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Sample records for based solid-state photoelectrochemical

  1. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  2. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  3. Plasmon-Assisted Nd(3+)-Based Solid-State Nanolaser.

    PubMed

    Molina, Pablo; Yraola, Eduardo; Ramírez, Mariola O; Tserkezis, Christos; Plaza, José L; Aizpurua, Javier; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Bausá, Luisa E

    2016-02-10

    Solid-state lasers constitute essential tools in a variety of scientific and technological areas, being available in many different designs. However, although nanolasing has been successfully achieved for dyes and semiconductor gain media associated with plasmonic structures, the operation of solid-state lasers beyond the diffraction limit has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate room temperature laser action with subwavelength confinement in a Nd(3+)-based solid-state laser by means of the localized surface plasmon resonances supported by chains of metallic nanoparticles. We show a 50% reduction of the pump power at threshold and a remarkable 15-fold improvement of the slope efficiency with respect to the bulk laser operation. The results can be extended to the large diversity of solid-state lasers with the subsequent impact on their applications. PMID:26751848

  4. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  5. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  6. Toward Practical Solid-State Based Quantum Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshami, Khabat

    Quantum information processing promises to have transformative impacts on information and communication science and technology. Photonic implementation of quantum information processing is among successful candidates for implementation of quantum computation and is an essential part of quantum communication. Linear optical quantum computation, specifically the KLM scheme [1], and quantum repeaters [2, 3] are prominent candidates for practical photonic quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. Quantum memories for photons are key elements for any practical implementation of these schemes. Practical quantum memories require theoretical and experimental investigations into quantum memory protocols and physical systems for implementations. The present thesis is focused on studying new approaches toward practical solid-state based quantum memories. First, I present a proposal for a new quantum memory protocol called the controllable-dipole quantum memory [4]. It represents a protocol, in a two-level system, without any optical control that is shown to be equivalent to the Raman type-quantum memory. Then I include our studies on the quantum memory based on the refractive index modulation of the host medium [5]. It is shown that it can resemble the gradient echo quantum memory without a spatial gradient in the external field. These two protocols can be implemented in rare-earth doped crystals. With regards to using new physical systems, I present a proposal based on nitrogen vacancy centers [6]. This may pave the way toward micron-scale on-chip quantum memories that may contribute to the implementation of integrated quantum photonics. Finally, I studied the precision requirements for the spin echo technique [7]. This technique is necessary to extend the storage time in solid-state quantum memories, in which the coherence times are limited by spin inhomogeneous broadening.

  7. Nitride and Oxynitride Based Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yongchi

    2011-10-15

    The objective of the project is to advance the technology of the Lightscape Materials Inc. (Lightscape) proprietary nitride and oxynitride phosphors for solid state lighting (SSL) from the current level of maturity of applied research to advanced engineering development. This objective will be accomplished by optimizing the novel nitride and oxynitride phosphors, whose formulations are listed in Table 1, and establishing cost-effective preparation processes for the phosphors. The target performances of the phosphors are: • High luminescence efficiency: Quantum Yield = 90%. • Superior thermal stability of luminescence: Thermal Quenching Loss <10% at 150 °C. • Superior environmental stability: Luminescence Maintenance >90% after 5,000 hours at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity. • Scattering loss <10%. • Cost-effective preparation processes. The resulting phosphor materials and their preparation processes are anticipated to be a drop-in component for product development paths undertaken by LED lamp makers in the SSL industry. Upon program completion, Lightscape will target market insertion that enables high efficacy, high color rendering index (CRI), high thermal stability and long lifetime LED-based lighting products for general illumination that realizes substantial energy savings.

  8. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2003-10-30

    In this second annual report we summarize the progress in the second-year period of Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High- Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has recently made significant progress in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV), resonant-cavity LEDs (RCLEDs), as well as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques to obtain large-area non-polar GaN films with low average dislocation density. The Rensselaer team has benchmarked the performance of commercially available LED systems and has also conducted efforts to develop an optimized RCLED packaging scheme, including development of advanced epoxy encapsulant chemistries.

  9. A review of lithium and non-lithium based solid state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Son, Byungrak; Mukherjee, Santanu; Schuppert, Nicholas; Bates, Alex; Kwon, Osung; Choi, Moon Jong; Chung, Hyun Yeol; Park, Sam

    2015-05-01

    Conventional lithium-ion liquid-electrolyte batteries are widely used in portable electronic equipment such as laptop computers, cell phones, and electric vehicles; however, they have several drawbacks, including expensive sealing agents and inherent hazards of fire and leakages. All solid state batteries utilize solid state electrolytes to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. Drawbacks for all-solid state lithium-ion batteries include high resistance at ambient temperatures and design intricacies. This paper is a comprehensive review of all aspects of solid state batteries: their design, the materials used, and a detailed literature review of various important advances made in research. The paper exhaustively studies lithium based solid state batteries, as they are the most prevalent, but also considers non-lithium based systems. Non-lithium based solid state batteries are attaining widespread commercial applications, as are also lithium based polymeric solid state electrolytes. Tabular representations and schematic diagrams are provided to underscore the unique characteristics of solid state batteries and their capacity to occupy a niche in the alternative energy sector.

  10. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white

  11. Nanowire membrane-based nanothermite: towards processable and tunable interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-peng; Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Liu, Hui-ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants. PMID:23603809

  12. Nanowire Membrane-based Nanothermite: towards Processable and Tunable Interfacial Diffusion for Solid State Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-peng; Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Liu, Hui-ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants. PMID:23603809

  13. Nanowire Membrane-based Nanothermite: towards Processable and Tunable Interfacial Diffusion for Solid State Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-Peng; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-04-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants.

  14. Nanocomposite Photoelectrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Kindler, Andrew; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2007-01-01

    Improved, solid-state photoelectrochemical cells for converting solar radiation to electricity have been proposed. (In general, photoelectrochemical cells convert incident light to electricity through electrochemical reactions.) It is predicted that in comparison with state-of-the-art photoelectrochemical cells, these cells will be found to operate with greater solar-to-electric energy-conversion efficiencies.

  15. Efficient Blue-Colored Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Enhanced Charge Collection by Using an in Situ Photoelectrochemically Generated Conducting Polymer Hole Conductor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Holcombe, Thomas W; Boschloo, Gerrit; Johansson, Erik M J; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-05-18

    A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.5 % was achieved by efficiently incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based dye with a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenediothiophene) (PEDOT) hole-transporting material (HTM) that was formed in situ, compared with a PCE of 2.9 % for small molecular spiro-OMeTAD-based solid-state dye solar cells (sDSCs). The high PCE for PEDOT-based sDSCs is mainly attributed to the significantly enhanced charge-collection efficiency, as a result of the three-order-of-magnitude higher hole conductivity (0.53 S cm(-1) ) compared with that of the widely used low molecular weight HTM spiro-OMeTAD (3.5×10(-4)  S cm(-1) ). PMID:26919196

  16. Apollony photonic sponge based photoelectrochemical solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Atienzar, Pedro; Rodriguez, Isabelle; Meseguer, Francisco; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Corma, Avelino

    2007-01-21

    We have developed a quasi-fractal colloidal crystal to localize efficiently photons in a very broad optical spectral range; it has been applied to prepare dye sensitized photoelectrochemical solar (PES) cells able to harvest very efficiently photons from the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible (VIS) regions of the solar spectrum. PMID:17299626

  17. Investigation of Space Based Solid State Coherent Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the work performed over the period of October 1, 1997 through March 31, 2001. Under this contract, UAH/CAO participated in defining and designing the SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) mission, and developed the instrument's optical subsystem. This work was performed in collaborative fashion with NASA/MSFC engineers at both UAH/CAO and NASA/MSFC facilities. Earlier work by the UAH/CAO had produced a preliminary top-level system design for the Shuttle lidar instrument meeting the proposed mission performance requirements and the Space Shuttle Hitchhiker canister volume constraints. The UAH/CAO system design efforts had concentrated on the optical and mechanical designs of the instrument. The instrument electronics were also addressed, and the major electronic components and their interfaces defined. The instrument design concept was mainly based on the state of the transmitter and local oscillator laser development at NASA Langley Research Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and utilized several lidar-related technologies that were either developed or evaluated by the NASA/MSFC and UAH/CAO scientists. UAH/CAO has developed a comprehensive coherent lidar numerical model capable of analyzing the performance of different instrument and mission concepts. This model uses the instrument configuration, atmospheric conditions and current velocity estimation theory to provide prediction of instrument performance during different phases of operation. This model can also optimize the design parameters of the instrument.

  18. Femtosecond solid-state laser based on a few-layered black phosphorus saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiancui; Wang, Yiran; Zhang, Baitao; Zhao, Ruwei; Yang, Kejian; He, Jingliang; Hu, Qiangqiang; Jia, Zhitai; Tao, Xutang

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, a high-quality, few-layered black phosphorus (BP) saturable absorber (SA) was fabricated successfully, and a femtosecond solid-state laser modulated by BP-SA was experimentally demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Pulses as short as 272 fs were achieved with an average output power of 0.82 W, corresponding to the pulse energy of 6.48 nJ and peak power of 23.8 MW. So far, these represent the shortest pulse duration and highest output power ever obtained with a BP-based mode-locked solid-state laser. The results indicate the promising potential of few-layered BP-SA for applications in solid-state femtosecond mode-locked lasers. PMID:27128045

  19. Polylactide-based microspheres prepared using solid-state copolymerized chitosan and d,l-lactide.

    PubMed

    Demina, T S; Akopova, T A; Vladimirov, L V; Zelenetskii, A N; Markvicheva, E A; Grandfils, Ch

    2016-02-01

    Amphiphilic chitosan-g-poly(d,l-lactide) copolymers have been manufactured via solid-state mechanochemical copolymerization and tailored to design polyester-based microspheres for tissue engineering. A single-step solid-state reactive blending (SSRB) using low-temperature co-extrusion has been used to prepare these copolymers. These materials have been valorized to stabilize microspheres processed by an oil/water emulsion evaporation technique. Introduction of the copolymers either in water or in the oil phase of the emulsion allowed to replace a non-degradable emulsifier typically used for microparticle preparation. To enhance cell adhesion, these copolymers were also tailored to bring amino-saccharide positively charged segments to the microbead surface. Size distribution, surface morphology, and total microparticle yield have been studied and optimized as a function of the copolymer composition. PMID:26652381

  20. Modulation of a solid-state reversible fluorescent photoswitching based on a controllable photochromic pyrazolones

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hu; Guo, Jixi; Jia, Dianzeng; Guo, Mingxi; Le, Fuhe; Liu, Lang; Wu, Dongling; Li, Feng

    2014-08-15

    A novel solid-state reversible fluorescence photoswitching system (FPS) based on photochromism of photochromic pyrazolones has been developed by employing phosphor Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} co-doped with europium ion and chlorine ion (Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC) and 1,3-diphenyl-4-(3-chlorobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole-4-phenylsemicarbazone (1a) as the fluorescence dye and the photochromic compound, respectively. With carefully selected components, the absorption band of the keto-form photochromic pyrazolones well overlaps with the emission peak of Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC. The fluorescence emission intensity of Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC is efficiently modulated by the photoisomerization of 1a with controlling the exposure time in the solid state. The fluorescence photoswitching system displayed high fluorescence quenching efficiency and remarkable fatigue resistance. It can be repeated 7 cycles without observable the changes of emission intensity. A fluorescence quenching efficiency can be achieved with a reversible colour change from white to yellow. - Graphical abstract: A novel fluorescence photoswitching system based on doping inorganic fluorescence dye into photochromic pyrazolones was constructed successfully. Its fluorescence emission could be efficiently modulated by the photoisomerization of pyrazolones. - Highlights: • A solid-state fluorescence photoswitching material was prepared. • Photoswitching is due to energy transfer between pyrazolone and fluorescence dye. • It exhibits excellent fluorescence contrast and fatigue resistance in the solid state.

  1. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on three-dimensional graphene hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-05-28

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors are of considerable interest as mobile power supply for future flexible electronics. Graphene or carbon nanotubes based thin films have been used to fabricate flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high gravimetric specific capacitances (80-200 F/g), but usually with a rather low overall or areal specific capacitance (3-50 mF/cm(2)) due to the ultrasmall electrode thickness (typically a few micrometers) and ultralow mass loading, which is not desirable for practical applications. Here we report the exploration of a three-dimensional (3D) graphene hydrogel for the fabrication of high-performance solid-state flexible supercapacitors. With a highly interconnected 3D network structure, graphene hydrogel exhibits exceptional electrical conductivity and mechanical robustness to make it an excellent material for flexible energy storage devices. Our studies demonstrate that flexible supercapacitors with a 120 μm thick graphene hydrogel thin film can exhibit excellent capacitive characteristics, including a high gravimetric specific capacitance of 186 F/g (up to 196 F/g for a 42 μm thick electrode), an unprecedented areal specific capacitance of 372 mF/cm(2) (up to 402 mF/cm(2) for a 185 μm thick electrode), low leakage current (10.6 μA), excellent cycling stability, and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. This study demonstrates the exciting potential of 3D graphene macrostructures for high-performance flexible energy storage devices. PMID:23550832

  2. Color-Tunable Solid-State Fluorescence Emission from Carbazole-Based BODIPYs.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Chihiro; Todaka, Takumi; Ueda, Tomomi; Ema, Tadashi

    2016-05-23

    Several carbazole-based boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were synthesized by organometallic approaches. Thiazole, benzothiazole, imidazole, benzimidazole, triazole, and indolone substituents were introduced at the 1-position of the carbazole moiety, and boron complexation of each dipyrrin generated the corresponding compounds 1, 2 a, and 3-6. The properties of these products were investigated by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray crystallography, and DFT calculations. These compounds exhibited large Stokes shifts, and compounds 1, 2 a, and 3-5 fluoresced both in solution and in the solid state. Complex 2 a showed the highest fluorescence quantum yield (ΦF ) in the solid state, therefore boron complexes of the carbazole-benzothiazole hybrids 2 b-f, which had several different substituents, were prepared and the effects of the substituents on the photophysical properties of the compounds were examined. The fluorescence properties showed good correlation with the results of crystal-packing analyses, and the dyes exhibited color-tunable solid-state fluorescence. PMID:27072791

  3. Optical characterization of nitride-based light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Hisashi

    This dissertation describes research dedicated to the solid-state lighting technology based on III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Nitride semiconductors are rather an immature material system compared to conventional III-V semiconductors. As the solid-state lighting technology based on nitride optoelectronic devices becomes widely accepted in the market, solid-state technology is required to compete with the conventional vacuum lighting technology, especially in energy efficiency. In addition to such energy-efficiency requirements, solid-state optoelectronic devices have the potential to explore new applications based on their unique properties. The research was conducted as a way of optical characterization of LEDs with a strong emphasis on electroluminescence. Device-packaging techniques were introduced in the early stage of the research to evaluate performances of discrete LEDs including phosphor-combined white-light emitting devices. Light extraction and white-LED fabrication were of direct interest in terms of solid-state lighting, which occupies a large part of the present dissertation. The suspended-LED technique was introduced to improve light extraction and the sphere package was invented as a result of the technique. A phosphor-combined sphere LED achieved as high as 117 lm/W of luminous efficacy. Low-temperature characterization is important to evaluate light-emission efficiency of LEDs, especially the internal quantum efficiency. It was a generally known problem that electroluminescence efficiency deteriorates drastically at low temperature where photoluminescence efficiency remains high. High-quality LEDs prepared on GaN bulk substrates that became available during the present project contributed to the low-temperature study, largely to address the problem. Electroluminescence is related to carrier generation processes via low-temperature measurements on such high-quality LEDs. This study produced a model to explain electroluminescence

  4. Solid-state characterization of sertraline base-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Noriko; Hashimoto, Takuro; Furuishi, Takayuki; Nagase, Hiromasa; Endo, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Haruhisa

    2015-03-25

    Sertraline is one of the serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors that is effective in treating several disorders such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia. It is marketed in the form of its hydrochloride salt, which exhibits better solubility in water than its free base form. However, the absorption of sertraline through biological membranes could be improved by enhancing the solubility of its base because it is more hydrophobic than sertraline hydrochloride. To clarify the mechanism for the interaction of sertraline base with β-CD, it is important to study the basic interaction between the β-CD ring and sertraline base. Therefore, in this study, the currently used hydrochloride salt form was converted into the free base and β-CD was used as a model for β-CD derivatives to evaluate the interaction between β-CD and the sertraline base. The solid-state physicochemical characteristics of the sertraline-β-CD complex were investigated by the phase solubility method, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, FT-Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and (13)C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR measurements. The results showed that sertraline base and β-CD form an inclusion complex, and the stoichiometric ratio of the solid-state sertraline base-β-CD complex is 1:1, which was estimated by the (1)H NMR measurements of the complex dissolved in DMSO-d6. PMID:25637819

  5. Photosystem I - based biohybrid photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Peter N; Hijazi, Frederick M; Scott, Amanda M; Faulkner, Christopher J; Beard, Lisa; Emmett, Kevin; Rosenthal, Sandra J; Cliffel, David; Kane Jennings, G

    2010-05-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which Nature coordinates a tandem of protein complexes of impressive complexity that function to harness staggering amounts of solar energy on a global scale. Advances in biochemistry and nanotechnology have provided tools to isolate and manipulate the individual components of this process, thus opening a door to a new class of highly functional and vastly abundant biological resources. Here we show how one of these components, Photosystem I (PSI), is incorporated into an electrochemical system to yield a stand-alone biohybrid photoelectrochemical cell that converts light energy into electrical energy. The cells make use of a dense multilayer of PSI complexes assembled on the surface of the cathode to produce a photocatalytic effect that generates photocurrent densities of approximately 2 microA/cm(2) at moderate light intensities. We describe the relationship between the current and voltage production of the cells and the photoinduced interactions of PSI complexes with electrochemical mediators, and show that the performance of the present device is limited by diffusional transport of the electrochemical mediators through the electrolyte. These biohybrid devices display remarkable stability, as they remain active in ambient conditions for at least 280 days. Even at bench-scale production, the materials required to fabricate the cells described in this manuscript cost approximately 10 cents per cm(2) of active electrode area. PMID:20064713

  6. Structural modeling of Vpu from HIV-1 based on solid-state NMR observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, SeonJoo; Lim, GyuTae; Nam, Seungyoon; Lee, Jinhyuk

    2014-04-01

    Vpu is one of the accessory proteins of HIV-1, and is involved in viral particle release. Viral particle release is enhanced by two proposed functions of Vpu: (i) tetherin interaction and (ii) membrane polarization. Two Vpu functions in viral particle release are still controversial. Here, we investigated the proposed functions by extensive structural modeling of Vpu based on solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) observables. We found that Vpu can co-exist in two structural forms: left-handed and right-handed conformation. The co-existence of the two conformations provides a clue to reconcile the controversial issue of its two functions in virus particle release.

  7. Chronopotentiometric carbonate detection with all-solid-state ionophore-based electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jarolímová, Zdeňka; Crespo, Gastón A; Xie, Xiaojiang; Ghahraman Afshar, Majid; Pawlak, Marcin; Bakker, Eric

    2014-07-01

    We present here for the first time an all-solid-state chronopotentiometric ion sensing system based on selective ionophores, specifically for the carbonate anion. A chronopotentiometric readout is attractive because it may allow one to obtain complementary information on the sample speciation compared to zero-current potentiometry and detect the sum of labile carbonate species instead of only ion activity. Ferrocene covalently attached to the PVC polymeric chain acts as an ion-to-electron transducer and provides the driving force to initiate the sensing process at the membrane-sample interface. The incorporation of a selective ionophore for carbonate allows one to determine this anion in a background electrolyte. Various inner electrolyte and all-solid-state-membrane configurations are explored, and localized carbonate depletion is only observed for systems that do not contain ion-exchanger additives. The square root of the transition times extracted from the inflection point of the chronopotentiograms as a function of carbonate specie concentration follows a linear relationship. The observed linear range is 0.03-0.35 mM in a pH range of 9.50-10.05. By applying the Sand equation, the diffusion coefficient of carbonate is calculated as (9.03 ± 0.91) 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), which corresponds to the established value. The reproducibility of assessed carbonate is better than 1%. Additionally, carbonate is monitored during titrimetric analysis as a precursor to an in situ environmental determination. Based on these results, Fc-PVC membranes doped with ionophores may form the basis of a new family of passive/active all-solid-state ion selective electrodes interrogated by a current pulse. PMID:24871457

  8. Solid-state coherent LIDAR technology for space-based wind measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Mark W.; Hannon, Stephen M.; Henderson, Sammy W.; Gatt, Philip; Huffaker, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed coherent solid-state 2 micron laser radar systems have been developed at Coherent Technologies, Inc. for ground- and airborne-based applications. Ground-based measurements of wind profiles and aerosol backscatter have been performed for several years. Examples of wind and aerosol backscatter coefficient measurements will be presented which cover a variety of weather conditions. Airborne measurements of wind profiles below the aircraft have been performed by Wright Laboratories, operating in a VAD measurement mode and will be reviewed. An engineered flight-worthy coherent lidar system is under development at CTI for flight on the SR-71 aircraft, in support of the High Speed Civil Transport program. Flights will be conducted by NASA-Dryden Flight Research Center at altitudes above 60,000 feet for the measurement of atmospheric turbulence ahead of the aircraft. Efforts are also underway at CTI for the development of high power coherent laser radar systems. Extensive detailed physical optics models of diode-pumped solid-state laser performance have been developed to characterize transient thermo-optic aberrations and the overall efficiency of lasers intended for space-based applications. We are currently developing a 2 micron 0.5 J/pulse transmitter with a 10 Hz PRF and a pulse duration of 400 - 500 ns. The status and expected space-based wind measuring performance for this system will be presented.

  9. Flexible Asymmetrical Solid-State Supercapacitors Based on Laboratory Filter Paper.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leicong; Zhu, Pengli; Zhou, Fengrui; Zeng, Wenjin; Su, Haibo; Li, Gang; Gao, Jihua; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-26

    In this study, a flexible asymmetrical all-solid-state supercapacitor with high electrochemical performance was fabricated with Ni/MnO2-filter paper (FP) as the positive electrode and Ni/active carbon (AC)-filter paper as negative electrode, separated with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-Na2SO4 electrolyte. A simple procedure, such as electroless plating, was introduced to prepare the Ni/MnO2-FP electrode on the conventional laboratory FP, combined with the subsequent step of electrodeposition. Electrochemical results show that the as-prepared electrodes display outstanding areal specific capacitance (1900 mF/cm(2) at 5 mV/s) and excellent cycling performance (85.1% retention after 1000 cycles at 20 mA/cm(2)). Such a flexible supercapacitor assembled asymmetrically in the solid state exhibits a large volume energy density (0.78 mWh/cm(3)) and superior flexibility under different bending conditions. It has been demonstrated that the supercapacitors could be used as a power source to drive a 3 V light-emitting diode indicator. This study may provide an available method for designing and fabricating flexible supercapacitors with high performance in the application of wearable and portable electronics based on easily available materials. PMID:26694704

  10. A Low-Noise Solid-State Nanopore Platform Based on a Highly Insulating Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Hyun; Kumar, Ashvani; Park, Kyeong-Beom; Cho, Seong-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Lim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2014-01-01

    A solid-state nanopore platform with a low noise level and sufficient sensitivity to discriminate single-strand DNA (ssDNA) homopolymers of poly-A40 and poly-T40 using ionic current blockade sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The key features of this platform are (a) highly insulating dielectric substrates that are used to mitigate the effect of parasitic capacitance elements, which decrease the ionic current RMS noise level to sub-10 pA and (b) ultra-thin silicon nitride membranes with a physical thickness of 5 nm (an effective thickness of 2.4 nm estimated from the ionic current) are used to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio and the spatial depth resolution. The utilization of an ultra-thin membrane and a nanopore diameter as small as 1.5 nm allow the successful discrimination of 40 nucleotide ssDNA poly-A40 and poly-T40. Overall, we demonstrate that this platform overcomes several critical limitations of solid-state nanopores and opens the door to a wide range of applications in single-molecule-based detection and analysis. PMID:25502421

  11. Nanostructure-based WO3 photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xien; Wang, Fengying; Wang, Qing

    2012-06-14

    Nanostructured WO(3) has been developed as a promising water-splitting material due to its ability of capturing parts of the visible light and high stability in aqueous solutions under acidic conditions. In this review, the fabrication, photocatalytic performance and operating principles of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) for water splitting based on WO(3) photoanodes, with an emphasis on the last decade, are discussed. The morphology, dimension, crystallinity, grain boundaries, defect and separation, transport of photogenerated charges will also be mentioned as the impact factors on photocatalytic performance. PMID:22534756

  12. Novel solid state proton-conductors based on polymeric non-oxy acids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, A.J.; Srinivasan, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Gonzalez, E.R.; DesMarteau, D.; Gillette, M.S.; Ghosh, J.K.; Jalan, V.; Desai, M.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this project were to prepare and characterize novel solid state proton-conductors and to evaluate these compounds as fuel cell electrolytes. The thrust was on the synthesis of new proton-conducting ``model`` and ``polymeric`` compounds, based on acid functions of the type (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}NH and (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 2} in appropriate fluorinated carbon structures, their physics-chemical characterization (Infra-red, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and X-ray Diffraction), and is pro. evaluation as candidate fuel cell electrolytes for use at elevated temperatures. This project consisted of four tasks (i) Synthesis of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (ii) Physical and Chemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (iii) Electrochemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; and (iv) Evaluation of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Fuel Cells.

