, Ultrasound-based Indentation Method for Measuring Elastic Properties of Biological Tissues Using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    PubMed Central

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y.; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking RF signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the actual Young’s modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r2>0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r2=0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI=2.62±0.41 kPa, compared to EMechTesting=4.2±2.58 kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens. PMID:25776065

  4. Giant pop-ins and amorphization in germanium during indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, David J.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Williams, Jim S.; Swain, Michael V.; Munroe, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Sudden excursions of unusually large magnitude (>1 μm), "giant pop-ins," have been observed in the force-displacement curve for high load indentation of crystalline germanium (Ge). A range of techniques including Raman microspectroscopy, focused ion-beam cross sectioning, and transmission electron microscopy, are applied to study this phenomenon. Amorphous material is observed in residual indents following the giant pop-in. The giant pop-in is shown to be a material removal event, triggered by the development of shallow lateral cracks adjacent to the indent. Enhanced depth recovery, or "elbowing," observed in the force-displacement curve following the giant pop-in is explained in terms of a compliant response of plates of material around the indent detached by lateral cracking. The possible causes of amorphization are discussed, and the implications in light of earlier indentation studies of Ge are considered.

  5. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  6. Practical limitations to indentation testing of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.A.; McCarty, K.F.; Heffelfinger, J.R.; Moody, N.R.

    1998-11-01

    A method that is becoming increasingly common for measuring the mechanical behavior of thin films is low-load indentation testing. However, there can be complications in interpreting the results as many factors can affect hardness and moduli measurements such as surface roughness and determination of the indentation contact area. To further the understanding, the mechanical properties of thin (50 nm) films of AlN on sapphire substrates were evaluated using a scanning force microscopy (SFM) based pico-indentation device to allow imaging of the surface and indentations. The primary emphasis was the types of problems or limitations involved in testing very thin, as deposited films in which properties are desired over indentation depths less than 50 nm.

  7. Validation of cartilage thickness calculations using indentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Koff, Matthew F; Chong, Le Roy; Virtue, Patrick; Chen, Dan; Wang, Xioanan; Wright, Timothy; Potter, Hollis G

    2010-04-01

    Different methods have been used to cross-validate cartilage thickness measurements from magnetic resonance images (MRIs); however, a majority of these methods rely on interpolated data points, regional mean and/or maximal thickness, or surface mean thickness for data analysis. Furthermore, the accuracy of MRI cartilage thickness measurements from commercially available software packages has not necessarily been validated and may lead to an under- or overestimation of cartilage thickness. The goal of this study was to perform a matching point-to-point validation of indirect cartilage thickness calculations using a magnetic resonance (MR) image data set with direct cartilage thickness measurements using biomechanical indentation testing at the same anatomical locations. Seven bovine distal femoral condyles were prepared and a novel phantom filled with dilute gadolinium solution was rigidly attached to each specimen. High resolution MR images were acquired, and thickness indentation analysis of the cartilage was performed immediately after scanning. Segmentation of the MR data and cartilage thickness calculation was performed using semi-automated software. Registration of MR and indentation data was performed using the fluid filled phantom. The inter- and intra-examiner differences of the measurements were also determined. A total of 105 paired MRI-indentation thickness data points were analyzed, and a significant correlation between them was found (r=0.88, p<0.0001). The mean difference (+/-std. dev.) between measurement techniques was 0.00+/-0.23 mm, with Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 0.45 mm and -0.46 mm. The intra- and inter-examiner measurement differences were 0.03+/-0.22 mm and 0.05+/-0.24 mm, respectively. This study validated cartilage thickness measurements from MR images with thickness measurements from indentation by using a novel phantom to register the image-based and laboratory-based data sets. The accuracy of the measurements was comparable to

  8. Improved Indentation Test for Measuring Nonlinear Elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2004-01-01

    A cylindrical-punch indentation technique has been developed as a means of measuring the nonlinear elastic responses of materials -- more specifically, for measuring the moduli of elasticity of materials in cases in which these moduli vary with applied loads. This technique offers no advantage for characterizing materials that exhibit purely linear elastic responses (constant moduli of elasticity, independent of applied loads). However, the technique offers a significant advantage for characterizing such important materials as plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coatings, which, in cyclic loading, exhibit nonlinear elasticity with hysteresis related to compaction and sliding within their microstructures.

  9. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of each stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 32 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested quasi-statically and in fatigue, and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  10. Occurrence of spherical ceramic debris in indentation and sliding contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Indenting experiments were conducted with the silicon carbide (0001) surface in contact with a spherical diamond indenter in air. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted with silicon carbide in contact with iron and iron-based binary alloys at room temperature and 800 C. Fracture pits with a spherical particle and spherical wear debris were observed as a result of indenting and sliding. Spherical debris may be produced by a mechanism that involves a spherical-shaped fracture along the circular or spherical stress trajectories under the inelastic deformation zone.

  11. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of the stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 37 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested in fatigue and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  12. Hardness and damage associated with pointed indentations in armor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swab, Jeffrey J.

    It is empirically known that an armor ceramic should be as hard as or harder than the projectile it intends to defeat. Quasi-static indentation testing is one of the most widely utilized techniques for determining the hardness of armor ceramics. Hardness measurements can also be used to generate other property values (fracture toughness, elastic properties and even the yield strength) that may be relevant to ballistic performance. While the indentation methodologies are simple and straightforward the resultant hardness values for ceramic materials can be influenced by the indenter geometry, indentation load, loading rate, specimen surface finish and ceramic microstructure. This presentation will summarize the results of a study to determine the hardness of a variety of armor-grade ceramics (Al2O3, B 4C, SiC, and WC) with different indenter geometries (Vickers and Knoop) over a range of indentation loads (0.98N to 98N) and discuss the implications for armor ceramics. The resulting data strongly indicates that the best means of determining the hardness of armor ceramics is the use of 19.6N Knoop indentations. While the hardness data and the subsequent analysis clearly support the use of the Knoop methodology to determine the hardness, it does not take into account the response of the ceramic to the indentation process. One response that is continually overlooked is the role of damage and cracking. A detailed understanding of the damage and cracking that occurs during indentation may provide valuable insights to the ballistic performance of the armor ceramics during the earliest stages of impact. To explore this material response a detailed examination of the topography of the indents and the damage and cracking that develops underneath both Knoop and Vickers indentations in a WC and SiC armor ceramic was conducted. The analysis shows that while the same types of cracks are produced in both materials the magnitude of these cracks as well as the type of damage that is

  13. Effects of water molecules on tribological behavior and property measurements in nano-indentation processes - a numerical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nano/micro-manufacturing under wet condition is an important consideration for various tool-based processes such as indentation, scratching, and machining. The existence of liquids adds complexity to the system, changes the tool/work interfacial condition, and affects material behaviors. For indentation, it may also affect material property measurements. However, little effort has been made to study this challenging issue at nano- or atomistic scale. In this study, we tackle this challenge by investigating nano-indentation processes submerged in water using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach. Compared with dry indentation in which no water molecules are present, the existence of water molecules causes the increase of indentation force in initial penetration, but the decrease of indentation force in full penetration. It also reduces the sticking phenomenon between the work and tool atoms during indenter retraction, such that the indentation geometry can be better retained. Meanwhile, nano-indentation under wet condition exhibits the indentation size effect, while dry nano-indentation exhibits the reverse indentation size effect. The existence of water leads to higher computed hardness values at low indentation loads and a smaller value of Young's modulus. In addition, the friction along the tool/work interface is significantly reduced under wet indentation. PMID:24044504

  14. Determining Tension-Compression Nonlinear Mechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage from Indentation Testing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingyu; Zhou, Yilu; Wang, Liyun; Santare, Michael H; Wan, Leo Q; Lu, X Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The indentation test is widely used to determine the in situ biomechanical properties of articular cartilage. The mechanical parameters estimated from the test depend on the constitutive model adopted to analyze the data. Similar to most connective tissues, the solid matrix of cartilage displays different mechanical properties under tension and compression, termed tension-compression nonlinearity (TCN). In this study, cartilage was modeled as a porous elastic material with either a conewise linear elastic matrix with cubic symmetry or a solid matrix reinforced by a continuous fiber distribution. Both models are commonly used to describe the TCN of cartilage. The roles of each mechanical property in determining the indentation response of cartilage were identified by finite element simulation. Under constant loading, the equilibrium deformation of cartilage is mainly dependent on the compressive modulus, while the initial transient creep behavior is largely regulated by the tensile stiffness. More importantly, altering the permeability does not change the shape of the indentation creep curves, but introduces a parallel shift along the horizontal direction on a logarithmic time scale. Based on these findings, a highly efficient curve-fitting algorithm was designed, which can uniquely determine the three major mechanical properties of cartilage (compressive modulus, tensile modulus, and permeability) from a single indentation test. The new technique was tested on adult bovine knee cartilage and compared with results from the classic biphasic linear elastic curve-fitting program. PMID:26240062

  15. The compelling case for indentation as a functional exploratory and characterization tool

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Rajan; Marshall, David B.; Cook, Robert F.; Padture, Nitin P.; Oyen, Michelle L.; Pajares, Antonia; Bradby, Jodie E.; Reimanis, Ivar E.; Page, Trevor F.; Pharr, George M.; Lawn, Brian R.

    2015-07-30

    The utility of indentation testing for characterizing a wide range of mechanical properties of brittle materials is highlighted in light of recent articles questioning its validity, specifically in relation to the measurement of toughness. Contrary to assertion by some critics, indentation fracture theory is fundamentally founded in Griffith–Irwin fracture mechanics, based on model crack systems evolving within inhomogeneous but well-documented elastic and elastic–plastic contact stress fields. Notwithstanding some numerical uncertainty in associated stress intensity factor relations, the technique remains an unrivalled quick, convenient and economical means for comparative, site-specific toughness evaluation. Most importantly, indentation patterns are unique fingerprints of mechanical behavior and thereby afford a powerful functional tool for exploring the richness of material diversity. At the same time, it is cautioned that unconditional usage without due attention to the conformation of the indentation patterns can lead to overstated toughness values. Limitations of an alternative, more engineering approach to fracture evaluation, that of propagating a precrack through a “standard” machined specimen, are also outlined. Thus misconceptions in the critical literature concerning the fundamental nature of crack equilibrium and stability within contact and other inhomogeneous stress fields are discussed.

  16. The compelling case for indentation as a functional exploratory and characterization tool

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tandon, Rajan; Marshall, David B.; Cook, Robert F.; Padture, Nitin P.; Oyen, Michelle L.; Pajares, Antonia; Bradby, Jodie E.; Reimanis, Ivar E.; Page, Trevor F.; Pharr, George M.; et al

    2015-07-30

    The utility of indentation testing for characterizing a wide range of mechanical properties of brittle materials is highlighted in light of recent articles questioning its validity, specifically in relation to the measurement of toughness. Contrary to assertion by some critics, indentation fracture theory is fundamentally founded in Griffith–Irwin fracture mechanics, based on model crack systems evolving within inhomogeneous but well-documented elastic and elastic–plastic contact stress fields. Notwithstanding some numerical uncertainty in associated stress intensity factor relations, the technique remains an unrivalled quick, convenient and economical means for comparative, site-specific toughness evaluation. Most importantly, indentation patterns are unique fingerprints of mechanicalmore » behavior and thereby afford a powerful functional tool for exploring the richness of material diversity. At the same time, it is cautioned that unconditional usage without due attention to the conformation of the indentation patterns can lead to overstated toughness values. Limitations of an alternative, more engineering approach to fracture evaluation, that of propagating a precrack through a “standard” machined specimen, are also outlined. Thus misconceptions in the critical literature concerning the fundamental nature of crack equilibrium and stability within contact and other inhomogeneous stress fields are discussed.« less

  17. Measuring soft tissue material properties using stereovision and indentation: a proof-of-concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-03-01

    Accurate measurement of soft tissue material properties is critical for characterizing its biomechanical behaviors but can be challenging especially for the human brain. Recently, we have applied stereovision to track motion of the exposed cortical surface noninvasively for patients undergoing open skull neurosurgical operations. In this paper, we conduct a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the feasibility of the technique in measuring material properties of soft tissue in vivo using a tofu phantom. A block of soft tofu was prepared with black pepper randomly sprinkled on the top surface to provide texture to facilitate image-based displacement mapping. A disk-shaped indenter made of high-density tungsten was placed on the top surface to induce deformation through its weight. Stereoscopic images were acquired before and after indentation using a pair of stereovision cameras mounted on a surgical microscope with its optical path perpendicular to the imaging surface. Rectified left camera images obtained from stereovision reconstructions were then co-registered using optical flow motion tracking from which a 2D surface displacement field around the indenter disk was derived. A corresponding finite element model of the tofu was created subjected to the indenter weight and a hyperelastic material model was chosen to account for large deformation around the intender edges. By successively assigning different shear stiffness constant, computed tofu surface deformation was obtained, and an optimal shear stiffness was obtained that matched the model-derived surface displacements with those measured from the images. The resulting quasi-static, long-term shear stiffness for the tofu was 1.04 k Pa, similar to that reported in the literature. We show that the stereovision and free-weight indentation techniques coupled with an FE model are feasible for in vivo measurement of the human brain material properties, and it may also be feasible for other soft tissues.

  18. Crack nucleation criterion and its application to impact indentation in glasses.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian; Vargheese, K Deenamma; Tandia, Adama; Hu, Guangli; Mauro, John C

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to directly observe nucleation of median cracks in oxide glasses under indentation. Indenters with sharp angles can nucleate median cracks in samples with no pre-existing flaws, while indenters with larger indenter angles cannot. Increasing the tip radius increases the critical load for nucleation of the median crack. Based upon an independent set of simulations under homogeneous loading, the fracture criterion in the domain of the principal stresses is constructed. The fracture criterion, or "fracture locus", can quantitatively explain the observed effects of indenter angle and indenter tip radius on median crack nucleation. Our simulations suggest that beyond the maximum principal stress, plasticity and multi-axial stresses should also be considered for crack nucleation under indentation, even for brittle glassy systems. PMID:27079431

  19. Crack nucleation criterion and its application to impact indentation in glasses

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Vargheese, K. Deenamma; Tandia, Adama; Hu, Guangli; Mauro, John C

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to directly observe nucleation of median cracks in oxide glasses under indentation. Indenters with sharp angles can nucleate median cracks in samples with no pre-existing flaws, while indenters with larger indenter angles cannot. Increasing the tip radius increases the critical load for nucleation of the median crack. Based upon an independent set of simulations under homogeneous loading, the fracture criterion in the domain of the principal stresses is constructed. The fracture criterion, or “fracture locus”, can quantitatively explain the observed effects of indenter angle and indenter tip radius on median crack nucleation. Our simulations suggest that beyond the maximum principal stress, plasticity and multi-axial stresses should also be considered for crack nucleation under indentation, even for brittle glassy systems. PMID:27079431

  20. Characterization of viscoelastic properties of molybdenum disulphide filled polyamide by indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Felicia; Fetecau, Catalin

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the creep behavior of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) filled polyamide 66 composite was investigated through sharp indentation at room temperature. Two types of indentation creep test, the 3-step indentation test, and the 5-step indentation test were considered in order to explore whether the measured creep response is mainly viscoelastic or includes a significant contribution from the plastic deformation developed during the loading phase. The experimental indentation creep data were analyzed within an analytical framework based on the hereditary integral operator for the ramp creep and a viscoelastic-plastic (VEP) model in order to determine the indentation creep compliance function including the short- and long-time modulus. The equivalent shear modulus calculated from the creep compliance function was compared to the indentation plane strain modulus derived from the initial slope of the unloading curve in order to investigate the validity of the Oliver and Pharr method.

  1. Crack nucleation criterion and its application to impact indentation in glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jian; Vargheese, K. Deenamma; Tandia, Adama; Hu, Guangli; Mauro, John C.

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to directly observe nucleation of median cracks in oxide glasses under indentation. Indenters with sharp angles can nucleate median cracks in samples with no pre-existing flaws, while indenters with larger indenter angles cannot. Increasing the tip radius increases the critical load for nucleation of the median crack. Based upon an independent set of simulations under homogeneous loading, the fracture criterion in the domain of the principal stresses is constructed. The fracture criterion, or “fracture locus”, can quantitatively explain the observed effects of indenter angle and indenter tip radius on median crack nucleation. Our simulations suggest that beyond the maximum principal stress, plasticity and multi-axial stresses should also be considered for crack nucleation under indentation, even for brittle glassy systems.

  2. Indentation plasticity and fracture in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.; Pirouz, P.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the ductile-brittle transition temperature of heavily doped silicon were carried out using indentation techniques. Diamond pyramid hardness tests were performed on the (100) face of heavily doped N-type and P-type and intrinsic silicon single crystals. Tests were performed over the range 200 C to 850 C and loads of 100 to 500 g were used. Samples were subsequently etched to reveal dislocation rosettes produced by indentation. Intrinsic silicon underwent a ductile-brittle transition at 660 C, P-type at 645 C and N-type at 625 C. Hardness values varied from 1.1 GPa at 700 C to 11.7 GPa at 200 C. Significant effects of hardness on doping were present only at the highest temperatures. Lower loads generally produced higher hardness but load did not affect the Ductile-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT). Fracture toughness values ranged from 0.9 MPa m(1/2) at 200 C to 2.75 MPa m(1/2) near the DBTT. Doping did not affect the fracture toughness of silicon. P-type doping increased the size of dislocation rosettes observed after indentation, but N-type did not, in contradiction of the expected results. Results are discussed in terms of the effect of doping on the dislocation mobility in silicon.

  3. Evaluation of biological cell properties using dynamic indentation measurement.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guoxin; Chandra, Namas

    2010-02-01

    Viscoelastic mechanical properties of biological cells are commonly measured using atomic force microscope (AFM) dynamic indentation with spherical tips. A semiempirical analysis based on numerical simulation is built to determine the cell mechanical properties. It is shown that the existing analysis cannot reflect the accurate values of cell elastic/dynamic modulus due to the effects of substrate, indenter tip size, and cell size. Among these factors, substrate not only increases the true contact radius but also interferes the indentation stress field, which can cause the overestimation of cell moduli. Typically, the substrate effect is much stronger than the other two influences in cell indentation; and, thus, the cell modulii are usually overestimated. It is estimated that the moduli can be overestimated by as high as over 200% using the existing analysis. In order to obtain the accurate properties of cells, correction factors that account for these effects are required in the existing analysis. PMID:20365612

  4. Inverse finite-element modeling for tissue parameter identification using a rolling indentation probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Li, Min; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of inverse finite-element modeling (IFEM)-based methods for tissue parameter identification using a rolling indentation probe for surgical palpation. An IFEM-based algorithm is proposed for tissue parameter identification through uniaxial indentation. IFEM-based algorithms are also created for locating and identifying the properties of an embedded tumor through rolling indentation of the soft tissue. Two types of parameter identification for the tissue tumor are investigated (1) identifying the stiffness (μ) of a tumor at a known depth and (2) estimating the depth of the tumor (D) with known mechanical properties. The efficiency of proposed methods has been evaluated through silicone and porcine kidney experiments for both uniaxial indentation and rolling indentation. The results show that both of the proposed IFEM methods for uniaxial indentation and rolling indentation have good robustness and can rapidly converge to the correct results. The tissue properties estimated using the developed method are generic and in good agreement with results obtained from standard material tests. The estimation error of μ through uniaxial indentation is below 3 % for both silicone and kidney; the estimation error of μ for the tumor through rolling indentation is 7-9 %. The estimation error of D through rolling indentation is 1-2 mm. PMID:24037385

  5. Influence of Hydroxyapatite Nano-particles on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Orthopedic Cement-Based Nano-composites Measured by Nano-indentation and Nano-scratch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H.; Ayatollahi, M. R.; Naimi-Jamal, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical and tribological properties of a commercially available bone cement by incorporating nano-sized hydroxyapatite using nano-indentation and nano-scratch experiments. In order to achieve this goal, the nano-composite cement samples with different amounts of commercial nano-hydroxyapatite (HAc), as a bone compatible nano-filler, were prepared via vacuum mixing method. The results indicated that nano-indentation and nano-scratch experiments are acceptable methods for measuring the mechanical and tribological properties of orthopedic cement-based nano-composites. Moreover, it was found that the nano-composite of 10 wt.% HAc exhibits the optimum performance compared to the other nano-composite samples in terms of mechanical and tribological properties. These findings can play an important role in achieving the goal of clinical and biomechanical function optimization of bone cement, especially in the field of orthopedic surgery.

  6. Indentation law for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Static indentation tests are described for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates with steel balls as the indentor. Beam specimens clamped at various spans were used for the tests. Loading, unloading, and reloading data were obtained and fitted into power laws. Results show that: (1) contact behavior is not appreciably affected by the span; (2) loading and reloading curves seem to follow the 1.5 power law; and (3) unloading curves are described quite well by a 2.5 power law. In addition, values were determined for the critical indentation, alpha sub cr which can be used to predict permanent indentations in unloading. Since alpha sub cr only depends on composite material properties, only the loading and an unloading curve are needed to establish the complete loading-unloading-reloading behavior.

  7. Indentation fracture of brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, B.N.; Wert, J.J. ); Oliver, W.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The response of four transparent materials, soda-lime glass, fused silica, single crystal (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}, to contact by a sharp indenter has been studied. In-situ observation and continuous monitoring of the load and displacement throughout the test allowed the indentation fracture sequence of the transparent materials to be characterized and also permitted the effects of these fracture events on the corresponding load displacement curves to be noted. It was found that if the cracks produced during indentation grew discontinuously, they manifested themselves in discontinuities in displacement on the corresponding load-displacement curve. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. In situ spectroscopic study of the plastic deformation of amorphous silicon under nonhydrostatic conditions induced by indentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Michaels, C. A.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Haberl, Bianca; Cook, Robert F.

    2015-12-17

    Indentation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films was studied by in situ Raman imaging of the deformed contact region of an indented sample, employing a Raman spectroscopy-enhanced instrumented indentation technique (IIT). The occurrence and evolving spatial distribution of changes in the a-Si structure caused by processes, such as polyamorphization and crystallization, induced by indentation loading were observed. Furthermore, the obtained experimental results are linked with previously published work on the plastic deformation of a-Si under hydrostatic compression and shear deformation to establish a model for the deformation behavior of a-Si under indentation loading.

  9. Residual stress and plastic anisotropy in indented 2024-T351 aluminum disks

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Bjorn; Prime, Michael B; Saurabh, Kabra; Brown, Donald W; Pagliaro, Pierluigi; Backlund, Peter; Shaw, Sanjiv; Criss, Everett

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have proven that generating a well defined residual stress state using the indented disk approach is an excellent way to validate experimental and modeling techniques for measuring and predicting residual stresses. The previous studies dealt with indented stainless steel disks, and included experimental determination of residual stresses using the Contour Method and neutron diffraction measurements. The measured residual stress states showed good agreement between the techniques, and a Finite Element Model predicted residual stress state based upon material properties determined form standard tension and compression/tension tests was also in good agreement with the measurements. In the present work, disks of 2024-T351 Aluminum were investigated. As before, the residual stress profile was measured using neutron diffraction and the Contour Method and Finite Element Modeling was employed to predict the residual stress profile. Analysis and comparison of the three techniques were complicated by the fact that the experimental data shows evidence of plastic anisotropy and strong Bauschinger effect within the indented disks.

  10. Review of fracture properties of nuclear materials determined by Hertzian indentation

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.; Matzke, H.

    1985-01-01

    A brief description of the determination of the surface fracture energy and the fracture toughness from a Hertzian indentation test is given. A number of theoretical and experimental problems are discussed. Results obtained on a variety of nuclear fuels and nuclear-waste-containment materials are reviewed and compared with values measured by other techniques. The Hertzian indentation test yields reliable fracture parameters.

  11. Indentation device for in situ Raman spectroscopic and optical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbig, Y. B.; Michaels, C. A.; Forster, A. M.; Hettenhouser, J. W.; Byrd, W. E.; Morris, D. J.; Cook, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    Instrumented indentation is a widely used technique to study the mechanical behavior of materials at small length scales. Mechanical tests of bulk materials, microscopic, and spectroscopic studies may be conducted to complement indentation and enable the determination of the kinetics and physics involved in the mechanical deformation of materials at the crystallographic and molecular level, e.g., strain build-up in crystal lattices, phase transformations, and changes in crystallinity or orientation. However, many of these phenomena occurring during indentation can only be observed in their entirety and analyzed in depth under in situ conditions. This paper describes the design, calibration, and operation of an indentation device that is coupled with a Raman microscope to conduct in situ spectroscopic and optical analysis of mechanically deformed regions of Raman-active, transparent bulk material, thin films or fibers under contact loading. The capabilities of the presented device are demonstrated by in situ studies of the indentation-induced phase transformations of Si thin films and modifications of molecular conformations in high density polyethylene films.

