Science.gov

Sample records for based wound dressings

  1. Cyclodextrin-based hydrogels toward improved wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Eva; Grootveld, Martin; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Optimal wound dressings should be capable of mechanical wound protection and also facilitate the healing process via maintenance of suitable environmental conditions and the controlled delivery of bioactive molecules. Hydrogels present suitable properties for wound-dressing applications such as good biocompatibility, together with a high water content, the latter of which is important for the maintenance of a moist environment and ready removal from the wound with a minimal level of associated pain. However, their properties as drug delivery systems can be improved by the use of cyclodextrins as cross-linking agents. Cyclodextrins have been extensively used as "carriers" on food, textile, cosmetic and, most especially, in the pharmaceutical industry in view of their powerful complexation abilities and biocompatibilities, together with further desirable characteristics. The conjugation of cyclodextrins with hydrogels may allow the achievement of an optimal wound-dressing material, because the hydrogel component will maintain the moist environment required for the healing process, and the cyclodextrin moiety has the ability to protect and modulate the release of bioactive molecules. Therefore, this review aims to gather information regarding cyclodextrin-based hydrogels for possible wound-dressing applications. PMID:23919239

  2. Chronic Wound Dressings Based on Collagen-Mimetic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cereceres, Stacy; Touchet, Tyler; Browning, Mary Beth; Smith, Clayton; Rivera, Jose; Höök, Magnus; Whitfield-Cargile, Canaan; Russell, Brooke; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chronic wounds are projected to reach epidemic proportions due to the aging population and the increasing incidence of diabetes. There is a strong clinical need for an improved wound dressing that can balance wound moisture, promote cell migration and proliferation, and degrade at an appropriate rate to minimize the need for dressing changes. Approach: To this end, we have developed a bioactive, hydrogel microsphere wound dressing that incorporates a collagen-mimetic protein, Scl2GFPGER, to promote active wound healing. A redesigned Scl2GFPGER, engineered collagen (eColGFPGER), was created to reduce steric hindrance of integrin-binding motifs and increase overall stability of the triple helical backbone, thereby resulting in increased cell adhesion to substrates. Results: This study demonstrates the successful modification of the Scl2GFPGER protein to eColGFPGER, which displayed enhanced stability and integrin interactions. Fabrication of hydrogel microspheres provided a matrix with adaptive moisture technology, and degradation rates have potential for use in human wounds. Innovation: This collagen-mimetic wound dressing was designed to permit controlled modulation of cellular interactions and degradation rate without impact on other physical properties. Its fabrication into uniform hydrogel microspheres provides a bioactive dressing that can readily conform to irregular wounds. Conclusion: Overall, this new eColGFPGER shows strong promise in the generation of bioactive hydrogels for wound healing as well as a variety of tissue scaffolds. PMID:26244101

  3. In Vivo Performance of Chitosan/Soy-Based Membranes as Wound-Dressing Devices for Acute Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Tírcia C.; Höring, Bernhard; Reise, Kathrin; Marques, Alexandra P.; Silva, Simone S.; Oliveira, Joaquim M.; Mano, João F.; Castro, António G.; van Griensven, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Wound management represents a major clinical challenge on what concerns healing enhancement and pain control. The selection of an appropriate dressing plays an important role in both recovery and esthetic appearance of the regenerated tissue. Despite the wide range of available dressings, the progress in the wound care market relies on the increasing interest in using natural-based biomedical products. Herein, a rat wound-dressing model of partial-thickness skin wounds was used to study newly developed chitosan/soy (cht/soy)-based membranes as wound-dressing materials. Healing and repair of nondressed, cht/soy membrane-dressed, and Epigard®-dressed wounds were followed macroscopically and histologically for 1 and 2 weeks. cht/soy membranes performed better than the controls, promoting a faster wound repair. Re-epithelialization, observed 1 week after wounding, was followed by cornification of the outermost epidermal layer at the second week of dressing, indicating repair of the wounded tissue. The use of this rodent model, although in impaired healing conditions, may enclose some drawbacks regarding the inevitable wound contraction. Moreover, being the main purpose the evaluation of cht/soy-based membranes' performance in the absence of growth factors, the choice of a clinically relevant positive control was limited to a polymeric mesh, without any growth factor influencing skin healing/repair, Epigard. These new cht/soy membranes possess the desired features regarding healing/repair stimulation, ease of handling, and final esthetic appearance—thus, valuable properties for wound dressings. PMID:23083058

  4. Peroxide-based oxygen generating topical wound dressing for enhancing healing of dermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Prafulla K; Ross, Christina L; Smith, Leona C; Jeong, Seon S; Kim, Jaehyun; Yoo, James J; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2015-11-12

    Oxygen generating biomaterials represent a new trend in regenerative medicine that aims to generate and supply oxygen at the site of requirement, to support tissue healing and regeneration. To enhance the healing of dermal wounds, we have developed a highly portable, in situ oxygen generating wound dressings that uses sodium percarbonate (SPO) and calcium peroxide (CPO) as chemical oxygen sources. The dressing continuously generated oxygen for more than 3 days, after which it was replaced. In the in vivo testing on porcine full-thickness porcine wound model, the SPO/CPO dressing showed enhanced wound healing during the 8 week study period. Quantitative measurements of wound healing related parameters, such as wound closure, reepithelialization, epidermal thickness and collagen content of dermis showed that supplying oxygen topically using the SPO/CPO dressing significantly accelerated the wound healing. An increase in neovascularization, as determined using Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and CD31 staining, was also observed in the presence of SPO/CPO dressing. This novel design for a wound dressing that contains oxygen generating biomaterials (SPO/CPO) for supplying topical oxygen, may find utility in treating various types of acute to chronic wounds. PMID:26053405

  5. Wound dressings - a review.

    PubMed

    Dhivya, Selvaraj; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Santhini, Elango

    2015-12-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process which requires suitable environment to promote healing process. With the advancement in technology, more than 3000 products have been developed to treat different types of wounds by targeting various aspects of healing process. The present review traces the history of dressings from its earliest inception to the current status and also discusses the advantage and limitations of the dressing materials. PMID:26615539

  6. Novel wound dressing based on nanofibrous PHBV-keratin mats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiang; Geng, Jia; Xing, Zhicai; Shim, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Insook; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Shen, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Keratin is an important protein used for wound healing and tissue recovery. In this study, keratin was first extracted from raw materials and chemically modified to obtain stable keratin (m-keratin). The raw and m-keratin were examined by Raman spectroscopy. The molecular weight of the m-keratin was analysed by SDS-PAGE. The m-keratin was then blended with poly(hydroxybutylate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and electrospun to afford nanofibrous mats. These mats were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). From the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) data, it was found that introduction of keratin enhanced cell proliferation. From wound-healing test and histological examination results, it was shown that the composite mats accelerated wound recovery remarkably as compared to the PHBV control. It was concluded that PHBV-keratin may be a good candidate as a wound dressing. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23208930

  7. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial wound dressings based on silver, gellan, PVA and borax.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, C; Bellini, D; Pavesio, A; Senigaglia, D; Passariello, C; Virga, A; Matricardi, P

    2012-10-15

    Silver-loaded dressings are designed to provide the same antimicrobial activity of topical silver, with the advantages of a sustained silver release and a reduced number of dressing changes. Moreover, such type of dressing must provide a moist environment, avoiding fiber shedding, dehydration and adherence to the wound site. Here we describe the preparation of a novel silver-loaded dressing based on a Gellan/Hyaff(®) (Ge-H) non woven, treated with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/borax system capable to enhance the entrapment of silver in the dressing and to modulate its release. The new hydrophilic non woven dressings show enhanced water uptake capability and slow dehydration rates. A sustained silver release is also achieved. The antibacterial activity was confirmed on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22939352

  8. Wound Healing and the Dressing*

    PubMed Central

    Scales, John T.

    1963-01-01

    The evolution of surgical dressings is traced from 1600 b.c. to a.d. 1944. The availability of an increasing variety of man-made fibres and films from 1944 onwards has stimulated work on wound dressings, and some of the more important contributions, both clinical and experimental, are discussed. The functions of a wound dressing and the properties which the ideal wound dressing should possess are given. The necessity for both histological and clinical evaluation of wound dressings in animals and in man is stressed. Wound dressings are the most commonly used therapeutic agents, but there is no means whereby their performance can be assessed. An attempt should be made either nationally or internationally to establish a standard method of assessing the performance of wound dressings. For this it is necessary to have an internationally agreed standard dressing which could be used as a reference or control dressing in all animal and human work. The only animal with skin morphologically similar to that of man is the domestic pig. Three types of wounds could be used: (1) partial-thickness wounds; (2) full-thickness excisions; and (3) third-degree burns. The development of standard techniques for the assessment of the efficiency of wound dressings would be of considerable benefit to the research worker, the medical profession, the patient, and the surgical dressings industry. PMID:13976490

  9. Electrospun chitosan-based nanocomposite mats reinforced with chitin nanocrystals for wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Narges; Algan, Constance; Jacobs, Valencia; John, Maya; Oksman, Kristiina; Mathew, Aji P

    2014-08-30

    The aim of this study was to develop electrospun chitosan/polyethylene oxide-based randomly oriented fiber mats reinforced with chitin nanocrystals (ChNC) for wound dressing. Microscopy studies showed porous mats of smooth and beadless fibers with diameters between 223 and 966 nm. The addition of chitin nanocrystals as well as crosslinking had a positive impact on the mechanical properties of the mats, and the crosslinked nanocomposite mats with a tensile strength of 64.9 MPa and modulus of 10.2 GPa were considered the best candidate for wound dressing application. The high surface area of the mats (35 m(2)g(-1)) was also considered beneficial for wound healing. The water vapor transmission rate of the prepared mats was between 1290 and 1,548 gm(-2)day(-1), and was in the range for injured skin or wounds. The electrospun fiber mats showed compatibility toward adipose derived stem cells, further confirming their potential use as wound dressing materials. PMID:24815394

  10. Wound dressings based on silver sulfadiazine solid lipid nanoparticles for tissue repairing.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; D'Autilia, Francesca; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Grisoli, Pietro; Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla

    2013-05-01

    The management of difficult to heal wounds can considerably reduce the time required for tissue repairing and promote the healing process, minimizing the risk of infection. Silver compounds, especially silver sulfadiazine (AgSD), are often used to prevent or to treat wound colonization, also in presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, AgSD has been shown to be cytotoxic in vitro toward fibroblasts and keratinocytes and consequently to retard wound healing in vivo. Recently, platelet lysate (PL) has been proposed in clinical practice for the healing of persistent lesions. The aim of the present work was the development of wound dressings based on AgSD loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), to be used in association with PL for the treatment for skin lesions. SLN were based on chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate, bioactive polymers characterized by well-known tissue repairing properties. The encapsulation of AgSD in SLN aimed at preventing the cytotoxic effect of the drug on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and at enabling the association of the drug with PL. SLN were loaded in wound dressings based on hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) or chitosan glutamate (CS glu). These polymers were chosen to obtain a sponge matrix with suitable elasticity and softness and, moreover, with good bioadhesive behavior on skin lesions. Dressings based on chitosan glutamate showed antimicrobial activity with and without PL. Even though further in vivo evaluation could be envisaged, chitosan based dressings demonstrated to be a suitable prototype for the treatment for skin lesions. PMID:23207329

  11. Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J.; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in neonates and children is indicated to promote the development of wound care dressings and products with specific applications in these populations. PMID:24761363

  12. Testing wound dressings using an in vitro wound model

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, C.; Kirker, K.; Agostinho, A.; James, G.; Stewart, P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether or not there are any significant differences in the effects of wound dressings on bacterial bioburden. Method A selection of non-occlusive, non-adhesive dressings was tested for their effect on bacterial bioburden. The dressings selected included two dressings with antimicrobial properties (one containing silver and one containing PHMB), a cotton-based dressing enclosed in a perforated sleeve of poly(ethylene terephthalate), a carboxymethyl cellulose-based dressing, a fibre-free alginate dressing, and a 12-ply 100% cotton gauze. Using the colony-drip flow reactor (DFR) model, a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was grown underneath a dressing sample. Biofilm growth was examined via plate counts, fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results The dressings containing antimicrobial agents had the greatest effect on bacterial load. In the MRSA experiments, both antimicrobial dressings produced lower bacteria counts than the other dressings (p?0.001), while in the P. aeruginosa experiments, only the silver-containing sample had fewer bacteria (p?0.0001). However, neither antimicrobial dressing was able to completely eradicate the bacteria when testing with either microorganism. Conclusion The results presented herein illustrate that bacteria can grow unchallenged within the dressing environment and that an antimicrobial dressing can limit this bacterial growth. PMID:20551862

  13. Successful Treatment of Unstageable Pressure Ulcer by Using Advanced Wound Dressing.

    PubMed

    Sunarti, Sri

    2015-07-01

    This is a case of a 79-year old male, with late stage prostatic cancer, immobilization and having unstageable stage of lumbosacral pressure ulcer. We manage his ulcer locally with an advanced wound dressing. We apply hydrogel as a primary dressing and hydrofiber as secondary dressing. Advanced wound dressings are designed to maintain a moist environment at the site of application, allowing the fluids to remain close to the wound but not spread to unaffected, healthy skin areas. The relevance of the moist wound environment as a factor accelerating the healing process was first observed by Winter in 1962, but only recently has received more serious attention. An effective dressing should protect the wound, absorb exudate, preserve a moist wound base, and remove excess exudate. Design of effective dressings relies on an understanding of the healing process, as well as the specific conditions of a patient and the effect that each material used could have on the wound. The phases of healing are cleaning, granulation, and epithelialization. The recommended dressing for cleaning phase are alginate dressing, dextranomer dressing, hidrofiber dressing, flax dressing, tenderwet dressing, silver-supplemented dressing, or enzyme-supplemented dressing. Whereas for granulation phase, we can use alginate dressing, hydrocolloid dressing, hydrogel dressing, flax dressing, polyurethane foam dressing, or tender wet dressing. For epithelialization phase, we can use hydrofiber dressing, hydrocolloid dressing, hydrogel dressing, flax dressing, semipermeable dressing. The type of dressing may change over time as exudate volume increases or decreases. PMID:26586392

  14. Collagen-based wound dressings for the treatment of diabetes-related foot ulcers: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Crystal; Wrobel, James S; MacEachern, Mark P; Boles, Blaise R

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcers are a major source of morbidity, limb loss, and mortality. A prolonged inflammatory response, extracellular matrix degradation irregularities, and increased bacteria presence have all been hypothesized as major contributing factors in the delayed healing of diabetic wounds. Collagen components such as fibroblast and keratinocytes are fundamental to the process of wound healing and skin formation. Wound dressings that contain collagen products create a biological scaffold matrix that supports the regulation of extracellular components and promotes wound healing. Methods A systematic review of studies reporting collagen wound dressings used in the treatment of Diabetic foot ulcers was conducted. Comprehensive searches were run in Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science to capture citations pertaining to the use of collagen wound dressings in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. The searches were limited to human studies reported in English. Results Using our search strategy, 26 papers were discussed, and included 13 randomized designs, twelve prospective cohorts, and one retrospective cohort, representing 2386 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Our design was not a formal meta-analysis. In those studies where complete epithelialization, 58% of collagen-treated wounds completely healed (weighted mean 67%). Only 23% of studies reported control group healing with 29% healing (weighted mean 11%) described for controls. Conclusion Collagen-based wound dressings can be an effective tool in the healing of diabetic foot wounds. The current studies show an overall increase in healing rates despite limitations in study designs. This study suggests that future works focus on biofilms and extracellular regulation, and include high risk patients. PMID:23357897

  15. Hydropolymer dressings in the management of wound exudate.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kate

    2003-01-01

    In the UK the so-called 'foam' dressings are currently the most widely used absorbent dressings. They can, in certain cases, be particularly useful for the management of exuding wounds. One type of foam dressing--the Tielle hydropolymer adhesive dressing family (by Johnson & Johnson Wound Management)--is a range of five types of hydropolymer dressings: Tielle Original dressing, Tielle Lite dressing. Tielle Plus dressing, Tielle Borderless dressing and Tielle Packing dressing. The Tielle range shares a common basic composition that gives each dressing bacterial barrier properties and the capability of managing exudate by the combined process of absorption and moisture vapour transmission. Each type except Packing can be used as either a primary or as a secondary dressing. The choice should be based on the characteristics of the primary dressing, if any, on the degree of exudate that the wound is producing and on the condition of the surrounding skin. This article aims to give an overview of the Tielle range and a review of research-based clinical and scientific evidence to support the management of differing levels of exuding wounds in everyday clinical practice. PMID:14685964

  16. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  1. "Sponge-like" dressings based on biopolymers for the delivery of platelet lysate to skin chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Faccendini, A; Bonferoni, M C; Ferrari, F; Sandri, G; Del Fante, C; Perotti, C; Caramella, C M

    2013-01-20

    The aim of the present work was the development of sponge-like dressings, obtained by freeze-drying, based on chitosan glutamate and sodium hyaluronate for platelet lysate (PL) delivery to chronic skin wounds. A first phase of the research focused on the choice of the best dressing composition to obtain formulations endowed with the desired mechanical and hydration properties. In particular glycine amount (cryoprotectant agent), and water content were considered as formulation variables. The addition of glycerophosphate, used to solubilize chitosan at pH close to neutrality, was also investigated. In the second phase of the research, dressings were loaded with different amounts of PL. The influence of freeze-drying process and of excipients on the biological activity of platelet growth factors was investigated by means of a cell proliferation test using human fibroblasts. PDGF AB (platelet derived growth factor) content was assayed by means of ELISA test. Depending on composition, dressings showed different mechanical and hydration properties that make them suitable to wounds with different exudate amounts. Both freeze-drying process and excipients employed did not disturb the activity of platelet growth factors. The dressings loaded with platelet lysate were characterized by % proliferation values on fibroblast cell comparable to those observed for the fresh hemoderivate. The PDGF AB assay confirmed the results obtained from cell proliferation test. PMID:22884830

  2. Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S.; Tomaselli, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms. Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to “ideal” as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the “ideal” dressing may be chosen. Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail. PMID:25126472

  3. Advanced Therapeutic Dressings for Effective Wound Healing-A Review.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua; Catanzano, Ovidio

    2015-11-01

    Advanced therapeutic dressings that take active part in wound healing to achieve rapid and complete healing of chronic wounds is of current research interest. There is a desire for novel strategies to achieve expeditious wound healing because of the enormous financial burden worldwide. This paper reviews the current state of wound healing and wound management products, with emphasis on the demand for more advanced forms of wound therapy and some of the current challenges and driving forces behind this demand. The paper reviews information mainly from peer-reviewed literature and other publicly available sources such as the US FDA. A major focus is the treatment of chronic wounds including amputations, diabetic and leg ulcers, pressure sores, and surgical and traumatic wounds (e.g., accidents and burns) where patient immunity is low and the risk of infections and complications are high. The main dressings include medicated moist dressings, tissue-engineered substitutes, biomaterials-based biological dressings, biological and naturally derived dressings, medicated sutures, and various combinations of the above classes. Finally, the review briefly discusses possible prospects of advanced wound healing including some of the emerging physical approaches such as hyperbaric oxygen, negative pressure wound therapy and laser wound healing, in routine clinical care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3653-3680, 2015. PMID:26308473

  4. Development and Characterization of Novel Films Based on Sulfonamide-Chitosan Derivatives for Potential Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Dragostin, Oana Maria; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Lupascu, Florentina; Pânzariu, Andreea; Dubruel, Peter; Lupascu, Dan; Tuchilus, Cristina; Vasile, Cornelia; Profire, Lenuta

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new films based on chitosan functionalized with sulfonamide drugs (sulfametoxydiazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimetho-xine, sulfamethoxazol, sulfamerazine, sulfizoxazol) in order to enhance the biological effects of chitosan. The morphology and physical properties of functionalized chitosan films as well the antioxidant effects of sulfonamide-chitosan derivatives were investigated. The chitosan-derivative films showed a rough surface and hydrophilic properties, which are very important features for their use as a wound dressing. The film based on chitosan-sulfisoxazol (CS-S6) showed the highest swelling ratio (197%) and the highest biodegradation rate (63.04%) in comparison to chitosan film for which the swelling ratio was 190% and biodegradation rate was only 10%. Referring to the antioxidant effects the most active was chitosan-sulfamerazine (CS-S5) which was 8.3 times more active than chitosan related to DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability. This compound showed also a good ferric reducing power and improved total antioxidant capacity. PMID:26694354

  5. Superabsorbent dressings for copiously exuding wounds.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Nathalie; Safar, Helene; Baret, Mylène; Philippe, Anne; Farid, Rachida

    Exudate control is important in the management of both acute and chronic wounds. A new category of absorbent dressings that contain superabsorbent particles promises high absorbency. The aim of this multicentre, prospective, non-comparative observational study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and absorbent capacity of a superabsorbent dressing. Fifteen inpatients and outpatients with highly exuding wounds were included. Most patients (n=8) (53%) had chronic wounds; 20% (n=3) had ulcerating tumours. The superabsorbent dressing was used as a primary or a secondary dressing. Assessment was on day 0 (start), day 3 and day 7 (end of study). The study looked at wound bed and periwound skin condition, exudate production, pain upon dressing removal, reason for dressing removal, and frequency of dressing changes. A clinical visual scoring tool was used, together with digital photographs, which were assessed by the same experienced clinician. All 15 patients completed the study, during which no adverse events were noted. At day 7, maceration had reduced from 46.7% (n=7) at day 0 to 6.7% (n=1). After only 3 days, dressing change frequency was reduced from once daily to twice weekly in 80% (n=12) of patients. The superabsorbent dressing seems to reduce complications associated with exudate production, stimulate wound healing and increase patient comfort; it may also save time and costs for caregivers. PMID:22875373

  6. Swellability of Silver (I) Antimicrobial Wound Dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important characteristic of moist wound dressings is their ability to swell and absorb exudates from the wound, while maintaining a moist atmosphere at the wound site. At the Southern Regional Research Center, we have developed antimicrobial silver- CM-cotton print cloth from CM-Printcloth with l...

  7. A bioactive film based on cashew gum polysaccharide for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Bruna R; Batista, Karla A; Castro, Elisandra G; Lima, Eliana M; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2015-05-20

    This work presents the development of a new bioactive material for wound therapeutics which may play a dual role of modulate metallo proteinases activity while prevents infection blocking out pathogenic microorganisms and foreign materials. A CGP/PVA film was activated by covalent immobilization of trypsin. Results from biocompatibility test revealed that PDL fibroblasts grown on the surface of CGP/PVA and the high amount of viable cells proved absence of cytotoxicity. Trypsin immobilized onto CGP/PVA film remained 100% active after 28 days stored dried at room temperature. In addition, CGP/PVA-trypsin film could be used for 9 cycles of storage/use without loss of activity. After immobilization, trypsin retained its collagenolytic activity, indicating this material as a promising material for wound dressing applications. PMID:25817644

  8. In vitro investigations of a novel wound dressing concept based on biodegradable polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmar, Markus; Richter, Michael; Mäder, Xenia; Grieder, Kathrin; Nuss, Katja; Karol, Agnieszka; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Zimmermann, Erika; Buser, Stephan; Dobmann, Andreas; Blume, Jessica; Bruinink, Arie

    2015-06-01

    Non-healing and partially healing wounds are an important problem not only for the patient but also for the public health care system. Current treatment solutions are far from optimal regarding the chosen material properties as well as price and source. Biodegradable polyurethane (PUR) scaffolds have shown great promise for in vivo tissue engineering approaches, but accomplishment of the goal of scaffold degradation and new tissue formation developing in parallel has not been observed so far in skin wound repair. In this study, the mechanical properties and degradation behavior as well as the biocompatibility of a low-cost synthetic, pathogen-free, biocompatible and biodegradable extracellular matrix mimicking a PUR scaffold was evaluated in vitro. The novel PUR scaffolds were found to meet all the requirements for optimal scaffolds and wound dressings. These three-dimensional scaffolds are soft, highly porous, and form-stable and can be easily cut into any shape desired. All the material formulations investigated were found to be nontoxic. One formulation was able to be defined that supported both good fibroblast cell attachment and cell proliferation to colonize the scaffold. Tunable biodegradation velocity of the materials could be observed, and the results additionally indicated that calcium plays a crucial role in PUR degradation. Our results suggest that the PUR materials evaluated in this study are promising candidates for next-generation wound treatment systems and support the concept of using foam scaffolds for improved in vivo tissue engineering and regeneration.

  9. Efficacy of a new multifunctional surfactant-based biomaterial dressing with 1% silver sulphadiazine in chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Zölß, Christoph; Cech, Jürgen D

    2014-09-01

    Chronic wounds represent a large and growing segment of health care and add considerably to human suffering and economic burden as populations age. More effective materials, especially those promoting ease of use and economy, are needed to treat this increasing number of patients. A case series conducted at a European outpatient tertiary wound centre used a novel surfactant-based biomaterial dressing containing 1% silver sulphadiazine on 226 chronic wound patients with various aetiologies. Eighty-eight patients had been undergoing standard of care treatment at the facility, while the remainder (n?=?138) began treatment with the surfactant-based biomaterial dressing on enrollment. A total of 73% of the first group healed or showed improvement, with 60% healing by a median of 17?weeks after beginning treatment, and 86% of the group of new enrollees healed or showed improvement, with 73% healing within a median of 12?weeks of beginning treatment with the new product. Patient and clinician reports showed improved compliance, reduced pain and a favourable side-effect profile. Limited economic analysis showed markedly reduced treatment costs compared with standard of care. Further research is recommended. PMID:25196441

  10. Alginate/chitosan based bi-layer composite membrane as potential sustained-release wound dressing containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Dong, Yang; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran; Li, Sanming

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this research were to develop and evaluate a novel ciprofloxacin hydrochloride loaded bi-layer composite membrane based on alginate and chitosan. In vitro antimicrobial activity, drug permeation study, morphology, cytotoxicity, primary skin irritation and in vivo pharmacodynamics were investigated. Results showed that the membranes could inhibit the growth of microorganisms for longer than 7 days. And there was no significant decrease in the metabolic activity of the Hacat fibroblasts cells were treated with the membranes. No edema and erythema were observed after administration of membranes on the rabbit skin after 14 days. Moreover, the results of pharmacodynamics showed that the membranes were more effective in improving the wound healing process. In conclusion, a novel bi-layer composite membrane was developed and results suggested that it could be exploited as sustained-release wound dressings.

  11. Development and in vitro evaluation of lipid nanoparticle-based dressings for topical treatment of chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Gainza, G; Chu, W S; Guy, R H; Pedraz, J L; Hernandez, R M; Delgado-Charro, B; Igartua, M

    2015-07-25

    This research addresses the development and in vitro evaluation of lipid nanoparticle (NP)-based dressings to optimize the delivery of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the topical treatment of chronic wounds. The systems investigated were rhEGF-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (rhEGF-SLN) and rhEGF-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (rhEGF-NLC) formulated in wound dressings comprising either semi-solid hydrogels or fibrin-based solid scaffolds. Following detailed characterisation of the NP, in vitro diffusion cell experiments (coupled with dermatopharmacokinetic measurements), together with confocal microscopic imaging, conducted on both intact skin samples, and those from which the barrier (the stratum corneum) had been removed, revealed that (a) the particles remained essentially superficially located for at least up to 48h post-application, (b) rhEGF released on the surface of intact skin was unable to penetrate to the deeper, viable layers, and (c) sustained release of growth factor from the NP "drug reservoirs" into barrier-compromised skin was observed. There were no significant differences between the in vitro performance of rhEGF-SLN and rhEGF-NLC, irrespective of the formulation employed. It is concluded that, because of their potentially longer-term stability, the fibrin-based scaffolds may be the most suitable approach to formulate rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles. PMID:26043822

  12. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  2. A Comparative Study of Colostrum Dressing Versus Conventional Dressing in Deep Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Pednekar, Akshay S.; Mahna, Abhishek; Patankar, Ritvij; Shaikh, Ashar; Nagur, Basavraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Deep wounds are extending deeper, across deep fascia into muscles or deeper structures. Understanding of nutrition, immunology, psychological issues, the physiology and the metabolic interactions require for optimal treatment of deep wounds. Wound dressing plays one of the important roles in wound healing. Newer type of wound dressings - Biological dressings like colostrum powder, collagen granules create the physiological interface between the wound surface and environment which is impermeable to bacteria. Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of colostrum dressing and conventional dressing in deep wounds. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from all patients with deep wounds (stage II-IV), admitted during the period of April 2013 to March 2014, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Less number of dressings, short healing time, rapid healing and decrease pain seen in colostrum dressing group compared to conventional dressing group. Conclusion: Colostrum powder dressings are safe, promoter of wound healing, more patient compliance in terms of less pain, less number of dressing required. This treatment though found to be more expensive than conventional dressings; results indicate that colostrum powder dressings may be used as an adjunct in management of deep wound. PMID:26023589

  3. A vapour-permeable film dressing used on superficial wounds.

    PubMed

    Meuleneire, Frans

    2014-08-12

    Films are an extremely versatile dressing type that can be effectively used in the treatment of many superficial wounds, such as skin grafts, surgical wounds and superficial burns; they provide an optimal moist environment to promote healing, act as a barrier to bacteria, and afford protection from urine and faecal contamination. Unfortunately, many film dressings are difficult to handle and use traditional adhesives, which can cause trauma to the wound and surrounding skin, as well as increased wound pain at dressing removal. Mepitel® Film is a new, easy-to-use wound dressing designed with Safetac® technology that helps to minimise dressing-related trauma and pain and assist undisturbed wound healing. This article presents case studies that examine Mepitel Film's use on a variety of wounds, and reviews the findings of research that was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of using this recently developed dressing. PMID:25117599

  4. Formulation of Novel Layered Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Film Wound Dressings with Ibuprofen for Alleviating Wound Pain.

    PubMed

    Vinklárková, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Vetchý, David; Doležel, Petr; Bernatonien?, Jurga

    2015-01-01

    Effective assessment and management of wound pain can facilitate both improvements in healing rates and overall quality of life. From a pharmacological perspective, topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of film wound dressings may be a good choice. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop novel layered film wound dressings containing ibuprofen based on partially substituted fibrous sodium carboxymethylcellulose (nonwoven textile Hcel NaT). To this end, an innovative solvent casting method using a sequential coating technique has been applied. The concentration of ibuprofen which was incorporated as an acetone solution or as a suspension in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose dispersion was 0.5?mg/cm(2) and 1.0?mg/cm(2) of film. Results showed that developed films had adequate mechanical and swelling properties and an advantageous acidic surface pH for wound application. An in vitro drug release study implied that layered films retained the drug for a longer period of time and thus could minimize the frequency of changing the dressing. Films with suspended ibuprofen demonstrated higher drug content uniformity and superior in vitro drug release characteristics in comparison with ibuprofen incorporation as an acetone solution. Prepared films could be potential wound dressings for the effective treatment of wound pain in low exuding wounds. PMID:26090454

  5. Formulation of Novel Layered Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Film Wound Dressings with Ibuprofen for Alleviating Wound Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vinklárková, Lenka; Vetchý, David; Bernatonien?, Jurga

    2015-01-01

    Effective assessment and management of wound pain can facilitate both improvements in healing rates and overall quality of life. From a pharmacological perspective, topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of film wound dressings may be a good choice. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop novel layered film wound dressings containing ibuprofen based on partially substituted fibrous sodium carboxymethylcellulose (nonwoven textile Hcel NaT). To this end, an innovative solvent casting method using a sequential coating technique has been applied. The concentration of ibuprofen which was incorporated as an acetone solution or as a suspension in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose dispersion was 0.5?mg/cm2 and 1.0?mg/cm2 of film. Results showed that developed films had adequate mechanical and swelling properties and an advantageous acidic surface pH for wound application. An in vitro drug release study implied that layered films retained the drug for a longer period of time and thus could minimize the frequency of changing the dressing. Films with suspended ibuprofen demonstrated higher drug content uniformity and superior in vitro drug release characteristics in comparison with ibuprofen incorporation as an acetone solution. Prepared films could be potential wound dressings for the effective treatment of wound pain in low exuding wounds. PMID:26090454

  6. Development and preclinical evaluation of a new galactomannan-based dressing with antioxidant properties for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Castro, Begoña; Palomares, Teodoro; Azcoitia, Iker; Bastida, Felix; Del Olmo, Maite; Soldevilla, Javier J; Alonso-Varona, Ana

    2015-12-01

    We describe a novel wound dressing (HR006) with two components: a lyophilized matrix of the galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and an antioxidant hydration solution (AHsol) containing curcumin and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Physico-structural analyses of the LBG matrix revealed homogeneous interconnected pores with high absorbing capacity showing excellent properties for moist wound care (MWC). In an in vitro oxidative stress fibroblast injury model, the AHsol showed relevant protective effects reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, rescuing cell viability, and regulating expression of inflammation-related genes (COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-1?). The new dressing showed good biocompatibility profile as demonstrated by cytotoxicity, hemocompatibility, and skin irritation tests. Moreover, in an in vivo skin wound model in pigs, this dressing enhanced the production of healthy and organized granulation tissue and re-epithelization. In summary, HR006 exhibits significant antioxidant activity, good biocompatibility, and excellent repair capabilities improving tissue remodeling and the healing of wounds. PMID:26140672

  7. Fabrication and characterization of an asymmetric polyurethane membrane for use as a wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, W L; Lommen, E J; Wildevuur, C R; Feijen, J

    1992-01-01

    To prevent wound dehydration and bacterial penetration, a wound dressing should be occlusive, but on the other hand it should also be permeable for wound exudate to prevent bullae formation. To meet these requirements a new type of polyurethane wound dressing which consists of a microporous top layer (pore size less than 0.7 mum) supported by a sublayer with a highly porous sponge-like structure containing micropores (pore size less than 10 mum) as well as macropores (pore size: 50-100 mum) was designed. The pores of both layers are interconnected and form a continuous structure in the membrane. Membranes according to this design were prepared either by means of a two-step or by means of a one-step casting process. Both fabrication methods are based on phase inversion techniques. Asymmetric polyurethane Biomer membranes prepared by the two-step casting process were tested in vivo as full thickness skin substitutes using guinea pigs. Neither wound dehydration nor infections were observed while the drainage capacity of the wound dressing was effective in preventing bullae formation. Furthermore the wound dressing remained firmly adhered to the wound surface during the whole process of wound healing. In contrast to all other commercial wound dressings currently available the polyurethane wound dressing applied on excised clean wounds did not need to be replaced during healing but could be left on the wound until full regeneration of the skin had taken place after which it was spontaneously repelled. PMID:10147998

  8. In vivo wound-healing effects of novel benzalkonium chloride-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Giu; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Dong-Wuk; Li, Dong Xun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing effects of a novel benzalkonium chloride (BC)-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing (HCD). A BC-loaded HCD was prepared with various constituents using a hot melting method, and its mechanical properties and antimicrobial activities were assessed. The in vivo wound healings of the BC-loaded HCD in various would models were evaluated in rats compared with a commercial wound dressing, Duoderm™. This BC-loaded HCD gave better skin adhesion, swelling, mechanical strength, and flexibility compared with the commercial wound dressing. It showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, as compared with the commercial wound dressing, it showed more improved wound healings and tissue restoration effect on the excision, infection, and abrasion wounds in rats. Thus, this novel BC-loaded HCD would be an excellent alternative to the commercial wound dressing for treatment of various wounds. PMID:25959289

  9. Wound dressings for primary and revision total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhry, Madhav

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing post-surgical complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is of great importance, and application of an appropriate wound dressing is necessary. Since no dressing encompasses all the parameters required for ideal wound healing, a comparison of the available dressing types can assist the surgeon to choose the best dressing after TJA. Methods Studies evaluating postoperative wound dressings after TJA were reviewed in order to assess the outcomes, complications and costs associated with dressing types. Results Traditional cotton dressings have a high ability to absorb exudate. However, they dry out sooner and there is a risk of pain and additional trauma during dressing changes. Although vapor permeable dressings allow transmission of moisture, but they have low absorptive capacity and require frequent changes even with moderately exudating wounds. On the other hand, hydrofiber and hydrocolloid dressings have high absorptive capacity and permeability, and can cope with exudate production. They are changed less often and have low blistering rates, which may reduce surgical site infection (SSI). Although the unit cost associated with advanced dressings is much higher than the traditional dressings, the decreased rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and the cost associated with treating PJI more than compensate for it. Conclusions Choice of dressing type after TJA should depend upon permeability, absorptive capacity, documented rate of SSI and cost effectiveness with its use, apart from a surgeon’s past clinical experience and familiarity. PMID:26605314

  10. Development of honey hydrogel dressing for enhanced wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Norimah; Ainul Hafiza, A. H.; Zohdi, Rozaini M.; Bakar, Md Zuki A.

    2007-11-01

    Radiation at 25 and 50 kGy showed no effect on the acidic pH of the local honey, Gelam, and its antimicrobial property against Staphylococcus aureus but significantly reduced the viscosity. Honey stored up to 2 years at room temperature retained all the properties studied. Radiation sterilized Gelam honey significantly stimulated the rate of burn wound healing in Sprague-Dawley rats as demonstrated by the increased rate of wound contraction and gross appearance. Gelam honey attenuates wound inflammation; and re-epithelialization was well advanced compared to the treatment using silver sulphadiazine (SSD) cream. To enhance further the use of honey in wound treatment and for easy handling, Gelam honey was incorporated into our hydrogel dressing formulation, which was then cross-linked and sterilized using electron beam at 25 kGy. Hydrogel with 6% of honey was selected based on the physical appearance.

  11. Burn wound dressing with human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.

    1979-01-01

    The use of amniotic membrane as a biological dressing for thermal injury is simple and cheap and has been found to be superior to allograft and xenograft. The membrane prevents heat and water loss from the wound surface and acts as a barrier against bacterial contamination, thus aiding the healing process and reducing morbidity. Another clinically significant and important property of the membrane is its ability to offer marked relief from pain. Over a period of 30 months amniotic membrane was used to treat 15 cases of burn in a small hospital, with uniformly satisfactory results. The practical aspects of this method of treatment can easily be adopted by any hospital regardless of its available facilities. PMID:496235

  12. Absorption and swelling characteristics of silver (I) antimicrobial wound dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important characteristic of moist wound dressings is their ability to swell and absorb exudates from the wound, while maintaining a moist atmosphere at the wound site. At the Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC), we have previously developed antimicrobial silver-sodium-carboxymethylated (CM)-...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...include a hydrophilic wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...include a hydrophilic wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...include a hydrophilic wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...include an occlusive wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...include an occlusive wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...include an occlusive wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...include a hydrophilic wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...include a hydrophilic wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...include an occlusive wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...include an occlusive wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...not include a hydrogel wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...not include a hydrogel wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...not include a hydrogel wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...not include a hydrogel wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...not include a hydrogel wound dressing that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial agents, added biologics such as growth factors, or is composed of materials derived from animal sources. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  8. Topical Agents and Dressings for Pilonidal Sinus Wound Healing by Secondary Intention: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kevin Y; Kwong, Enid Wai-Yung; Jimenez, Carolina; Bishop, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Pilonidal disease (PD) is a chronic and debilitating condition. The overall aim of the scoping review is to map and summarize a wide range of evidence to examine which topical agent or dressing is effective in promoting pilonidal wound healing by secondary intention. Review of this cumulative body of evidence will inform care and guide dressing selection for PD related wounds and delineate future research priorities based on identified knowledge gaps and clinical practice issues. Overall, there is some evidence to suggest that topical applications of hydrogel, silver, honey, zinc, selected foam materials, negative pressure wound therapy, platelet rich plasma, and plant extracts may promote wound healing. Topical treatment using polyhexamethylene biguanide and silver may be beneficial in reducing bacterial burden. Finally, silver, honey, and hydrocolloid dressings may help alleviate wound related pain. However, evidence remains insufficient in light of methodological limitations and biases of the studies. PMID:26054992

  9. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, N. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5-3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  10. Design and construction of a silver(I)-loaded cellulose-based wound dressing: trackable and sustained release of silver for controlled therapeutic delivery to wound sites.