  13. GPU-based acceleration of free energy calculations in solid state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszewski, Michał; Ptok, Andrzej; Crivelli, Dawid; Gardas, Bartłomiej

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining a thermodynamically accurate phase diagram through numerical calculations is a computationally expensive problem that is crucially important to understanding the complex phenomena of solid state physics, such as superconductivity. In this work we show how this type of analysis can be significantly accelerated through the use of modern GPUs. We illustrate this with a concrete example of free energy calculation in multi-band iron-based superconductors, known to exhibit a superconducting state with oscillating order parameter (OP). Our approach can also be used for classical BCS-type superconductors. With a customized algorithm and compiler tuning we are able to achieve a 19×speedup compared to the CPU (119×compared to a single CPU core), reducing calculation time from minutes to mere seconds, enabling the analysis of larger systems and the elimination of finite size effects.

  14. Solid-state stability study of meropenem – solutions based on spectrophotometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background B-Lactam antibiotics are still the most common group of chemotherapeutic drugs that are used in the treatment of bacterial infections. However, due to their chemical instability the potential to apply them as oral pharmacotherapeutics is often limited and so it is vital to employ suitable non-destructive analytical methods. Hence, in order to analyze such labile drugs as β-lactam analogs, the application of rapid and reliable analytical techniques which do not require transferring to solutions or using organic solvents, following the current green approach to pharmaceutical analysis, is necessary. The main objective of the present research was to develop analytical methods for the evaluation of changes in meropenem in the solid state during a stability study. Results The UV, FT-IR and Raman spectra of meropenem were recorded during a solid-state stability study. The optimum molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities were calculated according to the density-functional theory (DFT/B3LYP method) with a 6-31G(d,p) basis set. As the differences between the observed and scaled wavenumber values were small, a detailed interpretation of the FT-IR and Raman spectra was possible for non-degraded and degraded samples of meropenem. The problem of the overlapping spectra of meropenem and ring-containing degradation products was solved by measuring changes in the values of the first-derivative amplitudes of the zero-order spectra of aqueous solutions of meropenem. Also, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), front molecular orbitals (FMOs) and the gap potential between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were determined. Conclusions Based on the findings of this work, it appears possible to use time-saving and reliable spectrophotometric analytical methods, supported by quantum-chemical calculations, for solid-state stability investigations of

  15. Solid-state lasers based on copolymers of methyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate doped with pyrromethene 567 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Jiang, Y. G.; Fan, R. W.; Peng, H.; Xia, Y. Q.

    2009-05-01

    Solid-state dye laser samples based on copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) doped with pyrromethene 567(PM567) were prepared. The highest slope efficiency 46.4% was obtained. With pump repetition rate of 10 Hz and intensity of 0.1 J/cm2, the output energy of the sample based on P (MMA: HEA 16:4) remained up to 82.10% of its initial value after approximate 100000 shots. To our knowledge, the achieved photostability is the best under the same condition so far. Compared with the sample based on the monopolymer, the slope efficiency and photostability of copolymer-based solid-state dye samples were both enhanced. The results indicate that the high laser performance using solid-state dye samples based on copolymers of MMA with HEA as solid hosts can be achieved.

  16. Telemetric light delivery and monitoring system for photodynamic therapy based on solid-state optodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margallo-Balbás, Eduardo; Kaptein, Johan G.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Pandraud, Grégory; French, Patrick J.; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2008-02-01

    Light delivery and optical monitoring during photodynamic therapy (PDT) is often limited by the need for a physical optical link between the light source and detection devices and the treatment volume. This can be critical when sources need to be implanted within the body for extended periods. We report on the latest developments for a telemetric PDT delivery and monitoring device that can dynamically vary the local illumination parameters based on the in-situ fluence rate within the PDT target volume. Local light delivery and collection is achieved using solid-state optodes, microfabricated on a silicon substrate. Photodiodes have been produced using a standard bipolar process. Chip-form LEDs are then assembled into micro-machined pits adjacent to the light fluence rate detectors. The devices (1.2×1.2mm2) are bonded to a flexible PCB together with the remaining electronics. Power coupling and communications are achieved by means of an inductive link while light delivery and fluence rate monitoring are digitally managed using a microcontroller. These devices are being tested in optical phantoms and in pre-clinical models. Our results show that it is possible to manufacture solid-state optodes of suitable dimensions and that it is feasible to telemetrically deliver and control the local fluence rate using them. It can also be concluded from our work that while the optode is sufficiently small to be useful as a light delivery and monitoring device, digital control, read-out electronics and power coupling can benefit from further optimization and miniaturization.

  17. Reversible Luminescence Modulation upon an Electric Field on a Full Solid-State Device Based on Lanthanide Dimers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaohui; Shang, Jie; Pan, Liang; Tan, Hongwei; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gang; Huang, Gang; Bernot, Kevin; Guillou, Olivier; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-06-22

    Switching luminescence of lanthanide-based molecules through an external electric field is considered as a promising approach toward novel functional molecule-based devices. Classic routes use casted films and liquid electrolyte as media for redox reactions. Such protocol, even if efficient, is relatively hard to turn into an effective solid-state device. In this work, we explicitly synthesize lanthanide-based dimers whose luminescent behavior is affected by the presence of Cu(2+) ions. Excellent evaporability of the dimers and utilization of Cu(2+)-based solid-state electrolyte makes it possible to reproduce solution behavior at the solid state. Reversible modulation of Cu(2+) ions transport can be achieved by an electric field in a solid-state device, where lanthanide-related luminescence is driven by an electric field. These findings provide a proof-of-concept alternative approach for electrically driven modulation of solid-state luminescence and show promising potential for information storage media in the future. PMID:27244645

  18. All-solid-state flexible ultrathin micro-supercapacitors based on graphene.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Lili; Zhu, Bowen; Dong, Haibo; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    Flexible, compact, ultrathin and all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors are prepared by coating H₃PO₄/PVA gel electrolyte onto micro-patterned rGO interdigitated electrodes prepared by combining photolithography with selective electrophoretic deposition. PMID:23716279

  19. Photoelectrochemical lab-on-paper device based on an integrated paper supercapacitor and internal light source.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lei; Wang, Panpan; Ge, Shenguang; Li, Nianqiang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Huang, Jiadong

    2013-04-16

    In this work, a photoelectrochemical (PEC) method was introduced into a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD), and thus, a truly low-cost, simple, portable, and disposable microfluidic PEC origami device (μ-PECOD) with an internal chemiluminescence light source and external digital multimeter (DMM) was demonstrated. The PEC responses of this μ-PECOD were investigated, and the enhancements of photocurrents in μ-PECOD were observed under both external and internal light sources compared with that on a traditional flat electrode counterpart. As a further amplification of the generated photocurrents, an all-solid-state paper supercapacitor was constructed and integrated into the μ-PECOD to collect and store the generated photocurrents. The stored electrical energy could be released instantaneously through the DMM to obtain an amplified (∼13-fold) and DMM-detectable current as well as a higher sensitivity than the direct photocurrent measurement, allowing the expensive and sophisticated electrochemical workstation or lock-in amplifier to be abandoned. As a model, sandwich adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding aptamers were taken as molecular reorganization elements on this μ-PECOD for the sensitive determination of ATP in human serum samples in the linear range from 1.0 pM to 1.0 nM with a detection limit of 0.2 pM. The specificity, reproducibility, and stability of this μ-PECOD were also investigated. PMID:23472854

  20. Bacteriorhodopsin-based photo-electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Chu, Li-Kang; Yen, Chun-Wan; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2010-10-15

    A simple solution-based electrochemical cell has been constructed and successfully employed in the detection of the photoelectric response upon photoexcitation of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) without external bias. Commercially-available indium tin oxide (ITO) glasses served as the optical windows and electrodes. Small amounts of bR suspensions (∼100 μL) were utilized as the photovoltaic medium to generate the proton gradient between two half-cells separated by a molecular porous membrane. Continuous broadband visible light (λ>380 nm) and a short-pulse 532-nm laser were employed for the photoexcitation of bR. Upon the modulated cw broadband irradiation, an instantaneous rise and decay of the current was observed. Our observations of the pH-dependent photocurrent are consistent with previous reports in a bR thin film configuration, which also showed a polarity inversion at pH 5-6. This is due to the change of the priority of the proton release and proton uptake in the photocycle of bR. Studies on the ionic strength effect were also carried out at different KCl concentrations, which resulted in the acceleration of the rise and decay of the photoelectric response. This was accompanied by a decrease in the stationary photocurrent at higher KCl concentrations in the broadband excitation experiments. The solution-based electrochemical cell uses aqueous medium, which is required for the completion of the bR proton pumping function. Due to the generation of the stationary current, it is advantageous to convert solar energy into electricity without the need of film-based photovoltaic devices with external bias. PMID:20719494

  1. New AIE-active pyrimidine-based boronfluoride complexes with high solid-state emission and reversible mechanochromism luminescence behavior.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fen; Lin, Jianjian; Wang, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng; Yan, Hui; Gong, Shuwen; Ma, Chunlin; Liu, Zhipeng; Huang, Wei

    2016-04-25

    A new family of pyrimidine-based BF2 complexes () with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and mechanochromic luminescence properties were developed. These compounds exhibit intense fluorescence in their aggregation/solid-state resulting from their large Stokes shift and AIE. X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the weak intermolecular interactions by fixing the molecular conformations of are responsible for the intense fluorescence in solid-state. In addition to their pronounced AIE behaviour, also exhibits a reversible chromic response to grinding, and a distinct red-shift of emission is observed. The high solid-state luminescence and grinding-stimuli response properties of these compounds make them potential candidates for smart materials. PMID:26938704

  2. Laser Hardening Prediction Tool Based On a Solid State Transformations Numerical Model

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, S.; Ukar, E.; Lamikiz, A.

    2011-01-17

    This paper presents a tool to predict hardening layer in selective laser hardening processes where laser beam heats the part locally while the bulk acts as a heat sink.The tool to predict accurately the temperature field in the workpiece is a numerical model that combines a three dimensional transient numerical solution for heating where is possible to introduce different laser sources. The thermal field was modeled using a kinetic model based on Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. Considering this equation, an experimental adjustment of transformation parameters was carried out to get the heating transformation diagrams (CHT). With the temperature field and CHT diagrams the model predicts the percentage of base material converted into austenite. These two parameters are used as first step to estimate the depth of hardened layer in the part.The model has been adjusted and validated with experimental data for DIN 1.2379, cold work tool steel typically used in mold and die making industry. This steel presents solid state diffusive transformations at relative low temperature. These transformations must be considered in order to get good accuracy of temperature field prediction during heating phase. For model validation, surface temperature measured by pyrometry, thermal field as well as the hardened layer obtained from metallographic study, were compared with the model data showing a good adjustment.

  3. A 6 GW nanosecond solid-state generator based on semiconductor opening switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. I.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Timoshenkov, S. P.; Tsyranov, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a nanosecond all solid-state generator providing peak power of up to 6 GW, output voltage of 500-900 kV, pulse length (full width at half maximum) of ˜7 ns across external loads of 40-100 Ω, and pulse repetition frequency up to 1 kHz in burst operation mode is described. The output pulse is generated by a semiconductor opening switch (SOS). A new SOS pumping circuit based on a double forming line (DFL) is proposed and its implementation described. As compared with a lumped capacitors-based pumping circuit, the DFL allows minimization of the inductance and stray capacitance of the reverse pumping circuit, and thus, an increase in the SOS cutoff current amplitude and generator output peak power as a whole. The pumping circuit provides a reverse current increasing through the SOS up to 14 kA within ˜12 ns. The SOS cuts off the current in ˜2 ns; the current cutoff rate reaches 7 kA/ns. The SOS braking power (the product of peak voltage and cutoff current) for an external load above 100 Ω is 13 GW.

  4. Design and fabrication of a foldable 3D silicon based package for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskij, R.; Liu, P.; van Zeijl, H. W.; Mimoun, B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Miniaturization of solid state lighting (SSL) luminaires as well as reduction of packaging and assembly costs are of prime interest for the SSL lighting industry. A novel silicon based LED package for lighting applications is presented in this paper. The proposed design consists of 5 rigid Si tiles connected by flexible polyimide hinges with embedded interconnects (ICs). Electrical, optical and thermal characteristics were taken into consideration during design. The fabrication process involved polyimide (PI) application and patterning, aluminium interconnect integration in the flexible hinge, LED reflector cavity formation and metalization followed by through wafer DRIE etching for chip formation and release. A method to connect chip front to backside without TSVs was also integrated into the process. Post-fabrication wafer level assembly included LED mounting and wirebond, phosphor-based colour conversion and silicone encapsulation. The package formation was finalized by vacuum assisted wrapping around an assembly structure to form a 3D geometry, which is beneficial for omnidirectional lighting. Bending tests were performed on the flexible ICs and optical performance at different temperatures was evaluated. It is suggested that 3D packages can be expanded to platforms for miniaturized luminaire applications by combining monolithic silicon integration and system-in-package (SiP) technologies.

  5. A Solid-State Nanosecond Beam Kicker Modulator Based on the DSRD Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Krasnykh, A.; Tang, T.; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.

    2011-08-19

    A fast solid-state beam kicker modulator is under development at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The program goal is to develop a modulator that will deliver 4 ns, {+-}5 kV pulses to the ATF2 damping ring beam extraction kicker. The kicker is a 50 {Omega}, bipolar strip line, 60 cm long, fed at the downstream end and terminated at the upstream end. The bunch spacing in the ring is 5.6 ns, bunches are removed from the back end of the train, and there is a gap of 103.6 ns before the next train. The modulator design is based on an opening switch topology that uses Drift Step Recovery Diodes as the opening switches. The design and results of the modulator development are discussed. There are many applications that benefit from very fast high power switching. However, at MW power levels and nanosecond time scales, solid state options are limited. One option, the Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD) has been demonstrated as capable of blocking thousands of volts and switching in nanosecond to sub-nanosecond ranges. When used as an opening switch, the DSRD exhibits a very fast turn off transient. The process is described in detail by its pioneers in [5,6]. In essence, charge is pumped into and then extracted from the DSRD under pulsed conditions. The turn off transient occurs precisely when the pumped charge is equal to the extracted charge and the DSRD is switched off. At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, a DSRD is being used as an opening switch in the development of a fast kicker modulator. The modulator is designed to create {+-}5kV pulses with <1ns rise and fall time on a 50{Omega} strip line kicker. As is common in beam optics, the absence of power in the kicker before and after the pulse is very important. The entire {+-}5kV kicker modulator is composed of two identical 5kV pulsing circuits, each with its own DSRD component. This paper describes the modulator topology and the status of tests on one of the two 5kV pulse circuits.

  6. All-solid-state repetitive semiconductor opening switch-based short pulse generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Liu, Guozhi

    2009-09-01

    The operating characteristics of a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) are determined by its pumping circuit parameters. SOS is still able to cut off the current when pumping current duration falls to the order of tens of nanoseconds and a short pulse forms simultaneously in the output load. An all-solid-state repetitive SOS-based short pulse generator (SPG100) with a three-level magnetic pulse compression unit was successfully constructed. The generator adopts magnetic pulse compression unit with metallic glass and ferrite cores, which compresses a 600 V, 10 μs primary pulse into short pulse with forward pumping current of 825 A, 60 ns and reverse pumping current of 1.3 kA, 30 ns. The current is sent to SOS in which the reverse pumping current is interrupted. The generator is capable of providing a pulse with the voltage of 120 kV and duration of 5-6 ns while output load being 125 Ω. The highest repetition rate is up to 1 kHz.

  7. Formulation and Solid State Characterization of Nicotinamide-based Co-crystals of Fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, Sheetal; Shete, A. S.; Doijad, R. C.; Kadam, S. S.; Patil, V. A.; Yadav, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation deals with formulation of nicotinamide-based co-crystals of fenofibrate by different methods and solid-state characterization of the prepared co-crystals. Fenofibrate and nicotinamide as a coformer in 1:1 molar ratio were used to formulate molecular complexes by kneading, solution crystallization, antisolvent addition and solvent drop grinding methods. The prepared molecular complexes were characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and in vitro dissolution study. Considerable improvement in the dissolution rate of fenofibrate from optimized co-crystal formulation was due to an increased solubility that is attributed to the super saturation from the fine co-crystals is faster because of large specific surface area of small particles and prevention of phase transformation to pure fenofibrate. In vitro dissolution study showed that the formation of co-crystals improves the dissolution rate of fenofibrate. Nicotinamide forms the co-crystals with fenofibrate, theoretically and practically. PMID:26180279

  8. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw☆

    PubMed Central

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

  9. All-solid-state repetitive semiconductor opening switch-based short pulse generator.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Liu, Guozhi

    2009-09-01

    The operating characteristics of a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) are determined by its pumping circuit parameters. SOS is still able to cut off the current when pumping current duration falls to the order of tens of nanoseconds and a short pulse forms simultaneously in the output load. An all-solid-state repetitive SOS-based short pulse generator (SPG100) with a three-level magnetic pulse compression unit was successfully constructed. The generator adopts magnetic pulse compression unit with metallic glass and ferrite cores, which compresses a 600 V, 10 mus primary pulse into short pulse with forward pumping current of 825 A, 60 ns and reverse pumping current of 1.3 kA, 30 ns. The current is sent to SOS in which the reverse pumping current is interrupted. The generator is capable of providing a pulse with the voltage of 120 kV and duration of 5-6 ns while output load being 125 Omega. The highest repetition rate is up to 1 kHz. PMID:19791935

  10. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped phosphor particles

  11. Nonconfocal unstable resonator for solid-state dye lasers based on a gradient-reflectivity mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Allik, T.H.; Hutchinson, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    A compact high-brightness solid-state dye laser, consisting of a nonconfocal unstable resonator formed of a planar mirror and a gradient-reflectivity mirror, is modeled by use of ray-tracing analysis. Collimated 80-mJ output was obtained in a 10-mmmrad beam. {copyright} {ital 1995 Optical Society of America.}

  12. Microwave tunneling in heterostructures with electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterials based on solid state plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-kun; Li, Hai-ming; Bian, Bo-rui; Xue, Feng; Ding, Guo-wen; Yu, Shao-jie; Liu, Si-yuan

    2016-06-01

    Interference induced electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-like effect has demonstrated the ability to realize narrow transmission resonances within the single-resonator stop band. Due to the limited plasma density in actual devices, only few reports discuss the plasma metamaterials and truncated photonic crystals which support electromagnetically induced transparency. However, solid state plasma realized by some semiconductors have the advantages of higher order plasma density and the characteristics of the reconfiguration and tunability. Here, we conduct a numerical study of the perfect microwave tunneling in heterostructures composed of solid state plasma metamaterials and truncated photonic crystal. There is particular emphasis on the tunability of tunneling frequency by changing plasma frequency in solid state plasma, as well as the electric energy density distributions in heterostructures. It was found that, compared to conventional metal photonic crystal, the reflectance of tunneling mode can be reduced from -25.8 dB to -41.7 dB with an optimized Q-factor. Further study on electric energy density distribution confirms that EM wave in-plane localization originated from the EIT-like solid state plasma, which gives rise to the three-dimensional enhancement of sub-wavelength EM wave localization, is stronger than EM wave confinement along the propagation direction. Owing to the tunability of plasma, the tunneling frequency channel can be adjusted or reconfigured in a certain range without adjusting the geometry of the heterostructure. It suggests the fabrication for highly sensitive dielectric sensing, optical switches, and so on.

  13. Performance of solid state supercapacitors based on polymer electrolytes containing different ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh; Muñoz-Torrero, David; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    Four Ionic Liquid based Polymer Electrolytes (IL-b-PE) were prepared by blending a Polymeric Ionic Liquid, Poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PILTFSI), with four different ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) (IL-b-PE1), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI) (IL-b-PE2), 1-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HEMimTFSI) (IL-b-PE3), and 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, (PYR14DCA) (IL-b-PE4). Physicochemical properties of IL-b-PE such as ionic conductivity, thermal and electrochemical stability were found to be dependent on the IL properties. For instance, ionic conductivity was significantly higher for IL-b-PE2 and IL-b-PE4 containing IL with small size anions (FSI and DCA) than IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE3 bearing IL with bigger anion (TFSI). On the other hand, wider electrochemical stability window (ESW) was found for IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE2 having ILs with electrochemically stable pyrrolidinium cation and FSI and TFSI anions. Solid state Supercapacitors (SCs) were assembled with activated carbon electrodes and their electrochemical performance was correlated with the polymer electrolyte properties. Best performance was obtained with SC having IL-b-PE2 that exhibited a good compromise between ionic conductivity and electrochemical window. Specific capacitance (Cam), real energy (Ereal) & real power densities (Preal) as high as 150 F g-1, 36 Wh kg-1 & 1170 W kg-1 were found at operating voltage of 3.5 V.

  14. Solid-State, High Energy 2-Micron Laser Development for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    report in 2000 strongly advocated that NASA maintain in-house laser and lidar capability, and that NASA should work to lower the technology risk for all future lidar missions. A multi-Center NASA team formulated an integrated NASA strategy to provide the technology and maturity of systems necessary to make Lidar/Laser systems viable for space-based study and monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere. In 2002 the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and Office of Aerospace Technology (OAT) created the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and directed NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Goddard Space Flight Center to carry out synergistic and complementary research towards solid-state lasers/lidars developments for space-based remote sensing applications.

  15. Development of bipolar all-solid-state lithium battery based on quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing tetraglyme-LiTFSA equimolar complex.