  12. Traceable Micro-Force Sensor for Instrumented Indentation Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D T; Shaw, G A; Seugling, R M; Xiang, D; Pratt, J R

    2007-04-02

    Instrumented indentation testing (IIT), commonly referred to as nanoindentation when small forces are used, is a popular technique for determining the mechanical properties of small volumes of material. Sample preparation is relatively easy, usually requiring only that a smooth surface of the material to be tested be accessible to a contact probe, and instruments that combine sophisticated automation with straightforward user interfaces are available commercially from several manufacturers. In addition, documentary standards are now becoming available from both the International Standards Organization (ISO 14577) and ASTM International (E28 WK382) that define test methods and standard practices for IIT, and will allow the technique to be used to produce material property data that can be used in product specifications. These standards also define the required level of accuracy of the force data produced by IIT instruments, as well as methods to verify that accuracy. For forces below 10 mN, these requirements can be difficult to meet, particularly for instrument owners who need to verify the performance of their instrument as it is installed at their site. In this paper, we describe the development, performance and application of an SI-traceable force sensor system for potential use in the field calibration of commercial IIT instruments. The force sensor itself, based on an elastically deforming capacitance gauge, is small enough to mount in a commercial instrument as if it were a test specimen, and is used in conjunction with an ultra-high accuracy capacitance bridge. The sensor system is calibrated with NIST-traceable masses over the range 5.0 {micro}N through 5.0 mN. We will present data on its accuracy and precision, as well its potential application to the verification of force in commercial instrumented indentation instruments.

  13. Characterization of Local Mechanical Properties of Polymer Thin Films and Polymer Nanocomposites via AFM indentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu

    AFM indentation has become a tool with great potential in the characterization of nano-mechanical properties of materials. Thanks to the nanometer sized probes, AFM indentation is capable of capturing the changes of multiple properties within the range of tens of nanometers, such task would otherwise be difficult by using other experiment instruments. Despite the great potentials of AFM indentation, it operates based on a simple mechanism: driving the delicate AFM probe to indent the sample surface, and recording the force-displacement response. With limited information provided by AFM indentation, efforts are still required for any practice to successfully extract the desired nano-scale properties from specific materials. In this thesis, we focus on the mechanical properties of interphase between polymer and inorganic materials. It is known that in nanocomposites, a region of polymer exist around nanoparticles with altered molecular structures and improved properties, which is named as interphase polymer. The system with polymer thin films and inorganic material substrates is widely used to simulate the interphase effect in nanocomposites. In this thesis, we developed an efficient and reliable method to process film/substrate samples and characterize the changes of local mechanical properties inside the interphase region with ultra-high resolution AFM mechanical mapping technique. Applying this newly developed method, the interphase of several film/substrate pairs were examined and compared. The local mechanical properties on the other side of the polymer thin film, the free surface side, was also investigated using AFM indentation equipped with surface modified probes. In order to extract the full spectrum of local elastic modulus inside the surface region in the range of only tens of nanometers, the different contact mechanics models were studied and compared, and a Finite Element model was also established. Though the film/substrate system has been wide used as

  14. Indentation Measurements to Validate Dynamic Elasticity Imaging Methods.

    PubMed

    Altahhan, Khaldoon N; Wang, Yue; Sobh, Nahil; Insana, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    We describe macro-indentation techniques for estimating the elastic modulus of soft hydrogels. Our study describes (a) conditions under which quasi-static indentation can validate dynamic shear-wave imaging estimates and (b) how each of these techniques uniquely biases modulus estimates as they couple to the sample geometry. Harmonic shear waves between 25 and 400 Hz were imaged using ultrasonic Doppler and optical coherence tomography methods to estimate shear dispersion. From the shear-wave speed of sound, average elastic moduli of homogeneous samples were estimated. These results are compared directly with macroscopic indentation measurements measured two ways. One set of measurements applied Hertzian theory to the loading phase of the force-displacement curves using samples treated to minimize surface adhesion forces. A second set of measurements applied Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory to the unloading phase of the force-displacement curve when surface adhesions were significant. All measurements were made using gelatin hydrogel samples of different sizes and concentrations. Agreement within 5% among elastic modulus estimates was achieved for a range of experimental conditions. Consequently, a simple quasi-static indentation measurement using a common gel can provide elastic modulus measurements that help validate dynamic shear-wave imaging estimates. PMID:26376923

  15. Measurement of corneal tangent modulus using ultrasound indentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ke; Huang, Yan-Ping; Tian, Lei; Kee, Chea-Su; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanical properties are potential information for the diagnosis of corneal pathologies. An ultrasound indentation probe consisting of a load cell and a miniature ultrasound transducer as indenter was developed to detect the force-indentation relationship of the cornea. The key idea was to utilize the ultrasound transducer to compress the cornea and to ultrasonically measure the corneal deformation with the eyeball overall displacement compensated. Twelve corneal silicone phantoms were fabricated with different stiffness for the validation of measurement with reference to an extension test. In addition, fifteen fresh porcine eyes were measured by the developed system in vitro. The tangent moduli of the corneal phantoms calculated using the ultrasound indentation data agreed well with the results from the tensile test of the corresponding phantom strips (R(2)=0.96). The mean tangent moduli of the porcine corneas measured by the proposed method were 0.089±0.026MPa at intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15mmHg and 0.220±0.053MPa at IOP of 30mmHg, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of tangent modulus were 14.4% and 0.765 at 15mmHg, and 8.6% and 0.870 at 30mmHg, respectively. The preliminary study showed that ultrasound indentation could be applied to the measurement of corneal tangent modulus with good repeatability and improved measurement accuracy compared to conventional surface displacement-based measurement method. The ultrasound indentation can be a potential tool for the corneal biomechanical properties measurement in vivo. PMID:27262352

  16. Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation: incidence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Piquero, K; Ando, T; Sakurai, K

    1999-05-01

    Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation have been considered as one of the visible and reliable signs of bruxism. However, there have not been any reports justifying this relationship scientifically. Moreover, there have not been any studies reporting specific procedures to assess them. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical incidence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and assess the possible relationship between certain factors that can influence their occurrence. A total of 244 (178 males and 66 females) dentulous adults from 20 to 59 years of age, who were employees at the Bank of Yokohama, were randomly selected. At first, the buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation were classified into three groups based in their intensity: none, mild, and severe. The incidence of both conditions in the different age groups, as well as the incidence by gender was evaluated. Furthermore, the possible relationships between buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and age, gender, clenching awareness, grinding awareness, headache, neck stiffness, vertical dimension, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain to palpation, masticatory muscle tenderness to palpation, and the presence of premature contacts were evaluated using the chi-square test. A positive relationship was found between the occurrence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and gender (p < 0.01); both conditions were observed more frequently in females than in males. A positive relationship was also found to age; the group between 20-29 years old showed the highest incidence. The vertical dimension had a positive relationship with the occurrence of both buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation. Other factors evaluated did not show any correlation. PMID:10825817

  17. An Improved Approach to Fracture Toughness Assessment of Brittle Coating on Ductile Substrate Systems under Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Natalia V.

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that determines the structural integrity of a component with pre-existing or service-generated flaws. In the present research, an indentation-based method and the associated fracture mechanics model are proposed for fracture toughness assessment of brittle coating/ductile substrate systems. The proposed models consider well-developed radial/median cracks generated under sharp indentation, despite that the crack formation process may have gone through crack initiation and propagation phases. For generality, the geometry of a well-developed crack is assumed to be semi-elliptical in shape. The driving force of the crack is considered to stem from the residual plastic zone expansion under the indenter, as well as the far-field Boussinesq (elastic) stress. Three well-defined configurations are studied. For the first configuration, a crack with a depth of less than 7% of the coating thickness is considered. In this case, the problem is treated as the one for the monolithic material with the coating material properties. For the second configuration, a crack that runs deeper than 7% of the coating thickness but is still within the coating layer is analyzed. In this case, the composite hardness is introduced into the analysis to account for the influence of the substrate material properties; and furthermore, an interface correction factor is proposed to take into account the presence of the coating/substrate interface and its influence on the stress intensity factor of the well-developed elliptical cracks. For the third configuration, a crack penetrating into the substrate is considered. In this case, based on the condition of deformation compatibility across the coating/substrate interface, the bulk modulus for the coating/substrate system is introduced into the analysis. A series of indentation tests are conducted on a WC/10Co/4Cr coating/1080 low carbon steel substrate specimen, which is a brittle coating on a ductile

  18. Prediction of Indentation Behavior of Superelastic TiNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Rabin; Farhat, Zoheir

    2014-09-01

    Superelastic TiNi shape memory alloys have been extensively used in various applications. The great interest in TiNi alloys is due to its unique shape memory and superelastic effects, along with its superior wear and dent resistance. Assessment of mechanical properties and dent resistance of superelastic TiNi is commonly performed using indentation techniques. However, the coupling of deformation and reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi under indentation conditions makes the interpretation of results challenging. An attempt is made to enhance current interpretation of indentation data. A load-depth curve is predicted that takes into consideration the reversible martensitic transformation. The predicted curve is in good agreement with experimental results. It is found in this study that the elastic modulus is a function of indentation depth. At shallow depths, the elastic modulus is high due to austenite dominance, while at high depths, the elastic modulus drops as the depth increases due to austenite to martensite transition, i.e., martensite dominance. It is also found that TiNi exhibits superior dent resistance compared to AISI 304 steel. There is two orders of magnitude improvement in dent resistance of TiNi in comparison to AISI 304 steel.

  19. Radial in-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer combined with instrumented indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viotti, Matias R.; Albertazzi, Armando; Bonomo, Danilo; Fontana, Filipe

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a modular device based on digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) which is combined with instrumented indentation. The interferometric module uses a diffractive optical element that confers radial in-plane sensitivity enabling the measurement of whole displacement field generated by the shallow indentation print on the surface of the material under testing. The indentation module uses a piezoelectric loading cell and an inductive transducer to simultaneously measure the loading applied on the ball indenter tip as well as its penetration on the material under testing. A mechanical/hydraulic scheme was developed to achieve a high loading capability with a compact indentation module, suitably sized with the interferometric module. A finite element simulation was carried out for a generic low carbon steel material without residual stresses and under a tensile external loading of 25%, 50% and 75% of its yielding stress. In the same way, a steel bar was experimentally indented by using the compact indenter module and the radial in-plane displacements around the indentation were measured with the measurement module. Good agreement was found between the simulated and measured displacement fields. In addition, the influence of the tensile load on the measured displacement fields was clearly observed by the measurement module.

  20. Defect formation by pristine indenter at the initial stage of nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I.-Hsien; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Behera, Rakesh K.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2013-12-01

    Nano-indentation is a sophisticated method to characterize mechanical properties of materials. This method samples a very small amount of material during each indentation. Therefore, this method is extremely useful to measure mechanical properties of nano-materials. The measurements using nanoindentation is very sensitive to the surface topology of the indenter and the indenting surfaces. The mechanisms involved in the entire process of nanoindentation require an atomic level understanding of the interplay between the indenter and the substrate. In this paper, we have used atomistic simulation methods with empirical potentials to investigate the effect of various types of pristine indenter on the defect nucleation and growth. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have predicted the load-depth curve for conical, vickers, and sperical tip. The results are analyzed based on the coherency between the indenter tip and substrate surface for a fixed depth of 20 Å. The depth of defect nucleation and growth is observed to be dependent on the tip geometry. A tip with larger apex angle nucleates defects at a shallower depth. However, the type of defect generated is dependent on the crystalline orientation of the tip and substrate. For coherent systems, prismatic loops were generated, which released into the substrate along the close-packed directions with continued indentation. For incoherent systems, pyramidal shaped dislocation junctions formed in the FCC systems and disordered atomic clusters formed in the BCC systems. These defect nucleation and growth process provide the atomistic mechanisms responsible for the observed load-depth response during nanoindentation.

  1. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TBC SPALLATION DETECTION BY A MICRO-INDENTATION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Tannenbaum; B.S.-J. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2010-06-18

    In this research, a load-based depth-sensing micro-indentation method for spallation detection and damage assessment of thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials is presented. A non-destructive multiple loading/partial unloading testing methodology was developed where in stiffness responses of TBC coupons subjected to various thermal cyclic loading conditions were analyzed to predict the spallation site and assess TBC degradation state. The measured stiffness responses at various thermal loading cycles were used to generate time-series color maps for correlation with accumulation of TBC residual stress states. The regions with higher stiffness responses can be linked to a rise in out-of-plane residual stress located near or at the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface, which is ultimately responsible for initiating TBC spallation failure. A TBC thermal exposure testing plan was carried out where time-series cross-sectional microstructural analyses of damage accumulation and spallation failure associated with the evolution of bond coat/TGO/top coat composite (e.g. thickness, ratcheting, localized oxidations, etc.) of air plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs were evaluated and correlated to the measured stiffness responses at various thermal cycles. The results show that the load-based micro-indentation test methodology is capable of identifying the spallation site(s) before actual occurrence. This micro-indentation technique can be viewed as a viable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for determining as-manufactured and process-exposed TBCs. This technique also shows promise for the development of a portable instrument for on-line, in-situ spallation detection/prediction of industrial-size TBC turbine components.

  2. In situ spectroscopic study of the plastic deformation of amorphous silicon under nonhydrostatic conditions induced by indentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Michaels, C. A.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Haberl, Bianca; Cook, Robert F.

    2015-12-17

    Indentation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films was studied by in situ Raman imaging of the deformed contact region of an indented sample, employing a Raman spectroscopy-enhanced instrumented indentation technique (IIT). The occurrence and evolving spatial distribution of changes in the a-Si structure caused by processes, such as polyamorphization and crystallization, induced by indentation loading were observed. Furthermore, the obtained experimental results are linked with previously published work on the plastic deformation of a-Si under hydrostatic compression and shear deformation to establish a model for the deformation behavior of a-Si under indentation loading.

  3. SPHERICAL INDENTATION OF SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Johanns, Kurt E

    2007-01-01

    Instrumented Hertzian indentation testing was performed on several grades of SiCs and the results and preliminary interpretations are presented. The grades included hot-pressed and sintered compositions. One of the hot-pressed grades was additionally subjected to high temperature heat treatment to produce a coarsened grain microstructure to enable the examination of exaggerated grain size on indentation response. Diamond spherical indenters were used in the testing. Indentation load, indentation depth of penetration, and acoustic activity were continually measured during each indentation test. Indentation response and postmortem analysis of induced damage (e.g., ring/cone, radial and median cracking, quasi-plasticity) are compared and qualitatively as a function of grain size. For the case of SiC-N, the instrumented spherical indentation showed that yielding initiated at an average contact stress 12-13 GPa and that there was another event (i.e., a noticeable rate increase in compliance probably associated with extensive ring and radial crack formations) occurring around an estimated average contact stress of 19 GPa.

  4. Morphometric Analysis of Major Catchments Draining the Adriatic Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Topography and relief in collisional orogens such as the European Alps result from the interplay of uplift driven by plate convergence and crustal shortening, and erosional surface processes that act along evolving topographic gradients and counteract topography formation. Due to ongoing indentation of the Adriatic indenter into the Eastern Alps, the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter is one of the tectonically most active zones of the Central Mediterranean region. The region is characterized by numerous earthquakes, distinct spatial gradients in recent uplift rates and exhumation level, and active faulting. However, the predominance of carbonaceous lithology hindered low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide dating, so that timing, rates and drivers of south-alpine topography development are still not well constrained. Further on, a systematic morphometric analysis of rivers draining the south-alpine indenter is still missing. In this study we fill this gap and investigate the interplay of tectonics and climate by a morphometric analysis of drainage systems of the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter. We systematically extract a variety of characteristic channel metrics of four major drainage systems (Adige, Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento) of this domain and interpret the morphometric results in terms of (a) lithological effects such as erodibility contrasts and karstification, (b) spatially variable uplift rates, (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and possible Messinian preconditioning, and (d) the migration of drainage divides. We find a clear correlation between the normalized steepness index (ksn) and bedrock type. ksn - values are systematically increased whenever rivers incise into the basement of the south-alpine indenter. However, the outcrop of the basement indicates a high level of exhumation and thus the highest overall uplift of the domain such that both increased uplift rates and low rock erodibility may be

  5. Surface tension measurement from the indentation of clamped thin films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuejuan; Jagota, Anand; Paretkar, Dadhichi; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2016-06-21

    We developed an indentation technique to measure the surface tension of relatively stiff solids. In the proposed method, a suspended thin solid film is indented by a rigid sphere and its deflection is measured by optical interferometry. The film deflection is jointly resisted by surface tension, elasticity and residual stress. Using a version of nonlinear von Karman plate theory that includes surface tension, we are able to separate the contribution of elasticity to the total tension in the film. Surface tension is determined by extrapolating the sum of surface tension and residual stress to zero film thickness. We measured the surface tension of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using this technique and obtained a value of 19.5 ± 3.6 mN m(-1), consistent with the surface energy of PDMS reported in the literature. PMID:27189735

  6. Water jet indentation for local elasticity measurements of soft materials.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, N R; Dantan, Ph; Gazquez, E; Cornelissen, A J M; Fleury, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel elastography method for soft materials (100Pa-100kPa) based on indentation by a μm-sized water jet. We show that the jet creates a localized deformation ("cavity") of the material that can be easily visualized. We study experimentally how cavity width and depth depend on jet speed, height, incidence angle and sample elasticity. We describe how to calibrate the indenter using gels of known stiffness. We then demonstrate that the indenter yields quantitative elasticity values within 10% of those measured by shear rheometry. We corroborate our experimental findings with fluid-solid finite-element simulations that quantitatively predict the cavity profile and fluid flow lines. The water jet indenter permits in situ local stiffness measurements of 2D or 3D gels used for cell culture in physiological buffer, is able to assess stiffness heterogeneities with a lateral resolution in the range 50-500μm (at the tissue scale) and can be assembled at low cost with standard material from a biology laboratory. We therefore believe it will become a valuable method to measure the stiffness of a wide range of soft, synthetic or biological materials. PMID:26830759

  7. Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Tantalum Carbide Ceramic Layer: A Vickers Indentation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ke; Xu, Yunhua; Zhao, Nana; Zhong, Lisheng; Shang, Zhao; Shen, Liuliu; Wang, Juan

    2016-06-01

    A tantalum carbide (TaC) ceramic layer was produced on gray cast iron matrix by in situ technique comprising a casting process and a subsequent heat treatment at 1135 °C for 45 min. Indentation fracture toughness in TaC ceramic layer was determined by the Vickers indentation test for various loads. A Niihara approach was chosen to assess the fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer under condition of the Palmqvist mode in the experiment. The results reveal that K IC evaluation of TaC ceramic layer by the Vickers indentation method strongly depends on the selection of crack system and K IC equations. The critical indentation load for Vickers crack initiation in TaC ceramic layer lies between 1 and 2 N and the cracks show typical intergranular fracture characteristics. Indentation fracture toughness calculated by the indentation method is independent of the indentation load on the specimen. The fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer is 6.63 ± 0.34 MPa m1/2, and the toughening mechanism is mainly crack deflection.

  8. Measuring the mechanical properties of plant cells by combining micro-indentation with osmotic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Alain; Braybrook, Siobhan; Huflejt, Michal; Mosca, Gabriella; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Smith, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in plants results from the interaction between genetic and signalling networks and the mechanical properties of cells and tissues. There has been a recent resurgence in research directed at understanding the mechanical aspects of growth, and their feedback on genetic regulation. This has been driven in part by the development of new micro-indentation techniques to measure the mechanical properties of plant cells in vivo. However, the interpretation of indentation experiments remains a challenge, since the force measures results from a combination of turgor pressure, cell wall stiffness, and cell and indenter geometry. In order to interpret the measurements, an accurate mechanical model of the experiment is required. Here, we used a plant cell system with a simple geometry, Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells, to examine the sensitivity of micro-indentation to a variety of mechanical and experimental parameters. Using a finite-element mechanical model, we found that, for indentations of a few microns on turgid cells, the measurements were mostly sensitive to turgor pressure and the radius of the cell, and not to the exact indenter shape or elastic properties of the cell wall. By complementing indentation experiments with osmotic experiments to measure the elastic strain in turgid cells, we could fit the model to both turgor pressure and cell wall elasticity. This allowed us to interpret apparent stiffness values in terms of meaningful physical parameters that are relevant for morphogenesis. PMID:25873663

  9. Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Tantalum Carbide Ceramic Layer: A Vickers Indentation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ke; Xu, Yunhua; Zhao, Nana; Zhong, Lisheng; Shang, Zhao; Shen, Liuliu; Wang, Juan

    2016-07-01

    A tantalum carbide (TaC) ceramic layer was produced on gray cast iron matrix by in situ technique comprising a casting process and a subsequent heat treatment at 1135 °C for 45 min. Indentation fracture toughness in TaC ceramic layer was determined by the Vickers indentation test for various loads. A Niihara approach was chosen to assess the fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer under condition of the Palmqvist mode in the experiment. The results reveal that K IC evaluation of TaC ceramic layer by the Vickers indentation method strongly depends on the selection of crack system and K IC equations. The critical indentation load for Vickers crack initiation in TaC ceramic layer lies between 1 and 2 N and the cracks show typical intergranular fracture characteristics. Indentation fracture toughness calculated by the indentation method is independent of the indentation load on the specimen. The fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer is 6.63 ± 0.34 MPa m1/2, and the toughening mechanism is mainly crack deflection.

  10. Effects of B + implantation on Palmqvist and Hertzian indentation response of Ti coated glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugier, M. T.

    1991-07-01

    Effects of 1 × 10 16 ions cm -2 100 keV B + implantation on stress and cracking behaviour of Ti magnetron sputtered glass are investigated using indentation techniques. Compressive coating stresses ( ~ 0.3 GPa before implantation, -0.5 GPa after implantation) were determined from reduced Palmqvist indentation crack lengths and inhibition of partial ring cracks, and lateral breakout in sliding Hertzian tests was observed in addition to reduced Palmqvist cracking.

  11. Correction Method of Young's Modulus Measurement for Top Coat of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Instrumented Indentation Test with Spherical Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Motofumi; Ishibashi, Tatsuya

    Understanding of Young’s modulus of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) top coat is one of the important factors about improvement reliability of TBCs that is key technology of increasing thermal efficiency of gas turbine. Some measurement procedures have been proposed, but not established yet. Indentation test evaluated only hardness value before, but recently it has developed to be able to evaluate other mechanical properties such as yield strength, Young’s modulus, etc. From such background, application of indentation test for measurement of Young’s modulus of TBCs top coat is effective means. Although pyramidal indenter and calculation method regulated by ISO14577 is usually selected for measurement of Young’s modulus of TBCs top coat, author have proposed spherical indenter and calculation method based on elastic contact theory by Hertz. In this study, influence of different correcting specimens on measurement Young's modulus of TBCs top coat was discussed and it was concluded that the results of HMV500 hardness standard specimen show high uniformity on measured Young’s modulus of TBCs top coat (i.e. less load dependency).

  12. Ceramic wear in indentation and sliding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The various wear mechanisms involved with single-crystal ceramic materials in indentation and in sliding contacts. Experiments simulating interfacial events have been conducted with hemispherical, conical and pyramidal indenters (riders). With spherical riders, under either abrasive or adhesive conditions, two types of fracture pits have been observed. First, spherical-shaped fracture pits and wear particles are found as a result of either indenting or sliding. These are shown to be due to a spherical-shaped fracture along the circular or spherical stress trajectories. Second, polyhedral fracture pits and debris, produced by anisotropic fracture, and also found both during indenting and sliding. These are primarily controlled by surface and subsurface cracking along cleavage planes. Several quantitative results have also been obtained from this work. For example, using a pyramidal diamond, crack length of Mn-Zn ferrite in the indentation process grows linearly with increasing normal load. Moreover, the critical load to fracture both in indentation and sliding is essentially isotropic and is found to be directly proportional to the indenter radius.