    PubMed

    deBoer, T R; Chakraborty, I; Mascharak, P K

    2015-10-01

    Although application of silver nitrate and silver sulfadiazine have been shown to be effective in thwarting infections at burn sites, optimization of the delivery of bioactive silver (Ag(+)) remains as an obstacle due to rapid precipitation and/or insolubility of the silver sources. To circumvent these shortcomings, we have designed a silver(I) complex [Ag(ImD)2]ClO4 (ImD = dansyl imidazole) that effectively increases the bioavailability of Ag(+) and exhibits MIC values of 2.3 and 4.7 ?g/mL against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. This fluorescent silver complex has been incorporated within a robust hydrogel derived from carboxymethyl cellulose that allows slow release of silver. A complete occlusive dressing has finally been constructed with the Ag(ImD)CMC (1% Ag loaded) pad sealed between a sterile mesh gauze (as bottom layer) and a rayon-based surgical tape (as the top layer). Such construction has afforded a dressing that displays sustained delivery of silver onto a skin and soft tissue infection model and causes effective eradication of bacterial loads within 24 h. The transfer of the bioactive silver complex is readily visualized by the observed fluorescence that overlays precisely with the kill zone. The latter feature introduces a unique feature of therapeutic trackability to this silver-donating occlusive dressing. PMID:26411439

  11. Development of a continuous finishing chemistry process for manufacture of a phosphorylated cotton chronic wound dressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A phosphorylated form of cotton gauze for treatment of chronic wounds was designed to improve the wound dressing’s capacity to remove harmful proteases from the wound and facilitate healing. Development of the fabric finishing chemistry of the wound dressing with a process suitable for textile mill...

  12. Healing Efficacy of an EGF Impregnated Triple Gel Based Wound Dressing: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Khanbanha, Najmeh; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Taheri, Azade; Talaie, Fatemeh; Mahbod, Mirgholamreza

    2014-01-01

    To accomplish an ideal wound healing process which promotes healthy tissue growth with less scaring, a novel gel based topical drug delivery system composed of 3 different polymers chitosan, dextran sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (CDP) was prepared. The physicochemical properties of the prepared gels were investigated in vitro. Gels showed a maximum swelling ratio of 50 ± 1.95 times of dried gel in PBS at pH 7.4. The swelling ratios increase in acidic and alkaline pH to 55.3 ± 1.75 and 65.5 ± 2.42, respectively. In the rheological test, prepared gels revealed viscoelastic properties and a small linear viscoelastic region of 0.166%. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of CDP gels containing 20??g/mL EGF were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in rats using pathologic examination. The application of CDP gel with incorporated EGF significantly reduced the defect on the rat's skin and enhanced epithelial healing compared with the topical application of the EGF-free CDP gel. The results clearly substantiate the beneficial effects of the topical application of CDP containing EGF in the acceleration of healthy wound healing process with less scarring. PMID:25110681

  13. Application of wound dressings in dermatology laser procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Hoskins, Greg

    1995-05-01

    High powered lasers have been used in dermatological procedures such as tattoo removal. This use is associated with a potential, biological hazard of high speed tissue particles from the laser field. It has been proposed that by applying a clear dermatological would dressing directly over the laser treatment site, it may be possible to completely trap the potentially airborne tissue particles from the procedure. Some important questions must be addressed prior to the implementation of such a technique. While the use of a wound dressing may significantly reduce the airborne materials during the laser procedures, new problems may arise: 1 . The wound dressing or some of its components may absorb excessive amount of light energy. This would result in a very localized temperature rise which may be harmful to the patient; 2. The smooth surface of the wound dressing material could induce specular reflection of the incident laser beam, thus introducing a laser hazard to the staff and patient. To address these possible problems, we studied a series of ClearSite Wound Dressings which have been reportedly tested for such laser procedures. The objective of the studies were, to determine if the use of ClearSite in conjunction with laser procedures poses a possible hazard to either the patient or to the Operating Room personnel, and to determine the effect of the ClearSite dressing on the optical characteristics of the light beam. The latter includes light absorption and transmittance for various wavelengths.

  14. Honey Dressing Versus Silver Sulfadiazene Dressing for Wound Healing in Burn Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi Singh; Singh, Onkar; Bhagel, Praveen Singh; Moses, Sonia; Shukla, Sumit; Mathur, Raj Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of honey dressing and silver sulfadiazene (SSD) dressing on wound healing in burn patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 108 patients (14–68 years of age), with first and second degree burns of less than 50% of the total body surface area admitted to our institution, over a period of 5 years (2004–2008). Fifty-one patients were treated with honey dressings and 57 with SSD. Time elapsed since burn, site, percentage, degree and depth of burns, results of culture sensitivity at various time intervals, duration of healing, formation of post-treatment hypertrophic scar, and/or contracture were recorded and analyzed. Results: The average duration of healing was 18.16 and 32.68 days for the honey and SSD group, respectively. Wounds of all patients reporting within 1 h of burns became sterile with the honey dressing in less than 7 days while there was none with SSD. All wounds treated with honey became sterile within 21 days while for SSD-treated wounds, this figure was 36.5%. A complete outcome was seen in 81% of all patients in the “honey group” while in only 37% patients in the “SSD group.” Conclusion: Honey dressings make the wounds sterile in less time, enhance healing, and have a better outcome in terms of hypertropic scars and postburn contractures, as compared to SSD dressings. PMID:22279383

  15. Morphology, drug release, antibacterial, cell proliferation, and histology studies of chamomile-loaded wound dressing mats based on electrospun nanofibrous poly(?-caprolactone)/polystyrene blends.

    PubMed

    Motealleh, Behrooz; Zahedi, Payam; Rezaeian, Iraj; Moghimi, Morvarid; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Zarandi, Mohammad Amin

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, it has been tried to achieve optimum conditions for electrospun poly(?-caprolactone)/polystyrene (PCL/PS) nanofibrous samples as active wound dressings containing chamomile via D-optimal design approach. In this work, systematic in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out by drug release rate, antibacterial and antifungal evaluations, cell culture, and rat wound model along with histology observation. The optimized samples were prepared under the following electrospinning conditions: PCL/PS ratio (65/35), PCL concentration 9%(w/v), PS concentration 14%(w/v), distance between the syringe needle tip and the collector 15.5 cm, applied voltage 18 kV, and solution flow rate 0.46 mL h(-1) . The FE-SEM micrographs showed electrospun PCL/PS (65/35) nanofibrous sample containing 15% chamomile had a minimum average diameter (?175 nm) compared to the neat samples (?268 nm). The drug released resulted in a gradual and high amount of chamomile from the optimized PCL/PS nanofibrous sample (?70%) in respect to PCL and PS nanofibers after 48 h. This claim was also confirmed by antibacterial and antifungal evaluations in which an inhibitory zone with a diameter of about 7.6 mm was formed. The rat wound model results also indicated that the samples loaded with 15% chamomile extract were remarkably capable to heal the wounds up to 99?±?0.5% after 14 days post-treatment periods. The adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells and their viability on the optimized samples were confirmed by MTT analysis. Also, the electrospun nanofibrous mats based on PCL/PS (65/35) showed a high efficiency in the wound closure and healing process compared to the reference sample, PCL/PS nanofibers without chamomile. Finally, the histology analysis revealed that the formation of epithelial tissues, the lack of necrosis and collagen fibers accumulation in the dermis tissues for the above optimized samples. PMID:24259351

  16. Bio-Conjugated Polycaprolactone Membranes: A Novel Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Teo, Erin Yiling; Jing, Lim; Koh, Yun Pei; Qian, Tan Si; Wen, Feng; Lee, James Wai Kit; Hing, Eileen Chor Hoong; Yap, Yan Lin; Lee, Hanjing; Lee, Chuen Neng; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Lim, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of polycaprolactone and hyaluronic acid creates an ideal environment for wound healing. Hyaluronic acid maintains a moist wound environment and accelerates the in-growth of granulation tissue. Polycaprolactone has excellent mechanical strength, limits inflammation and is biocompatible. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of bio-conjugated polycaprolactone membranes (BPM) as a wound dressing. Methods 16 New Zealand white rabbits were sedated and local anaesthesia was administered. Two 3.0×3.0 cm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of each rabbit, between the lowest rib and the pelvic bone. The wounds were dressed with either BPM (n=12) or Mepitel (n=12) (control), a polyamide-silicon wound dressing. These were evaluated macroscopically on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days for granulation, re-epithelialization, infection, and wound size, and histologically for epidermal and dermal regeneration. Results Both groups showed a comparable extent of granulation and re-epithelialization. No signs of infection were observed. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in wound size between the two groups. BPM (n=6): 8.33 cm2, 4.90 cm2, 3.12 cm2, 1.84 cm2; Mepitel (n=6): 10.29 cm2, 5.53 cm2, 3.63 cm2, 2.02 cm2; at the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days. The extents of epidermal and dermal regeneration were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions BPM is comparable to Mepitel as a safe and efficacious wound dressing. PMID:25396174

  17. Neurotensin-loaded collagen dressings reduce inflammation and improve wound healing in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Moura, Liane I F; Dias, Ana M A; Suesca, Edward; Casadiegos, Sergio; Leal, Ermelindo C; Fontanilla, Marta R; Carvalho, Lina; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    Impaired wound healing is an important clinical problem in diabetes mellitus and results in failure to completely heal diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), which may lead to lower extremity amputations. In the present study, collagen based dressings were prepared to be applied as support for the delivery of neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide that acts as an inflammatory modulator in wound healing. The performance of NT alone and NT-loaded collagen matrices to treat wounds in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic induced mice was evaluated. Results showed that the prepared dressings were not-cytotoxic up to 72h after contact with macrophages (Raw 264.7) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines. Moreover, those cells were shown to adhere to the collagen matrices without noticeable change in their morphology. NT-loaded collagen dressings induced faster healing (17% wound area reduction) in the early phases of wound healing in diabetic wounded mice. In addition, they also significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine expression namely, TNF-? (p<0.01) and IL-1? (p<0.01) and decreased the inflammatory infiltrate at day 3 post-wounding (inflammatory phase). After complete healing, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is reduced in diabetic skin (p<0.05) which significantly increased fibroblast migration and collagen (collagen type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) and collagen type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1)) expression and deposition. These results suggest that collagen-based dressings can be an effective support for NT release into diabetic wound enhancing the healing process. Nevertheless, a more prominent scar is observed in diabetic wounds treated with collagen when compared to the treatment with NT alone. PMID:24161538

  18. Enhancing pressure ulcer prevention using wound dressings: what are the modes of action?

    PubMed

    Call, Evan; Pedersen, Justin; Bill, Brian; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Brindle, C Tod; Dealey, Carol; Santamaria, Nick; Clark, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical research has generated interest in the use of sacral wound dressings as preventive devices for patients at risk of ulceration. This study was conducted to identify the modes of action through which dressings can add to pressure ulcer prevention, for example, shear and friction force redistribution and pressure distribution. Bench testing was performed using nine commercially available dressings. The use of dressings can reduce the amplitude of shear stress and friction reaching the skin of patients at risk. They can also effectively redirect these forces to wider areas which minimises the mechanical loads upon skeletal prominences. Dressings can redistribute pressure based upon their effective Poisson ratio and larger deflection areas, providing greater load redistribution. PMID:23905962

  19. Increasing the options for management of large and complex chronic wounds with a scalable, closed-system dressing for maggot therapy.

    PubMed

    Felder, John M; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth; Jordan, Marion; Jeng, James

    2012-01-01

    As reconstructive specialists, burn surgeons are often involved in managing large wounds of various etiologies. Such wounds can pose a management challenge, especially if they are chronic or occur in the setting of critical illness or multiple medical comorbidities. Medical maggots are an effective, selective, and low-risk method for wound debridement. However, their use in large and geometrically complex wounds is limited by the lack of scalability in currently available dressings, which are appropriate for smaller wounds but become cumbersome and ineffective in larger ones. This report describes a novel dressing designed for application of maggot debridement therapy in large and complex wounds. The authors then discuss how use of this dressing may create new management strategies for such wounds by allowing maggots to mechanically debride big, infected wounds. They describe the construction of a maggot containment dressing based on modified components from a negative pressure wound therapy system and provide a case report highlighting its successful clinical use in a large contaminated chronic wound resulting from Fournier's gangrene. In the case described, the novel dressing provided scalability, containment of maggots, control of secretions, and ease of use. The dressing created an environment suitable for maggot survival and allowed effective debridement of a heavily contaminated groin wound. The novel dressing described is shown to function appropriately, allowing controlled use of maggots for effective debridement of large, irregular wounds. Facilitating the use of maggots in such wounds may broaden the algorithm for their management. PMID:21983646

  20. Preclinical Evaluation of Tegaderm™ Supported Nanofibrous Wound Matrix Dressing on Porcine Wound Healing Model

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chee Tian; Zhang, Yanzhong; Lim, Raymond; Samsonraj, Rebekah; Masilamani, Jeyakumar; Phan, Tran Hong Ha; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Lim, Ivor; Kee, Irene; Fahamy, Mohammad; Templonuevo, Vilma; Lim, Chwee Teck; Phan, Toan Thang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nanofibers for tissue scaffolding and wound dressings hold great potential in realizing enhanced healing of wounds in comparison with conventional counterparts. Previously, we demonstrated good fibroblast adherence and growth on a newly developed scaffold, Tegaderm™-Nanofiber (TG-NF), made from poly ?-caprolactone (PCL)/gelatin nanofibers electrospun onto Tegaderm (TG). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance and safety of TG-NF dressings in partial-thickness wound in a pig healing model. Approach: To evaluate the rate of reepithelialization, control TG, human dermal fibroblast-seeded TG-NF(+) and -unseeded TG-NF(?) were randomly dressed onto 80 partial-thickness burns created on four female and four male pigs. Wound inspections and dressings were done after burns on day 7, 14, 21, and 28. On day 28, full-thickness biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation by Masson-Trichrome staining for collagen and hematoxylin–eosin staining for cell counting. Results: No infection and severe inflammation were recorded. Wounds treated with TG-NF(+) reepithelialized significantly faster than TG-NF(?) and control. Wound site inflammatory responses to study groups were similar as total cell counts on granulation tissues show no significant differences. Most of the wounds completely reepithelialized by day 28, except for two wounds in control and TG-NF(?). A higher collagen coverage was also recorded in the granulation tissues treated with TG-NF(+). Innovation and Conclusion: With better reepithelialization achieved by TG-NF(+) and similar rates of wound closure by TG-NF(?) and control, and the absence of elevated inflammatory responses to TG-NF constructs, TG-NF constructs are safe and demonstrated good healing potentials that are comparable to Tegaderm. PMID:25713753

  1. A comparison of hemorrhage control and hydrogen peroxide generation in commercial and cotton-based wound dressing materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

  2. A pre-clinical evaluation of silver, iodine and Manuka honey based dressings in a model of traumatic extremity wounds contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Hugo C; Martin, Kevin R; Taylor, Christopher; Spear, Abigail M; Whiting, Rachel; Macildowie, Sara; Clasper, Jonathan C; Watts, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Prevention of extremity war wound infection remains a clinical challenge. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen in delayed infection. We hypothesised that choice of wound dressings may affect bacterial burden over 7 days reflecting the current practice of delayed primary closure of wounds within this timeframe. A randomised controlled trial of 3 commercially available dressings (Inadine(®) (Johnson & Johnson, NJ, USA), Acticoat(®) (Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK), Activon Tulle (Advancis Medical, Nottingham, UK)) was conducted in a rabbit model of contaminated forelimb muscle injury. A positive control group treated with antibiotics was included. Groups were compared to a saline soaked gauze control. The primary outcome was a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in tissue S. aureus at 7 days post-injury. Secondary outcome measurements included bacteraemias, observational data, whole blood determination, ELISA for plasma biomarkers, PCR array analysis of wound healing gene expression and muscle/lymph node histopathology. Antibiotic, Inadine and Acticoat groups had statistically significant lower bacterial counts (mean 7.13 [95% CI 0.00-96.31]×10(2); 1.66 [0.94-2.58]×10(5); 8.86 [0.00-53.35]×10(4)cfu/g, respectively) and Activon Tulle group had significantly higher counts (2.82 [0.98-5.61]×10(6)cfu/g) than saline soaked gauze control (7.58 [1.65-17.83]×10(5)cfu/g). There were no bacteraemias or significant differences in observational data or whole blood determination. There were no significant differences in muscle/loss or pathology and lymph node cross-sectional area or morphology. There were some significant differences between treatment groups in the plasma cytokines IL-4, TNF? and MCP-1 in comparison to the control. PCR array data demonstrated more general changes in gene expression in the muscle tissue from the Activon Tulle group than the Inadine or Acticoat dressings with a limited number of genes showing significantly altered expression compared to control. This study has demonstrated that both Acticoat(®) and Inadine(®) dressings can reduce the bacteria burden in a heavily contaminated soft tissue wound and so they may offer utility in the clinical setting particularly where surgical treatment is delayed. PMID:24908627

  3. Stimulation of Wound Healing by Electroactive, Antibacterial, and Antioxidant Polyurethane/Siloxane Dressing Membranes: In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Reza; Yeganeh, Hamid; Rezapour-Lactoee, Alireza; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2015-11-01

    A series of novel polyurethane/siloxane-based wound dressing membranes was prepared through sol-gel reaction of methoxysilane end-functionalized urethane prepolymers composed of castor oil and ricinoleic methyl ester as well as methoxysilane functional aniline tetramer (AT) moieties. The samples were fully characterized and their physicochemical, mechanical, electrical, and biological properties were assayed. The biological activity of these dressings against fibroblast cells and couple of microbes was also studied. It was revealed that samples that displayed electroactivity by introduction of AT moieties showed a broad range of antimicrobial activity toward different microorganisms, promising antioxidant (radical scavenging) efficiency and significant activity for stimulation of fibroblast cell growth and proliferation. Meanwhile, these samples showed appropriate tensile strength and ability for maintaining a moist environment over a wound by controlled equilibrium water absorption and water vapor transmission rate. The selected electroactive dressing was subjected to an in vivo assay using a rat animal model and the wound healing process was monitored and compared with analogous dressing without AT moieties. The recorded results showed that the electroactive dressings induced an increase in the rate of wound contraction, promoted collagen deposition, and encouraged vascularization in the wounded area. On the basis of the results of in vitro and in vivo assays, the positive influence of designed dressings for accelerated healing of a wound model was confirmed. PMID:26473663

  4. Electrospun non-woven nanofibrous hybrid mats based on chitosan and PLA for wound-dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Milena; Manolova, Nevena; Markova, Nadya; Rashkov, Iliya

    2009-01-01

    Continuous defect-free nanofibers containing chitosan (Ch) or quaternized chitosan (QCh) were successfully prepared by one-step electrospinning of Ch or QCh solutions mixed with poly[(L-lactide)-co-(D,L-lactide)] in common solvent. XPS revealed the surface chemical composition of the bicomponent electrospun mats. Crosslinked Ch- and QCh-containing nanofibers exhibited higher kill rates against bacteria S. aureus and E. coli than the corresponding solvent-cast films. SEM observations showed that hybrid mats were very effective in suppressing the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria S. aureus. The hybrid nanofibers are promising for wound-healing applications. PMID:18855947

  5. Interaction and effectiveness of antimicrobials along with healing-promoting agents in a novel biocellulose wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Napavichayanun, Supamas; Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-10-01

    An ideal wound dressing should keep the wound moist, allow oxygen permeation, adsorb wound exudate, accelerate re-epithelialization for wound closure, reduce pain and healing time, and prevent infection. Our novel biocellulose-based wound dressing was composed of three components: 1) biocellulose (BC), intended to create a moist and oxygen-permeated environment with exudate adsorption; 2) silk sericin (SS) known for its enhancement of collagen type I production, which is critical for re-epithelialization; and 3) the antiseptic polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). To deliver an effective BC wound dressing, the interactions between the components (PHMB vs. SS) needed to be thoroughly analyzed. In this study, we investigated important parameters such as the loading sequence, loading concentration, and loading amount of the active compounds to ensure that the BC wound dressing could provide both antimicrobial activity and promote collagen production during healing. The loading sequence of SS and PHMB into BC was critical to maintain PHMB antimicrobial activity; silk sericin needed to be loaded before PHMB to avoid any negative impacts. The minimum PHMB concentration was 0.3% w/v for effective elimination of all tested bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The amounts of SS and PHMB in BC were optimized to ensure that the dressings released the optimal amounts of both SS to enhance fibroblast collagen production and PHMB for effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:26117743

  6. Development and physicochemical characterization of alginate composite film loaded with simvastatin as a potential wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Rezvanian, Masoud; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Ng, Shiow-Fern

    2016-02-10

    Previously, studies have demonstrated that topical application of simvastatin can promote wound healing in diabetic mice via augmentation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This study aimed to formulate and characterize simvastatin in alginate-based composite film wound dressings. Biopolymers used for composite films were sodium alginate blended with pectin or gelatin. The films were prepared and characterized based on their physical properties, surface morphology, mechanical strength and rheology. Then, in vitro drug releases from the films were investigated and, finally, the cell viability assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity profile. From the pre-formulation studies, alginate/pectin composite film showed to possess desirable wound dressing properties and superior mechanical properties. The in vitro drug release profile revealed that alginate/pectin film produced a controlled release drug profile, and cell viability assay showed that the film was non-toxic. In summary, alginate/pectin composite film is suitable to be formulated with simvastatin as a potential wound dressing. PMID:26686133

  7. Development of biofilm-targeted antimicrobial wound dressing for the treatment of chronic wound infections.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shiow-Fern; Leow, Hon-Lunn

    2015-11-01

    It has been established that microbial biofilms are largely responsible for the recalcitrance of many wound infections to conventional antibiotics. It was proposed that the efficacy of antibiotics could be optimized via the inhibition of bacterial biofilm growth in wounds. The combination of antibiofilm agent and antibiotics into a wound dressing may be a plausible strategy in wound infection management. Xylitol is an antibiofilm agent that has been shown to inhibit the biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to develop an alginate film containing xylitol and gentamicin for the treatment of wound infection. Three films, i.e. blank alginate film (SA), alginate film with xylitol (F5) and alginate film with xylitol and gentamicin (AG), were prepared. The films were studied for their physical properties, swelling ratio, moisture absorption, moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR), mechanical and rheology properties, drug content uniformity as well as in vitro drug release properties. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm in vitro studies on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also performed. The results showed that AG demonstrates superior mechanical properties, rheological properties and a higher MVTR compared with SA and F5. The drug flux of AG was higher than that of commercial gentamicin cream. Furthermore, antimicrobial studies showed that AG is effective against both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, and the antibiofilm assays demonstrated that the combination was effective against biofilm bacteria. In summary, alginate films containing xylitol and gentamicin may potentially be used as new dressings for the treatment of wound infection. PMID:25758412

  8. Chitosan/polyurethane blended fiber sheets containing silver sulfadiazine for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Park, Ha Na; Ko, Wan-Kyu; Bae, Min Soo; Lee, Jung Bok; Park, Se Woong; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Chang Hoon; Jung, Bock-Young; Kwon, Il Keun

    2014-10-01

    Electrospun chitosan (CTS) nanofibers have been well known for use as a wound dressing in the biomedical field. Nevertheless, fatal bacterial infections are still a serious problem when CTS nanofibers are used for wound treatment. In this study, we designed a novel wound dressing based on blending the chitosan with polyurethane (CTS/PU) containing silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) in order to enhance both antibacterial activity and mechanical strength. This fiber sheet was produced using the electrospinning (ELSP) technique. The CTS/PU containing AgSD fiber sheet was characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The physicochemical properties of the CTS/PU/AgSD fiber sheets were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrospun fibers were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For an in vitro evaluation, the CTS/PU/AgSD fiber sheets were tested for their antibacterial activity against gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The results indicate that CTS/PU/AgSD fiber sheets have strong antimicrobial activity as displayed by inhibition of bacterial growth and prevention of infection during the healing process. These results indicate that this material would be good for use as a wound dressing material. PMID:25942814

  9. Development and in vitro evaluation of chitosan-polysaccharides composite wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Wittaya-areekul, Sakchai; Prahsarn, Chureerat

    2006-04-26

    This study focuses on the design and evaluation of chitosan-based films intended for wound dressing application. Films of chitosan and their blends with cornstarch and dextran were developed to improve the films' physical strength. Polypropylene glycol at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/v) was added to improve the films' flexibility. Some properties required for successful wound dressing, such as liquid adsorption, vapor and oxygen penetration, bioadhesiveness, and film elasticity, were examined. Chitosan films showed the highest liquid adsorption and the adsorption tended to decrease with addition of cornstarch and dextran. Moisture vapor and oxygen were found to be able to penetrate through all film formulations, and those films with cornstarch and dextran showed increased penetration rates through the films. The bioadhesiveness test using a pig gut model did not show significantly different bioadhesive properties with the addition of cornstarch and dextran. The film elasticity of the formulation containing only chitosan exhibited the lowest elongation of the film at a force of 2N, but increased with the addition of cornstarch and dextran, respectively. In conclusion, the design and development of chitosan as a wound dressing can be improved by the addition of cornstarch or dextran, and propylene glycol to obtain the films with optimal properties for wound management. PMID:16488564

  10. Human Neutrophil Elastase and Collagenase Sequestration with Phosphorylated Cotton Wound Dressings.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design and preparation of wound dressings that redress the proteolytic imbalance in chronic wounds has become an important goal of wound healing and medical materials science. Recent studies have demonstrated that chronic wounds contain high levels of tissue and cytokine destroying proteases inc...

  11. Chitosan-PVP-nano silver oxide wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Archana, D; Singh, Brijesh K; Dutta, Joydeep; Dutta, P K

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to prepare wound healing material with chitosan, poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), silver oxide nanoparticles. The prepared chitosan, chitosan-PVP-nano silver oxide (CPS) films were characterized for their thermal behaviour, morphological properties, mechanical properties, antibacterial properties and wound healing properties. The CPS film found higher antibacterial activity because the materials both chitosan as well as silver oxide poses good antibacterial activity. L929 cell lines were for cytotoxicity study and Adult male albino rats (140-180 g) were used for wound healing study. The prepared film has more wound healing property than of cotton gauge, 100% chitosan and other reported chitosan based dressings. PMID:25450048

  12. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  13. Silicone-coated non-woven polyester dressing enhances reepithelialisation in a sheep model of dermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Losi, Paola; Briganti, Enrica; Costa, Manolo; Sanguinetti, Elena; Soldani, Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) also known as V.A.C. (Vacuum-assisted closure), is widely used to manage various type of wounds and accelerate healing. NPWT has so far been delivered mainly via open-cell polyurethane (PU) foam or medical gauze. In this study an experimental setup of sheep wound model was used to evaluate, under NPWT conditions, the performance of a silicone-coated non-woven polyester (N-WPE) compared with PU foam and cotton hydrophilic gauze, used as reference materials. Animals were anesthetized with spontaneous breathing to create three 3 × 3 cm skin defects bilaterally; each animal received three different samples on each side (n = 6 in each experimental group) and was subjected to negative and continuous 125 mmHg pressure up to 16 days. Wound conditions after 1, 8 and 16 days of treatment with the wound dressings were evaluated based on gross and histological appearances. Skin defects treated with the silicone-coated N-WPE showed a significant decrease in wound size, an increase of re-epithelialization, collagen deposition and wound neovascularisation, and a minimal stickiness to the wound tissue, in comparison with gauze and PU foam. Taken all together these findings indicate that the silicone-coated N-WPE dressing enhances wound healing since stimulates higher granulation tissue formation and causes minor tissue trauma during dressing changes. PMID:22692367

  14. Randomized Clinical Trial of the Innovative Bilayered Wound Dressing Made of Silk and Gelatin: Safety and Efficacy Tests Using a Split-Thickness Skin Graft Model.

    PubMed

    Hasatsri, Sukhontha; Angspatt, Apichai; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-01-01

    We developed the novel silk fibroin-based bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of partial thickness wounds. And it showed relevant characteristics and accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in a rat model. This study is the clinical evaluation of the bilayered wound dressing to confirm its safety and efficacy for the treatment of split-thickness skin donor sites. The safety test was performed using a patch model and no evidence of marked and severe cutaneous reactions was found. The efficacy test of the bilayered wound dressing was conducted on 23 patients with 30 split-thickness skin graft donor sites to evaluate healing time, pain score, skin barrier function, and systemic reaction in comparison to Bactigras. We found that the healing time of donor site wounds treated with the bilayered wound dressing (11 ± 6 days) was significantly faster than those treated with Bactigras (14 ± 6 days) (p = 10(-6)). The wound sites treated with the bilayered wound dressing showed significantly less pain and more rapid skin functional barrier recovery than those treated with Bactigras (p = 10(-5)). Therefore, these results confirmed the clinical safety and efficacy of the bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of split-thickness skin graft donor sites. PMID:26221170

  15. Randomized Clinical Trial of the Innovative Bilayered Wound Dressing Made of Silk and Gelatin: Safety and Efficacy Tests Using a Split-Thickness Skin Graft Model

    PubMed Central

    Hasatsri, Sukhontha; Angspatt, Apichai; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-01-01

    We developed the novel silk fibroin-based bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of partial thickness wounds. And it showed relevant characteristics and accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in a rat model. This study is the clinical evaluation of the bilayered wound dressing to confirm its safety and efficacy for the treatment of split-thickness skin donor sites. The safety test was performed using a patch model and no evidence of marked and severe cutaneous reactions was found. The efficacy test of the bilayered wound dressing was conducted on 23 patients with 30 split-thickness skin graft donor sites to evaluate healing time, pain score, skin barrier function, and systemic reaction in comparison to Bactigras. We found that the healing time of donor site wounds treated with the bilayered wound dressing (11 ± 6 days) was significantly faster than those treated with Bactigras (14 ± 6 days) (p = 10?6). The wound sites treated with the bilayered wound dressing showed significantly less pain and more rapid skin functional barrier recovery than those treated with Bactigras (p = 10?5). Therefore, these results confirmed the clinical safety and efficacy of the bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of split-thickness skin graft donor sites. PMID:26221170

  16. Biological properties of dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose crosslinked gelatin-PEG composite hydrogel fibers for wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Li, Defu; Ye, Youxin; Li, Derong; Li, Xinying; Mu, Changdao

    2016-02-10

    Gelatin-based composite hydrogel fibers were prepared by gel-spinning with PEG6000 as the modifier. Dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC), as an ideal crosslinking reagent for protein, was used to fix the composite hydrogel fibers. Then the biological properties of the hydrogel fibers for wound dressings were evaluated. The results indicate that the hydrogen bond interactions and CN linkages between gelatin and DCMC can be formed. The addition of DCMC can efficiently improve the mechanical properties, enzymatic stability and blood compatibility of the hydrogel fibers. Crosslinking with DCMC can reduce the degree of swelling of the hydrogel fibers, which is beneficial for hydrogel fibers to avoid undesired reduction in mechanical properties. Moreover, the composite hydrogel fibers present three-dimensional structure, porous networks and low cytotoxicity. The study suggests that DCMC is an effective crosslinking reagent for biomaterials fixation. The developed composite hydrogel fibers can be well-suited for biomedical applications such as wound dressings. PMID:26686157

  17. Ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract-loaded chitosan-based hydrogel film for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohammad A; Khatoon, Fehmeeda; Rizvi, Moshahid A; Zafaryab, Md

    2015-12-01

    High toxicity and multidrug resistance associated with various standard antimicrobial drugs have necessitated search for safer alternatives in plant-derived materials. In this study, we performed biological examination of chitosan-based hydrogel film loaded with ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract against 11 standard laboratory strains. FTIR showed regeneration of saccharide peak in CP1A at 1047 cm(-1) and increased in height of other peaks. DSC exothermic decomposition peaks at 112 °C, 175 °C and 251 °C reveal the effect of extract on hydrogel film. From FESEM images, three-dimensional cross-linking and extract easily seen in the globular form from the surface. MTT assay on HEK 293 cells showed that CP1A was non-toxic. Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 4000 ?g/ml to 125 ?g/ml. Enterococcus faecium, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were the most resistant, while Salmonella typhi and Candida guilliermondii were the most susceptible micro-organisms. PMID:26525493

  18. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive. (a) Identification. A wound dressing with pDADMAC additive is intended for use as a...

  3. Estimates of evaporation rates from wounds for various dressing/support surface combinations.

    PubMed

    Lachenbruch, Charlie; VanGilder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The management of exudate is an essential aspect of wound care. The wound bed must remain moist to promote healing, but care must be taken to remove excess fluid to avoid maceration and subsequent breakdown of the periwound site, which could serve as a possible portal to infection. Excess fluid is typically absorbed into and/or evaporates through the wound dressing or may be managed by a powered vacuum-assisted closure device. Although the moisture vapor permeability has been studied for dressings, the rate of evaporation associated with wound's immediate treatment environment, or dressing/treatment surface interface, has not been addressed to date. It is essential for caregivers to have an understanding of how these 2 interventions work together in order to provide optimal care to the wound patient. The purpose of this study was to provide estimates of evaporative withdrawal rates for various wound dressings and therapeutic support surfaces. PMID:22218068

  4. Development of a novel sodium fusidate-loaded triple polymer hydrogel wound dressing: Mechanical properties and effects on wound repair.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Seo, Youn Gee; Go, Toe Gyung; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-30

    To develop a novel sodium fusidate-loaded triple polymer hydrogel dressing (TPHD), numerious polyvinyl alcohol-based (PVA) hydrogel dressings were prepared with various hydrophilic polymers using the freeze-thaw method, and their hydrogel dressing properties were assessed. Among the hydrophilic polymers tested, sodium alginate (SA) improved the swelling capacity the most, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) provided the greatest improvement in bioadhesive stength and mechanical properties. Thus, PVA based-TPHDs were prepared using different ratios of PVP:SA. The effect of selected PVP:SA ratios on the swelling capacity, bioadhesive strength, mechanical properties, and drug release, permeation and deposition characteristics of sodium fusidate-loaded PVA-based TPHDs were assessed. As the ratio of PVP:SA increased in PVA-loaded TPHD, the swelling capacity, mechanical properties, drug release, permeation and deposition were improved. The TPHD containing PVA, PVP, SA and sodium fusidate at the weight ratio of 10/6/1/1 showed excellent hydrogel dressing properties, release, permeation and deposition of drug. Within 24h, 71.8±1.3% of drug was released. It permeated 625.1±81.2?g/cm(2) through the skin and deposited of 313.8±24.1?g/cm(2) within 24h. The results of in vivo pharmacodynamic studies showed that sodium fusidate-loaded TPHD was more effective in improving the repair process than was a commercial product. Thus, this sodium fusidate-loaded TPHD could be a novel tool in wound care. PMID:26657270

  5. Biodegradable soy wound dressings with controlled release of antibiotics: Results from a guinea pig burn model.

    PubMed

    Egozi, Dana; Baranes-Zeevi, Maya; Ullmann, Yehuda; Gilhar, Amos; Keren, Aviad; Matanes, Elias; Berdicevsky, Israela; Krivoy, Norberto; Zilberman, Meital

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest in the development of biodegradable materials from renewable biopolymers, such as soy protein, for biomedical applications. Soy protein is a major fraction of natural soybean and has the advantages of being economically competitive, biodegradable and biocompatible. It presents good water resistance as well as storage stability. In the current study, homogenous antibiotic-loaded soy protein films were cast from aqueous solutions. The antibiotic drug gentamicin was incorporated into the films in order to inhibit bacterial growth, and thus prevent or combat infection, upon its controlled release to the surrounding tissue. The current in vivo study of the dressing material in contaminated deep second-degree burn wounds in guinea pigs (n=20) demonstrated its ability to accelerate epithelialization with 71% epithelial coverage compared to an unloaded format of the soy material (62%) and a significant improved epithelial coverage as compared to the conventional dressing material (55%). Our new platform of antibiotic-eluting wound dressings is advantageous over currently used popular dressing materials that provide controlled release of silver ions, due to its gentamicin release profile, which is safer. Another advantage of our novel concept is that it is based on a biodegradable natural polymer and therefore does not require bandage changes and offers a potentially valuable and economic approach for treating burn-related infections. PMID:26004224

  6. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of honey dressing and silver sulfadiazene dressing on wound healing in burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Baghel, P. S.; Shukla, S.; Mathur, R. K.; Randa, R.