    PubMed

    Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    The development of high energy-density lithium-ion secondary batteries as storage batteries in vehicles is attracting increasing attention. In this study, high-voltage bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex were prepared, and the performance of the device was evaluated. Via the successful production of double-layered and triple-layered high-voltage devices, it was confirmed that these stacked batteries operated properly without any internal short-circuits of a single cell within the package: Their plateau potentials (6.7 and 10.0 V, respectively) were two and three times that (3.4 V) of the single-layered device, respectively. Further, the double-layered device showed a capacity retention of 99% on the 200th cycle at 0.5 C, which is an indication of good cycling properties. These results suggest that bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex could readily produce a high voltage of 10 V. PMID:25746860

  16. Development of Bipolar All-solid-state Lithium Battery Based on Quasi-solid-state Electrolyte Containing Tetraglyme-LiTFSA Equimolar Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    The development of high energy–density lithium-ion secondary batteries as storage batteries in vehicles is attracting increasing attention. In this study, high-voltage bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex were prepared, and the performance of the device was evaluated. Via the successful production of double-layered and triple-layered high-voltage devices, it was confirmed that these stacked batteries operated properly without any internal short-circuits of a single cell within the package: Their plateau potentials (6.7 and 10.0 V, respectively) were two and three times that (3.4 V) of the single-layered device, respectively. Further, the double-layered device showed a capacity retention of 99% on the 200th cycle at 0.5 C, which is an indication of good cycling properties. These results suggest that bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex could readily produce a high voltage of 10 V. PMID:25746860

  17. Switchable enantioseparation based on macromolecular memory of a helical polyacetylene in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Kouhei; Ikai, Tomoyuki; Kanoh, Shigeyoshi; Yashima, Eiji; Maeda, Katsuhiro

    2014-05-01

    In the chromatographic separation of enantiomers the order of elution is determined by the strength of diasteromeric interactions between the components of the mixture and a chiral stationary phase. For analytical purposes, it is ideal to have the minor component elute first, whereas in the preparative mode a faster elution of the major component is desirable. Here we describe a stationary phase constructed from a polyacetylene that bears 2,2‧-bisphenol-derived side chains in which chirality can be switched in the solid state prior to use. Both the macromolecular helicity of the polymer backbone and the axial chirality of the side chains can be switched in the solid state by interaction with a chiral alcohol, but importantly are maintained after removal of the chiral alcohol because of a memory effect. The chiral stationary phase thus prepared was used to separate the enantiomers of trans-stilbene oxide with the enantiomer elution order determined by the preseparation treatment.

  18. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s−1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:24215772

  19. Endo-Fullerenes and Doped Diamond Nanocrystallite Based Solid-State Qubits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Seongjun; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, K.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the use of endo-fullerenes and doped diamond nanocrystallites in the development of a solid state quantum computer. Arrays of qubits, which have 1/2 nuclear spin, are more easily fabricated than arrays of similar bare atoms. H-1 can be encapsulated in a C20D20 fullerene, while P-31 can be encapsulated in a diamond nanocrystallite.

  20. Improved performance of InSe-based photoelectrochemical cells by means of a selective (photo)electrochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenne, R.; Theys, B.; Rioux, J.; Levy-Clement, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the performance of photoelectrochemical cells based on the lamellar material InSe can be considerably improved by means of a selective (photo)electrochemical etching. Whereas the cleavage Van de Waals plane (⊥ to c axis) shows little improvement, the photcurrent in the ∥ face (parallel to the c axis) is doubled (30 mA cm-2 under AM1 illumination). For n-type InSe a reverse bias (+1.5 V versus standard calomel electrode SCE) was employed during the photoetching, p-InSe electrodes were electrochemically etched by applying a forward bias (+1.5 V). In both cases, surface holes carry out the selective corrosion of the semiconductor surface which is another manifestation for the asymmetry played by holes and electrons on semiconductor surfaces. It is hoped that this finding will pave the way for the construction of high-efficiency solar cells based on a thin film made of lamellar materials.

  1. Mode-locking of solid-state lasers by single-walled carbon-nanotube based saturable absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Rotermund, F; Cho, W B; Choi, S Y; Baek, I H; Yim, J H; Lee, S; Schmidt, A; Steinmeyer, G; Griebner, U; Yeom, D I; Kim, K; Petrov, V

    2012-08-31

    Universal use of single-walled carbon-nanotube based saturable absorber devices for mode-locking of bulk solid-state lasers between 0.8 and 2 {mu}m is discussed. The advantages in comparison to semiconductor saturable absorbers are emphasised. We briefly describe the manufacturing process and the essential optical properties, and review experimental results obtained with various types of femtosecond and picosecond solid-state lasers in the steady-state regime. We also demonstrate that a single hybrid saturable absorber used in transmission can be used to mode-lock four different types of lasers operating between 1 and 2 {mu}m. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. Spectroscopic studies of solid-state forms of donepezil free base and salt forms with various salicylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Harry G.

    2014-12-01

    The polymorphic forms of donepezil free base have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. None of the free base crystal forms was observed to exhibit detectable fluorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions. Crystalline salt products were obtained by the reaction of donepezil with salicylic and methyl-substituted salicylic acids, with the salicylate and 4-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as non-solvated products, and the 3-methylsalicylate and 5-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as methanol solvated products. The intensity of solid-state fluorescence from donepezil salicylate and donepezil 4-methylsalicylate was found to be reduced relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids, while the solid-state fluorescence intensity of donepezil 3-methylsalicylate methanolate and donepezil 5-methylsalicylate methanolate was greatly increased relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids. Desolvation of the solvated salt products led to formation of glassy solids that exhibited strong green fluorescence.

  3. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  4. Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors based on Liquid-Exfoliated Black-Phosphorus Nanoflakes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chunxue; Yang, Bingchao; Wen, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Wang, Wenhong; Zeng, Zhongming; Xu, Bo; Zhao, Zhisheng; Liu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yongjun

    2016-04-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors are fabricated with liquid-exfoliated black-phosphorus (BP) nanoflakes as an electrode material. These devices deliver high specific volumetric capacitance, power density, and energy density, up to 13.75 F cm(-3) , 8.83 W cm(-3) , and 2.47 mW h cm(-3) , respectively, and an outstanding long life span of over 30 000 cycles, demonstrating the excellent performance of the BP nanoflakes as a flexible electrode material in electrochemical energy-storage devices. PMID:26915349

  5. All solid state lithium batteries based on lamellar garnet-type ceramic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fuming; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Ziwei; Guo, Xiangxin

    2015-12-01

    All solid-state lithium batteries are constructed by using highly conducting Ta-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZTO) as the solid electrolytes as well as the supports, coated with composite cathodes consisting of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF):LiTFSI, Ketjen Black, and carbon-coated LiFePO4 on one side and attached with Li anode on the other side. At 60 °C, the batteries show the first discharge capacity of 150 mAh g-1 at 0.05 C and 93% capacity retention after 100 cycles. As the current density increases from 0.05 C to 1 C, the specific capacity decreases from 150 mAh g-1 to 100 mAh g-1. Further elevated temperature up to 100 °C leads to further improved performance, i.e. 126 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 99% capacity retention after 100 cycles. This good performance can be attributed to the highly conducting ceramic electrolytes, the optimum electronic and ionic conducting networks in the composite cathodes, and closely contacted cathode/LLZTO interface. These results indicate that the present strategy is promising for development of high-performance solid-state Li-ion batteries operated at medium temperature.

  6. Novel red phosphors based on vanadate garnets for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundiah, Gautam; Shimomura, Y.; Kijima, N.; Cheetham, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    A series of vanadate garnets with the composition Bi xLn yEu 1-x-yNa 2Mg 2V 3O 12 (where Ln = Y, La, Gd; x = 0-0.4 and y = 0-0.2) were synthesized and their applications as red phosphors for solid state lighting were investigated. The phosphors show a broad charge transfer excitation that can be suitable tuned by the addition of Bi 3+ to capture the UV radiation from InGaN LEDs. We have synthesized a range of compositions and performed structural and optical studies on the samples. In addition, the performance of the phosphors at higher temperatures has been evaluated and compared to a commercial standard.

  7. High-resolution vector microwave magnetometry based on solid-state spins in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Zhenheng; Huang, Pu; Rong, Xing; Wang, Mengqi; Xu, Xiangkun; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the microwave field is crucial for many developments in microwave technology and related applications. However, measuring microwave fields with high sensitivity and spatial resolution under ambient conditions remains elusive. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to measure both the strength and orientation of the microwave magnetic field by utilizing the quantum coherent dynamics of nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. An angular resolution of 5.7 mrad and a sensitivity of 1.0 μT Hz−1/2 are achieved at a microwave frequency of 2.6000 GHz, and the microwave magnetic field vectors generated by a copper wire are precisely reconstructed. The solid-state microwave magnetometry with high resolution and wide frequency range that can work under ambient conditions proposed here enables unique potential applications over other state-of-art microwave magnetometry. PMID:25799155

  8. Non-invasive medical diagnostics by nanoparticle-based solid-state gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricoli, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Chemical sensors made of tailored nanoparticles offer excellent miniaturization capability and are able to rapidly and continuously detect trace amounts of important analytes down to trace concentrations. Application of these sensing materials to non-invasive medical diagnostics by breath analysis has the potential to drastically reduce diagnostics costs while offering better service quality to the patients and enabling very early-stage detection of severe illnesses such as lung cancer. Here, we present a flexible approach to synthesize advanced solid-state gas sensor materials that have demonstrated reliable detection of important breath markers. In particular, the feasibility of capturing highly performing, meta-stable sensing nanoparticles by flame-synthesis of multi component metal-oxides is critically discussed.

  9. Life signal detection using an on-chip split-ring based solid state microwave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. J.; Kaur, S.; Fu, L.; Yao, B. M.; Li, X.; Gong, H. M.; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.

    2014-09-01

    A technique for measuring the amplitude and frequency of breathing and heartbeat has been developed using an on-chip solid state sensor integrating a semiconductor microwave sensor and a split ring operating at a resonance frequency of 4.2 GHz. This technique allows the lock-in amplifier to make real-time measurements, analogous to measurements taken by a vector network analyser through an antenna, but with the advantage of being portable and having a user friendly DC output. The effectiveness of this approach is shown by performing several experiments to determine the breathing and heartbeat frequency with and without the presence of an obstacle between the test subject and the microwave sensor and transducer. The experimental results demonstrate the high sensitivity and large dynamic range over which the proposed system can be used for practical applications.

  10. Detection of a single enzyme molecule based on a solid-state nanopore sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, ShengWei; Gu, DeJian; Liu, Hang; Liu, QuanJun

    2016-04-01

    The nanopore sensor as a high-throughput and low-cost technology can detect a single molecule in a solution. In the present study, relatively large silicon nitride (Si3N4) nanopores with diameters of ∼28 and ∼88 nm were fabricated successfully using a focused Ga ion beam. We have used solid-state nanopores with various sizes to detect the single horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecule and for the first time analyzed single HRP molecular translocation events. In addition, a real-time monitored single enzyme molecular biochemical reaction and a translocation of the product of enzyme catalysis substrates were investigated by using a Si3N4 nanopore. Our nanopore system showed a high sensitivity in detecting single enzyme molecules and a real-time monitored single enzyme molecular biochemical reaction. This method could also be significant for studying gene expression or enzyme dynamics at the single-molecule level.

  11. Introduction to the Solid State Based Interior Lighting System for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Solid state lighting assembly (SSLA) were designed to replace general luminaire assembly (GLA) for both general interior illumination and improved circadian rhythm through melatonin control using multiple spectrums. To accomplish these goals, the light is design to operate in 3 modes with 3 distinct spectrum. The different spectrum provide control of the blue portion of the light which impacts melatonin production in humans which impacts sleep. General mode is a 4500K "neutral" light spectrum intended to the be the default mode of operation for day to day operations. Pre-sleep mode is a 2700K "warm" light spectrum intended to be used by the crew at the end of the work day. Phase-shift mode is a 6500K "cool" light spectrum intended to be used for altering the crew's sleep patterns.

  12. Visible light induced photoelectrochemical biosensing based on oxygen-sensitive quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Bao, Lei; Lei, Jianping; Tu, Wenwen; Ju, Huangxian

    2012-09-26

    A visible light induced photoelectrochemical biosensing platform based on oxygen-sensitive near-infrared quantum dots (NIR QDs) was developed for detection of glucose. The NIR QDs were synthesized in an aqueous solution, and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared NIR QDs were employed to construct oxygen-sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode. The oxygen dependency of the photocurrent was investigated at as-prepared electrode, which demonstrated the signal of photocurrent is suppressed with the decreasing of oxygen. Coupling with the consumption of oxygen during enzymatic reaction, a photoelectrochemical strategy was proposed for the detection of substrate. Using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme, that is, GOx was covalently attached to the surface of CdTe QDs, the resulting biosensor showed the sensitive response to glucose. Under the irradiation of visible light of a wavelength at 505 nm, the proposed photoelectrochemical method could detect glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 11 mM with a detection limit of 0.04 mM. The photoelectrochemical biosensor showed a good performance with high upper detection limit, acceptable stability and accuracy, providing an alternative method for monitoring biomolecules and extending the application of near-infrared QDs. PMID:22935371

  13. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Fluorescence lifetime imaging using a compact, low-cost, diode-based all-solid-state regenerative amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, E.; Elson, D. S.; Koeberg, M.; Dunsby, C.; Bradley, D. D. C.; French, P. M. W.

    2004-05-01

    A fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) system is described that utilizes a new compact and low-cost ultrafast laser source based on a gain-switched laser diode-seeded all-solid-state Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier that has been designed for this application. The pulse parameters of this source (0.5 μJ, 827 nm, 100 ps, 5 kHz) are shown to be appropriate to time-domain FLIM using a gated optical intensifier and the application to functional imaging of biological tissue is demonstrated, as well as the first evaluation of organic light emitting diodes using FLIM.

  15. High performance solid state flexible supercapacitor based on molybdenum sulfide hierarchical nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Guo, Donglin; Chen, Lin; Wang, Xue; Hu, Chenguo; Xi, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) hierarchical nanospheres are synthesized using a hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared MoS2 is used to fabricate solid state flexible supercapacitors which show excellent electrochemical performance such as high capacitance 368 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and high power density of 128 W kg-1 at energy density of 5.42 Wh kg-1. The fabricated supercapacitor presents good characteristics such as lightweight, low cast, portability, high flexibility, and long term cycling stability by retaining 96.5% after 5000 cycles at constant discharge current of 0.8 mA. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results reveal low resistance and suggest that MoS2 nanospheres would be a promising candidate for supercapacitors. Three charged supercapacitors connected in series can light 8 red color commercial light emitting diodes (LEDs) for 2 min, demonstrating its capability as a good storage device.

  16. Characterization of a Tissue-Equivalent Dosimeter based on CMOS Solid-State Photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Erik; Benton, Eric; Stapels, Christopher; Chrsitian, James; Jie Chen, Xiao

    Available digital dosimeters are bulky and unable to provide real-time monitoring of dose from space radiation. The complexity of space-flight design requires reliable, fault-tolerant equip-ment capable of providing real-time dosimetry during a mission, which is not feasible with the existing thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) technology, especially during extravehicular activity (EVA). Real-time monitoring is important for low-Earth orbiting spacecraft and inter-planetary space flight to alert the crew when Solar Particle Events (SPE) increase the particle flux of the spacecraft environment. A dosimeter-on-a-chip for personal dosimetry is comprised of a tissue-equivalent scintillator coupled to a solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) built using CMOS technology. The radiation sensitive component of the dosimeter is coupled to analog signal processing components and a microprocessor, which can maintain processing fidelity up to 5x105 events per second. The dynamic range of the dosimeter has been verified from 1-GeV protons (0.22 keV/µm in H20) to 420 MeV/n Fe (201.1 keV/µm in H20). The dosimeter confirmed doses to within 3

  17. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D.

    1996-10-01

    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  18. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Khaselev, O.; Bansal, A.; Kocha, S.; Turner, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    With an eye towards developing a photoelectrochemical system for hydrogen production using sunlight as the only energy input, two types of systems were studied, both involving multijunction devices. One set of cells consisted of a-Si triple junctions and the other a GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs tandem cell combination. Additional investigations were carried out on semiconductor surface modifications to move semiconductor band edges to more favorable energetic positions.

  19. High Performance All-Solid-State Flexible Micro-Pseudocapacitor Based on Hierarchically Nanostructured Tungsten Trioxide Composite.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuezhen; Liu, Hewei; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-12-23

    Microsupercapacitors (MSCs) are promising energy storage devices to power miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. With the increasing attention on all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors, new strategies for high-performance flexible MSCs are highly desired. Here, we demonstrate all-solid-state, flexible micropseudocapacitors via direct laser patterning on crack-free, flexible WO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites containing high levels of porous hierarchically structured WO3 nanomaterials (up to 50 wt %) and limited binder (PVDF, <25 wt %). The work leads to an areal capacitance of 62.4 mF·cm(-2) and a volumetric capacitance of 10.4 F·cm(-3), exceeding that of graphene based flexible MSCs by a factor of 26 and 3, respectively. As a noncarbon based flexible MSC, hierarchically nanostructured WO3 in the narrow finger electrode is essential to such enhancement in energy density due to its pseudocapacitive property. The effects of WO3/PVDF/MWCNTs composite composition and the dimensions of interdigital structure on the performance of the flexible MSCs are investigated. PMID:26618406

  20. Stable, High-Efficiency Pyrrolidinium-Based Electrolyte for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Tong; Wang, Ye Feng; Zeng, Jing Hui

    2015-09-30

    We synthesized a series of pyrrolidinium based dicationic ionic crystals with high melting point and good thermal stability. Research on the crystal structure shows that there are ordered three-dimensional ionic channels in these crystals which is favorable for the ionic conductor to achieve high conductivity and diffusion coefficient. These ionic crystals are applied to electrolyte as matrix in dye sensitized solar cells, and the influence of crystal structure (including the alkylene chain separating two pyrrolidinium rings and anion) versus the device performances are studied by steady-state voltammography, current-voltage trace, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As the solid state electrolyte, an optimized efficiency of 6.02% have achieved under full sunlight irradiation using ionic crystal [C6BEP][TFSI]2. And the device based on this solid electrolyte shows the excellent long-term stability, maintaining 92% of the initial efficiency after 960 h. This study elucidates fundamental the structure of dicationic crystal and provide useful clues for further improvement of solid-state electrolytes in DSSC. PMID:26336080

  1. Proton-detected scalar coupling based assignment strategies in MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy applied to perdeuterated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linser, Rasmus; Fink, Uwe; Reif, Bernd

    2008-07-01

    Assignment of proteins in MAS (magic angle spinning) solid-state NMR relies so far on correlations among heteronuclei. This strategy is based on well dispersed resonances in the 15N dimension. In many complex cases like membrane proteins or amyloid fibrils, an additional frequency dimension is desirable in order to spread the amide resonances. We show here that proton detected HNCO, HNCA, and HNCACB type experiments can successfully be implemented in the solid-state. Coherences are sufficiently long lived to allow pulse schemes of a duration greater than 70 ms before incrementation of the first indirect dimension. The achieved resolution is comparable to the resolution obtained in solution-state NMR experiments. We demonstrate the experiments using a triply labeled sample of the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin, which was re-crystallized in H 2O/D 2O using a ratio of 1/9. We employ paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) using EDTA chelated Cu II to enable rapid data acquisition.

  2. All-solid-state high performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on novel MnS nanocrystal and activated carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng; Tang, Yongfu; Qiao, Yuqing; Liu, Zhangyu; Guo, Wenfeng; Song, Jianzheng; Mu, Shichun; Yu, Shengxue; Zhao, Yufeng; Gao, Faming

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated using γ-MnS as positive electrode and porous eggplant derived activated carbon (EDAC) as negative electrode with saturated potassium hydroxide agar gel as the solid electrolyte. The laminar wurtzite nanostructure of γ-MnS facilitates the insertion of hydroxyl ions into the interlayer space, and the manganese sulfide nanowire offers electronic transportation channels. The size-uniform porous nanostructure of EDAC provides a continuous electron pathway as well as facilitates short ionic transportation pathways. Due to these special nanostructures of both the MnS and the EDAC, they exhibited a specific capacitance of 573.9 and 396 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1), respectively. The optimized MnS//EDAC asymmetric supercapacitor shows a superior performance with specific capacitance of 110.4 F g(-1) and 89.87% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, a high energy density of 37.6 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 181.2 W kg(-1) and remains 24.9 Wh kg(-1) even at 5976 W kg(-1). Impressively, such two assembled all-solid-state cells in series can light up a red LED indicator for 15 minutes after fully charged. These impressive results make these pollution-free materials promising for practical applications in solid aqueous electrolyte-based ASCs. PMID:27021241

  3. All-solid-state high performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on novel MnS nanocrystal and activated carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Teng; Tang, Yongfu; Qiao, Yuqing; Liu, Zhangyu; Guo, Wenfeng; Song, Jianzheng; Mu, Shichun; Yu, Shengxue; Zhao, Yufeng; Gao, Faming

    2016-03-01

    All-solid-state high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated using γ-MnS as positive electrode and porous eggplant derived activated carbon (EDAC) as negative electrode with saturated potassium hydroxide agar gel as the solid electrolyte. The laminar wurtzite nanostructure of γ-MnS facilitates the insertion of hydroxyl ions into the interlayer space, and the manganese sulfide nanowire offers electronic transportation channels. The size-uniform porous nanostructure of EDAC provides a continuous electron pathway as well as facilitates short ionic transportation pathways. Due to these special nanostructures of both the MnS and the EDAC, they exhibited a specific capacitance of 573.9 and 396 F g‑1 at 0.5 A g‑1, respectively. The optimized MnS//EDAC asymmetric supercapacitor shows a superior performance with specific capacitance of 110.4 F g‑1 and 89.87% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, a high energy density of 37.6 Wh kg‑1 at a power density of 181.2 W kg‑1 and remains 24.9 Wh kg‑1 even at 5976 W kg‑1. Impressively, such two assembled all-solid-state cells in series can light up a red LED indicator for 15 minutes after fully charged. These impressive results make these pollution-free materials promising for practical applications in solid aqueous electrolyte-based ASCs.

  4. All-solid-state high performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on novel MnS nanocrystal and activated carbon materials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Teng; Tang, Yongfu; Qiao, Yuqing; Liu, Zhangyu; Guo, Wenfeng; Song, Jianzheng; Mu, Shichun; Yu, Shengxue; Zhao, Yufeng; Gao, Faming

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated using γ-MnS as positive electrode and porous eggplant derived activated carbon (EDAC) as negative electrode with saturated potassium hydroxide agar gel as the solid electrolyte. The laminar wurtzite nanostructure of γ-MnS facilitates the insertion of hydroxyl ions into the interlayer space, and the manganese sulfide nanowire offers electronic transportation channels. The size-uniform porous nanostructure of EDAC provides a continuous electron pathway as well as facilitates short ionic transportation pathways. Due to these special nanostructures of both the MnS and the EDAC, they exhibited a specific capacitance of 573.9 and 396 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1, respectively. The optimized MnS//EDAC asymmetric supercapacitor shows a superior performance with specific capacitance of 110.4 F g−1 and 89.87% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, a high energy density of 37.6 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 181.2 W kg−1 and remains 24.9 Wh kg−1 even at 5976 W kg−1. Impressively, such two assembled all-solid-state cells in series can light up a red LED indicator for 15 minutes after fully charged. These impressive results make these pollution-free materials promising for practical applications in solid aqueous electrolyte-based ASCs. PMID:27021241

  5. A 70 kV solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2014-02-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in many fields. In recent years, solid-state and operating at repetitive mode are the most important developing trends of high voltage pulse generators. A solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. The proposed generator is consisted of three parts. They are charging system, triggering system, and the major loop. Saturable pulse transformer is the key component of the whole generator, which acts as a step-up transformer and main switch during working process of this generator. The circuit and working principles of the proposed pulse generator are introduced first in this paper, and the saturable pulse transformer used in this generator is introduced in detail. Circuit of the major loop is simulated to verify the design of the system. Demonstration experiments are carried out, and the results show that when the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to a high voltage, such as 2.5 kV, a voltage with amplitude of 86 kV can be achieved on the secondary winding. The magnetic core of saturable pulse transformer is saturated deeply and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings is very small. The switch function of the saturable pulse transformer can be realized ideally. Therefore, a 71 kV output voltage pulse is formed on the load. Moreover, the magnetic core of the saturable pulse transformer can be reset automatically. PMID:24593384

  6. Highly efficient and photostable solid-state dye lasers based on modified copolymers doped with PM567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yugang; Fan, Rongwei; Xia, Yuanqin; Chen, Deying

    2011-04-01

    Solid-state dye samples based on modified copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with methanol doped with PM567 were first prepared. The volume proportions of methanol have great effects on the laser's characteristics including spectra, lasing output and thermal properties. The highest slope efficiency of 64.25% was achieved in the sample MP (MMA:HEMA = 85:15 + 10% methanol). Pumping the samples at a repetition rate of 5 Hz with a pulse energy as high as 100 mJ (the fluence was 0.26 J/cm2), the maximum lifetime of 278,000 shots was obtained in the sample MP (MMA:HEMA = 85:15 + 15% methanol), and the corresponding normalized photostability reached 180.7 GJ/mol. The obtained ten-shots damage thresholds were as high as 6.7 J/cm2. The results indicate that the laser properties of solid-state dyes can be greatly enhanced by using modified copolymers of MMA and HEMA with methanol as solid hosts.