  13. Thermomechanical indentation of shape memory polymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Kevin N.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Castro, Francisco; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.; Shandas, Robin

    2007-04-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are receiving increasing attention because of their ability to store a temporary shape for a prescribed period of time, and then when subjected to an environmental stimulus, recover an original programmed shape. They are attractive candidates for a wide range of applications in microsystems, biomedical devices, deployable aerospace structures, and morphing structures. In this paper we investigate the thermomechanical behavior of shape memory polymers due to instrumented indentation, a loading/deformation scenario that represents complex multiaxial deformation. The SMP sample is indented using a spherical indenter at a temperature T{sub 1} (>T{sub g}). The temperature is then lowered to T{sub 2} (indenter is kept in place. After removal of the indenter at T{sub 2}, an indentation impression exists. Shape memory is then activated by increasing the temperature to T{sub 1} (>T{sub g}) during free recovery the indentation impression disappears and the surface of the SMP recovers to its original profile. A recently-developed three-dimensional finite deformation constitutive model for the thermomechanical behavior of SMPs is then used with the finite element method to simulate this process. Measurement and simulation results are compared for cases of free and constrained recovery and good agreement is obtained, suggesting the appropriateness of the simulation approach for complex multiaxial loading/deformations that are likely to occur in applications.

  14. Full-surface deformation measurement of anisotropic tissues under indentation.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Katia; Montes, Areli; Martínez, Amalia; Evans, Sam L

    2015-05-01

    Inverse finite element-based analysis of soft biological tissues is an important tool to investigate their complex mechanical behavior and to develop physical models for medical simulations. Although there have recently been advances in dealing with the computational complexities of modeling biological materials, the collection of a sufficiently dense set of experimental data to properly capture their typically regionally varying properties still remains a critical issue. The aim of this work was to develop and test an optical system that combines 2D-Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and a novel Fringe Projection method with radial sensitivity (RFP) to test soft biological tissues under in vitro indentation. This system has the distinctive capability of using a single camera to retrieve the shape and 3D deformation of the whole upper surface of the indented sample without any blind measurement areas (with exception of the area under the indenter), with nominal depth and in-plane resolution of 0.05 mm and 0.004 mm, respectively. To test and illustrate the capabilities of the developed DIC/RFP system, the in vitro response to indentation of a homogeneous and isotropic latex foam is presented against the response of a slab of porcine ventricular myocardium, a highly in-homogeneous and anisotropic tissue. Our results illustrate the enhanced capabilities of the developed method to capture asymmetry in deformation with respect to standard indentation tests. This feature, together with the possibility of miniaturizing the system into a hand-held probe, makes this method potentially extendable to in vivo settings, alone or in combination with ultrasound measurements. PMID:25857545

  15. Quay crane scheduling for an indented berth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Der-Horng; Chen, Jiang Hang; Cao, Jin Xin

    2011-09-01

    This article explores the quay crane scheduling problem at an indented berth. The indented berth is known as an innovative implementation in the container terminals to tackle the challenge from the emergence of more and more mega-containerships. A mixed integer programming model by considering the non-crossing and safety distance constraints is formulated. A Tabu search heuristic is developed to solve the proposed problem. The computational results from this research indicate that the designed Tabu search is an effective method to handle the quay crane scheduling problem at an indented berth.

  16. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Carassiti, Fabio; Pharr, George Mathews

    2014-05-16

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of thin ceramic films. Unfortunately, measuring thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these problems based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the pillar’s upper portion is almost fully relaxed, and when indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behavior. Cohesive finite element simulations are used to analyze and develop, for a given material, a simple relation between the critical load at failure, pillar radius, and fracture toughness. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. Furthermore, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparing the indentation results from the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings formed by physical vapor deposition: titanium nitride, chromium nitride, and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.

  17. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Carassiti, Fabio; Pharr, George Mathews

    2014-05-16

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of thin ceramic films. Unfortunately, measuring thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these problems based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the pillar’s upper portion is almost fully relaxed, and whenmore » indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behavior. Cohesive finite element simulations are used to analyze and develop, for a given material, a simple relation between the critical load at failure, pillar radius, and fracture toughness. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. Furthermore, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparing the indentation results from the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings formed by physical vapor deposition: titanium nitride, chromium nitride, and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.« less

  18. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, M.; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, E. G.; Carassiti, F.; Pharr, G. M.

    2015-06-01

    The fracture toughness of thin ceramic films is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of this important class of engineering materials. Unfortunately, measurement of thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these issues based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the upper portion of the pillar is almost fully relaxed, and when indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behaviour. Cohesive finite element simulations are used for analysis and development of a simple relationship between the critical load at failure, pillar radius and fracture toughness for a given material. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. In addition, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparison of the indentation results obtained on the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings created by physical vapour deposition, namely titanium nitride, chromium nitride and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.

  19. Comparison of Spherical and Flat Tips for Indentation of Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Kelly J.; Ebenstein, Donna M.

    2015-04-01

    Although both spherical and flat tips have been used in nanoindentation studies of soft biomaterials, care must be taken in selecting and validating a tip for a specific application. This article compares the moduli measured using spherical nanoindentation, flat tip (specifically, a flattened cone) nanoindentation, and unconfined compression testing of three polyacrylamide gels with nominal moduli between 10 kPa and 50 kPa. Although spherical indentation moduli were consistent with compression testing moduli and were independent of indentation depth, the flat tip results showed a significant increase in modulus with depth when analyzed using a flat punch model. Alternative methods are proposed to analyze the flat tip data to bring the flat tip results into alignment with the moduli measured using the other mechanical testing techniques.

  20. Surface Form Memory in NiTi: Energy Density of Constrained Recovery During Indent Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xueling; O'Connell, Corey J.; Grummon, David S.; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2009-08-01

    Spherical indentation of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) to depths greater than about 3% of the indenter radius results in two-way shape-memory training in a deformation zone beneath the indent. If deep spherical or cylindrical indents are subsequently machined away just sufficiently to remove traces of the original indent (in the martensitic condition), a thermally induced and cyclically reversible flat-to-protruded surface topography is enabled. We term the phenomenon surface form memory. The amplitude of cyclic protrusions, or ‘exdents’, is related to the existence of a subsurface deformation zone in which indentation has resulted in plastic strains beyond that which can be accomplished by martensite detwinning reactions. Dislocation generation in this zone is thought to underlie the observed two-way shape-memory (TWSME) training effect. In this article, we show that these cyclic exdents can perform appreciable mechanical work when displacing under load against a base-metal substrate (constrained recovery). This “non-Hertzian” indentation, which appears to be able to exert the full energy density of SMA actuation, may have use for assembly of micromachines, bond-release, microforging, microjoining, electrical switching, microconnectors, and variable heat transfer devices, among many other potential applications.

  1. Determination of mechanical properties from depth-sensing indentation data and results of finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaenkova, M. G.; Perlovich, Yu A.; Krymskaya, O. A.; Zhuk, D. I.

    2016-04-01

    3D finite element model of indentation process with Berkovich tip was created. Using this model with different type of test materials, several series of calculations were made. These calculations lead to determination of material behavior features during indentation. Relations between material properties and its behavior during instrumented indentation were used for construction of dimensionless functions required for development the calculation algorithm, suitable to determine mechanical properties of materials by results of the depth-sensing indentation. Results of mechanical properties determination using elaborated algorithm for AISI 1020 steel grade were compared to properties obtained with standard compression tests. These two results differ by less than 10% for yield stress that evidence of a good accuracy of the proposed technique.

  2. Indentation of pressurized viscoplastic polymer spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, V.; Needleman, A.

    2016-08-01

    The indentation response of polymer spherical shells is investigated. Finite deformation analyses are carried out with the polymer characterized as a viscoelastic/viscoplastic solid. Both pressurized and unpressurized shells are considered. Attention is restricted to axisymmetric deformations with a conical indenter. The response is analyzed for various values of the shell thickness to radius ratio and various values of the internal pressure. Two sets of material parameters are considered: one set having network stiffening at a moderate strain and the other having no network stiffening until very large strains are attained. The transition from an indentation type mode of deformation to a structural mode of deformation involving bending that occurs as the indentation depth increases is studied. The results show the effects of shell thickness, internal pressure and polymer constitutive characterization on this transition and on the deformation modes in each of these regimes.

  3. Experimental validation of the new modular application of the upper bound theorem in indentation.

    PubMed

    Bermudo, Carolina; Martín, Francisco; Martín, María Jesús; Sevilla, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process. PMID:25826738

  4. Experimental Validation of the New Modular Application of the Upper Bound Theorem in Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Bermudo, Carolina; Martín, Francisco; Martín, María Jesús; Sevilla, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process. PMID:25826738

  5. Feature-Based Registration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Klinder, Tobias; von Berg, Jens

    In contrast to intensity-based image registration, where a similarity measure is typically evaluated at each voxel location, feature-based registration works on a sparse set of image locations. Therefore, it needs an explicit step of interpolation to supply a dense deformation field. In this chapter, the application of feature-based registration to pulmonary image registration as well as hybrid methods, combining feature-based with intensity-based registration, is discussed. In contrast to pure feature based registration methods, hybrid methods are increasingly proposed in the pulmonary context and have the potential to out-perform purely intensity based registration methods. Available approaches will be classified along the categories feature type, correspondence definition, and interpolation type to finally achieve a dense deformation field.

  6. Lattice rotation caused by wedge indentation of a single crystal: Dislocation dynamics compared to crystal plasticity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhe; Gao, Yanfei; Nicola, Lucia

    2014-08-01

    A number of recent experimental efforts such as electron back scattering technique and three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy have revealed the intriguing formation of sectors of lattice rotation fields under indentation. In the case of wedge indentation, the in-plane rotation changes sign from one sector to another. Although the lattice rotation fields can be used to compute the geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) densities, it remains unclear how these sectors can be related to the hardness and therefore to the indentation size effects, i.e., the increase of indentation hardness with the decrease of indentation depth. Crystal plasticity simulations in this work reproduce the experimental findings at large indentation depth. On the contrary, discrete dislocation plasticity can only capture the sectors found experimentally when there is a high obstacle density and large obstacle strength. Obstacle density and strength, however, have little effect on the hardness. In other words, there is no one-to-one correspondence between the lattice rotation patterns and the indentation size effects. The presence of obstacles favors the dislocation arrangements that lead to the experimentally found rotation sectors. Using the similarity solutions of indentation fields and the solution of localized deformation fields near a stationary crack, a simple model is developed that explains the dislocation pattern evolution, its relationship to the lattice misorientations, and more importantly its dependence on obstacles.

  7. Quasi-Plastic Deformation of WC-Co Composites Loaded with a Spherical Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Belnap, J. Daniel

    2007-03-01

    The quasi-plastic deformation behavior of cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) materials was studied using Hertzian indentation techniques. The indentation stress-strain curves of three WC-10 wt pct Co alloys with different hardness values demonstrate that WC-Co alloys exhibit “quasi-plasticity” behavior under indentation load and the increase of indentation stress vs indentation strain bears similarity to “strain hardening” in ductile metals. The analysis of the subsurface indentation damage shows that the mechanisms of the quasi-plastic deformation of WC-Co material are the formation of microcracks. Microcracks were found at heavily damaged areas in all three alloys, and the number of microcracks was higher for the sample with the higher apparent quasi-plasticity. The threshold stress values for the onset of quasi-plastic deformation and formation of ring cracks were determined and used to evaluate the brittleness index of these materials. The correlation of the brittleness index with hardness values gives insight with regard to the brittle or quasi-plastic responses of WC-Co materials.

  8. Indentation measurements on the eardrum with automated projection moiré profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, J. A. N.; Aernouts, J. E. F.; Dirckx, J. J. J.

    2009-03-01

    Computer modeling of middle ear mechanics is an important tool to investigate its complex behavior, but correct mechanical and elastic parameters are needed to obtain realistic simulations. A possible way to determine eardrum elasticity in situ is the use of point indentation measurements. The eardrum is, however, a small fragile membrane, so a non-contacting high-resolution technique is needed to measure the shape change caused by point indentation. We have developed a projection moiré interferometer combined with an indentation actuator and a high-resolution force sensor. The apparatus applies deformations up to 1 mm with a resolution of 1 μm, while the indentation force is measured with a resolution better than 1 mN. The moiré setup delivers height data on 512×512 points through phase-shifting, with a height resolution of 15 μm. Shape recordings are made on a rabbit eardrum at different indentation distances, and indentation force is recorded simultaneously.

  9. Indentation of a Power Law Creeping Solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, A. F.; Fleck, N. A.; Needleman, A.; Ogbonna, N.

    1993-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish a rigorous theoretical basis for interpreting the results of hardness tests on creeping specimens. We investigate the deformation of a creeping half-space with uniaxial stress-strain behaviour dot{ɛ}=dot{ɛ}0(σ /σ 0)m, which is indented by a rigid punch. Both axisymmetric and plane indenters are considered. The shape of the punch is described by a general expression which includes most indenter profiles of practical importance. Two methods are used to solve the problem. The main results are found using a transformation method suggested by R. Hill. It is shown that the creep indentation problem may be reduced to a form which is independent of the geometry of the punch, and depends only on the material properties through m. The reduced problem consists of a nonlinear elastic half-space, which is indented to a unit depth by a rigid flat punch of unit radius (in the axisymmetric case), or unit semi-width (in the plane case). Exact solutions are given for m = 1 and m = ∞ . For m between these two limits, the reduced problem has been solved using the finite element method. The results enable the load on the indenter and the contact radius to be calculated in terms of the indentation depth and rate of penetration. The stress, strain and displacement fields in the half-space may also be deduced. The accuracy of the solution is demonstrated by comparing the results with full-field finite element calculations. The predictions of the theory are shown to be consistent with experimental observations of hardness tests on creeping materials reported in the literature.

  10. Evaluation of barely visible indentation damage (BVID) in CF/EP sandwich composites using guided wave signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, Samir; Ye, Lin; Dong, Xingjian; Alamdari, Mehrisadat Makki

    2016-08-01

    Barely visible indentation damage after quasi-static indentation in sandwich CF/EP composites was assessed using ultrasonic guided wave signals. Finite element analyses were conducted to investigate the interaction between guided waves and damage, further to assist in the selection process of the Lamb wave sensitive modes for debonding identification. Composite sandwich beams and panels structures were investigated. Using the beam structure, a damage index was defined based on the change in the peak magnitude of the captured wave signals before and after the indentation, and the damage index was correlated with the residual deformation (defined as the depth of the dent), that was further correlated with the amount of crushing within the core. Both A0 and S0 Lamb wave modes showed high sensitivity to the presence of barely visible indentation damage with residual deformation of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, barely visible indentation damage was assessed in composite sandwich panels after indenting to 3 and 5 mm, and the damage index was defined, based on (a) the peak magnitude of the wave signals before and after indentation or (b) the mismatch between the original and reconstructed wave signals based on a time-reversal algorithm, and was subsequently applied to locate the position of indentation.

  11. A hybrid approach to determining cornea mechanical properties in vivo using a combination of nano-indentation and inverse finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Abyaneh, M H; Wildman, R D; Ashcroft, I A; Ruiz, P D

    2013-11-01

    An analysis of the material properties of porcine corneas has been performed. A simple stress relaxation test was performed to determine the viscoelastic properties and a rheological model was built based on the Generalized Maxwell (GM) approach. A validation experiment using nano-indentation showed that an isotropic GM model was insufficient for describing the corneal material behaviour when exposed to a complex stress state. A new technique was proposed for determining the properties, using a combination of nano-indentation experiment, an isotropic and orthotropic GM model and inverse finite element method. The good agreement using this method suggests that this is a promising technique for measuring material properties in vivo and further work should focus on the reliability of the approach in practice. PMID:23816808

  12. Dent Resistance and Effect of Indentation Loading Rate on Superelastic TiNi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Zoheir; Jarjoura, George; Shahirnia, Meisam

    2013-08-01

    The large recoverable deformation associated with reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation for superelastic TiNi alloys has been widely exploited in many applications. However, to employ superelastic TiNi in applications where high impact loading is expected, as in bearings, the effect of loading rate on superelasticity needs to be understood. In the current article, the effect of indentation loading rate on dent resistance and superelasticity of TiNi is studied. Indentation tests are performed, at different loading rates on superelastic TiNi alloy and correlated to tensile stress-strain data. It is found that the reversible deformation drops as loading rate is increased and superelasticity diminishes. Based on data collected and results analysis it is proposed that the loss in superelastic behavior under high indentation loading rate is related to retardation of the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Furthermore, a simple heat model was proposed and showed that the temperature rise during indentation is not significant.

  13. Measurement of deformation during spherical indentation of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mulford, R. N.; Benson, D. C.; Hampel, F. G.; Asaro, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Spherical indentation provides an easy measure of approximate mechanical properties, particularly those of small samples or regions that are not easily measured by other means. Spherical indentation data was analyzed by two methods. An analytical method based on powerlaw hardening yields a stress-strain curve. Finite element modelling based on the Mechanical Threshold Strength (MTS) constitutive model yields constitutive parameters with adequate accuracy. Understanding dynamic fracture requires understanding of the deformation characteristics of the material of interest. A small-scale test is convenient for evaluating local properties of a material, both before and after it has been subjected to dynamic loading, including fracture or spall processes. Systematic changes in the materials properties may also include spatial variation, changes due to aging, or changes resulting from annealing or other treatment. Spherical indentation provides a simple, inexpensive test for evaluating the mechanical properties of materials, requiring only small samples. In order to examine the sensitivity of this type of measurement to changes in strength, hardening, or other deformation characteristics, we must better understand the limits of the analysis, and the sensitivity of the analysis methods to variations in material properties. Variations in the data that arise from uncontrolled characteristics of the sample must also be examined, for example the number of grains sampled, the orientation of particular grains sampled, or the location of the indent relative to grain boundaries. These variations are characteristic of the sample, and samples discussed here may or may not be typical. Several ductile materials are examined to distinguish characteristics of the method from those of the sample.

  14. An Investigation of the Influence of Body Size and Indentation Asymmetry of the Effectiveness of Body Indentation in Combination with a Cambered Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James C., Jr.; Loving, Donald L.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of a 450 sweptback cambered wing in combination with an unindented body and a body symmetrically indented with respect to its axes designed for a Mach number of 1.2. The ratio of body frontal area to wing planform area was 0.08 for these wing-body combinations. In order to determine the influence of body size on the effectiveness of indentation, the test data have been compared with previously obtained data for similar configurations having a ratio of body frontal area to wing planform area of 0.04. Also, in order to investigate the relative effectiveness of indentation asymmetry, a specially indented body designed to account for the wing camber and also designed for a Mach number of 1.2 has been included in these tests. The investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-Foot Tunnels Branch at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.43 and a Reynolds number of approximately 1.85 x 10(exp 6), based on a mean aerodynamic chord length of 5.955 inches. The data indicate that the configurations with larger ratio of body frontal area to wing planform area had smaller reductions in zero-lift wave drag associated with body indentation than the configurations with smaller ratio of body frontal area to wing planform area. The 0.08-area-ratio configurations also had correspondingly smaller increases in the values of maximum lift-drag ratio than the 0.04-area-ratio configurations. The consideration of wing camber in the body indentation design resulted in a 35.5-percent reduction in zero-lift wave drag, compared with a 21.5-percent reduction associated with the symmetrical indentation, but had a negligible effect on the values of maximum lift-drag ratio.

  15. Indentation Size Effects in Single Crystal Copper as Revealed by Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.; Budiman, A. S.; Nix, W. D.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.

    2007-11-19

    The indentation size effect (ISE) has been observed in numerous nanoindentation studies on crystalline materials; it is found that the hardness increases dramatically with decreasing indentation size - a 'smaller is stronger' phenomenon. Some have attributed the ISE to the existence of strain gradients and the geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). Since the GND density is directly related to the local lattice curvature, the Scanning X-ray Microdiffraction ({mu}SXRD) technique, which can quantitatively measure relative lattice rotations through the streaking of Laue diffractions, can used to study the strain gradients. The synchrotron {mu}SXRD technique we use - which was developed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Berkeley Lab - allows for probing the local plastic behavior of crystals with sub-micrometer resolution. Using this technique, we studied the local plasticity for indentations of different depths in a Cu single crystal. Broadening of Laue diffractions (streaking) was observed, showing local crystal lattice rotation due to the indentation-induced plastic deformation. A quantitative analysis of the streaking allows us to estimate the average GND density in the indentation plastic zones. The size dependence of the hardness, as found by nanoindentation, will be described, and its correlation to the observed lattice rotations will be discussed.

  16. Defect formation by pristine indenter at the initial stage of nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I-Hsien; Hsiao, Chun-I; Behera, Rakesh K.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2013-12-07

    Nano-indentation is a sophisticated method to characterize mechanical properties of materials. This method samples a very small amount of material during each indentation. Therefore, this method is extremely useful to measure mechanical properties of nano-materials. The measurements using nanoindentation is very sensitive to the surface topology of the indenter and the indenting surfaces. The mechanisms involved in the entire process of nanoindentation require an atomic level understanding of the interplay between the indenter and the substrate. In this paper, we have used atomistic simulation methods with empirical potentials to investigate the effect of various types of pristine indenter on the defect nucleation and growth. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have predicted the load-depth curve for conical, vickers, and sperical tip. The results are analyzed based on the coherency between the indenter tip and substrate surface for a fixed depth of 20 Å. The depth of defect nucleation and growth is observed to be dependent on the tip geometry. A tip with larger apex angle nucleates defects at a shallower depth. However, the type of defect generated is dependent on the crystalline orientation of the tip and substrate. For coherent systems, prismatic loops were generated, which released into the substrate along the close-packed directions with continued indentation. For incoherent systems, pyramidal shaped dislocation junctions formed in the FCC systems and disordered atomic clusters formed in the BCC systems. These defect nucleation and growth process provide the atomistic mechanisms responsible for the observed load-depth response during nanoindentation.

  17. Study of Damage and Fracture Toughness Due to Influence of Creep and Fatigue of Commercially Pure Copper by Monotonic and Cyclic Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sabita; Prakash, Raghu V.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture toughness is the ability of a component containing a flow to resist fracture. In the current study, the Ball indentation (BI) test technique, which is well acknowledged as an alternative approach to evaluate mechanical properties of materials due to its semi-nondestructive, fast, and high accurate qualities is used to estimate damage and the fracture toughness for copper samples subjected to varying levels of creep and fatigue. The indentation fracture toughness shows the degradation of Cu samples when they are subjected to different creep conditions. Axial fatigue cycling increases the strength at the mid-gauge section compared to other regions of the samples due to initial strain hardening. The advancement of indentation depth with indentation fatigue cycles experiences transient stage, i.e., jump in indentation depth has been observed, which may be an indication of failure and followed by a steady state with almost constant depth propagation with indentation cycles.

  18. Indenter size effect on the reversible incipient plasticity of Al (001) surface: Quasicontinuum study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dan; Shao, Yu-Fei; Li, Jiu-Hui; Zhao, Xing; Qi, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Indenter size effect on the reversible incipient plasticity of Al (001) surface is studied by quasicontinuum simulations. Results show that the incipient plasticity under small indenter, the radius of which is less than ten nanometers, is dominated by a simple planar fault defect that can be fully removed after withdrawal of the indenter; otherwise, irreversible incipient plastic deformation driven by a complex dislocation activity is preferred, and the debris of deformation twins, dislocations, and stacking fault ribbons still remain beneath the surface when the indenter has been completely retracted. Based on stress distributions calculated at an atomic level, the reason why the dislocation burst instead of a simple fault ribbon is observed under a large indenter is the release of the intensely accumulated shear stress. Finally, the critical load analysis implies that there exists a reversible-irreversible transition of incipient plasticity induced by indenter size. Our findings provide a further insight into the incipient surface plasticity of face-centered-cubic metals in nano-sized contact issues. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172040), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB606403), and the General Project of Scientific Research from Liaoning Educational Committee, China (Grant No. L2014135).