    2009-01-01

    To compare the effect of honey dressing and silver-sulfadiazene (SSD) dressing on wound healing in burn patients. Patients (n=78) of both sexes, with age group between 10 and 50 years and with first and second degree of burn of less than 50% of TBSA (Total body surface area) were included in the study, over a period of 2 years (2006-08). After stabilization, patients were randomly attributed into two groups: ‘honey group’ and ‘SSD group’. Time elapsed since burn was recorded. After washing with normal saline, undiluted pure honey was applied over the wounds of patients in the honey group (n=37) and SSD cream over the wounds of patients in SSD group (n=41), everyday. Wound was dressed with sterile gauze, cotton pads and bandaged. Status of the wound was assessed every third and seventh day and on the day of completion of study. Patients were followed up every fortnight till epithelialization. The bacteriological examination of the wound was done every seventh day. The mean age for case (honey group) and control (SSD group) was 34.5 years and 28.5 years, respectively. Wound swab culture was positive in 29 out of 36 patients who came within 8 hours of burn and in all patients who came after 24 hours. The average duration of healing in patients treated with honey and SSD dressing at any time of admission was 18.16 and 32.68 days, respectively. Wound of all those patients (100%) who reported within 1 hour became sterile with honey dressing in less than 7 days while none with SSD. All of the wounds became sterile in less than 21 days with honey, while tthis was so in only 36.5% with SSD treated wounds. The honey group included 33 patients reported within 24 hour of injury, and 26 out of them had complete outcome at 2 months of follow-up, while numbers for the SSD group were 32 and 12. Complete outcome for any admission point of time after 2 months was noted in 81% and 37% of patients in the honey group and the SSD group. Honey dressing improves wound healing, makes the wound sterile in lesser time, has a better outcome in terms of prevention of hypertrophic scarring and post-burn contractures, and decreases the need of debridement irrespective of time of admission, when compared to SSD dressing. PMID:20368852

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma CVD as a tool to functionalise wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Spange, Sebastian; Pfuch, Andreas; Wiegand, Cornelia; Beier, Oliver; Hipler, Uta C; Grünler, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this investigation was the preparation of an antibacterial layer system for additional modification of wound dressings with atmospheric plasma. Furthermore, the modified wound dressings were checked on there bactericidal and cytotoxic activity. The layer system was applied by using a novel atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition technique on a variety of textile substrates which are suitable as wound dressing materials. The layer system composed of silicon dioxide with in situ generated embedded silver nanoparticles. The bactericidal activity of the produced wound dressings was investigated against different bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae while the cytotoxic potential of the coated wound dressings was verified using human keratinocytes. Even at low concentrations of silver precursor a strong antibacterial effect was observed in direct contact with S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Furthermore, extractions produced from the coated textiles showed a good antibacterial effect. By means of optimised coating parameters a therapeutic window for those wound dressings could be identified. Consequently, the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition technique promise an effective and low cost modification of wound dressing materials. PMID:25631274

  8. A Wireless Electroceutical Dressing Lowers Cost of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Piya Das; Schlanger, Richard; Ganesh, Kasturi; Lambert, Lynn; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Martinsek, Patsy; Roy, Sashwati

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the use of a wireless electroceutical dressing (WED) (Procellera®) in conjunction with a 5-day negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) may reduce the number of dressing changes required per week with this therapy. Approach: At the Ohio State University Comprehensive Wound Center, chronic wound patients (n=30) undergoing NPWT were randomized into two arms following consent as approved by the institutional review board. The control arm received standard of care NPWT, where the dressing change was performed thrice a week. The test arm received the same care except that the WED was added as an interface layer and dressing change was limited to twice a week. Results: A reduced cost of care was achieved using the WED in conjunction with NPWT. Despite fewer dressing changes in wounds dressed with the WED, closure outcomes were comparable with no overt signs of any wound complication, including infection. The cost of NPWT care during the week was significantly lower (from $2918 to $2346) in the WED-treated group compared with patients in the control arm. Innovation: This work introduces a novel technology platform involving a WED, which may be used in conjunction with NPWT. If used as such, NPWT is effective in decreasing the frequency of dressing change and lowering the cost of care. Conclusion: This work points toward the benefit of using the WED combined with NPWT. A larger clinical trial investigating the cost-effectiveness of WED in wound care is warranted. PMID:26005596

  9. Evidence-Based Care of Acute Wounds: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ubbink, Dirk T.; Brölmann, Fleur E.; Go, Peter M. N. Y. H.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Large variation and many controversies exist regarding the treatment of, and care for, acute wounds, especially regarding wound cleansing, pain relief, dressing choice, patient instructions, and organizational aspects. Recent Advances: A multidisciplinary team developed evidence-based guidelines for the Netherlands using the AGREE-II and GRADE instruments. A working group, consisting of 17 representatives from all professional societies involved in wound care, tackled five controversial issues in acute-wound care, as provided by any caregiver throughout the whole chain of care. Critical Issues: The guidelines contain 38 recommendations, based on best available evidence, additional expert considerations, and patient experiences. In summary, primarily closed wounds need no cleansing; acute open wounds are best cleansed with lukewarm (drinkable) water; apply the WHO pain ladder to choose analgesics against continuous wound pain; use lidocaine or prilocaine infiltration anesthesia for wound manipulations or closure; primarily closed wounds may not require coverage with a dressing; use simple dressings for open wounds; and give your patient clear instructions about how to handle the wound. Future Directions: These evidence-based guidelines on acute wound care may help achieve a more uniform policy to treat acute wounds in all settings and an improved effectiveness and quality of wound care. PMID:26005594

  10. Physical and biological assessments of the innovative bilayered wound dressing made of silk and gelatin for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hasatsri, Sukhontha; Yamdech, Rungnapha; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-04-01

    The physical and biological assessments of the innovative bilayered wound dressing made of silk and gelatin that we have developed previously were performed to evaluate its efficacy for clinical applications. The absorption ability and dehydration rate of the dressing were assessed using the split-thickness skin graft and leg ulcer wound bed models. The bioactivities of the bilayered wound dressing were evaluated. The bilayered dressing showed continuous absorption rate of wound exudate, providing the suitability for the wound with extended inflammation phase. The dehydration rate of the bilayered dressing was comparable to the commercially available dressing of which the moisture maintenance capability is claimed. The bilayered dressing showed good conformability, as can be seen by the homogeneous distribution pattern of bromophenol blue absorbed. In terms of biological activities, the bilayered dressing was less toxic to skin cells than the commercially available dressing. The bilayered dressing was also shown to promote cell migration and collagen production due to the bioactive protein components. We here concluded that the superior properties of the bilayered dressing over the commercially available dressing were the conformability and biological activities to accelerate the wound healing, while the other properties were comparable to those of commercially available dressing. The data obtained in this study would be very useful for the further evaluation of the bilayered dressing in clinical trial. PMID:25391444

  11. The effects of silver dressings on chronic and burns wound healing.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Chris

    Silver (Ag) has been thought to improve wound healing and reduce instances of associated infections for many years. There are centuries-old records of silver being used in wound treatment, but the past two decades in particular have seen an increasing clinical application of silver-impregnated wound dressings and as such, have seen the number of research articles similarly increase. The majority of these articles focus on the positives and potential negatives (e.g. the toxicity of silver as a heavy metal) of using silver-impregnated dressings in the clinical management of wounds. This article examines the potential advantages and disadvantages of using silver in the management of chronic and burn wounds, and provides a physiological understanding of the body's response to silver absorption. The author also attempts to critically appraise the opposing literature related to the clinical relevance of microbial kill-time and the volume of silver contained in dressings, while investigating the efficacy of silver-impregnated dressings in the management of burns and chronic wounds. In order to collect literature relevant to this review, the author searched CINAHL, Medline, BMJ, Medscape, Journal of Advanced Nursing, the Electronic Medicines Compendium (EMC), and the Cochrane Library, using the terms silver, silver sulfadiazine, impregnated, wound, burn, dressing, review, quantative, efficacy, in vitro, in vivo, nanocrystalline, toxicity, infection, microbial kill-time, and comparison. PMID:20852480

  12. Antimicrobial and release study of drug loaded PVA/PEO/CMC wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Agarwal, Roopali; Sarwar Alam, M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop PVA/PEO/CMC/aloe vera (PPCAV) and PVA/PEO/CMC/curcumin (PPCCu) dressings with nonwoven polyester fabric as the support layer via freeze-drying (FD) approach. Tetracycline hydrochloride drug (TC) was loaded along with curcumin and aloe vera on these dressings. The morphology of the dressings was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), in vitro drug release and antimicrobial nature were analyzed to assess the applicability of these freeze-dried membranes as wound dressing materials. The results show that these dressings made from PPCAVTC and PPCCuTC were highly porous with three-dimensional interconnected porous morphology. The cumulative release of drug from the dressings increases with increasing immersion time and continued up to 24 h, after that it gets leveled off. These dressings evidenced wonderful antimicrobial nature in vitro. These dressings were found to have more than 900 % PBS uptake, WVTR was found to be in the range 2,000-2,500 gm(-2) day(-1). These dressings possess many characteristics desirable in an ideal wound dressing material. PMID:24599552

  13. Guanidine hydrochloride embedded polyurethanes as antimicrobial and absorptive wound dressing membranes with promising cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Sahraro, Maryam; Yeganeh, Hamid; Sorayya, Marziyeh

    2016-02-01

    Preparation and assessments of novel absorptive wound dressing materials with efficient antimicrobial activity as well as very good cytocompatibility were described in this work. An amine terminated poly(hexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride) was prepared and used as curing agent of different epoxy-terminated polyurethane prepolymers. The structures of prepared materials were elucidated by evaluation of their (1)H NMR and FTIR spectra. The recorded tensile strength of membranes confirmed the excellent dimensional stability of the film type dressings even at fully hydrated conditions. Therefore, these dressings could protect the wound bed from external forces during the healing period. The structurally optimized dressing membranes could preserve the desired moist environment over the wounded area, as a result of their balanced equilibrium, water absorption and water vapor transmission rate. Therefore, a very good condition for stimulation of self-healing of wound bed was attained. Also, owing to the presence of guanidine hydrochloride moieties embedded into the structure of dressings, efficient antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were detected. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of the prepared dressings revealed cytocompatibility of these materials against fibroblast cells. Therefore, they could support cell growth and proliferation at the wounded area. PMID:26652461

  14. Electrospun PCL membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as antibacterial wound dressings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Sneha; Rajput, Yudhishthir Singh; Singh, Gulab; Sharma, Rajan

    2015-04-01

    An open wound is highly prone to bacterial colonization and infection. Bacterial barrier property is an important factor that determines the success of a wound coverage material. Apart from the bacterial barrier property, presence of antibacterial agents can successfully eliminate the invasion and colonization of pathogen in the wound. Silver nanoparticles are well-known antimicrobial agents against a wide range of microorganisms. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are more acceptable for medical applications due to superior biocompatibility than chemically synthesized ones. Presence of biomolecules on biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhances its therapeutic efficiency. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a well-known material for biomedical applications including wound dressings. Electrospinning is an excellent technique for the fabrication of thin membranes for wound coverage applications with barrier property against microbes. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of electrospun PCL membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles for wound dressing applications.

  15. Research on a novel poly (vinyl alcohol)/lysine/vanillin wound dressing: Biocompatibility, bioactivity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; A, Ruhan; Ge, Heng; Wang, Lin; Liu, Meili; Wang, Binbin; Su, Haisheng; Yan, Ming; Xi, Yuan; Fan, Yubo

    2014-12-01

    Burn wound dressings have played significant roles in daily clinical practice. An "ideal" burn wound dressing is non-adhesion, absorbency and antimicrobial activity. However, such a dressing is currently not available. A novel composite hydrogel was based on poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing lysine (Lys) and vanillin (V) using freezing-thawing method. The properties of this hydrogel were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR). Then the antibacterial activity of PVA/Lys/V composite hydrogel was examined by bacteriolytic plate. In vivo experiment, a burn rat model was used to evaluate the histological analysis of this hydrogel. In results, the Schiff base formed in the three-phase system. It improved the tensile strength and crystallization of the PVA/Lys/V composite hydrogel. Meanwhile, this hydrogel showed excellent bactericidal activities to both gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus) due to the Schiff base. And the antibacterial activity toward gram-negative bacteria was better than another. On Day 7, 95-100% of the surface areas of PVA/Lys/V composite treated burns were covered with regenerating epidermis. And the new tissue and capillary vessel formed around the wounds after treatment. Therefore, it is suggested that treatment with PVA/Lys/V composite hydrogel will be effective also in patients with burns and other skin wounds. PMID:24953436

  16. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA hydrogel wound dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2007-02-01

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm 2 to 411 g/cm 2, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names.

  17. Open burn wound dressing: a practical option in resource constrained settings

    PubMed Central

    Olawoye, O.A.; Osinupebi, O.O.; Ayoade, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Various types of wound care products abound for the treatment of burn injuries. Most of these products are rather expensive and beyond the means of many patients in poorer countries. This poses a challenge to burn care workers in these environments and calls for the adoption of practical solutions with the use of less expensive and readily available alternatives. The aim of this study is to review the outcome of our burn patients managed with topical silver sulphadiazine dressing in terms of time to wound healing and length of hospital stay. Consecutive burn patients admitted over a four year period were included in the study. The patients were resuscitated along standard protocols and their wounds were dressed daily with dermazin. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were retrieved and analyzed using the SPSS version 16. The primary outcome measure for the study was the time to complete re-epithelialization of the wounds and discharge of the patients. 144 patients with a M: F ratio of 2.3: 1 were managed during the period. The age range was 4 months to 81.9 years with a median age of 26 years. The TBSA range was 1 to 99% with a median of 28.5%. The mean duration from time of injury to wound healing was 21.5 days with a median of 17 days. Open burn wound dressing with silver sulphadiazine offers a satisfactory outcome and should be considered for burn dressing in low resource settings. PMID:24563642

  18. Chitosan-aluminum monostearate composite sponge dressing containing asiaticoside for wound healing and angiogenesis promotion in chronic wound.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Yodkhum, Kotchamon; Charoenteeraboon, Juree; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-05-01

    There are many factors that delay healing in chronic wounds including lowering level of growth factors and increasing exudate level comprising high amount of tissue destructive enzymes. Asiaticoside possesses interesting wound healing and angiogenic activities that are employed to stimulate tissue regeneration in wound healing application. This study attempted to develop chitosan-aluminum monostearate (Alst) composite sponge containing asiaticoside for use as an absorbent medical dressing in chronic wound. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used to enhance homogeneity of asiaticoside in the polymer composite matrix. The sponge dressings were prepared by lyophilization and dehydrothermal treatment (DHT). Functional group interaction, crystallinity, and morphology of the prepared sponges were investigated using FT-IR, PXRD, and SEM, respectively. Physicochemical properties, porosity, hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties and mechanical property, were evaluated. Wound dressing properties, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), fluid absorbency, oxygen permeation (OP), and bio-adhesive property, were investigated. In vitro asiaticoside release study was conducted using immersion method. Cytotoxicity was studied in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) and normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK). Angiogenic activity of asiaticoside was evaluated using chick-chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. FT-IR and PXRD results revealed the amidation after DHT to enhance the crystallinity of the prepared sponges. The prepared sponges had high porosity comprising high Alst-loaded amount that exhibited more compact structure. Alst enhanced hydrophobicity therefore it reduced the fluid absorption and WVTR together with bio-adhesion of the prepared sponge dressings. Porosity of all sponges was more than 85% therefore resulting in their high OP. Enhancing hydrophobicity of the material by Alst and more homogeneity caused by NMP eventually retarded the asiaticoside release for 7 days. The sponge extractions were non-toxic to the cells moreover they promoted NHDF and NHEK cell proliferation. Asiaticoside and asiaticoside-contained dressings exhibited dose-dependent angiogenic activity in CAM model. PMID:25746264

  19. Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera and curcumin loaded oxidized pectin-gelatin (OP-Gel) matrices were used as antimicrobial finishes on nonwoven cotton fabrics to produce composite wound care devices. The drug release characteristics of the biocomposite dressings indicated that curcumin is released through a biphasic mechanism - erosion of the polymeric matrix, followed by diffusion, while aloe vera is released upon leaching of the polymeric matrix. A 50/50 composition of aloe vera/curcumin was used to fabricate OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings. However, contrary to our expectations, OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings exhibited lesser antimicrobial activity compared to OP-Gel-Aloe and OP-Gel-Curcumin dressings. The cytocompatibility of the fabricated dressings was evaluated using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. OP-Gel-Aloe treated fibroblasts had the highest viability, with the matrices providing a substrate for good cell attachment and proliferation. On the other hand, OP-Gel-Curcumin and OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin seemed to have induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In vivo wound healing analysis was carried out using an excisional splint wound model on C57BL/6J mice. OP-Gel-Aloe treated wounds exhibited very rapid healing with 80% of the wound healing in just 8 days. Furthermore, aloe vera exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect and prominent scar prevention. Histological examination revealed that an ordered collagen formation and neovascularization could be observed along with migration of nuclei. Therefore, OP-Gel-Aloe biocomposite dressings are proposed as viable materials for effective wound management. PMID:26529192

  20. Use of skin staples to fix film dressings on scalp donor wounds in patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiji; Ishikura, Naotaka; Kawakami, Shigehiko; Heshiki, Takaya; Shimada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Tomoko

    2002-05-01

    Split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) from the scalp have been used in large burns. The donor site wounds are usually covered using occlusive dressings, such as film dressings because they contribute to reduce donor site pain and infection under exudative crust and to enhance re-epithelialization. However, it is not always easy to fix such film dressings to the scalp because of the presence of hair. In this paper, we report the use of skin staplers to fix the film dressings. Eight donor sites in four patients were dressed in this way. The patients had 50-78% of the body burned, all of them survived. The mean healing time for the donor sites was 6.8 days. Three patients had their scalps re-harvested several times (range two to three times). There were no infections nor secondary skin ulcers at the donor sites. The technique of this dressing is very simple and speedy, thus we recommend the use of skin staplers to fix the film dressing to scalp donor wounds in patients with burns. PMID:11996860

  1. Novel bilayer wound dressing composed of silicone rubber with particular micropores enhanced wound re-epithelialization and contraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Luo, Gaoxing; Xia, Hesheng; He, Weifeng; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Bo; Tan, Jianglin; Zhou, Junyi; Liu, Daisong; Wang, Yuzhen; Yao, Zhihui; Zhan, Rixing; Yang, Sisi; Wu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Wound dressing is critical important for cutaneous wound healing. However, the application of current products is limited due to poor mechanical property, unsuitable water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), poor anti-infective property or poor biocompatibility, etc. In the present study, a microporous silicone rubber membrane bilayer (SRM-B) composed of two layers with different pore sizes was prepared. The physical properties, the influences of pore structure on the bacterial penetration, the cell adhesion and proliferation were studied. Lastly, the effects of the SRM-B on the healing of a mouse full-thickness wound were examined. The data showed that the small pore upper layer of SRM-B could effectively prevent the bacterial invasion, as well as properly keep the water vapor transmission rate; the large pore lower layer of SRM-B could promote the cell adhesion and proliferation. The in vivo results showed that SRM-B could significantly enhance wound re-epithelialization and contraction, which accelerated the wound healing. Our data suggested that the SRM-B, with different particular pore sizes, could serve as a kind of promising wound dressing. PMID:25498800

  2. Hybrid Nanoscale Architecture of Wound Dressing with Super Hydrophilic, Antimicrobial, and Ultralow Fouling Attributes.

    PubMed

    Depan, D; Misra, R D K

    2015-02-01

    Currently available wound dressings to heal thermal and chronic wounds are unable to respond to the challenges of resistance to bacterial infection, protein adsorption, and increased levels of wound exudates. To this end, we have conceived the fabrication of a new and ideal wound dressing with a number of key attributes. They include effective antimicrobial activity in a controlled manner, ultralow fouling property that provides resistance to protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion, maintain a moist but not saturated environment to promote healing, and is non-adherent and effective in the presence of heavy wound exudate. The novel approach to reduce infection and bacterial colonization involves incorporation of a unique silver-clay nanohybrid architecture in zwitterionic polymer, poly(sulfobetaine). The innovative concept of silver-clay hybrid structure enables us to obtain high, sustained, and diffusion-controlled antimicrobial activity of silver eluting polymer. The sustained and diffusion-controlled high antimicrobial efficiency is obtained through a process involving in situ precipitation of silver nanoparticles with large surface area on the surface of clay platelets. Furthermore, the use of recently developed zwitterionic polymer, poly(sulfobetaine) [poly(SB)] for wound dressing, provides antifouling property, which resists protein adsorption. PMID:26349306

  3. The Effect of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain Relief During Dressing Changes in Children with Chronic Wounds on Lower Limbs.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yun; Qiu, Rong; Yao, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients with chronic wounds experience the most pain during dressing changes. Currently, researchers focus mostly on analgesics and appropriate dressing materials to relieve pain during dressing changes of chronic wounds. However, the effect of nonpharmacologic interventions, such as virtual reality distraction, on pain management during dressing changes of pediatric chronic wounds remains poorly understood. To investigate the effect of virtual reality distraction on alleviating pain during dressing changes in children with chronic wounds on their lower limbs. A prospective randomized study. A pediatric center in a tertiary hospital. Sixty-five children, aged from 4 to 16 years, with chronic wounds on their lower limbs. Pain and anxiety scores during dressing changes were recorded by using the Wong-Baker Faces picture scale, visual analogue scale, and pain behavior scale, as well as physiological measurements including pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Time length of dressing change was recorded. Virtual reality distraction significantly relieved pain and anxiety scores during dressing changes and reduced the time length for dressing changes as compared to standard distraction methods. The use of virtual reality as a distraction tool in a pediatric ward offered superior pain reduction to children as compared to standard distractions. This device can potentially improve clinical efficiency by reducing length time for dressing changes. PMID:25972074

  4. Efficient surface functionalization of wound dressings by a phytoactive nanocoating refractory to Candida albicans biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2013-12-01

    The present study reports the fabrication and characterization of a novel nanostructured phyto-bioactive coated rayon/polyester wound dressing (WD) surface refractory to Candida albicans adhesion, colonization and biofilm formation, based on functionalized magnetite nanoparticles and Anethum graveolens (AG) and Salvia officinalis (SO) essential oils (EOs). TEM, XRD, TGA, FT-IR were used for the characterization of the fabricated nanobiocoated WDs. Using magnetic nanoparticles for the stabilization and controlled release of EOs, the activity of natural volatile compounds is significantly enhanced and their effect is stable during time. For this reason the nanobiocoated surfaces exhibited a longer term anti-biofilm effect, maintained for at least 72 h. Besides their excellent anti- adherence properties, the proposed solutions exhibit the advantage of using vegetal natural compounds, which are less toxic and easily biodegradable in comparison with synthetic antifungal drugs, representing thus promising approaches for the development of successful ways to control and prevent fungal biofilms associated infections. PMID:24706124

  5. Dynamics of silver nanoparticle release from wound dressings revealed via in situ nanoscale imaging.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, R David; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Staymates, Matthew E

    2014-11-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in textiles for enhanced anti-microbial properties has led to concern about their release and impact on both human and environmental health. Here a novel method for in situ visualization of AgNP release from silver-impregnated wound dressings is introduced. By combining an environmental scanning electron microscope, a gaseous analytical detector and a peltier cooling stage, this technique provides near-instantaneous nanoscale characterization of interactions between individual water droplets and AgNPs. We show that dressings with different silver application methods have very distinct AgNP release dynamics. Specifically, water condensation on dressings with AgNP deposited directly on the fiber surface resulted in substantial and rapid AgNP release. By comparison, AgNP release from wound dressing with nanoparticles grown, not deposited, from the fiber surface was either much slower or negligible. Our methodology complements standard bulk techniques for studying of silver release from fabrics by providing dynamic nanoscale information about mechanisms governing AgNP release from individual fibers. Thus coupling these nano and macro-scale methods can provide insight into how the wound dressing fabrication could be engineered to optimize AgNP release for different applications. PMID:25011499

  6. Electrospinning polyvinylidene fluoride fibrous membranes containing anti-bacterial drugs used as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Wang, Jingnan; Huang, Peilin; Zeng, Baozhen; Li, Haihong; Cao, Qingyun; Zhang, Shiying; Luo, Zhuo; Deng, David Y B; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Wuyi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesis drug-loaded fibrous membrane scaffolds for potential applications as wound dressing. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibrous membranes were loaded with enrofloxacin (Enro) drugs by using an electrospinning process, and their mechanical strength, drug release profile and anti-bacterial properties were evaluated. Enro drug-loaded PVDF membranes exhibited good elasticity, flexibility and excellent mechanical strength. The electrospinning Enro/PVDF membranes showed a burst drug release in the initial 12h, followed by sustained release for the next 3 days, which was an essential property for antibiotic drugs applied for wound healing. The drug-loaded PVDF fibrous membranes displayed excellent anti-bacterial activity toward Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results suggest that electrospinning PVDF membrane scaffolds loaded with drugs can be used as wound dressing. PMID:25936562

  7. Surface fluid-swellable chitosan fiber as the wound dressing material.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guixue; Lang, Xuqian; Kong, Ming; Cheng, Xiaojie; Liu, Ya; Feng, Chao; Chen, Xiguang

    2016-01-20

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel surface fluid-swellable chitosan (SFSC) fiber for potential wound dressing. The SFSC fiber was successfully prepared by surface modification of chitosan fiber with succinic anhydride, which was characterized by FTIR and solid-state (13)C NMR. The SFSC fiber exhibited better water absorption capacity (approx. 2980%) and stronger antibacterial activities (both above 90%) against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than chitosan fiber (both below 75%). The cell viability was more than 90% after treated with the SFSC fiber extract, which demonstrated that SFSC fiber had low cytotoxicity towards mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). The SFSC fiber could promote wound healing with advanced development of granulation tissue and epithelial coverage compared with the control (gauze-covered) group. The results indicated that SFSC fiber had great potential to be used as wound dressing material. PMID:26572422

  8. Protease Inhibition by Oleic Acid Transfer From Chronic Wound Dressings to Albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. V.; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel M.; Mashchak, Andrew D.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds. These levels can inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid (18:1) is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor with some potential for redressing the imbalance of elastase activity found in chronic wounds. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of 18:1 by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. 18:1-treated cotton was examined for its ability to bind and release the fatty acid in the presence of albumin. The mechanism of 18:1 uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-18:1 complexes under liquid-liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-18:1 complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:18:1. Cotton chromatography under liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of 18:1 per mole albumin. Cotton was contrasted with hydrogel, and hydrocolloid wound dressing for its comparative ability to lower elastase activity. Each dressing material evaluated was found to release 18:1 in the presence of albumin with significant inhibition of elastase activity. The 18:1-formulated wound dressings lowered elastase activity in a dose dependent manner in the order cotton gauze > hydrogel > hydrocolloid. In contrast the cationic serine protease Cathepsin G was inihibited by 18:1 within a narrow range of 18:1-cotton formulations. Four per cent Albumin solutions were most effective in binding cotton bound-18:1. However, 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of 18:1 necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Formulations with 128 mg 18:1/g cotton gauze had equivalent elastase lowering with 1 - 4% albumin. 18:1 bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the selective lowering of cationic serine protease activity useful in topical application for chronic inflammatory pathogenesis.

  9. Highly biocompatible collagen-Delonix regia seed polysaccharide hybrid scaffolds for antimicrobial wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Cheirmadurai, Kalirajan; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Murali, Ragothaman

    2016-02-10

    Biomaterials based entirely on biological resources are ideal for tissue engineering applications. Here we report the preparation of hybrid collagen scaffolds comprising gulmohar seed polysaccharide (GSP) and cinnamon bark extract as cross-linking agent. (1)H NMR spectrum of GSP confirms the presence of galactose and mannose in the ratio of 1:1.54, which was further corroborated using FT-IR. The hybrid scaffolds show better enzyme and thermal stability in contrast to pure collagen scaffold probably due to weak interactions from GSP and covalent interaction through cinnamaldehyde. Gas permeability and scanning electron microscopic analysis show that the porosity of the hybrid scaffolds is slightly reduced with the increase in the concentration of GSP. The infrared and circular dichroic spectral studies show that the secondary structure of the collagen did not change after the interaction with GSP and cinnamaldehyde. The hybrid scaffolds stabilized with cinnamaldehyde show good antimicrobial activity against the common multi-drug resistant wound pathogens. These results suggest that the prepared hybrid scaffolds have great potential for antimicrobial wound dressing applications. PMID:26686167

  10. Mechanical properties and in vivo healing evaluation of a novel Centella asiatica-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Young Hun; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-07-25

    To develop a novel sodium alginate based Centella asiatica (CA)-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing (HCD) providing excellent mechanical properties and improved wound healing, numerous CA-loaded HCDs were prepared with various ingredients using the hot melting method. The effect of sodium alginate, styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer (SIS) and petroleum hydrocarbon resin (PHR) on the mechanical properties of CA-loaded HCDs was investigated. The effect of disintegrants on swelling and drug release was assessed. Moreover, the in vivo wound healing potentials of the selected CA-loaded HCD in various wound models such as abrasion, excision and infection were evaluated in comparison with the commercial product. Polyisobutylene and SIS hardly affected the mechanical properties, but PHR improved the tensile strength and elongation at break. Disintegrants such as croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone improved the swelling ratio of the CA-loaded HCD. Furthermore, the CA-loaded HCD without croscarmellose sodium poorly released the drug, but that with 2% croscarmellose sodium showed about 27% drug release in 24h. In particular, the CA-loaded HCD composed of CA/polyisobutylene/SIS/PHR/liquid paraffin/sodium alginate/croscarmellose sodium at the weight ratio of 1/8/25/25/12/27/2 furnished excellent mechanical properties and drug release. As compared with the commercial product, it offered improved healing effects in excision, infection and abrasion type wounds in rats. Thus, this novel CA-loaded HCD could be a potential candidate for the treatment of various wounds. PMID:26024819

  11. Impregnation of silver sulfadiazine into bacterial cellulose for antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jiabin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Yudong; Song, Wenhui; Wang, Guojie; Guo, Jia; Ding, Xun

    2012-12-01

    Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is a useful antimicrobial agent for wound treatment. However, recent findings indicate that conventional SSD cream has several drawbacks for use in treatments. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a promising material for wound dressing due to its outstanding properties of holding water, strength and degradability. Unfortunately, BC itself exhibits no antimicrobial activity. A combination of SSD and BC is envisaged to form a new class of wound dressing with both antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility, which has not been reported to date. To achieve antimicrobial activity, SSD particles were impregnated into BC by immersing BC into SSD suspension after ultrasonication, namely SSD-BC. Parameters influencing SSD-BC impregnation were systematically studied. Optimized conditions of sonication time for no less than 90 min and the proper pH value between 6.6 and 9.0 were suggested. The absorption of SSD onto the BC nanofibrous network was revealed by XRD and SEM analyses. The SSD-BC membranes exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus evaluated by the disc diffusion method. In addition, the favorable biocompatibility of SSD-BC was verified by MTT colorimetry, epidermal cell counting method and optical microscopy. The results demonstrate the potential of SSD-BC membranes as a new class of antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressing. PMID:23182757

  12. Semi-permanent skin staining associated with silver-coated wound dressing Acticoat

    PubMed Central

    Zweiker, D.; Horn, S.; Hoell, A.; Seitz, S.; Walter, D.; Trop, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 17-year-old male with burns to 8% of his total body surface area was treated for 10 days with Acticoat®, a nanocrystalline silver dressing. The burns, which were on his back and shoulder, healed without infection. However, a skin discoloration in the wound area and the adjacent uninjured skin appeared in the first days of treatment. The staining remained visible even after the treatment had ended and disappeared approximately three years later. Despite the outstanding antimicrobial properties, possible side effects of silver nanocrystalline dressings should be kept in mind. PMID:26336367

  13. Bacterial cellulose membrane produced by Acetobacter sp. A10 for burn wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Moon Hwa; Kim, Ji Eun; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Song, Sung Hwa; Son, Hong Joo; Kim, Hye Sung; Yun, Young Hyun; Jung, Young Jin; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2015-05-20

    Bacteria cellulose membranes (BCM) are used for wound dressings, bone grafts, tissue engineering, artificial vessels, and dental implants because of their high tensile strength, crystallinity and water holding ability. In this study, the effects of BCM application for 15 days on healing of burn wounds were investigated based on evaluation of skin regeneration and angiogenesis in burn injury skin of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BCM showed a randomly organized fibrils network, 12.13 MPa tensile strength, 12.53% strain, 17.63% crystallinity, 90.2% gel fraction and 112.14 g × m(2)/h highest water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) although their swelling ratio was enhanced to 350% within 24h. In SD rats with burned skin, the skin severity score was lower in the BCM treated group than the gauze (GZ) group at all time points, while the epidermis and dermis thickness and number of blood vessels was greater in the BCM treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of infiltrated mast cells and in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) expression was observed in the BCM treated group at day 10 and 15. Moreover, a significant high level in collagen expression was observed in the BCM treated group at day 5 compared with GZ treated group, while low level was detected in the same group at day 10 and 15. However, the level of metabolic enzymes representing liver and kidney toxicity in the serum of BCM treated rats was maintained at levels consistent with GZ treated rats. Overall, BCM may accelerate the process of wound healing in burn injury skin of SD rats through regulation of angiogenesis and connective tissue formation as well as not induce any specific toxicity against the liver and kidney. PMID:25817683

  14. Preparation of a silk fibroin spongy wound dressing and its therapeutic efficiency in skin defects.

    PubMed

    Min, Sijia; Gao, Xin; Han, Chunmao; Chen, Yu; Yang, Mingying; Zhu, Liangjun; Zhang, Haiping; Liu, Lin; Yao, Juming

    2012-01-01

    A novel silk fibroin spongy wound dressing (SFSD) incorporated with nano-Ag particles was prepared by coagulating with 1.25-5.0% (v/v) poly(ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) (PGDE). The mechanical properties, moisture permeability and hygroscopicity of SFSD, and the nano-Ag release behavior from SFSD were evaluated. The results showed that the soft SFSD had satisfying tensile strength and flexibility, as well as excellent moisture permeability and absorption capability of wound exudates. The moisture permeability was 101 g/m(2) per h and the water absorption capacity of SFSD was 595.2% and 251.9% of its own weight in dry and wet states, respectively. The nano-Ag in the SFSD was released continuously at a relatively stable rate in PBS resulting in a remarkable antibacterial property. A rabbit model was used to dynamically observe the healing process of full-thickness skin defects. Full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsal side of rabbits, which were covered with SFSD and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) for comparison. The mean healing time of the wounds covered with SFSD was 17.7 ± 2.4 days, significantly shorter than that with PADM. The histological analysis showed that the epidermal cell layer formed with SFSD was very similar to normal skin, suggesting that SFSD may provide a good component for the development of new wound dressings. PMID:21176393

  15. Biofunctionalized electrospun silk mats as a topical bioactive dressing for accelerated wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A.; Wang, X.Y.; Kaplan, D.L.; Garlick, J.A.; Egles, C.

    2010-01-01

    Materials able to deliver topically bioactive molecules represent a new generation of biomaterials. In this article, we describe the use of silk mats, made of electrospun nanoscale silk fibers containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), for the promotion of wound healing processes. In our experiments, we demonstrated that EGF is incorporated into the silk mats and slowly released in a time-dependent manner (25% EGF release in 170 h). We tested these materials using a new model of wounded human skin-equivalents displaying the same structure as human skin and able to heal using the same molecular and cellular mechanisms found in vivo. This human three-dimensional model allows us to demonstrate that the biofunctionalized silk mats, when placed on the wounds as a dressing, aid the healing by increasing the time of wound closure by the epidermal tongue by 90%. The preservation of the structure of the mats during the healing period as demonstrated by electronic microscopy, the biological action of the dressing, as well as the biocompatibility of the silk demonstrate that this biomaterial is a new and very promising material for medical applications, especially for patients suffering from chronic wounds. PMID:19162575

  16. The effect of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on wound healing using a dressing model.

    PubMed

    Chin, Karen B; Cordell, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown the promising antibacterial effects of Melaleuca alternifolia, or tea tree essential oil. The study detailed here replicates in humans a 2004 in vitro study that used a dressing model over Petri dishes to determine the antimicrobial effects of the fumes of tea tree essential oil. The current study used the same dressing model with patients who had wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Ten participants volunteered for the quasi-experimental study, and four of the 10 were used as matched participants to compare wound healing times between conventional treatment alone and conventional treatment plus fumes of tea tree essential oil. The results demonstrated decreased healing time in all but one of the participants treated with tea tree oil. The differences between the matched participants were striking. The results of this small investigational study indicate that additional study is warranted. PMID:23848210

  17. Commonly used topical oral wound dressing materials in dental and surgical practice--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Michael; Stassen, Leo F A

    2013-01-01

    A small number of medicaments are used in oral and maxillofacial surgery to dress wounds, relieve pain, prevent infection and promote healing. While these materials are routinely used, their constituents, uses and effects on oral tissues are rarely discussed. This literature review provides an overview of the constituents, uses and effects of the common materials--oxidised regenerated cellulose, Whitehead's varnish, Carnoy's solution, bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and Alvogyl. PMID:24156211

  18. Human neutrophil elastase inhibition with a novel cotton alginate wound dressing formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Occlusion and elasticity were combined in a novel cotton-based alginate dressing containing a non-toxic elastase inhibitor. Cotton gauzes were modified with a textile finishing process for incorporating alginate to yield a dressing material that retains elasticity while enhancing absorption. The ...

  19. Antibacterial Efficacy of Silver-Impregnated Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Immobilized on a Biological Dressing in a Murine Wound Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Kathleen M.; Agarwal, Ankit; Tackes, Dana S.; Johnson, Kevin W.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Czuprynski, Charles J.; Kierski, Patricia R.; Schurr, Michael J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial effect of augmenting a biological dressing with polymer films containing silver nanoparticles. Background Biological dressings, such as Biobrane, are commonly used for treating partial-thickness wounds and burn injuries. Biological dressings have several advantages over traditional wound dressings. However, as many as 19% of wounds treated with Biobrane become infected, and, once infected, the Biobrane must be removed and a traditional dressing approach should be employed. Silver is a commonly used antimicrobial in wound care products, but current technology uses cytotoxic concentrations of silver in these dressings. We have developed a novel and facile technology that allows immobilization of bioactive molecules on the surfaces of soft materials, demonstrated here by augmentation of Biobrane with nanoparticulate silver. Surfaces modified with nanometer-thick polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) impregnated with silver nanoparticles have been shown previously to result in in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis at loadings of silver that are noncytotoxic. Methods We demonstrated that silver-impregnated PEMs can be nondestructively immobilized onto the surface of Biobrane (Biobrane-Ag) and determined the in vitro antibacterial activity of Biobrane-Ag with Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we used an in vivo wound infection model in mice induced by topical inoculation of S aureus onto full-thickness 6-mm diameter wounds. After 72 hours, bacterial quantification was performed. Results Wounds treated with Biobrane-Ag had significantly (P < 0.001) fewer colony-forming units than wounds treated with unmodified Biobrane (more than 4 log10 difference). Conclusions The results of our study indicate that immobilizing silver-impregnated PEMs on the wound-contact surface of Biobrane significantly reduces bacterial bioburden in full-thickness murine skin wounds. Further research will investigate whether this construct can be considered for human use. PMID:22609841

  20. Alginate Hydrogels Coated with Chitosan for Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; Gomez d’Ayala, Giovanna; Romano, Ida; Oliva, Adriana; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a coating of chitosan onto alginate hydrogels was realized using the water-soluble hydrochloride form of chitosan (CH-Cl), with the dual purpose of imparting antibacterial activity and delaying the release of hydrophilic molecules from the alginate matrix. Alginate hydrogels with different calcium contents were prepared by the internal setting method and coated by immersion in a CH-Cl solution. Structural analysis by cryo-scanning electron microscopy was carried out to highlight morphological alterations due to the coating layer. Tests in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were assessed to check the absence of toxicity of CH-Cl. Swelling, stability in physiological solution and release characteristics using rhodamine B as the hydrophilic model drug were compared to those of relative uncoated hydrogels. Finally, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was tested. Results show that alginate hydrogels coated with chitosan hydrochloride described here can be proposed as a novel medicated dressing by associating intrinsic antimicrobial activity with improved sustained release characteristics. PMID:25969981

  1. An in vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for antimicrobial, silver-containing wound dressings?.

    PubMed

    Escher, Kirin B; Shellock, Frank G

    2012-11-01

    Although no reports of adverse events have been published to date, the presence of metallic dressing ingredients may present an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety concern for patients using silver-containing wound dressings. The purpose of this in vitro study was to test magnetic field interactions (ie, translational attraction and torque), heating, artifacts, and conductivity (ie, electrical resistance) when using MRI at 3-Tesla for two (nonborder and border) silver-containing wound dressings. The results indicated the dressings displayed no magnetic field interactions (deflection angle 0?; no torque), and in each case, MRI-related heating effects were at the same levels as the background temperature increases (ie, <1.8?C). The dressings created extremely subtle artifacts (one-for-one relationship) on the MR images. With regard to the conductivity assessments, the average resistance values were 20 kOhm and 1.1 kOhm, respectively, for the nonborder and border wound dressings, which were acceptable levels. The findings show the two silver-containing wound dressings tested will not pose hazards or risks to patients and, thus, are considered "MR safe" according to the current labeling terminology used for medical products, and each dressing may be left in place when a patient undergoes an MRI examination. To date, only a hydrofiber silver-containing dressing has been tested for MRI safety. Because of potential variances in material characteristics, MRI test results are specific to the dressings tested and cannot be applied to other products. Future studies to define the level of silver concentration in dressings that may pose a hazard for performing an MRI are warranted. PMID:23134899

  2. Radiation synthesis of PVP/alginate hydrogel containing nanosilver as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogels with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and alginate were synthesized and silver nanoparticles were incorporated in hydrogel network using gamma radiation. PVP (10 and 15 %) in combination with 0.5 and 1 % alginate was gamma irradiated at different doses of 25 and 40 kGy. Maximum gel percent was obtained with 15 % PVP in combination with 0.5 % alginate. The fluid absorption capacity for the PVP/alginate hydrogels was about 1881-2361 % at 24 h. Moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR) of hydrogels containing nanosilver at 24 h was 278.44 g/(m(2)h). The absorption capacity and moisture permeability of the PVP/alginate-nanosilver composite hydrogel dressings show the ability of the hydrogels to prevent fluid accumulation in exudating wound. The hydrogels containing nanosilver demonstrated strong antimicrobial effect and complete inhibition of microbial growth was observed with 70 ppm nanosilver dressings. PVP/alginate hydrogels containing nanosilver with efficient fluid handling capacity and antimicrobial activity was found suitable for use as wound dressing. PMID:22886579

  3. Immobilization of derivatized dextran nanoparticles on konjac glucomannan/chitosan film as a novel wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Gu, Chun-Hu; Wu, Hong; Fan, Li; Li, Fei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare konjac glucomannan (KGM)/chitosan (CS) film containing glycidyl methacrylate derivatized dextran (dex-GMA)/acrylic acid(AAc) nanoparticles loaded with antibacterial agent. In this study, An optimized procedure chosen from three methods was used to prepare Erythromycin (EM)-loaded poly(dex-GMA/AAc) nanoparticles and obtained nanoparticles ranged from 50-200 nm. Film was found to have equilibrium water content (EWC) 99.3% which could prevent exudates on wound bed from accumulating and also have excellent water adsorption 2362.3 +/- 55.2%; the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) was 2335 +/- 36 gm(-2) day(-1) and evaporative water loss from the film (EWL) was approximately 10% after 1 h and within 6 h it increased to 90%. Drug release of film containing nanoparticles or absent was determined, within 22 h accumulative release was 40.3%, 72.5% respectively. In conclusion, KGM/CS film containing nanoparticles could not only maintain a moist environment over wound bed in moderate to heavily exuding wound but also provide a continuous and sustained release of the antibacterial agent on the wound surface, which could be potential wound dressing. PMID:18607072

  4. Reduction of a Multidrug-Resistant Pathogen and Associated Virulence Factors in a Burn Wound Infection Model: Further Understanding of the Effectiveness of a Hydroconductive Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Bonnie C.; Ortiz, Rachel T.; Bullock, Rachael M.; Prindeze, Nicholas J.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Robson, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Drawtex's ability to remove pathogens and associated virulence factors has been demonstrated in vitro. A model of burn wound infection was used to characterize the in vivo impact of this dressing on infection and wound healing. Methods: Paired burn wounds were created on the dorsum of Sprague Dawley rats and were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Animals were divided into 2 groups, half with wounds that received experimental dressing and the remaining half with control dressing-treated wounds. Dressings remained in place through 3, 6, 9, or 14 days after injury, and methicillin-resistant S aureus and virulence factors were quantified. Laser Doppler imaging was used to examine wound perfusion, and local host immune response was assessed through the quantification of mRNA expression. Results: By day 3, less methicillin-resistant S aureus was measured in wounds treated with experimental-dressing compared to control-dressing wounds. Quantities remained lower in the experimental group through day 14 (P < .001). More methicillin-resistant S aureus was quantified in the experimental dressing itself than in control dressing at all time points (P < .05). Experimental dressing-treated wounds contained less toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and Panton-Valentine leukocidin than controls (P < .01) on days 6, 9, and 14. Induction of toll-like receptor 2, NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3, and interleukin 6 was significantly lower in experimental-dressing treated wounds than in controls on days 6 and 9 (P < .05). Conclusions: The hydroconductive dressing provided a significant reduction in pathogen and virulence factors compared to a control dressing. As a result of clearance of virulence factors from the wound bed, a requisite alteration in host innate immune response was observed. PMID:25525484

  5. Development of part-dissolvable chitosan fibers with surface N-succinylation for wound care dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guohui; Feng, Chao; Kong, Ming; Cheng, Xiaojie; Bing, Jiaojiao; Xia, Guixue; Bao, Zixian; Park, Hyunjin; Chen, Xiguang

    2015-09-01

    To enhance the liquor absorptivity of chitosan fibers (CS-Fs), N-succinyl surface-modified chitosan fibers (NSCS-Fs) were developed and evaluated for wound healing. The NSCS-Fs exhibited cracks on the surface and high liquor absorbing capacity with absorbing-dissolvable equilibrium state in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The bacteriostasis ratios of NSCS-Fs against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans were higher than 80%. No cytotoxicity has been found for mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with NSCS-Fs leach liquor. Acute oral toxicity and skin irritation experiment were taken to evaluate the safety of NSCS-Fs in vitro. Muscle implant study showed that NSCS-Fs were biodegradable and non-toxic in vivo. These results suggested that the surface modified NSCS-Fs had favorable biological properties and improved liquor absorptivity, indicating that they could be used as promising dressing materials for wound care.