  7. Development of a high current high temperature SiC MOSFET based solid-state power controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuanbo

    Solid-State Power Controllers (SSPCs) are critical components in the development of electric aircraft and must be small in size, fast in response, and have high reliability. They are also proposed for use in microgrids to improve the power quality and system reliability. The development of Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor switches provides a series of improvements for the SSPCs in both electrical and thermal performances. In the proposed SSPC design investigation, SiC MOSFETs die are mounted on cast-aluminum traces, under which are an aluminum nitride (AlN) layer and an aluminum composite base plate. The concept of i2t and its application in solid state protection is discussed in detail. Transient thermal characterizations of SiC MOSFETs are provided for a nearly-all-aluminum package by Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The SSPC is targeted for 120A nominal, 1200A fault current, 270V DC system, and working at 105°C environment with a maximum 350°C transient junction temperature capability.

  8. Solid-state voltammetry-based electrochemical immunosensor for Escherichia coli using graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticle composites as labels.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaochun; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jing; Shao, Kang; Fu, Tao; Shao, Feng; Lu, Donglian; Liang, Jiangong; Foda, M Frahat; Han, Heyou

    2013-06-21

    A new electrochemical immunosensor based on solid-state voltammetry was fabricated for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by using graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticle composites (P-GO-Ag) as labels. To construct the platform, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were first self-assembled on an Au electrode surface through cysteamine and served as an effective matrix for antibody (Ab) attachment. Under a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the analyte and the probe (P-GO-Ag-Ab) were successively captured onto the immunosensor. Finally, the bonded AgNPs were detected through a solid-state redox process in 0.2 M of KCl solution. Combining the advantages of the high-loading capability of graphene oxide with promoted electron-transfer rate of AuNPs, this immunosensor produced a 26.92-fold signal enhancement compared with the unamplified protocol. Under the optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited a wide linear dependence on the logarithm of the concentration of E. coli ranging from 50 to 1.0 × 10(6) cfu mL(-1) with a detection limit of 10 cfu mL(-1). Moreover, as a practical application, the proposed immunosensor was used to monitor E. coli in lake water with satisfactory results. PMID:23662298

  9. Fluorescent gold nanoclusters based photoelectrochemical sensors for detection of H2O2 and glucose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianxiu; Tu, Liping; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Guohua; Wang, Yangyun; Wang, Yong; Yue, Zhao

    2015-05-15

    In this work, low-toxicity fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) based photoelectrochemical sensors were developed for H2O2 and glucose detection. Herein, the processes used to fabricate the sensors and the photoelectrochemical performances of the sensors under different conditions were presented. Based on the energy band levels of the AuNCs and electron tunneling processes, a detailed photoelectrochemical sensing model was given. The designed sensors were then used for H2O2 and glucose detection without any extra modification of the AuNCs or complex enzyme immobilization. The results demonstrate that the AuNCs allow for H2O2 sensing based on their capacity for both fluorescence and catalysis. Indeed, it was observed that H2O2 was catalyzed by the AuNCs and reduced by photoinduced electrons derived from excited AuNCs. Furthermore, an enhancement in photocurrent amplitude followed the increase in the concentrations of H2O2 and glucose. The effects of the types of ligands surrounding the AuNCs and the applied potential on the output photocurrent were well studied to optimize the measurement conditions. The sensitivity and LOD of MUA-AuNCs at -500 mV were 4.33 nA/mM and 35 μM, respectively. All experimental results indicated that AuNCs could not only serve as a promising photoelectrical material for building the photoelectrochemical biosensors but as catalysts for H2O2 sensing. PMID:25190086

  10. Efficiency Improvement of Nitride-Based Solid State Light Emitting Materials -- CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kisielowski, Christian; Weber, Eicke

    2010-05-13

    The development of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} N/GaN thin film growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy has opened a new route towards energy efficient solid-state lighting. Blue and green LED's became available that can be used to match the whole color spectrum of visible light with the potential to match the eye response curve. Moreover, the efficiency of such devices largely exceeds that of incandescent light sources (tungsten filaments) and even competes favorably with lighting by fluorescent lamps. It is, however, also seen in Figure 1 that it is essential to improve on the luminous performance of green LED's in order to mimic the eye response curve. This lack of sufficiently efficient green LED's relates to particularities of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N materials system. This ternary alloy system is polar and large strain is generated during a lattice mismatched thin film growth because of the significantly different lattice parameters between GaN and InN and common substrates such as sapphire. Moreover, it is challenging to incorporate indium into GaN at typical growth temperatures because a miscibility gap exists that can be modified by strain effects. As a result a large parameter space needs exploration to optimize the growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and to date it is unclear what the detailed physical processes are that affect device efficiencies. In particular, an inhomogeneous distribution indium in GaN modifies the device performance in an unpredictable manner. As a result technology is pushed forward on a trial and error basis in particular in Asian countries such as Japan and Korea, which dominate the market and it is desirable to strengthen the competitiveness of the US industry. This CRADA was initiated to help Lumileds Lighting/USA boosting the performance of their green LED's. The tasks address the distribution of the indium atoms in the active area of their blue and green LED's and its relation to internal and external quantum efficiencies. Procedures to

  11. Energy-Tunable Sources of Entangled Photons: A Viable Concept for Solid-State-Based Quantum Relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, Rinaldo; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Daruka, Istvan; Ortix, Carmine; Rastelli, Armando

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new method of generating triggered entangled photon pairs with wavelength on demand. The method uses a microstructured semiconductor-piezoelectric device capable of dynamically reshaping the electronic properties of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) via anisotropic strain engineering. Theoretical models based on k .p theory in combination with finite-element calculations show that the energy of the polarization-entangled photons emitted by QDs can be tuned in a range larger than 100 meV without affecting the degree of entanglement of the quantum source. These results pave the way towards the deterministic implementation of QD entanglement resources in all-electrically-controlled solid-state-based quantum relays.

  12. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  13. Solid-state configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts developed for the solar power satellite (SPS) are described. In both concepts, the beam was centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed are results of solid state studies.

  14. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-01

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  15. Tunable solid state lasers based on molecular ions. Final report, 15 Jul 88-30 Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Lempicki, A.; Koepke, C.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this program was to investigate the possibility of developing tunable solid state lasers based on complexes of transition metal ions in their highest valency state or equivalently do configuration. This is a class of materials, often referred to as phosphors with strong absorption bands in the UV, and thus well suited for excimer laser pumping. We have found that, contrary to initial arguments, excited state absorption processes are very strong and overlapping the emission spectrum. Indications are that octahedral complexes, rather than tetrehedral may have a greater chance, especially in inorganic glasses. Additionally photochromic effects in BGO are reported and a study of non-radiative processes in broad band emitters, the later showing the inadequacy of present theoretical approach.

  16. Tunable infrared solid-state laser materials based on Cr/sup 3 +/ in low ligand fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, P.T.; Andrews, L.; Lempick, A.; McCollum, B.

    1982-08-01

    A new class of solid-state tunable lasers based on Cr/sup 3 +/ in low ligand field materials is described. Spectroscopic and calculated laser properties have been obtained for the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ emission in two low field crystals: K/sub 2/Na Sc/sub 1-x/ Cr/sub x/F/sub 6/ and Al/sub 1-x/ Cr/sub x/ (PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. A comparison is made with two d/sup 3/ laser materials (Cr/sup 3 +/:alexandrite and V/sup 2 +/:MgF/sub 2/). The prospect of expanding this class of materials is assessed.

  17. Eco-friendly wood-based solid-state flexible supercapacitors from wood transverse section slice and reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Shaoyi; Fu, Feng; Wang, Siqun; Huang, Jingda; Hu, La

    2015-07-01

    An interesting wood-based all-solid-state supercapacitor is produced using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated on wood transverse section slice (WTSS) as electrode material by means of a low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple method for the first time. The RGO-coated WTSS electrode has a porous 3D honeycomb framework due to the hierarchical cellular structure of the WTSS substrate and can function as an electrolyte reservoir. This special construction endows this novel electrode with good areal capacitance (102 mF cm-2) and excellent cyclic stability (capacitance retention of 98.9% after 5000 cycles). In addition, the supercapacitors exhibit good mechanical flexibility and preserve almost constant capacitive behavior under different bending conditions. Our study introduces a new and eco-friendly material design for electrodes in future flexible energy storage devices that closely resemble natural materials. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Metallic Fabrics as the Current Collector for High-Performance Graphene-Based Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianhui; Wu, Jifeng; Wang, Haozong; Zhou, Anan; Huang, Chaoqiang; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors attract more and more attention as the power supply for wearable electronics. To fabricate such devices, the flexible and economical current collectors are needed. In this paper, we report the stainless steel fabrics as the current collector for high-performance graphene-based supercapacitors. The stainless steel fabrics have superior properties compared with the widely used flexible current collectors. The flexible supercapacitors show large specific capacitance of 180.4 mF/cm(2), and capacitance retention of 96.8% after 7500 charge-discharge cycles. Furthermore, 96.4% of the capacitance is retained after 800 repeating stretching-bending cycles. The high performance is related to the excellent conductivity, good mechanical flexibility, and high electrochemical stability of the stainless steel fabrics. The achievement of such high-performance and flexible supercapacitor can open up exciting opportunities for wearable electronics and energy storage applications. PMID:26830192

  19. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-01-01

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices. PMID:25829547

  20. Toward ambient temperature operation with all-solid-state lithium metal batteries with a sp3 boron-based solid single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Cai, Weiwei; Rohan, Rupesh; Pan, Meize; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xupo; Li, Cuicui; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-01

    The ionic conductivity decay problem of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) when increase the lithium salt of the SPEs up to high concentration is here functionally overcome by the incorporation of a charge delocalized sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with poly(ethylene oxide) to fabricate solid-state sp3 boron based SIPE membranes (S-BSMs). By characterizations, particularly differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and ionic conductivity studies, the fabricated S-BSMs showed decreased melting points and increased ionic conductivity as steadily increase the content of sp3 boron based SIPE, which significantly improved the low temperature performance of the all-solid-state lithium batteries. The fabricated Li | S-BSMs | LiFePO4 cells exhibit highly electrochemical stability and excellent cycling at temperature below melting point of PEO, which has never been reported so far for SIPEs based all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  1. Bacillus coagulans tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in aqueous and solid-state thermophilic culture.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Christopher W; Reddy, Amitha P; Vandergheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) to disrupt the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose and make polysaccharides accessible to hydrolytic enzymes is an emerging technology for biomass pretreatment in lignocellulosic biofuel production. Despite efforts to reclaim and recycle IL from pretreated biomass, residual IL can be inhibitory to microorganisms used for downstream fermentation. As a result, pathways for IL tolerance are needed to improve the activity of fermentative organisms in the presence of IL. In this study, microbial communities from compost were cultured under high-solids and thermophilic conditions in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ILs to enrich for IL-tolerant microorganisms. A strain of Bacillus coagulans isolated from an IL-tolerant community was grown in liquid and solid-state culture in the presence of the ILs 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) to gauge IL tolerance. Viability and respiration varied with the concentration of IL applied and the type of IL used. B. coagulans maintained growth and respiration in the presence of 4 wt% IL, a concentration similar to that present on IL-pretreated biomass. In the presence of both [C2mim][OAc] and [C2mim][Cl] in liquid culture, B. coagulans grew at a rate approximately half that observed in the absence of IL. However, in solid-state culture, the bacteria were significantly more tolerant to [C2mim][Cl] compared with [C2mim][OAc]. B. coagulans tolerance to IL under industrially relevant conditions makes it a promising bacterium for understanding mechanisms of IL tolerance and discovering IL tolerance pathways for use in other microorganisms, particularly those used in bioconversion of IL-pretreated plant biomass. PMID:24376258

  2. Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, A. B. A.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. Consequently, it is important that the current real-time air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), should be adapted or extended to aid in alleviating this problem. Nanotechnology has been applied to several industrial and domestic fields, for example, applications for gas monitoring systems, gas leak detectors in factories, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors, and the like. Here we report an application example of studying air quality monitoring based on nanotechnology `solid state gas sensors'. So as to carry out air pollution monitoring over an extensive area, a combination of ground measurements through inexpensive sensors and wireless GIS will be used for this purpose. This portable device, comprising solid state gas sensors integrated to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) linked through Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System (GPS), will allow rapid dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites simultaneously.

  3. Solid-state lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  4. Thiourea-succinonitrile based polymer matrix for efficient and stable quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Rakhi; Jauhari, Himanshi; Saxena, Kanchan

    2016-05-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are considered to be emerging alternatives to the low cost indoor photovoltaic technologies. However, to make the application of these cells economically feasible, the stability of the cells need to be enhanced. This can be achieved by employing solid or quasi solid state electrolytes to reduce the leakage and sealing problems in DSSCs. In the present work, a gel state electrolyte composition was successfully prepared using thiourea and solid state ionic conductor succinonitrile along with other components. The composition has been used for the fabrication of quasi solid state DSSCs using Eosin B as the sensitizer material. The cells fabricated exhibited consistent photovoltaic properties even after 24 hours of storage under ambient conditions without sealing. The present work therefore, demonstrates a rapid and simple preparation of electrolyte medium for quasi solid state DSSCs.

  5. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  6. A novel solid-state thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, manipulating heat transport by phononic devices has received significant attention, in which phonon--a heat pulse through lattice, is used to carry energy. In addition to heat control, the thermal devices might also have broad applications in the renewable energy engineering, such as thermoelectric energy harvesting. Elementary phononic devices such as diode, transistor and logic devices have been theoretically proposed. In this work, we experimentally create a macroscopic scale thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide. Obvious thermal rectification ratio up to 1.21 under 12 K temperature bias has been observed. Moreover, this ratio can be enhanced further by increasing the asymmetric ratio. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic phononic device with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in thermal circuits and thermal management. PMID:22826801

  7. Instrumentation for optical measurement of dissolved oxygen based on solid state technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Wolfgang R.; Klimant, Ingo; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1993-05-01

    A number of measurement schemes for the determination of dissolved or gaseous oxygen have been reported, most of them based on fluorescence quenching methods. They have the disadvantage of requiring large and heavy instrumentation and, therefore, are not suitable for micro-integrated technologies. As a result, the applicability is greatly limited. We introduce a system based on semiconductor devices (LEDs, photodiodes, low cost analogue and digital components) which is well suited for hybrid solutions, and represents a realistic alternative to existing micro integrated electrochemical probes. New LED-compatible sensor membranes were developed and characterized. The influence of straylight on the overall transfer function of the sensor system was investigated and possibilities for reduction or even elimination of this influence are presented. The overall performance of the instrument in terms of sensitivity, detection limits, long-term stability, and reproducibility is presented. The system was applied to the measurement of dissolved oxygen in drinking water and sea water.

  8. Asynchronous symmetry-based sequences for homonuclear dipolar recoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Ernst, Matthias E-mail: maer@ethz.ch; Rajeswari, M.; Madhu, P. K. E-mail: maer@ethz.ch

    2015-02-14

    We show a theoretical framework, based on triple-mode Floquet theory, to analyze recoupling sequences derived from symmetry-based pulse sequences, which have a non-vanishing effective field and are not rotor synchronized. We analyze the properties of one such sequence, a homonuclear double-quantum recoupling sequence derived from the C7{sub 2}{sup 1} sequence. The new asynchronous sequence outperforms the rotor-synchronized version for spin pairs with small dipolar couplings in the presence of large chemical-shift anisotropy. The resonance condition of the new sequence is analyzed using triple-mode Floquet theory. Analytical calculations of second-order effective Hamiltonian are performed to compare the efficiency in suppressing second-order cross terms. Experiments and numerical simulations are shown to corroborate the results of the theoretical analysis.

  9. Spin-Photon Entanglement in Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Towards Solid-State-Based Quantum Repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Greve, Kristiaan; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    `In this chapter, we introduced and analyze techniques that allow truly secure secret key sharing over long distances, using public, open channels, where the laws of quantum mechanics ensure the security of the long distance key sharing - an idea generally referred to as the essence of a quantum repeater. We describe several proof-of-principle experiments where technology based on self-assembled quantum dots is used as the backbone of a future quantum repeater.'

  10. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  11. Optical characterization and crystal field calculations for some erbium based solid state materials for laser refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Z.; Qiu, Z.; Johnson, Jackie; Homerick, Uwe

    2009-02-01

    The potential of three erbium based solids hosts has been investigated for laser cooling. Absorption and emission spectra have been studied for the low lying IR transitions of erbium that are relevant to recent reports of cooling using the 4I15/2-4I9/2 and4I15/2 -4I13/2 transitions. Experimental studies have been performed for erbium in three hosts; ZBLAN glass and KPb2Cl5 and Cs2NaYCl6 crystals. In order to estimate the efficiencies of cooling, theoretical calculations have been performed for the cubic Elpasolite (Cs2NaYCl6 ) crystal. These calculations also provide a first principle insight into the cooling efficiency for non-cubic and glassy hosts where such calculations are not possible.

  12. All solid state mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy platform based on QCL technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugi, Andreas; Geiser, Markus; Villares, Gustavo; Cappelli, Francesco; Blaser, Stephane; Faist, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    We develop a spectroscopy platform for industrial applications based on semiconductor quantum cascade laser (QCL) frequency combs. The platform's key features will be an unmatched combination of bandwidth of 100 cm-1, resolution of 100 kHz, speed of ten to hundreds of μs as well as size and robustness, opening doors to beforehand unreachable markets. The sensor can be built extremely compact and robust since the laser source is an all-electrically pumped semiconductor optical frequency comb and no mechanical elements are required. However, the parallel acquisition of dual-comb spectrometers comes at the price of enormous data-rates. For system scalability, robustness and optical simplicity we use free-running QCL combs. Therefore no complicated optical locking mechanisms are required. To reach high signal-to-noise ratios, we develop an algorithm, which is based on combination of coherent and non-coherent averaging. This algorithm is specifically optimized for free-running and small footprint, therefore high-repetition rate, comb sources. As a consequence, our system generates data-rates of up to 3.2 GB/sec. These data-rates need to be reduced by several orders of magnitude in real-time in order to be useful for spectral fitting algorithms. We present the development of a data-treatment solution, which reaches a single-channel throughput of 22% using a standard laptop-computer. Using a state-of-the art desktop computer, the throughput is increased to 43%. This is combined with a data-acquisition board to a stand-alone data processing unit, allowing real-time industrial process observation and continuous averaging to achieve highest signal fidelity.

  13. Aluminum based sulfide solid lithium ionic conductors for all solid state batteries.

    PubMed

    Amaresh, S; Karthikeyan, K; Kim, K J; Lee, Y G; Lee, Y S

    2014-06-21

    The present work focuses on the synthesis of lithium ionic conductors based on a Li2S-Al2S3-GeS-P2S5 system due to the high ionic conductivity exhibited by the constituents of this system. Mechanical milling for a short duration and a single step heat treatment at a moderate temperature of 550 °C resulted in crystalline powders with high lithium ionic conductivity at room temperature that are comparable to the organic liquid electrolytes. The effect of various aluminum to germanium ratios was studied. Among the samples containing Al : Ge, the ratio of 30 : 70 was found to show high ionic conductivities of 1.7 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 25 °C and ∼ 6 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 100 °C equivalent. The activation energy of this material was significantly less (Ea = 17 kJ mol(-1)), which can be considered to be the best value among solid electrolytes. The electrochemical stability was analyzed using cyclic voltammetry between -0.3 and 5.0 V and it was found that the voltammetric profile was smooth without any additional current response, due to electrolyte decomposition, or any other side reaction, except a pair of lithium deposition and stripping peaks. PMID:24816684

  14. Model-based predictions of solid state intermetallic compound layer growth in hybrid microelectronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.; Erickson, K.L.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model was developed to quantitatively describe the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer growth that takes place between a Sn-based solder and a noble metal thick film conductor material used in hybrid microcircuit (HMC) assemblies. The model combined the reaction kinetics of the solder/substrate interaction, as determined from ancillary isothermal aging experiments, with a 2-D finite element mesh that took account of the porous morphology of the thick film coating. The effect of the porous morphology on the IMC layer growth when compared to the traditional 1-D computations was significant. The previous 1-D calculations under-predicted the nominal IMC layer thickness relative to the 2-D case. The 2-D model showed greater substrate consumption by IMC growth and lesser solder consumption that was determined with the 1-D computation. The new 2-D model allows the design engineer to better predict circuit aging and hence, the reliability of HMC hardware that is placed in the field.

  15. Next Generation Print-based Manufacturing for Photovoltaics and Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Sue A. Carter

    2012-09-07

    For the grand challenge of reducing our energy and carbon footprint, the development of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies offer a potential solution. Energy technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil as well as the energy consumed by the petroleum industry, the leading consumer of energy by a U.S. industry sector. Nonetheless, the manufacturing processes utilized to manufacture equipment for alternative energy technologies often involve energy-intensive processes. This undermines some of the advantages to moving to 'green' technologies in the first place. Our answer to the Industrial Technology Program's (ITP) Grand Challenge FOA was to develop a transformational low cost manufacturing process for plastic-based photovoltaics that will lower by over 50% both energy consumption and greenhouse emissions and offer a return-of-investment of over 20%. We demonstrated a Luminescent Solar Concentrator fabricated on a plastic acrylic substrate (i.e. no glass) that increases the power output of the PV cell by 2.2x with a 2% power efficiency as well as an LSC with a 7% power efficiency that increased the power output from the PV cells by 35%. S large area 20-inch x 60-inch building-integrated photovoltaic window was fabricated using contract manufacturing with a 4% power efficiency which improved the power output of the PV cell by over 50%. In addition, accelerated lifetimes of the luminescent material demonstrate lifetimes of 20-years.