  19. Mechanical evaluation of five flowable resin composites by the dynamic micro-indentation method

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Iwai, Hirotoshi

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the strength of brittle materials, such as resin composites, is extremely difficult. Micro-indentation hardness testing is a convenient way of investigating the mechanical properties of a small volume of material. In this study, the mechanical properties of five commercially available flowable resin composites were investigated by the dynamic micro-indentation method. Additionally, the effects of inorganic-filler content on the dynamic hardness and elastic modulus of flowable composites obtained by this method were investigated. The weight percentages of the inorganic fillers in the resin composites were determined by the ashing technique. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of flowable composites are affected by not only the filler content but also the properties of the resin matrix. In conclusion, the dynamic micro-indentation method is a useful technique for determining the mechanical behavior of dental resin composites as brittle material. PMID:25342983

  20. Techniques for Enhancing Web-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Kathy; Mehringer, Susan

    The Virtual Workshop is a World Wide Web-based set of modules on high performance computing developed at the Cornell Theory Center (CTC) (New York). This approach reaches a large audience, leverages staff effort, and poses challenges for developing interesting presentation techniques. This paper describes the following techniques with their…

  1. Axisymmetric indentation of curved elastic membranes by a convex rigid indenter

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, S.P.; King, J.R.; Holdsworth, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by applications to seed germination, we consider the transverse deflection that results from the axisymmetric indentation of an elastic membrane by a rigid body. The elastic membrane is fixed around its boundary, with or without an initial pre-stretch, and may be initially curved prior to indentation. General indenter shapes are considered, and the load–indentation curves that result for a range of spheroidal tips are obtained for both flat and curved membranes. Wrinkling may occur when the membrane is initially curved, and a relaxed strain-energy function is used to calculate the deformed profile in this case. Applications to experiments designed to measure the mechanical properties of seed endosperms are discussed. PMID:22298913

  2. Mechanical characterization of soft materials using transparent indenter testing system and finite element simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Yue

    Background. Soft materials such as polymers and soft tissues have diverse applications in bioengineering, medical care, and industry. Quantitative mechanical characterization of soft materials at multiscales is required to assure that appropriate mechanical properties are presented to support the normal material function. Indentation test has been widely used to characterize soft material. However, the measurement of in situ contact area is always difficult. Method of Approach. A transparent indenter method was introduced to characterize the nonlinear behaviors of soft materials under large deformation. This approach made the direct measurement of contact area and local deformation possible. A microscope was used to capture the contact area evolution as well as the surface deformation. Based on this transparent indenter method, a novel transparent indentation measurement systems has been built and multiple soft materials including polymers and pericardial tissue have been characterized. Seven different indenters have been used to study the strain distribution on the contact surface, inner layer and vertical layer. Finite element models have been built to simulate the hyperelastic and anisotropic material behaviors. Proper material constants were obtained by fitting the experimental results. Results.Homogeneous and anisotropic silicone rubber and porcine pericardial tissue have been examined. Contact area and local deformation were measured by real time imaging the contact interface. The experimental results were compared with the predictions from the Hertzian equations. The accurate measurement of contact area results in more reliable Young's modulus, which is critical for soft materials. For the fiber reinforced anisotropic silicone rubber, the projected contact area under a hemispherical indenter exhibited elliptical shape. The local surface deformation under indenter was mapped using digital image correlation program. Punch test has been applied to thin films of

  3. A numerical investigation on mechanical property improvement of styrene butadine rubber by static straight blade indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyana, B.; Ismail, R.; Jamari, J.; Schipper, D. J.

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical property improvement of rubber is widely carried out by adding carbon black or silica as a filler in rubber. In general, this improvement aims on the increase of stiffness and abrasion resistance. By means of the static straight blade indentation technique, this paper studies the mechanical properties of Unfilled Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR-0) and Filled Styrene Butadiene Rubber that is compounded with carbon black (SBR-25). The numerical method applied was Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in which the rubber was modeled as a hyper-elastic material and indented by a blade indenter with various wedge angles i.e. 30, 45 and 60 degrees. At the same depth of indentation, the results showed that there was an increase in both rubber stiffness and maximum stress if the rubber was compounded. However, it is found that the rubber stiffness showed a regular slight increase, while the maximum stress experienced an irregularly significant increase. Especially for the 30 degree wedge angle, the maximum stress extremely increased at a certain depth of indentation.

  4. Substrate-dependent cell elasticity measured by optical tweezers indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousafzai, Muhammad S.; Ndoye, Fatou; Coceano, Giovanna; Niemela, Joseph; Bonin, Serena; Scoles, Giacinto; Cojoc, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, cell elasticity has been widely investigated as a potential label free indicator for cellular alteration in different diseases, cancer included. Cell elasticity can be locally measured by pulling membrane tethers, stretching or indenting the cell using optical tweezers. In this paper, we propose a simple approach to perform cell indentation at pN forces by axially moving the cell against a trapped microbead. The elastic modulus is calculated using the Hertz-model. Besides the axial component, the setup also allows us to examine the lateral cell-bead interaction. This technique has been applied to measure the local elasticity of HBL-100 cells, an immortalized human cell line, originally derived from the milk of a woman with no evidence of breast cancer lesions. In addition, we have studied the influence of substrate stiffness on cell elasticity by performing experiments on cells cultured on two substrates, bare and collagen-coated, having different stiffness. The mean value of the cell elastic modulus measured during indentation was 26±9 Pa for the bare substrate, while for the collagen-coated substrate it diminished to 19±7 Pa. The same trend was obtained for the elastic modulus measured during the retraction of the cell: 23±10 Pa and 13±7 Pa, respectively. These results show the cells adapt their stiffness to that of the substrate and demonstrate the potential of this setup for low-force probing of modifications to cell mechanics induced by the surrounding environment (e.g. extracellular matrix or other cells).

  5. In situ spectroscopic study of the plastic deformation of amorphous silicon under non-hydrostatic conditions induced by indentation

    PubMed Central

    Gerbig, Y.B; Michaels, C.A.; Bradby, J.E.; Haberl, B.; Cook, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Indentation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films was studied by in situ Raman imaging of the deformed contact region of an indented sample, employing a Raman spectroscopy-enhanced instrumented indentation technique. Quantitative analyses of the generated in situ Raman maps provide unique, new insight into the phase behavior of as-implanted a-Si. In particular, the occurrence and evolving spatial distribution of changes in the a-Si structure caused by processes, such as polyamorphization and crystallization, induced by indentation loading were measured. The experimental results are linked with previously published work on the plastic deformation of a-Si under hydrostatic compression and shear deformation to establish a sequence for the development of deformation of a-Si under indentation loading. The sequence involves three distinct deformation mechanisms of a-Si: (1) reversible deformation, (2) increase in coordination defects (onset of plastic deformation), and (3) phase transformation. Estimated conditions for the occurrence of these mechanisms are given with respect to relevant intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, such as indentation stress, volumetric strain, and bond angle distribution (a measure for the structural order of the amorphous network). The induced volumetric strains are accommodated solely by reversible deformation of the tetrahedral network when exposed to small indentation stresses. At greater indentation stresses, the increased volumetric strains in the tetrahedral network lead to the formation of predominately five-fold coordination defects, which seems to mark the onset of irreversible or plastic deformation of the a-Si thin film. Further increase in the indentation stress appears to initiate the formation of six-fold coordinated atomic arrangements. These six-fold coordinated arrangements may maintain their amorphous tetrahedral structure with a high density of coordination defects or nucleate as a new crystalline

  6. In situ spectroscopic study of the plastic deformation of amorphous silicon under nonhydrostatic conditions induced by indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbig, Y. B.; Michaels, C. A.; Bradby, J. E.; Haberl, B.; Cook, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Indentation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films was studied by in situ Raman imaging of the deformed contact region of an indented sample, employing a Raman spectroscopy-enhanced instrumented indentation technique. Quantitative analyses of the generated in situ Raman maps provide unique insight into the phase behavior of as-implanted a-Si. In particular, the occurrence and evolving spatial distribution of changes in the a-Si structure caused by processes, such as polyamorphization and crystallization, induced by indentation loading were measured. The experimental results are linked with previously published papers on the plastic deformation of a-Si under hydrostatic compression and shear deformation to establish a sequence for the development of deformation of a-Si under indentation loading. The sequence involves three distinct deformation mechanisms of a-Si: (1) reversible deformation, (2) increase in coordination defects (onset of plastic deformation), and (3) phase transformation. Estimated conditions for the occurrence of these mechanisms are given with respect to relevant intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, such as indentation stress, volumetric strain, and bond angle distribution (a measure for the structural order of the amorphous network). The induced volumetric strains are accommodated solely by reversible deformation of the tetrahedral network when exposed to small indentation stresses. At greater indentation stresses, the increased volumetric strains in the tetrahedral network lead to the formation of predominately fivefold coordination defects, which seems to mark the onset of irreversible or plastic deformation of the a-Si thin film. Further increase in the indentation stress appears to initiate the formation of sixfold coordinated atomic arrangements. These sixfold coordinated arrangements may maintain their amorphous tetrahedral structure with a high density of coordination defects or nucleate as a new crystalline

  7. THE RESPONSE OF SOLIDS TO ELASTIC/ PLASTIC INDENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, S. S.; Marshall, D. B.; Evans, A. G.

    1980-11-01

    A new approach for analysing indentation plasticity and indentation fracture is presented, The analysis permits relations to be established between material properties (notably hardness, yield strength and elastic modulus) and the dimensions of the indentation and plastic zone. The predictions are demonstrated to be fully consistent with observations performed on a wide range of materials. The indentation stress fields can also be adapted to generate predictions of indentation fracture thresholds for the three dominant crack types: radial, median and lateral cracks. The predictions are generally consistent with experimental observations.

  8. Indentation Tests Reveal Geometry-Regulated Stiffening of Nanotube Junctions.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Sehmus; Yang, Yang; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Asif, Syed; Penev, Evgeni S; Yakobson, Boris I; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-01-13

    Here we report a unique method to locally determine the mechanical response of individual covalent junctions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in various configurations such as "X", "Y", and "Λ"-like. The setup is based on in situ indentation using a picoindenter integrated within a scanning electron microscope. This allows for precise mapping between junction geometry and mechanical behavior and uncovers geometry-regulated junction stiffening. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the dominant contribution to the nanoindentation response is due to the CNT walls stretching at the junction. Targeted synthesis of desired junction geometries can therefore provide a "structural alphabet" for construction of macroscopic CNT networks with tunable mechanical response. PMID:26618517

  9. Rebound indentation problem for a viscoelastic half-space and axisymmetric indenter - Solution by the method of dimensionality reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argatov, Ivan I.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-08-01

    The method of dimensionality reduction (MDR) is extended for the axisymmetric frictionless unilateral Hertz-type contact problem for a viscoelastic half-space and an arbitrary axisymmetric rigid indenter under the assumption that an arbitrarily evolving in time circular contact area remains singly connected during the whole process of indentation. In particular, the MDR is applied to study in detail the so-called rebound indentation problem, where the contact radius has a single maximum. It is shown that the obtained closed-form analytical solution for the rebound indentation displacement (recorded in the recovery phase, when the contact force vanishes) does not depend on the indenter shape.

  10. Study of indentation of a sample equine bone using finite element simulation and single cycle reference point indentation.

    PubMed

    Hoffseth, Kevin; Randall, Connor; Hansma, Paul; Yang, Henry T Y

    2015-02-01

    In an attempt to study the mechanical behavior of bone under indentation, methods of analyses and experimental validations have been developed, with a selected test material. The test material chosen is from an equine cortical bone. Stress-strain relationships are first obtained from conventional mechanical property tests. A finite element simulation procedure is developed for indentation analyses. The simulation results are experimentally validated by determining (1) the maximum depth of indentation with a single cycle type of reference point indentation, and (2) the profile and depth of the unloaded, permanent indentation with atomic force microscopy. The advantage of incorporating in the simulation a yield criterion calibrated by tested mechanical properties, with different values in tension and compression, is demonstrated. In addition, the benefit of including damage through a reduction in Young's modulus is shown in predicting the permanent indentation after unloading and recovery. The expected differences in response between two indenter tips with different sharpness are predicted and experimentally observed. Results show predicted indentation depths agree with experimental data. Thus, finite element simulation methods with experimental validation, and with damage approximation by a reduction of Young's modulus, may provide a good approach for analysis of indentation of cortical bone. These methods reveal that multiple factors affect measured indentation depth and that the shape of the permanent indentation contains useful information about bone material properties. Only further work can determine if these methods or extensions to these methods can give useful insights into bone pathology, for example the bone fragility of thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:25528690

  11. Indentation of poroviscoelastic vocal fold tissue using an atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Heris, Hossein K; Miri, Amir K; Tripathy, Umakanta; Barthelat, Francois; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-12-01

    The elastic properties of the vocal folds (VFs) vary as a function of depth relative to the epithelial surface. The poroelastic anisotropic properties of porcine VFs, at various depths, were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based indentation. The minimum tip diameter to effectively capture the local properties was found to be 25µm, based on nonlinear laser scanning microscopy data and image analysis. The effects of AFM tip dimensions and AFM cantilever stiffness were systematically investigated. The indentation tests were performed along the sagittal and coronal planes for an evaluation of the VF anisotropy. Hertzian contact theory was used along with the governing equations of linear poroelasticity to calculate the diffusivity coefficient of the tissue from AFM indentation creep testing. The permeability coefficient of the porcine VF was found to be 1.80±0.32×10(-15)m(4)/Ns. PMID:23829979

  12. Experimental validation of a flat punch indentation methodology calibrated against unconfined compression tests for determination of soft tissue biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Delaine-Smith, R M; Burney, S; Balkwill, F R; Knight, M M

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical characterisation of soft biological tissues using standard compression or tensile testing presents a significant challenge due to specimen geometrical irregularities, difficulties in cutting intact and appropriately sized test samples, and issues with slippage or damage at the grips. Indentation can overcome these problems but requires fitting a model to the resulting load-displacement data in order to calculate moduli. Despite the widespread use of this technique, few studies experimentally validate their chosen model or compensate for boundary effects. In this study, viscoelastic hydrogels of different concentrations and dimensions were used to calibrate an indentation technique performed at large specimen-strain deformation (20%) and analysed with a range of routinely used mathematical models. A rigid, flat-ended cylindrical indenter was applied to each specimen from which 'indentation moduli' and relaxation properties were calculated and compared against values obtained from unconfined compression. Only one indentation model showed good agreement (<10% difference) with all moduli values obtained from compression. A sample thickness to indenter diameter ratio ≥1:1 and sample diameter to indenter diameter ratio ≥4:1 was necessary to achieve the greatest accuracy. However, it is not always possible to use biological samples within these limits, therefore we developed a series of correction factors. The approach was validated using human diseased omentum and bovine articular cartilage resulting in mechanical properties closely matching compression values. We therefore present a widely useable indentation analysis method to allow more accurate calculation of material mechanics which is important in the study of soft tissue development, ageing, health and disease. PMID:26974584

  13. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P.; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid in the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Now a day's many adjunctive oral cancer screening techniques are available for the early diagnosis of cancer. Among these, autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool. These techniques are broadly discussed in this review. PMID:26538880

  14. A Comparison of Quasi-Static Indentation Testing to Low Velocity Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Douglas, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    The need for a static test method for modeling low-velocity foreign object impact events to composites would prove to be very beneficial to researchers since much more data can be obtained from a static test than from an impact test. In order to examine if this is feasible, a series of static indentation and low velocity impact tests were carried out and compared. Square specimens of many sizes and thickness were utilized to cover the array of types of low velocity impact events. Laminates with a n/4 stacking sequence were employed since this is by the most common type of engineering laminate. Three distinct flexural rigidities under two different boundary conditions were tested in order to obtain damage due to large deflections, contact stresses and both to examine if the static indentation-impact comparisons are valid under the spectrum of damage modes that can be experienced. Comparisons between static indentation and low velocity impact tests were based on the maximum applied transverse load. The dependent parameters examined included dent depth, back surface crack length, delamination area and to a limited extent, load-deflection behavior. Results showed that no distinct differences could be seen between the static indentation tests and the low velocity impact tests, indicating that static indentation can be used to represent a low velocity impact event.

  15. A Comparison of Quasi-Static Indentation to Low-Velocity Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Douglas, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    A static test method for modeling low-velocity foreign object impact events to composites would prove to be very beneficial to researchers since much more data can be obtained from a static test than from an impact test. In order to examine if this is feasible, a series of static indentation and low-velocity impact tests were carried out and compared. Square specimens of many sizes and thicknesses were utilized to cover the array of types of low velocity impact events. Laminates with a pi/4 stacking sequence were employed since this is by far the most common type of engineering laminate. Three distinct flexural rigidities -under two different boundary conditions were tested in order to obtain damage ranging from that due to large deflection to contact stresses and levels in-between to examine if the static indentation-impact comparisons are valid under the spectrum of damage modes that can be experienced. Comparisons between static indentation and low-velocity impact tests were based on the maximum applied transverse load. The dependent parameters examined included dent depth, back surface crack length, delamination area, and to a limited extent, load-deflection behavior. Results showed that no distinct differences could be seen between the static indentation tests and the low-velocity impact tests, indicating that static indentation can be used to represent a low-velocity impact event.

  16. Non-ideal effects in indentation testing of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Finan, John D; Fox, Patrick M; Morrison, Barclay

    2014-06-01

    Indentation has several advantages as a loading mode for determining constitutive behavior of soft, biological tissues. However, indentation induces a complex, spatially heterogeneous deformation field that creates analytical challenges for the calculation of constitutive parameters. As a result, investigators commonly assume small indentation depths and large sample thicknesses to simplify analysis and then restrict indentation depth and sample geometry to satisfy these assumptions. These restrictions limit experimental resolution in some fields, such as brain biomechanics. However, recent experimental evidence suggests that conventionally applied limits are in fact excessively conservative. We conducted a parametric study of indentation loading with various indenter geometries, surface interface conditions, sample compressibility, sample geometry and indentation depth to quantitatively describe the deviation from previous treatments that results from violation of the assumptions of small indentation depth and large sample thickness. We found that the classical solution was surprisingly robust to violation of the assumption of small strain but highly sensitive to violation of the assumption of large sample thickness, particularly if the indenter was cylindrical. The ramifications of these findings for design of indentation experiments are discussed and correction factors are presented to allow future investigators to account for these effects without recreating our finite element models. PMID:23928858

  17. Equivalency of Berkovich and conical load-indentation curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, S.; Hua, J.; Tho, K. K.; Liu, Z. S.

    2006-01-01

    The Berkovich indenter, which is one of the most commonly used indenter tips in instrumented indentation experiments, requires a tedious 3D finite element simulation. The indenter is widely idealized as a conical indenter of 70.3° half-angle to enable a substantially less demanding 2D axisymmetric modelling. Although the approach has been commonly adopted, limited studies have been performed to investigate possible deviations due to this simplification. The present study attempts to address the equivalency of the two indenters by performing extensively both 3D and 2D finite element analyses to simulate the load-displacement response of a wide range of elasto-plastic materials obeying power law strain-hardening during indentation for both Berkovich and conical indenters, respectively. It is demonstrated that the equivalency between these two indenters in terms of curvature of the loading curve is not valid across the range of material properties under study. However, it is established that if only the ratio of the remaining work done (WR) and the total work done (WT) of the load-indentation curve is of interest, this simplification can be adopted with satisfactory results.

  18. Indentation quantification for in-liquid nanomechanical measurement of soft material using an atomic force microscope: rate-dependent elastic modulus of live cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Juan; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Zou, Qingze

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a control-based approach to replace the conventional method to achieve accurate indentation quantification is proposed for nanomechanical measurement of live cells using atomic force microscope. Accurate indentation quantification is central to probe-based nanomechanical property measurement. The conventional method for in-liquid nanomechanical measurement of live cells, however, fails to accurately quantify the indentation as effects of the relative probe acceleration and the hydrodynamic force are not addressed. As a result, significant errors and uncertainties are induced in the nanomechanical properties measured. In this paper, a control-based approach is proposed to account for these adverse effects by tracking the same excitation force profile on both a live cell and a hard reference sample through the use of an advanced control technique, and by quantifying the indentation from the difference of the cantilever base displacement in these two measurements. The proposed control-based approach not only eliminates the relative probe acceleration effect with no need to calibrate the parameters involved, but it also reduces the hydrodynamic force effect significantly when the force load rate becomes high. We further hypothesize that, by using the proposed control-based approach, the rate-dependent elastic modulus of live human epithelial cells under different stress conditions can be reliably quantified to predict the elasticity evolution of cell membranes, and hence can be used to predict cellular behaviors. By implementing the proposed approach, the elastic modulus of HeLa cells before and after the stress process were quantified as the force load rate was changed over three orders of magnitude from 0.1 to 100 Hz, where the amplitude of the applied force and the indentation were at 0.4-2 nN and 250-450 nm, respectively. The measured elastic modulus of HeLa cells showed a clear power-law dependence on the load rate, both before and after the stress

  19. Indentation quantification for in-liquid nanomechanical measurement of soft material using an atomic force microscope: Rate-dependent elastic modulus of live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Juan; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Zou, Qingze

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a control-based approach to replace the conventional method to achieve accurate indentation quantification is proposed for nanomechanical measurement of live cells using atomic force microscope. Accurate indentation quantification is central to probe-based nanomechanical property measurement. The conventional method for in-liquid nanomechanical measurement of live cells, however, fails to accurately quantify the indentation as effects of the relative probe acceleration and the hydrodynamic force are not addressed. As a result, significant errors and uncertainties are induced in the nanomechanical properties measured. In this paper, a control-based approach is proposed to account for these adverse effects by tracking the same excitation force profile on both a live cell and a hard reference sample through the use of an advanced control technique, and by quantifying the indentation from the difference of the cantilever base displacement in these two measurements. The proposed control-based approach not only eliminates the relative probe acceleration effect with no need to calibrate the parameters involved, but it also reduces the hydrodynamic force effect significantly when the force load rate becomes high. We further hypothesize that, by using the proposed control-based approach, the rate-dependent elastic modulus of live human epithelial cells under different stress conditions can be reliably quantified to predict the elasticity evolution of cell membranes, and hence can be used to predict cellular behaviors. By implementing the proposed approach, the elastic modulus of HeLa cells before and after the stress process were quantified as the force load rate was changed over three orders of magnitude from 0.1 to 100 Hz, where the amplitude of the applied force and the indentation were at 0.4-2 nN and 250-450 nm, respectively. The measured elastic modulus of HeLa cells showed a clear power-law dependence on the load rate, both before and after the stress

  20. Indentation testing and optimized property identification for viscoelastic materials using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resapu, Rajeswara Reddy

    tested in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) via indentation. Two dimensional finite element models are developed to characterize the optimal material properties of PVC film and wire from the experimental load-displacement data. The aging of the PVC film is studied by characterizing the optimal material properties at different aging times; it is demonstrated that the thermally aged film and wires show degradation effects in terms of increased modulus with aging (i.e. increasingly brittle response). This indentation-finite element analysis approach has also been used to characterize the properties of pristine high and low density polyethylene (PE) films using both sharp (Vickers) and spherical indenters; the comparison of the results from both the indenters is performed. The mechanical properties of lamb and cow liver tissue have also been investigated by indentation. Specifically, tests using a spherical indenter is carried out on liver using both DMA (displacement controlled) and dead-weight loading (force controlled) in a Micro Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) chamber. Material properties are initially calculated using the 2D model from the DMA tests. The material properties are later validated by a 3D finite element model generated by image reconstruction through the X-Ray images of the specimen taken by the Micro-CT. These studies used a hyperelastic (Neo-Hookean) viscoelasticity material model to account for large strain effects. The approach used in this study successfully characterizes mechanical properties of polymers and tissues using non-destructive test methods. The properties obtained are validated by predicting the response of the material under other loading conditions. Good correlation between the experimental and finite element results has been obtained. The study also provides ideas for future work which can lead to improvements to this new technique.

  1. Mechanical indentation improves cerebral blood oxygenation signal quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during breath holding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, William C.; Romero, Edwin; LaConte, Stephen M.; Rylander, Christopher G.

    2013-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a well-known technique for non-invasively measuring cerebral blood oxygenation, and many studies have demonstrated that fNIRS signals can be related to cognitive function. However, the fNIRS signal is attenuated by the skin, while scalp blood content has been reported to influence cerebral oxygenation measurements. Mechanical indentation has been shown to increase light transmission through soft tissues by causing interstitial water and blood flow away from the compressed region. To study the effects of indentation on fNIRS, a commercial fNIRS system with 16 emitter/detector pairs was used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation at 2 Hz. This device used diffuse reflectance at 730 nm and 850 nm to calculate deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin concentrations. A borosilicate glass hemisphere was epoxied over each sensor to function as both an indenter and a lens. After placing the indenter/sensor assembly on the forehead, a pair of plastic bands was placed on top of the fNIRS headband and strapped to the head to provide uniform pressure and tightened to approx. 15 N per strap. Cerebral blood oxygenation was recorded during a breath holding regime (15 second hold, 15 second rest, 6 cycles) in 4 human subjects both with and without the indenter array. Results showed that indentation increased raw signal intensity by 85 +/- 35%, and that indentation increased amplitude of hemoglobin changes during breath cycles by 313% +/- 105%. These results suggest that indentation improves sensing of cerebral blood oxygenation, and may potentially enable sensing of deeper brain tissues.