  6. Polysaccharides and cellulose in the design of wound healing materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Chronic Wound Dressings that Sequester Harmful Proteases: Traditionally the use of carbohydrate-based wound dressings including cotton, xerogels, charcoal cloth, alginates, chitosan and hydrogels, have afforded properties such as absorbency, ease of application and removal, bacterial protection, ...

  7. Polysaccharides and Cellulose in the Design of Wound Healing Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic Wound Dressings that Sequester Harmful Proteases: Traditionally the use of carbohydrate-based wound dressings including cotton, xerogels, charcoal cloth, alginates, chitosan and hydrogels, have afforded properties such as absorbency, ease of application and removal, bacterial protection, flu...

  8. Antimicrobial efficacy of a novel silver hydrogel dressing compared to two common silver burn wound dressings: Acticoat™ and PolyMem Silver(®).

    PubMed

    Boonkaew, Benjawan; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Supaphol, Pitt; Cuttle, Leila

    2014-02-01

    A novel burn wound hydrogel dressing has been previously developed which is composed of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt with silver nanoparticles. This study compared the antimicrobial efficacy of this novel dressing to two commercially available silver dressings; Acticoat™ and PolyMem Silver(®). Three different antimicrobial tests were used: disc diffusion, broth culture, and the Live/Dead(®) Baclight™ bacterial viability assay. Burn wound pathogens (P. aeruginosa, MSSA, A. baumannii and C. albicans) and antibiotic resistant strains (MRSA and VRE) were tested. All three antimicrobial tests indicated that Acticoat™ was the most effective antimicrobial agent, with inhibition zone lengths of 13.9-18.4mm. It reduced the microbial inocula below the limit of detection (10(2)CFU/ml) and reduced viability by 99% within 4h. PolyMem Silver(®) had no zone of inhibition for most tested micro-organisms, and it also showed poor antimicrobial activity in the broth culture and Live/Dead(®) Baclight™ assays. Alarmingly, it appeared to promote the growth of VRE. The silver hydrogel reduced most of the tested microbial inocula below the detection limit and decreased bacterial viability by 94-99% after 24h exposure. These results support the possibility of using this novel silver hydrogel as a burn wound dressing in the future. PMID:23790588

  9. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.B.; Travis, E.L.

    1995-07-15

    To determine (a) whether a wound dressing gel that contains acemannan extracted from aloe leaves affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in C3H mice; (b) if so, whether other commercially available gels such as a personal lubricating jelly and a healing ointment have similar effects; and (c) when the wound dressing gel should be applied for maximum effect. Male C3H mice received graded single doses of gamma radiation ranging from 30 to 47.5 Gy to the right leg. In most experiments, the gel was applied daily beginning immediately after irradiation. Dose-response curves were obtained by plotting the percentage of mice that reached or exceeded a given peak skin reaction as a function of dose. Curves were fitted by logit analysis and ED{sub 50} values, and 95% confidence limits were obtained. The average peak skin reactions of the wound dressing gel-treated mice were lower than those of the untreated mice at all radiation doses tested. The ED{sub 50} values for skin reactions of 2.0-2.75 were approximately 7 Gy higher in the wound dressing gel-treated mice. The average peak skin reactions and the ED{sub 50} values for mice treated with personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment were similar to irradiated control values. Reduction in the percentage of mice with skin reactions of 2.5 or more was greatest in the groups that received wound dressing gel for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. There was no effect if gel was applied only before irradiation or beginning 1 week after irradiation. Wound dressing gel, but not personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment, reduces acute radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice if applied daily for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Silver sulfadiazine loaded chitosan/chondroitin sulfate films for a potential wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, André R; Lopes, Laís C; Caleare, Angelo O; Britta, Elizandra A; Nakamura, Celso V; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

    2013-03-01

    Silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) loaded chitosan/chondroitin sulfate (CHI/CS) films were formed to be applied as a potential wound dressing material. The liquid uptake capacity of both, CHI/CS and CHI/CS/AgSD, films exhibited a pH-dependent behavior. Tensile tests showed that the amount of CS used to form the films and the further incorporation of AgSD affect the mechanical properties of the films. In vitro AgSD-release assays showed that the CHI/CS mass ratio influences the AgSD release rate. All the investigated CHI/CS/AgSD films sustain the AgSD release up to 96h at physiological pH. Antibacterial activity and cell viability assays showed that all the CHI/CS/AgSD films have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus but they were not toxic to Vero cells. The results presented in this work indicate that the CHI/CS/AgSD exhibits potential to be applied as a wound dressing material. PMID:25427460

  11. Porous poly(dl-lactic acid) matrix film with antimicrobial activities for wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Chitrattha, Sasiprapa; Phaechamud, Thawatchai

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is polymeric biomaterial that has been used for wound dressing due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, PLA has some limitations including poor toughness, low degradation rate and high hydrophobicity. The aim of this study is to develop an antibiotic drug-loaded PLA porous film as wound dressing with antibacterial activity. PLA porous film was fabricated by temperature change technique using solvent casting method. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was added for improving the pore interconnectivity of film. Gentamicin sulfate (GS) or metronidazole (MZ) was incorporated into PLA porous films. PLA containing PEG 400 exhibited the more amorphous form than plain PLA film and contained 55.31±2.85% porosity and 20?m of the pore size which significantly improved the water vapor transmission rate, oxygen transmission rate, degradation rate and percentage of drug release, respectively. Drug-loaded porous films efficiently inhibited the bacteria growth. GS-loaded film inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , whereas MZ-loaded film inhibited Bacteroides fragilis and the sustainable antibacterial activity was attained for 7days. PMID:26478412

  12. Silver-Zinc Redox-Coupled Electroceutical Wound Dressing Disrupts Bacterial Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sashwati; Khanna, Savita; Hemann, Craig; Deng, Binbin; Das, Amitava; Zweier, Jay L.; Wozniak, Daniel; Sen, Chandan K.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm is commonly associated with chronic wound infection. A FDA approved wireless electroceutical dressing (WED), which in the presence of conductive wound exudate gets activated to generate electric field (0.3–0.9V), was investigated for its anti-biofilm properties. Growth of pathogenic P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 in LB media was markedly arrested in the presence of the WED. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that WED markedly disrupted biofilm integrity in a setting where silver dressing was ineffective. Biofilm thickness and number of live bacterial cells were decreased in the presence of WED. Quorum sensing genes lasR and rhlR and activity of electric field sensitive enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was also repressed by WED. This work provides first electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy evidence demonstrating that WED serves as a spontaneous source of reactive oxygen species. Redox-sensitive multidrug efflux systems mexAB and mexEF were repressed by WED. Taken together, these observations provide first evidence supporting the anti-biofilm properties of WED. PMID:25803639

  13. GNPs-CS/KGM as Hemostatic First Aid Wound Dressing with Antibiotic Effect: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Youbei; Li, Fei; Li, Wei; Wu, Hong; Ren, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Ideal wound dressing materials should create a good healing environment, with immediate hemostatic effects and antimicrobial activity. In this study, chitosan/konjac glucomannan (CS/KGM) films embedded with gentamicin-loaded poly(dex-GMA/AAc) nanoparticles (giving GNP-CS/KGM films) were prepared as novel wound dressings. The results revealed that the modified CS/KGM films could be used as effective wound dressings and had significant hemostatic effects. With their microporous structure, the films could effectively absorb water from blood and trap blood cells. The gentamicinloaded poly(dex-GMA/AAc) nanoparticles (GNPs) also further promoted blood clotting, with their favorable water uptake capacity. Thus, the GNP-CS/KGM films had wound healing and synergistic effects that helped to stop bleeding from injuries, and also showed good antibiotic abilities by addition of gentamicin to the NPs. These GNPCS/KGM films can be considered as promising novel biodegradable and biocompatible wound dressings with hemostatic capabilities and antibiotic effects for treatment of external bleeding injuries. PMID:23874402

  14. Release of insulin from PLGA-alginate dressing stimulates regenerative healing of burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Sandeep; Silva, João P; Liu, Yan; Hrynyk, Michael; Garcia, Monika; Chan, Alex; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Neufeld, Ronald J; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    Burn wound healing involves a complex set of overlapping processes in an environment conducive to ischaemia, inflammation and infection costing $7.5 billion/year in the U.S.A. alone, in addition to the morbidity and mortality that occur when the burns are extensive. We previously showed that insulin, when topically applied to skin excision wounds, accelerates re-epithelialization and stimulates angiogenesis. More recently, we developed an alginate sponge dressing (ASD) containing insulin encapsulated in PLGA [poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)] microparticles that provides a sustained release of bioactive insulin for >20 days in a moist and protective environment. We hypothesized that insulin-containing ASD accelerates burn healing and stimulates a more regenerative, less scarring healing. Using heat-induced burn injury in rats, we show that burns treated with dressings containing 0.04 mg insulin/cm(2) every 3 days for 9 days have faster closure, a higher rate of disintegration of dead tissue and decreased oxidative stress. In addition, in insulin-treated wounds, the pattern of neutrophil inflammatory response suggests faster clearing of the burned dead tissue. We also observe faster resolution of the pro-inflammatory macrophages. We also found that insulin stimulates collagen deposition and maturation with the fibres organized more like a basket weave (normal skin) than aligned and cross-linked (scar tissue). In summary, application of ASD-containing insulin-loaded PLGA particles on burns every 3 days stimulates faster and more regenerative healing. These results suggest insulin as a potential therapeutic agent in burn healing and, because of its long history of safe use in humans, insulin could become one of the treatments of choice when repair and regeneration are critical for proper tissue function. PMID:26310669

  15. Efficacy of silver-loaded nanofiber dressings in Candida albicans-contaminated full-skin thickness rat burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Ciloglu, N Sinem; Mert, A Irem; Do?an, Zarife; Demir, Ali; Cevan, Simin; Aksaray, Sebahat; Tercan, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this experimental study, the effects of nanofiber dressings containing different forms of silver on full-thickness rat burn contaminated with Candida albicans was analyzed. A full-thickness skin burn was formed on a total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats. After the burn wound was seeded with a 10 colony-forming units/ml standard strain of Candida albicans ATCC90028, the animals were divided into four groups. The effects of topical silver sulfadiazine and two recently designed nanofiber dressings containing nanosilver and silversulfadiazine as active materials were compared with the control group. There was a significant difference in the Candida growth on the burn eschar tissue among the groups. The difference for Candida growth in the burn eschar between the control group and the 1% silver sulfadiazine-containing nanofiber dressing group was statistically significant (P< 0.01). Silver sulfadiazine-containing nanofiber dressing was the most effective agent in the treatment of Candida albicans-contaminated burn wounds. Because of their regenerative potential, silver-loaded nanofiber dressings could be a good alternative for infected burn wounds. PMID:25118002

  16. Management of a Dehisced Hand Wound Using Hydrogen Peroxide, Electrical Stimulation, Silver-containing Dressings, and Compression: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Krug, Kenneth; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-07-01

    Wound dehiscence is the separation of a wound along surgical sutures. A 57-year-old, otherwise healthy mechanic presented with a large open wound of >1 month duration on his left hand. His wound had dehisced after treatment that involved cleansing, surgical sutures, and oral antibiotics. He presented with a 5.0 cmx0.7 cmx0.3 cm lesion through the palmar creases of the hand with edema around the fourth and fifth digits and a callous formation around the distal portion of the wound. The wound had scant serosanguinous drainage and some induration at the periwound area, as well as a moderate foul odor. Tendons were not affected, but function was limited, the hand was painful, and the patient had been unable to work. Treatment was initiated with twice-a-week immersion of the hand in hydrogen peroxide diluted with water subjected to high-voltage pulsed current electric stimulation (HVPC). The wound was dressed with silver-containing dressings secured with stretch gauze and a compression garment. The wound was completely closed after 9 visits (35 days). No functional limitations of the hand or fingers, no cosmetic defect, and no wound recurrence were noted 9 months after healing. Although uncommon, dehisced wounds, especially in certain anatomical locations such as the hand, can be difficult to heal and may cause long-term problems with functioning. The treatment combination facilitated expedient healing of this dehisced hand wound. Research is needed to help elucidate the observations from this case study. PMID:26185974

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Silver-Containing Antimicrobial Dressings on In Vitro and In Vivo Processes of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hiro, Matthew E.; Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Ko, Francis; Wright, Terry E; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the in vitro and in vivo effects of silver products on wound healing. Methods: Eight silver products were compared to determine: fibroblast function using fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs), fibroblast viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, and fibroblast mitochondrial activity using the MTT [yellow tetrazolium salt; 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. In vivo effects of 9 silver products were evaluated utilizing a rat model of contaminated wounds. Serial quantitative bacteriology was performed on tissue biopsies over a 10-day period and serial wound areas were obtained over 12 days. Results: Fibroblast cytotoxicity occurred for all of the silver products evaluated. Remaining viable fibroblasts were insufficient to allow FPCL contraction. Mitochondrial activity of the fibroblasts allowed a separation of the various silver compounds. Actisorb Silver and Silvercel had the greatest viable fibroblast activity, but less than the control. Despite in vitro cytotoxicity, all of the silver products except Contreet Foam and Acticoat Moisture Control accelerated wound healing. Conclusions: Silver-containing dressings appeared to benefit healing of the wounds. Just as in vitro bacterial analyses do not fully predict the effect of an antimicrobial in the in vivo setting, in vitro cytotoxicity tests do not fully predict the effect of an agent on wound healing trajectories. Because of the varied antimicrobial and wound healing responses among products, a careful consideration of the particular effects of individual silver-containing dressings or drugs is warranted. PMID:23150745

  18. Silk fibroin/gelatin electrospun nanofibrous dressing functionalized with astragaloside IV induces healing and anti-scar effects on burn wound.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ying-Hui; Peng, Li-Hua; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xi; Xiong, Jie; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2015-02-20

    Functional wound dressing has provided new challenges for researchers who focus on burn to improve skin graft quality, reduce scarring, and develop a pluristratified dermal or epidermal construct of a burn wound. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/GT) electrospun nanofibrous dressing loaded with astragaloside IV (AS) on deep partial-thickness burn wound. AS-loaded SF/GT-blended nanofibrous dressing was prepared by electrospinning nanotechnology. The optimal ratio (25:75) of silk fibroin to gelatin was further optimized by evaluating ATR-FTIR characteristics, mechanical properties, porosity, swelling rate, degradation, and release profile of the AS-loaded SF/GT nanofibrous dressing. In contrast to the blank control, the AS-loaded SF/GT nanofibrous dressing promoted cell adhesion and proliferation with good biocompatibility in vitro (p<0.01). This dressing also accelerated wound healing and inhibited scar formation in vivo by stimulating wound closure (p<0.05), increasing angiogenesis, regulating newly formed types of collagen, and improving collagen organization. These results showed that SF/GT nanofibrous dressing is a promising topical drug delivery system. Furthermore, AS-functionalized SF/GT nanofibrous dressing is an excellent topical therapeutic that could be applied to promote healing and elicit anti-scar effects on partial-thickness burn wound. PMID:25556053

  19. Investigation into the potential use of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Methylglyoxal fibres as antibacterial wound dressing components

    E-print Network

    Bulman, Sophie E L; Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J; Carr, Chris

    2015-01-01

    As problems of antibiotic resistance increase, a continuing need for effective bioactive wound dressings is anticipated for the treatment of infected chronic wounds. Naturally derived antibacterial agents, such as Manuka honey, consist of a mixture of compounds, more than one of which can influence antimicrobial potency. The non-peroxide bacteriostatic properties of Manuka honey have been previously linked to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO). The incorporation of MGO as a functional antibacterial additive during fibre production was explored as a potential route for manufacturing wound dressing components. Synthetic MGO and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were fabricated into webs of sub-micron fibres by means of electrostatic spinning of an aqueous spinning solution. Composite fabrics were also produced by direct deposition of the PVA-MGO fibres onto a preformed spunbonded nonwoven substrate. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectros...

  20. 3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gethin, David T.; Syverud, Kristin; Hill, Katja E.; Thomas, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths <20?nm and lengths <200?nm. The small dimensions of the nanofibrils reduced the viscosity of the nanocellulose, thus yielding a material with good rheological properties for use as a bioink. The nanocellulose bioink was thus used for printing 3D porous structures, which is exemplified in this study. We also demonstrated that both nanocelluloses did not support bacterial growth, which is an interesting property of these novel materials. PMID:26090461

  1. 3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications.

    PubMed

    Rees, Adam; Powell, Lydia C; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Gethin, David T; Syverud, Kristin; Hill, Katja E; Thomas, David W

    2015-01-01

    Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths <20?nm and lengths <200?nm. The small dimensions of the nanofibrils reduced the viscosity of the nanocellulose, thus yielding a material with good rheological properties for use as a bioink. The nanocellulose bioink was thus used for printing 3D porous structures, which is exemplified in this study. We also demonstrated that both nanocelluloses did not support bacterial growth, which is an interesting property of these novel materials. PMID:26090461

  2. Fish scale collagen sponge incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract as a possible wound/burn dressing material.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Prabu, P; Ghosh, Kausik; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara

    2014-01-01

    Application of plant extracts for the burn/wound treatment is followed over the decades as a common practice and it is an important aspect in clinical management. In this study porous collagen sponges (CS) were prepared using fish scales and were incorporated with mupirocin (CSM) and extracts of Macrotyloma uniflorum (CSPE) separately to impart antimicrobial activity to the sponges. The results showed that the addition of plant extract increased the tensile strength of CSPE and stability against collagenase enzyme. FTIR studies have shown the incorporation of plant extract in CSPE, SEM studies have revealed the porous nature of the sponges and XRD patterns have shown the retention of collagen triple helical structure even after the addition of plant extract. CSPE and CSM have exhibited antimicrobial properties. The sponges prepared were analysed for their in vitro biocompatibility studies using fibroblasts and keratinocyte cell lines and the results have shown their biocompatible nature. Based on the results obtained, CS, CSM and CSPE may be tried as a burn/wound dressing materials, initially, in small animals in vivo. PMID:24096157

  3. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone/carrageenan blend hydrogels with nanosilver prepared by gamma radiation for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami; Singh, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogels were prepared using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blended with carrageenan by gamma irradiation at different doses of 25 and 40 kGy. Gel fraction of hydrogels prepared using 10 and 15% PVP in combination with 0.25 and 0.5% carrageenan was evaluated. Based on gel fraction, 15% PVP in combination with 0.25% carrageenan and radiation dose of 25 kGy was selected for the preparation of hydrogels with nanosilver. Radiolytic synthesis of silver nanoparticles within the PVP hydrogel was carried out. The hydrogels with silver nanoparticles were assessed for antimicrobial effectiveness and physical properties of relevance to clinical performance. Fluid handling capacity (FHC) for PVP/carrageenan was 2.35 ± 0.39-6.63 ± 0.63 g/10 cm(2) in 2-24 h. No counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were observed in the presence of hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver after 3-6 h. The release of silver from hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver was 20.42 ± 1.98 ppm/100 cm(2) in 24 h. Hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver with efficient FHC demonstrated potential microbicidal activity (?3 log10 decrease in CFU/ml) against wound pathogens, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. PVP/carrageenan hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles can be used as wound dressings to control infection and facilitate the healing process for burns and other skin injuries. PMID:26397966

  4. Wound bed preparation 2014 update: management of critical colonization with a gentian violet and methylene blue absorbent antibacterial dressing and elevated levels of matrix metalloproteases with an ovine collagen extracellular matrix dressing.

    PubMed

    Sibbald, R Gary; Ovington, Liza G; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Goodman, Laurie; Elliott, James A

    2014-03-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is a paradigm for holistic patient care that includes treatment of the cause along with patient-centered concerns before optimizing the components of local wound care (debridement, infection/inflammation, moisture balance, and, when required, the edge effect). This review incorporates a methylene blue and gentian violet bound foam dressing for critical colonization and an ovine collagen extracellular matrix dressing for reduction of elevated levels of matrix metalloproteases into the WBP paradigm. PMID:24521847

  5. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Ranjana; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Locke, Ian C.; Gordge, Michael P.; McCormick, Aine; Salih, Vehid; Mordon, Nicola; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita

    2010-06-01

    Fabrication of a composite scaffold of nanobioglass (n-BG) 45S5 and poly(3-hydroxyocatnoate), P(3HO) was studied for the first time with the aim of developing a novel, multifunctional wound dressing. The incorporation of n-BG accelerated blood clotting time and its incorporation in the polymer matrix enhanced the wettability, surface roughness and bio-compatibility of the scaffold.

  6. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/ nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Ranjana; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Salih, Vehid; Mordon, Nicola; Locke, Ian C.; Gordge, Michael P.; McCormick, Aine

    2010-06-02

    Fabrication of a composite scaffold of nanobioglass (n-BG) 45S5 and poly(3-hydroxyocatnoate), P(3HO) was studied for the first time with the aim of developing a novel, multifunctional wound dressing. The incorporation of n-BG accelerated blood clotting time and its incorporation in the polymer matrix enhanced the wettability, surface roughness and bio-compatibility of the scaffold.

  7. Analysis of Healing Effect of Alginate Sulfate Hydrogel Dressing Containing Antimicrobial Peptide on Wound Infection Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Babavalian, Hamid; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin; Mohammadi, Sajjad; Moosazadeh Moghaddam, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wound infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are a health problem worldwide; therefore, it is necessary to develop new antimicrobial compounds. Considering broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and low probability of drug resistance to peptides, applications these peptides are being studied extensively. Objectives: In this study, to control drug release over time, an alginate sulfate-based hydrogel impregnated with the CM11 peptide as the antimicrobial agent was developed, and its healing effects were tested on skin infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the CM11 peptide and alginate hydrogel in combination with the peptide were determined. Forty mice were divided into 4 groups: 1 group as a negative control (without treatment; however, 5 mice received hydrogel dressing without peptide), 1 group as a positive control (2% mupirocin treatment), and 2 groups as test groups. To establish skin infection, 200 ?L of bacterial suspension with 3 × 108 CFU/mL concentration was subcutaneously injected in the scapular region of the mice. On the basis of the in vitro minimal bactericidal concentration of the alginate hydrogel containing peptide for 15 clinical isolates, hydrogel containing 128 mg/L of peptide was used for wound dressing over an 8-day period. Results: The highest and lowest numbers of wounds were observed on day 2 in the negative and positive control groups, respectively. During the 8-day period, the positive control and hydrogel containing peptide treatment groups showed similar levels of wound healing. Conclusions: This study showed that compared to standard drug treatment, treatment with hydrogel containing peptide had substantial antibacterial effects on S. aureus wound infections in mice. PMID:26487923

  8. Mechanical properties and in vitro characterization of polyvinyl alcohol-nano-silver hydrogel wound dressings

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, R. N.; Rouzé, R.; Quilty, B.; Alves, G. G.; Soares, G. D. A.; Thiré, R. M. S. M.; McGuinness, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels are materials for potential use in burn healing. Silver nanoparticles can be synthesized within PVA hydrogels giving antimicrobial hydrogels. Hydrogels have to be swollen prior to their application, and the common medium available for that in hospitals is saline solution, but the hydrogel could also take up some of the wound's fluid. This work developed gamma-irradiated PVA/nano-Ag hydrogels for potential use in burn dressing applications. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as nano-Ag precursor agent. Saline solution, phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) pH 7.4 and solution pH 4.0 were used as swelling media. Microstructural evaluation revealed an effect of the nanoparticles on PVA crystallization. The swelling of the PVA-Ag samples in solution pH 4.0 was low, as was their silver delivery, compared with the equivalent samples swollen in the other media. The highest swelling and silver delivery were related to samples prepared with 0.50% AgNO3, and they also presented lower strength in PBS pH 7.4 and solution pH 4.0. Both PVA-Ag samples were also non-toxic and presented antimicrobial activity, confirming that 0.25% AgNO3 concentration is sufficient to establish an antimicrobial effect. Both PVA-Ag samples presented suitable mechanical and swelling properties in all media, representative of potential burn site conditions. PMID:24501677

  9. Recent Developments in Topical Wound Therapy: Impact of Antimicrobiological Changes and Rebalancing the Wound Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Erfurt-Berge, Cornelia; Renner, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Wound therapy improves every year by developing new wound treatment options or by advancing already existing wound materials, for example, adding self-releasing analgesic drugs or growth factors to wound dressings, or by binding and inactivating excessive proteases. Also new dressing materials based on silk fibers and enhanced methods to reduce bacterial burden, for example, cold argon plasma, might help to fasten wound healing. PMID:24829919

  10. Cytotoxicity of silver dressings on diabetic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shi-Bo; Yoon, Won-Young; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Cui, Zheng-Jun; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2013-06-01

    A large number of silver-based dressings are commonly used in the management of chronic wounds that are at risk of infection, including diabetic foot ulcers. However, there are still controversies regarding the toxicity of silver dressings on wound healing. The purpose of this study was to objectively test the cytotoxicity of silver dressings on human diabetic fibroblasts. Human diabetic fibroblasts were obtained from the foot skin of four diabetic foot ulcer patients and cultured. The effect of five silver-containing dressing products (Aquacel Ag, Acticoat*Absorbent, Medifoam Ag, Biatain Ag and PolyMem Ag) and their comparable silver-free dressing products on morphology, proliferation and collagen synthesis of the cultured human diabetic fibroblasts were compared in vitro. In addition, extracts of each dressing were tested in order to examine the effect of other chemical components found in the dressings on cytotoxicity. The diabetic fibroblasts cultured with each silver-free dressing adopted the typical dendritic and fusiform shape. On the other hand, the diabetic fibroblasts did not adopt this typical morphology when treated with the different silver dressings. All silver dressings tested in the study reduced the viability of the diabetic fibroblasts and collagen synthesis by 54-70 and 48-68%, respectively, when compared to silver-free dressings. Silver dressings significantly changed the cell morphology and decreased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis of diabetic fibroblasts. Therefore, silver dressings should be used with caution when treating diabetic wounds. PMID:22533495

  11. Open-label clinical trial comparing the clinical and economic effectiveness of using a polyurethane film surgical dressing with gauze surgical dressings in the care of post-operative surgical wounds.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Ana Abejón; Casanova, Pabló López; Soriano, José Verdú; Torra I Bou, Joan-Enric

    2015-06-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common postoperative complication and can cause avoidable morbidity and excessive costs for the health service. Novel dressings, designed specifically for postoperative wounds, can help to reduce the risk of SSI and other complications such as blistering. This study compared the use of a new polyurethane film surgical dressing (Opsite Post-Op Visible, Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) with gauze and tape in the management of postoperative wounds. The results show that the polyurethane film dressing results in a significant reduction in SSI (1·4% versus 6·6%, P = 0·006) as well as a reduction in other postoperative wound complications (e.g. blistering and erythema). Economic analysis conducted alongside the study suggests that these improved outcomes can be achieved at a lower treatment cost than gauze and tape dressings. The modest incremental cost of the polyurethane film surgical dressing is easily offset by the reduction in the costs related to treating SSI and other wound complications associated with gauze and tape dressings. PMID:23742125

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of a Combination of Japanese Honey and Hydrocolloid Dressing on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Miki; Nakamura, Saki; Kawaguchi, Yuka; Katagiri, Fumika; Nojiri, Saki; Yamada, Yuki; Miyajima, Eri; Matsumoto, Mayuko; Urai, Tamae; Murakado, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined use of Japanese honey and hydrocolloid dressing (HCD) on cutaneous wound healing. Mice were divided into four groups: the Acacia (Japan) + HCD, Manuka (New Zealand) + HCD, Chinese milk vetch (Japan) + HCD, and HCD (control) groups. The mice received two full-thickness wounds. The wounds of the HCD group were covered with HCD, whereas those of the other groups were treated with 0.1?mL of the relevant type of honey, before being covered with HCD. Wound area was significantly smaller in the HCD group than in the Acacia + HCD and Manuka + HCD groups on day 13 and days 8–14, respectively. Moreover, compared with the HCD group, reepithelialization was delayed in the Acacia + HCD group and reepithelialization and collagen deposition were delayed in the Chinese milk vetch + HCD and Manuka + HCD groups. These results indicate that the combined use of Japanese honey and HCD does not promote cutaneous wound healing compared with the use of HCD alone. Thus, this method is probably not useful for promoting healing. PMID:25945118

  13. Evaluation of the effects of a combination of Japanese honey and hydrocolloid dressing on cutaneous wound healing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kanae; Koike, Miki; Nakamura, Saki; Kawaguchi, Yuka; Katagiri, Fumika; Nojiri, Saki; Yamada, Yuki; Miyajima, Eri; Matsumoto, Mayuko; Komatsu, Emi; Nakajima, Yukari; Urai, Tamae; Murakado, Naoko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined use of Japanese honey and hydrocolloid dressing (HCD) on cutaneous wound healing. Mice were divided into four groups: the Acacia (Japan) + HCD, Manuka (New Zealand) + HCD, Chinese milk vetch (Japan) + HCD, and HCD (control) groups. The mice received two full-thickness wounds. The wounds of the HCD group were covered with HCD, whereas those of the other groups were treated with 0.1?mL of the relevant type of honey, before being covered with HCD. Wound area was significantly smaller in the HCD group than in the Acacia + HCD and Manuka + HCD groups on day 13 and days 8-14, respectively. Moreover, compared with the HCD group, reepithelialization was delayed in the Acacia + HCD group and reepithelialization and collagen deposition were delayed in the Chinese milk vetch + HCD and Manuka + HCD groups. These results indicate that the combined use of Japanese honey and HCD does not promote cutaneous wound healing compared with the use of HCD alone. Thus, this method is probably not useful for promoting healing. PMID:25945118

  14. Development and characterization of a novel, antimicrobial, sterile hydrogel dressing for burn wounds: single-step production with gamma irradiation creates silver nanoparticles and radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Boonkaew, Benjawan; Barber, Philip M; Rengpipat, Sirirat; Supaphol, Pitt; Kempf, Margit; He, Jibao; John, Vijay T; Cuttle, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Patients with burn wounds are susceptible to wound infection and sepsis. This research introduces a novel burn wound dressing that contains silver nanoparticles (SNPs) to treat infection in a 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt (AMPS-Na(+) ) hydrogel. Silver nitrate was dissolved in AMPS-Na(+) solution and then exposed to gamma irradiation to form SNP-infused hydrogels. The gamma irradiation results in a cross-linked polymeric network of sterile hydrogel dressing and a reduction of silver ions to form SNPs infused in the hydrogel in a one-step process. About 80% of the total silver was released from the hydrogels after 72 h immersion in simulated body fluid solution; therefore, they could be used on wounds for up to 3 days. All the hydrogels were found to be nontoxic to normal human dermal fibroblast cells. The silver-loaded hydrogels had good inhibitory action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Results from a pilot study on a porcine burn model showed that the 5-mM silver hydrogel was efficient at preventing bacterial colonization of wounds, and the results were comparable to the commercially available silver dressings (Acticoat(TM) , PolyMem Silver(®) ). These results support its use as a potential burn wound dressing. PMID:25079080

  15. A Novel Use of Integra™ Bilayer Matrix Wound Dressing on a Pediatric Scalp Avulsion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Korsh, Jessica; Predun, William; Warfield, Dennis; Huynh, Richard; Davenport, Thomas; Riina, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Soft tissue injuries with full-thickness skin involvement not amenable to local flaps may be treated with dermal matrices and subsequent skin grafting. Methods: A pediatric patient presented with a 50-cm2 scalp avulsion down to periosteum and outer cranial table post-vehicular trauma. After cultivating healthy cranial neodermis with Integra Bilayer Matrix Wound Dressing, a novel modification of treatment protocol was attempted by removal of the silastic layer. Results: Neodermis transformation to granulation tissue followed by contraction of the wound reduced alopecia while also eliminating the need for a split-thickness skin graft to the area. Conclusion: A novel modification of treatment protocols utilizing acellular dermal matrices improved aesthetic outcomes and may present a cost-, time-, and procedure-sparing treatment option for avulsion injuries. PMID:25834690

  16. Comparative study of the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation during negative pressure wound therapy in laparostomy using the V.A.C. abdominal dressing and the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ingemansson, Richard

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the changes in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal wall, wound contraction and fluid evacuation, using the established V.A.C. abdominal dressing (VAC dressing) and a new abdominal dressing, the ABThera open abdomen negative pressure therapy system (ABThera dressing), in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Midline incisions were made in 12 pigs that were subjected to treatment with NPWT using the VAC or ABThera dressing. The microvascular blood flow in the intestinal wall was measured before and after the application of topical negative pressures of ?50, ?75 and ?125mmHg using laser Doppler velocimetry. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were also measured. Baseline blood flow was defined as 100% in all settings. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 64·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of ?50mmHg using the VAC dressing, and to 65·3±9·6% (P <0·05) after the application of ?50mmHg using the ABThera dressing. The blood flow was significantly reduced to 39·6±6·7% (P <0·05) after the application of ?125mmHg using VAC and to 40·5±6·2% (P <0·05) after the application of ?125mmHg using ABThera. No significant difference in reduction in blood flow could be observed between the two groups. The ABThera system afforded significantly better fluid evacuation from the wound, better drainage of the abdomen and better wound contraction than the VAC dressing. PMID:23517436

  17. Mechanical and biocompatible characterization of a cross-linked collagen-hyaluronic acid wound dressing

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, James F; Ritter, Gregg; Finger, Isaac; Sankar, Dhyana; Reddy, Joseph D; Talton, James D; Nataraj, Chandra; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Cobb, Ronald R

    2013-01-01

    Collagen scaffolds have been widely employed as a dermal equivalent to induce fibroblast infiltrations and dermal regeneration in the treatment of chronic wounds and diabetic foot ulcers. Cross-linking methods have been developed to address the disadvantages of the rapid degradation associated with collagen-based scaffolds. To eliminate the potential drawbacks associated with glutaraldehyde cross-linking, methods using a water soluble carbodiimide have been developed. In the present study, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hyaluronic acid (HA), was covalently attached to an equine tendon derived collagen scaffold using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) to create ntSPONGE™. The HA was shown to be homogeneously distributed throughout the collagen matrix. In vitro analyses of the scaffold indicated that the cross-linking enhanced the biological stability by decreasing the enzymatic degradation and increasing the thermal denaturation temperature. The material was shown to support the attachment and proliferation of mouse L929 fibroblast cells. In addition, the cross-linking decreased the resorption rate of the collagen as measured in an intramuscular implant model in rabbits. The material was also shown to be biocompatible in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. These results indicate that this cross-linked collagen-HA scaffold, ntSPONGE™, has the potential for use in chronic wound healing. PMID:23896569

  18. A bilayer composite composed of TiO2-incorporated electrospun chitosan membrane and human extracellular matrix sheet as a wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Woo, Chang Hee; Choi, Young Chan; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hee Young; Cho, Yong Woo

    2015-01-01

    We designed bilayer composites composed of an upper layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-incorporated chitosan membrane and a sub-layer of human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) sheet as a wound dressing for full-thickness wound healing. The dense and fibrous top layer, which aims to protect the wound from bacterial infection, was prepared by electrospinning of chitosan solution followed by immersion in TiO2 solution. The sponge-like sub-layer, which aims to promote new tissue regeneration, was prepared with acellular ECM derived from human adipose tissue. Using a modified drop plate method, there was a 33.9 and 69.6% reduction in viable Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on the bilayer composite, respectively. In an in vivo experiment using rats, the bilayer composites exhibited good biocompatibility and provided proper physicochemical and compositional cues at the wound site. Changes in wound size and histological examination of full-thickness wounds showed that the bilayer composites induced faster regeneration of granulation tissue and epidermis with less scar formation, than control wounds. Overall results suggest that the TiO2-incorporated chitosan/ECM bilayer composite can be a suitable candidate as a wound dressing, with an excellent inhibition of bacterial penetration and wound healing acceleration effects. PMID:26096447

  19. Collagen-Based Biomaterials for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Sayani; Raines, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    With its wide distribution in soft and hard connective tissues, collagen is the most abundant of animal proteins. In vitro, natural collagen can be formed into highly organized, three-dimensional scaffolds that are intrinsically biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic upon exogenous application, and endowed with high tensile strength. These attributes make collagen the material of choice for wound healing and tissue engineering applications. In this article, we review the structure and molecular interactions of collagen in vivo; the recent use of natural collagen in sponges, injectables, films and membranes, dressings, and skin grafts; and the on-going development of synthetic collagen mimetic peptides as pylons to anchor cytoactive agents in wound beds. PMID:24633807