  16. 3-V Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitors with Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Gel Electrolyte for AC Line Filtering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu Jin; Yoo, Yongju; Kim, Woong

    2016-06-01

    State-of-the-art solid-state flexible supercapacitors with sufficiently fast response speed for AC line filtering application suffer from limited energy density. One of the main causes of the low energy density is the low cell voltage (1 V), which is limited by aqueous-solution-based gel electrolytes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a 3-V flexible supercapacitor for AC line filtering based on an ionic-liquid-based polymer gel electrolyte and carbon nanotube electrode material. The flexible supercapacitor exhibits an areal energy density that is more than 20 times higher than that of the previously demonstrated 1-V flexible supercapacitor (0.66 vs 0.03 μWh/cm(2)) while maintaining excellent capacitive behavior at 120 Hz. The supercapacitor shows a maximum areal power density of 1.5 W/cm(2) and a time constant of 1 ms. The improvement of the cell voltage while maintaining the fast-response capability greatly improves the potential of supercapacitors for high-frequency applications in wearable and/or portable electronics. PMID:27167760

  17. Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Functionalized Tannic Acids from Natural Resources for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jimin; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-12-21

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are prepared by simple one-pot polymerization induced by ultraviolet (UV) light using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) as an ion-conducting monomeric unit and tannic acid (TA)-based crosslinking agent and plasticizer. The crosslinking agent and plasticizer based on natural resources are obtained from the reaction of TA with glycidyl methacrylate and glycidyl poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. Dimensionally stable free-standing SPE having a large ionic conductivity of 5.6×10(-4)  Scm(-1) at room temperature can be obtained by the polymerization of PEGMA into P(PEGMA) with a very small amount (0.1 wt %) of the crosslinking agent and 2.0 wt % of the plasticizer. The ionic conductivity value of SPE with a crosslinked structure is one order of magnitude larger than that of linear P(PEGMA) in the waxy state. PMID:26609912

  18. POSS-Based Electrolyte for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells at Sub-Zero Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    To expand the application of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) to low temperatures, it is necessary to develop new solid electrolytes with low glass transition temperature (Tg). The Tg is regulated by varying the length of alkyl chain that is connected with the nitrogen atom in the imidazolium ring linked to the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The Tg as low as -8.8 °C is achieved with the POSS grafted with methyl-substituted imidazolium. The effect of alkyl group on the conductivity, Tg, and photovoltaic performance has also been investigated. The conductivity and power conversion efficiency increase with the alkyl length, while the Tg first increases and then decreases with the alkyl length. Among the synthesized POSS-based ionic conductors, the POSS grafted with the methyl-substituted imidazolium yields the highest power conversion efficiency of 6.98% at RT due to its highest conductivity, and the efficiency (6.52%) is still good at -4 °C, as its Tg (-8.8 °C) is lower than the working temperature (-4 °C). This finding suggests that the POSS-based solid electrolyte is promising for subzero-temperature applications of ssDSSCs. PMID:26860035

  19. Impact of the atomic layer deposition precursors diffusion on solid-state carbon nanotube based supercapacitors performances.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Vollebregt, Sten; Tichelaar, F D; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Sarro, Pasqualina M

    2015-02-13

    A study on the impact of atomic layer deposition (ALD) precursors diffusion on the performance of solid-state miniaturized nanostructure capacitor array is presented. Three-dimensional nanostructured capacitor array based on double conformal coating of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) bundles is realized using ALD to deposit Al2O3 as dielectric layer and TiN as high aspect-ratio conformal counter-electrode on 2 μm long MWCNT bundles. The devices have a small footprint (from 100 μm(2) to 2500 μm(2)) and are realized using an IC wafer-scale manufacturing process with high reproducibility (≤0.3E-12F deviation). To evaluate the enhancement of the electrode surface, the measured capacitance values are compared to a lumped circuital model. The observed discrepancies are explained with a partial coating of the CNT, that determine a limited use of the available electrode surface area. To analyze the CNT coating effectiveness, the ALD precursors diffusions inside the CNT bundle is studied using a Knudsen diffusion mechanism. PMID:25604841

  20. Solid-State High Performance Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polypyrrole-MnO2-Carbon Fiber Hybrid Structure

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Ma, Wenzhen; Ding, Longwei; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    A solid-state flexible supercapacitor (SC) based on organic-inorganic composite structure was fabricated through an “in situ growth for conductive wrapping” and an electrode material of polypyrrole (PPy)-MnO2 nanoflakes-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid structure was obtained. The conductive organic material of PPy greatly improved the electrochemical performance of the device. With a high specific capacitance of 69.3 F cm−3 at a discharge current density of 0.1 A cm−3 and an energy density of 6.16 × 10−3 Wh cm−3 at a power density of 0.04 W cm−3, the device can drive a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) after being charged. The organic-inorganic composite active materials have enormous potential in energy management and the “in situ growth for conductive wrapping” method might be generalized to open up new strategies for designing next-generation energy storage devices. PMID:23884478

  1. Mechanically delaminated few layered MoS2 nanosheets based high performance wire type solid-state symmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Pazhamalai, Parthiban; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-07-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures are increasingly used as electrode materials in flexible supercapacitors for portable electronic applications. Herein, we demonstrated a ball milling approach for achieving few layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via exfoliation from their bulk. Physico-chemical characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and laser Raman analyses confirmed the occurrence of exfoliated MoS2 sheets with few layers from their bulk via ball milling process. MoS2 based wire type solid state supercapacitors (WSCs) are fabricated and examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge discharge (CD) measurements. The presence of rectangular shaped CV curves and symmetric triangular shaped CD profiles suggested the mechanism of charge storage in MoS2 WSC is due to the formation of electrochemical double layer capacitance. The MoS2 WSC device delivered a specific capacitance of 119 μF cm-1, and energy density of 8.1 nW h cm-1 with better capacitance retention of about 89.36% over 2500 cycles, which ensures the use of the ball milled MoS2 for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of nitroxide-based oligoradicals for low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization in solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Wai-Ming; Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2014-07-01

    We describe the synthesis of new nitroxide-based biradical, triradical, and tetraradical compounds and the evaluation of their performance as paramagnetic dopants in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with magic-angle spinning (MAS). Under our experimental conditions, which include temperatures in the 25-30 K range, a 9.4 T magnetic field, MAS frequencies of 6.2-6.8 kHz, and microwave irradiation at 264.0 GHz from a 800 mW extended interaction oscillator source, the most effective compounds are triradicals that are related to the previously-described compound DOTOPA-TEMPO (see Thurber et al., 2010), but have improved solubility in glycerol/water solvent near neutral pH. Using these compounds at 30 mM total nitroxide concentration, we observe DNP enhancement factors of 92-128 for cross-polarized 13C NMR signals from 15N,13C-labeled melittin in partially protonated glycerol/water, and build-up times of 2.6-3.8 s for 1H spin polarizations. Net sensitivity enhancements with biradical and tetraradical dopants, taking into account absolute 13C NMR signal amplitudes and build-up times, are approximately 2-4 times lower than with the best triradicals.

  3. Probing the nanostructure, interfacial interaction, and dynamics of chitosan-based nanoparticles by multiscale solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenfen; Zhang, Rongchun; Wu, Qiang; Chen, Tiehong; Sun, Pingchuan; Shi, An-Chang

    2014-12-10

    Chitosan-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in drug and gene delivery, therapy, and medical imaging, but a molecular-level understanding of the internal morphology and nanostructure size, interface, and dynamics, which is critical for building fundamental knowledge for the precise design and efficient biological application of the NPs, remains a great challenge. Therefore, the availability of a multiscale (0.1-100 nm) and nondestructive analytical technique for examining such NPs is of great importance for nanotechnology. Herein, we present a new multiscale solid-state NMR approach to achieve this goal for the investigation of chitosan-poly(N-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) NPs. First, a recently developed (13)C multiple cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (MAS) method enabled fast quantitative determination of the NPs' composition and detection of conformational changes in chitosan. Then, using an improved (1)H spin-diffusion method with (13)C detection and theoretical simulations, the internal morphology and nanostructure size were quantitatively determined. The interfacial coordinated interaction between chitosan and phenylboronic acid was revealed by one-dimensional MAS and two-dimensional (2D) triple-quantum MAS (11)B NMR. Finally, dynamic-editing (13)C MAS and 2D (13)C-(1)H wide-line separation experiments provided details regarding the componential dynamics of the NPs in the solid and swollen states. On the basis of these NMR results, a model of the unique nanostructure, interfacial interaction, and componential dynamics of the NPs was proposed. PMID:25372426

  4. Recent developments in solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaic devices based on spiro-MeOTAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Jessica; Plass, Robert; Matthieu, Hans J.; Graetzel, Michael

    2003-02-01

    The photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on spiro-MeOTAD (2,2'7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene) has been improved to 3.2% overall conversion efficiency under air mass AM 1.5 illumination by performing the dye adsorption in the presence of silver ions in the dye solution. Different spectroscopic methods, such as X-ray photoelectron, Fourier-transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy have been employed to scrutinize the impact of the silver on the dye-sensitized device. From spectroscopic evidence it is inferred that the silver binds to the sensitizer mainly via the amphidentate thiocyanate, allowing the formation of ligand-bridged dye complexes. The enhancement in overall device efficiency is a result of increased open circuit potential and short circuit current. The increased open circuit voltage was explained by the blocking of the dark current as a result of a closer packed dye layer and/or the partial formation of a dye double layer upon silver coordination. The increased short circuit current corresponds to the higher amount of ruthenium dye units adsorbed to the TiO2 surface.

  5. A Solid State Pyranometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  6. CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical DNA biosensor via enhanced chemiluminescence excitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Lei, Jianping; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work developed a CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA under the enhanced chemiluminescence excitation of luminol catalyzed by hemin-DNA complex. The CdS/MoS2 photocathode was prepared by the stepwise assembly of MoS2 and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on indium tin oxide (ITO), and achieved about 280% increasing of photocurrent compared to pure CdS QDs electrode due to the formation of heterostructure. High photoconversion efficiency in the photoelectrochemical system was identified to be the rapid spatial charge separation of electron-hole pairs by the extension of electron transport time and electron lifetime. In the presence of target DNA, the catalytic hairpin assembly was triggered, and simultaneously the dual hemin-labeled DNA probe was introduced to capture DNA/CdS/MoS2 modified ITO electrode. Thus the chemiluminescence emission of luminol was enhanced via hemin-induced mimetic catalysis, leading to the physical light-free photoelectrochemical strategy. Under optimized conditions, the resulting photoelectrode was proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 1 fM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 0.39 fM. Moreover, the cascade amplification biosensor demonstrated high selectivity, desirable stability and good reproducibility, showing great prospect in molecular diagnosis and bioanalysis. PMID:26476013

  7. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  8. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm(-3), which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L(-1) and 549 W L(-1), based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices. PMID:27241801

  9. Highly porous magnetite/graphene nanocomposites for a solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor on paper-based chips.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanhong; Lv, Zhaozi; Xia, Yong; Han, Yanchao; Lou, Baohua; Wang, Erkang

    2013-04-01

    Graphene-nanosheet-based highly porous magnetite nanocomposites (GN-HPMNs) have been prepared using a simple solvothermal method and used as an immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor on paper-based chips. Highly porous Fe3O4 nanocrystal clusters were coated with acrylate and wrapped tightly on the skeleton of graphene nanosheets. The structures and sizes of the GN-HPMNs could be tuned by varying the proportions of the solvents ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Then, the relatively highly porous ones with an average diameter of about 65 nm were combined with Nafion to form composite films on an electrode surface for immobilization of Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine). Because of their porosity, negatively charged surface, and cooperative characteristics of magnetic nanomaterials and graphene, under an external magnetic field, the GN-HPMNs ensured effective immobilization, excellent electron transfer, and long-term stability of Ru(bpy)3(2+) in the composite film. The sensor developed exhibited excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 0.65% for 30 continuous cycles. It was found to be much more favorable for detecting compounds containing tertiary amino groups and DNAs with guanine and adenine. A detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 5.0 nM was obtained for tripropylamine. As an application example, 0.5 nM single-nucleotide mismatch could be detected. This was the first attempt to introduce magnetic nanomaterials and an external magnetic field into paper-based chips. The sensor developed has the advantages of high sensitivity, good stability, and wide potential applicability as well as simplicity, low cost, and good disposability. PMID:23132543

  10. Solid-state NMR Reveals the Carbon-based Molecular Architecture of Cryptococcus neoformans Fungal Eumelanins in the Cell Wall*

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Itin, Boris; Casadevall, Arturo; Stark, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Melanin pigments protect against both ionizing radiation and free radicals and have potential soil remediation capabilities. Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. Because of their insoluble and amorphous characteristics, neither the pigment bonding framework nor the cellular interactions underlying melanization of C. neoformans have yielded to comprehensive molecular-scale investigation. This study used the C. neoformans requirement of exogenous obligatory catecholamine precursors for melanization to produce isotopically enriched pigment “ghosts” and applied 2D 13C-13C correlation solid-state NMR to reveal the carbon-based architecture of intact natural eumelanin assemblies in fungal cells. We demonstrated that the aliphatic moieties of solid C. neoformans melanin ghosts include cell-wall components derived from polysaccharides and/or chitin that are associated proximally with lipid membrane constituents. Prior to development of the mature aromatic fungal pigment, these aliphatic moieties form a chemically resistant framework that could serve as the scaffold for melanin synthesis. The indole-based core aromatic moieties show interconnections that are consistent with proposed melanin structures consisting of stacked planar assemblies, which are associated spatially with the aliphatic scaffold. The pyrrole aromatic carbons of the pigments bind covalently to the aliphatic framework via glycoside or glyceride functional groups. These findings establish that the structure of the pigment assembly changes with time and provide the first biophysical information on the mechanism by which melanin is assembled in the fungal cell wall, offering vital insights that can advance the design of bioinspired conductive nanomaterials and novel therapeutics. PMID:25825492

  11. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  12. Solid-State Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  13. Electrochemical, Electrochemiluminescence, and Photoelectrochemical Aptamer-Based Nanostructured Sensors for Biomarker Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ravalli, Andrea; Voccia, Diego; Palchetti, Ilaria; Marrazza, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Aptamer-based sensors have been intensively investigated as potential analytical tools in clinical analysis providing the desired portability, fast response, sensitivity, and specificity, in addition to lower cost and simplicity versus conventional methods. The aim of this review, without pretending to be exhaustive, is to give the readers an overview of recent important achievements about electrochemical, electrochemiluminescence, and photoelectrochemical aptasensors for the protein biomarker determination, mainly cancer related biomarkers, by selected recent publications. Special emphasis is placed on nanostructured-based aptasensors, which show a substantial improvement of the analytical performances. PMID:27490578

  14. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on colloid-imprinted mesoporous carbon and their application in disposable paper-based potentiometric sensing devices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinbo; Ho, Kieu T; Zou, Xu U; Smyrl, William H; Stein, Andreas; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Reference electrodes are used in almost every electroanalytical measurement. Here, all-solid-state reference electrodes are described that employ colloid-imprinted mesoporous (CIM) carbon as solid contact and a poly(vinyl chloride) reference membrane to contact the sample. Such a reference membrane is doped with a moderately hydrophilic ionic liquid and a hydrophobic redox couple, leading to well-defined constant potentials at the interfaces of this membrane to the sample and to the solid contact, respectively. Due to the intrinsic properties of CIM carbon, reference electrodes with a CIM carbon solid contact exhibit excellent resistance to common interfering agents such as light and O2, with outstanding potential stability in continuous potentiometric measurements. The potential drift of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes without redox couple is as low as 1.7 μV/h over 110 h, making them the most stable all-solid-state reference electrodes reported so far. To demonstrate the compatibility of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes with miniaturized potentiometric systems, these reference electrodes were integrated into paper-based potentiometric sensing devices, successfully replacing the conventional reference electrode with its reference electrolyte solution. As a proof of concept, disposable paper-based Cl(-) sensing devices that contain stencil-printed Ag/AgCl-based Cl(-) selective electrodes and CIM carbon-based reference electrodes were constructed. These sensing devices are inexpensive, easy to use, and offer highly reproducible Cl(-) measurements with sample volumes as low as 10 μL. PMID:25630744

  15. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Orion B.; Johnson, Charles A.; Vonnegut, Chris L.; Fajardo, Kevin A.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Johnson, Darren W.; Haley, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)–C(sp2) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2′-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N–H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF4− or HSO4−, where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom. PMID:26405435

  16. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  17. Tunable solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerling, R.; Budgor, A.B.; Pinto, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on solid state lasers. Topics considered at the conference included transition-metal-doped lasers, line-narrowed alexandrite lasers, NASA specification, meteorological lidars, laser materials spectroscopy, laser pumped single pass gain, vibronic laser materials growth, crystal growth methods, vibronic laser theory, cross-fertilization through interdisciplinary fields, and laser action of color centers in diamonds.

  18. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May - 31 July 1996. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, DARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  19. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May-31 July 1995. The topics covered are: Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and analog device technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA and NIST.

  20. Solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhorter, Alan L.

    1995-02-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May through 31 July 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  1. Solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1994-11-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 August through 31 October 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  2. Endo-Fullerene and Doped Diamond Nanocrystallite Based Models of Qubits for Solid-State Quantum Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Seongjun; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Models of encapsulated 1/2 nuclear spin H-1 and P-31 atoms in fullerene and diamond nanocrystallite, respectively, are proposed and examined with ab-initio local density functional method for possible applications as single quantum bits (qubits) in solid-state quantum computers. A H-1 atom encapsulated in a fully deuterated fullerene, C(sub 20)D(sub 20), forms the first model system and ab-initio calculation shows that H-1 atom is stable in atomic state at the center of the fullerene with a barrier of about 1 eV to escape. A P-31 atom positioned at the center of a diamond nanocrystallite is the second model system, and 3 1P atom is found to be stable at the substitutional site relative to interstitial sites by 15 eV, Vacancy formation energy is 6 eV in diamond so that substitutional P-31 atom will be stable against diffusion during the formation mechanisms within the nanocrystallite. The coupling between the nuclear spin and weakly bound (valance) donor electron coupling in both systems is found to be suitable for single qubit applications, where as the spatial distributions of (valance) donor electron wave functions are found to be preferentially spread along certain lattice directions facilitating two or more qubit applications. The feasibility of the fabrication pathways for both model solid-state qubit systems within practical quantum computers is discussed with in the context of our proposed solid-state qubits.

  3. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    PubMed

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator. PMID:20687749

  4. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, L. M.; Silva, J. Fernando; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrão, N.; Mendes, C.; Soares, R.; Schipper, J.; Fowler, A.

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  5. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, L. M.; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrao, N.; Mendes, C.; Silva, J. Fernando; Soares, R.; Schipper, J.; Fowler, A.

    2010-07-15

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  6. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical nano-immunesensing using origami paper based method.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    Patterned paper has characteristics that lead to miniaturized assays that run by capillary action with small volumes of fluids. These methods suggest a path for the development of simple, inexpensive, and portable diagnostic assays that can be useful in remote settings, where simple immunoassays are becoming increasingly important for detecting disease and monitoring health. Incorporation of nanomaterials plays a major role in sensing probe immobilization and detection sensitivity of paper-based devices. Nanomaterial properties, such as increased surface area, have aided with signal amplification and lower detection limits. This review focuses on application of nanomaterials as signal amplification elements on origami paper-based electro-analytical devices for immune biomarkers detection with a brief introduction about various fabrication techniques and designs, biological and detection methods. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the selected latest research articles from 2013 to May 2015 on application of nanomaterials in various types of origami paper based electrochemical and photoelectrochemical immunosensors. The review breaks into two parts. The first part devotes to the development and applications of nanomaterials in electrochemical immunesensing. The second part provides an overview of recent origami paper based photoelectrochemical immunosensors. PMID:26838927

  7. ZnO nanoflower-based photoelectrochemical DNAzyme sensor for the detection of Pb2+.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bintian; Lu, Lili; Hu, Qichang; Huang, Feng; Lin, Zhang

    2014-06-15

    Lead contamination is now widespread, and exposure to lead may cause adverse effects on human beings. In this study, a photoelectrochemical sensor based on flower-like ZnO nanostructures was developed for Pb(2+) detection, using a Pb(2+)-dependent DNAzyme as the recognition unit and a double-strand DNA intercalator, Ru(bpy)2(dppz)(2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine) as the photoelectrochemical signal reporter. The ZnO nanoflower was fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by the convenient hydrothermal decomposition method. The morphology and photoelectrochemical property of the ZnO nanoflowers were characterized by SEM, XRD and photocurrent measurements. DNAzyme-substrate duplex was assembled on an ITO/ZnO electrode through electrostatic adsorption. In the presence of Pb(2+), RNA-cleavage activity of the DNAzyme was activated and its substrate strand was cleaved, resulting in the release of Ru(bpy)2(dppz)(2+) from the DNA film and the concomitant photocurrent decrease. The detection principle was verified by fluorescence measurements. Under the optimized conditions, a linear relationship between photocurrent and Pb(2+) concentration was obtained over the range of 0.5-20 nM, with a detection limit of 0.1 nM. Interference from other common metal ions was found negligible. Applicability of the sensor was demonstrated by analyzing lead level in human serum and Pb(2+) spiked water samples. This facile and economical sensor system showed high sensitivity and selectivity, thus can be potentially applied for on-site monitoring of lead contaminant. PMID:24508815

  8. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating

  9. Concepts for future solid state lighting solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Malm, N.; Wirth, R.; Illek, S.; Steegmüller, U.

    2010-08-01

    In this contribution the relevant technological aspects of LED-based lamps for solid state lighting are discussed. In addition to general energy efficiency considerations improvements in LED chip technology and white light generation are presented.

  10. Flexible and compressible Goretex-PEDOT membrane electrodes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mozer, Attila J; Panda, Dillip Kumar; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Romeo, Tony C; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Wallace, Gordon G

    2010-02-01

    A porous, flexible electrode based on a PTFE (Teflon) membrane (Goretex) coated with a metallic current collector and a conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) has been developed for applications in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Its low sheet resistance and compressibility make it an ideal electrode on uneven TiO(2) surfaces with high efficiency and reproducibility. The porous nature of the electrode enables the feed-through of reactants and treatment agents, which opens up exciting opportunities to interface these photoelectrochemical devices with electrocatalytic, energy conversion, and storage systems. Postfabrication bonding of the photoanode and the Goretex-Au-PEDOT electrode is demonstrated. PMID:19902936

  11. High-performance photoelectrochemical cells based on a binuclear ruthenium catalyst for visible-light-driven water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Gao, Yan; Ding, Xin; Yu, Ze; Sun, Licheng

    2014-10-01

    Two photoanodes based on a binuclear (2) and a mononuclear ruthenium (3) water oxidation catalysts were assembled in combination with a molecular photosensitizer (1) by using a co-adsorption method. The anodes were used in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DS-PECs) for visible-light-driven water splitting. A DS-PEC device using TiO2 (1+2) as working electrode (WE) exhibits better performance than TiO2 (1+3) as WE in light-driven water splitting. Detailed photoelectrochemical studies on these DS-PEC devices are discussed. PMID:25139154

  12. Optically written solid-state lasers with broadly tunable mode emission based on improved poly (2,5-dialkoxy-phenylene-vinylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranzelbinder, G.; Toussaere, E.; Zyss, J.; Pogantsch, A.; List, E. W. J.; Tillmann, H.; Hörhold, H.-H.

    2002-02-01

    We report an optical written distributed feedback (DFB) structure with broadly and continuously tunable mode emission (Δλ=30 nm) based on polycondensation-type poly[2methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV). In a Lloyd-mirror configuration we realize first-order feedback by dynamic photoinduced in-plane gratings, which can also be imprinted permanently. This technique is a versatile fabrication tool for polymeric DFB laser structures while also providing an efficient method to probe the lasing performance of organic solid-state laser materials. Furthermore, features of the photoinduced absorption spectra of improved MEH-PPV indicate favorable material properties towards further homopolymer solid-state laser applications.