  2. Quantitative Imaging of Young's Modulus of Soft Tissues from Ultrasound Water Jet Indentation: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min-Hua; Mao, Rui; Lu, Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Tian-Fu; Chen, Si-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Indentation testing is a widely used approach to evaluate mechanical characteristics of soft tissues quantitatively. Young's modulus of soft tissue can be calculated from the force-deformation data with known tissue thickness and Poisson's ratio using Hayes' equation. Our group previously developed a noncontact indentation system using a water jet as a soft indenter as well as the coupling medium for the propagation of high-frequency ultrasound. The novel system has shown its ability to detect the early degeneration of articular cartilage. However, there is still lack of a quantitative method to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissue from water jet indentation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the loading-unloading curves and the mechanical properties of soft tissues to provide an imaging technique of tissue mechanical properties. A 3D finite element model of water jet indentation was developed with consideration of finite deformation effect. An improved Hayes' equation has been derived by introducing a new scaling factor which is dependent on Poisson's ratios v, aspect ratio a/h (the radius of the indenter/the thickness of the test tissue), and deformation ratio d/h. With this model, the Young's modulus of soft tissue can be quantitatively evaluated and imaged with the error no more than 2%. PMID:22927890

  3. Quantitative imaging of young's modulus of soft tissues from ultrasound water jet indentation: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min-Hua; Mao, Rui; Lu, Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Tian-Fu; Chen, Si-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Indentation testing is a widely used approach to evaluate mechanical characteristics of soft tissues quantitatively. Young's modulus of soft tissue can be calculated from the force-deformation data with known tissue thickness and Poisson's ratio using Hayes' equation. Our group previously developed a noncontact indentation system using a water jet as a soft indenter as well as the coupling medium for the propagation of high-frequency ultrasound. The novel system has shown its ability to detect the early degeneration of articular cartilage. However, there is still lack of a quantitative method to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissue from water jet indentation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the loading-unloading curves and the mechanical properties of soft tissues to provide an imaging technique of tissue mechanical properties. A 3D finite element model of water jet indentation was developed with consideration of finite deformation effect. An improved Hayes' equation has been derived by introducing a new scaling factor which is dependent on Poisson's ratios v, aspect ratio a/h (the radius of the indenter/the thickness of the test tissue), and deformation ratio d/h. With this model, the Young's modulus of soft tissue can be quantitatively evaluated and imaged with the error no more than 2%. PMID:22927890

  4. Effect of viscoplastic material parameters on polymer indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, V.; Needleman, A.

    2012-09-01

    The effect of material parameters characterizing viscoplastic flow on the indentation response of polymers is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analyses and a one-dimensional expanding spherical cavity model. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation and two indenter shapes are considered; a conical indenter and a pyramidal indenter. The ability of the simpler expanding spherical cavity model to reproduce the trends obtained from the finite element solutions is assessed for both indenter shapes. Within the range of parameter variations considered, it is found that two material stress parameters characterizing the plastic flow resistance have the largest effect on the value of the indentation hardness although variations in other material parameters can lead to significant variations.

  5. On the determination of elastic coefficients from indentation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardieu, N.; Constantinescu, A.

    2000-06-01

    The main result of this paper is the extension of the adjoint state method to variational inequalities. This is done for the Signorini contact problem (Kikuchi N and Oden J T 1988 Contact Problems in Elasticity: a Study of Variational Inequalities and Finite Element Methods (Philadelphia: SIAM)) and used for the identification of elastic coefficients from an indentation test. The result is obtained by two independent approaches based on the penalized and respectively, mixed formulations of the direct problem, a Signorini contact problem. An important and astonishing result is that the obtained adjoint problem is a linear problem with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This is expected for problems described with variational equalities (Bui H D 1993 Introduction Aux Problèmes Inverses en Mécanique des Matériaux (Paris: Eyrolles) (Engl. Transl. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press)), Lions J L 1968 Contrôle Optimal des Systèmes Gouvernés par des Équations aux Dérivées Partielles (Dunod)), but is a new result for problems described with variational inequalities. As an application, the elastic coefficients of an isotropic body have been identified from the knowledge of a displacement-force curve measured during an indentation test. The efficiency of the method is illustrated on numerical examples for the identification of a bimaterial and a functional gradient material.

  6. The effect of friction on indentation test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsono, E.; Swaddiwudhipong, S.; Liu, Z. S.

    2008-09-01

    A smooth contact analysis is commonly adopted in simulated indentation. Limited studies have been performed to investigate the possibility of deviation due to this simplification. This study involves the finite element simulation of indentation by conical indenters and the Berkovich family of indenters with three different apex angles of indenter tips of 50°, 60° and 70.3°. Loading curvatures and the ratio of the remaining work done to the total work done of the load-indentation curves resulting from the simulated indentation tests considering friction and smooth contact surfaces were compared and discussed. A wide range of elasto-plastic materials obeying the power law strain hardening model were considered in this study. The results as presented herein demonstrate that the effect of friction on the two essential basic parameters from the load-indentation curves, namely, the loading curvatures and the ratio of the work done, varies depending on both mechanical properties of the target materials and the geometries of the indenter tips adopted in the investigation.

  7. Multiview video codec based on KTA techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jungdong; Kim, Donghyun; Ryu, Seungchul; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2011-03-01

    Multi-view video coding (MVC) is a video coding standard developed by MPEG and VCEG for multi-view video. It showed average PSNR gain of 1.5dB compared with view-independent coding by H.264/AVC. However, because resolutions of multi-view video are getting higher for more realistic 3D effect, high performance video codec is needed. MVC adopted hierarchical B-picture structure and inter-view prediction as core techniques. The hierarchical B-picture structure removes the temporal redundancy, and the inter-view prediction reduces the inter-view redundancy by compensated prediction from the reconstructed neighboring views. Nevertheless, MVC has inherent limitation in coding efficiency, because it is based on H.264/AVC. To overcome the limit, an enhanced video codec for multi-view video based on Key Technology Area (KTA) is proposed. KTA is a high efficiency video codec by Video Coding Expert Group (VCEG), and it was carried out for coding efficiency beyond H.264/AVC. The KTA software showed better coding gain than H.264/AVC by using additional coding techniques. The techniques and the inter-view prediction are implemented into the proposed codec, which showed high coding gain compared with the view-independent coding result by KTA. The results presents that the inter-view prediction can achieve higher efficiency in a multi-view video codec based on a high performance video codec such as HEVC.

  8. Laser Remote Sensing: Velocimetry Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove

    Laser-based velocity measurement is an area of the field of remote sensing where the coherent properties of laser radiation are the most exposed. Much of the published literature deals with the theory and techniques of remote sensing. We restrict our discussion to current trends in this area, gathered from recent conferences and professional journals. Remote wind sensing and vibrometry are promising in their new scientific, industrial, military, and biomedical applications, including improving flight safety, precise weapon correction, non-contact mine detection, optimization of wind farm operation, object identification based on its vibration signature, fluid flow studies, and vibrometry-associated diagnosis.

  9. Indentation Schmid factor and orientation dependence of nanoindentation pop-in behavior of NiAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianlei; Gao, Yanfei; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P

    2011-01-01

    Instrumented nanoindentation techniques have been widely used to characterize the small-scale mechanical behavior of materials. The elastic-plastic transition during nanoindentation is often indicated by a sudden displacement burst (pop-in) in the measured load-displacement curve. In defect-free single crystals, the pop-in is believed to be the result of homogeneous dislocation nucleation because the maximum shear stress corresponding to the pop-in load approaches the theoretical strength of the materials and because the statistical distribution of pop-in stresses is consistent with what is expected for a thermally activated process of homogeneous dislocation nucleation. This paper investigates whether this process is affected by crystallography and stress components other than the resolved shear stress. A Stroh formalism coupled with the two-dimensional Fourier transformation is used to derive the analytical stress fields in elastically anisotropic solids under Hertzian contact, which allows the determination of an indentation Schmid factor, namely, the ratio of maximum resolved shear stress to the maximum contact pressure. Nanoindentation tests were conducted on B2-structured NiAl single crystals with different surface normal directions. This material was chosen because it deforms at room temperature by {110}<001> slip and thus avoids the complexity of partial dislocation nucleation. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental data and the theoretically predicted orientation dependence of pop-in loads based on the indentation Schmid factor. Pop-in load is lowest for indentation directions close to <111> and highest for those close to <001>. In nanoindentation, since the stress component normal to the slip plane is typically comparable in magnitude to the resolved shear stress, we find that the pressure sensitivity of homogeneous dislocation nucleation cannot be determined from pop-in tests. Our statistical measurements generally confirm the thermal

  10. Estimation of local anisotropy of plexiform bone: Comparison between depth sensing micro-indentation and Reference Point Indentation.

    PubMed

    Dall'Ara, E; Grabowski, P; Zioupos, P; Viceconti, M

    2015-11-26

    The recently developed Reference Point Indentation (RPI) allows the measurements of bone properties at the tissue level in vivo. The goal of this study was to compare the local anisotropic behaviour of bovine plexiform bone measured with depth sensing micro-indentation tests and with RPI. Fifteen plexiform bone specimens were extracted from a bovine femur and polished down to 0.05µm alumina paste for indentations along the axial, radial and circumferential directions (N=5 per group). Twenty-four micro-indentations (2.5µm in depth, 10% of them were excluded for testing problems) and four RPI-indentations (~50µm in depth) were performed on each sample. The local indentation modulus Eind was found to be highest for the axial direction (24.3±2.5GPa) compared to the one for the circumferential indentations (19% less stiff) and for the radial direction (30% less stiff). RPI measurements were also found to be dependent on indentation direction (p<0.001) with the exception of the Indentation Distance Increase (IDI) (p=0.173). In particular, the unloading slope US1 followed similar trends compared to the Eind: 0.47±0.03N/µm for axial, 11% lower for circumferential and 17% lower for radial. Significant correlations were found between US1 and Eind (p=0.001; R(2)=0.58), while no significant relationship was found between IDI and any of the micro-indentation measurements (p>0.157). In conclusion some of the RPI measurements can provide information about local anisotropy but IDI cannot. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between most local mechanical properties measured with RPI and with micro-indentations, but IDI does not correlate with any micro-indentation measurements. PMID:26477406

  11. Intraoperative measurement of indenter-induced brain deformation: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurement of soft tissue material properties is critical for characterizing its biomechanical behaviors but can be challenging especially for the human brain in vivo. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of inducing and detecting cortical surface deformation intraoperatively for patients undergoing open skull neurosurgeries. A custom diskshaped indenter made of high-density tungsten (diameter of 15 mm with a thickness of 6 mm) was used to induce deformation on the brain cortical surface immediately after dural opening. Before and after placing the indenter, sequences (typically 250 frames at 15 frames-per-second, or ~17 seconds) of high-resolution stereo image pairs were acquired to capture the harmonic motion of the exposed cortical surface as due to blood pressure pulsation and respiration. For each sequence with the first left image serving as a baseline, an optical-flow motion-tracking algorithm was used to detect in-sequence cortical surface deformation. The resulting displacements of the exposed features within the craniotomy were spatially averaged to identify the temporal frames corresponding to motion peak magnitudes. Corresponding image pairs were then selected to reconstruct full-field three-dimensional (3D) cortical surfaces before and after indentation, respectively, from which full 3D displacement fields were obtained by registering their projection images. With one clinical patient case, we illustrate the feasibility of the technique in detecting indenter-induced cortical surface deformation in order to allow subsequent processing to determine material properties of the brain in vivo.

  12. An Approximate Formulation of the Effective Indentation Modulus of Elastically Anisotropic Film-on-Substrate Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianlei; Lee, Jinhaeng; Gao, Yanfei

    2009-01-01

    Frictionless contact between an arbitrarily-shaped rigid indenter and an elastically anisotropic film-on-substrate system can be regarded as being superposed incrementally by a flat-ended punch contact, the shape and size of which are determined by the indenter shape, indentation depth (or applied load) and elastic properties of film and substrate. For typical nanoindentation applications, the indentation modulus can thus be approximated from the response of a circular contact with pressure of the form of [1 - (r/a){sup 2}]{sup -1/2}, where r is the radial coordinate and a is the contact radius. The surface-displacement Green's function for elastically anisotropic film-on-substrate system is derived in closed-form by using the Stroh formalism and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. The predicted dependence of the effective modulus on the ratio of film thickness to contact radius agrees well with detailed finite element simulations. Implications in evaluating film modulus by nanoindentation technique are also discussed.

  13. Grid indentation analysis of mechanical properties of composite electrodes in Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vasconcelos, Luize Scalco de; Xu, Rong; Li, Jianlin; Zhao, Kejie

    2016-03-09

    We report that electrodes in commercial rechargeable batteries are microscopically heterogeneous materials. The constituent components, including active materials, polymeric binders, and porous conductive matrix, often have large variation in their mechanical properties, making the mechanical characterization of composite electrodes a challenging task. In a model system of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathode, we employ the instrumented grid indentation to determine the elastic modulus and hardness of the constituent phases. The approach relies on a large array of nanoindentation experiments and statistical analysis of the resulting data provided that the maximum indentation depth is carefully chosen. The statistically extracted properties of the active particlesmore » and the surrounding medium are in good agreement with the tests of targeted indentation at selected sites. Lastly, the combinatory technique of grid indentation and statistical deconvolution represents a fast and reliable route to quantify the mechanical properties of composite electrodes that feed the parametric input for the mechanics models.« less

  14. Neutron-based nonintrusive inspection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1997-02-01

    Non-intrusive inspection of large objects such as trucks, sea-going shipping containers, air cargo containers and pallets is gaining attention as a vital tool in combating terrorism, drug smuggling and other violation of international and national transportation and Customs laws. Neutrons are the preferred probing radiation when material specificity is required, which is most often the case. Great strides have been made in neutron based inspection techniques. Fast and thermal neutrons, whether in steady state or in microsecond, or even nanosecond pulses are being employed to interrogate, at high speeds, for explosives, drugs, chemical agents, and nuclear and many other smuggled materials. Existing neutron techniques will be compared and their current status reported.

  15. Computational and experimental methodology for site-matched investigations of the influence of mineral mass fraction and collagen orientation on the axial indentation modulus of lamellar bone☆

    PubMed Central

    Spiesz, Ewa M.; Reisinger, Andreas G.; Kaminsky, Werner; Roschger, Paul; Pahr, Dieter H.; Zysset, Philippe K.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between mineralization, collagen orientation and indentation modulus were investigated in bone structural units from the mid-shaft of human femora using a site-matched design. Mineral mass fraction, collagen fibril angle and indentation moduli were measured in registered anatomical sites using backscattered electron imaging, polarized light microscopy and nano-indentation, respectively. Theoretical indentation moduli were calculated with a homogenization model from the quantified mineral densities and mean collagen fibril orientations. The average indentation moduli predicted based on local mineralization and collagen fibers arrangement were not significantly different from the average measured experimentally with nanoindentation (p=0.9). Surprisingly, no substantial correlation of the measured indentation moduli with tissue mineralization and/or collagen fiber arrangement was found. Nano-porosity, micro-damage, collagen cross-links, non-collagenous proteins or other parameters affect the indentation measurements. Additional testing/simulation methods need to be considered to properly understand the variability of indentation moduli, beyond the mineralization and collagen arrangement in bone structural units. PMID:23994944

  16. The nano-epsilon dot method for strain rate viscoelastic characterisation of soft biomaterials by spherical nano-indentation.

    PubMed

    Mattei, G; Gruca, G; Rijnveld, N; Ahluwalia, A

    2015-10-01

    Nano-indentation is widely used for probing the micromechanical properties of materials. Based on the indentation of surfaces using probes with a well-defined geometry, the elastic and viscoelastic constants of materials can be determined by relating indenter geometry and measured load and displacement to parameters which represent stress and deformation. Here we describe a method to derive the viscoelastic properties of soft hydrated materials at the micro-scale using constant strain rates and stress-free initial conditions. Using a new self-consistent definition of indentation stress and strain and corresponding unique depth-independent expression for indentation strain rate, the epsilon dot method, which is suitable for bulk compression testing, is transformed to nano-indentation. We demonstrate how two materials can be tested with a displacement controlled commercial nano-indentor using the nano-espilon dot method (nano-ε̇M) to give values of instantaneous and equilibrium elastic moduli and time constants with high precision. As samples are tested in stress-free initial conditions, the nano-ε̇M could be useful for characterising the micro-mechanical behaviour of soft materials such as hydrogels and biological tissues at cell length scales. PMID:26143307

  17. Nanoscale Etching and Indentation of Silicon Surfaces with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of nanolithography of silicon and germanium surfaces with bare carbon nanotube tips of scanning probe microscopy devices is considered with large scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Tersoff's reactive many-body potential for heteroatomic C/Si/Ge system. Lithography plays a key role in semiconductor manufacturing, and it is expected that future molecular and quantum electronic devices will be fabricated with nanolithographic and nanodeposition techniques. Carbon nanotubes, rolled up sheets of graphene made of carbon, are excellent candidates for use in nanolithography because they are extremely strong along axial direction and yet extremely elastic along radial direction. In the simulations, the interaction of a carbon nanotube tip with silicon surfaces is explored in two regimes. In the first scenario, the nanotubes barely touch the surface, while in the second they are pushed into the surface to make "nano holes". The first - gentle scenario mimics the nanotube-surface chemical reaction induced by the vertical mechanical manipulation of the nanotube. The second -digging - scenario intends to study the indentation profiles. The following results are reported in the two cases. In the first regime, depending on the surface impact site, two major outcomes outcomes are the selective removal of either a single surface atom or a surface dimer off the silicon surface. In the second regime, the indentation of a silicon substrate by the nanotube is observed. Upon the nanotube withdrawal, several surface silicon atoms are adsorbed at the tip of the nanotube causing significant rearrangements of atoms comprising the surface layer of the silicon substrate. The results are explained in terms of relative strength of C-C, C-Si, and Si-Si bonds. The proposed method is very robust and does not require applied voltage between the nanotube tips and the surface. The implications of the reported controllable etching and hole-creating for

  18. The bone diagnostic instrument II: Indentation distance increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Turner, Patricia; Drake, Barney; Yurtsev, Eugene; Proctor, Alexander; Mathews, Phillip; Lelujian, Jason; Randall, Connor; Adams, Jonathan; Jungmann, Ralf; Garza-de-Leon, Federico; Fantner, Georg; Mkrtchyan, Haykaz; Pontin, Michael; Weaver, Aaron; Brown, Morton B.; Sahar, Nadder; Rossello, Ricardo; Kohn, David

    2008-06-01

    The bone diagnostic instrument (BDI) is being developed with the long-term goal of providing a way for researchers and clinicians to measure bone material properties of human bone in vivo. Such measurements could contribute to the overall assessment of bone fragility in the future. Here, we describe an improved BDI, the Osteoprobe II™. In the Osteoprobe II™, the probe assembly, which is designed to penetrate soft tissue, consists of a reference probe (a 22 gauge hypodermic needle) and a test probe (a small diameter, sharpened rod) which slides through the inside of the reference probe. The probe assembly is inserted through the skin to rest on the bone. The distance that the test probe is indented into the bone can be measured relative to the position of the reference probe. At this stage of development, the indentation distance increase (IDI) with repeated cycling to a fixed force appears to best distinguish bone that is more easily fractured from bone that is less easily fractured. Specifically, in three model systems, in which previous mechanical testing and/or tests reported here found degraded mechanical properties such as toughness and postyield strain, the BDI found increased IDI. However, it must be emphasized that, at this time, neither the IDI nor any other mechanical measurement by any technique has been shown clinically to correlate with fracture risk. Further, we do not yet understand the mechanism responsible for determining IDI beyond noting that it is a measure of the continuing damage that results from repeated loading. As such, it is more a measure of plasticity than elasticity in the bone.

  19. Insights into Reference Point Indentation Involving Human Cortical Bone: Sensitivity to Tissue Anisotropy and Mechanical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granke, Mathilde; Coulmier, Aurélie; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-01-01

    Reference point indentation (RPI) is a microindentation technique involving 20 cycles of loading in “force-control” that can directly assess a patient’s bone tissue properties. Even though preliminary clinical studies indicate a capability for fracture discrimination, little is known about what mechanical behavior the various RPI properties characterize and how these properties relate to traditional mechanical properties of bone. To address this, the present study investigated the sensitivity of RPI properties to anatomical location and tissue organization as well as examined to what extent RPI measurements explain the intrinsic mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Multiple indents with a target force of 10 N were done in 2 orthogonal directions (longitudinal and transverse) per quadrant (anterior, medial, posterior, and lateral) of the femoral mid-shaft acquired from 26 donors (25–101 years old). Additional RPI measurements were acquired for 3 orthogonal directions (medial only). Independent of age, most RPI properties did not vary among these locations, but they did exhibit transverse isotropy such that resistance to indentation is greater in the longitudinal (axial) direction than in the transverse direction (radial or circumferential). Next, beam specimens (~ 2 mm × 5 mm × 40 mm) were extracted from the medial cortex of femoral mid-shafts, acquired from 34 donors (21–99 years old). After monotonically loading the specimens in three-point bending to failure, RPI properties were acquired from an adjacent region outside the span. Indent direction was orthogonal to the bending axis. A significant inverse relationship was found between resistance to indentation and the apparent-level mechanical properties. Indentation distance increase (IDI) and a linear combination of IDI and the loading slope, averaged over cycles 3 through 20, provided the best explanation of the variance in ultimate stress (r2=0.25, p=0.003) and toughness (r2=0.35, p=0

  20. Compression of nanowires using a flat indenter: diametrical elasticity measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Mook, William M; Niederberger, Christoph; Ghisleni, Rudy; Philippe, Laetitia; Michler, Johann

    2012-05-01

    A new experimental approach for the characterization of the diametrical elastic modulus of individual nanowires is proposed by implementing a micro/nanoscale diametrical compression test geometry, using a flat punch indenter. A 250 nm diameter single crystal silicon nanowire is compressed inside of a scanning electron microscope. Since silicon is highly anisotropic, the wire crystal orientation in the compression axis is determined by electron backscatter diffraction. In order to analyze the load-displacement compression data, a two-dimensional analytical closed-form solution based on a classical contact model is proposed. The results of the analytical model are compared with those of finite element simulations and to the experimental diametrical compression results and show good agreement. PMID:22432959

  1. Rapid Disaster Analysis based on SAR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Soergel, U.

    2015-03-01

    Due to all-day and all-weather capability spaceborne SAR is a valuable means for rapid mapping during and after disaster. In this paper, three change detection techniques based on SAR data are discussed: (1) initial coarse change detection, (2) flooded area detection, and (3) linear-feature change detection. The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami is used as case study, where earthquake and tsunami events provide a complex case for this study. In (1), pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images are coregistered accurately to produce a false-color image. Such image provides a quick and rough overview of potential changes, which is useful for initial decision making and identifies areas worthwhile to be analysed further in more depth. In (2), the post-event TerraSAR-X image is used to extract the flooded area by morphological approaches. In (3), we are interested in detecting changes of linear shape as indicator for modified man-made objects. Morphological approaches, e.g. thresholding, simply extract pixel-based changes in the difference image. However, in this manner many irrelevant changes are highlighted, too (e.g., farming activity, speckle). In this study, Curvelet filtering is applied in the difference image not only to suppress false alarms but also to enhance the change signals of linear-feature form (e.g. buildings) in settlements. Afterwards, thresholding is conducted to extract linear-shaped changed areas. These three techniques mentioned above are designed to be simple and applicable in timely disaster analysis. They are all validated by comparing with the change map produced by Center for Satellite Based Crisis Information, DLR.

  2. Influence of Penetration Rate and Indenter Diameter in Strength Measurement by Indentation Testing on Small Rock Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftani, Mohammad; Bohloli, Bahman; Nouri, Alireza; Javan, Mohammad Reza Maleki; Moosavi, Mahdi; Moradi, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Indentation testing has been developed as an unconventional method to determine intact rock strength using small rock specimens within the size of drill cuttings. In previous investigations involving indentation testing, researchers have used different indenter stylus geometries, penetration rate (PR) and specimen sizes. These dissimilarities can restrict applications of this method for strength measurement and lead to non-comparable results. This paper investigates the influence of indenter diameter (ID) and PR on indentation indices for carbonate rocks to provide objective comparison and application of the existing correlations. As part of this research, several indentation tests were conducted using different IDs and PRs. The laboratory test results showed that indentation indices can be affected by ID while PR has only minor effect on the indentation indices. Thus, a normalizing function was presented to reduce the dependency of test results to ID. Verification of the findings with independent data confirms the suitability of the suggested normalizing function in determining the rock uniaxial compressive strength using testing data obtained from various IDs and PRs.