  20. Dress Nicer = Know More? Young Children’s Knowledge Attribution and Selective Learning Based on How Others Dress

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kyla P.; Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research explored whether children judge the knowledge state of others and selectively learn novel information from them based on how they dress. The results indicated that 4- and 6-year-olds identified a formally dressed individual as more knowledgeable about new things in general than a casually dressed one (Study 1). Moreover, children displayed an overall preference to seek help from a formally dressed individual rather than a casually dressed one when learning about novel objects and animals (Study 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the halo effect, and may have important implications for child educators regarding how instructor dress might influence young students’ knowledge attribution and learning preferences. PMID:26636980

  1. In situ synthesis of silver-nanoparticles/bacterial cellulose composites for slow-released antimicrobial wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Zheng, Yudong; Song, Wenhui; Luan, Jiabin; Wen, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Zhigu; Chen, Xiaohua; Wang, Qi; Guo, Shaolin

    2014-02-15

    Bacterial cellulose has attracted increasing attention as a novel wound dressing material, but it has no antimicrobial activity, which is one of critical skin-barrier functions in wound healing. To overcome such deficiency, we developed a novel method to synthesize and impregnate silver nanoparticles on to bacterial cellulose nanofibres (AgNP-BC). Uniform spherical silver nano-particles (10-30 nm) were generated and self-assembled on the surface of BC nano-fibers, forming a stable and evenly distributed Ag nanoparticles coated BC nanofiber. Such hybrid nanostructure prevented Ag nanoparticles from dropping off BC network and thus minimized the toxicity of nanoparticles. Regardless the slow Ag(+) release, AgNP-BC still exhibited significant antibacterial activities with more than 99% reductions in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, AgNP-BC allowed attachment and growth of epidermal cells with no cytotoxicity emerged. The results demonstrated that AgNP-BC could reduce inflammation and promote wound healing. PMID:24507345

  2. Combining xanthan and chitosan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as bioactive dressings for dermo-epidermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Márcia Z; Caliari-Oliveira, Carolina; Mizukami, Amanda; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas T; Donadi, Eduardo A; Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moraes, Ângela M

    2015-03-01

    The association between tridimensional scaffolds to cells of interest has provided excellent perspectives for obtaining viable complex tissues in vitro, such as skin, resulting in impressive advances in the field of tissue engineering applied to regenerative therapies. The use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of dermo-epidermal wounds is particularly promising due to several relevant properties of these cells, such as high capacity of proliferation in culture, potential of differentiation in multiple skin cell types, important paracrine and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Membranes of chitosan complexed with xanthan may be potentially useful as scaffolds for multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, given that they present suitable physico-chemical characteristics and have adequate tridimensional structure for the adhesion, growth, and maintenance of cell function. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the applicability of bioactive dressings associating dense and porous chitosan-xanthan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of skin wounds. The membranes showed to be non-mutagenic and allowed efficient adhesion and proliferation of the mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. In vivo assays performed with mesenchymal stromal cells grown on the surface of the dense membranes showed acceleration of wound healing in Wistar rats, thus indicating that the use of this cell-scaffold association for tissue engineering purposes is feasible and attractive. PMID:25281644

  3. The Use of a Pure Native Collagen Dressing for Wound Bed Preparation Prior to Use of a Living Bi-layered Skin Substitute

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Naz; Roman, Martha; Chakravarthy, Debashish; Luttrell, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Management of chronic wounds in the outpatient setting is quite challenging. The extensive co-morbid medical problems of the chronically ill patient along with the complexities of the wound bed and its biochemical environment has led to a plethora of patients with poor wound healing. This ever increasing population is a challenge for the wound care practitioner and cost to the health care system and patient. Increased wound chronicity has promulgated the use of advanced wound care products, including Living Skin Substitutes (LSS), in an attempt to obtain wound closure, and ultimately both physiological and functional healing.1–3 In the outpatient setting, it is evident that the efficacy of the LSS varies widely depending on the patient type with some patients responding quite favorably while others who do not achieve healing despite repeated applications of LSS. This case series demonstrates that a systematic method of wound bed preparation prior to the application of LSS improved healing outcomes. The entire wound bed preparation protocol included autolytic, non-selective, and sharp-selective debridement, if deemed appropriate, followed by the weekly application of a pure native collagen. The wound bed preparation protocol was completed prior to LSS application. This case series presents evidence supporting the application of a 100% native collagen dressing to wound bed prior to the final step of LSS utilization. PMID:26442205

  4. Electrospun nitric oxide releasing bandage with enhanced wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A; Bills, J; Verma, R; Lavery, L; Davis, K; Balkus, K J

    2015-02-01

    Research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) enhances wound healing. The incorporation of NO into polymers for medical materials and surgical devices has potential benefits for many wound healing applications. In this work, acrylonitrile (AN)-based terpolymers were electrospun to form non-woven sheets of bandage or wound dressing type materials. NO is bound to the polymer backbone via the formation of a diazeniumdiolate group. In a 14 day NO release study, the dressings released 79 ?mol NO g(-1) polymer. The NO-loaded dressings were tested for NO release in vivo, which demonstrate upregulation of NO-inducible genes with dressing application compared to empty dressings. Studies were also conducted to evaluate healing progression in wounds with dressing application performed weekly and daily. In two separate studies, excisional wounds were created on the dorsa of 10 mice. Dressings with NO loaded on the fibers or empty controls were applied to the wounds and measurements of the wound area were taken at each dressing change. The data show significantly enhanced healing progression in the wounds with weekly NO application, which is more dramatic with daily application. Further, the application of daily NO bandages results in improved wound vascularity. These data demonstrate the potential for this novel NO-releasing dressing as a valid wound healing therapy. PMID:25463501

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PS3 and Citrobacter freundii Strain SA79 Obtained from a Wound Dressing-Associated Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Sirwan; Rout, Simon P; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Two isolates, one from the genus Pseudomonas and the second from Citrobacter, were isolated from a wound dressing-associated biofilm. Following whole-genome sequencing, the two isolates presented genes encoding for resistance to antibiotics and those involved in exopolysaccharide production. PMID:26044421

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PS3 and Citrobacter freundii Strain SA79 Obtained from a Wound Dressing-Associated Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Sirwan; Rout, Simon P.

    2015-01-01

    Two isolates, one from the genus Pseudomonas and the second from Citrobacter, were isolated from a wound dressing-associated biofilm. Following whole-genome sequencing, the two isolates presented genes encoding for resistance to antibiotics and those involved in exopolysaccharide production. PMID:26044421

  7. All-natural composite wound dressing films of essential oils encapsulated in sodium alginate with antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Scurr, David J; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2014-03-25

    We present natural polymeric composite films made of essential oils (EOs) dispersed in sodium alginate (NaAlg) matrix, with remarkable anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. Namely, elicriso italic, chamomile blue, cinnamon, lavender, tea tree, peppermint, eucalyptus, lemongrass and lemon oils were encapsulated in the films as potential active substances. Glycerol was used to induce plasticity and surfactants were added to improve the dispersion of EOs in the NaAlg matrix. The topography, chemical composition, mechanical properties, and humidity resistance of the films are presented analytically. Antimicrobial tests were conducted on films containing different percentages of EOs against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi, and the films were characterized as effective or not. Such diverse types of essential oil-fortified alginate films can find many applications mainly as disposable wound dressings but also in food packaging, medical device protection and disinfection, and indoor air quality improvement materials, to name a few. PMID:24211443

  8. Wound-dressing materials with antibacterial activity from electrospun polyurethane-dextran nanofiber mats containing ciprofloxacin HCl.

    PubMed

    Unnithan, Afeesh R; Barakat, Nasser A M; Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Gnanasekaran, Gopalsamy; Nirmala, R; Cha, Youn-Soo; Jung, Che-Hun; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Kim, Hak Yong

    2012-11-01

    Dextran is a versatile biomacromolecule for preparing electrospun nanofibrous membranes by blending with either water-soluble bioactive agents or hydrophobic biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications. In this study, an antibacterial electrospun scaffold was prepared by electrospinning of a solution composed of dextran, polyurethane (PU) and ciprofloxacin HCl (CipHCl) drug. The obtained nanofiber mats have good morphology. The mats were characterized by various analytical techniques. The interaction parameters between fibroblasts and the PU-dextran and PU-dextran-drug scaffolds such as viability, proliferation, and attachment were investigated. The results indicated that the cells interacted favorably with the scaffolds especially the drug-containing one. Moreover, the composite mat showed good bactericidal activity against both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, our results conclude that the introduced scaffold might be an ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications. PMID:22944448

  9. Comparison of healing time of the 2nd degree burn wounds with two dressing methods of fundermol herbal ointment and 1% silver sulfadiazine cream

    PubMed Central

    Daryabeigi, Reza; Heidari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayed Abbas; Omranifar, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burn wounds are one of the health problems in modern societies that are associated with irreparable harms and many side problems for patients and their families. Infection due to burn wounds is the main cause of death in such patients. One of the methods to prevent infection of burn wounds is topical antibiotic ointments. This study aimed to investigate and identify effective ointments to treat burn wounds. For this purpose, the effects of two types of ointment, fundermol and 1% silver sulfadiazine cream on second degree burn wounds were compared. METHODS: This was a clinical trial study conducted in 2008. Using convenient and continuous sampling method, 50 patients referred to Imam Mousa Kazem Burn Injury Clinic in Isfahan, Iran with 2nd degree burn wounds in 1% to 10% surface area were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of treatment with fundermol and sulfadiazine and the dressing was changed once a day. The healing time for burn wounds in each patient was recorded in a checklist and data were analyzed by independent t-test via SPSS software. RESULTS: The healing time of burn wounds in the group treated with fundermol was shorter than that in the group treated with sulfadiazine (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that fundermol ointment accelerates burn wound healing. Therefore, fundermol can be introduced as a good replacement for current treatments of burn wounds. PMID:21589770

  10. Use of wound dressings to enhance prevention of pressure ulcers caused by medical devices.

    PubMed

    Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Brindle, Christopher Tod; Dealey, Carol; Santamaria, Nick; Call, Evan; Clark, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Medical device related pressure ulcers (MDR PUs) are defined as pressure injuries associated with the use of devices applied for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes wherein the PU that develops has the same configuration as the device. Many institutions have reduced the incidence of traditional PUs (sacral, buttock and heel) and therefore the significance of MDR PU has become more apparent. The highest risk of MDR PU has been reported to be patients with impaired sensory perception, such as neuropathy, and an impaired ability for the patient to communicate discomfort, for example, oral intubation, language barriers, unconsciousness or non-verbal state. Patients in critical care units typify the high-risk patient and they often require more devices for monitoring and therapeutic purposes. An expert panel met to review the evidence on the prevention of MDR PUs and arrived at these conclusions: (i) consider applying dressings that demonstrate pressure redistribution and absorb moisture from body areas in contact with medical devices, tubing and fixators, (ii) in addition to dressings applied beneath medical devices, continue to lift and/or move the medical device to examine the skin beneath it and reposition for pressure relief and (iii) when simple repositioning does not relieve pressure, it is important not to create more pressure by placing dressings beneath tight devices. PMID:23809279

  11. Generation of Two Biological Wound Dressings as a Potential Delivery System of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brena-Molina, Ana; Martínez-López, Valentín; Melgarejo-Ramírez, Yaaziel; Tamay de Dios, Lenin; Gómez-García, Ricardo; Reyes-Frías, Ma. de Lourdes; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Garciadiego-Cázares, David; Lugo-Martínez, Haydée; Ibarra, Clemente

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) are believed to be potential key factors for starting the regenerative process after tissue injury. However, an efficient method of delivering these regenerative cells to an external wound site is still lacking. Human amnion and pig skin have long been used as skin wound dressings for the treatment of burns and other skin lesions. Herein, we present the generation of two constructs using these two biomaterials as effective scaffolds for the culture of hADMSCs. It was found that hADMSCs seeded onto radiosterilized human amnion and pig skin are viable and proliferate. These cells are able to migrate over these scaffolds as demonstrated by using time-lapse microscopy. In addition, the scaffolds induce hADMSCs to secrete interleukin-10, an important negative regulator of inflammation, and interleukin-1?, a proinflammatory protein. The interplay between these two proteins has been proven to be vital for a balanced restoration of all necessary tissues. Thus, radiosterilized human amnion and pig skin are likely suitable scaffolds for delivery of hADMSCs transplants that could promote tissue regeneration in skin injuries like patients with burn injuries. PMID:26418201

  12. Generation of Two Biological Wound Dressings as a Potential Delivery System of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Brena-Molina, Ana; Martínez-López, Valentín; Melgarejo-Ramírez, Yaaziel; Tamay de Dios, Lenin; Gómez-García, Ricardo; Reyes-Frías, Ma de Lourdes; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Garciadiego-Cázares, David; Lugo-Martínez, Haydée; Ibarra, Clemente; Martínez-Pardo, María Esther; Velasquillo-Martínez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) are believed to be potential key factors for starting the regenerative process after tissue injury. However, an efficient method of delivering these regenerative cells to an external wound site is still lacking. Human amnion and pig skin have long been used as skin wound dressings for the treatment of burns and other skin lesions. Herein, we present the generation of two constructs using these two biomaterials as effective scaffolds for the culture of hADMSCs. It was found that hADMSCs seeded onto radiosterilized human amnion and pig skin are viable and proliferate. These cells are able to migrate over these scaffolds as demonstrated by using time-lapse microscopy. In addition, the scaffolds induce hADMSCs to secrete interleukin-10, an important negative regulator of inflammation, and interleukin-1?, a proinflammatory protein. The interplay between these two proteins has been proven to be vital for a balanced restoration of all necessary tissues. Thus, radiosterilized human amnion and pig skin are likely suitable scaffolds for delivery of hADMSCs transplants that could promote tissue regeneration in skin injuries like patients with burn injuries. PMID:26418201

  13. Development of lamellar gel phase emulsion containing marigold oil (Calendula officinalis) as a potential modern wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Okuma, C H; Andrade, T A M; Caetano, G F; Finci, L I; Maciel, N R; Topan, J F; Cefali, L C; Polizello, A C M; Carlo, T; Rogerio, A P; Spadaro, A C C; Isaac, V L B; Frade, M A C; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2015-04-25

    Appropriate therapeutics for wound treatments can be achieved by studying the pathophysiology of tissue repair. Here we develop formulations of lamellar gel phase (LGP) emulsions containing marigold (Calendula officinalis) oil, evaluating their stability and activity on experimental wound healing in rats. LGP emulsions were developed and evaluated based on a phase ternary diagram to select the best LGP emulsion, having a good amount of anisotropic structure and stability. The selected LGP formulation was analyzed according to the intrinsic and accelerated physical stability at different temperatures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out on wound healing rats as a model. The LGP emulsion (15.0% marigold oil; 10.0% of blend surfactants and 75.0% of purified water [w/w/w]) demonstrated good stability and high viscosity, suggesting longer contact of the formulation with the wound. No cytotoxic activity (50-1000 ?g/mL) was observed in marigold oil. In the wound healing rat model, the LGP (15 mg/mL) showed an increase in the leukocyte recruitment to the wound at least on days 2 and 7, but reduced leukocyte recruitment after 14 and 21 days, as compared to the control. Additionally, collagen production was reduced in the LGP emulsion on days 2 and 7 and further accelerated the process of re-epithelialization of the wound itself. The methodology utilized in the present study has produced a potentially useful formulation for a stable LGP emulsion-containing marigold, which was able to improve the wound healing process. PMID:25684193

  14. Printable Biodegradable Hydrogel for Skin Wound Dressing Using Inkjet Printing Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wounds are becoming more frequent. Foot ulcers affect approximately 10%-15% of patients with diabetes throughout their lifetimes, and by 2025, it is estimated the prevalence of diabetes will be 250 million people in the worldwide. There is increased potential for patients with peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease to suffer…

  15. The in situ synthesis of Ag/amino acid biopolymer hydrogels as mouldable wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhu; He, Ting; Yuan, Mengying; Shen, Rujuan; Deng, Liu; Yi, Lunzhao; Sun, Zhifang; Zhang, Yi

    2015-10-20

    This manuscript introduces a one-pot fabrication procedure for the preparation of supramolecular hybrid hydrogels from low-cost commercially available natural products through a "green" strategy. In particular, the hybrid hydrogels, which are developed with Fmoc-Glu-OMe, silver nanoparticles and chitosan, exhibit outstanding antibacterial properties and can be regarded as excellent mouldable wound healing biomaterials. PMID:26377374

  16. Negative pressure wound therapy and external fixation device: a simple way to seal the dressing.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Antonio; Farace, Francesco; Uzel, André-Pierre; Casoli, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Negative pressure therapy is widely applied to treat lower limb trauma. However, sealing a negative pressure dressing in the presence of an external fixation device may be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, screws, pins, wires, etc, may preclude the vacuum, preventing the plastic drape to perfectly adhere to the foam. To maintain the vacuum, we tried to prevent air leaking around the screws putting bone wax at the junction between the pins and the plastic drape. This solution, in our hands, avoids air leakage and helps maintain vacuum in a fast and inexpensive way. PMID:24296597

  17. Surgical wound infection - treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wounds heal, you may have a wound VAC (Vacuum Assisted Closure) dressing. It increases blood flow in ... helps with healing. This is a negative pressure (vacuum) dressing. There is a vacuum pump, a foam ...

  18. Evidence-based recommendations for negative pressure wound therapy: treatment variables (pressure levels, wound filler and contact layer)--steps towards an international consensus.

    PubMed

    Birke-Sorensen, H; Malmsjo, M; Rome, P; Hudson, D; Krug, E; Berg, L; Bruhin, A; Caravaggi, C; Chariker, M; Depoorter, M; Dowsett, C; Dunn, R; Duteille, F; Ferreira, F; Francos Martínez, J M; Grudzien, G; Ichioka, S; Ingemansson, R; Jeffery, S; Lee, C; Vig, S; Runkel, N; Martin, R; Smith, J

    2011-09-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is becoming a commonplace treatment in many clinical settings. New devices and dressings are being introduced. Despite widespread adoption, there remains uncertainty regarding several aspects of NPWT use. To respond to these gaps, a global expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations describing the use of NPWT. In a previous communication, we have reviewed the evidence base for the use of NPWT within trauma and reconstructive surgery. In this communication, we present results of the assessment of evidence relating to the different NPWT treatment variables: different wound fillers (principally foam and gauze); when to use a wound contact layer; different pressure settings; and the impact of NPWT on bacterial bioburden. Evidence-based recommendations were obtained by a systematic review of the literature, grading of evidence and drafting of the recommendations by a global expert panel. Evidence and recommendations were graded according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) classification system. In general, there is relatively weak evidence on which to base recommendations for any one NPWT treatment variable over another. Overall, 14 recommendations were developed: five for the choice of wound filler and wound contact layer, four for choice of pressure setting and five for use of NPWT in infected wounds. With respect to bioburden, evidence suggests that reduction of bacteria in wounds is not a major mode of action of NPWT. PMID:21868296

  19. Wound fixation for pressure ulcers: a new therapeutic concept based on the physical properties of wounds.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Nemoto, Tetsuya; Nagai, Yayoi; Tanaka, Makiko; Utani, Atsushi; Furuta, Katsunori; Isogai, Zenzo

    2015-02-01

    A pressure ulcer is defined as damage to skin and other tissues over a bony prominence caused by excess pressure. Deep pressure ulcers that develop over specific bony prominences often exhibit wound deformity, defined as a change in the 3-dimensional shape of the wound. Subsequently, the wound deformity can result in undermining formation, which is a characteristic of deep pressure ulcers. However, to date, a concept with respect to alleviating wound deformity has yet to be defined and described. To clarify the issue, we propose a new concept called "wound fixation" based on the physical properties of deep pressure ulcers with wound deformity. Wound fixation is defined here as the alleviation of wound deformity by exogenous materials. The wound fixation methods are classified as traction, anchor, and insertion based on the relation between the wound and action point by the exogenous materials. A retrospective survey of a case series showed that wound fixation was preferentially used for deep pressure ulcers at specific locations such as the sacrum, coccyx, and greater trochanter. Moreover, the methods of wound fixation were dependent on the pressure ulcer location. In conclusion, our new concept of wound fixation will be useful for the practical treatment and care of pressure ulcers. Further discussion and validation by other experts will be required to establish this concept. PMID:25660756

  20. Modulation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity by hydrofiber-foam hybrid dressing – relevant support in the treatment of chronic wounds

    PubMed Central

    Krejner, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Success in chronic wound therapy requires careful selection of appropriate dressing, which enables effective management of wound exudate. According to current knowledge, exudate may contain large quantities of proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are responsible for delay in wound healing. Therefore, neutralization of MMPs may be beneficial for treatment efficacy. The aim of the study was to test whether AQUACEL Foam, a novel, technologically advanced hydrofiber-foam hybrid dressing (HFHD), may interfere with proteolytic activity of MMPs in vitro. The assessment included in vitro tests of liquid retention and measurement of human recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity. The MMPs activity was measured before and after their interaction with HFHD, using a fluorescent gelatinase assay kit and Real-Time PCR device. The in vitro tests have shown that the hydrofiber layer of HFHD revealed significant potential to decrease the activity of MMPs in the experimental system. The mentioned modulatory properties of AQUACEL Foam may contribute to a composed mechanism of its beneficial action. Furthermore, our finding may explain clinical effectiveness of HFHD observed in clinical settings.

  1. [Healing "booster" dressings].

    PubMed

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Téot, Luc; Meaume, Sylvie

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between the dressing and the wound is vital to clinical effectiveness. The more-or-less standard wound-surface coverings have been replaced with initial dressings, referred to as modern dressings, which contain an oily and sticky compound. They provide a moist medium by applying the basic mechanistic principles (liquid absorption and release). Other types of products and techniques modify the behaviour of wound cells by acting directly through irritation, biochemical stimulation or genetic modification of the cells, which accelerates the healing process. PMID:22003786

  2. Antimicrobial wound dressing nanofiber mats from multicomponent (chitosan/silver-NPs/polyvinyl alcohol) systems.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman M; Hudson, Samuel M; Rojas, Orlando J

    2014-01-16

    Novel hybrid nanomaterials have been developed for antimicrobial applications. Here we introduce a green route to produce antibacterial nanofiber mats loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, 25 nm diameter) enveloped in chitosan after reduction with glucose. The nanofiber mats were obtained from colloidal dispersions of chitosan-based Ag-NPs blended with polyvinyl alcohol. Nanofibers (150 nm average diameter and narrow size distribution) were obtained by electrospinning and cross-linked with glutaraldhyde. The effect of crosslinking on the release of silver was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity was studied by the viable cell-counting; mats loaded with silver and control samples (chitosan/PVA) with different degrees of cross-linking were compared for their effectiveness in reducing or halting the growth of aerobic bacteria. The results showed superior properties and synergistic antibacterial effects by combining chitosan with Ag-NPs. PMID:24188851

  3. Skin substitutes based on allogenic fibroblasts or keratinocytes for chronic wounds not responding to conventional therapy: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Pajardi, Giorgio; Rapisarda, Vicenzo; Somalvico, Francesco; Scotti, Andrea; Russo, Giulia Lo; Ciancio, Francesco; Sgrò, Arturo; Nebuloni, Manuela; Allevi, Raffaele; Torre, Maria L; Trabucchi, Emilio; Marazzi, Mario

    2014-02-12

    Chronic wounds are an expression of underlying complex pathologies and have a high incidence. Skin substitutes may represent an alternative approach to treat chronic ulcers. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate the wound reduction using skin substitutes based on allogenic fibroblasts or keratinocytes in 30 patients not responding to conventional therapy. Wound bed was prepared, then keratinocytes on Laserskin(®) to treat superficial wounds or fibroblasts on Hyalograft 3D(R) to treat deep leg ulcers were applied, and finally wounds were treated with a secondary dressing composed of nanocrystalline silver. Once a week constructs were removed and new bioengineered products were applied, as well as nanocrystalline silver medication. In none of the cases under examination did any complications arise relating to the treatment. We also achieved a reduction in wound dimension and exudates, and an increase in wound bed score. Postoperative assessment shows a degree of healing that is statistically higher in the group treated with keratinocytes as compared with the fibroblast group. This retrospective study improves our understanding and defines the clinical indications for the various uses of the two types of skin substitutes. PMID:24517418

  4. Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics to Improve Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Michael S.; Leavitt, Tripp; Malhotra, Samir; Duscher, Dominik; Pollhammer, Michael S.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Cheung, Alexander T. M.; Schmidt, Manfred; Huemer, Georg M.; Longaker, Michael T.; Lorenz, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Issues surrounding wound healing have garnered deep scientific interest as well as booming financial markets invested in novel wound therapies. Much progress has been made in the field, but it is unsurprising to find that recent successes reveal new challenges to be addressed. With regard to wound healing, large tissue deficits, recalcitrant wounds, and pathological scar formation remain but a few of our most pressing challenges. Stem cell-based therapies have been heralded as a promising means by which to surpass current limitations in wound management. The wide differentiation potential of stem cells allows for the possibility of restoring lost or damaged tissue, while their ability to immunomodulate the wound bed from afar suggests that their clinical applications need not be restricted to direct tissue formation. The clinical utility of stem cells has been demonstrated across dozens of clinical trials in chronic wound therapy, but there is hope that other aspects of wound care will inherit similar benefit. Scientific inquiry into stem cell-based wound therapy abounds in research labs around the world. While their clinical applications remain in their infancy, the heavy investment in their potential makes it a worthwhile subject to review for plastic surgeons, in terms of both their current and future applications. PMID:26649195

  5. Wound care centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... order to treat your wound, your provider will clean out the wound and apply dressing. You also may have other types of treatment to help it heal. Debridement Debridement is the process of removing dead skin and tissue. This tissue ...

  6. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Elastase by Oleic Acid Albumin Formulations from Derivatized Cotton Wound Dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is a selective, non-toxic inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and may be of potential use in neutralizing destructively high levels of HNE that occur when chronic wounds become arrested in the inflammatory stage. Oleic acid/albumin formulations with mole ratios of 100:1, 50:1, a...

  7. Bi-layer composite dressing of gelatin nanofibrous mat and poly vinyl alcohol hydrogel for drug delivery and wound healing application: in-vitro and in-vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Gupta, Asheesh; Agrawal, Ashwini K; Jassal, Manjeet; Dinda, Amit Kr; Koul, Veena

    2013-09-01

    Present investigation involves the development of a bi-layer dressing of gelatin nanofibrous mat loaded with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)/poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and its in-vivo evaluation on full-thickness excision wounds in experimental Wistar rats. Nanomorphological observation, porosity, effect of crosslinking on tensile strength, physical stability and drug release profile in phosphate buffer and biocompatibility aspects of electrospun nanomat were investigated by various physico-chemical tools. EGCGa release profile was found to increase from 2-4 days with decreasing crosslinking time from 15 to 5 min. PVA hydrogels were prepared by freeze-thaw method and has been utilized as a protective and hydrating outer layer of the bi-layer dressing. Topical application of bi-layer composite dressing loaded with EGCG improve the healing rate in experimental rats as acute wounds model which was evidenced by significant increase in DNA (approximately 42%), total protein (approximately 32%), hydroxyproline (approximately 26%) and hexosamine approximately 24%) contents. A faster wound contraction was observed in wounds treated with composite dressing from approximately 14% to 47%. Histopathological examination revealed significant improvement in angiogenesis, re-epithelialization and less inflammatory response in comparison to control. Van-Gieson's collagen stains revealed matured, compact and parallel deposition of collagen fibrils on day 12. These results were supported by up-regulated expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs-2 and 9) by gelatin zymography. Control release of EGCG, 3D porous architecture of nanofibrous scaffolds as well as moist microenvironment provides ideal conditions for uninterrupted wound healing. PMID:23980498

  8. Wound healing efficacy of a chitosan-based film-forming gel containing tyrothricin in various rat wound models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Young; Jun, Joon-Ho; Kim, Sang-Joon; Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Choi, Sung Rak; Han, Sang Duk; Son, Mi-Won; Park, Eun-Seok

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the healing effects of a chitosan-based, film-forming gel containing tyrothricin (TYR) in various rat wound models, including burn, abrasion, incision, and excision models. After solidification, the chitosan film layer successfully covered and protected a variety of wounds. Wound size was measured at predetermined timepoints after wound induction, and the effects of the film-forming gel were compared with negative (no treatment) and positive control groups (commercially available sodium fusidate ointment and TYR gel). In burn, abrasion and excision wound models, the film-forming gel enabled significantly better healing from 1 to 6 days after wound induction, compared with the negative control. Importantly, the film-forming gel also enabled significantly better healing compared with the positive control treatments. In the incision wound model, the breaking strength of wound strips from the group treated with the film-forming gel was significantly increased compared with both the negative and positive control groups. Histological studies revealed advanced granulation tissue formation and epithelialization in wounds treated with the film-forming gel. We hypothesize that the superior healing effects of the film-forming gel are due to wound occlusion, conferred by the chitosan film. Our data suggest that this film-forming gel may be useful in treating various wounds, including burn, abrasion, incision and excision wounds. PMID:24715576

  9. Thrombin Production and Human Neutrophil Elastase Sequestration by Modified Cellulosic Dressings and Their Electrokinetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Judson Vincent; Prevost, Nicolette

    2011-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and inflammation which can interfere with the orderly flow of wound healing. In this regard, we review the serine proteases thrombin and elastase relative to dressing functionality that improves wound healing and examine the effects of charge in cotton/cellulosic dressing design on thrombin production and elastase sequestration (uptake by the wound dressing). Thrombin is central to the initiation and propagation of coagulation, and elastase is released from neutrophils that can function detrimentally in a stalled inflammatory phase characteristic of chronic wounds. Electrokinetic fiber surface properties of the biomaterials of this study were determined to correlate material charge and polarity with function relative to thrombin production and elastase sequestration. Human neutrophil elastase sequestration was assessed with an assay representative of chronic wound concentration with cotton gauze cross-linked with three types of polycarboxylic acids and one phosphorylation finish; thrombin production, which was assessed in a plasma-based assay via a fluorogenic peptide substrate, was determined for cotton, cotton-grafted chitosan, chitosan, rayon/polyester, and two kaolin-treated materials including a commercial hemorrhage control dressing (QuickClot Combat Gauze). A correlation in thrombin production to zeta potential was found. Two polycarboxylic acid cross linked and a phosphorylated cotton dressing gave high elastase sequestration. PMID:24956451

  10. Pain management of wound care.

    PubMed

    Senecal, S J

    1999-12-01

    Children and adults still suffer pain during wound dressing changes despite national guidelines. Assessing and managing pain are essential components of comprehensive wound care. Developmentally sensitive pain assessment tools are available to measure verbal, behavioral, and physiologic responses to pain. Holistic pain assessment includes pain intensity, location, description, relief measures, cultural background, and the patient's developmental level and anxiety. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions should be combined to manage pain based upon patient's response and nursing assessment. Nurses with a fundamental knowledge of pain assessment and management provide their patients with pain and symptom relief during wound care. PMID:10523438

  11. [Local treatment of chronic skin wounds in a Swiss out-patient wound centre 2010].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Marc; Tanner, Daniel; Hunziker, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    In Switzerland around 30,000 patients suffer from chronic skin wounds. Appropriate topical wound care along with treatment of the causes of the wounds enables to heal a lot of these patients and to avoid secondary disease such as infections. Thereby, the final goal of wound care is stable reepithelisation. Based on experience with chronic leg ulcers mainly in our out-patient wound centre, we give a survey of the wound dressings we actually use and discuss their wound-phase adapted application. Furthermore, we address the two tissue engineering products reimbursed in Switzerland, Apligraf and EpiDex, as well as the biological matrix product Oasis. The crucial question, which treatment options will be offered in future to the wound patients by our health regulatory and insurance systems, is open to debate. PMID:21360461

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of chitin hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandage as antibacterial wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P T Sudheesh; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Biswas, Raja; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2012-12-01

    We developed chitin hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandages using chitin hydrogel and ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO). The homogenized mixture of chitin hydrogel and nZnO was freeze-dried to obtain micro-porous composite bandages. The prepared nanocomposite bandages were characterized using FT-IR, XRD and SEM. In addition, blood clotting, antibacterial, swelling, cytocompatibility and cell attachment capability of the prepared nanocomposite bandages were evaluated. The nanocomposite bandages showed enhanced swelling, blood clotting and antibacterial activity. The incorporation of nZnO helped to attain antibacterial activity. Cytocompatibility studies were carried out using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells proved the non-toxic nature of the composite bandages. HDF cell attachment and infiltration analysis showed that the cells were attached and penetrated into the interior (250 microm) of the nanocomposite bandages. These studies revealed that, this nanocomposite can be used for burn, diabetic and chronic wound defects. PMID:23029997

  13. Superficial Wound Swabbing

    PubMed Central

    Schmohl, Michael; Beckert, Stefan; Joos, Thomas O.; Königsrainer, Alfred; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Löffler, Markus W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In diabetic foot ulcers, wound fluid inflammatory mediators have previously been proposed as surrogate markers for nonhealing. However, currently available wound fluid sampling techniques are not suitable for clinical practice due to low levels of exudate and a high logistical effort. The aim of this investigation was to assess 1) the technique of superficial wound swabbing for harvesting wound fluid; and 2) the quality of the collected fluid for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory mediators. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Both nylon-flocked swabs and film dressings were used to collect wound fluid from foot ulcers of diabetic patients. In randomly selected patients, levels of wound fluid inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteases were determined using multiplexed bead-based sandwich immunoassays with respect to both sampling methods. Wound fluid spike-in experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of different sample processing protocols on subsequent immunoassay analysis. RESULTS Using the swabbing technique, a median amount of 40 µL (2–120 µL) wound exudate was collected, which allowed the measurement of several multiplex panels. Comparing both sampling methods, a similar qualitative protein recovery was observed with a trend to analyte enrichment by swabbing. Sample processing using swabs did not affect analyte recovery, with the exception of interleukin (IL)-8, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-17A, interferon-?–induced protein 10, and IL-4. CONCLUSIONS The quality of wound fluid collected by superficial swabbing is not inferior to the current standard technique. Combined with subsequent bead-based sandwich immunoassay analysis, this new method offers a noninvasive technique, suitable for daily clinical routines, for assessment of inflammatory activity in diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:22837363

  14. Wound healing.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, H; Fewkes, J

    1995-01-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic biologic process of repairing insults to the integumentary system. It is commonly divided into three phases: inflammatory, proliferative, and maturation. Each phase has unique cellular and substance constituents without which it cannot progress normally. A large variety of factors may influence any part of wound healing, including local factors such as bacteria, oxygen tension, and bleeding, and systemic factors such as the mental and physical health of the patient. There are also extrinsic factors that can be influenced by the caretakers of the wound to enhance wound healing. Areas of intervention include using antiseptic technique when one is dealing with the wound, using good surgical technique, choosing the appropriate wounding method and repair for the individual patient, and using antibiotics and special wound dressings. Modern science and technology are giving us new insights into wound healing and leading us to exciting new ways of influencing it, including the topical use of growth factors, artificial skins, cultured epithelium with and without dermal components, and electrical stimulation. The future of wound healing holds a better understanding of the complexities of the physiologic events that occur and a translation of that into a biologically active and interactive wound care. PMID:7794680

  15. 150 patient experiences with a soft silicone foam dressing.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Sharon Dawn

    Pain, malodour and exudate from acute and chronic wounds can be catastrophic to the patient. Excessive exudate results in significant tissue damage to the wound bed and surrounding skin, reduces quality of life, and often requires costly specialist service input. Effective wound assessment and management including appropriate dressing choice is, therefore, paramount to ensure wound healing can take place in a timely manner. This observational evaluation explores 150 ward-based patients who presented with acute and chronic exuding wounds; it examines and evaluates the proposed benefits of the Cutimed(®) Siltec foam dressing range over a 4-month period in an acute hospital setting. The outcomes of the evaluation were exudate management, maceration reduction, atraumatic application and removal, non-adherence and patient experience. The evaluation highlights not only an overall positive improvement in exudate management and maceration reduction, non-adherence, atraumatic application and removal but also emphasises the importance of a positive patient experience in the wound-care journey. PMID:26110984

  16. Elements affecting wound healing time: An evidence based analysis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hanan; Cullen, Marianne; Chambers, Helen; Carroll, Matthew; Walker, Judi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant client factors and comorbidities that affected the time taken for wounds to heal. A prospective study design used the Mobile Wound Care (MWC) database to capture and collate detailed medical histories, comorbidities, healing times and consumable costs for clients with wounds in Gippsland, Victoria. There were 3,726 wounds documented from 2,350 clients, so an average of 1.6 wounds per client. Half (49.6%) of all clients were females, indicating that there were no gender differences in terms of wound prevalence. The clients were primarily older people, with an average age of 64.3 years (ranging between 0.7 and 102.9 years). The majority of the wounds (56%) were acute and described as surgical, crush and trauma. The MWC database categorized the elements that influenced wound healing into 3 groups--factors affecting healing (FAH), comorbidities, and medications known to affect wound healing. While there were a multitude of significant associations, multiple linear regression identified the following key elements: age over 65 years, obesity, nonadherence to treatment plan, peripheral vascular disease, specific wounds associated with pressure/friction/shear, confirmed infection, and cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Wound healing is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of influencing elements to improve healing times.© 2015 by the Wound Healing Society. PMID:25907979

  17. Wound surgery.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the concepts behind, and practice of, wound surgery. The techniques of wound surgery, born of necessity in the art of military surgeons, have found their renaissance in the modern age of wound care driven by the economic and functional considerations inherent to the outcome-based management of chronic disease. Over 300 years of literature on wound healing has shown an innate ability of the wound (in the absence of infection and repeated trauma) to control its progress, largely through the local inflammatory cells. This article discusses several historical works on wound surgery and healing, topical wound therapy, minimal intervention, and emphasizes the closure of chronic wounds. PMID:21074031

  18. [Useful wound management at home].