  13. High-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO(2)-coated ZnO nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengkun; Wu, Jiamin; Desai, Umang V; Gao, Di

    2012-05-01

    Replacing the liquid electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with solid-state hole-transporting materials (HTMs) may solve the packaging challenge and improve the long-term stability of DSCs. The efficiencies of such solid-state DSCs (ss-DSCs), however, have been far below the efficiencies of their counterparts that use liquid electrolytes, primarily due to the challenges in filling HTMs into thick enough sensitized films based on sintered TiO(2) nanoparticles. Here we report fabrication of high-efficiency ss-DSCs using multilayer TiO(2)-coated ZnO nanowire arrays as the photoanodes. The straight channel between the vertically aligned nanostructures combined with a newly developed multistep HTM filling process allows us to effectively fill sensitized films as thick as 50 μm with the HTMs. The resulting ss-DSCs yield an average power conversion efficiency of 5.65%. PMID:22486787

  14. Development of White-Light Emitting Active Layers in Nitride Based Heterostructures for Phosphorless Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Jan Talbot; Kailash Mishra

    2007-12-31

    This report provides a summary of research activities carried out at the University of California, San Diego and Central Research of OSRAM SYLVANIA in Beverly, MA partially supported by a research contract from US Department of Energy, DE-FC26-04NT422274. The main objective of this project was to develop III-V nitrides activated by rare earth ions, RE{sup 3+}, which could eliminate the need for phosphors in nitride-based solid state light sources. The main idea was to convert electron-hole pairs injected into the active layer in a LED die to white light directly through transitions within the energy levels of the 4f{sup n}-manifold of RE{sup 3+}. We focused on the following materials: Eu{sup 3+}(red), Tb{sup 3+}(green), Er{sup 3+}(green), Dy{sup 3+}(yellow) and Tm{sup 3+}(blue) in AlN, GaN and alloys of AlN and GaN. Our strategy was to explore candidate materials in powder form first, and then study their behavior in thin films. Thin films of these materials were to be deposited on sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The photo- and cathode-luminescence measurements of these materials were used to investigate their suitability for white light generation. The project proceeded along this route with minor modifications needed to produce better materials and to expedite our progress towards the final goal. The project made the following accomplishments: (1) red emission from Eu{sup 3+}, green from Tb{sup 3+}, yellow from Dy{sup 3+} and blue from Tm{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (2) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN powder; (3) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} in alloys of GaN and AlN; (4) green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films by PLD; (5) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films deposited by MOVPE; (6) energy transfer from host to RE{sup 3+}; (7) energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (8) emission from AlN powder samples

  15. A pyrosequencing-based metagenomic study of methane-producing microbial community in solid-state biogas reactor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A solid-state anaerobic digestion method is used to produce biogas from various solid wastes in China but the efficiency of methane production requires constant improvement. The diversity and abundance of relevant microorganisms play important roles in methanogenesis of biomass. The next-generation high-throughput pyrosequencing platform (Roche/454 GS FLX Titanium) provides a powerful tool for the discovery of novel microbes within the biogas-generating microbial communities. Results To improve the power of our metagenomic analysis, we first evaluated five different protocols for extracting total DNA from biogas-producing mesophilic solid-state fermentation materials and then chose two high-quality protocols for a full-scale analysis. The characterization of both sequencing reads and assembled contigs revealed that the most prevalent microbes of the fermentation materials are derived from Clostridiales (Firmicutes), which contribute to degrading both protein and cellulose. Other important bacterial species for decomposing fat and carbohydrate are Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes (belonging to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, respectively). The dominant bacterial species are from six genera: Clostridium, Aminobacterium, Psychrobacter, Anaerococcus, Syntrophomonas, and Bacteroides. Among them, abundant Psychrobacter species, which produce low temperature-adaptive lipases, and Anaerococcus species, which have weak fermentation capabilities, were identified for the first time in biogas fermentation. Archaea, represented by genera Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta and Methanoculleus of Euryarchaeota, constitute only a small fraction of the entire microbial community. The most abundant archaeal species include Methanosarcina barkeri fusaro, Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and Methanosaeta theromphila, and all are involved in both acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Conclusions The identification of new bacterial genera and

  16. Effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of all-solid-state TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mingwei; Liu, Benjamin; Dong, Zhenhua; Dong, Zhenyu; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-03-01

    In order to analyse the effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), different electrodes were used as the counter electrodes for all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs. An inorganic solid-state electrolyte, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was selected to couple with N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays to fabricate the DSSCs. Fluorine doped tin oxide transparent conducting glass (FTO), platinum coated FTO (Pt/FTO), graphite coated FTO (graphite/FTO), and graphite coated common glass (graphite/glass) were investigated as the counter electrodes, and the cells composed of the corresponding electrodes above have power-conversion efficiencies of 2.17%, 9.84%, 7.62%, and 3.45%, respectively. Our findings indicate that due to its unique catalytic and conducting properties, graphite can replace both Pt and FTO as a counter electrode to reduce the fabrication cost of all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs.

  17. Flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor based on Ni3S2 nanorod array and pen ink electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jian; Li, Songzhan; Zhou, Kai; Song, Zengcai; Li, Borui; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Tian; Guo, Yaxiong; Fang, Guojia

    2016-08-01

    Fiber supercapacitors have attracted public attentions because of their merits of relatively high capacitance density, flexibility and easy integration with various electronic devices. In this work, a flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) based on Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode and pen ink electrode was successfully fabricated. The Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode was synthesized by directly growing Ni3S2 nanorod arrays on a nickel wire through a facile hydrothermal method and the pen ink electrode as negative electrode was synthesized by a simple dip-coating method. The solid-state ASC device presents a stable voltage window of 1.4 V and behaves a high specific capacitance of 34.9 F g-1 (87.25 F cm-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. Compared with the symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on Ni3S2 electrodes, the ASC device provide an increased energy density of 8.2 Wh kg-1 (0.81 mWh cm-3) at the power density of 214.6 W kg-1 (21.12 mW cm-3). In addition, the ASC device also exhibits excellent electrochemical stability with 93.1% of initial specific capacitance after 3000 consecutive cycles and good mechanical stability. These encouraging results present its great potential in flexible solid-state energy storage devices.

  18. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  19. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  20. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  1. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  2. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  3. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  4. Inkjet-printed all solid-state electrochromic devices based on NiO/WO3 nanoparticle complementary electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guofa; Darmawan, Peter; Cui, Mengqi; Chen, Jingwei; Wang, Xu; Eh, Alice Lee-Sie; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and WO3 nanostructured films with strong adhesion to ITO coated glass using inkjet printing for energy saving electrochromic applications. We achieved a high performance electrochromic electrode, producing porous and continuous electrochromic films without aggregation. The NiO film with 9 printed layers exhibits an optical modulation of 64.2% at 550 nm and a coloration efficiency (CE) of 136.7 cm(2) C(-1). An inkjet-printed complementary all solid-state device was assembled, delivering a larger optical modulation of 75.4% at 633 nm and a higher CE of 131.9 cm(2) C(-1) among all solid-state devices. The enhanced contrast is due to the printed NiO film that not only performs as an ion storage layer, but also as a complementary electrochromic layer. PMID:26610811

  5. Solid state heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, J.S.

    1981-12-15

    A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.

  6. Hepatoprotective Effect of Wheat-Based Solid-State Fermented Antrodia cinnamomea in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Huan-Wen; Hua, Kuo-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea) is an indigenous medical fungus in Taiwan and has multiple biological functions, including hepatoprotective and immune-modulatory effects. Currently, the commercially available A. cinnamomea are mainly liquid- and solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea. However, the hepatoprotective effect of solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea has never been reported. Here we evaluate the ability of air-dried, ground and non-extracted wheat-based solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea (WFAC) to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in vivo. The results showed that oral administration of WFAC dose dependently (180, 540 and 1080 mg/kg) ameliorated the increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels caused by chronic repeated CCl4 intoxication in rats. WFAC significantly reduced the CCl4-induced increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation levels and hydroxyproline contents, as well as reducing the spleen weight and water content of the liver. WFAC also restored the hepatic soluble protein synthesis and plasma albumin concentration in CCl4-intoxicated rats, but it did not affect the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, or glutathione peroxidase. In addition, a hepatic morphological analysis showed that the hepatic fibrosis and necrosis induced by CCl4 were significantly ameliorated by WFAC. Furthermore, the body weights of control rats and WFAC-administered rats were not significantly different, and no adverse effects were observed in WFAC-administered rats. These results indicate that WFAC is a nontoxic hepatoprotective agent against chronic CCl4-induced hepatic injury. PMID:27046059

  7. Water-mediated solid-state transformation of a polymorphic drug during aqueous-based drug-layer coating of pellets.

    PubMed

    Lust, Andres; Lakio, Satu; Vintsevits, Julia; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Veski, Peep; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Kogermann, Karin

    2013-11-01

    During aqueous drug-layer coating, drug substance(s) are exposed to water and elevated temperatures which can lead to water-mediated process induced transformations (PITs). The effects of aqueous drug-layer coating of pellets (Cellets(®)) on the anhydrous piroxicam, PRX, were investigated in the miniaturized coating equipment and with free films. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used as a carrier coating polymer. Free films were prepared by using an in-house small-scale rotating plate system equipped with an atomization air nozzle. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the solid-state properties and surface morphology of the pellets and free films. The results showed that anhydrous PRX form I (AH) and monohydrate (MH) were stable during drug-layer coating, but amorphous PRX in solid dispersion (SD) crystallized as MH already after 10 min of coating. Furthermore, the increase in a dissolution rate was achieved from the drug-layer coated inert pellets compared to powder forms. In conclusion, water-mediated solid-state PITs of amorphous PRX is evident during aqueous-based drug-layer coating of pellets, and solid-state change can be verified using Raman spectroscopy. PMID:23994016

  8. Hepatoprotective Effect of Wheat-Based Solid-State Fermented Antrodia cinnamomea in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Rat.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Huan-Wen; Hua, Kuo-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea) is an indigenous medical fungus in Taiwan and has multiple biological functions, including hepatoprotective and immune-modulatory effects. Currently, the commercially available A. cinnamomea are mainly liquid- and solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea. However, the hepatoprotective effect of solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea has never been reported. Here we evaluate the ability of air-dried, ground and non-extracted wheat-based solid-state fermented A. cinnamomea (WFAC) to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in vivo. The results showed that oral administration of WFAC dose dependently (180, 540 and 1080 mg/kg) ameliorated the increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels caused by chronic repeated CCl4 intoxication in rats. WFAC significantly reduced the CCl4-induced increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation levels and hydroxyproline contents, as well as reducing the spleen weight and water content of the liver. WFAC also restored the hepatic soluble protein synthesis and plasma albumin concentration in CCl4-intoxicated rats, but it did not affect the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, or glutathione peroxidase. In addition, a hepatic morphological analysis showed that the hepatic fibrosis and necrosis induced by CCl4 were significantly ameliorated by WFAC. Furthermore, the body weights of control rats and WFAC-administered rats were not significantly different, and no adverse effects were observed in WFAC-administered rats. These results indicate that WFAC is a nontoxic hepatoprotective agent against chronic CCl4-induced hepatic injury. PMID:27046059

  9. Polytypic Nanocrystals of Cu-Based Ternary Chalcogenides: Colloidal Synthesis and Photoelectrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Chen, Shi-You; Fan, Feng-Jia; Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Dai, Chen-Min; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Heterocrystalline polytype nanostructured semiconductors have been attracting more and more attention in recent years due to their novel structures and special interfaces. Up to now, controlled polytypic nanostructures are mostly realized in II-VI and III-V semiconductors. Herein, we report the synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of Cu-based ternary I-III-VI2 chalcogenide polytypic nanocrystals, with a focus on polytypic CuInS2 (CIS), CuInSe2 (CISe), and CuIn(S0.5Se0.5)2 alloy nanocrystals. Each obtained polytypic nanocrystal is constructed with a wurtzite hexagonal column and a zinc blende/chalcopyrite cusp, regardless of the S/Se ratio. The growth mechanisms of polytypic CIS and CISe nanocrystals have been studied by time-dependent experiments. The polytypic nanocrystals are solution-deposited on indium-tin oxide glass substrate and used as a photoelectrode, thus showing stable photoelectrochemical activity in aqueous solution. Density functional theory calculation was used to study the electronic structure and the band gap alignment. This versatile synthetic method provides a new route for synthesis of novel polytypic nanostructured semiconductors with unique properties. PMID:27063512

  10. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  11. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  12. Inkjet-printed all solid-state electrochromic devices based on NiO/WO3 nanoparticle complementary electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guofa; Darmawan, Peter; Cui, Mengqi; Chen, Jingwei; Wang, Xu; Eh, Alice Lee-Sie; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Pooi See

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and WO3 nanostructured films with strong adhesion to ITO coated glass using inkjet printing for energy saving electrochromic applications. We achieved a high performance electrochromic electrode, producing porous and continuous electrochromic films without aggregation. The NiO film with 9 printed layers exhibits an optical modulation of 64.2% at 550 nm and a coloration efficiency (CE) of 136.7 cm2 C-1. An inkjet-printed complementary all solid-state device was assembled, delivering a larger optical modulation of 75.4% at 633 nm and a higher CE of 131.9 cm2 C-1 among all solid-state devices. The enhanced contrast is due to the printed NiO film that not only performs as an ion storage layer, but also as a complementary electrochromic layer.Nanostructured thin films are important in the fields of energy conversion and storage. In particular, multi-layered nanostructured films play an important role as a part of the energy system for energy saving applications in buildings. Inkjet printing is a low-cost and attractive technology for patterning and deposition of multi-layered nanostructured materials on various substrates. However, it requires the development of a suitable ink formulation with optimum viscosity, surface tension and evaporation rate for various materials. In this study, a versatile ink formulation was successfully developed to prepare NiO and

  13. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  14. An Electro-hydrodynamics-based model for the ionic conductivity of solid-state nanopores during DNA translocation

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Binquan; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    A solid-state nanopore can be used to sense DNA (or other macromolecules) by monitoring ion-current changes that result from translocation of the molecule through the pore. When transiting a nanopore, the highly negatively charged DNA interacts with a nanopore both electrically and hydrodynamically, causing a current blockage or a current enhancement at different ion concentrations. This effect was previously characterized using a phenomenological model that can be considered as the limit of the electro-hydrodynamics model presented here. We show theoretically that the effect of surface charge of a nanopore (or electroosmotic effect) can be equivalently treated as modifications of electrophoretic mobilities of ions in the pore, providing an improved physical understanding of the current blockage (or enhancement). PMID:23579206

  15. Solid state television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a solid state television camera using a new charge-coupled imaging device are reported. An RCA charge-coupled device arranged in a 512 by 320 format and directly compatible with EIA format standards was the sensor selected. This is a three-phase, sealed surface-channel array that has 163,840 sensor elements, which employs a vertical frame transfer system for image readout. Included are test results of the complete camera system, circuit description and changes to such circuits as a result of integration and test, maintenance and operation section, recommendations to improve the camera system, and a complete set of electrical and mechanical drawing sketches.

  16. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

  17. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  18. Spectroscopic-Based Chemometric Models for Quantifying Low Levels of Solid-State Transitions in Extended Release Theophylline Formulations.

    PubMed

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Rahman, Ziyaur; Shah, Dhaval A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the solid state form of a pharmaceutical solid have profound impact on the product quality and clinical performance. Quantitative models that allow rapid and accurate determination of polymorphic changes in pharmaceutical products are essential in ensuring product quality throughout its lifecycle. This study reports the development and validation of chemometric models of Raman and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for quantifying the extent of pseudopolymorphic transitions of theophylline in extended release formulations. The chemometric models were developed using sample matrices consisting of the commonly used excipients and at the ratios in commercially available products. A combination of scatter removal (multiplicative signal correction and standard normal variate) and derivatization (Savitzky-Golay second derivative) algorithm were used for data pretreatment. Partial least squares and principal component regression models were developed and their performance assessed. Diagnostic statistics such as the root mean square error, correlation coefficient, bias and Q(2) were used as parameters to test the model fit and performance. The models developed had a good fit and performance as shown by the values of the diagnostic statistics. The model diagnostic statistics were similar for MSC-SG and SNV-SG treated spectra. Similarly, PLSR and PCR models had comparable performance. Raman chemometric models were slightly better than their corresponding NIR model. The Raman and NIR chemometric models developed had good accuracy and precision as demonstrated by closeness of the predicted values for the independent observations to the actual TMO content hence the developed models can serve as useful tools in quantifying and controlling solid state transitions in extended release theophylline products. PMID:26852844

  19. Solid-state proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Mechanochemical solid-state synthesis of 2-aminothiazoles, quinoxalines and benzoylbenzofurans from ketones by one-pot sequential acid- and base-mediated reactions.

    PubMed

    Nagarajaiah, Honnappa; Mishra, Abhaya Kumar; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha

    2016-04-26

    α-Chloroketones - obtained by the atom-economical chlorination of ketones with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in the presence of p-TSA under ball-milling conditions - were set up for a sequential base-mediated condensation reaction with thiourea/thiosemicarbazides, o-phenylenediamine and salicylaldehyde to afford 2-aminothiazoles, 2-hydrazinylthiazoles, quinoxalines and benzoylbenzofurans, respectively, in respectable yields. The viability of one-pot sequential acid- and base-mediated reactions in the solid state under ball-milling conditions is thus demonstrated. PMID:27072599

  1. Automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell driven by visible light.

    PubMed

    Yu, You; Han, Yanchao; Xu, Miao; Zhang, Lingling; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-04-28

    Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm(-2) and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications. PMID:27076202

  2. A miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on organic electrochemical transistor for sensitive determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianjun; Lin, Shiwei; Zeng, Min; Yang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    A three-electrode configuration is often required in the conventional photoelectrochemical measurements. Nevertheless, one common drawback is the reference electrode and the counter electrode used in the measurements, which has been proved to be an impediment for the miniaturization. In this study, a simple, cost-effective and miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on high sensitive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) is developed and used for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewaters. The devices show detection limit down to 0.01 mg/L COD, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the conventional photoelectrochemical method. The excellent sensing performance can be contributed to the novel sensing mechanism of OECT devices. That is, the devices are sensitive to the potential changes induced by the photoelectrochemical reaction on TiO2 nanotube arrays gate electrodes. Real sample analyses are also carried out. The results demonstrate that the measured COD values using the OECT devices and the standard dichromate methods are in a good agreement. Since the proposed sensor is constructed on a miniature transistor, it is expected that the device shows a promising application on the integrated COD monitoring platform. PMID:26971805

  3. Automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell driven by visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, You; Han, Yanchao; Xu, Miao; Zhang, Lingling; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm-2 and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications.Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm-2 and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00759g

  4. Multi-analyte biochip (MAB) based on all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ASSISE) for physiological research.

    PubMed

    Wan Salim, Wan W Amani; Zeitchek, Michael A; Hermann, Andrew C; Ricco, Antonio J; Tan, Ming; Selch, Florian; Fleming, Erich; Bebout, Brad M; Bader, Mamoun M; Ul Haque, Aeraj; Porterfield, D Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications in environmental, biomedical, agricultural, biological, and spaceflight research require an ion-selective electrode (ISE) that can withstand prolonged storage in complex biological media (1-4). An all-solid-state ion-selective-electrode (ASSISE) is especially attractive for the aforementioned applications. The electrode should have the following favorable characteristics: easy construction, low maintenance, and (potential for) miniaturization, allowing for batch processing. A microfabricated ASSISE intended for quantifying H(+), Ca(2+), and CO3(2-) ions was constructed. It consists of a noble-metal electrode layer (i.e. Pt), a transduction layer, and an ion-selective membrane (ISM) layer. The transduction layer functions to transduce the concentration-dependent chemical potential of the ion-selective membrane into a measurable electrical signal. The lifetime of an ASSISE is found to depend on maintaining the potential at the conductive layer/membrane interface (5-7). To extend the ASSISE working lifetime and thereby maintain stable potentials at the interfacial layers, we utilized the conductive polymer (CP) poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) (7-9) in place of silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) as the transducer layer. We constructed the ASSISE in a lab-on-a-chip format, which we called the multi-analyte biochip (MAB) (Figure 1). Calibrations in test solutions demonstrated that the MAB can monitor pH (operational range pH 4-9), CO3(2-) (measured range 0.01 mM - 1 mM), and Ca(2+) (log-linear range 0.01 mM to 1 mM). The MAB for pH provides a near-Nernstian slope response after almost one month storage in algal medium. The carbonate biochips show a potentiometric profile similar to that of a conventional ion-selective electrode. Physiological measurements were employed to monitor biological activity of the model system, the microalga Chlorella vulgaris. The MAB conveys an advantage in size, versatility, and multiplexed analyte

  5. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  6. A solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell based on a novel ionic liquid gel and ZnO nanoparticles on a flexible polymer substrate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Niu, Li; Amaratunga, Gehan; Ryhanen, Tapani

    2008-10-22

    This paper describes a new strategy to make a full solid-state, flexible, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on novel ionic liquid gel, organic dye, ZnO nanoparticles and carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film stamped onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The CNTs serve both as the charge collector and as scaffolds for the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, where the black dye molecules are anchored. It opens up the possibility of developing a continuous roll to roll processing for THE mass production of DSSCs. PMID:21832666

  7. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Solid state Raman image amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmes, Lonnie K.; Murray, James T.; Austin, William L.; Powell, Richard C.

    1998-07-01

    Lite Cycles has developed a new type of eye-safe, range-gated, lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid-state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level infrared images with gains greater than 106 with the addition of only quantum-limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30 - 100 cm for nanosecond pulses and less than 5 mm if picosecond pulses are used. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCDs. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCDs. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR, and can be used for real-time optical signal processing. Applications for military use include eye-safe imaging lidars that can be used for autonomous vehicle identification and targeting.

  9. Explanation of the photocurrent quantum efficiency (Φ) enhancements through the CAN's model equation for the p-CuI sensitized methylviolet-C18 LB films in the photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) and Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI solid-state photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, C. A. N.; Liyanaarachchi, U. S.; AARajapaksha, R. D.

    2013-04-01

    Photocurrent enhancements in a dye sensitized photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a Cu/p-CuI/M-C18 photoelectrode and a dye sensitized solid state photovoltaic cell (DSSC) with Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI are studied by controlling the formation of dye aggregates of M-C18 Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on the p-CuI layer. LB films of M-C18 are deposited under biasing conditions during the LB deposition process on Cu/p-CuI, Cu/n-Cu2O/p-CuI and conductive glass plates with the three-electrode configuration setup coupling to the LB trough. LB films prepared under positive biasing conditions enhance the photocurrent quantum efficiencies for both PECs and DSSCs controlling and minimizing the formation of dye aggregates. The electrolyte used for LB deposition and photocurrent measurements is (10-2 M) Fe2+ + Fe3+ (10-2 M) and (10-2 M) NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4, pH = 6 buffer solution. Maximum photocurrent quantum efficiencies (Фmax%) obtained are ≈22% for PEC and ≈20% for DSSCs, where the M-C18 LB film deposition applied potentials +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl. The mechanism of the photocurrent enhancement is discussed through the CAN's model equation, Ф = AD0-BD02, where A = k1k2/F, B = I k12 k2[2k6/F3 + k2k4/k32 X2F2], F = k2 + k5Y + k7 + k1 I [1 + k2/k3 X], presented from our previous study [1]. Experimental evidence for the formation of the aggregates of M-C18 LB films for the negative applied potentials and suppression of the aggregates with positive applied potentials are presented from absorption spectra, AFM pictures and fluorescence measurements of the samples. Conversion efficiency obtained is ≈2.5%, Voc ≈750 mV and Isc ≈ 5.8 mA cm-2 for DSSC fabricated with +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl applied deposition potential of M-C18 LB films.

  10. All-Solid-State Symmetric Supercapacitor Based on Co3O4 Nanoparticles on Vertically Aligned Graphene.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qingyu; Li, Na; Jin, Shuaixing; Yang, Guowei; Wang, Chengxin

    2015-05-26

    We have synthesized the hybrid supercapacitor electrode of Co3O4 nanoparticles on vertically aligned graphene nanosheets (VAGNs) supported by carbon fabric. The VAGN served as an excellent backbone together with the carbon fabric, enhancing composites to a high specific capacitance of 3480 F/g, approaching the theoretical value (3560 F/g). A highly flexible all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device was fabricated by two pieces of our Co3O4/VAGN/carbon fabric hybrid electrode. The device is suitable for different bending angles and delivers a high capacitance (580 F/g), good cycling ability (86.2% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles), high energy density (80 Wh/kg), and high power density (20 kW/kg at 27 Wh/kg). These excellent electrochemical performances, as a result of the particular structure of VAGN and the flexibility of the carbon fabric, suggest that these composites have an enormous potential in energy application. PMID:25938705

  11. Design guidelines of storage class memory based solid-state drives to balance performance, power, endurance, and cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagi, Takahiro; Sun, Chao; Takeuchi, Ken

    2015-04-01

    The all storage-type storage-class memory (S-SCM) solid-state drive (SSD) and hybrid memory-type SCM (M-SCM)/NAND flash SSD (hybrid SSD) are two promising solutions for high performance storage. In this paper, the effect of wear leveling on the all S-SCM SSD performance, energy consumption, and endurance is evaluated. Furthermore, the all S-SCM SSD’s performance dependency on S-SCM input/output (I/O) frequency and latency are discussed. From the experimental results, for the financial server application, the all S-SCM SSD has a higher performance than that of the hybrid SSD when S-SCM I/O frequency >200 MHz and latency <5 µs/sector. Last, the costs of the all S-SCM SSD and hybrid SSD are compared according to the cost of each memory device. Assuming the cost ratio of M-SCM and S-SCM to NAND flash is 10 and <3.25, respectively, the all S-SCM SSD is more cost-efficient than hybrid SSD with a 25% M-SCM/NAND capacity ratio.

  12. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state power controllers (SSPC's) are to be considered for use as replacements of electromechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 v(dc). They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near the utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small gauge wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, onboard testing, power management, and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability. Conventional systems require the heavy gage load wiring and the control wiring to be routed from the bus to the load to other remote relay contacts, switches, sensors, etc. and to the circuit breaker located in the flight engineer's compartment for purposes of manual reset.