  3. AFM indentation study of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q.S.; Lee, G.Y.H.; Ong, C.N.; Lim, C.T.

    2008-10-03

    Mechanical properties of individual living cells are known to be closely related to the health and function of the human body. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation using a micro-sized spherical probe was carried out to characterize the elasticity of benign (MCF-10A) and cancerous (MCF-7) human breast epithelial cells. AFM imaging and confocal fluorescence imaging were also used to investigate their corresponding sub-membrane cytoskeletal structures. Malignant (MCF-7) breast cells were found to have an apparent Young's modulus significantly lower (1.4-1.8 times) than that of their non-malignant (MCF-10A) counterparts at physiological temperature (37 deg. C), and their apparent Young's modulus increase with loading rate. Both confocal and AFM images showed a significant difference in the organization of their sub-membrane actin structures which directly contribute to their difference in cell elasticity. This change may have facilitated easy migration and invasion of malignant cells during metastasis.

  4. Indentation Load Effect on Young's Modulus and Hardness of Porous Sialon Ceramic by Depth Sensing Indentation Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Sahin

    2007-11-01

    Depth sensing indentation (DSI) tests at the range of 200-1800 mN are performed on porous sialon ceramic to determine the indentation load on Young's modulus and hardness values. The Young modulus and hardness (Dynamic and Martens) values are deduced by analysing the unloading segments of the DSI test load-displacement curves using the Oliver-Pharr method. It is found that Young's modulus Er, the dynamic hardness HD and the Martens hardness HM exhibit significant indentation load dependences. The values of Young's modulus and hardness decrease with the increasing indentation load, as a result of indentation load effect. The experimental hf/hm ratios lower than the critical value 0.7, with hm being the maximum penetration depth during loading and hf the final unloading depth, indicate that our sample shows the work hardening behaviour.

  5. Some Techniques for Computer-Based Assessment in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, G. A.; Bligh, J. G.; Leinster, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a system of classification for describing computer-based assessment techniques based on the level of action and educational activity they offer. Illustrates 10 computer-based assessment techniques and discusses their educational value. Contains 14 references. (Author)

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Deformation Due to Ball Indentation and Evaluation of Tensile Properties of Tempered P92 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbadikar, Dipika R.; Ballal, A. R.; Peshwe, D. R.; Mathew, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Ball indentation (BI) technique has been effectively used to evaluate the tensile properties with minimal volume of material. In the present investigation, BI test carried out on P92 steel (9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W), using 0.76 mm diameter silicon nitride ball indenter was modeled using finite element (FE) method and analyzed. The effect of test temperature [300 K and 923 K (27 °C and 650 °C)], tempering temperature [1013 K, 1033 K, and 1053 K (740 °C, 760 °C, and 780 °C)], and coefficient of friction of steel (0.0 to 0.5) on the tensile strength and material pile-up was investigated. The stress and strain distributions underneath the indenter and along the top elements of the model have been studied to understand the deformation behavior. The tensile strength was found to decrease with increase in tempering and test temperatures. The increased pile-up around the indentation was attributed to the decrease in strain hardening exponent ( n) with increase in the test temperature. The pile-up height determined from profilometry studies and FE analysis as well as the load depth curve from BI and FE analysis was in agreement. The maximum strain location below the indentation changes with the test temperature. Stress-strain curves obtained by conventional tensile, BI test, and representative stress-strain concepts of FE model were found exactly matching.

  7. Bending stress determination in pipes using a radial in-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer combined with instrumented indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Filipe; Viotti, Matias R.; Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a modular device based on digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) combined with an instrumented indenter. The system is divided in two modules, the interferometric and the indentation module. The former uses a diffractive optical element (DOE) to obtain radial in-plane sensitivity. This module measures the whole shallow displacement field generated by the indentation print on the surface of the material under testing. The latter module is sized suitably with the interferometric module. The indentation module uses a mechanical/hydraulic scheme to provide the system a high loading capability. A piezoelectric loading cell and an inductive transducer are used to simultaneously measure the load applied on the ball indenter and its penetration on the material. For the experimental tests, a bench capable to apply in a specific pipe a very well-known bending moment was used. This bench is mounted with two 12- meters pipes disposed horizontally. A transverse load is applied in the central cross-section of both pipes. The load application is made by a hydraulic actuator and measured with a load cell. Strain-gages are also used in a half-bridge configuration to measure the strain in the 8 cross-sections distributed along the pipe length. Each cross-section was measured by the proposed instrumented indentation system and compared with the strain-gages and load cell measurements. The results obtained show an uncertainty level around 20-30% of the measured bending stress. Good agreement was found between the computed bending stress using the strain-gages, load cell and the proposed method using the instrumented indentation system.

  8. Indentation-flexure and low-velocity impact damage in graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Young S.; Sankar, Bhavani V.

    1992-01-01

    Static indentation and low velocity impact tests were performed on quasi-isotropic and cross ply graphite/epoxy composite laminates. The load deflection relations in static tests and impact force history in the impact tests were recorded. The damage was assessed by using ultrasonic C-scanning and photomicrographic techniques. The static behavior of the laminates and damage progression during loading, unloading, and reloading were explained by a simple plate delamination model. A good correlation existed between the static and impact responses. It was found that results from a few static indentation-flexture tests can be used to predict the response and damage in composite laminates due to a class of low velocity impact events.

  9. Measuring the compressive viscoelastic mechanical properties of human cervical tissue using indentation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wang; Yoshida, Kyoko; Fernandez, Michael; Vink, Joy; Wapner, Ronald J; Ananth, Cande V; Oyen, Michelle L; Myers, Kristin M

    2014-06-01

    The human cervix is an important mechanical barrier in pregnancy which must withstand the compressive and tensile forces generated from the growing fetus. Premature cervical shortening resulting from premature cervical remodeling and alterations of cervical material properties are known to increase a woman׳s risk of preterm birth (PTB). To understand the mechanical role of the cervix during pregnancy and to potentially develop indentation techniques for in vivo diagnostics to identify women who are at risk for premature cervical remodeling and thus preterm birth, we developed a spherical indentation technique to measure the time-dependent material properties of human cervical tissue taken from patients undergoing hysterectomy. In this study we present an inverse finite element analysis (IFEA) that optimizes material parameters of a viscoelastic material model to fit the stress-relaxation response of excised tissue slices to spherical indentation. Here we detail our IFEA methodology, report compressive viscoelastic material parameters for cervical tissue slices from nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant (PG) hysterectomy patients, and report slice-by-slice data for whole cervical tissue specimens. The material parameters reported here for human cervical tissue can be used to model the compressive time-dependent behavior of the tissue within a small strain regime of 25%. PMID:24548950

  10. Artificial neural network model for material characterization by indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, K. K.; Swaddiwudhipong, S.; Liu, Z. S.; Hua, J.

    2004-09-01

    Analytical methods to interpret the indentation load-displacement curves are difficult to formulate and solve due to material and geometric nonlinearities as well as complex contact interactions. In this study, large strain-large deformation finite element analyses were carried out to simulate indentation experiments. An artificial neural network model was constructed for the interpretation of indentation load-displacement curves. The data from finite element analyses were used to train and validate the artificial neural network model. The artificial neural network model was able to accurately determine the material properties when presented with the load-displacement curves that were not used in the training process. The proposed artificial neural network model is robust and directly relates the characteristics of the indentation load-displacement curve to the elasto-plastic material properties.

  11. Nuclear based techniques for detection of contraband

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.

    1993-12-31

    The detection of contraband such as explosives and drugs concealed in luggage or other container can be quite difficult. Nuclear techniques offer capabilities which are essential to having effective detection devices. This report describes the features of various nuclear techniques and instrumentation.

  12. Indenter growth in analogue models of Alpine-type deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Talbot, Christopher J.; Boccaletti, Mario; Milnes, Alan G.

    1999-02-01

    A series of analogue experiments were carried out to simulate continental convergence, as seen in a profile through the Central Alps. A rigid indenter, representing the Adriatic plate, was driven laterally into a sand pack representing the brittle upper crust of Europe, detached and thickening above its subducting ductile lower crust. The rigid indenter advanced at the same steady rate in each experiment, but the dip of its front face was steepened in 15° increments from 15° to 90°. Where the rigid indenter face dipped at 45° or less, a sand wedge rose and was bound by a series of forekinks that nucleated at the toe of the indenter. Where the face of the rigid indenter dipped 60° or more, the wedge was defined by a single forekink and one or more backkinks that nucleated from a point advancing in front of the indenter toe. We interpret these results as indicating that slices of the sand pack and rising wedge are transferred across kink bands to build an "effective" indenter with a frontal dip closer to that dictated by the changing shear strength of the sand pile, which thickens vertically as it shortens laterally. One of our models (with a rigid indenter dipping 75°) simulates most of the major structures shown in recent syntheses of surface geology and deep seismic data in the Central Alps, without the isostatic lithospheric depression. This model accounts for the late collisional stage (Oligocene to Present) complex strain and metamorphic histories in the core of the orogenic wedge, the rapid rise and extrusion of small pips of Alpine eclogites, and the current passivity of the Insubric Line. It also emphasizes that lateral extension along gently dipping "thrusts" (orogen-normal horizontal escape) is confined to the extruded portion of the rising wedge.

  13. Chipping fracture resistance of dental CAD/CAM restorative materials: Part 2. Phenomenological model and the effect of indenter type

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, G.D.; Giuseppetti, A.A.; Hoffman, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    The edge chipping resistances of six CAD/CAM dental restoration materials are analyzed and correlated to other mechanical properties. A new quadratic relationship that is based on a phenomenological model is presented. Objective The purpose of this study was to further analyze the edge chipping resistance of the brittle materials evaluated in Part 1. One objective was to determine why some force-distance trends were linear and others were nonlinear. A second objective was to account for differences in chipping resistance with indenter type. Methods Edge chipping experiments were conducted with different indenters, including some custom-made sharp conical indenters. A new force – distance quadratic expression was correlated to the data and compared to the linear and power law trends. Results The new quadratic function was an excellent fit in every instance. It can account for why some materials can be fit by a linear trend, while others can be fit by the power law trend. The effects of indenter type are accounted for variations in crack initiation and by the wedging stresses once an indentation hole is created. Significance The new quadratic force – edge distance function can be used with edge chipping data for all brittle materials, not just those evaluated in this study. The data trends vary from linear to nonlinear depending upon the material’s hardness, fracture toughness, and elastic modulus. PMID:24685179

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of VN thin films under indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tao; Peng, Xianghe; Huang, Cheng; Yin, Deqiang; Li, Qibin; Wang, Zhongchang

    2015-12-01

    We investigated with molecular dynamics simulation the mechanical responses of VN (0 0 1) thin films subjected to indentation with a diamond columnar indenter. We calculated the generalized stacking-fault energies as a function of the displacement in the rbond2 1 1 0lbond2 directions on the {0 0 1}, {1 1 0}, and {1 1 1} planes, and analyzed systematically the microstructures and their evolution during the indentation with the centro-symmetry parameters and the slices of the VN films. We found the slips on {1 1 0}rbond2 1 1 0lbond2 of the VN film under indentation at the initial stage. With the increase of indentation depth, slips are also activated on {1 1 1}rbond2 1 1 0lbond2 and {1 0 0}rbond2 0 1 1lbond2 systems. We further found that the slip system is determined by the stacking-fault energy rather than the layer spacing. The indentations with other different parameters were also performed, and the results further prove the validity of the conclusion.

  15. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  16. Variable temperature thin film indentation with a flat punch.

    PubMed

    Cross, Graham L W; O'Connell, Barry S; Pethica, John B; Rowland, Harry; King, William P

    2008-01-01

    We present modifications to conventional nanoindentation that realize variable temperature, flat punch indentation of ultrathin films. The technique provides generation of large strain, thin film extrusion of precise geometries that idealize the essential flows of nanoimprint lithography, and approximate constant area squeeze flow rheometry performed on thin, macroscopic soft matter samples. Punch radii as small as 185 nm have been realized in ten-to-one confinement ratio testing of 36 nm thick polymer films controllably squeezed in the melt state to a gap width of a few nanometers. Self-consistent, compressive stress versus strain measurements of a wide variety of mechanical testing conditions are provided by using a single die-sample system with temperatures ranging from 20 to 125 degrees C and loading rates spanning two decades. Low roughness, well aligned flat punch dies with large contact areas provide precise detection of soft surfaces with standard nanoindenter stiffness sensitivity. Independent heating and thermometry with heaters and thermocouples attached to the die and sample allow introduction of a novel directional heat flux measurement method to ensure isothermal contact conditions. This is a crucial requirement for interpreting the mechanical response in temperature sensitive soft matter systems. Instrumented imprint is a new nanomechanics material testing platform that enables measurements of polymer and soft matter properties during large strains in confined, thin film geometries and extends materials testing capabilities of nanoindentation into low modulus, low strength glassy, and viscoelastic materials. PMID:18248047

  17. Flood alert system based on bayesian techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliver, Z.; Herrero, J.; Viesca, C.; Polo, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of floods in the Mediterranean regions is closely linked to the occurrence of torrential storms in dry regions, where even the water supply relies on adequate water management. Like other Mediterranean basins in Southern Spain, the Guadalhorce River Basin is a medium sized watershed (3856 km2) where recurrent yearly floods occur , mainly in autumn and spring periods, driven by cold front phenomena. The torrential character of the precipitation in such small basins, with a concentration time of less than 12 hours, produces flash flood events with catastrophic effects over the city of Malaga (600000 inhabitants). From this fact arises the need for specific alert tools which can forecast these kinds of phenomena. Bayesian networks (BN) have been emerging in the last decade as a very useful and reliable computational tool for water resources and for the decision making process. The joint use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and BN have served us to recognize and simulate the two different types of hydrological behaviour in the basin: natural and regulated. This led to the establishment of causal relationships between precipitation, discharge from upstream reservoirs, and water levels at a gauging station. It was seen that a recurrent ANN model working at an hourly scale, considering daily precipitation and the two previous hourly values of reservoir discharge and water level, could provide R2 values of 0.86. BN's results slightly improve this fit, but contribute with uncertainty to the prediction. In our current work to Design a Weather Warning Service based on Bayesian techniques the first steps were carried out through an analysis of the correlations between the water level and rainfall at certain representative points in the basin, along with the upstream reservoir discharge. The lower correlation found between precipitation and water level emphasizes the highly regulated condition of the stream. The autocorrelations of the variables were also

  18. Applying knowledge compilation techniques to model-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers in the area of knowledge compilation are developing general purpose techniques for improving the efficiency of knowledge-based systems. In this article, an attempt is made to define knowledge compilation, to characterize several classes of knowledge compilation techniques, and to illustrate how some of these techniques can be applied to improve the performance of model-based reasoning systems.

  19. Liquid refractometer based on fringe projection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, Marco; De Nicola, Sergio; Ferraro, Pietro; Finizio, Andrea; Pierattini, Giovanni

    1999-08-01

    Measurement of the refractive index of liquids is of great importance in applications such as characterization and control of adulteration of liquid commonly used and in pollution monitoring. We present and discuss a fringe projection technique for measuring the index of refraction of transparent liquid materials.

  20. Single Cell Wall Nonlinear Mechanics Revealed by a Multiscale Analysis of AFM Force-Indentation Curves.

    PubMed

    Digiuni, Simona; Berne-Dedieu, Annik; Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-05-01

    Individual plant cells are rather complex mechanical objects. Despite the fact that their wall mechanical strength may be weakened by comparison with their original tissue template, they nevertheless retain some generic properties of the mother tissue, namely the viscoelasticity and the shape of their walls, which are driven by their internal hydrostatic turgor pressure. This viscoelastic behavior, which affects the power-law response of these cells when indented by an atomic force cantilever with a pyramidal tip, is also very sensitive to the culture media. To our knowledge, we develop here an original analyzing method, based on a multiscale decomposition of force-indentation curves, that reveals and quantifies for the first time the nonlinearity of the mechanical response of living single plant cells upon mechanical deformation. Further comparing the nonlinear strain responses of these isolated cells in three different media, we reveal an alteration of their linear bending elastic regime in both hyper- and hypotonic conditions. PMID:25954881

  1. Contribution to the Determination of In Vivo Mechanical Characteristics of Human Skin by Indentation Test

    PubMed Central

    Zahouani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a triphasic model of intact skin in vivo based on a general phenomenological thermohydromechanical and physicochemical (THMPC) approach of heterogeneous media. The skin is seen here as a deforming stratified medium composed of four layers and made out of different fluid-saturated materials which contain also an ionic component. All the layers are treated as linear, isotropic materials described by their own behaviour law. The numerical simulations of in vivo indentation test performed on human skin are given. The numerical results correlate reasonably well with the typical observations of indented human skin. The discussion shows the versatility of this approach to obtain a better understanding on the mechanical behaviour of human skin layers separately. PMID:24324525

  2. Single Cell Wall Nonlinear Mechanics Revealed by a Multiscale Analysis of AFM Force-Indentation Curves

    PubMed Central

    Digiuni, Simona; Berne-Dedieu, Annik; Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Individual plant cells are rather complex mechanical objects. Despite the fact that their wall mechanical strength may be weakened by comparison with their original tissue template, they nevertheless retain some generic properties of the mother tissue, namely the viscoelasticity and the shape of their walls, which are driven by their internal hydrostatic turgor pressure. This viscoelastic behavior, which affects the power-law response of these cells when indented by an atomic force cantilever with a pyramidal tip, is also very sensitive to the culture media. To our knowledge, we develop here an original analyzing method, based on a multiscale decomposition of force-indentation curves, that reveals and quantifies for the first time the nonlinearity of the mechanical response of living single plant cells upon mechanical deformation. Further comparing the nonlinear strain responses of these isolated cells in three different media, we reveal an alteration of their linear bending elastic regime in both hyper- and hypotonic conditions. PMID:25954881

  3. Mechanophore activation in a crosslinked polymer matrix via instrumented indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Chelsea; Forster, Aaron; Woodcock, Jeremiah; Wang, Muzhou; Gilman, Jeffrey; Material Measurement Laboratory Team

    Recent advances in mechanically-activated fluorophores will enable a host of unique scientific challenges and opportunities to be addressed. Several mechanophores (MPs) in polymers have been reported, yet the specific deformation required to activate these molecules in a bulk polymer network has not been sufficiently specified. In an effort to develop the mechano-activation/deformation relationship of a spirolactam-based MP, scratches were applied to a MP-functionalized glassy crosslinked material at varying normal loads and lateral displacement rates. This experimental design allowed strain and strain rate effects to be decoupled. The fluorescence activation was then observed with a laser scanning confocal microscope. Areas of elastic and plastic deformation as well as brittle fracture were observed within each scratch as the normal loading of the indenter increased. The fluorescence intensity increased with increasing strain. Contact mechanics models are employed to demonstrate that relatively high degrees of strain are required to initiate the ring-opening activation transition within the spirolactam-based MP. These self-reporting damage sensors can be incorporated within polymeric coatings to allow real time structural health monitoring for a myriad of applications.

  4. A robotic indenter for minimally invasive measurement and characterization of soft tissue response.

    PubMed

    Samur, Evren; Sedef, Mert; Basdogan, Cagatay; Avtan, Levent; Duzgun, Oktay

    2007-08-01

    The lack of experimental data in current literature on material properties of soft tissues in living condition has been a significant obstacle in the development of realistic soft tissue models for virtual reality based surgical simulators used in medical training. A robotic indenter was developed for minimally invasive measurement of soft tissue properties in abdominal region during a laparoscopic surgery. Using the robotic indenter, force versus displacement and force versus time responses of pig liver under static and dynamic loading conditions were successfully measured to characterize its material properties in three consecutive steps. First, the effective elastic modulus of pig liver was estimated as 10-15 kPa from the force versus displacement data of static indentations based on the small deformation assumption. Then, the stress relaxation function, relating the variation of stress with respect to time, was determined from the force versus time response data via curve fitting. Finally, an inverse finite element solution was developed using ANSYS finite element package to estimate the optimum values of viscoelastic and nonlinear hyperelastic material properties of pig liver through iterations. The initial estimates of the material properties for the iterations were extracted from the experimental data for faster convergence of the solutions. PMID:17509927

  5. Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices

    PubMed Central

    Staunton, Jack R.; Doss, Bryant L.; Lindsay, Stuart; Ros, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and their microenvironment dictate cell phenotype and behavior, calling for cell mechanics measurements in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). Here we describe a novel technique for quantitative mechanical characterization of soft, heterogeneous samples in 3D. The technique is based on the integration of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based deep indentation, confocal fluorescence microscopy, finite element (FE) simulations and analytical modeling. With this method, the force response of a cell embedded in 3D ECM can be decoupled from that of its surroundings, enabling quantitative determination of the elastic properties of both the cell and the matrix. We applied the technique to the quantification of the elastic properties of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells invading into collagen hydrogels. We found that actively invading and fully embedded cells are significantly stiffer than cells remaining on top of the collagen, a clear example of phenotypical change in response to the 3D environment. Treatment with Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor significantly reduces this stiffening, indicating that actomyosin contractility plays a major role in the initial steps of metastatic invasion. PMID:26813872

  6. Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Jack R; Doss, Bryant L; Lindsay, Stuart; Ros, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and their microenvironment dictate cell phenotype and behavior, calling for cell mechanics measurements in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). Here we describe a novel technique for quantitative mechanical characterization of soft, heterogeneous samples in 3D. The technique is based on the integration of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based deep indentation, confocal fluorescence microscopy, finite element (FE) simulations and analytical modeling. With this method, the force response of a cell embedded in 3D ECM can be decoupled from that of its surroundings, enabling quantitative determination of the elastic properties of both the cell and the matrix. We applied the technique to the quantification of the elastic properties of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells invading into collagen hydrogels. We found that actively invading and fully embedded cells are significantly stiffer than cells remaining on top of the collagen, a clear example of phenotypical change in response to the 3D environment. Treatment with Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor significantly reduces this stiffening, indicating that actomyosin contractility plays a major role in the initial steps of metastatic invasion. PMID:26813872

  7. Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Jack R.; Doss, Bryant L.; Lindsay, Stuart; Ros, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and their microenvironment dictate cell phenotype and behavior, calling for cell mechanics measurements in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). Here we describe a novel technique for quantitative mechanical characterization of soft, heterogeneous samples in 3D. The technique is based on the integration of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based deep indentation, confocal fluorescence microscopy, finite element (FE) simulations and analytical modeling. With this method, the force response of a cell embedded in 3D ECM can be decoupled from that of its surroundings, enabling quantitative determination of the elastic properties of both the cell and the matrix. We applied the technique to the quantification of the elastic properties of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells invading into collagen hydrogels. We found that actively invading and fully embedded cells are significantly stiffer than cells remaining on top of the collagen, a clear example of phenotypical change in response to the 3D environment. Treatment with Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor significantly reduces this stiffening, indicating that actomyosin contractility plays a major role in the initial steps of metastatic invasion.

  8. The cast aluminum denture base. Part II: Technique.

    PubMed

    Halperin, A R; Halperin, G C

    1980-07-01

    A technique to wax-up and cast an aluminum base and a method to incorporate the base into the final denture base has been discussed. This technique does not use induction casting, rather it uses two casting ovens and a centrifugal casting machine. PMID:6991680

  9. DLC coatings on inner walls of PET bottles by a simplified PBII technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeyama, M.; Miyagawa, S.; Nakao, S.; Choi, J.; Miyajima, T.

    2007-04-01

    We have proposed a simple way to coat diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the inner walls of bottles using modified plasma based ion implantation (PBII) technique. Using this way, we have succeeded in DLC coating on inner walls of poly-(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles. We have also succeeded in printing some characters, as "AIST". Meyer hardness and Young's modulus of the DLC-coated PET films were estimated from penetration depth-load relationship obtained by a depth sensing indenter with a diamond spherical-conical indenter (0.83 μm in radius and 90° in angle). It was revealed that Meyer hardness and Young's modulus increased with the DLC coatings. For the 5-min coated PET film, the Meyer hardness and Young's modulus were about 8 and 4 times larger than those of the uncoated PET film, respectively. The results of the indentation tests agreed well with the results of micro-scratch tests.

  10. Speech recognition based on pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiner, Lawrence R.

    1990-05-01

    Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. The use of pattern recognition techniques were applied to the problems of isolated word (or discrete utterance) recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. It is shown that understanding (and consequently the resulting recognizer performance) is best to the simplest recognition tasks and is considerably less well developed for large scale recognition systems.

  11. Liquid tunable microlenses based on MEMS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xuefeng; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-08-01

    The recent rapid development in microlens technology has provided many opportunities for miniaturized optical systems, and has found a wide range of applications. Of these microlenses, tunable-focus microlenses are of special interest as their focal lengths can be tuned using micro-scale actuators integrated with the lens structure. Realization of such tunable microlens generally relies on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in tunable liquid microlenses. The underlying physics relevant to these microlenses are first discussed, followed by description of three main categories of tunable microlenses involving MEMS techniques, mechanically driven, electrically driven and those integrated within microfluidic systems.