    PubMed

    Mizuhara, Akihiro; Taguchi, Akemi; Sato, Mikako; Shindo, Kazuko

    2014-12-01

    In wound care, close observation of the quantity and nature of exudate from a wound, and selection of appropriate dressing and/or medication are crucial. Care should be taken to prevent wounds with excessive exudate from becoming too moist. Furthermore, wound care at home must be easy, which is achievable through the use of readily available materials and medications. 1 ) A wound with little to moderate exudate should be treated using wrap therapy with perforated polyethylene sheets. This therapy can be used to treat pressure ulcers, wounds, wounds with slough, and burns. 2 ) An 18-gauge needle can be used to perforate wounds with little exudate, such as mild pressure ulcers or wounds with slough, and polyurethane film can then be applied. 3 ) Polyurethane film should be applied to blisters, pressure ulcers, or similar skin injuries with little exudate. 4 ) A hydrocolloid dressing should be used on wounds with light exudate. 5 ) An ointment containing steroids should be applied to critically colonized wounds. 6 ) Melolin dressings, Moiskin Pads, or a disposable diaper should be used to manage wounds with heavy exudate. PMID:25595088

  19. An observational evaluation of a new foam adhesive dressing.

    PubMed

    Merlin-Manton, Elizabeth; Greenwood, Michelle; Linthwaite, Adele

    Following the work of Winter demonstrating the benefits of moist wound healing, there has been a constant stream of wound care products launched into the market to support this concept. This article will describe the findings of an observational evaluation to observe, document and analyse the clinical effectiveness of a new foam adhesive dressing, UrgoTul® Absorb Border (Urgo Medical). The main objective of the evaluation was to define the parameters to allow data capture that would demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of the dressing. Parameters studied and analysed included atraumatic pain-free dressing changes; ease of dressing application; comfort and conformability; exudate management; ability of the dressing to stay in place; and peri-wound skin management. A total of 25 patients with wounds suitable to be dressed using the evaluation product were recruited following a full documented wound assessment by the tissue viability nurse. Participants were selected across the organisation from acute hospital wards and outpatient departments, care homes, wound care clinics and the participants' own homes. Digital photography was used to demonstrate improvement or deterioration of the wound bed and surrounding skin, and images were assessed by non-participating clinicians to confirm documented observations made within the evaluation. The dressing was found to be clinically effective in both chronic and acute wound types, and had an excellent level of participant acceptance. PMID:26266560

  20. The evidence based wound healing activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Isitor, Godwin; Davis, E M; Pillai, G K

    2007-09-01

    The ethanol extract of Lawsonia inermis (200 mg/kg/day) was used to evaluate the wound healing activity on rats using excision, incision and dead space wound models. The animals were divided into three groups of six each in the excision model and two groups of six each in the incision model and dead space models. The topical application was made in the case of excision wound model, whereas, oral treatment was done with incision and dead space wound models. The following differences were noted in the group of experimental animals which were treated with an extract of L. inermis when compared with the control and reference standard animals: a high rate of wound contraction (p < 0.001), a decrease in the period of epithelialization (p < 0.001), high skin breaking strength (p < 0.001), a significant increase in the granulation tissue weight (p < 0.001) and hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05). The extract-treated animals showed 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which was 58%. Histological studies of the tissue obtained on day 10 from the extract-treated group showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells when compared with the controls which showed inflammatory cells, scanty collagen fibres and fibroblasts. Enhanced wound contraction, increased skin breaking strength, hydroxyproline and histological findings suggest the use of L. inermis in the management of wound healing. PMID:17533628

  1. Wound healing in urology.

    PubMed

    Ninan, Neethu; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex phenomenon of replacing devitalized tissues in the body. Urethral healing takes place in four phases namely inflammation, proliferation, maturation and remodelling, similar to dermal healing. However, the duration of each phase of wound healing in urology is extended for a longer period when compared to that of dermatology. An ideal wound dressing material removes exudate, creates a moist environment, offers protection from foreign substances and promotes tissue regeneration. A single wound dressing material shall not be sufficient to treat all kinds of wounds as each wound is distinct. This review includes the recent attempts to explore the hidden potential of growth factors, stem cells, siRNA, miRNA and drugs for promoting wound healing in urology. The review also discusses the different technologies used in hospitals to treat wounds in urology, which make use of innovative biomaterials synthesised in regenerative medicines like hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, films etc., incorporated with growth factors, drug molecules or nanoparticles. These include surgical zippers, laser tissue welding, negative pressure wound therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen treatment. PMID:25500273

  2. Light-based therapy on wound healing?:?a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pik Suan, Lau; Bidin, Noriah; Cherng, Chong Jia; Hamid, Asmah

    2014-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex matrix and overlapping process. In order to accelerate the healing process and minimize bacterial infection, light-based therapy was applied to stimulate bio-reaction to improve healing. The aim of this paper is to review the effects induced by light source (laser and incoherent light like LED) on different biological targets. The light-based therapy techniques were categorized according to the wavelength, energy density, type of irradiance and activity of tissues in the healing process. Out of 80 cases, 77% were animal studies, 5% were human studies and 18% were cell studies. Around 75% of light-based therapy has an advantage on tissue interaction and 25% has no effect or inhibition on the healing process. The appropriate dose appears to be between 1 and 5?J cm-2. At shorter wavelength, photobiostimulation would be effective with a high frequently administrated low-energy dose. On the other hand, for longer wavelength it is the reverse, i.e., more effective with a low frequent treated schedule and a high-energy dose.

  3. Dressings as an adjunct to pressure ulcer prevention: consensus panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    Black, Joyce; Clark, Michael; Dealey, Carol; Brindle, Christopher T; Alves, Paulo; Santamaria, Nick; Call, Evan

    2015-08-01

    The formulation of recommendations on the use of wound dressings in pressure ulcer prevention was undertaken by a group of experts in pressure ulcer prevention and treatment from Australia, Portugal, UK and USA. After review of literature, they concluded that there is adequate evidence to recommend the use of five-layer silicone bordered dressings (Mepilex Border Sacrum(®) and 3 layer Mepilex Heel(®) dressings by Mölnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) for pressure ulcer prevention in the sacrum, buttocks and heels in high-risk patients, those in Emergency Department (ED), intensive care unit (ICU) and operating room (OR). Literature on which this recommendation is based includes one prospective randomised control trial, three cohort studies and two case series. Recommendations for dressing use in patients at high risk for pressure injury and shear injury were also provided. PMID:24588955

  4. Distribution assessment comparing continuous and periodic wound instillation in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy using an agar-based model.

    PubMed

    Rycerz, Anthony M; Slack, Paul; McNulty, Amy K

    2013-04-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a widely accepted and effective treatment for various wound types, including complex wounds. Negative pressure with instillation was initially used as a gravity-fed system whereby reticulated, open-cell foam in the wound bed was periodically exposed to cycles of soaking with instillation solution followed by NPWT. Recent publications have alluded to positive outcomes with continuous instillation, where fluid is delivered simultaneously with negative pressure. To evaluate the distribution of instillation solutions to wound beds in conjunction with negative pressure, agar-based models were developed and exposed to coloured instillation solutions to identify exposure intensity via agar staining. This model allowed comparison of continuous- versus periodic-instillation therapy with negative pressure. Continuous instillation at a rate of 30 cc/hour with negative pressure showed isolated exposure of instillation fluid to wound beds in agar wound models with and without undermining and tunnelling. In contrast, periodic instillation illustrated uniform exposure of the additive to the entire wound bed including undermined and tunnel areas, with increased staining with each instillation cycle. These findings suggest that periodic instillation facilitates more uniform exposure throughout the wound, including tunnels and undermining, to instillation solutions, thereby providing therapy consistent with the clinician-ordered treatment. PMID:22487428

  5. Composite poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(vinyl acetate) electrospun nanofibrous mats as a novel wound dressing matrix for controlled release of drugs

    PubMed Central

    Jannesari, Marziyeh; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Morshed, Mohammad; Zamani, Maedeh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel biomedicated nanofiber electrospun mats for controlled drug release, especially drug release directly to an injury site to accelerate wound healing. Nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), and a 50:50 composite blend, loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl (CipHCl), were successfully prepared by an electrospinning technique for the first time. The morphology and average diameter of the electrospun nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies indicated an amorphous distribution of the drug inside the nanofiber blend. Introducing the drug into polymeric solutions significantly decreased solution viscosities as well as nanofiber diameter. In vitro drug release evaluations showed that both the kind of polymer and the amount of drug loaded greatly affected the degree of swelling, weight loss, and initial burst and rate of drug release. Blending PVA and PVAc exhibited a useful and convenient method for electrospinning in order to control the rate and period of drug release in wound healing applications. Also, the thickness of the blend nanofiber mats strongly influenced the initial release and rate of drug release. PMID:21720511

  6. Failure assessment of aluminum liner based filament-wound hybrid riser subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikshit, Vishwesh; Seng, Ong Lin; Maheshwari, Muneesh; Asundi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes the burst behavior of aluminum liner based prototype filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic pressure. The main objective of present study is to developed an internal pressure test rig set-up for filament-wound hybrid riser and investigate the failure modes of filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic burst pressure loading. The prototype filament-wound hybrid riser used for burst test consists of an internal aluminum liner and outer composite layer. The carbon-epoxy composites as part of the filament-wound hybrid risers were manufactured with [±55o] lay-up pattern with total composite layer thickness of 1.6 mm using a CNC filament-winding machine. The burst test was monitored by video camera which helps to analyze the failure mechanism of the fractured filament-wound hybrid riser. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor was used to monitor and record the strain changes during burst test of prototype filament-wound hybrid riser. This study shows good improvements in burst strength of filament-wound hybrid riser compared to the monolithic metallic riser. Since, strain measurement using FBG sensors has been testified as a reliable method, we aim to further understand in detail using this technique.

  7. A prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing 3 dressing types following sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Dickinson Jennings, Cathy; Culver Clark, Rebecca; Baker, Joseph W

    2015-05-01

    Dressings are an important aspect of post-sternotomy care. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between July 2010 and August 2012 to compare wound and patient outcomes among 3 marketed postoperative dressings. Using convenience sampling methods, 315 patients requiring a sternotomy incision followed by hospitalization were randomly assigned to postoperative care with a dry sterile (n = 106), metallic silver-containing (n = 105), or ionic silver-containing (n = 104) dressing. Application time and ease of dressing application were assessed. The dry dressings remained in place for 24 to 48 hours. On postoperative day 5 or at time of discharge, the silver dressings were removed and wound outcomes (degree of wound approximation, skin integrity, wound exudate, presence/absence of necrotic tissue), presence/absence of surgical site infection, patient comfort, and dressing factors (ease of removal, dressing integrity) were evaluated. All participants received the same preoperative skin preparation and intravenous antibiotics. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact chi-squares and 1-way ANOVA. No statistically significant differences were found among the dressings in terms of wound healing or infection rate, but statistically significant differences were noted in patient comfort and certain dressing factors. When comparing all 3 dressings, the dry sterile dressing took less time to apply (P = 0.000) and was easiest to apply (P = 0.000). Use of the metallic silver dressing resulted in the least patient-reported pain upon removal (P = 0.015), and incision assessment was easiest with the ionic silver dressing (P = 0.000). When comparing the 2 silver dressings, the metallic silver dressing was easiest to remove (P = 0.003) but had less integrity at the time of removal (P = 0.007). None of the patients in the ionic silver and 1 patient (1%) in the metallic silver dressing group developed a deep infection. Additional research is warranted to determine best practice in postoperative, clean surgical incision management, including sternotomy wounds. PMID:25965091

  8. [Preventing nosocomial infections. Dressings soaked in polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB)].

    PubMed

    Salas Campos, Luis; Gómez Ferrero, Ona; Estudillo Pérez, Vanesa; Fernández Mansilla, Marta

    2006-06-01

    Polyhexamethlene biguanide (PHMB) is an antibacterial agent included in the chlorhexidine group which is active against a wide number of microorganisms including Staphylococcus Aureus Methycilin Resistant (MRSA), Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus Faecalis (VRE) and Acinetobacter baumannii which all cause antibiotic-resistant infections. Traditionally gauze dressings have been used to cover and protect wounds although their porous structure does not constitute an efficient barrier against bacterial penetration, especially when a dressing becomes wet due to the effects of a wound oozing and draining. Recently the use of a dressing soaked in a 0.2% PHMB solution which works as a biological barrier against pathogenic agents has been introduced in clinical practice. On the one hand, this PHMB soaked dressing inhibits bacterial growth in the areas where it is applied and, on the other hand, it prevents the penetration of microorganisms through the dressing itself. Simultaneously while a PHMB soaked dressing carries out these actions, it creates an environment favorable to the proliferation of the normal flora found in the epidermis. As opposed to porous gauze dressings, a PHMB dressing remains active during 72 hours even in wet environs. Its wide anti-micro-bacterial range prevents infections in surgical, acute or chronic wounds and in any type of intra-corporal access susceptible to infection, such as by means of intravascular catheters, tracheotomies, or thoracic tubes. A PHMB dressing can also be used as a primary covering to treat a chronic wound since it does not interfere in the process of tissue reepithelization. PMID:16875365

  9. The evidence-based principles of negative pressure wound therapy in trauma & orthopedics.

    PubMed

    A, Novak; Khan, Wasim S; J, Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is a popular treatment for the management of both acute and chronic wounds. Its use in trauma and orthopedics is diverse and includes the acute traumatic setting as well as chronic troublesome wounds associated with pressure sores and diabetic foot surgery. Efforts have been made to provide an evidence base to guide its use however this has been limited by a lack of good quality evidence. The following review article explores the available evidence and describes future developments for its use in trauma and orthopaedic practice. PMID:25067971

  10. Wound Healing Activity of Topical Application Forms Based on Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Mitra, Shankar Kumar; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P?

  11. Metalloproteinases and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Caley, Matthew P.; Martins, Vera L.C.; O'Toole, Edel A.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are present in both acute and chronic wounds. They play a pivotal role, with their inhibitors, in regulating extracellular matrix degradation and deposition that is essential for wound reepithelialization. The excess protease activity can lead to a chronic nonhealing wound. The timed expression and activation of MMPs in response to wounding are vital for successful wound healing. MMPs are grouped into eight families and display extensive homology within these families. This homology leads in part to the initial failure of MMP inhibitors in clinical trials and the development of alternative methods for modulating the MMP activity. MMP-knockout mouse models display altered wound healing responses, but these are often subtle phenotypic changes indicating the overlapping MMP substrate specificity and inter-MMP compensation. Recent Advances: Recent research has identified several new MMP modulators, including photodynamic therapy, protease-absorbing dressing, microRNA regulation, signaling molecules, and peptides. Critical Issues: Wound healing requires the controlled activity of MMPs at all stages of the wound healing process. The loss of MMP regulation is a characteristic of chronic wounds and contributes to the failure to heal. Future Directions: Further research into how MMPs are regulated should allow the development of novel treatments for wound healing. PMID:25945285

  12. Wound Healing & Management Node Taxonomy 30th September 2011

    E-print Network

    Mucina, Ladislav

    Wound Healing & Management Node Taxonomy ­ 30th September 2011 JBI/AWMA Wound Healing and Management Node Taxonomy Topics for Evidence Summaries and Recommended Practice Category Topic 1. Wound & Management Node Taxonomy ­ 30th September 2011 10. Antiseptic Dressings Cadexomer iodine (IodosorbTM) Wound

  13. Chitosan-based copper nanocomposite accelerates healing in excision wound model in rats.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Anu; Kant, Vinay; Gopalakrishnan, Anu; Tandan, Surendra K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-05-15

    Copper possesses efficacy in wound healing which is a complex phenomenon involving various cells, cytokines and growth factors. Copper nanoparticles modulate cells, cytokines and growth factors involved in wound healing in a better way than copper ions. Chitosan has been shown to be beneficial in healing because of its antibacterial, antifungal, biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric nature. In the present study, chitosan-based copper nanocomposite (CCNC) was prepared by mixing chitosan and copper nanoparticles. CCNC was applied topically to evaluate its wound healing potential and to study its effects on some important components of healing process in open excision wound model in adult Wistar rats. Significant increase in wound contraction was observed in the CCNC-treated rats. The up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-beta1(TGF-?1) by CCNC-treatment revealed its role in facilitating angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. The tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in CCNC-treated rats. Histological evaluation showed more fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition and intact re-epithelialization in CCNC-treated rats. Immunohistochemistry of CD31 revealed marked increase in angiogenesis. Thus, we concluded that chitosan-based copper nanocomposite efficiently enhanced cutaneous wound healing by modulation of various cells, cytokines and growth factors during different phases of healing process. PMID:24632085

  14. Wound Area Measurement with Digital Planimetry: Improved Accuracy and Precision with Calibration Based on 2 Rulers

    PubMed Central

    Foltynski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the treatment of chronic wounds the wound surface area change over time is useful parameter in assessment of the applied therapy plan. The more precise the method of wound area measurement the earlier may be identified and changed inappropriate treatment plan. Digital planimetry may be used in wound area measurement and therapy assessment when it is properly used, but the common problem is the camera lens orientation during the taking of a picture. The camera lens axis should be perpendicular to the wound plane, and if it is not, the measured area differ from the true area. Results Current study shows that the use of 2 rulers placed in parallel below and above the wound for the calibration increases on average 3.8 times the precision of area measurement in comparison to the measurement with one ruler used for calibration. The proposed procedure of calibration increases also 4 times accuracy of area measurement. It was also showed that wound area range and camera type do not influence the precision of area measurement with digital planimetry based on two ruler calibration, however the measurements based on smartphone camera were significantly less accurate than these based on D-SLR or compact cameras. Area measurement on flat surface was more precise with the digital planimetry with 2 rulers than performed with the Visitrak device, the Silhouette Mobile device or the AreaMe software-based method. Conclusion The calibration in digital planimetry with using 2 rulers remarkably increases precision and accuracy of measurement and therefore should be recommended instead of calibration based on single ruler. PMID:26252747

  15. A prospective randomized trial comparing silver sulfadiazine cream with a water-soluble polyantimicrobial gel in partial-thickness burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Black, Jonathan S; Drake, David B

    2015-01-01

    The lipid base of silver sulfadiazine (SSD) makes removal of the product painful for the patient and difficult for the physician to accurately assess particularly in partial-thickness burn injuries. As an alternative, a water-soluble antimicrobial gel is used at the University of Virginia. We present a prospective, randomized comparison of these two therapies using pain with dressing changes and time to perform dressing changes as our primary endpoints. Adult inpatients with partial-thickness burn wounds were randomized to begin therapy with either SSD cream or the water-soluble burn wound gel (BWG), and then therapies were alternated daily. Pain assessments, time to complete dressing care, total narcotic medication administered, and the number of personnel required for dressing changes were recorded. Eight patients were enrolled resulting in 13 pairs (26 points) of data comparison between the two therapies. Four of the eight enrolled patients (50%) refused to continue receiving SSD because of pain associated with dressing changes and voluntarily withdrew from the study. The amount of time to perform dressing changes was an average of 79 nurse-minutes longer for SSD. A 6.08 greater morphine equivalent was delivered to those having BWG removed.A water-soluble polyantimicrobial gel was superior to SSD in the parameters measured as exhibited by our patient dropout rate and differential time to perform dressing care. Limiting the time to perform dressing care will reduce the cumulative pain experience, improve patient satisfaction, and reduce the resources to deliver care. PMID:25730540

  16. Role of polymeric biomaterials as wound healing agents.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Priyanka; Soni, Sandeep; Mittal, Gaurav; Bhatnagar, Aseem

    2014-09-01

    In uncontrolled hemorrhage, the main cause of death on the battlefield and in accidents, half of the deaths are caused by severe blood loss. Polymeric biomaterials have great potential in the control of severe hemorrhage from trauma, which is the second leading cause of death in the civilian community following central nervous system injuries. The intent of this article is to provide a review on currently available biopolymers used as wound dressing agents and to describe their best use as it relates to the condition and type of the wound (acute, chronic, superficial, and full thickness) and the phases of the wound healing process. These biopolymers are beneficial in tissue engineering as scaffolds, hydrogels, and films. Different types of wound dressings based on biopolymers are available in the market, with various physical, chemical, and biological properties. The use of biopolymers as a hemostatic agent depends on its biocompatibility, biodegradability, nonimmunogenicity, and optimal mechanical property. This review summarizes different biopolymers, their physiological characters, and their use as wound healing agents along with biomedical applications. PMID:25056991

  17. Fournier's Gangrene: Conventional Dressings versus Dressings with Dakin's Solution

    PubMed Central

    Altunoluk, Bülent; Resim, Sefa; Efe, Erkan; Eren, Mustafa; Benlioglu, Can; Kankilic, Nazim; Baykan, Halit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Fournier's gangrene is a fulminant and destructive inflammation of the scrotum, penis, and perineum. The objective of this study was to compare 2 different approaches to wound management after aggressive surgical debridement. Methods. Data from 14 patients with Fournier's gangrene were retrospectively collected (2005–2011). Once the patients were stabilized following surgery, they were treated with either daily antiseptic (povidone iodine) dressings (group I, n = 6) or dressings with dakin's solution (sodium hypochloride) (group II, n = 8). Results. The mean age of the patients was 68.2 ± 7.8 (55–75) years in group I and 66.9 ± 10.2 (51–79) years in group II. Length of hospital stay was 13 ± 3.5 (7–16) days in group I and 8.9 ± 3.0 (4–12) days in group II (P < 0.05). The number and rate of mortality was 1/6 (16.7%) in group I, and 1/8 (12.5%) in group II. Conclusions. The hospitalization time can be reduced with the use of dakin's solution for the dressings in the treatment of FG. Also, dressings with dakin's solution seems to have favorable effects on morbidity and mortality. Consequently dakin's solution may alter the treatment of this disastrous disease by reducing cost, morbidity and mortality. PMID:22567424

  18. In vivo model of wound healing based on transplanted tissue-engineered skin.

    PubMed

    Geer, David J; Swartz, Daniel D; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2004-01-01

    Advances in understanding the complex process of wound healing and development of novel growth factor and gene therapies would benefit from models that mimic closely the physiology of human wounds. To this end, we developed a hybrid wound-healing model based on human tissue-engineered skin transplanted onto athymic mice. Grafted tissues were infiltrated with mouse mesenchymal cells as native and foreign dermal regions fused together. Immunohistochemical staining for human involucrin revealed that the transplanted epithelium maintained its human origin, whereas the dermis was infiltrated by numerous mouse fibroblasts and blood vessels. Grafted tissues were wounded with a 4-mm punch to create full-thickness excisional wounds. At 1 and 2 weeks, the tissues were excised and assessed for reepithelialization, differentiation, and neovascularization. Interestingly, the average rate of keratinocyte migration (120 microm/day) was similar to migration rates observed in human subjects and significantly lower than migration in mouse epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining for keratin 10, laminin, and involucrin revealed a normal pattern of differentiation in the neoepidermis. Neovascularization was significantly elevated in the granulation tissue at 1 week and subsided to the level of unwounded tissue at 2 weeks postwounding. Our data suggest that skin equivalents grafted to a mouse model may serve as a realistic model of human wound regeneration. Because skin equivalents can be prepared with patient cells and genetically modified to stimulate or suppress gene expression, this model may be ideal for addressing mechanistic questions and evaluating the efficacy of biomaterials and gene therapeutics for promoting wound healing. PMID:15363158

  19. An evaluation of a silicone adhesive shaped heel dressing.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie

    Tissue breakdown is complex and involves many factors. Pressure ulcer development in the heels is subject to extrinsic factors such as pressure, shear, friction and moisture. The heels are the most common sites for friction and shear damage, which can lead to blistering, skin erosion and tissue breakdown (Grey et al, 2006). To address the issues of wounds that are painful on dressing removal and friable skin, Smith & Nephew has introduced a soft silicone adhesive dressing to its Allevyn dressing range. Silicone does not adhere to wounded areas and can be removed gently without trauma to the periwound area. This paper discusses the findings of a 20-patient multi-site evaluation examining the performance and acceptability of Allevyn Gentle Border Heel dressing in the management of heel wounds. PMID:20335927

  20. Antibiofilm and antimicrobial efficacy of DispersinB®-KSL-W peptide-based wound gel against chronic wound infection associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Purushottam V; Leung, Kai P; Madhyastha, Srinivasa

    2014-05-01

    The medical importance of bacterial biofilms has increased with the recognition of biofilms as one of the major contributors to the slow or non-healing chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, venous leg ulcers, and pressure ulcers. Being a protected community of microorganisms, biofilms are notoriously refractory to antibiotic treatments. As the conventional treatment modalities have proven ineffective, this study provides the in vitro evidence to support the use of a novel combination of DispersinB(®) antibiofilm enzyme that inhibits biofilm formation and disperses preformed biofilm, and thus making the biofilm bacteria more susceptible to a broad-spectrum KSL-W antimicrobial peptide. The combination of DispersinB(®) and KSL-W peptide showed synergistic antibiofilm and antimicrobial activity against chronic wound infection associated biofilm-embedded bacteria such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS), and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, the wound gel formulation comprising DispersinB(®), KSL-W peptide, and a gelling agent Pluronic F-127 showed a broad-spectrum and enduring antimicrobial activity against test organisms. Furthermore, as compared to commercial wound gel Silver-Sept™, DispersinB(®)-KSL-W peptide-based wound gel was significantly more effective in inhibiting the biofilm-embedded MRSA, S. epidermidis, CoNS, Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, A. baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.05). Thus, this study provides promising evidence for the potential application of antibiofilm-antimicrobial DispersinB(®)-KSL-W wound gel in chronic wound management. PMID:24445333

  1. The analgesic effect of odour and music upon dressing change.

    PubMed

    Kane, F M A; Brodie, E E; Coull, A; Coyne, L; Howd, A; Milne, A; Niven, C C; Robbins, R

    Vascular wounds may require frequent dressing changes over a long period of time, often involving pain, which may not be adequately controlled with conventional analgesia. Complementary analgesia may be beneficial as an adjunctive therapy. This pilot study presented eight patients with two odour therapies, lavender and lemon, two music therapies, relaxing and preferred music and a control condition, during vascular wound dressing changes. Although the therapies did not reduce the pain intensity during the dressing change there was a significant reduction in pain intensity for the lavender therapy and a reduction in pain intensity for the relaxing music therapy after the dressing change. This supports the use of these complementary therapies, which are inexpensive, easy to administer and have no known side effects, as adjunctive analgesia in this patient population. Earlier administration before dressing change may enhance these effects. Further research is required to ascertain why certain complementary therapies are more effective than others at relieving pain. PMID:15573017

  2. Wound Healing Bionanocomposites Based on Castor Oil Polymeric Films Reinforced with Chitosan-Modified ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2015-09-14

    Castor oil (CO), which is a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and environmentally benign nonedible oil, has been successfully used as matrix material to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposite films filled with chitosan (CS)-modified ZnO nanoparticles. The biocomposites were synthesized via a simple and versatile solution mixing and casting method. The morphology, structure, thermal stability, water absorption, biodegradability, cytocompatibility, barrier, mechanical, viscoelastic, antibacterial, and wound healing properties of the films have been analyzed. FT-IR spectra were used to obtain information about the nanoparticle-matrix interactions. The thermal stability, hydrophilicity, degree of porosity, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen permeability (Dk), and biodegradability of the films increased with the CS-ZnO loading. The WVTR and Dk data obtained are within the range of values reported for commercial wound dressings. Tensile tests demonstrated that the nanocomposites displayed a good balance between elasticity, strength, and flexibility under both dry and simulated body fluid (SBF) environments. The flexibility increased in a moist atmosphere due to the plasticization effect of absorbed water. The nanocomposites also exhibited significantly enhanced dynamic mechanical performance (storage modulus and glass transition temperature) than neat CO under different humidity conditions. The antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus bacteria was investigated in the presence and the absence of UV light. The biocide effect increased progressively with the CS-ZnO content and was systematically stronger against Gram-positive cells. Composites with nanoparticle loading ?5.0 wt % exhibited very good in vitro cytocompatibility and enabled a faster wound healing than neat CO and control gauze, hence showing great potential to be applied as antibacterial wound dressings. PMID:26302315

  3. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogels for sustained release of ferulic acid on corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tseng, Po-Chen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Sung, Yen-Jen; Liu, Kuan-Ting; Cheng, Yung-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cornea can be induced by alkaline chemical burn which may cause vision loss or blindness. Recent studies showed that exogenous application of natural antioxidants may be a potential treatment for corneal wound healing. However, low ocular bioavailability and short residence time are the limiting factors of topically administered antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural phenolic compound and an excellent antioxidant. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of FA in corneal epithelial cells (CECs) under oxidative stress and evaluate the feasibility of use the thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel containing FA for corneal wound healing. The results demonstrated that post-treatment of FA on CECs could decrease the inflammation-level and apoptosis. In the rabbit corneal alkali burn model, post-treatment FA-loaded hydrogel may promote the corneal wound healing. The results of study suggest that FA-loaded hydrogel may have the potential applications in treating corneal alkali burn. PMID:26453882

  4. A Model for the Estimation of Penetrating Wound Lethality Based on Combat Casualty Data

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, William J.; Merkler, Jules; Long, William B.; Dolce, Joseph R.; Champion, Howard R.

    1981-01-01

    The probability that a given combat wound is lethal provides a quantitative basis for the assessment of wounds, comparison of body armors, and estimation of medical workload requirements in various military scenarios. The present paper describes a new lethality model for penetrating injuries. The model employs a new injury classification called PEBL. PEBL codes are constructed by appending additional significant digits to the appropriate codes from the Hospital Adaptation of the International Classification of the World Health Organization (H-ICDA Codes), widely used in both civilian and military hospitals for injury classification. PEBL attains greater specificity by providing for injury size, bone injury characteristics, partial organ damage, and distinguishing peripheral blood vessels and nerves. Probability of lethality estimates were obtained for PEBL codes based on computerized wound data available on 3600 combat casualties.

  5. Current Aspects in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tsourdi, Elena; Barthel, Andreas; Rietzsch, Hannes; Reichel, Andreas; Bornstein, Stefan R.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired wound healing is a frequent and very severe problem in patients with diabetes mellitus, yet little is known about the underlying pathomechanisms. In this paper we review the biology of wound healing with particular attention to the pathophysiology of chronic wounds in diabetic patients. The standard treatment of diabetic ulcers includes measures to optimize glycemic control as well as extensive debridement, infection elimination by antibiotic therapy based on wound pathogen cultures, the use of moisture dressings, and offloading high pressure from the wound bed. In this paper we discuss novel adjuvant therapies with particular reference to the use of autologous skin transplants for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers which do not respond to standard care. PMID:23653894

  6. Slow-light plasmonic metamaterial based on dressed-state analog of electromagnetically induced transparency.

    PubMed

    Raza, Søren; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2015-09-15

    We consider a simple configuration for realizing one-dimensional slow-light metamaterials with large bandwidth-delay products using stub-shaped Fabry-Perot resonators as building blocks. Each meta-atom gives rise to large group indices because of a classical analog of the dressed-state picture of electromagnetically induced transparency. By connecting up to eight meta-atoms, we find bandwidth-delay products over unity and group indices approaching 100. Our approach is quite general and can be applied to any type of Fabry-Perot resonators and tuned to different operating wavelengths. PMID:26371909

  7. Effective healing of diabetic skin wounds by using nonviral gene therapy based on minicircle vascular

    E-print Network

    Park, Jong-Sang

    Effective healing of diabetic skin wounds by using nonviral gene therapy based on minicircle their curative effect. In the present study, we describe a simple nonviral gene therapy method for improving was confirmed by histo- logical staining. Conclusions This simple and effective gene therapy method may repre

  8. Applications of modern sensors and wireless technology in effective wound management.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Nasir; Hariz, Alex; Fitridge, Robert; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-05-01

    The management of chronic wounds has emerged as a major health care challenge during the 21st century consuming, significant portions of health care budgets. Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, leg ulcers, and pressure sores have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals. Covering wounds with suitable dressings facilitates the healing process and is common practice in wound management plans. However, standard dressings do not provide insights into the status of the wound underneath. Parameters such as moisture, pressure, temperature and pH inside the dressings are indicative of the healing rate, infection, and wound healing phase. But owing to the lack of information available from within the dressings, these are often changed to inspect the wound, disturbing the normal healing process of wounds in addition to causing pain to the patient. Sensors embedded in the dressing would provide clinicians and nurses with important information that would aid in wound care decision making, improve patient comfort, and reduce the frequency of dressing changes. The potential benefits of this enabling technology would be seen in terms of a reduction in hospitalization time and health care cost. Modern sensing technology along with wireless radio frequency communication technology is poised to make significant advances in wound management. This review discusses issues related to the design and implementation of sensor technology and telemetry systems both incorporated in wound dressings to devise an automated wound monitoring technology, and also surveys the literature available on current sensor and wireless telemetry systems. PMID:24142514

  9. Wound Care.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ingrid M; Culp, William T N

    2015-09-01

    Wound care requires an understanding of normal wound healing, causes of delays of wound healing, and the management of wounds. Every wound must be treated as an individual with regard to cause, chronicity, location, and level of microbial contamination, as well as patient factors that affect wound healing. Knowledge of wound care products available and when negative pressure wound therapy and drain placement is appropriate can improve outcomes with wound healing. Inappropriate product use can cause delays in healing. As a wound healing progresses, management of a wound and the bandage material used must evolve. PMID:26022525

  10. Nonsilver treatment vs. silver sulfadiazine in treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rashaan, Zjir M; Krijnen, Pieta; Klamer, Rachel R M; Schipper, Inger B; Dekkers, Olaf M; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for application of silver-containing dressings and topicals in the treatment of partial-thickness burns in pediatric patients is largely based on clinical trials involving adult patients despite the important differences between the skin of children and adults. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed of all randomized controlled trials comparing nonsilver treatment with silver-containing dressings and silver topical agents in children with partial-thickness burns in the acute stage. Endpoints were wound healing, grafting, infection, pain, number of dressing changes, length of hospital stay, and scarring. Seven randomized controlled trials were included involving 473 participants. All trials used silver sulfadiazine as control in comparison with five different nonsilver treatments. Most trials were of moderate quality with high risk of bias. Use of nonsilver treatment led to shorter wound healing time (weighted mean difference: -3.43 days, 95% confidence interval: -4.78, -2.07), less dressing changes (weighted mean difference: -19.89 dressing changes, 95% confidence interval: -38.12, -1.66), and shorter length of hospital stay (weighted mean difference: -2.07 days, 95% confidence interval: -2.63, -1.50) compared with silver sulfadiazine treatment, but no difference in the incidence of wound infection or grafting was found. In conclusion, nonsilver treatment may be preferred over silver sulfadiazine, but high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to validly confirm the effectiveness of silver containing preparations, in particular silver-containing dressings, above nonsilver treatments. PMID:24899251

  11. Application of the Single Use Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Device (PICO) on a Heterogeneous Group of Surgical and Traumatic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Caroline; Edwards, Daren

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Traumatic wounds and surgery inherently have their complications. Localized infections, wound dehiscence, and excessive wound leakage can be devastating to the patient with a prolonged recovery, but it is also costly to the hospital with an increased length of stay, extra workload, and dressing changes. The single use PICO (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Hull, United Kingdom) negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) dressing has revolutionized our management of various acute, chronic, and high output wounds. It requires fewer dressing changes than conventional practice, is used in the outpatient setting, and is a necessary adjuvant therapy to hasten wound healing. Aims: To observe the efficacy of the PICO vacuum-assisted healing within a cost improvement programme. Settings: Plastic surgery department, Royal London Hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with a diversity of postoperative or posttraumatic wounds were considered suitable for PICO application and treated totally on an outpatient basis once the PICO dressing was applied. All wounds were then subjected to continued PICO dressings until healed. Results: All patients tolerated the PICO well with no dressing failure or failure to comply. The number of dressings per patient ranged from 1 to 7. The cost per patient of treatment ranged from £120 to £1578. Estimated cost of all PICO dressing for 21 patients including plastic surgery dressing clinic appointments = £13,345. Median length of treatment to healing (days) = 16; standard deviation = 9.5. Eight patients would have had an inpatient bed stay with conventional therapy, total 24 bed days saved at Bartshealth @£325 per day. Conclusions: The outpatient application of a disposable NPWT can benefit a wide range of clinical wounds that optimizes patient care, promotes rapid wound healing, and importantly helps manage costs. PMID:24917894

  12. Systematic review of the use of prophylactic dressings in the prevention of pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Michael; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Brindle, Ct; Call, Evan; Dealey, Carol; Santamaria, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review considers the evidence supporting the use of prophylactic dressings for the prevention of pressure ulcer. Electronic database searches were conducted on 25 July 2013. The searches found 3026 titles and after removal of duplicate records 2819 titles were scanned against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these, 2777 were excluded based on their title and abstract primarily because they discussed pressure ulcer healing, the prevention and treatment of other chronic and acute wounds or where the intervention was not a prophylactic dressing (e.g. underpads, heel protectors and cushions). Finally, the full text of 42 papers were retrieved. When these 42 papers were reviewed, 21 were excluded and 21 were included in the review. The single high-quality randomised controlled trial (RCT) and the growing number of cohort, weak RCT and case series all suggest that the introduction of a dressing as part of pressure ulcer prevention may help reduce pressure ulcer incidence associated with medical devices especially in immobile intensive care unit patients. There is no firm clinical evidence at this time to suggest that one dressing type is more effective than other dressings. PMID:24472394

  13. Use of collagenase ointment in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy in the care of diabetic wounds: a case series of six patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John D.; Carter, Elizabeth; Hatch, David C.; Zhubrak, Michelle; Giovinco, Nicholas A.; Armstrong, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic wounds with additional comorbidities are costly, time intensive, and difficult to heal. Often, multiple modalities may be necessary to achieve wound resolution, relying on the synergistic advantage of each therapy to affect wound healing. The selectivity of Clostridium collagenase is physiologically effective at degrading non-viable collagen fibers while preserving living collagen tissue. Additionally, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has long been used to aid wound healing while concurrently depreciating biological wound burden time. Methods Six patients were selected from those appearing to our university based limb salvage service. Inclusion criteria included patients with a recurrent mixed fibrotic and granular wound base, in which NPWT was indicated, without exclusion criteria. Patients enrolled were administered clostridial collagenase ointment at each regularly scheduled NPWT dressing change. Patients were followed until healing, with visual representations of wound progression and time to full healing recorded. Results Tandem application of these therapies appeared to expedite wound healing by clearing degenerative fibrous tissue and expediting wound granulation without additional complication. Unfortunately, not all patients were able to reach full healing; with two patients experiencing ulcer recurrence, likely a result of their significant comorbid nature. Conclusion In our experience, we have noticed a specific subgroup of patients who benefit greatly when collagenase enzymatic debridement therapy is combined with NPWT. It is our belief that this combination therapy combines the molecular clearing of non-viable collagen with the wound granulation necessary to advance complex wounds to the next step in healing despite the current paucity in literature discussing this specific pairing. PMID:25630362

  14. Debrisoft is a wound debridement product, not a wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Browning, Alex

    2014-05-13

    In your April 2 edition (News) you highlighted the recent publication of NICE guidance on the Debrisoft monofilament debridement pad, which has the potential to save the NHS about £15 million a year. PMID:24802464

  15. Taurine improves the wound healing process in cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice model, based on stereological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Zarifi, Fariba; Asgari, Qasem; Samadnejad, Asal Zargari; Rafiee, Shima; Noorafshan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a self-limiting disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, which affects the skin with full-thickness wounds, which are prone to scar formation even after treatment. Taurine (Tu) is one of the most abundant amino acids that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which play an important role in the process of wound healing. Herein, we have investigated the effects of Tu on cutaneous Leishmaniasis wounds and L. major promastigotes. Materials and Methods: Eighteen mice were induced with Leishmaniasis wounds (with L. Major) on the base of their tails and divided into three groups, T1: Treated with Tu injection, T2: Treated with Tu gel, and C: No treatment. Treatments were carried out every 24 hours for 21 days. The volume densities of the collagen bundles and vessels, vessel's length density and diameter, and fibroblast populations were estimated by stereological methods. Flow cytometry was used in order to investigate the direct Tu effect on parasites. The Mann-Whitney U test was used and P ? 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The numerical density of the fibroblasts, volume density of the collagen bundles, and length densities of the vessels in groups T1 and T2 were significantly higher than in group C (P < 0.05). The fibroblast numerical density of group T1 was higher than that of group T2 (P = 0.02). Incidentally, Tu had no direct effect on L. major parasites according to the flow cytometry analysis. Conclusion: Tu showed the ability to improve the wound healing process and tissue regeneration although it had no direct anti-leishmaniasis effect. PMID:25337534

  16. 75 FR 11919 - Smith and Nephew, Inc., Wound Management-Largo Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... 25, 2010 (75 FR 3943). At the request of the State Agency, the Department reviewed the certification... advanced wound care products such as adhesive dressings, non-adhesive dressings, skin prep, skin...

  17. [Hydro-colloidal dressings which release hydro-active silver].