  13. Solid state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rines, Glen A. (Inventor); Moulton, Peter F. (Inventor); Harrison, James (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable, injection-seeded, dispersion-compensated, dispersively-pumped solid state laser includes a lasing medium; a highly reflective mirror; an output coupler; at least one isosceles Brewster prism oriented to the minimum deviation angle between the medium and the mirror for directing light of different wavelengths along different paths; means for varying the angle of the highly reflective mirror relative to the light from at least one Brewster angle for selecting a predetermined laser operating wavelength; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the lasing medium; a laser injection seeding port disposed between the dispersion compensation apparatus and one of the mirror and coupler and including a reflective surface at an acute non-Brewster angle to the laser beam for introducing a seed input; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the laser medium including opposite chirality optical elements; the lasing medium including a pump surface disposed at an acute angle to the laser beam to define a discrete path for the pumping laser beam separate from the pumped laser beam.

  14. Study of solid state photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Available solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) detectors were tested under low-background, low temperature conditions to determine the conditions producing optimal sensitivity in a space-based astronomy system such as a liquid cooled helium telescope in orbit. Detector temperatures varied between 6 and 9 K, with background flux ranging from 10 to the 13th power to less than 10 to the 6th power photons/square cm-s. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, noise, dark current, and spectral response. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed, and combined with existing data to build the SSPM data base included herein. The results were compared to analytical models of SSPM performance where appropriate models existed. Analytical models presented here were developed to be as consistent with the data base as practicable. Significant differences between the theory and data are described. Some models were developed or updated as a result of this study.

  15. Inexpensive solid state radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity is of interest both within the geosciences community and to groups such as the emergency services who need to quickly assess the safety of an environment. Here we present a light weight and inexpensive detector based on solid state technology, that can be easily worn or carried, or used disposably. It responds to gamma radiation and other radioactive particles such as those from space weather and cosmic rays. Unlike traditional technology such as the Geiger counter, the detector can operate at low voltage without the need for step-up circuitry, and it can also distinguish different particle energies. It is suitable for monitoring background radioactivity from cosmic rays and radon as well as responding to higher radioactivity levels. We anticipate that the device will have a broad range of end users, from terrestrial to space applications.

  16. A compact solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Bhabana; Park, Eric D.; Stebbins, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    A compact laser producing green wavelength with a volume of < 8 cm3 and a weight of < 80 g finds its application in many fields from military to space based. We built a small solid-state laser that produces 1 mJ of energy per-pulse at a 1 - 20 Hz repetition rate. The laser is passively Q-switched using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber to generate pulses <10 ns. A nonlinear crystal doubles the frequency to generate light at 523 nm. The laser is side-pumped by a single bar diode laser using a unique pump cavity to homogenize the pump intensity in the laser rod. The laser components can easily be modified to change the output wavelength from UV to mid IR.

  17. Superior performance of highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor based on the ternary composites of graphene oxide supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haihan; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Han, Gaoyi

    2016-08-01

    Ternary composite electrodes based on carbon nanotubes thin films (CNFs)-loaded graphene oxide (GO) supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- carbon nanotubes (GO/PEDOT-CNTs) have been prepared via a facile one-step electrochemical codeposition method. The effect of long and short CNTs-incorporated composites (GO/PEDOT-lCNTs and GO/PEDOT-sCNTs) on the electrochemical behaviors of the electrodes is investigated and compared. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the incorporation of CNTs effectively improves the electrochemical performances of the GO/PEDOT electrodes. Long CNTs-incorporated GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes have more superior electrochemical behaviors with respect to the short CNTs-incorporated GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes, which can be attributed to the optimized composition and specific microstructures of the former. To verify the feasibility of the prepared composite electrodes for utilization as flexible supercapacitor, a solid-state supercapacitor using the CNFs-loaded GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes is fabricated and tested. The device shows lightweight, ultrathin, and highly flexible features, which also has a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance (33.4 m F cm-2 at 10 mV s-1 and 2.7 F cm-3 at 0.042 A cm-3), superior rate capability, and excellent cycle stability (maintaining 97.5% for 5000 cycles). This highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor has great potential for applications in flexible electronics, roll-up display, and wearable devices.

  18. All-solid-state hybrid solar cells based on a new organometal halide perovskite sensitizer and one-dimensional TiO2 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianhang; Qiu, Yongcai; Yan, Keyou; Zhong, Min; Mu, Cheng; Yan, He; Yang, Shihe

    2013-03-01

    A novel organometal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI2Br) is synthesized and used as a visible light absorber to sensitize one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) for all-solid-state hybrid solar cells. It achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.87% and an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.82 V, both higher than those of its analogue CH3NH3PbI3.A novel organometal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI2Br) is synthesized and used as a visible light absorber to sensitize one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) for all-solid-state hybrid solar cells. It achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.87% and an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.82 V, both higher than those of its analogue CH3NH3PbI3. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization details, including additional SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD and photovoltaic characteristics of cells based on TiO2 NWAs with different film thickness. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00218g

  19. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  20. Submerged and solid-state production of laccase and Mn-peroxidase by Panus tigrinus on olive mill wastewater-based media.

    PubMed

    Fenice, Massimiliano; Giovannozzi Sermanni, Giovanni; Federici, Federico; D'Annibale, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The possible use of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) as a growth medium for the production of extracellular laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot fungus Panus tigrinus (P. tigrinus) CBS 577.79 was studied using a properly formulated OMW-based medium (2-fold diluted OMW supplemented with 0.5% sucrose and 0.1% yeast extract) either in a stirred-tank or an air-lift reactor. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was also performed in a rotary drum reactor using maize stalks moistened with the OMW-based medium. Highest levels of laccase and manganese peroxidase activity were obtained in the stirred-tank reactor (4600+/-98 U l(-1) on day 13) and in the air-lift reactor (410+/-22 on day 7), respectively. Based on total enzyme activities, SSF appears to be more suitable than LSF but the latter exhibits better volumetric productivities. PMID:12413788

  1. Sunlight-assisted, biocatalytic formate synthesis from CO2 and water using silicon-based photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Eun Jin; Ko, Jong Wan; Kuk, Su Keun; Choe, Hyunjun; Lee, Sumi; Kim, Jae Hong; Nam, Dong Heon; Ryu, Gyeong Min; Kim, Yong Hwan; Park, Chan Beum

    2016-08-11

    We report on a silicon-based photoelectrochemical cell that integrates a formate dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus sp. (TsFDH) to convert CO2 to formate using water as an electron donor under visible light irradiation and an applied bias. Our current study suggests that the deliberate integration of biocatalysis to a light-harvesting platform could provide an opportunity to synthesize valuable chemicals with the use of earth-abundant materials and sustainable resources. PMID:27411734

  2. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Marsen, B.; Paluselli, D.; Rocheleau, R.

    2004-11-17

    The scope of this photoelectrochemical hydrogen research project is defined by multijunction photoelectrode concepts for solar-powered water splitting, with the goal of efficient, stable, and economic operation. From an initial selection of several planar photoelectrode designs, the Hybrid Photoelectrode (HPE) has been identified as the most promising candidate technology. This photoelectrode consists of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) junction and a solid-state photovoltaic (PV) junction. Immersed in aqueous electrolyte and exposed to sunlight, these two junctions provide the necessary voltage to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. The efficiency of the conversion process is determined by the performance of the PEC- and the PV-junctions and on their spectral match. Based on their stability and cost effectiveness, iron oxide (Fe2O3) and tungsten oxide (WO3) films have been studied and developed as candidate semiconductor materials for the PEC junction (photoanode). High-temperature synthesis methods, as reported for some high-performance metal oxides, have been found incompatible with multijunction device fabrication. A low-temperature reactive sputtering process has been developed instead. In the parameter space investigated so far, the optoelectronic properties of WO3 films were superior to those of Fe2O3 films, which showed high recombination of photo-generated carriers. For the PV-junction, amorphous-silicon-based multijunction devices have been studied. Tandem junctions were preferred over triple junctions for better stability and spectral matching with the PEC junction. Based on a tandem a-SiGe/a-SiGe device and a tungsten trioxide film, a prototype hybrid photoelectrode has been demonstrated at 0.7% solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency. The PEC junction performance has been identified as the most critical element for higher-efficiency devices. Research into sputter-deposited tungsten trioxide films has yielded samples with higher photocurrents of

  3. Research on photoelectrochemical cells based on CdSe, CdSe/sub 1-x/Te/sub x/ and other photoelectrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W L

    1984-05-01

    Research on electrochemical photovoltaic cells incorporating thin film n-CdSe and n-CdSe/sub 1-x/Te/sub x/ photoanodes has resulted in efficiencies up to 7.5% using small area electrodes in polysulfide electrolytes. Efficiencies close to 10% can be achieved using alternate electrolytes in significantly less stable systems. The major limitations on the efficiency of II-VI photoelectrochemical cells are associated with the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. Research on CuInSe/sub 2/ electrochemical photovoltaic cells has resulted in efficiencies up to 11.7% using single crystal n-CuInSe/sub 2/ photoanodes in aqueous electrolytes. The n-CuInSe/sub 2/ surface and the electrolyte have been optimized to produce a highly stable semiconductor/electrolyte junction. A review will also be given on the status of photoelectrochemical storage cell research. In situ photoelectrochemical measurement techniques have been used to probe the semiconductor/electrolyte interface and have been used to support the characterization of semiconductor materials for solid state photovoltaic applications.

  4. Ultra-low phase-noise microwave generation using a diode-pumped solid-state laser based frequency comb and a polarization-maintaining pulse interleaver.

    PubMed

    Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Buchs, Gilles; Kundermann, Stefan; Balet, Laurent; Lecomte, Steve

    2015-12-14

    We report ultra-low phase-noise microwave generation at a 9.6 GHz carrier frequency from optical frequency combs based on diode-pumped solid-state lasers emitting at telecom wavelength and referenced to a common cavity-stabilized continuous-wave laser. Using a novel fibered polarization-maintaining pulse interleaver, a single-oscillator phase-noise floor of -171 dBc/Hz at 10 MHz offset frequency has been measured with commercial PIN InGaAs photodiodes, constituting a record for this type of detector. Also, a direct optical measurement of the stabilized frequency combs' timing jitter was performed using a balanced optical cross correlator, allowing for an identification of the origin of the phase-noise limitations in the system. PMID:26699033

  5. An all-solid-state perovskite-sensitized solar cell based on the dual function polyaniline as the sensitizer and p-type hole-transporting material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yaoming; Han, Gaoyi; Chang, Yunzhen; Zhou, Haihan; Li, Miaoyu; Li, Yanping

    2014-12-01

    High performance dual function of polyaniline (PANI) with brachyplast structure is synthesized by using a two-step cyclic voltammetry (CV) approach onto the fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, which acts as the sensitizer and p-type hole-transporting material (p-HTM) for the all-solid-state perovskite-sensitized solar cell (ass-PSSC) due to its π-π* transition and the localized polaron. The ass-PSSC based on the PANI delivers a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 7.34%, and reduces from 7.34% to 6.71% after 1000 h, thereby 91.42% of the energy conversion efficiency is kept, indicating the device has a good long-term stability.

  6. Tautomerism in Schiff bases. The cases of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde investigated in solution and the solid state.

    PubMed

    Martínez, R Fernando; Ávalos, Martín; Babiano, Reyes; Cintas, Pedro; Jiménez, José L; Light, Mark E; Palacios, Juan C

    2011-12-21

    Schiff bases derived from hydroxyl naphthaldehydes and o-substituted anilines have been prepared and their tautomerism assessed by spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational methods. Tautomeric equilibria have also been studied and reveal in most cases a slight preference of imine tautomers in solution; a fact supported by DFT calculations in the gas phase as well as incorporating solvent effects through the SMD model. To simulate the effect exerted by the crystal lattice on tautomer stability, we have developed a computational protocol in the case of 1-tert-butyl-2-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylene)aminobenzene whose data have been obtained experimentally at 120 K. Although a rapid imine-enamine interconversion may be occurring in the solid state, the imine tautomer becomes the most stable form and the energy difference should be related to the difference in the packing of the molecules. PMID:22042218

  7. High-Beam-Quality All-Solid-State 355 nm Ultraviolet Pulsed Laser Based on a Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier System Pumped at 888 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hailong; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Gong, Mali

    2012-09-01

    An efficient all-solid-state 355 nm ultraviolet laser based on an 888 nm pumped master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system is presented. Due to the high beam quality of the fundamental wave being superior to 1.15 (M2) under all pump powers and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs), the UV laser has the advantage of being able to operate continuously from zero to maximum power. The maximum green and UV output powers were 45.9 W at 50 kHz and 24.3 W at 65 kHz with the corresponding conversion efficiencies from IR-to-green and IR-to-UV of 66.0% and 34.1%, respectively.

  8. High power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: trends in materials processing with laser radiation; slabs and high power systems; glasses and new crystals; solid state lasers at HOYA Corp.; lamps, resonators and transmission; glasses as active materials for high average power solid state lasers; flashlamp pumped GGG-crystals; alexandrite lasers; designing telescope resonators; mode operation of neodymium: YAG lasers; intracavity frequency doubling with KTP crystal and thermal effects in cylinder lasers.

  9. Solid-state structures of base-free ytterbocenes and inclusion compounds of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium with neutral carboranes and toluene: The role of intermolecular contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, M.; Burns, C.J.; Schwartz, D.J.; Andersen, R.A.

    2000-03-06

    The base-free ytterbocenes (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb, (Me{sub 4}C{sub 5}H){sub 2}Yb, and [1,3-(Me{sub 3}C){sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Yb have been prepared from their diethyl ether adducts, synthesized by reaction of YbI{sub 2} and the sodium salt of the substituted cyclopentadiene anion in diethyl ether. The structures of the base-free molecules have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The molecule (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb has been found to crystallize in two different morphologies; the complex also forms inclusion complexes with toluene, ortho-carborane, meta-carborane, and 1,2-dimethyl-ortho-carborane. The ytterbocene molecule in all of the derivatives examined is bent in the solid state with centroid-metal-centroid angles ranging from 132{degree} to 147{degree}. A detailed examination of the structures and comparison with the reported structures of (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Eu, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm, [1,3-(Me{sub 3}Si){sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Yb, and [1,3-(Me{sub 3}Si){sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Eu reveal that bending is the general structural preference. Close inter- or intramolecular contacts are observed in every case between the ytterbium atom and one or more carbon atoms other than those of the two cyclopentadienide rings of that ytterbocene fragment. The packing geometry is dictated by the substituents on the cyclopentadienide rings, the molecules arranging so as to minimize crowding in the solid state. The net result is a coordination polymer, dimer, or monomer, depending on the ring substituents.

  10. In situ-generated nano-gold plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical aptasensing based on carboxylated perylene-functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Tu, Wenwen; Li, Hongbo; Han, Min; Lan, Yaqian; Dai, Zhihui; Bao, Jianchun

    2014-01-21

    A novel in situ-generated nanogold plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical aptasensor for Hg(2+) ions was fabricated using a perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid/graphene (PTCA-GR) heterojunction. The fabricated photoelectrochemical aptasensor was based on thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine coordination chemistry and the plasmonic near-field absorption enhancement effect of the subsequent specific catalytic formation of nanogold. The energetic electrons from the surface plasmons of the nanogold were injected into the LUMO orbit of the organic PTCA semiconductor and then rapidly transferred to the electrode through GR due to the possible Hg(2+)-DNA molecular wires following irradiation with the visible light (λ > 450 nm) and at a bias voltage of 0.2 V. The fabricated aptasensor was linear in its response to the concentration of Hg(2+) ions in the range of 5-500 pmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 2 pmol L(-1). The presence of up to 200-fold greater concentrations of other common metal ions did not interfere with the detection of Hg(2+) ions in an aqueous system, and the results corresponded well with those obtained by ICP-MS. This novel plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical aptasensor exhibited good performance with its high sensitivity, good selectivity, low cost, and portable features. The strategy of the localized surface plasmon resonance through the in situ generation of noble metal nanoparticles paves the way for improvements in PEC aptasensor performance. PMID:24377281

  11. Cyclometalated iridium complex-based label-free photoelectrochemical biosensor for DNA detection by hybridization chain reaction amplification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxiang; Wang, Hongyang; Shen, Jing; Tang, Bo

    2015-04-21

    Photoactive material is the most crucial factor which intimately determines analytical performances of the photoelectrochemical sensor. On the basis of the high affinity of dipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine (dppz) with DNA helix, a novel photoactive intercalator, [(ppy)2Ir(dppz)](+)PF6(-)(ppy = 2-phenylpyridine and dppz = dipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine) was prepared and characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The photoelectrochemical properties of the as-prepared iridium(III) complex immobilized on the ITO electrode was investigated. Either cathodic or anodic photocurrent generation can be observed when triethanolamine (TEOA) or dissolved O2 is used as a sacrificial electron donor/acceptor, respectively. The probable photocurrent-generation mechanisms are speculated. A highly sensitive iridium(III) complex-based photoelectrochemical sensor was proposed for DNA detection via hybridization chain reaction (HCR) signal amplification. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor was found to be linearly proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 0.025 to 100 pmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 9.0 fmol L(-1) (3σ). Moreover, the proposed sensor displayed high selectivity and good reproducibility, demonstrating efficient and stable photoelectric conversion ability of the Ir(III) complex. PMID:25816127

  12. Investigation of a Photoelectrochemical Passivated ZnO-Based Glucose Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Chiu, Ying-Shuo; Ho, Shu-Ching; Lee, Yao-Jung

    2011-01-01

    A vapor cooling condensation system was used to deposit high quality intrinsic ZnO thin films and intrinsic ZnO nanorods as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET) glucose biosensors. The sensing sensitivity of the resulting glucose biosensors operated in the linear range was 13.4 μA mM−1 cm−2. To improve the sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors, the photoelectrochemical method was utilized to passivate the sidewall surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors with passivated ZnO nanorods was significantly improved to 20.33 μA mM−1 cm−2 under the same measurement conditions. The experimental results verified that the sensing sensitivity improvement was the result of the mitigation of the Fermi level pinning effect caused by the dangling bonds and the surface states induced on the sidewall surface of the ZnO nanorods. PMID:22163867

  13. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  14. Photoelectrochemical sensing of 4-chlorophenol based on Au/BiOCl nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yan, Pengcheng; Xu, Li; Xia, Jiexiang; Huang, Yan; Qiu, Jingxia; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Qi; Li, Huaming

    2016-08-15

    The Au/BiOCl composites have been prepared by a facile one-pot ethylene glycol (EG) assisted solvothermal reaction in the presence of ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C16mim]Cl). During the synthesis procedure, the [C16mim]Cl has been used as Cl source, solvent of this system, and dispersing agent to effectively disperse Au on the surface of BiOCl. The as-prepared samples have been systematically characterized by multiple instruments to investigate the structure, morphology, and photoelectrochemical properties. According to the photoelectrochemical data, the Au/BiOCl composites exhibit better photoelectrochemical performance toward the detection of 4-chlorophenol than that of the pure BiOCl. The photocurrent response of Au/BiOCl modified electrode is high and stable under light irradiation. The proposed Au/BiOCl modified electrode shows a wide linear response ranging from 0.16 to 20mgL(-1) with detection limit of 0.05mgL(-1). It indicates a dramatically promising application of bismuth oxyhalides in photoelectrochemical detection. It will be expected that the present study may be lightly extended to the monitor of other organic pollutants by photoelectrochemical detection of the Au/BiOCl composites. PMID:27260461

  15. Solid-State Thin-Film Supercapacitors with Ultrafast Charge/Discharge Based on N-Doped-Carbon-Tubes/Au-Nanoparticles-Doped-MnO2 Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiying; Wang, Shang; Sun, Hongyu; Luo, Jun; Xiao, Jian; Xiao, JunWu; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-13

    Although carbonaceous materials possess long cycle stability and high power density, their low-energy density greatly limits their applications. On the contrary, metal oxides are promising pseudocapacitive electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their high-energy density. Nevertheless, poor electrical conductivity of metal oxides constitutes a primary challenge that significantly limits their energy storage capacity. Here, an advanced integrated electrode for high-performance pseudocapacitors has been designed by growing N-doped-carbon-tubes/Au-nanoparticles-doped-MnO2 (NCTs/ANPDM) nanocomposite on carbon fabric. The excellent electrical conductivity and well-ordered tunnels of NCTs together with Au nanoparticles of the electrode cause low internal resistance, good ionic contact, and thus enhance redox reactions for high specific capacitance of pure MnO2 in aqueous electrolyte, even at high scan rates. A prototype solid-state thin-film symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) device based on NCTs/ANPDM exhibits large energy density (51 Wh/kg) and superior cycling performance (93% after 5000 cycles). In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device assembled from NCTs/ANPDM and Fe2O3 nanorods demonstrates ultrafast charge/discharge (10 V/s), which is among the best reported for solid-state thin-film supercapacitors with both electrodes made of metal oxide electroactive materials. Moreover, its superior charge/discharge behavior is comparable to electrical double layer type supercapacitors. The ASC device also shows superior cycling performance (97% after 5000 cycles). The NCTs/ANPDM nanomaterial demonstrates great potential as a power source for energy storage devices. PMID:26599168

  16. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulk heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.

  17. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulkmore » heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.« less

  18. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review.

    PubMed

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized. PMID:27519021

  19. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal–semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto–Peltier and Nernst–Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  20. XANES: Solid state mineral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Researchers in the field of mineral physics have become aware of new analytical techniques for studying the electronic structure of solids; one such technique is the X ray absorption fine structure (XFAS) method. In this technique the fine structure of the X ray K-edge, for example, can b e employed as a critical probe of t h e intricacies of a crystal structure (P. A. Lee, P. H. Citrin, P. Eisenberger, and B. M. Kincaid, Rev. Mod. Phys., 53, 799, 1981).A similar, related technique, X ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), is a relatively unknown method of studying the electronic structure of solids. XANES is new, and due to its complex nature, data on all but very simple solids have not yet been applied rigorously. Among the first XANES results on minerals is the recent study reported by G. Knapp, B. Veal, H. Pan, and T. Klipper (Solid State Comm. 44, 1343, 1982) on perovskites, magnesiowustites, and other 3d oxides in the zircon and spinel groups. The interpretation of these results is still semiquantitative, being based on ground state and basic selection rule considerations. The results show, however, a strong correlation between near-edge spectra and crystal structure.