  12. Liquid Tunable Microlenses based on MEMS techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xuefeng; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-01-01

    The recent rapid development in microlens technology has provided many opportunities for miniaturized optical systems, and has found a wide range of applications. Of these microlenses, tunable-focus microlenses are of special interest as their focal lengths can be tuned using micro-scale actuators integrated with the lens structure. Realization of such tunable microlens generally relies on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in tunable liquid microlenses. The underlying physics relevant to these microlenses are first discussed, followed by description of three main categories of tunable microlenses involving MEMS techniques, mechanically driven, electrically driven, and those integrated within microfluidic systems. PMID:24163480

  13. Spherical indentation of free-standing acellular extracellular matrix membranes.

    PubMed

    Cloonan, Aidan J; O'Donnell, Michael R; Lee, William T; Walsh, Michael T; De Barra, Eamonn; McGloughlin, Tim M

    2012-01-01

    Numerous scaffold materials have been developed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications to replace or repair damaged tissues and organs. Naturally occurring scaffold materials derived from acellular xenogeneic and autologous extracellular matrix (ECM) are currently in clinical use. These biological scaffold materials possess inherent variations in mechanical properties. Spherical indentation or ball burst testing has commonly been used to evaluate ECM and harvested tissue due to its ease of use and simulation of physiological biaxial loading, but has been limited by complex material deformation profiles. An analytical methodology has been developed and applied to experimental load-deflection data of a model hyperelastic material and lyophilized ECM scaffolds. An optimum rehydration protocol was developed based on water absorption, hydration relaxation and dynamic mechanical analysis. The analytical methodology was compared with finite element simulations of the tests and excellent correlation was seen between the computed biaxial stress resultants and geometry deformations. A minimum rehydration period of 5 min at 37°C was sufficient for the evaluated multilaminated ECM materials. The proposed approach may be implemented for convenient comparative analysis of ECM materials and source tissues, process optimization or during lot release testing. PMID:21864728

  14. Self-Similarity Simplification Approaches for the Modeling and Analysis of Rockwell Hardness Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Zhou, Jack; Lau, Alan; Low, Samuel; deWit, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The indentation process of pressing a Rockwell diamond indenter into inelastic material has been studied to provide a means for the analysis, simulation and prediction of Rockwell hardness tests. The geometrical characteristics of the spheroconical-shaped Rockwell indenter are discussed and fit to a general function in a self-similar way. The complicated moving boundary problem in Rockwell hardness tests is simplified to an intermediate stationary one for a flat die indenter using principle of similarity and cumulative superposition approach. This method is applied to both strain hardening and strain rate dependent materials. The effects of different material properties and indenter geometries on the indentation depth are discussed. PMID:27446740

  15. Trends and Techniques for Space Base Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.; Gassaway, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Simulations of various phosphorus and boron diffusions in SOS were completed and a sputtering system, furnaces, and photolithography related equipment were set up. Double layer metal experiments initially utilized wet chemistry techniques. By incorporating ultrasonic etching of the vias, premetal cleaning a modified buffered HF, phosphorus doped vapox, and extended sintering, yields of 98% were obtained using the standard test pattern. A two dimensional modeling program was written for simulating short channel MOSFETs with nonuniform substrate doping. A key simplifying assumption used is that the majority carriers can be represented by a sheet charge at the silicon dioxide silicon interface. Although the program is incomplete, the two dimensional Poisson equation for the potential distribution was achieved. The status of other Z-D MOSFET simulation programs is summarized.

  16. Techniques for detumbling a disabled space base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques and conceptual devices for carrying out detumbling operations are examined, and progress in the development of these concepts is discussed. Devices which reduce tumble to simple spin through active linear motion of a small mass are described, together with a Module for Automatic Dock and Detumble (MADD) that could perform an orbital transfer from the shuttle in order to track and dock at a preselected point on the distressed craft. Once docked, MADD could apply torques by firing thrustors to detumble the passive vehicle. Optimum combinations of mass-motion and external devices for various situation should be developed. The need for completely formulating the automatic control logic of MADD is also emphasized.

  17. Influence of indenter tip geometry on elastic deformation during nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Hay, J. L.; Pharr, George Mathews

    2005-01-01

    Nanoindentation with a Berkovich indenter is commonly used to investigate the mechanical behavior of small volumes of materials. To date, most investigators have made the simplifying assumption that the tip is spherical. In reality, indenter tips are much more complex. Here, we develop a new method to describe the tip shape using the experimentally determined area function of the indenter at small depths (0--100 nm). Our analysis accurately predicts the elastic load-displacement curve and allows the theoretical strength of a material to be determined from pop-in data. Application of our new method to single crystal Cr{sub 3}Si shows that the predicted theoretical strengths are within 12% of the ideal strength G/2{pi}, where G is the shear modulus.

  18. A new method for theoretical analysis of static indentation test.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, M; Li, G; Hara, T; Chao, E Y

    1996-05-01

    A new mathematical method was developed to study the indentation problem of an infinite elastic layer overlaid on a rigid foundation. Rigid, flat-ended cylindrical or spherical indenters are pressed onto the upper surface of the elastic layer causing a small deformation mode. Shear stresses between the indenter and the layer are assumed negligible and the layer is assumed to be either bonded or unbonded to the rigid foundation. The problem is equivalent to a mixed boundary-value problem of the theory of elasticity. Instead of using the Fredholm integral equation reported in the literature, the new approach obtained closed-form solutions through an infinite series. Convergence can be achieved using less than 10 terms of the series. PMID:8707798

  19. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.

    2014-06-23

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  20. Thermal wave imaging of indented diamond coated WC

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, A.

    1997-07-01

    Photothermal radiometry has been used to obtain thermal wave images in the vicinity of indentations in WC{endash}6{percent}Ni coated with chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond. Features in the magnitude and phase of the thermal signal profile are consistent with a one dimensional thermal wave theory that assumes (i) an air gap extending well beyond the visibly observable indented region, and (ii) a thermal resistance interface between the diamond film and the substrate over the entire coated surface. The theory allows us to estimate the air gap thickness, which decreases as the distance from the indented region increases. Air gap variations of tens of nanometers appear to be easily detectable. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  1. Elastic anisotropy of uniaxial mineralized collagen fibers measured using two-directional indentation. Effects of hydration state and indentation depth.

    PubMed

    Spiesz, Ewa M; Roschger, Paul; Zysset, Philippe K

    2012-08-01

    Mineralized turkey leg tendon (MTLT) is an attractive model of mineralized collagen fibers, which are also present in bone. Its longitudinal structure is advantageous for the relative simplicity in modeling, yet its anisotropic elastic properties remain unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of elastic anisotropy of mineralized collagen fibers by using nano- and microindentation to probe a number on MTLT samples in two orthogonal directions. The large dataset allowed the quantification of the extent of anisotropy, depending on the final indentation depth and on the hydration state of the sample. Anisotropy was observed to increase with the sample re-hydration process. Artifacts of indentation in a transverse direction to the main axis of the mineralized tendons in re-hydrated condition were observed. The indentation size effect, that is, the increase of the measured elastic properties with decreasing sampling volume, reported previously on variety of materials, was also observed in MTLT. Indentation work was quantified for both directions of indentation in dried and re-hydrated conditions. As hypothesized, MTLT showed a higher extent of anisotropy compared to cortical and trabecular bone, presumably due to the alignment of mineralized collagen fibers in this tissue. PMID:22664658

  2. Accelerator based techniques for contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourvopoulos, George

    1994-05-01

    It has been shown that narcotics, explosives, and other contraband materials, contain various chemical elements such as H, C, N, O, P, S, and Cl in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from other innocuous substances. Neutrons and γ-rays have the ability to penetrate through various materials at large depths. They are thus able, in a non-intrusive way, to interrogate volumes ranging from suitcases to Sea-Land containers, and have the ability to image the object with an appreciable degree of reliability. Neutron induced reactions such as (n, γ), (n, n') (n, p) or proton induced γ-resonance absorption are some of the reactions currently investigated for the identification of the chemical elements mentioned above. Various DC and pulsed techniques are discussed and their advantages, characteristics, and current progress are shown. Areas where use of these methods is currently under evaluation are detection of hidden explosives, illicit drug interdiction, chemical war agents identification, nuclear waste assay, nuclear weapons destruction and others.

  3. A New Tissue Resonator Indenter Device and Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ming; Zu, Jean W.; Hariri, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of tissue mechanical properties is widely required by medical applications, such as disease diagnostics, surgery operation, simulation, planning, and training. A new portable device, called Tissue Resonator Indenter Device (TRID), has been developed for measurement of regional viscoelastic properties of soft tissues at the Bio-instrument and Biomechanics Lab of the University of Toronto. As a device for soft tissue properties in-vivo measurements, the reliability of TRID is crucial. This paper presents TRID’s working principle and the experimental study of TRID’s reliability with respect to inter-reliability, intra-reliability, and the indenter misalignment effect as well. PMID:22346623

  4. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  5. Indentation experiments and simulation of ovine bone using a viscoelastic-plastic damage model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Wu, Ziheng; Turner, Simon; MacLeay, Jennifer; Niebur, Glen L.; Ovaert, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Indentation methods have been widely used to study bone at the micro- and nanoscales. It has been shown that bone exhibits viscoelastic behavior with permanent deformation during indentation. At the same time, damage due to microcracks is induced due to the stresses beneath the indenter tip. In this work, a simplified viscoelastic-plastic damage model was developed to more closely simulate indentation creep data, and the effect of the model parameters on the indentation curve was investigated. Experimentally, baseline and 2-year postovariectomized (OVX-2) ovine (sheep) bone samples were prepared and indented. The damage model was then applied via finite element analysis to simulate the bone indentation data. The mechanical properties of yielding, viscosity, and damage parameter were obtained from the simulations. The results suggest that damage develops more quickly for OVX-2 samples under the same indentation load conditions as the baseline data. PMID:26136623

  6. Flexible control techniques for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    applications with little or no customization. This means that lunar process control projects will not be delayed by unforeseen problems or last minute process modifications. The software will include all of the tools needed to adapt to virtually any changes. In contrast to other space programs which required the development of tremendous amounts of custom software, lunar-based processing facilities will benefit from the use of existing software technology which is being proven in commercial applications on Earth.

  7. A simple measuring device for laboratory indentation tests on cartilage.

    PubMed

    Koeller, Wolfgang; Kunow, Julius; Ostermeyer, Oliver; Stomberg, Peter; Boos, Carsten; Russlies, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Mechanical testing of articular cartilage and repair tissue enables judgment of their capacity in withstanding mechanical loading. In the past, different methods have been developed requiring a complex technical setup and extensive data analysis. Therefore, the aim of the present project was to build up a simple measuring apparatus for laboratory indentation tests. The device consists of an incremental optical displacement transducer with a sleeve bearing guided plunger and a spherical tip made of polished steel (radius: 0.75 or 1.5 mm), a sensitive load cell and a stiff frame. The indentation force results from the plunger's gravity plus the force of the spring inside the displacement transducer and levels at 0.170 N or 0.765 N. The displacement transducer is fixed to the frame via the load cell that enables one to detect the initial contact of the tip with the tissue. The load cell has a standard uncertainty of 2 mN and the displacement transducer of 1 microm. From indentation-creep tests, a "0.25-s elastic modulus" is calculated. Measurements on thin rubber sheets were carried out to determine the quality of the measuring device. Compression tests on cylinders made of these rubber sheets yielded control data, and a good agreement with the "0.25-s elastic modulus" was found. Indentation tests on cartilage at different sites of sheep femoral condyles yielded a very good repeatability of the measurement results (+/-7.5%). PMID:18979621

  8. Membrane indentation triggers clathrin lattice reorganization and fluidization.

    PubMed

    Cordella, Nicholas; Lampo, Thomas J; Melosh, Nicholas; Spakowitz, Andrew J

    2015-01-21

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves the coordinated assembly of clathrin cages around membrane indentations, necessitating fluid-like reorganization followed by solid-like stabilization. This apparent duality in clathrin's in vivo behavior provides some indication that the physical interactions between clathrin triskelia and the membrane effect a local response that triggers fluid-solid transformations within the clathrin lattice. We develop a computational model to study the response of clathrin protein lattices to spherical deformations of the underlying flexible membrane. These deformations are similar to the shapes assumed during intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles. Through Monte Carlo simulations of clathrin-on-membrane systems, we observe that these membrane indentations give rise to a greater than normal defect density within the overlaid clathrin lattice. In many cases, the bulk surrounding lattice remains in a crystalline phase, and the extra defects are localized to the regions of large curvature. This can be explained by the fact that the in-plane elastic stress in the clathrin lattice are reduced by coupling defects to highly curved regions. The presence of defects brought about by indentation can result in the fluidization of a lattice that would otherwise be crystalline, resulting in an indentation-driven, defect-mediated phase transition. Altering subunit elasticity or membrane properties is shown to drive a similar transition, and we present phase diagrams that map out the combined effects of these parameters on clathrin lattice properties. PMID:25412023

  9. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for X-ray tube

    DOEpatents

    Hudgens, Claude R.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight bular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, and insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  10. Low Temperature Plasticity of Olivine Determined by Nano-indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, P. A.; Kranjc, K.; Rouse, Z.; Flores, K.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's upper mantle is thought to deform mainly by dislocation creep, during which strain-rate and stress are related by a simple power law equation. However at much higher stresses there is a break-down in the power law relationship and strain-rate depends exponentially on stress. This phenomenon, known as low temperature plasticity, may be important in the shallow ductile or semi-brittle regions of the lithosphere, at the tips of cracks, or during high-stress laboratory experiments. Several studies have attempted to constrain the low-temperature rheology of olivine using micro-indentation or high pressure experiments. In this study we provide the first measurements of olivine rheology at low temperature using instrumented nano-indention. Although nano-indentation has been widely used in the materials sciences, its application in the Earth sciences has been very limited. Nano-indentation methods provide rheological measurements that are significantly more precise than other mechanical tests at high pressure and temperature. Moreover, experiments are rapid and largely non-destructive, so many tests can be conducted in a short amount of time. In this study, olivine single crystal and polycrystalline samples were tested using a Hysitron TI950 TriboIndenter. Temperature was varied using a cooling/heating stage from 0-175°C. Experiments were conducted under quasi-static and constant strain-rate conditions. Indentation hardness measurements were converted to uniaxial rheological properties to facilitate direct comparison with previous studies. Yield strengths for olivine range from 4.19 GPa at 175°C to 4.60 GPa at 0°C. Using various models for obstacles to dislocation motion, data are extrapolated to 0 Kelvin to extract a Peierls stress for olivine (5.32-6.45 GPa), which is at the lower end of the range of values determined in previous studies. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the nano-indentation method for the study of mineral rheology, and opens a

  11. Anterior-posterior asymmetry in iris mechanics measured by indentation.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Julie E; Amini, Rouzbeh; Simha, Narendra K; Barocas, Victor H

    2011-10-01

    Indentation and histological analysis of the porcine iris were done to assess the relative stiffness of the anterior (stroma) and posterior (dilator and sphincter) layers. The dimensions of the constituent structures were documented histologically by staining with a monoclonal anti-human α-smooth muscle actin antibody to determine the location of the stroma, sphincter, and dilator. Intact porcine irides (4-8 h post-mortem) were bisected into two equal C-shaped halves to indent both surfaces. Indentation experiments were performed using a 1 mm cylindrical indenter tip. The load-displacement curve for each experiment was used to estimate effective instantaneous and equilibrium moduli for the anterior and posterior surfaces of the tissue. A total of 18 irides (9 pairs) with 3-5 indentations per iris surface was performed. The average thickness of the samples was 550 μm; the indentation depth was limited to 60-100 μm depending on the thickness of the sample at each point. Posterior surface indentation gave larger forces than anterior, with the resulting instantaneous modulus of 6.0 ± 0.6 kPa versus 4.0 ± 0.5 kPa (mean ± 95% CI, n = 45, p < 0.001) and equilibrium modulus of 4.4 ± 0.9 versus 2.3 ± 0.3 (p = 0.007). The stress-relaxation analysis revealed that the anterior surface had a shorter relaxation time (121.31 ± 6.84 s) than the posterior surface (210.61 ± 9.41 s, p = 0.03), perhaps due to the permeability of the stroma. Recognizing that our effective modulus calculations in this study did not account for heterogeneity, viscoelasticity, or poroelasticity, we conclude that the posterior components of the iris - dilator, pigment epithelium, and sphincter - are on average stiffer than the stroma and anterior border layer. PMID:21787771

  12. Investigation into local cell mechanics by atomic force microscopy mapping and optical tweezer vertical indentation.

    PubMed

    Coceano, G; Yousafzai, M S; Ma, W; Ndoye, F; Venturelli, L; Hussain, I; Bonin, S; Niemela, J; Scoles, G; Cojoc, D; Ferrari, E

    2016-02-12

    Investigating the mechanical properties of cells could reveal a potential source of label-free markers of cancer progression, based on measurable viscoelastic parameters. The Young's modulus has proved to be the most thoroughly studied so far, however, even for the same cell type, the elastic modulus reported in different studies spans a wide range of values, mainly due to the application of different experimental conditions. This complicates the reliable use of elasticity for the mechanical phenotyping of cells. Here we combine two complementary techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical tweezer microscopy (OTM), providing a comprehensive mechanical comparison of three human breast cell lines: normal myoepithelial (HBL-100), luminal breast cancer (MCF-7) and basal breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. The elastic modulus was measured locally by AFM and OTM on single cells, using similar indentation approaches but different measurement parameters. Peak force tapping AFM was employed at nanonewton forces and high loading rates to draw a viscoelastic map of each cell and the results indicated that the region on top of the nucleus provided the most meaningful results. OTM was employed at those locations at piconewton forces and low loading rates, to measure the elastic modulus in a real elastic regime and rule out the contribution of viscous forces typical of AFM. When measured by either AFM or OTM, the cell lines' elasticity trend was similar for the aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells, which were found to be significantly softer than the other two cell types in both measurements. However, when comparing HBL-100 and MCF-7 cells, we found significant differences only when using OTM. PMID:26683826

  13. Investigation into local cell mechanics by atomic force microscopy mapping and optical tweezer vertical indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coceano, G.; Yousafzai, M. S.; Ma, W.; Ndoye, F.; Venturelli, L.; Hussain, I.; Bonin, S.; Niemela, J.; Scoles, G.; Cojoc, D.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-02-01

    Investigating the mechanical properties of cells could reveal a potential source of label-free markers of cancer progression, based on measurable viscoelastic parameters. The Young’s modulus has proved to be the most thoroughly studied so far, however, even for the same cell type, the elastic modulus reported in different studies spans a wide range of values, mainly due to the application of different experimental conditions. This complicates the reliable use of elasticity for the mechanical phenotyping of cells. Here we combine two complementary techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical tweezer microscopy (OTM), providing a comprehensive mechanical comparison of three human breast cell lines: normal myoepithelial (HBL-100), luminal breast cancer (MCF-7) and basal breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. The elastic modulus was measured locally by AFM and OTM on single cells, using similar indentation approaches but different measurement parameters. Peak force tapping AFM was employed at nanonewton forces and high loading rates to draw a viscoelastic map of each cell and the results indicated that the region on top of the nucleus provided the most meaningful results. OTM was employed at those locations at piconewton forces and low loading rates, to measure the elastic modulus in a real elastic regime and rule out the contribution of viscous forces typical of AFM. When measured by either AFM or OTM, the cell lines’ elasticity trend was similar for the aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells, which were found to be significantly softer than the other two cell types in both measurements. However, when comparing HBL-100 and MCF-7 cells, we found significant differences only when using OTM.

  14. A Word-Based Compression Technique for Text Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernor, Russel L., III; Weiss, Stephen F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a word-based technique for storing natural language text in compact form. The compressed text consists of a dictionary and a text that is a combination of actual running text and pointers to the dictionary. This technique has shown itself to be effective for both text storage and retrieval. (VT)

  15. Principals Use Research-Based Techniques for Facilitating School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Shirley M.; Hall, Gene E.

    Research shows that principals with strong leadership qualities are a critical factor in effective schools. This paper describes three research based techniques that principals can use when making decisions about how to help teachers develop their skills. The Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) is an empirically based conceptual framework that…

  16. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Application of glyph-based techniques for multivariate engineering visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazar, Vladimir; Marunic, Gordana; Percic, Marko; Butkovic, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of glyph-based techniques for engineering visualization as well as practical application for the multivariate visualization process. Two glyph techniques, Chernoff faces and star glyphs, uncommonly used in engineering practice, are described, applied to the selected data set, run through the chosen optimization methods and user evaluated. As an example of how these techniques function, a set of data for the optimization of a heat exchanger with a microchannel coil is adopted for visualization. The results acquired by the chosen visualization techniques are related to the results of optimization carried out by the response surface method and compared with the results of user evaluation. Based on the data set from engineering research and practice, the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques for engineering visualization are identified and discussed.

  18. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    PubMed

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2011-12-01

    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a

  19. The analysis of the stress-strain state of a plate, induced by the ricochet of a rigid indenter, using Moire method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptukov, V. N.; Kashirin, V. F.; Murzakaev, R. T.

    1994-06-01

    A technique elaborated by the authors is used to study the penetration process on the basis of the experimental data obtained by the Moire method. The stress-strain state of 1911 aluminum alloy plate in the vicinity of the crater is analyzed in terms of plane strain approximation for a rigid cylindrical indenter with spherical head under impact and ricochet conditions.

  20. Indentation-induced formation of low-dimensional Si structures in KOH solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuqian; Li, Ding

    2010-03-01

    Low-dimensional Si structures, including Si nanobelts and Si micropyramids, were formed on the surface of n-type silicon by microindentation and anisotropic etching in 30 wt% KOH solution at a temperature of 50 °C. The indentation was performed to create local plastic deformation and residual stresses. The residual stresses caused the formation of the Si nanobelts around the sites of indents on the surface of Si (1 1 1) and the Si micropyramids at the sites of indents on the surface of Si (1 0 0). The formation of the Si micropyramids was due to the local 'mask' created by the indentation and the residual stress around the indents. The residual hydrostatic stress at the tensile state increased the local etching rate, which resulted in a surface depression around the indents. The combination of indentation and wet etching process provides a maskless process to potentially produce low-dimensional Si structures in KOH solution at low temperatures.

  1. The characterization of Vicker`s microhardness indentations and pile-up profiles as a strain-hardening microprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, C. Jr.; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Schroeter, B.; Klinginsmith, D.; Yamamoto, T.

    1998-04-01

    Microhardness measurements have long been used to examine strength properties and changes in strength properties in metals, for example, as induced by irradiation. Microhardness affords a relatively simple test that can be applied to very small volumes of material. Microhardness is nominally related to the flow stress of the material at a fixed level of plastic strain. Further, the geometry of the pile-up of material around the indentation is related to the strain-hardening behavior of a material; steeper pile-ups correspond to smaller strain-hardening rates. In this study the relationship between pile-up profiles and strain hardening is examined using both experimental and analytical methods. Vickers microhardness tests have been performed on a variety of metal alloys including low alloy, high Cr and austenitic stainless steels. The pile-up topology around the indentations has been quantified using confocal microscopy techniques. In addition, the indentation and pile-up geometry has been simulated using finite element method techniques. These results have been used to develop an improved quantification of the relationship between the pile-up geometry and the strain-hardening constitutive behavior of the test material.

  2. Efficient Plant Supervision Strategy Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Rolle, Jose Luis Calvo; Castelo, Francisco Javier Perez

    Most of non-linear type one and type two control systems suffers from lack of detectability when model based techniques are applied on FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. In general, all types of processes suffer from lack of detectability also due to the ambiguity to discriminate the process, sensors and actuators in order to isolate any given fault. This work deals with a strategy to detect and isolate faults which include massive neural networks based functional approximation procedures associated to recursive rule based techniques applied to a parity space approach.