    PubMed

    Serra, N; Torres, O G; Romo, M I; Llovera, J M; Vigil-Escalera, L J; Soto, M A; González-Parra, S

    2005-02-01

    The study presented is a multicentric, prospective, open and comparative study designed with the objective of evaluating the performance of an antibacterial hydrocolloid dressing with hydroactivated silver (Comfeel Plata), when used to activate the healing process in wounds with high bacterial load, clinical signs of infection or malodour. Additionally, once the wound bed was appropriately prepared, a comparison in terms of efficacy was made between, on the one hand, continued treatment with the antibacterial hydrocolloid dressing, and, on the other hand, continued treatment with other dressings specifically designed for the proliferative phase of healing. Included into this study were 43 patients with chronic ulcers who were divided into two parallel treatment groups: In one group, Comfeel Plata (Coloplast AIS) was used until complete wound healing or for a maximum of 10-12 weeks, and in the second group Comfeel Plata (Coloplast A/S) was used until a clean wound bed was obtained and until the wound showed signs of positive evolution, at which moment the treatment was continued until complete healing or for a maximum of 10-12 weeks with dressings without silver designed especially for the proliferative phase of healing [Alione, Comfeel or Biatain (Coloplast AIS)]. The results obtained from the various study parameters indicate that the use of Comfeel Plata in the treatment of infected or colonized wounds prepares the wound bed and facilitates more rapid healing, and that the use of Comfeel Plata effectively reduces pain and malodour. The results indicate that once a clean wound bed is obtained, the use of a dressing without silver specifically for the proliferative phase will facilitate healing. PMID:15816217

  18. Wound bed preparation from a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Halim, A. S.; Khoo, T. L.; Saad, A. Z. Mat

    2012-01-01

    Wound bed preparation has been performed for over two decades, and the concept is well accepted. The ‘TIME’ acronym, consisting of tissue debridement, infection or inflammation, moisture balance and edge effect, has assisted clinicians systematically in wound assessment and management. While the focus has usually been concentrated around the wound, the evolving concept of wound bed preparation promotes the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article discusses wound bed preparation and its clinical management components along with the principles of advanced wound care management at the present time. Management of tissue necrosis can be tailored according to the wound and local expertise. It ranges from simple to modern techniques like wet to dry dressing, enzymatic, biological and surgical debridement. Restoration of the bacterial balance is also an important element in managing chronic wounds that are critically colonized. Achieving a balance moist wound will hasten healing and correct biochemical imbalance by removing the excessive enzymes and growth factors. This can be achieved will multitude of dressing materials. The negative pressure wound therapy being one of the great breakthroughs. The progress and understanding on scientific basis of the wound bed preparation over the last two decades are discussed further in this article in the clinical perspectives. PMID:23162216

  19. An Improved Flexible Telemetry System to Autonomously Monitor Sub-Bandage Pressure and Wound Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Nasir; Hariz, Alex; Templeton, Sue; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an improved mobile-based telemetric dual mode sensing system to monitor pressure and moisture levels in compression bandages and dressings used for chronic wound management. The system is fabricated on a 0.2 mm thick flexible printed circuit material, and is capable of sensing pressure and moisture at two locations simultaneously within a compression bandage and wound dressing. The sensors are calibrated to sense both parameters accurately, and the data are then transmitted wirelessly to a receiver connected to a mobile device. An error-correction algorithm is developed to compensate the degradation in measurement quality due to battery power drop over time. An Android application is also implemented to automatically receive, process, and display the sensed wound parameters. The performance of the sensing system is first validated on a mannequin limb using a compression bandage and wound dressings, and then tested on a healthy volunteer to acquire real-time performance parameters. The results obtained here suggest that this dual mode sensor can perform reliably when placed on a human limb. PMID:25412216

  20. A cost-effective transparency-based digital imaging for efficient and accurate wound area measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Nan; Li, Hong; Wu, Mo-Li; Wang, Shou-Yu; Kong, Qing-You; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Jia; Lv, De-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Wound measurement is an objective and direct way to trace the course of wound healing and to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. Nevertheless, the accuracy and efficiency of the current measurement methods need to be improved. Taking the advantages of reliability of transparency tracing and the accuracy of computer-aided digital imaging, a transparency-based digital imaging approach is established, by which data from 340 wound tracing were collected from 6 experimental groups (8 rats/group) at 8 experimental time points (Day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 and 16) and orderly archived onto a transparency model sheet. This sheet was scanned and its image was saved in JPG form. Since a set of standard area units from 1 mm(2) to 1 cm(2) was integrated into the sheet, the tracing areas in JPG image were measured directly, using the "Magnetic lasso tool" in Adobe Photoshop program. The pixel values/PVs of individual outlined regions were obtained and recorded in an average speed of 27 second/region. All PV data were saved in an excel form and their corresponding areas were calculated simultaneously by the formula of Y (PV of the outlined region)/X (PV of standard area unit) × Z (area of standard unit). It took a researcher less than 3 hours to finish area calculation of 340 regions. In contrast, over 3 hours were expended by three skillful researchers to accomplish the above work with traditional transparency-based method. Moreover, unlike the results obtained traditionally, little variation was found among the data calculated by different persons and the standard area units in different sizes and shapes. Given its accurate, reproductive and efficient properties, this transparency-based digital imaging approach would be of significant values in basic wound healing research and clinical practice. PMID:22666449

  1. Silver-containing antimicrobial membrane based on chitosan-TPP hydrogel for the treatment of wounds.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Pasquale; Travan, Andrea; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Paoletti, Sergio; Marsich, Eleonora

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of non-healing wounds represents hitherto a severe dilemma because of their failure to heal caused by repeated tissue insults, bacteria contamination and altered physiological condition. This leads to face huge costs for the healthcare worldwide. To this end, the development of innovative biomaterials capable of preventing bacterial infection, of draining exudates and of favoring wound healing is very challenging. In this study, we exploit a novel technique based on the slow diffusion of tripolyphosphate for the preparation of macroscopic chitosan hydrogels to obtain soft pliable membranes which include antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized by a lactose-modified chitosan (Chitlac). UV-Vis and TEM analyses demonstrated the time stability and the uniform distribution of AgNPs in the gelling mixture, while swelling studies indicated the hydrophilic behavior of membrane. A thorough investigation on bactericidal properties of the material pointed out the synergistic activity of chitosan and AgNPs to reduce the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa strains and to break apart mature biofilms. Finally, biocompatibility assays on keratinocytes and fibroblasts did not prove any harmful effects on the viability of cells. This novel technique enables the production of bioactive membranes with great potential for the treatment of non-healing wounds. PMID:25693676

  2. Skin tissue engineering for the infected wound site: biodegradable PLA nanofibers and a novel approach for silver ion release evaluated in a 3D coculture system of keratinocytes and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, Mahsa; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2014-10-01

    Wound infection presents a challenging and growing problem. With the increased prevalence and growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria, there is a mounting need to reduce and eliminate wound infections using methodologies that limit the ability of bacteria to evolve into further drug-resistant strains. A well-known strategy for combating bacterial infection and preventing wound sepsis is through the delivery of silver ions to the wound site. High surface area silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) allowing extensive silver ion release have therefore been explored in different wound dressings and/or skin substitutes. However, it has been recently shown that AgNPs can penetrate into the stratum corneum of skin or diffuse into the cellular plasma membrane, and may interfere with a variety of cellular mechanisms. The goal of this study was to introduce and evaluate a new type of high surface area metallic silver in the form of highly porous silver microparticles (AgMPs). Polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers were successfully loaded with either highly porous AgMPs or AgNPs and the antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of the two silver-based wound dressings were assessed and compared. To better mimic the physiological environment in vivo where both human cells and bacteria are present, a novel coculture system combining human epidermal keratinocytes and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was designed to simultaneously evaluate human skin cell cytotoxicity with antimicrobial efficacy in a three-dimensional environment. We found that highly porous AgMPs could be successfully incorporated in nanofibrous wound dressings, and exhibited comparable antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity to AgNPs. Further, PLA nanofibers containing highly porous AgMPs exhibited steady silver ion release, at a greater rate of release, than nanofibers containing AgNPs. The replacement of AgNPs with the newly introduced AgMPs overcomes concerns regarding the use of nanoparticles and holds great promise as skin substitutes or wound dressings for infected wound sites. PMID:24494739

  3. NHS generic project: response from the wound care community.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Anthony; Guest, Julian F; Vowden, Peter; White, Richard; Bowen, Graham; Iversen, C; Anderson, Richard

    2015-12-10

    This series of letters outlines the response from MA Healthcare, key opinion leaders and industry to the news that the Government is planning to introduce a generic project for wound dressings. PMID:26653516

  4. Wound care in the geriatric client

    PubMed Central

    Gist, Steve; Tio-Matos, Iris; Falzgraf, Sharon; Cameron, Shirley; Beebe, Michael

    2009-01-01

    With our aging population, chronic diseases that compromise skin integrity such as diabetes, peripheral vascular disease (venous hypertension, arterial insufficiency) are becoming increasingly common. Skin breakdown with ulcer and chronic wound formation is a frequent consequence of these diseases. Types of ulcers include pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers (arterial and venous hypertension), and neuropathic ulcers. Treatment of these ulcers involves recognizing the four stages of healing: coagulation, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. Chronic wounds are frequently stalled in the inflammatory stage. Moving past the inflammation stage requires considering the bacterial burden, necrotic tissue, and moisture balance of the wound being treated. Bacterial overgrowth or infection needs to be treated with topical or systemic agents. In most cases, necrotic tissue needs to be debrided and moisture balance needs to be addressed by wetting dry tissue and drying wet tissue. Special dressings have been developed to accomplish these tasks. They include films, hydrocolloids, hydrogel dressings, foams, hydrofibers, composite and alginate dressings. PMID:19554098

  5. Puncture Wounds

    MedlinePLUS

    The official consumer website of: Visit ACFAS.org | About ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Puncture Wounds Text Size Print Bookmark Puncture Wounds What Is a Puncture Wound? Puncture wounds are not the same as cuts. A puncture ...

  6. Advances in Wound Healing: A Review of Current Wound Healing Products

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Patrick S.; Evans, Gregory R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Successful wound care involves optimizing patient local and systemic conditions in conjunction with an ideal wound healing environment. Many different products have been developed to influence this wound environment to provide a pathogen-free, protected, and moist area for healing to occur. Newer products are currently being used to replace or augment various substrates in the wound healing cascade. This review of the current state of the art in wound-healing products looks at the latest applications of silver in microbial prophylaxis and treatment, including issues involving resistance and side effects, the latest uses of negative pressure wound devices, advanced dressings and skin substitutes, biologic wound products including growth factor applications, and hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunct in wound healing. With the abundance of available products, the goal is to find the most appropriate modality or combination of modalities to optimize healing. PMID:22567251

  7. A Comparative Study of the Wound Healing Properties of Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO) and Silver Sulphadiazine.

    PubMed

    Jewo, P I; Fadeyibi, I O; Babalola, O S; Saalu, L C; Benebo, A S; Izegbu, M C; Ashiru, O A

    2009-06-30

    Burns expose the deeper tissues of the skin or body to invasive microbes. Topical preparations for treating burn wounds, to be useful, should ideally have antibiotic power and promote healing. Silver compounds have been the mainstay of topical burn treatment for decades. However, most chemical substances retard wound healing. Several natural agents such as honey and moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) are believed to protect wounds from infection and promote healing without causing any of the adverse effects of purified chemicals. In this study, we compared the wound healing properties of MEBO, a herbal preparation of Chinese origin, with silver sulphadiazine (SSD), a long-standing conventional burn dressing. Ten adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups. They were housed in separate cages and received partial-thickness burn wounds on their dorsal skin. They were then treated with MEBO and SSD. The wounds were inspected daily until day 8, when all the animals were sacrificed, perfused with normal saline, and had their wounds excised and prepared for histology. It was found that animals in both groups were well preserved. No clinical infections occurred. Wound healing was at an advanced stage by day 8 in all the animals. Clinical and histological examination showed that the two agents gave the animals comparable protection and healing possibilities. It is concluded that MEBO is a suitable and efficacious alternative to conventional silver-based topical therapies for treating partial-thickness burn wounds. PMID:21991159

  8. A Comparative Study of the Wound Healing Properties of Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO) and Silver Sulphadiazine

    PubMed Central

    Jewo, P.I.; Fadeyibi, I.O.; Babalola, O.S.; Saalu, L.C.; Benebo, A.S.; Izegbu, M.C.; Ashiru, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Burns expose the deeper tissues of the skin or body to invasive microbes. Topical preparations for treating burn wounds, to be useful, should ideally have antibiotic power and promote healing. Silver compounds have been the mainstay of topical burn treatment for decades. However, most chemical substances retard wound healing. Several natural agents such as honey and moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) are believed to protect wounds from infection and promote healing without causing any of the adverse effects of purified chemicals. In this study, we compared the wound healing properties of MEBO, a herbal preparation of Chinese origin, with silver sulphadiazine (SSD), a long-standing conventional burn dressing. Ten adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups. They were housed in separate cages and received partial-thickness burn wounds on their dorsal skin. They were then treated with MEBO and SSD. The wounds were inspected daily until day 8, when all the animals were sacrificed, perfused with normal saline, and had their wounds excised and prepared for histology. It was found that animals in both groups were well preserved. No clinical infections occurred. Wound healing was at an advanced stage by day 8 in all the animals. Clinical and histological examination showed that the two agents gave the animals comparable protection and healing possibilities. It is concluded that MEBO is a suitable and efficacious alternative to conventional silver-based topical therapies for treating partial-thickness burn wounds. PMID:21991159

  9. Recent accomplishments in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    The challenge to balance limited resources with infinite demand has encouraged an evolution in the way health care services are managed and operated. Chronic wound management is complex and prolonged, and places a considerable financial burden on health services. A typical driver of cost includes the necessity to change dressings on a regular basis. Over the last few decades, several scientific and biological advances have furthered the development of wound care products and facilitated wound management. This article investigates some of the major advancements that have occurred within the wound-care arena during the last 5 years and how these advancements are being translated to provide better delivery of clinical care to patients. PMID:24618286

  10. Management of Traumatic Wounds and a Novel Approach to Delivering Wound Care in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bernabe, Kathryn Q.; Desmarais, Thomas J.; Keller, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The costs and morbidity of pediatric traumatic wounds are not well known. The literature lacks a comprehensive review of the volume, management, and outcomes of children sustaining soft tissue injury. We briefly review the existing literature for traumatic wounds such as open fractures and burns. Such injuries require dedicated wound care and we propose a novel approach for more efficient and more effective delivery of dedicated pediatric wound care. Recent Advances: New pediatric literature is emerging regarding the long-term effects of wound care pain in traumatic injuries—especially burns. A variety of wound dressings and alternative management techniques exist and are geared toward reducing wound care pain. Our institution utilizes a unique model to provide adequate sedation and pain control through a dedicated pediatric wound care unit. We believe that this model reduces the cost of wound care by decreasing emergency department and operating room visits as well as hospital length of stay. Critical Issues: First, medical costs related to pediatric traumatic wound care are not insignificant. The need for adequate pain control and sedation in children with complex wounds is traditionally managed with operating room intervention. Afterward, added costs can be from a hospital stay for ongoing acute wound management. Second, morbidities of complex traumatic wounds are shown to be related to the acute wound care received. Future Directions: Further guidelines are needed to determine the most effective and efficient care of complex traumatic soft tissue injuries in the pediatric population. PMID:24761364

  11. The Vernacularization of English: Crossing Global Currents to Re-Dress West-Based TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2006-01-01

    Based on a long-term, evolving exploration regarding English language teaching and learning in English-and vernacular-medium settings in Gujarat, India, this paper offers a discussion of two key points: 1) the degree to which English is vernacularized in multilingual postcolonial contexts, and 2) ways in which vernacular pedagogic practices are…

  12. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  13. Debridement Techniques in Pediatric Trauma and Burn-Related Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Block, Lisa; King, Timothy W.; Gosain, Ankush

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Traumatic injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the initial assessment and management of traumatic and burn wounds in children. Special attention is given to wound cleansing, debridement techniques, and considerations for pain management and psychosocial support for children and families. Recent Advances: Basic and translational research over the last 5–7 years has advanced our knowledge related to the optimal care of acute pediatric traumatic and burn wounds. Data concerning methods, volume, solution and timing for irrigation of acute traumatic wounds, timing and methods of wound debridement, including hydrosurgery and plasma knife coblation, and wound dressings are presented. Additionally, data concerning the long-term psychosocial outcomes following acute injury are presented. Critical Issues: The care of pediatric trauma and burn-related wounds requires prompt assessment, pain control, cleansing, debridement, application of appropriate dressings, and close follow-up. Ideally, a knowledgeable multidisciplinary team cares for these patients. A limitation in the care of these patients is the relative paucity of data specific to the care of acute traumatic wounds in the pediatric population. Future Directions: Research is ongoing in the arenas of new debridement techniques and instruments, and in wound dressing technology. Dedicated research on these topics in the pediatric population will serve to strengthen and advance the care of pediatric patients with acute traumatic and burn wounds. PMID:26487978

  14. The Effect of Camellia sinensis on Wound Healing Potential in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kanthimathi, M. S.; Sanusi, Junedah

    2013-01-01

    Camellia sinensis (tea) is reported to have health benefits, including the building of healthy skin. This study evaluated the effects of topical application of Camellia sinensis extract on the rate of wound closure and the histology of wound area. A uniform area of 2.00?cm in diameter was excised from the neck of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were topically treated with 0.2?mL of vehicle (CMC), Intrasite gel (positive control), or 200 and 400?mg/mL of extract. Wounds dressed with the extract and Intrasite gel healed significantly earlier than those with vehicle. Histological analysis of the wound area after 10 days showed that wounds dressed with the extract had less scar width when compared to the control. The tissue contained less inflammatory cells and more collagen and angiogenesis, compared to wounds dressed with vehicle. In this study, Camellia sinensis showed high potential in wound healing activity. PMID:23864889

  15. A multicentred cohort evaluation of a chitosan gelling fibre dressing.

    PubMed

    Mason, Sue; Clarke, Caroline

    A multicentre cohort evaluation was undertaken by 15 clinicans in 11 centres across Staffordshire community care on chitosan gelling fibre dressing (Kytocel(®)). The aim of this evaluation was to examine whether the new fibre dressing improved healing outcomes for patients with chronic non-healing wounds of 6 weeks or more, observations were made regarding tissue type, fluid handling, haemostasis in bleeding friable wounds and increased granulation. Quality of life observations regarding leaking, strikethrough, pain, wear time and malodour were observed over a 4-week period or until healed. A total of 18 patients took part; 13 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 60.7 years. Fifteen (83%) had wounds in excess of 12 weeks and nine (50%) received care within wound clinics compared to home visits. Eleven (61%) patients' wounds healed within 4 weeks. A number of quality-of-life issues were addressed successfully, namely reduction in malodour and fluid handling. Sixteen (89%) rated the dressing's overall performance as very good to good. PMID:26419713

  16. [Nursing Experience With Providing Wound Care for a Newborn With Epidermolysis Bullosa].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Yi; Hsu, Mei-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare hereditary, chromosomal disease of the skin. Life-threatening septicemia may result if appropriate care is not provided to alleviate the extensive skin irritation that is the main symptom of this disease. This case report describes the experience of the author in nursing a wound area on a newborn that was suspected of being caused by EB. This wound area comprised blisters and peeling skin that covered 30% of the entire skin area of the infant. A holistic assessment conducted from December 1st, 2013 to January 7th, 2014 revealed that this large of an area of damage to the skin and mucosa considerably complicated the task of wound care and caused severe pain to the infant. In response to the special needs of this case, our medical team conducted a literature review of wound care for this rare disease. Based on the suggestions of previous empirical studies, nursing measures for the skin, mucosa, and wounds of the newborn were then administered through inter-team cooperation. These actions effectively reduced the pain, controlled the infection, and accelerated wound healing. In addition, progressive contact was used to guide the primary caregivers of the newborn, which alleviated their physical and psychological stresses effectively. The caregivers were educated systematically on wound care and guided to learn techniques for nursing and dressing wounds. Thus, these caregivers were better prepared to continue providing wound care at home. We suggest that healthcare professionals reference empirical studies when providing care to EB newborns during the acute-care period and provide wound care and supportive therapies to control the occurrence of complications using a multidisciplinary team-care model. In addition, social resources should be used effectively in nursing care plans to mitigate the effect of this rare disease on families. PMID:26645451

  17. Prospective, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of an Octenidine-based hydrogel on bacterial colonisation and epithelialization of skin graft wounds in burn patients

    PubMed Central

    W, Eisenbeiß; F, Siemers; G, Amtsberg; P, Hinz; B, Hartmann; T, Kohlmann; A, Ekkernkamp; U, Albrecht; O, Assadian; A, Kramer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Moist wound treatment improves healing of skin graft donor site wounds. Microbial colonised wounds represent an increased risk of wound infection; while antimicrobially active, topical antiseptics may impair epithelialization. Objectives: The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to examine the influence of an Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) hydrogel on bacterial colonisation and epithelialization of skin graft donor sites. Methods: The study was designed as a randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. Skin graft donor sites from a total of 61 patients were covered either with 0.05% OCT (n=31) or an OCT-free placebo wound hydrogel (n=30). Potential interaction with wound healing was assessed by measuring the time until 100% re-epithelialization. In addition, microbial wound colonisation was quantitatively determined in all skin graft donor sites. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the time for complete epithelialization of skin graft donor sites in the OCT and the placebo group (7.3±0.2 vs. 6.9±0.2 days; p=0.236). Microbial wound colonisation was significantly lower in the OCT group than in the placebo group (p=0.014). Conclusions: The OCT-based hydrogel showed no delay in wound epithelialization and demonstrated a significantly lower bacterial colonisation of skin graft donor site wounds. PMID:23071904

  18. Evidence-based recommendations for the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in traumatic wounds and reconstructive surgery: steps towards an international consensus.

    PubMed

    Krug, E; Berg, L; Lee, C; Hudson, D; Birke-Sorensen, H; Depoorter, M; Dunn, R; Jeffery, S; Duteille, F; Bruhin, A; Caravaggi, C; Chariker, M; Dowsett, C; Ferreira, F; Martínez, J M Francos; Grudzien, G; Ichioka, S; Ingemansson, R; Malmsjo, M; Rome, P; Vig, S; Runkel, N; Martin, R; Smith, J

    2011-02-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become widely adopted over the last 15 years and over 1000 peer reviewed publications are available describing its use. Despite this, there remains uncertainty regarding several aspects of usage. In order to respond to this gap a global expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations describing the use of NPWT. In this paper the results of the study of evidence in traumatic wounds (including soft tissue defects, open fractures and burns) and reconstructive procedures (including flaps and grafts) are reported. Evidence-based recommendations were obtained by a systematic review of the literature, grading of evidence, drafting of the recommendations by a global expert panel, followed by a formal consultative consensus development program in which 422 independent healthcare professionals were able to agree or disagree with the recommendations. The criteria for agreement were set at 80% approval. Evidence and recommendations were graded according to the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) classification system. Twelve recommendations were developed in total; 4 for soft tissue trauma and open fracture injuries, 1 for burn injuries, 3 for flaps and 4 for skin grafts. The present evidence base is strongest for the use of NPWT on skin grafts and weakest as a primary treatment for burns. In the consultative process, 11/12 of the proposed recommendations reached the 80% agreement threshold. The development of evidence-based recommendations for NPWT with direct validation from a large group of practicing clinicians offers a broader basis for consensus than work by an expert panel alone. PMID:21316515

  19. Aquacel surgical dressing reduces the rate of acute PJI following total joint arthroplasty: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jenny; Karam, Joseph A; Parvizi, Javad; Smith, Eric B; Sharkey, Peter F

    2014-06-01

    An effort to prevent PJI has led to the development of antimicrobial dressings that support wound healing. We sought to determine whether Aquacel Surgical dressing independently reduces the rate of acute PJI following TJA. A single institution retrospective chart review of 903 consecutive cases who received the Aquacel Surgical dressing and 875 consecutive cases who received standard gauze dressing was conducted to determine the incidence of acute PJI (within 3 months). The incidence of acute PJI is 0.44% in the Aquacel dressing group compared to 1.7% in the standard gauze dressing group (P = 0.005). Multivariate analysis revealed that use of Aquacel dressing was an independent risk factor for reduction of PJI (odds ratio of 0.165, 95% confidence interval: 0.051-0.533). Aquacel Surgical dressing significantly reduces the incidence of acute PJI. PMID:24405622

  20. Active Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Rigo, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Munivrana, Ivan; Gardin, Chiara; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-based dressing, Acticoat™ Flex 3, has been applied to a 3D fibroblast cell culture in vitro and to a real partial thickness burn patient. The in vitro results show that Ag NPs greatly reduce mitochondrial activity, while cellular staining techniques show that nuclear integrity is maintained, with no signs of cell death. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were carried out on skin biopsies taken from a single patient during treatment. The results show that Ag NPs are released as aggregates and are localized in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. No signs of cell death were observed, and the nanoparticles had different distributions within the cells of the upper and lower dermis. Depth profiles of the Ag concentrations were determined along the skin biopsies. In the healed sample, most of the silver remained in the surface layers, whereas in the unhealed sample, the silver penetrated more deeply. The Ag concentrations in the cell cultures were also determined. Clinical observations and experimental data collected here are consistent with previously published articles and support the safety of Ag NP-based dressing in wound treatment. PMID:23455461

  1. A comprehensive review of advanced biopolymeric wound healing systems.

    PubMed

    Mayet, Naeema; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2014-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that involves the mediation of many initiators effective during the healing process such as cytokines, macrophages and fibroblasts. In addition, the defence mechanism of the body undergoes a step-by-step but continuous process known as the wound healing cascade to ensure optimal healing. Thus, when designing a wound healing system or dressing, it is pivotal that key factors such as optimal gaseous exchange, a moist wound environment, prevention of microbial activity and absorption of exudates are considered. A variety of wound dressings are available, however, not all meet the specific requirements of an ideal wound healing system to consider every aspect within the wound healing cascade. Recent research has focussed on the development of smart polymeric materials. Combining biopolymers that are crucial for wound healing may provide opportunities to synthesise matrices that are inductive to cells and that stimulate and trigger target cell responses crucial to the wound healing process. This review therefore outlines the processes involved in skin regeneration, optimal management and care required for wound treatment. It also assimilates, explores and discusses wound healing drug-delivery systems and nanotechnologies utilised for enhanced wound healing applications. PMID:24985412

  2. Hydrocolloids in wound management: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Finnie, Alison

    2002-07-01

    Hydrocolloids are interactive dressings which are well established in wound management. Because of their sophisticated composition, they can be used to manage a variety of wound types, from clean and granulating to sloughy and necrotic. While they may be more expensive per item than many other modern dressings, if used correctly they can be cost-effective, as they have a longer wear time. Hydrocolloid formulations appear to be changing and improving with ongoing research by manufacturers, but a significant limitation appears to be sensitivity reactions. Dressings that would benefit from improvement are those containing gelatin, and those containing colophony within the adhesive matrix. These known sensitizers are largely unpublicised, but can produce serious side effects in some individuals. PMID:12131848

  3. Nanograting structure promotes lamellipodia-based cell collective migration and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zaozao; Atchison, Leigh; Ji, HaYeun

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process of replacing missing or dead cell structures and tissue layers. The aim of this research is to discover biocompatible materials and drugs that can promote cell migration in the wound area and thus enhance desirable wound healing effects. In this paper, we report that PDMS nanogratings could accelerate the migration of epithelial cells along the grating axis, and the addition of Imatinib could further increase the epithelial cell wound healing speed to 1.6 times the speed of control cells. We also demonstrate that this migration is mediated by lamellipodia protrusion, and is Rac1-GTPase activity dependent. Lastly, we discuss the potential application and prospect of different nanostructured biomaterials for wound healing studies. PMID:25570601

  4. Grooming and Dressing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as long as possible. Other tips for dressing: • Lay out clothes in the order the person should ... with Alzheimer’s Disease”: www.nia. nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/ caring-person-alzheimers-disease • Visit www.nia.nih. ...

  5. Magnetite nanoparticles for functionalized textile dressing to prevent fungal biofilms development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to improve the antibiofilm properties of textile dressing, tested in vitro against monospecific Candida albicans biofilms. Functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4/C18), with an average size not exceeding 20?nm, has been synthesized by precipitation of ferric and ferrous salts in aqueous solution of oleic acid (C18) and NaOH. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and differential thermal analysis coupled with thermo gravimetric analysis were used as characterization methods for the synthesized Fe3O4/C18. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the architecture of the fungal biofilm developed on the functionalized textile dressing samples and culture-based methods for the quantitative assay of the biofilm-embedded yeast cells. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to C. albicans colonization, as compared to the uncoated ones; these functionalized surfaces-based approaches are very useful in the prevention of wound microbial contamination and subsequent biofilm development on viable tissues or implanted devices. PMID:22950367

  6. Magnetite nanoparticles for functionalized textile dressing to prevent fungal biofilms development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Ion; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Ficai, Anton; Saviuc, Crina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to improve the antibiofilm properties of textile dressing, tested in vitro against monospecific Candida albicans biofilms. Functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4/C18), with an average size not exceeding 20 nm, has been synthesized by precipitation of ferric and ferrous salts in aqueous solution of oleic acid (C18) and NaOH. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and differential thermal analysis coupled with thermo gravimetric analysis were used as characterization methods for the synthesized Fe3O4/C18. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the architecture of the fungal biofilm developed on the functionalized textile dressing samples and culture-based methods for the quantitative assay of the biofilm-embedded yeast cells. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to C. albicans colonization, as compared to the uncoated ones; these functionalized surfaces-based approaches are very useful in the prevention of wound microbial contamination and subsequent biofilm development on viable tissues or implanted devices.

  7. A guide to wound managment in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Wayne A

    2005-11-01

    Wound management in palliative patients is often a very challenging area of care. There are many unique issues that can combine to produce complicated wound management scenarios, including the types of wounds and wound symptoms most commonly affecting palliative care patients, as well as the presence of concurrent disease and associated treatment. Problems exist with the availability of suitable dressings and balancing life expectancy with the goals of wound care. A significant, and possibly under-recognized, issue is the emotional and social distress experienced by these patients, which can be directly attributed to their wound. These problems must all be recognized and addressed in order to manage wounds effectively in this patient population. This article aims to explore these issues and offer advice on the management of wound-related symptoms, with the ultimate goal of improving patients' quality of life. PMID:16471044

  8. Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dorai, Ananda A.

    2012-01-01

    Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

  9. Quantitative wound healing measurement and monitoring system based on an innovative 3D imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Steven; Yang, Arthur; Yin, Gongjie; Wen, James

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report a novel three-dimensional (3D) wound imaging system (hardware and software) under development at Technest Inc. System design is aimed to perform accurate 3D measurement and modeling of a wound and track its healing status over time. Accurate measurement and tracking of wound healing enables physicians to assess, document, improve, and individualize the treatment plan given to each wound patient. In current wound care practices, physicians often visually inspect or roughly measure the wound to evaluate the healing status. This is not an optimal practice since human vision lacks precision and consistency. In addition, quantifying slow or subtle changes through perception is very difficult. As a result, an instrument that quantifies both skin color and geometric shape variations would be particularly useful in helping clinicians to assess healing status and judge the effect of hyperemia, hematoma, local inflammation, secondary infection, and tissue necrosis. Once fully developed, our 3D imaging system will have several unique advantages over traditional methods for monitoring wound care: (a) Non-contact measurement; (b) Fast and easy to use; (c) up to 50 micron measurement accuracy; (d) 2D/3D Quantitative measurements;(e) A handheld device; and (f) Reasonable cost (< $1,000).

  10. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Healing Activities of Frog Skin on Guinea Pigs Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Rezazade Bazaz, Mahere; Mashreghi, Mohammad; Mahdavi Shahri, Nasser; Mashreghi, Mansour; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Frog skin secretions have potentials against a wide spectrum of bacteria. Also, frog skin compositions have healing properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potentials along with healing properties of frog skin Rana ridibunda, a species which thoroughly lives in Iran marshes, as a biological dressing on wounds. Materials and Methods: In this study, excisional wounds, dressed with frog skin, were compared between experimental and control groups of guinea pigs. In the experimental groups, wounds were dressed with the dermal (FS) and epidermal (RFS) sides of fresh frog R. ridibunda skin, while only usual cotton gauze covered the wounds of the control group. Furthermore, microbial samples were taken on different days (0, 3, 5, and 7 days post injury) to count the number of the colony-forming units. Additionally, the microbial penetration test was performed on frog skin and then the progression of wound closure was evaluated. Results: In the microbial studies, the bacterial load considerably declined in the wounds treated with FS and RFS compared with the control wounds. On day 7 post injury, the numbers of the colony-forming units for the FS, RFS, and control groups were 6.75, 105, and 375, respectively. In the penetration test, fresh frog skin showed to be a bacterial resistant dressing. The results revealed that the rate of wound closure in the experimental groups significantly was accelerated in comparison with that in the control group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of frog skin as a wound dressing, which has antimicrobial effects per se. This biological dressing shows promise as an effective biological wound dressing insofar as not only is it capable of resisting microbes and accelerating wound healing but also it is cost-effective and easy to use. PMID:26468364

  11. From model to molecules: the development and experimental manipulation of an in vivo contaminated extremity war wound.

    PubMed

    Eardley, Will G P; Guthrie, H C

    2014-06-01

    Wound infection is a key determinant of outcome in survivors of armed conflict. One factor having potential for promoting healing, decreasing bacterial burden and influencing prognosis is the dressing that covers the ballistic-injured extremity. Although antiseptic and silver dressings are applied to acute wounds, evidence to support their use is scarce with no controlled studies reported of antimicrobial wound dressings in extremity trauma. Given the recent burden of ballistic extremity injury, the requirement to investigate the role of antimicrobial dressings in contaminated wounds is transparent. This paper details a programme of work undertaken at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory of developing and trialling a recovery model to investigate the early management of contaminated war wounds. A New Zealand White rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris muscle belly, isolated and then injured by a drop rig mechanism, was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus to provide a reproducible contaminated muscle wound. This model was developed to support a series of randomised controlled trials to determine the impact of antimicrobial dressings on decreasing the bacterial burden of combat related extremity wounds. The results of the initial trial indicated that over a 48-h period, dressings augmented with antiseptic or silver offer no advantage over saline-soaked gauze in reducing the bacterial burden of a contaminated soft tissue injury. The model has subsequently been used to investigate the efficacy of dressings over a 7-day study period and impact of antibiotics and to evaluate biofilm formation and wound cytokines. PMID:24599972

  12. The design, characteristics, and application of polyurethane dressings using the electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampeerapappun, Piyaporn

    In general, a dressing is used to protect and help heal wounds. There are several types of dressings on the market such as hydrocolloid, hydrogel, and medicated dressings. One technique for making a dressing is electrospinning, which is a very simple procedure used to produce fibers. Due to much smaller fiber-diameters than produced with the conventional technique, the fibers from electrospinning have unique properties: high porosity and high surface areas, which are advantageous for wound healing. In this research, the fibers were electrospun using polyurethane, TecophilicRTM or TecoflexRTM, with various additives. First, multilayer transdermal electrospun dressings, four and five-layers, were developed that allowed for the controlled release of nitric oxide (NO) from a NO2 -/ascorbic acid system encapsulated in polymer nanofibers. The amount of NO released from each wound dressing was investigated. Both the four and five-layer dressings were tested for morphology of fibers, water absorption, nitrite distribution, NO release profile after sterilization by gamma radiation, and stability. In the case of the four-layer transdermal dressing, the dressing was tested in diabetic, periodontal, and cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Furthermore, the color change of dressing was investigated. TecophilicRTM was also spun with an antimicrobial agent, which was added to the TecophilicRTM solution to electrospin an antimicrobial dressing. The morphology of fibers was tested using an optical microscope and the water absorption, uniformity, and percent extraction of dressing were also determined. In addition, the efficiency of the antimicrobial agent in the dressing was determined according to SN 195920-1994 and ASTM 2149-01. Another NO-releasing dressing was developed employing the NO donor molecules, sodium salt of linear polyethylenimine NONOates (LPEINO-Na) and calcium salt of linear polyethylenimine NONOates (LPEINO-Ca), which were electrospun with TecophilicRTM. The NO release profiles for the LPEINO fibers were generated using a nitric oxide analyzer (NOA) and distribution of the particles in the dressing was examined. Moreover, the amount of NO released after patch storage for 1 and 2 months was determined.

  13. Human wound photogrammetry with low-cost hardware based on automatic calibration of geometry and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Abin; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan; Brandenburg, Vincent; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Photographic documentation and image-based wound assessment is frequently performed in medical diagnostics, patient care, and clinical research. To support quantitative assessment, photographic imaging is based on expensive and high-quality hardware and still needs appropriate registration and calibration. Using inexpensive consumer hardware such as smartphone-integrated cameras, calibration of geometry, color, and contrast is challenging. Some methods involve color calibration using a reference pattern such as a standard color card, which is located manually in the photographs. In this paper, we adopt the lattice detection algorithm by Park et al. from real world to medicine. At first, the algorithm extracts and clusters feature points according to their local intensity patterns. Groups of similar points are fed into a selection process, which tests for suitability as a lattice grid. The group which describes the largest probability of the meshes of a lattice is selected and from it a template for an initial lattice cell is extracted. Then, a Markov random field is modeled. Using the mean-shift belief propagation, the detection of the 2D lattice is solved iteratively as a spatial tracking problem. Least-squares geometric calibration of projective distortions and non-linear color calibration in RGB space is supported by 35 corner points of 24 color patches, respectively. The method is tested on 37 photographs taken from the German Calciphylaxis registry, where non-standardized photographic documentation is collected nationwide from all contributing trial sites. In all images, the reference card location is correctly identified. At least, 28 out of 35 lattice points were detected, outperforming the SIFT-based approach previously applied. Based on these coordinates, robust geometry and color registration is performed making the photographs comparable for quantitative analysis.

  14. Development of biodegradable antibacterial cellulose based hydrogel membranes for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Laçin, Nelisa Türko?lu

    2014-06-01

    Cellulose-based hydrogels have wide applications in tissue engineering and controlled delivery systems. In this study, chloramphenicol (CAP) loaded 2,3 dialdehyde cellulose (DABC) hydrogel membranes were prepared, characterized and their antibacterial efficacy was evaluated. Bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by Acetobacter xylinum was modified to become DABC by oxidation via the sodium metaperiodate method. CAP-BC and CAP-DABC interactions were illustrated via ATR-FTIR analysis. Water retention capacity of BC and DABC membranes were determined as 65.6±1.6% and 5.3±0.3%, respectively. CAP release profiles were determined via HPLC analysis. The drug-loading capacities of BC and DABC membranes were 5mg/cm(2) and 0.1mg/cm(2), respectively. Membranes released 99-99.5% of the contained CAP within 24h and an initial burst release effect was not observed. In vitro antibacterial tests of BC and DABC, both CAP-loaded, demonstrated their ability to inhibit bacterial growth for a prolonged duration. Antimicrobial effect against bacteria was still prevalent after 3 days of incubation period with disc diffusion tests. The MTT test results reveal that fibroblast adhesion and proliferation on CAP-loaded DABC membranes were noticeably higher than CAP-loaded BC membrane. This newly developed drug containing DABC membranes seem to be highly suitable for wound healing due to its unique properties of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and antimicrobial effectiveness. PMID:24631550

  15. Wet to dry dressing changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dressing: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before and after each dressing change. Put on ... is sticking to your skin, wet it with warm water to loosen it. Remove the gauze pads or ...

  16. Hyperspectral imaging-based wound analysis using mixture-tuned matched filtering classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Coman, Toma; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Bercaru, Nicolae; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos

    2015-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a technology that is beginning to occupy an important place in medical research with good prospects in future clinical applications. We evaluated the role of hyperspectral imaging in association with a mixture-tuned matched filtering method in the characterization of open wounds. The methodology and the processing steps of the hyperspectral image that have been performed in order to obtain the most useful information about the wound are described in detail. Correlations between the hyperspectral image and clinical examination are described, leading to a pattern that permits relative evaluation of the square area of the wound and its different components in comparison with the surrounding normal skin. Our results showed that the described method can identify different types of tissues that are present in the wounded area and can objectively measure their respective abundance, which proves its value in wound characterization. In conclusion, the method that was described in this preliminary case presentation shows promising results, but needs further evaluation in order to become a reliable and useful tool.