  1. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  2. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  3. A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor for the determination of hydrogen peroxide based on an Au nanocluster-silica nanoparticle nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanfang; Huang, Jinhua; Zhou, Tingyao; Rong, Mingcong; Jiang, Yaqi; Chen, Xi

    2013-10-01

    A gold nanocluster@bovine serum albumin-silica nanoparticle composite has been synthesized and used for the solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing of hydrogen peroxide. The ECL characteristics have also been studied. PMID:23938445

  4. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Bak, M. S. E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Kim, T. E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} ⋅ 5H{sub 2}O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  5. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, A; Ha, S; Joshirao, P; Manchanda, V; Bak, M S; Kim, T

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO3)4 ⋅ 5H2O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories. PMID:26133876

  6. Formation of a copillar[5]arene-based supramolecular polymer in solution and in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lingyan; Zhang, Zibin; Dong, Shengyi; Xue, Min

    2014-05-01

    A linear supramolecular polymer based on the self-assembly of an easily available copillar[5]arene monomer is efficiently prepared, which is evidenced by the NMR spectroscopy, viscosity measurement, and DOSY experiment. The single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the polymerization of the AB-type monomer is driven by the quadruple CH•••π interactions and one CH•••O interaction. PMID:24604696

  7. High Sensitivity Viologen for a Facile and Versatile Sensor of Base and Solvent Polarity in Solution and Solid State in Air Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Xing, Feifei; Bai, Yue-Ling; Hu, Meiling; Zhao, Yongmei; Li, Ming-Xing; Zhu, Shourong

    2015-07-01

    Viologen cations are excellent electro- and photochromic materials. They generally have no response or very low sensitivity to bases. In this paper, three compounds, 1,1'-bis(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (viologen) with different substituents, including H (1), Cl (2), and OH (3), were synthesized. All three, especially 1 and 2, have very high sensitivity to base in both solution and solid state in air atmosphere. These viologens are responsive not only to bases but also to solvent polarity. NMR shows 1 became enolic and then a radical, whereas 3 is colored only in the radical form. These results are in agreement with EPR spectra. Crystal structures show that the C-C that links two pyridinium and N-C distances in coplanar pyridinium in the colored (radical) form is clearly longer than that of the pale-yellow form, indicating that the color is due to the viologen radical. Viologens containing an electron-withdrawing phenacetyl group are the most sensitive compounds for fast, naked eye detection of base and solvent polarity. PMID:26066088

  8. Modern solid state laser materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1984-06-20

    This document contains visual aids used in an invited talk entitled Modern Solid State Laser Materials, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) held in Anaheim, California, on June 20, 1984. Interest at LLNL in solid state lasers focuses on evaluating the potential of solid state laser media for high average power applications, including inertial fusion power production. This talk identifies the relevant bulk material parameters characterizing average power capacity and uses chromium and neodymium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:Cr:GSGG) as an example of a laser material with improved laser properties relative to Nd:YAG (plausible large-scale growth, more efficient spectral coupling to xenon flashlamp radiation, reduced stimulated emission cross section, adequate thermal shock and optical damage threshold parameters, etc.). Recently measured spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermo-mechanical properties of Nd:Cr:GSGG are given.

  9. Measurement of hetero-nuclear distances using a symmetry-based pulse sequence in solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Qiang; Hu, Bingwen; Lafon, Olivier; Trébosc, Julien; Deng, Feng; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2010-08-28

    A Symmetry-based Resonance-Echo DOuble-Resonance (S-REDOR) method is proposed for measuring hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings between two different spin-1/2 nuclei, under fast magic-angle spinning. The hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings are restored by employing the SR4 sequence, which requires the rf-field strength to be only twice the spinning frequency. The S-REDOR experiment is extended to S-RESPDOR (Symmetry-based Resonance-Echo Saturation-Pulse DOuble-Resonance) for determining dipolar coupling between a spin-1/2 nucleus (e.g.(13)C) and (14)N. It is demonstrated that S-REDOR and S-RESPDOR methods suppress efficiently the homo-nuclear dipolar interaction of the irradiated nucleus and benefit from high robustness to the rf-field inhomogeneity, chemical shielding and dipolar truncation. Therefore, these methods allow the measurement of (13)C/(14,15)N distances, with (13)C observation, in uniformly (13)C-labeled samples. Furthermore, we provide analytical solutions for the S-REDOR and S-RESPDOR dephasing curves. These solutions facilitate the measurement of hetero-nuclear distances from experimental data. PMID:20577687

  10. A photoelectrochemical methanol fuel cell based on aligned TiO2 nanorods decorated graphene photoanode.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyuan; Wang, Guowen; Jing, Lin; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Chao; Yan, Yi-Ming

    2016-02-11

    We report the photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation of methanol on a rationally designed graphene-TiO2 nanorod array (G-TNR) photoanode. A PEC methanol fuel cell was constructed by coupling the G-TNR photoanode with a cathode. This study raises a conceptual fuel cell that realizes the synergistic energy conversion of chemical energy and solar energy. PMID:26741738

  11. Solid state device technology for Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using solid state elements in the solar power satellite transmitter system is addressed. Recommendations are given concerning device types, the antenna modules, and the overall antenna system. The development of a solid state amplifier based on GaAs field effect transistor devices is also described.

  12. Ultra-fast solid state electro-optical modulator based on liquid crystal polymer and liquid crystal composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ouskova, Elena; Sio, Luciano De Vergara, Rafael; Tabiryan, Nelson; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2014-12-08

    A different generation of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) based on a liquid crystalline polymer host is reported wherein the fluid behavior of the reactive mesogenic monomer is an enabler to concentration windows (liquid crystal polymer/liquid crystal) (and subsequent morphologies) not previously explored. These liquid crystal (LC) polymer/LC composites, LCPDLCs, exhibit excellent optical and electro-optical properties with negligible scattering losses in both the ON and OFF states. These systems thus have application in systems where fast phase modulation of optical signal instead of amplitude control is needed. Polarized optical microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy confirm a bicontinuous morphology composed of aligned LC polymer coexisting with a phase separated LC fluid. Operating voltages, switching times, and spectra of LCPDLCs compare favourably to conventional PDLC films. The LCPDLCs exhibit a low switching voltage (4–5 V/μm), symmetric and submillisecond (200 μs) on/off response times, and high transmission in both the as formed and switched state in a phase modulation geometry.

  13. Study of a solid state microdosemeter based on a monolithic silicon telescope: irradiations with low-energy neutrons and direct comparison with a cylindrical TEPC.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, S; Colautti, P; Fanton, I; Fazzi, A; Introini, M V; Moro, D; Pola, A; Varoli, V

    2011-02-01

    A silicon device based on the monolithic silicon telescope technology coupled to a tissue-equivalent converter was proposed and investigated for solid state microdosimetry. The detector is constituted by a ΔE stage about 2 µm in thickness geometrically segmented in a matrix of micrometric diodes and a residual-energy measurement stage E about 500 µm in thickness. Each thin diode has a cylindrical sensitive volume 9 µm in nominal diameter, similar to that of a cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The silicon device and a cylindrical TEPC were irradiated in the same experimental conditions with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of energy between 0.64 and 2.3 MeV at the INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL-INFN, Legnaro, Italy). The aim was to study the capability of the silicon-based system of reproducing microdosimetric spectra similar to those measured by a reference microdosemeter. The TEPC was set in order to simulate a tissue site about 2 μm in diameter. The spectra of the energy imparted to the ▵E stage of the silicon telescope were corrected for tissue-equivalence through an optimized procedure that exploits the information from the residual energy measurement stage E. A geometrical correction based on parametric criteria for shape-equivalence was also applied. The agreement between the dose distributions of lineal energy and the corresponding mean values is satisfactory at each neutron energy considered. PMID:21147791

  14. High-color rendering indices performance of glass based phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes for solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chun-Chin; Cheng, Wei-Chih; Chen, Guan-Hao; Lee, Yu-Chun; Kuo, Cheng Ta; Cheng, Wood-Hi

    2014-02-01

    The high-temperature operation of glass based phosphor-converted warm-white light-emitting diodes (PC-WWLEDs) is demonstrated. The fabrication and characteristics of low-temperature phosphor (Yollow:Ce:3+:YAG, Greed:Tb3+:YAG, Red:CaAlClSiN3:Eu2+) doped glass applied to high color rendering indices warm-white-light-emitting diodes was presented. In this property is color coordinates (x, y) = (0.32, 0.28), quantum yield (QY) = 55%, color rending index (CRI) =85, correlated color temperature (CCT) =3900K. The result showed the PC-WLEDs maintained good thermal stability at the high temperature operation. The QY decay, CRI attenuation and chromaticity shift in glass and silicone based high-power PC-WLEDs under thermal aging at 150°C and 250°C are also presented and compared. The result indicated that the glass based PC-WLEDs exhibited better thermal stability than the silicone. And the color rendering indices (CRI) glass phosphor may have potential used as a phosphor layer for high-performance and low-cost PCWLEDs used in next-generation indoors solid-state lighting applications.

  15. Solid state white light emitting systems based on CeF3: RE3+ nanoparticles and their composites with polymers.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Farheen N; Grover, V; Dubey, K A; Sudarsan, V; Tyagi, A K

    2011-01-15

    A series of doped CeF(3): RE(3+) (RE(3+): Tb(3+), Eu(3+) and Dy(3+)) nanoparticles were synthesized, with the aim of obtaining a white light emitting composition, by a simple polyol route at 160°C and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and photoluminescence. Uniformly distributed and highly water-dispersible rectangular nanoparticles (length ~15-20 nm, breadth ~5-10 nm) were obtained. The steady state and time resolved luminescence studies confirmed efficient energy transfer from the host to activator ions. Lifetime studies revealed that optimum luminescence is observed for 2.5 mol% Dy(3+) and 7.5 mol% Tb(3+). The energy transfer efficiencies (Ce(3+) to activators) were found to be 89% for CeF(3): Tb(3+) (7.5 mol%) nanoparticles and 60% for CeF(3): Dy(3+) (2.5 mol%) nanoparticles. Different concentrations of Tb(3+), Eu(3+) and Dy(3+) were doped to achieve a white light emitting phosphor for UV-based LEDs (light emitting diodes). Finally CeF(3), triply doped with 2.0 mol%Tb(3+), 4.5 mol% Eu(3+) and 3.5 mol% Dy(3+), was found to have impressive chromaticity co-ordinates, close to broad day light. The colloidal solutions of doped CeF(3) nanoparticles emitted bright green (Tb(3+)), blue (Dy(3+)) and white (triply doped) luminescence upon host excitation. Composites of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) were made with CeF(3): 5.0 mol%Tb(3+), CeF(3): 5.0 mol% Dy(3+) and triply doped white light emitting composition. The CeF(3)/PMMA (PVA) nanocomposite films, so obtained, are highly transparent (in the visible spectral range) and exhibit strong photoluminescence upon UV excitation. PMID:20980015

  16. Solid state electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  17. Studies of photocorrosion and passivation of n-GaAs based semiconductor/liquid junction photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric Alan

    Semiconductor photoelectrochemical cells offer a cheap, easily constructed alternative to all-solid-state solar cells. However, a persistent problem in their development has been photocorrosion of the semiconductor electrode. Photocorrosion degrades the electrode, reducing the device lifetime to unacceptably short times. Much effort has gone into developing passivation schemes to reduce or eliminate photocorrosion. None has yet provided permanent protection. A better understanding of the basic interfacial chemistry and physics is necessary to achieve this. Toward this end, the studies described in this manuscript have been performed. n-GaAs has been chosen as the electrode material in these studies due to its strong absorption near a maximum in the solar spectrum. Its photoelectrochemical behavior in Nasb2S has been examined because of the known ability of Nasb2S to passivate photocorrosion. Although the protection provided by Nasb2S is known to be temporary, the focus of these studies is to gain a more complete understanding of the interactions between Nasb2S and GaAs which lead to passivation and photocorrosion. Three separate studies are described in this manuscript. In the first, time-resolved photoluminescence experiments were employed to determine whether the minority carrier surface recombination velocity (SRV) is dependent upon electrolyte concentration. The results indicate that, within the concentration range studied, the SRV is independent of Nasb2S concentration, suggesting that there is no significant change in the degree of semiconductor/electrolyte bond formation. In the second study, the dependence of photocorrosion and passivation on crystallographic orientation was examined. Results show that the (100) and (110) surfaces of GaAs were passivated equally well by Nasb2S, although surface states which eventually formed at the two surfaces were separated in energy by 300 meV. The (111)B surface was not passivated by Nasb2S. In the third study, the

  18. Development of methodologies based on HPLC and Raman spectroscopy for monitoring the stability of lovastatin in solid state in the presence of gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Orkoula, M G; Kontoyannis, C G; Markopoulou, C K; Koundourellis, J E

    2004-09-01

    Methodologies based on FT-Raman spectroscopy and HPLC were developed for monitoring the stability of lovastatin in the solid state in the presence of gallic acid, a natural antioxidant. A Raman calibration curve was constructed using the area of the strong but overlapping vibration mode of lovastatin at 1645 cm(-1) and of the gallic acid at 1595 cm(-1). Mixtures of the active ingredient with the antioxidant were heated in the presence of atmospheric air up to 120 degrees C. The molar ratios of lovastatin and gallic acid in the artificially oxidized mixtures were determined from their Raman spectra using the calibration curve. The results were compared to those obtained from the application of the HPLC methodology and found to match satisfactorily. The HPLC analysis was based on a reserved-phase Zorbax C(g), 10 microm (4.6mm x 25 cm i.d.) column, using a gradient elution program by varying the proportion of solvent A acetonitrile 100% to solvent B 0.1% v/v phosphoric acid, and a programmable diode array detection at 225 nm. The Raman methodology was simpler and non-destructive for the sample but yielded only molar ratios as opposed to the HPLC technique where the moles of the both ingredients were determined. PMID:15336348

  19. An ultrasensitive and universal photoelectrochemical immunoassay based on enzyme mimetics enhanced signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Shu, Jun-Xian; Dong, Yu-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun

    2015-04-15

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay based on signal amplification by enzyme mimetics was fabricated for the detection of mouse IgG (as a model protein). The PEC immunosensor was constructed by a layer-by-layer assembly of poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), CdS quantum dots (QDs), primary antibody (Ab1, polyclonal goat antimouse IgG), and the antigen (Ag, mouse IgG) on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Then, the secondary antibody (Ab2, polyclonal goat antimouse IgG) combined to a bio-bar-coded Pt nanoparticle(NP)-G-quadruplex/hemin probe was used for signal amplification. The bio-bar-coded Pt NP-G-quadruplex/hemin probe could catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) using H2O2 as an oxidant, demonstrating its intrinsic enzyme-like activity. High sensitivity for the target Ag was achieved by using the bio-bar-coded probe as signal amplifier due to its high catalytic activity, a competitive nonproductive absorption of hemin and the steric hindrance caused by the polymeric oxidation products of HQ. For most important, the oxidation product of HQ acted as an efficient electron acceptor of the illuminated CdS QDs. The target Ag could be detected from 0.01pg/mL to 1.0ng/mL with a low detection limit of 6.0fg/mL. The as-obtained immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good stability and acceptable reproducibility. This method might be attractive for clinical and biomedical applications. PMID:25437365

  20. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Gill, John T.; Hawkins, Daniel B.; Renschler, Clifford L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Smith, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  1. Novel inorganic borate host phosphor K2Al2B2O7:Dy3+ for LED based solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaspagar, R. S.; Sonekar, R. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work we report the preparation and photoluminescence characteristics of Dy3+ doped borate phosphor K2Al2B2O7:Dy3+. The fine polycrystalline powder samples of K2Al2B2O7:Dy3+ has been prepared by a novel combustion technique. This method is based on the exothermic redox reaction involves, metal nitrates and organic fuel (urea). The formation of samples was confirmed by powder XRD technique. The photoluminescence properties of borate phosphors have been investigated on fluorescence spectrometer (F-7000). The PL excitation spectra of K2Al2B2O7:Dy3+ consists of several bands peaking at 241 nm, 297 nm, 324 nm, 350 nm, 364 nm and 387 nm. Since the prominent excitation peaks are above 360nm, the phosphor may useful for solid state lighting application. The emission spectrum monitored at 351 nm excitation consists of blue emission band peaking at 481 nm and yellow emission band peaking at 574nm.

  2. Solid-state supramolecular synthesis based on the N-H…O heterosynthon: an approach to solve the polymorphism problem in famotidine.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marcos G; Brusau, Elena V; Ellena, Javier; Narda, Griselda E

    2014-11-01

    Famotidine (FMT), a histamine H2 -receptor antagonist, is a drug commonly used in treatments of gastroesophageal diseases that presents solid-state polymorphism (A and B forms), the marketed form being the metastable polymorph B. A new stable salt was obtained by combination of FMT and maleic acid as coformer. FMT maleate (FMT-MLT) was prepared either by solvent evaporation or comilling methods. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that (FMT)(+) in FMT-MLT adopts an extended conformation that is stabilized by classical and nonclassical H-bonds. The three-dimensional packing consists of tapes along the axis b that further develop a columnar array based on H-bonds involving (FMT)(+) side chain. Nonconventional π-stacking interactions between adjacent tapes were also identified. Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, polarized light thermal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize the multicomponent complex. According to the solubility values in water and simulated gastric fluid, FMT-MLT exhibits such a performance that improves on the solubility of the commercially available polymorph. Finally, the higher stability of FMT-MLT regarding both FMT forms, as well as its easy preparation from either A or B forms or a mixture of them, also allows to consider this salt as a valuable alternative to avoid the polymorphism issue in marketed formulations containing FMT. PMID:25277273

  3. Low molecular mass organogelator based gel electrolyte gelated by a quaternary ammonium halide salt for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Cai, Molang; Dai, Songyuan; Wang, Kongjia

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are fabricated using tetradodecylammonium bromide as a low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to form gel electrolyte with a high solution-to-gel transition temperature (T SG) of 75 °C to hinder flow and volatilization of the liquid. The steady-state voltammograms reveal that the diffusion of the I 3 - and I - in the gel electrolyte is hindered by the self-assembled network of the gel. An increased interfacial exchange current density (j 0) of 4.95 × 10 -8 A cm -2 and a decreased electron recombination lifetime (τ) of 117 ms reveal an increased electron recombination at the dyed TiO 2 photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the DSC after gelation. The results of the accelerated aging tests show that the gel electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell can retain over 93% of its initial photoelectric conversion efficiency value after successive heating at 60 °C for 1000 h, and device degradation is negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter for 1000 h.

  4. Constraining the Evolution of the Fundamental Constants with a Solid-State Optical Frequency Reference Based on the {sup 229}Th Nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Rellergert, Wade G.; Hudson, Eric R.; DeMille, D.; Greco, R. R.; Hehlen, M. P.; Torgerson, J. R.

    2010-05-21

    We describe a novel approach to directly measure the energy of the narrow, low-lying isomeric state in {sup 229}Th. Since nuclear transitions are far less sensitive to environmental conditions than atomic transitions, we argue that the {sup 229}Th optical nuclear transition may be driven inside a host crystal with a high transition Q. This technique might also allow for the construction of a solid-state optical frequency reference that surpasses the short-term stability of current optical clocks, as well as improved limits on the variability of fundamental constants. Based on analysis of the crystal lattice environment, we argue that a precision (short-term stability) of 3x10{sup -17}<{Delta}f/f<1x10{sup -15} after 1 s of photon collection may be achieved with a systematic-limited accuracy (long-term stability) of {Delta}f/f{approx}2x10{sup -16}. Improvement by 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} of the constraints on the variability of several important fundamental constants also appears possible.

  5. High Energy Density All Solid State Asymmetric Pseudocapacitors Based on Free Standing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Co3O4 Composite Aerogel Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasis; Lim, Joonwon; Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-31

    Modern flexible consumer electronics require efficient energy storage devices with flexible free-standing electrodes. We report a simple and cost-effective route to a graphene-based composite aerogel encapsulating metal oxide nanoparticles for high energy density, free-standing, binder-free flexible pseudocapacitive electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully housed inside the microporous graphene aerogel network during the room temperature interfacial gelation at the Zn surface. The resultant three-dimensional (3D) rGO-Co3O4 composite aerogel shows mesoporous quasiparallel layer stack morphology with a high loading of Co3O4, which offers numerous channels for ion transport and a 3D interconnected network for high electrical conductivity. All solid state asymmetric pseudocapacitors employing the composite aerogel electrodes have demonstrated high areal energy density of 35.92 μWh/cm(2) and power density of 17.79 mW/cm(2) accompanied by excellent cycle life. PMID:27494271

  6. A new Schiff base, (E)-4-((4-chlorophenylimino) methyl)-2-methoxyphenol: Crystal structure, thermal behavior, solid-state fluorescence, DFT calculations and FT NMR spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagapandiselvi, P.; Baby, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A new Schiff base, (E)-4-((4-chlorophenylimino) methyl)-2-methoxyphenol (4CMP), was synthesized and grown as single crystal by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The crystal structure of the compound, elucidated from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, was in good agreement with the calculated structure using Density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) basis set of Gaussian 03 program. The physicochemical characterization of the title compound was further performed by modern spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR (both 1D and 2D), UV-Vis-NIR, and fluorescence analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum showed the transparent nature of 4CMP crystal in the region 500-1200 nm. Solid state fluorescence of the crystal indicate that the title compound can serve as a photoactive material. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the grown crystal is thermally stable up to a temperature of 225 °C. From DSC, the phase transition of the compound was found to be at 131 °C. The dependence of both dielectric constant and dielectric loss with frequency was measured. Microscopic nonlinear optical properties like dipole moment (μ) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) were also measured using DFT.

  7. An all-solid-state screen-printed carbon paste reference electrode based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as solid contact transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Pan, Yiwen; Wang, You; Li, Guang; Chen, Ying; Ye, Ying

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents the design of an all-solid-state portable reference electrode based on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode suitable for rapid human serum testing. The electrode was covered by electropolymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as an internal solid contact layer and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane containing lipophilic anion and cation additives. The electrochemical properties of PEDOT(PSS) and PEDOT(PSS)/PVC film on a carbon paste electrode were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The reference electrode exhibited good potential stability (for H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- and CO2 -3/HCO-3), good reproducibility and long-term stability. The structure is applied as reference electrodes in human serum pH analysis with pH ion selective planar electrodes, forming a serum pH sensor. The response time of such a pH sensor was 15 s and the sensitivity was -52.2 ± 1.0 mV per decade. Other properties, such as repeatability, reproducibility and stability, were also evaluated. Clinical trials were carried out and compared with the results obtained from the routine hospital electrolyte analyzer, which demonstrated that their analytical performance was closely matched.

  8. Novel fabrication of solid-state NaBH 4/Ru-based catalyst composites for hydrogen evolution using a high-energy ball-milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hsueh, Chan-Li; Ku, Jie-Ren; Tsau, Fanghei

    Solid-state NaBH 4/Ru-based catalyst composites have been fabricated for hydrogen generation through a high-energy ball-milling process, providing uniform dispersion of resin-supported Ru 3+ catalysts among pulverized NaBH 4 (SBH) particles, so as to increase the contacts of SBH with active catalytic sites. Consequently, the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity as high as 7.3 wt% could be achieved by utilizing water as a limiting reagent to overcome the issue of deactivated catalysts whose active sites are often blocked by precipitates caused by limited NaBO 2 solubility occurring in conventional aqueous SBH systems for hydrogen productions. Products of hydrolyzed SBH that greatly influence the gravimetric H 2 storage capacity are found to be most likely NaBO 2·2H 2O and NaBO 2·4H 2O from SBH/H 2O reacting systems with initial weight ratios, SBH/H 2O = 1/2 and 1/10, respectively, according to the TGA and XRD analyses.

  9. Structural color-tunable mesoporous bragg stack layers based on graft copolymer self-assembly for high-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-08-01

    We present a facile fabrication route for structural color-tunable mesoporous Bragg stack (BS) layers based on the self-assembly of a cost-effective graft copolymer. The mesoporous BS layers are prepared through the alternating deposition of organized mesoporous-TiO2 (OM-TiO2) and -SiO2 (OM-SiO2) films on the non-conducting side of the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The OM layers with controlled porosity, pore size, and refractive index are templated with amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM. The morphology and properties of the structural color-tunable mesoporous BS-functionalized electrodes are characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and reflectance spectroscopy. The solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs) based on a structural color-tunable mesoporous BS counter electrode with a single-component solid electrolyte show an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 7.1%, which is much greater than that of conventional nanocrystalline TiO2-based cells and one of the highest values for N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. The enhancement of η is due to the enhancement of current density (Jsc), attributed to the improved light harvesting properties without considerable decrease in fill factor (FF) or open-circuit voltage (Voc), as confirmed by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  10. Enhanced photo-electrochemical performances of graphene-based composite functionalized by Zn2+ tetraphenylporphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhu, Junwu; Han, Qiaofeng; Cui, Hao; Bi, Huiping; Wang, Xin

    2014-12-01

    Inspired by the role of electron transport chain in chlorophyll, graphene (G) complexation with zinc 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) is expected to have excellent photo-electrochemical performances. Here, we design a facile strategy to synthesize the functionalized graphene/zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (G/ZnTPP) composite. In which, all characterizations indicate synergistic effect does exist between graphene sheets and ZnTPP. The synergistic effect enables such composite to possess improved photo-electrochemical behaviors that are key features for photoelectric conversion device. On the basis of this, attempts to modify the absorption range, improve specific capacitance and lower resistance to acquire effective photo-current responses have been successfully demonstrated in this research.