  3. Adriatic indentation of the Eastern Alps - nature vs. analogue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, S.; Scharf, A.; Schuster, R.; Handy, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Alps underwent late Oligocene-Miocene indentation by the Adriatic microplate, followed by rapid Miocene exhumation in the Tauern Window and orogen-parallel escape. Analogue models of indentation in the Eastern Alps indicate that exhumation of orogenic crust in front of the Adriatic indenter was coeval, with faults and post-nappe folds forming an asymmetrical conjugate pattern in front of the indenting block (Ratschbacher et al 1991, Rosenberg et al 2007). The amount and rate of exhumation is greatest at this location, but decrease laterally towards an unconfined boundary of the models that represents the retreating Carpathian subduction orogen. In nature, however, isotopic age patterns of deeply buried and exhumed basements rocks in the Tauern Window of the Eastern Alps indicate that cooling and possibly also exhumation were diachronous along strike of the orogen. In the westernmost Tauern Window, previous thermal modeling of fission-track ages (Fügenschuh et al 1997) revealed that rapid exhumation (≥ 1mm/a) lasted from 20-13 Ma and appears to have been triggered by sinistral transpression along the Guidicarie Belt beginning in Late Oligocene time. Rapid cooling (≥25°C/Ma) from 550 to 270°C lasted from 18-12 Ma (von Blanckenburg et al 1989; Fügenschuh et al 1997). In the easternmost part, however, rapid cooling from a similar peak temperature lasted from 23-20 Ma and ended no later than 17 Ma. Thus, rapid exhumation cannot have begun later than 23-21 Ma. Cooling patterns in the eastern central part of the Tauern Window are more complex and reflect the combined effects of doming and extensional exhumation. New Rb-Sr mica ages in post-nappe basement domes generally decrease from NW (muscovite: 26 Ma; biotite: 22 Ma) to SE (muscovite: 22 Ma; biotite: 18 Ma). We interpret these trends to show that doming began in the south-central part of the Tauern Window and then migrated to the SE while the entire basement nappe pile underwent orogen

  4. An ionospheric occultation inversion technique based on epoch difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Xiong, Jing; Zhu, Fuying; Yang, Jian; Qiao, Xuejun

    2013-09-01

    Of the ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) electron density profile (EDP) retrievals, the Abel based calibrated TEC inversion (CTI) is the most widely used technique. In order to eliminate the contribution from the altitude above the RO satellite, it is necessary to utilize the calibrated TEC to retrieve the EDP, which introduces the error due to the coplanar assumption. In this paper, a new technique based on the epoch difference inversion (EDI) is firstly proposed to eliminate this error. The comparisons between CTI and EDI have been done, taking advantage of the simulated and real COSMIC data. The following conclusions can be drawn: the EDI technique can successfully retrieve the EDPs without non-occultation side measurements and shows better performance than the CTI method, especially for lower orbit mission; no matter which technique is used, the inversion results at the higher altitudes are better than those at the lower altitudes, which could be explained theoretically.

  5. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  6. Graphene mechanics: II. Atomic stress distribution during indentation until rupture.

    PubMed

    Costescu, Bogdan I; Gräter, Frauke

    2014-06-28

    Previous Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments found single layers of defect-free graphene to rupture at unexpectedly high loads in the micronewton range. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we modeled an AFM spherical tip pressing on a circular graphene sheet and studied the stress distribution during the indentation process until rupture. We found the graphene rupture force to have no dependency on the sheet size and a very weak dependency on the indenter velocity, allowing a direct comparison to experiment. The deformation showed a non-linear elastic behavior, with a two-dimensional elastic modulus in good agreement with previous experimental and computational studies. In line with theoretical predictions for linearly elastic sheets, rupture forces of non-linearly elastic graphene are proportional to the tip radius. However, as a deviation from the theory, the atomic stress concentrates under the indenter tip more strongly than predicted and causes a high probability of bond breaking only in this area. In turn, stress levels decrease rapidly towards the edge of the sheet, most of which thus only serves the role of mechanical support for the region under the indenter. As a consequence, the high ratio between graphene sheets and sphere radii, hitherto supposed to be necessary for reliable deformation and rupture studies, could be reduced to a factor of only 5-10 without affecting the outcome. Our study suggests time-resolved analysis of forces at the atomic level as a valuable tool to predict and interpret the nano-scale response of stressed materials beyond graphene. PMID:24834440

  7. Atomic force microscopy indentation and inverse analysis for non-linear viscoelastic identification of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhung; Shao, Yue; Wineman, Alan; Fu, Jianping; Waas, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MCF-10A) are studied through indentation with spherical borosilicate glass particles in atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode in fluid. Their mechanical properties are obtained by analyzing the recorded reaction force-time response. The analysis is based on comparing experimental data with predictions from finite element (FE) simulation. Here, FE modeling is employed to simulate the AFM indentation experiment which is neither a displacement nor a force controlled test. This approach is expected to overcome many underlying problems of the widely used models such as Hertz contact model due to its capability to capture the contact behaviors between the spherical indentor and the cell, account for cell geometry, and incorporate with large strain theory. In this work, a non-linear viscoelastic (NLV) model in which the viscoelastic part is described by Prony series terms is used for the constitutive model of the cells. The time-dependent material parameters are extracted through an inverse analysis with the use of a surrogate model based on a Kriging estimator. The purpose is to automatically extract the NLV properties of the cells with a more efficient process compared to the iterative inverse technique that has been mostly applied in the literature. The method also allows the use of FE modeling in the analysis of a large amount of experimental data. The NLV parameters are compared between MCF-7 and MCF-10A and MCF-10A treated and untreated with the drug Cytochalasin D to examine the possibility of using relaxation properties as biomarkers for distinguishing these types of breast cancer cells. The comparisons indicate that malignant cells (MCF-7) are softer and exhibit more relaxation than benign cells (MCF-10A). Disrupting the cytoskeleton using the drug Cytochalasin D also results in a larger amount of relaxation in the cell's response. In addition, relaxation properties indicate larger differences as compared to the elastic moduli

  8. Using Indentation to Characterize Water Transport and Structure in Nafion Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Eric; Nadermann, Nichole; Page, Kirt; Stafford, Christopher; Chan, Edwin

    Perfluorinated ionomers, specifically Nafion, are the state-of-the-art polymer used in fuel cells. For this application, Nafion is utilized in both a bulk (hundreds of microns) and confined (tens of nanometers) state. For Nafion thin films in a confined state, i.e., Nafion as thin film coatings on catalyst particles, in-plane transport may play a critical role in the movement of water and protons through this catalysis layer. In this study, water transport was measured for a series of Nafion thin film thicknesses using poroelastic relaxation indentation (PRI). Unlike traditional through-thickness diffusion measurement techniques for thin polymer films (e.g., quartz crystal microbalance), PRI can be used to probe the in-plane water transport behavior. Relative to bulk Nafion, reduced in-plane water diffusion was observed in thin film Nafion, and below approximately 1 micron, water diffusivity and Nafion film thickness exhibited a logarithmic relationship. Equilibrium swelling measurements of water saturated Nafion thin films were used in conjunction with pore network theory to develop a picture of how the molecular-scale structure of Nafion changes with confinement to nanoscale film thicknesses. Using Indentation to Characterize Water Transport and Structure in Nafion Thin Films.

  9. Advanced airfoil design empirically based transonic aircraft drag buildup technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, W. D., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    To systematically investigate the potential of advanced airfoils in advance preliminary design studies, empirical relationships were derived, based on available wind tunnel test data, through which total drag is determined recognizing all major aircraft geometric variables. This technique recognizes a single design lift coefficient and Mach number for each aircraft. Using this technique drag polars are derived for all Mach numbers up to MDesign + 0.05 and lift coefficients -0.40 to +0.20 from CLDesign.

  10. Intramuscular injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri

    2014-09-30

    Intramuscular injections require a thorough and meticulous approach to patient assessment and injection technique. This article, the second in a series of two, reviews the evidence base to inform safer practice and to consider the evidence for nursing practice in this area. A framework for safe practice is included, identifying important points for safe technique, patient care and clinical decision making. It also highlights the ongoing debate in selection of intramuscular injection sites, predominately the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles. PMID:25249123

  11. Image analysis techniques associated with automatic data base generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Atkinson, R. J.; Hodges, B. C.; Thomas, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    This paper considers some basic problems relating to automatic data base generation from imagery, the primary emphasis being on fast and efficient automatic extraction of relevant pictorial information. Among the techniques discussed are recursive implementations of some particular types of filters which are much faster than FFT implementations, a 'sequential similarity detection' technique of implementing matched filters, and sequential linear classification of multispectral imagery. Several applications of the above techniques are presented including enhancement of underwater, aerial and radiographic imagery, detection and reconstruction of particular types of features in images, automatic picture registration and classification of multiband aerial photographs to generate thematic land use maps.

  12. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie, Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. PMID:20814088

  13. Limit case analysis of the "stable indenter velocity" method for obtaining creep stress exponents from constant load indentation creep tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J.; Dean, J.; Clyne, T. W.

    2016-06-01

    This study concerns a commonly-used procedure for evaluating the steady state creep stress exponent, n, from indentation data. The procedure involves monitoring the indenter displacement history under constant load and making the assumption that, once its velocity has stabilised, the system is in a quasi-steady state, with stage II creep dominating the behaviour. The stress and strain fields under the indenter are represented by "equivalent stress" and "equivalent strain rate" values. The estimate of n is then obtained as the gradient of a plot of the logarithm of the equivalent strain rate against the logarithm of the equivalent stress. Concerns have, however, been expressed about the reliability of this procedure, and indeed it has already been shown to be fundamentally flawed. In the present paper, it is demonstrated, using a very simple analysis, that, for a genuinely stable velocity, the procedure always leads to the same, constant value for n (either 1.0 or 0.5, depending on whether the tip shape is spherical or self-similar). This occurs irrespective of the value of the measured velocity, or indeed of any creep characteristic of the material. It is now clear that previously-measured values of n, obtained using this procedure, have varied in a more or less random fashion, depending on the functional form chosen to represent the displacement-time history and the experimental variables (tip shape and size, penetration depth, etc.), with little or no sensitivity to the true value of n.

  14. Characterization of strain rate sensitivity in pharmaceutical materials using indentation creep analysis.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jeffrey M; Buckner, Ira S

    2013-02-14

    Understanding how a material's response to stress changes as the stress is applied at different rates is important in predicting performance of pharmaceutical powders during tablet compression. Widely used methods for determining strain rate sensitivity (SRS) are empirically based and can often provide inconsistent or misleading results. Indentation creep data, collected during hardness tests on compacts formed from several common tableting excipients, were used to predict each material's relative sensitivity to changes in strain rate. Linear relationships between Ln(indentation hardness) and Ln(strain rate) were observed for all materials tested. The slope values taken from these relationships were compared to traditional strain rate sensitivity estimates based on in-die Heckel analysis. Overall, the results from the two methods were quite similar, but several advantages were evident in the creep data. The most notable advantage was the ability to characterize strain rate sensitivity derived from plastic behavior with little influence of elastic deformation. For example, two grades of corn starch had very similar creep behavior, but their yield pressures were affected very differently when the compaction rate was increased. This inconsistency was related to the difference in the viscoelastic recovery exhibited by these two materials. This new method promises to allow a better understanding of strain rate effects observed during tablet manufacturing. PMID:22985770

  15. Wavelet transformation based watermarking technique for human electrocardiogram (ECG).

    PubMed

    Engin, Mehmet; Cidam, Oğuz; Engin, Erkan Zeki

    2005-12-01

    Nowadays, watermarking has become a technology of choice for a broad range of multimedia copyright protection applications. Watermarks have also been used to embed prespecified data in biomedical signals. Thus, the watermarked biomedical signals being transmitted through communication are resistant to some attacks. This paper investigates discrete wavelet transform based watermarking technique for signal integrity verification in an Electrocardiogram (ECG) coming from four ECG classes for monitoring application of cardiovascular diseases. The proposed technique is evaluated under different noisy conditions for different wavelet functions. Daubechies (db2) wavelet function based technique performs better than those of Biorthogonal (bior5.5) wavelet function. For the beat-to-beat applications, all performance results belonging to four ECG classes are highly moderate. PMID:16235811

  16. "Ayeli": Centering Technique Based on Cherokee Spiritual Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a centering technique called "Ayeli," based on Cherokee spiritual traditions as a way of incorporating spirituality into counseling by helping clients identify where they are in their journey, where they want to be, and how they can get there. Relevant Native cultural traditions and meanings are explored. (Contains 25 references.) (GCP)

  17. Fictive temperature-independent density and minimum indentation size effect in calcium aluminosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, T. M.; Tomozawa, M.

    2008-09-15

    Using the calcium aluminosilicate system a glass was developed that exhibits fictive temperature-independent density by creating an intermediate glass between normal and anomalous glasses. Normal glass, such as soda-lime silicate glass, exhibits decreasing density with increasing fictive temperature while anomalous glass, such as silica glass, exhibits increasing density with increasing fictive temperature. This intermediate glass composition was found to exhibit the minimum indentation size effect during indentation hardness testing. It appears that the indentation size effect is correlated with a deformation-induced fictive temperature increase, which is accompanied by a density change and hardness change in the vicinity of the indentation. It is suggested from these observations that indentation size effect originates from the energy required to create interfaces and defects such as shear bands, subsurface cracks, and point defects near the indenter-specimen boundary, which accompany the volume change.

  18. Crystallographic Analysis of Nucleation at Hardness Indentations in High-Purity Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaoling; Zhang, Yubin; Lin, Fengxiang; Wu, Guilin; Liu, Qing; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2016-08-01

    Nucleation at Vickers hardness indentations has been studied in high-purity aluminum cold-rolled 12 pct. Electron channeling contrast was used to measure the size of the indentations and to detect nuclei, while electron backscattering diffraction was used to determine crystallographic orientations. It is found that indentations are preferential nucleation sites. The crystallographic orientations of the deformed grains affect the hardness and the nucleation potentials at the indentations. Higher hardness gives increased nucleation probabilities. Orientation relationships between nuclei developed at different indentations within one original grain are analyzed and it is found that the orientation distribution of the nuclei is far from random. It is suggested that it relates to the orientations present near the indentation tips which in turn depend on the orientation of the selected grain in which they form. Finally, possible nucleation mechanisms are briefly discussed.

  19. The adhesion behavior of carbon coating studied by re-indentation during in situ TEM nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xue; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We report a nanoscale adhesion induced nano-response in terms of re-indentation during in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanoindentation on the carbon coating with silicon substrate. The adhesive force generated with nanoindentation was measured, and re-indentation phenomenon during unloading with displacement sudden drop and external loading force change from tension to compression was found. The occurrence of re-indentation during unloading was ascribed to the adhesive force of the contact interface between the indenter and the coating surface. Adhesion energies released for re-indentation processes were quantitatively analyzed from the re-indentation load-displacement curves, and carbon coating reduced the impact of adhesion for silicon substrate. The adhesion induced nano-response of contact surfaces would affect the reliability and performance of nano devices.

  20. Nano-indentation of single-layer optical oxide thin films grown by electron-beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, K.; Oliver, J. B.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical characterization of optical oxide thin films is performed using nano-indentation, and the results are explained based on the deposition conditions used. These oxide films are generally deposited to have a porous microstructure that optimizes laser induced damage thresholds, but changes in deposition conditions lead to varying degrees of porosity, density, and possibly the microstructure of the thin film. This can directly explain the differences in the mechanical properties of the film studied here and those reported in literature. Of the four single-layer thin films tested, alumina was observed to demonstrate the highest values of nano-indentation hardness and elastic modulus. This is likely a result of the dense microstructure of the thin film arising from the particular deposition conditions used.

  1. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth. PMID:25587570

  2. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Abdel Kader, Neamat S.; Zorkany, M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth. PMID:25587570

  3. Microstructural Characterization and Properties Evaluation of Ni-Based Hardfaced Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by High Velocity Oxyfuel Coating Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2013-01-01

    The present study concerns a detailed investigation of microstructural evolution of nickel based hardfaced coating on AISI 304 stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition technique. The work has also been extended to study the effect of coating on microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the surface. Deposition has been conducted on sand blasted AISI 304 stainless steel by HVOF spraying technique using nickel (Ni)-based alloy [Ni: 68.4 wt pct, chromium (Cr): 17 wt pct, boron (B): 3.9 wt pct, silicon (Si): 4.9 wt pct and iron (Fe): 5.8 wt pct] of particle size 45 to 60 μm as precursor powder. Under the optimum process parameters, deposition leads to development of nano-borides (of chromium, Cr2B and nickel, Ni3B) dispersion in metastable and partly amorphous gamma nickel (γ-Ni) matrix. The microhardness of the coating was significantly enhanced to 935 VHN as compared to 215 VHN of as-received substrate due to dispersion of nano-borides in grain refined and partly amorphous nickel matrix. Wear resistance property under fretting wear condition against WC indenter was improved in as-deposited layer (wear rate of 4.65 × 10-7 mm3/mm) as compared to as-received substrate (wear rate of 20.81 × 10-7 mm3/mm). The corrosion resistance property in a 3.56 wt pct NaCl solution was also improved.

  4. Experiments on Adaptive Techniques for Host-Based Intrusion Detection

    SciTech Connect

    DRAELOS, TIMOTHY J.; COLLINS, MICHAEL J.; DUGGAN, DAVID P.; THOMAS, EDWARD V.; WUNSCH, DONALD

    2001-09-01

    This research explores four experiments of adaptive host-based intrusion detection (ID) techniques in an attempt to develop systems that can detect novel exploits. The technique considered to have the most potential is adaptive critic designs (ACDs) because of their utilization of reinforcement learning, which allows learning exploits that are difficult to pinpoint in sensor data. Preliminary results of ID using an ACD, an Elman recurrent neural network, and a statistical anomaly detection technique demonstrate an ability to learn to distinguish between clean and exploit data. We used the Solaris Basic Security Module (BSM) as a data source and performed considerable preprocessing on the raw data. A detection approach called generalized signature-based ID is recommended as a middle ground between signature-based ID, which has an inability to detect novel exploits, and anomaly detection, which detects too many events including events that are not exploits. The primary results of the ID experiments demonstrate the use of custom data for generalized signature-based intrusion detection and the ability of neural network-based systems to learn in this application environment.

  5. Deformation mechanisms in advanced structural ceramics due to indentation and scratch processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dipankar

    Plasma pressure compaction technique was used to develop boron carbide (B4C) and zirconium diboride-silicon carbide (ZrB2-SiC) composite. B4C ceramics are extensively used as body armor in military and civilian applications, and ZrB2-SiC composite has been recognized as a potential candidate for high-temperature aerospace applications. In this dissertation, processing parameters, quasistatic and high-strain rate mechanical response, and fundamental deformation mechanisms of these materials have been investigated. In the case of B4C, the rate sensitivity of indentation hardness was determined using a dynamic indentation hardness tester that can deliver loads in 100 micros. By comparing dynamic hardness with the static hardness, it was found that B4C exhibits a lower hardness at high-strain rate, contrary to known behavior in many structural ceramics. However, these results are consistent with the ballistic testing of B4C armors as reported in recent literature. This behavior was further investigated using a series of spectroscopic techniques such as visible and UV micro-Raman, photoluminescence and infrared. These studies not only confirmed that structural transformation occurred during indentation experiments similar to that in ballistic testing of B4C but also suggested a greater degree of structural changes under dynamic loading compared to static loading. Due to the potential application as external heat shields in supersonic vehicles, scratch studies were conducted on the ZrB2-SiC composite. These studies revealed metal-like slip-line patterns which are indeed an unusual in brittle solids at room-temperature. Utilizing classical stress field solutions under combined normal and tangential loads, a rationale was developed for understanding the formation of scratch-induced deformation features. Also, an analytical framework was developed, combining the concept of 'blister field' and the 'secular equation' relating Raman peaks to strain, to measure scratch

  6. Graphene-based terahertz photodetector by noise thermometry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ming-Jye; Wang, Ji-Wun; Wang, Chun-Lun; Chiang, Yen-Yu; Chang, Hsian-Hong

    2014-01-20

    We report the characteristics of graphene-based terahertz (THz) photodetector based on noise thermometry technique by measuring its noise power at frequency from 4 to 6 GHz. Hot electron system in graphene microbridge is generated after THz photon pumping and creates extra noise power. The equivalent noise temperature and electron temperature increase rapidly in low THz pumping regime and saturate gradually in high THz power regime which is attributed to a faster energy relaxation process involved by stronger electron-phonon interaction. Based on this detector, a conversion efficiency around 0.15 from THz power to noise power in 4–6 GHz span has been achieved.

  7. Slab pull and indentation tectonics: insights from 3D laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regard, Vincent; Faccenna, Claudio; Martinod, Joseph; Bellier, Olivier

    2005-03-01

    We investigate, using 3D laboratory experiments, how the dynamics of indentation process are affected by the evolution at depth of the oceanic and continental subductions. Lithospheric plates are modelled by sand-silicone plates floating on glucose syrup, and the density contrast between oceanic and continental lithospheric plates and asthenosphere is reproduced. Analogue experiments model the convergence between two lithospheric plates, a small continent indenting a large continental plate. We show that the surface deformation in front of the indenter and above the oceanic subduction zone depends on the behaviour of the slab below the collision zone. Slab break-off following the subduction of the small continent favours the indentation process, because it results in an increasing compression in front of the indenter, and extension above the neighbouring oceanic subduction, both of them being responsible for the appearance of the indenter-like geometry of the plate boundary. When the slab does not deform significantly at depth, in contrast, the closure of the oceanic domain in front of the indenter is followed by a longer period of continental subduction, during which the tectonic regime within the wide continent remains quite homogeneous. Comparing the presented analogue experiments with the subductions both part of the Arabian indenter within Eurasia, our results suggest that the different tectonic regime on both sides of the Arabia indenter may partly result from the probable occurrence of a detachment at depth under eastern Anatolia.

  8. Detection of indentation induced Fe-to-Afe phase transformation in lead zirconate titanate.

    SciTech Connect

    Baddorf, Arthur P.; Shin, Junsoo; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Watson, Chad Samuel; Kalinin, Sergei; Juliano, Thomas F.

    2005-08-01

    Instrumented indentation was combined with microscopy and spectroscopy analysis to investigate the local mechanically induced ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric phase transformation of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate 95/5. Indentation experiments to a depth of 2 {micro}m were performed using a Berkovich pyramidal three-sided diamond tip. Subsequent Raman spectroscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that indentation locally induced the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation. Piezoelectric force microscopy demonstrated the ability to map the individual phases within and near indented regions on the niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

  9. An evaluation of the advantages and limitations in simulating indentation cracking with cohesive zone finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanns, K. E.; Lee, J. H.; Gao, Y. F.; Pharr, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    A cohesive zone model is applied to a finite element (FE) scheme to simulate indentation cracking in brittle materials. Limitations of using the cohesive zone model to study indentation cracking are determined from simulations of a standard fracture toughness specimen and a two-dimensional indentation cracking problem wherein the morphology of the crack and the geometry of the indenter are simplified. It is found that the principles of linear-elastic fracture mechanics can be applied when indentation cracks are long in comparison to the size of the cohesive zone. Vickers and Berkovich pyramidal indentation crack morphologies (3D) are also investigated and found to be controlled by the ratio of elastic modulus to yield strength (E/Y), with median type cracking dominating at low ratios (e.g. E/Y = 10) and Palmqvist type cracking at higher ratios (e.g. E/Y = 100). The results show that cohesive FE simulations of indentation cracking can indeed be used to critically examine the complex relationships between crack morphology, material properties, indenter geometry, and indentation test measurements, provided the crack length is long in comparison to the cohesive zone size.

  10. Statistics and Machine Learning based Outlier Detection Techniques for Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Amit; Montgomery, Michele

    2015-08-01

    Architectures of planetary systems are observable snapshots in time that can indicate formation and dynamic evolution of planets. The observable key parameters that we consider are planetary mass and orbital period. If planet masses are significantly less than their host star masses, then Keplerian Motion is defined as P^2 = a^3 where P is the orbital period in units of years and a is the orbital period in units of Astronomical Units (AU). Keplerian motion works on small scales such as the size of the Solar System but not on large scales such as the size of the Milky Way Galaxy. In this work, for confirmed exoplanets of known stellar mass, planetary mass, orbital period, and stellar age, we analyze Keplerian motion of systems based on stellar age to seek if Keplerian motion has an age dependency and to identify outliers. For detecting outliers, we apply several techniques based on statistical and machine learning methods such as probabilistic, linear, and proximity based models. In probabilistic and statistical models of outliers, the parameters of a closed form probability distributions are learned in order to detect the outliers. Linear models use regression analysis based techniques for detecting outliers. Proximity based models use distance based algorithms such as k-nearest neighbour, clustering algorithms such as k-means, or density based algorithms such as kernel density estimation. In this work, we will use unsupervised learning algorithms with only the proximity based models. In addition, we explore the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various techniques by validating the outliers. The validation criteria for the outliers is if the ratio of planetary mass to stellar mass is less than 0.001. In this work, we present our statistical analysis of the outliers thus detected.