  17. A web-based e-learning application for wound diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Veredas, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bandera, Esperanza; Villa-Estrada, Francisca; Rufino-González, Juan F; Morente, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrU) are considered as one of the most challenging problems that Nursing professionals have to deal with in their daily practice. Nowadays, the education on PrUs is mainly based on traditional lecturing, seminars and face-to-face instruction, sometimes with the support of photographs of wounds being used as teaching material. This traditional educational methodology suffers from some important limitations, which could affect the efficacy of the learning process. This current study has been designed to introduce information and communication technologies (ICT) in the education on PrU for undergraduate students, with the main objective of evaluating the advantages an disadvantages of using ICT, by comparing the learning results obtained from using an e-learning tool with those from a traditional teaching methodology. In order to meet this major objective, a web-based learning system named ePULab has been designed and developed as an adaptive e-learning tool for the autonomous acquisition of knowledge on PrU evaluation. This innovative system has been validated by means of a randomized controlled trial that compares its learning efficacy with that from a control group receiving a traditional face-to-face instruction. Students using ePULab gave significantly better (p<0.01) learning acquisition scores (from pre-test mean 8.27 (SD 1.39) to post-test mean 15.83 (SD 2.52)) than those following traditional lecture-style classes (from pre-test mean 8.23 (SD 1.23) to post-test mean 11.6 (SD 2.52)). In this article, the ePULab software is described in detail and the results from that experimental educational validation study are also presented and analyzed. PMID:25015566

  18. Bacterial cellulose/acrylic acid hydrogel synthesized via electron beam irradiation: accelerated burn wound healing in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Najwa; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Pandey, Manisha; Ahmad, Naveed; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2014-12-19

    Natural polymer-based hydrogels are of interest to health care professionals as wound dressings owing to their ability to absorb exudates and provide hydration for healing. The aims of this study were to develop and characterize bacterial cellulose/acrylic acid (BC/AA) hydrogels synthesized by electron beam irradiation and investigate its wound healing potential in an animal model. The BC/AA hydrogels were characterized by SEM, tensile strength, water absorptivity, and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). The cytotoxicity of the hydrogels was investigated in L929 cells. Skin irritation and wound healing properties were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. BC/AA hydrogels had a macroporous network structure, high swelling ratio (4000-6000% at 24h), and high WVTR (2175-2280 g/m(2)/day). The hydrogels were non-toxic in the cell viability assay. In vivo experiments indicated that hydrogels promoted faster wound-healing, enhanced epithelialization, and accelerated fibroblast proliferation compared to that in the control group. These results suggest that BC/AA hydrogels are promising materials for burn dressings. PMID:25263896

  19. Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic (db/db) Mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Challenge – A Model for the Study of Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ge; Hochwalt, Phillip C.; Usui, Marcia L.; Underwood, Robert A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; James, Garth A.; Stewart, Philip S.; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic wounds are a major clinical problem that leads to considerable morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that an important factor in the failure of chronic wounds to heal was the presence of microbial biofilm resistant to antibiotics and protected from host defenses. A major difficulty in studying chronic wounds is the absence of suitable animal models. The goal of this study was to create a reproducible chronic wound model in diabetic mice by application of bacterial biofilm. Six millimeter punch biopsy wounds were created on the dorsal surface of diabetic (db/db) mice, subsequently challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) biofilms two days post-wounding, and covered with semi-occlusive dressings for two weeks. Most of the control wounds were epithelialized by 28 days post-wounding. In contrast, none of biofilm challenged wounds were closed. Histological analysis showed extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue necrosis and epidermal hyperplasia adjacent to challenged wounds- all indicators of an inflammatory non-healing wound. Quantitative cultures and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the majority of bacteria were in the scab above the wound bed rather than in the wound tissue. The model was reproducible, allowed localized cutaneous wound infections without high mortality and demonstrated delayed wound healing following biofilm challenge. This model may provide an approach to study the role of microbial biofilms in chronic wounds as well as the effect of specific biofilm therapy on wound healing. PMID:20731798

  20. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  1. Effects of myrrh on intra-oral mucosal wounds compared with tetracycline- and chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mobeeriek, Azizah

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of myrrh compared with chlorhexidine gluconate- and tetracycline-containing mouthwashes on wound healing over time in an animal model. Methods A unilateral incision on the right buccal mucosa was made, and the wound was irrigated with myrrh-, chlorhexidine gluconate-, or tetracycline-based mouthwashes at various time intervals. Clinical and histological examination was performed for all the groups. Results It was found that the myrrh suspension promotes healing and repair of damaged tissue when used over a short period of time (less than 2 weeks) and in a low-concentration suspension; however, it can have harmful effects if used in excess or over a long period of time. Conclusion Further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail. PMID:23674915

  2. The enhanced total body wrap--the new frontier in dressing care for burns.

    PubMed

    Low, O-Wern; Chong, Si Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2013-11-01

    The management of extensive burns with their associated high fluid exudate following burn excision and skin grafting has always posed a challenge in burn wound care. The ideal dressing should protect the wound from physical damage and micro-organisms; be comfortable and durable; allow high humidity at the wound; and be able to allow maximal activity for wound healing without retarding or inhibiting any stage of the process. The dressing technique described in this paper fulfils all the criteria above and at the same time provides an efficient channel to effectively clear the excessive exudate produced while keeping the wounds moist. Advantages conferred include accurate charting of wound exudate; reduced frequency of dressing changes; lower infection rates through prevention of strike-through; and securing and improving the viability of skin grafts. An enhancement to a technique previously described by us through the use of long thin strips of VAC sponges to transmit negative pressure, the enhanced Total Body Wrap aims to provide ideal conditions to promote healing in burns. Using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), this technique is simple and straightforward enough to be applied in majority of tertiary centres around the world. PMID:23742730

  3. Silver and Alginates: Role in Wound Healing and Biofilm Control

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Steven L.; McCarty, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds are known to be a significant issue globally. Of concern in wounds are the numbers and types of residing microorganisms and the ability of the host's immune system to control their proliferation. Wound healing is impeded by colonizing microorganisms growing within the biofilm phenotypic state. In this state microorganisms are recalcitrant to routinely impeded by used antimicrobial interventions. Recent advances: Silver has been reported to demonstrate efficacy on planktonic microorganisms both within the in vitro and in vivo environments. However, when silver is incorporated into a wound dressing, its antimicrobial efficacy on biofilms within the in vivo environment remains contentious. Critical Issues: Unequivocal evidence of the efficacy of silver, and wound dressings containing silver, on biofilms in clinical situations is lacking. This is principally due to the deficiency of definite biofilm definitions, markers, and evidence in the chronic wound environment. Future Direction: Research studies demonstrating antimicrobial efficacy on in vitro biofilms can be used to generate data and information appropriate for extrapolation and applicability to the in vivo environment. It is very important that inventors of antimicrobial wound dressings ensure efficacy against both planktonic and sessile microorganisms, within the in vitro and in vivo environments. PMID:26155383

  4. Negative pressure and nanocrystalline silver dressings for nonhealing ulcer: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Martín, Luis C; García-Martínez, Lourdes; Román-Curto, Concepción; Sánchez-Hernández, Miguel V; Suárez-Fernández, Ricardo M

    2015-11-12

    Chronic wounds have a high prevalence and wound care, treatment, and prevention consume large quantities of resources. Chronic wounds are a growing challenge for clinicians. A prospective randomized pilot study was conducted to assess the effectiveness in terms of reduction in area and safety of the combined use of negative-pressure wound therapy and nanocrystalline silver dressings as compared to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) alone in the management of outpatients with chronic wounds. A total of 17 patients were included in the study, 10 were treated with the combined method and 7 with NPWT. Patients were followed for 6 weeks, with a final assessment at 3 months. Clinical improvement, microbiologic data, and toxicity of silver were evaluated. The antibacterial effects of ionic silver together with the development of granulation tissue promoted by NPWT reduced significantly the median extension of the wound between weeks 3 and 6 of treatment. The combination with silver also reduced bacterial colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the bacterial load on the surface of the wound. The silver levels correlated positively with the extension of the wound, although in none of the patients' toxic levels were reached. The combination of NPWT with nanocrystalline silver dressings was safe and as effective as NPWT alone. PMID:26299899

  5. Infection in conflict wounded

    PubMed Central

    Eardley, W. G. P.; Brown, K. V.; Bonner, T. J.; Green, A. D.; Clasper, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Although mechanisms of modern military wounding may be distinct from those of ancient conflicts, the infectious sequelae of ballistic trauma and the evolving microbial flora of war wounds remain a considerable burden on both the injured combatant and their deployed medical systems. Battlefield surgeons of ancient times favoured suppuration in war wounding and as such Galenic encouragement of pus formation would hinder progress in wound care for centuries. Napoleonic surgeons eventually abandoned this mantra, embracing radical surgical intervention, primarily by amputation, to prevent infection. Later, microscopy enabled identification of microorganisms and characterization of wound flora. Concurrent advances in sanitation and evacuation enabled improved outcomes and establishment of modern military medical systems. Advances in medical doctrine and technology afford those injured in current conflicts with increasing survivability through rapid evacuation, sophisticated resuscitation and timely surgical intervention. Infectious complications in those that do survive, however, are a major concern. Addressing antibiotic use, nosocomial transmission and infectious sequelae are a current clinical management and research priority and will remain so in an era characterized by a massive burden of combat extremity injury. This paper provides a review of infection in combat wounding from a historical setting through to the modern evidence base. PMID:21149356

  6. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  7. Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes. PMID:24578815

  8. Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy evidence-based recommendations for conservative sharp wound debridement: an executive summary.

    PubMed

    Rodd-Nielsen, Elise; Brown, Jean; Brooke, Jillian; Fatum, Helen; Hill, Mary; Morin, Josée; St-Cyr, Liette

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy Conservative sharp wound debridement evidence-based recommendations are a result of the decision and commitment to advance clinical nursing practice to improve the provision of care to patients via development of an open source guide. The recommendations were developed by a volunteer group of ET nurses who work in clinical practice, policy development, consultation, and education in wound care. The document was developed over the course of 2 years (2009-2011); it is a distillation of existing literature, guidelines, and expert opinion. The development and dissemination of the recommendations were sponsored by the Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy. These recommendations should be considered in the context of the organization or care setting as well as available resources and supports. Resources and supports take the form of access to emergency care, physicians and allied health care professionals, education, administrative support, funding, supplies, equipment, and policy. The recommendations should also be applied with consideration of the evolving evidence that will further define practices in Conservative Sharp Wound Debridement. Refer to the supplemental digital content associated with this article at (supplemental digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/JWOCN/A16) for the complete document. PMID:23652697

  9. Bioinspired porous membranes containing polymer nanoparticles for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana M; Mattu, Clara; Ranzato, Elia; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2014-12-01

    Skin damages covering a surface larger than 4 cm(2) require a regenerative strategy based on the use of appropriate wound dressing supports to facilitate the rapid tissue replacement and efficient self-healing of the lost or damaged tissue. In the present work, A novel biomimetic approach is proposed for the design of a therapeutic porous construct made of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) fabricated by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). Biomimicry of ECM was achieved by immobilization of type I collagen through a two-step plasma treatment for wound healing. Anti-inflammatory (indomethacin)-containing polymeric nanoparticles (nps) were loaded within the porous membranes in order to minimize undesired cell response caused by post-operative inflammation. The biological response to the scaffold was analyzed by using human keratinocytes cell cultures. In this work, a promising biomimetic construct for wound healing and soft tissue regeneration with drug-release properties was fabricated since it shows (i) proper porosity, pore size, and mechanical properties, (ii) biomimicry of ECM, and (iii) therapeutic potential. PMID:24522948

  10. A comprehensive evidence-based review on the role of topicals and dressings in the management of skin scarring.

    PubMed

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2015-08-01

    Wound healing after dermal injury is an imperfect process, inevitably leading to scar formation as the skin re-establishes its integrity. The resulting scars have different characteristics to normal skin, ranging from fine-line asymptomatic scars to problematic scarring including hypertrophic and keloid scars. Scars appear as a different colour to the surrounding skin and can be flat, stretched, depressed or raised, manifesting a range of symptoms including inflammation, erythema, dryness and pruritus, which can result in significant psychosocial impact on patients and their quality of life. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review coupled with an analysis of levels of evidence (LOE) for each published treatment type was conducted. Topical treatments identified include imiquimod, mitomycin C and plant extracts such as onion extract, green tea, Aloe vera, vitamin E and D, applied to healing wounds, mature scar tissue or fibrotic scars following revision surgery, or in combination with other more established treatments such as steroid injections and silicone. In total, 39 articles were included, involving 1703 patients. There was limited clinical evidence to support their efficacy; the majority of articles (n = 23) were ranked as category 4 LOE, being of limited quality with individual flaws, including low patient numbers, poor randomisation, blinding, and short follow-up periods. As trials were performed in different settings, they were difficult to compare. In conclusion, there is an unmet clinical need for effective solutions to skin scarring, more robust long-term randomised trials and a consensus on a standardised treatment regime to address all aspects of scarring. PMID:26044054

  11. "Who Wore the Pants?" Dress, Gender, and Power, 1850-1914.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennet, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a study of historical documents focusing on the complex relationship between dress, gender, and power in North America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Examines social rules governing dress and appearance, providing examples of how people dressed to comply with social expectations. Loosely based on a Smithsonian…

  12. Dressing the Giant Gluon

    E-print Network

    Antal Jevicki; Chrysostomos Kalousios; Marcus Spradlin; Anastasia Volovich

    2007-08-06

    We demonstrate the applicability of the dressing method to the problem of constructing new classical solutions for Euclidean worldsheets in anti-de Sitter space. The motivation stems from recent work of Alday and Maldacena, who studied gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling using a generalization of a particular worldsheet found by Kruczenski whose edge traces a path composed of light-light segments on the boundary of AdS. We dress this `giant gluon' to find new solutions in AdS_3 and AdS_5 whose edges trace out more complicated, timelike curves on the boundary. These solutions may be used to calculate certain Wilson loops via AdS/CFT.

  13. Comparison between Conventional Mechanical Fixation and Use of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Wound Beds Prior to Resurfacing with Split Thickness Skin Graft

    PubMed Central

    P Waiker, Veena; Shivalingappa, Shanthakumar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Platelet rich plasma is known for its hemostatic, adhesive and healing properties in view of the multiple growth factors released from the platelets to the site of wound. The primary objective of this study was to use autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in wound beds for anchorage of skin grafts instead of conventional methods like sutures, staplers or glue. METHODS In a single center based randomized controlled prospective study of nine months duration, 200 patients with wounds were divided into two equal groups. Autologous PRP was applied on wound beds in PRP group and conventional methods like staples/sutures used to anchor the skin grafts in a control group. RESULTS Instant graft adherence to wound bed was statistically significant in the PRP group. Time of first post-graft inspection was delayed, and hematoma, graft edema, discharge from graft site, frequency of dressings and duration of stay in plastic surgery unit were significantly less in the PRP group. CONCLUSION Autologous PRP ensured instant skin graft adherence to wound bed in comparison to conventional methods of anchorage. Hence, we recommend the use of autologous PRP routinely on wounds prior to resurfacing to ensure the benefits of early healing. PMID:25606477

  14. Comparative Clinical Study of Bactigras and Telfa AMD for Skin Graft Donor-Site Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Muangman, Pornprom; Nitimonton, Sooksan; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2011-01-01

    The Bactigras® paraffin tulle coated with chlorhexidine is normally used for the treatment of donor-site wounds in burn patients who received split-thickness skin grafts in several centers. It has some disadvantages, such as adhesion to wound surfaces and pain from the irritation caused by this dressing. The Telfa AMD®, a non-adherent wound dressing which consists of absorbent cotton fibers impregnated with polyhexamethylene biguanide enclosed in a sleeve of thermoplastic polymers, is a new option for donor-site wound care which causes less adherence to the wound. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical efficacy of these two dressings for the management of donor-site wounds. Thirty-two patients who received split-thickness skin grafts by donor site harvesting from the thigh were enrolled in this study and randomized into two groups receiving either the Bactigras® or the Telfa AMD® wound treatment. Re-epithelialization, pain, infection and cost-effectiveness analyses were compared between both groups. The results showed that there was no significant difference in age, area of donor sites or length of hospital stays between the groups (p > 0.05). However, the day of re-epithelialization (?90%) was significantly shorter in patients treated with the Telfa AMD® compared to the Bactigras® group (14.00 ± 3.05 vs. 9.25 ± 1.88 days for Bactigras® and Telfa AMD® groups, respectively, p < 0.001). The average pain score was also significantly lower in the Telfa AMD® group (1.57 ± 0.55 vs. 4.70 ± 1.16, p < 0.001). There was no difference in the cost of treatment between the groups (4.64 ± 1.97 vs. 5.72 ± 2.54 USD, p = 0.19). This study indicated that the Telfa AMD® was an effective dressing for the treatment of donor-site wounds. PMID:21954342

  15. Transparent dressing for rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Basile, A R; Basile, F V

    2001-01-01

    Several dressings have been proposed for rhytidectomy. At present, the type most frequently used consists of flat cotton strips soaked in mineral oil placed on the incisions and along the mandibular line. Gauze sponges are then placed on the cheeks and an elastic net is wrapped around the head and left open anteriorly to expose the face and eyes. Despite its widespread use, this technique presents problems. It is uncomfortable for the patient, it is tight and confining, it obstructs hearing, complicates hygiene, attracts unnecessary attention, and, most importantly, does not permit visualization of the surgical site or of the complications that might arise, such as hematomas. Thus, we propose a more efficient dressing made of sterilized, transparent PVC film of the type used to protect food in the refrigerator (Saran Wrap-like). This dressing has proved to be more comfortable for the patient, is not tight or confining, does not cause changes in hearing, facilitates local hygiene, does not attract unnecessary attention on the part of the patient himself or of third parties and, most importantly, it is transparent and adheres to all points of the skin flap, permitting early visualization of complications, such as hematomas. PMID:11731853

  16. Nesting and Dressing

    E-print Network

    Adam Rej; Matthias Staudacher; Stefan Zieme

    2007-03-26

    We compute the anomalous dimensions of field strength operators Tr F^L in N=4 SYM from an asymptotic nested Bethe ansatz to all-loop order. Starting from the exact solution of the one-loop problem at arbitrary L, we derive a single effective integral equation for the thermodynamic limit of these dimensions. We also include the recently proposed phase factor for the S-matrix of the planar AdS/CFT system. The terms in the effective equation corresponding to, respectively, the nesting and the dressing are structurally very similar. This hints at the physical origin of the dressing phase, which we conjecture to arise from the hidden presence of infinitely many auxiliary Bethe roots describing a non-trivial "filled" structure of the theory's BPS vacuum. We finally show that the mechanism for creating effective nesting/dressing kernels is quite generic by also deriving the integral equation for the all-loop dimension of a certain one-loop so(6) singlet state.

  17. Corneal Epithelial Wound Healing Promoted by Verbascoside-Based Liposomal Eyedrops

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosone, Luigi; Guerra, Germano; Cinelli, Mariapia; Filippelli, Mariaelena; Mosca, Monica; Vizzarri, Francesco; Giorgio, Dario; Costagliola, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    Different liposomal formulations were prepared to identify those capable of forming eyedrops for corneal diseases. Liposomes with neutral or slightly positive surface charge interact very well with the cornea. Then these formulations were loaded with verbascoside to heal a burn of corneal epithelium induced by alkali. The cornea surface affected involved in wound was monitored as a function of time. Experimental results were modeled by balance equation between the rate of healing, due to the flow of phenylpropanoid, and growth of the wound. The results indicate a latency time of only three hours and furthermore the corneal epithelium heals in 48 hours. Thus, the topical administration of verbascoside appears to reduce the action time of cells, as verified by histochemical and immunofluorescence assays. PMID:25165705

  18. In vitro study of improved wound-healing effect of bioactive borate-based glass nano-/micro-fibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingbo; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-10-01

    Because of the promising wound-healing capability, bioactive glasses have been considered as one of the next generation hard- and soft-tissue regeneration materials. The lack of understanding of the substantial mechanisms, however, indicates the need for further study on cell-glass interactions to better interpret the rehabilitation capability. In the present work, three bioactive glass nano-/micro-fibers, silicate-based 45S5, borate-based 13-93B3 and 1605 (additionally doped with copper oxide and zinc oxide), were firstly compared for their in vitro soaking/conversion rate. The results of elemental monitoring and electron microscopic characterization demonstrated that quicker ion releasing and glass conversion occurred in borate-based fibers than that of silicate-based one. This result was also reflected by the formation speed of hydroxyapatite (HA). This process was further correlated with original boron content and surrounding rheological condition. We showed that an optimal fiber pre-soaking time (or an ideal dynamic flow rate) should exist to stimulate the best cell proliferation and migration ability. Moreover, 13-93B3 and 1605 fibers showed different glass conversion and biocompatibility properties as well, indicating that trace amount variation in composition can also influence fiber's bioactivity. In sum, our in vitro rheological module closely simulated in vivo niche environment and proved a potentially improved wound-healing effect by borate-based glass fibers, and the results shall cast light on future improvement in bioactive glass fabrication. PMID:26117744

  19. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy of Chronically Infected Wounds Using 1% Acetic Acid Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeong Ho; Lee, Hye Kyung; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Moon, Min Seon; Suh, In Suck

    2015-01-01

    Background Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) induces angiogenesis and collagen synthesis to promote tissue healing. Although acetic acid soaks normalize alkali wound conditions to raise tissue oxygen saturation and deconstruct the biofilms of chronic wounds, frequent dressing changes are required. Methods Combined use of NPWT and acetic acid irrigation was assessed in the treatment of chronic wounds, instilling acetic acid solution (1%) beneath polyurethane membranes twice daily for three weeks under continuous pressure (125 mm Hg). Clinical photographs, pH levels, cultures, and debrided fragments of wounds were obtained pre- and posttreatment. Tissue immunostaining (CD31, Ki-67, and CD45) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], vascular endothelial growth factor receptor [VEGFR]; procollagen; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha [HIF-1-alpha]; matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1,-3,-9; and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase [TIMP]) were also performed. Results Wound sizes tended to diminish with the combined therapy, accompanied by drops in wound pH (weakly acidic or neutral) and less evidence of infection. CD31 and Ki-67 immunostaining increased (P<0.05) post-treatment, as did the levels of VEGFR, procollagen, and MMP-1 (P<0.05), whereas the VEGF, HIF-1-alpha, and MMP-9/TIMP levels declined (P<0.05). Conclusions By combining acetic acid irrigation with negative-pressure dressings, both the pH and the size of chronic wounds can be reduced and infections be controlled. This approach may enhance angiogenesis and collagen synthesis in wounds, restoring the extracellular matrix. PMID:25606491

  20. Studies on zinc in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Agren, M S

    1990-01-01

    Topical zinc is widely used in wound treatment although the beneficial effect of zinc has only been documented in zinc-deficient patients who were given zinc orally. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of topically applied zinc on leg ulcer healing and examine its effect on some mechanisms in wound healing using standardized animal models. Additionally, absorption of zinc into wounds and intact skin treated topically with zinc was studied. In a double-blind trial involving 37 leg ulcer patients with low serum zinc levels, topical zinc oxide promoted cleansing and re-epithelialization. Infections and deteriorations of ulcers were less common in zinc oxide treated patients. Re-epithelialization, an important mechanism in the closure of leg ulcers, was enhanced with zinc oxide applied topically on partial-thickness wounds in pigs with normal zinc status. Zinc sulfate at three different concentrations did not, however, result in this beneficial effect on the resurfacing of wounds. The inflammatory reaction was diminished in zinc treated wounds except when a high zinc sulfate concentration was applied. Bacterial growth and concomitant diseases such as diabetes can complicate wound healing. In normal rats, bacterial growth in full-thickness wounds was reduced with topical zinc oxide but not in hyperglycemic diabetic rats. The anti-bacterial mechanism of zinc oxide seemed to be more indirect and to be mediated via local defense systems rather than being directly toxic to the bacteria. Healing of 21-day-old skin incisions was impaired in zinc deficiency, as measured by a significantly decreased wound breaking strength in zinc-deficient rats compared with that of pair-fed controls. The decreased breaking strength did not seem to be due to differences in collagen concentration of the wounds. Zinc oxide was slowly but continuously solubilized when applied on open wounds in rats. On the other hand, with zinc sulfate, the zinc concentrations, either locally or systemically, did not maintain a constant level for the 48-hour post-operative treatment period as they did with zinc oxide. Zinc absorption in and through normal human forearm skin was demonstrated after treatment with a zinc oxide medicated occlusive dressing by increased zinc levels in epidermis, interstitial fluid and dermis compared with the non-zinc control dressing. In conclusion, topical zinc may stimulate leg ulcer healing by enhancing re-epithelialization, decreasing inflammation and bacterial growth. When zinc is applied on wounds it not only corrects a local zinc deficit but also acts pharmacologically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2275309

  1. Research Advances: DNA Computing Targets West Nile Virus, Other Deadly Diseases, and Tic-Tac-Toe; Marijuana Component May Offer Hope for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment; New Wound Dressing May Lead to Maggot Therapy--Without the Maggots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents three reports of research advances. The first report describes a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based computer that could lead to faster, more accurate tests for diagnosing West Nile Virus and bird flu. Representing the first "medium-scale integrated molecular circuit," it is the most powerful computing device of its type to…

  2. Microarray-based characterization of differential gene expression during vocal fold wound healing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Ling, Changying; Dawson, John A.; Kendziorski, Christina; Thibeault, Susan L.; Yamashita, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The vocal fold (VF) mucosa confers elegant biomechanical function for voice production but is susceptible to scar formation following injury. Current understanding of VF wound healing is hindered by a paucity of data and is therefore often generalized from research conducted in skin and other mucosal systems. Here, using a previously validated rat injury model, expression microarray technology and an empirical Bayes analysis approach, we generated a VF-specific transcriptome dataset to better capture the system-level complexity of wound healing in this specialized tissue. We measured differential gene expression at 3, 14 and 60 days post-injury compared to experimentally naïve controls, pursued functional enrichment analyses to refine and add greater biological definition to the previously proposed temporal phases of VF wound healing, and validated the expression and localization of a subset of previously unidentified repair- and regeneration-related genes at the protein level. Our microarray dataset is a resource for the wider research community and has the potential to stimulate new hypotheses and avenues of investigation, improve biological and mechanistic insight, and accelerate the identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25592437

  3. Low-grade elastic compression regimen for venous leg ulcers - an effective compromise for patients requiring daily dressing changes.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Ganary; Hammerman, Scott; Carson, Polly; Falanga, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) affect millions of patients worldwide and are a tremendous financial burden on our health care system. The hallmark of venous disease of the lower extremities is venous hypertension, and compression is the current mainstay of treatment. However, many patients are non-compliant, partly because of the complexity of the dressings and the difficulties with application and removal. The aim of our study was to test an effective compression dressing regimen for patients with VLUs who require changing the ulcer primary dressing twice daily. We used two layers of a latex-free tubular elastic bandage for compression. The primary endpoint of our study was increased wound-healing rate and our secondary endpoint was complete wound closure. All active study subjects had positive healing rates at week 4 and week 8. Two subjects achieved complete wound closure by week 8. We conclude that compression with a latex-free tubular elastic bandage can be safely used in patients with VLUs requiring frequent dressing changes. This type of compression allows for daily inspection of wounds, dressing changes at home, flexibility in the context of clinical trials, and is a compromise for patients who are intolerant to compression dressings. PMID:24267477

  4. Effect of silk fibroin nanofibers containing silver sulfadiazine on wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Lim; Kim, Min Hee; Jung, Ju-Young; Min, Byung Moo; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the promising applications of silk fibroin (SF) in biomedical engineering is its use as a scaffolding material for skin regeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine the wound healing effect of SF nanofibrous matrices containing silver sulfadiazine (SSD) wound dressings. Methods An SF nanofibrous matrix containing SSD was prepared by electrospinning. The cell attachment and spreading of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human epidermal fibroblasts (NHEF) to SF nanofibers containing three different concentrations of SSD contents (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) were determined. In addition, a rat wound model was used in this study to determine the wound healing effect of SF nanofibers containing SSD compared with that of Acticoat™, a commercially available wound dressing. Results The number of NHEK and NHEF attached to SF nanofibers containing SSD decreased when the concentration of SSD increased. The number of attached NHEF cells was lower than that of attached NHEK cells. The SF matrix with 1.0 wt% SSD produced faster wound healing than Acticoat, although 1.0 wt% SSD inhibited the attachment of epidermal cells to SF nanofibers in vitro. Conclusion The cytotoxic effects of SF nanofibers with SSD should be considered in the development of silver-release dressings for wound healing through its antimicrobial activity. It is challenging to design wound dressings that maximize antimicrobial activity and minimize cellular toxicity. PMID:25484581

  5. Design, Preparation and Activity of Cotton Gauze for Use in Chronic Wound Research

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. V.; Yager, Dorne; Bopp, Alvin; Diegelmann, Robert F.; Goheen, Steven C.; Cohen, I. K.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the rational design and chemical modification of cotton gauze, which is used widely in chronic wounds, to improve wound dressing fibers for application to chronic wound healing. Cotton gauze may be tailored to more effectively enhance the biochemistry of wound healing. The presence of elevated levels of elastase in non-healing wounds has been associated with the degradation of important growth factors and fibronectin necessary for wound healing. In the healing wound a balance of elastase and antiproteases precludes degradation of beneficial proteins from taking place. Cotton gauze modified to release elastase inhibitors or selectively functionalized to sequester elastase provides a dressing that decreases high levels of destructive elastase in the chronic wounds. Three approaches have been taken to explore the potential of fiber-inhibitors useful in chronic wounds: 1) Formulation of inhibitors on the dressing; 2) Synthesis of elastase recognition sequences on cotton cellulose; and 3) Data presented here on carboxymethylating, and oxidizing textile finishes of cotton gauze to remove elastase from the wound.

  6. The Effect of Nano-Scale Topography on Keratinocyte Phenotype and Wound Healing Following Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Suzanne M.; Stevenson, Andrew W.; Wood, Fiona M.; Fear, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic modulation of tissue response is an important consideration in the design and manufacture of a biomaterial. In developing new tissue therapies for skin, all levels of architecture, including the nanoscale need to be considered. Here we show that keratinocyte phenotype is affected by nanoscale changes in topography with cell morphology, proliferation, and migration influenced by the pore size in anodic aluminum oxide membranes. A membrane with a pore size of 300?nm, which enhanced cell phenotype in vitro, was used as a dressing to cover a partial thickness burn injury in the pig. Wounds dressed with the membrane showed evidence of advanced healing with significantly less organizing granulation tissue and more mature epidermal layers than control wounds dressed with a standard burns dressing. The results demonstrate the importance of nanoscale topography in modulating keratinocyte phenotype and skin wound healing. PMID:21988618

  7. Delayed wound healing in diabetic (db/db) mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm challenge: a model for the study of chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ge; Hochwalt, Phillip C; Usui, Marcia L; Underwood, Robert A; Singh, Pradeep K; James, Garth A; Stewart, Philip S; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E

    2010-01-01

    Chronic wounds are a major clinical problem that lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that an important factor in the failure of chronic wounds to heal was the presence of microbial biofilm resistant to antibiotics and protected from host defenses. A major difficulty in studying chronic wounds is the absence of suitable animal models. The goal of this study was to create a reproducible chronic wound model in diabetic mice by the application of bacterial biofilm. Six-millimeter punch biopsy wounds were created on the dorsal surface of diabetic (db/db) mice, subsequently challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) biofilms 2 days postwounding, and covered with semiocclusive dressings for 2 weeks. Most of the control wounds were epithelialized by 28 days postwounding. In contrast, none of biofilm-challenged wounds were closed. Histological analysis showed extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue necrosis, and epidermal hyperplasia adjacent to challenged wounds-all indicators of an inflammatory nonhealing wound. Quantitative cultures and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the majority of bacteria were in the scab above the wound bed rather than in the wound tissue. The model was reproducible, allowed localized cutaneous wound infections without high mortality, and demonstrated delayed wound healing following a biofilm challenge. This model may provide an approach to study the role of microbial biofilms in chronic wounds as well as the effect of specific biofilm therapy on wound healing. PMID:20731798

  8. Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione incorporated into a collagen matrix as a base for the design of drugs accelerating skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Shekhter, Anatoly B; Rudenko, Tatyana G; Istranov, Leonid P; Guller, Anna E; Borodulin, Rostislav R; Vanin, Anatoly F

    2015-10-12

    Composites of a collagen matrix and dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione (DNIC-GS) (in a dose of 4.0 ?moles per item) in the form of spongy sheets (DNIC-Col) were prepared and then topically applied in rat excisional full-thickness skin wound model. The effects of DNIC-Col were studied in comparison with spontaneously healing wounds (SpWH) and wounds treated with collagen sponges (Col) without DNIC-GS. The composites induced statistically and clinically significant acceleration of complete wound closure (21±1 day versus 23±1 day and 26±1 day for DNIC-Col, Col and SpWH, respectively). Histological examination of wound tissues on days 4, 14, 18 and 21 after surgery demonstrated that this improvement was supported by enhanced growth, maturation and fibrous transformation of granulation tissue and earlier epithelization of the injured area in rats treated with DNIC-Col composites benchmarked against Col and SpWH. It is suggested that the positive effect of the new pharmaceutical material on wound healing is based on the release of NO from decomposing DNIC. This effect is believed to be potentiated by the synergy of DNIC and collagen. PMID:26066410

  9. Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kenneth C; Guha, Somes Chandra

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care.[1] It is a snapshot of a patient's total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors.[2] The vast majority of wounds would heal by such approach with variable degrees of residual morbidity, disability and even mortality. Globally, beyond the above therapies, newer tools of healing are selectively accessible to caregivers, for various logistical or financial reasons. Our review will focus on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), as used at our institution (CAMC), and some other modalities that are relatively accessible to patients. HBOT is a relatively safe and technologically simpler way to deliver care worldwide. However, the expense for including HBOT as standard of care for recognized indications per UHMS(Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society) may vary widely from country to country and payment system.[3] In the USA, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) approved indications for HBOT vary from that of the UHMS for logistical reasons.[1] We shall also briefly look into other newer therapies per current clinical usage and general acceptance by the medical community. Admittedly, there would be other novel tools with variable success in wound healing worldwide, but it would be difficult to include all in this treatise. PMID:25593414

  10. Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kenneth C; Guha, Somes Chandra

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care.[1] It is a snapshot of a patient's total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors.[2] The vast majority of wounds would heal by such approach with variable degrees of residual morbidity, disability and even mortality. Globally, beyond the above therapies, newer tools of healing are selectively accessible to caregivers, for various logistical or financial reasons. Our review will focus on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), as used at our institution (CAMC), and some other modalities that are relatively accessible to patients. HBOT is a relatively safe and technologically simpler way to deliver care worldwide. However, the expense for including HBOT as standard of care for recognized indications per UHMS(Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society) may vary widely from country to country and payment system.[3] In the USA, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) approved indications for HBOT vary from that of the UHMS for logistical reasons.[1] We shall also briefly look into other newer therapies per current clinical usage and general acceptance by the medical community. Admittedly, there would be other novel tools with variable success in wound healing worldwide, but it would be difficult to include all in this treatise. PMID:25593414

  11. Acellular Hydrogels for Regenerative Burn Wound Healing: Translation from a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-I; Song, Hyun-Ho G; Papa, Arianne E; Burke, Jacqueline A; Volk, Susan W; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-10-01

    Currently available skin grafts and skin substitutes for healing following third-degree burn injuries are fraught with complications, often resulting in long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Synthetic treatment that can promote wound healing in a regenerative manner would provide an off-the-shelf, non-immunogenic strategy to improve clinical care of severe burn wounds. Here, we demonstrate the vulnerary efficacy and accelerated healing mechanism of a dextran-based hydrogel in a third-degree porcine burn model. The model was optimized to allow examination of the hydrogel treatment for clinical translation and its regenerative response mechanisms. Hydrogel treatment accelerated third-degree burn wound healing by rapid wound closure, improved re-epithelialization, enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling, and greater nerve reinnervation, compared with the dressing-treated group. These effects appear to be mediated through the ability of the hydrogel to facilitate a rapid but brief initial inflammatory response that coherently stimulates neovascularization within the granulation tissue during the first week of treatment, followed by an efficient vascular regression to promote a regenerative healing process. Our results suggest that the dextran-based hydrogels may substantially improve healing quality and reduce skin grafting incidents and thus pave the way for clinical studies to improve the care of severe burn injury patients. PMID:26358387

  12. From nesting to dressing

    E-print Network

    Romuald A. Janik; Tomasz Lukowski

    2008-05-13

    In integrable field theories the S-matrix is usually a product of a relatively simple matrix and a complicated scalar factor. We make an observation that in many relativistic integrable field theories the scalar factor can be expressed as a convolution of simple kernels appearing in the nested levels of the nested Bethe ansatz. We formulate a proposal, up to some discrete ambiguities, how to reconstruct the scalar factor from the nested Bethe equations and check it for several relativistic integrable field theories. We then apply this proposal to the AdS asymptotic Bethe ansatz and recover the dressing factor in the integral representation of Dorey, Hofman and Maldacena.

  13. BURN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF Euphorbia hirta

    PubMed Central

    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan; Reddy, D. Narishma

    2006-01-01

    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity. PMID:22557201

  14. An investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth on novel nanocellulose fibre dressings.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lydia C; Khan, Saira; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Wright, Chris J; Hill, Katja E; Thomas, David W

    2016-02-10

    Nanocellulose from wood is a novel biomaterial, which is highly fibrillated at the nanoscale. This affords the material a number of advantages, including self-assembly, biodegradability and the ability to absorb and retain moisture, which highlights its potential usefulness in clinical wound-dressing applications. In these in vitro studies, the wound pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was used to assess the ability of two nanocellulose materials to impair bacterial growth (<48h). The two nanocelluloses had a relatively small fraction of residual fibres (<4%) and thus a large fraction of nanofibrils (widths <20nm). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging demonstrated impaired biofilm growth on the nanocellulose films and increased cell death when compared to a commercial control wound dressing, Aquacel(®). Nanocellulose suspensions inhibited bacterial growth, whilst UV-vis spectrophotometry and laser profilometry also revealed the ability of nanocellulose to form smooth, translucent films. Atomic force microscopy studies of the surface properties of nanocellulose demonstrated that PAO1 exhibited markedly contrasting morphology when grown on the nanocellulose film surfaces compared to an Aquacel(®) control dressing (p<0.05). This study highlights the potential utility of these biodegradable materials, from a renewable source, for wound dressing applications in the prevention and treatment of biofilm development. PMID:26686120

  15. Porous CS based membranes with improved antimicrobial properties for the treatment of infected wound in veterinary applications.

    PubMed

    Tonda-Turo, C; Ruini, F; Argentati, M; Di Girolamo, N; Robino, P; Nebbia, P; Ciardelli, G

    2016-03-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to the use of innovative solution for the treatment of infected wounds in animals. Current applied treatments are often un-effective leading to infection propagation and animal death. Novel engineered membranes based on chitosan (CS) can be prepared to combine local antimicrobial effect, high flexibility and easy manipulation. In this work, CS crosslinked porous membranes with improved antimicrobial properties were prepared via freeze-drying technique to promote wound healing and to reduce the bacterial proliferation in infected injuries. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gentamicin sulfate (GS) were incorporated into the CS matrices to impart antibacterial properties on a wild range of strains. CS based porous membranes were tested for their physicochemical, thermal, mechanical as well as swelling and degradation behavior at physiological condition. Additionally, GS release profile was investigated, showing a moderate burst effect in the first days followed by a decreasing release rate which it was maintained for at least 56days. Moreover, porous membranes loaded with GS or AgNPs showed good bactericidal activity against both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial strains used in this work were collected in chelonians after carapace injuries to better mimic the environment after trauma. PMID:26706548

  16. Going green: using a bio-cellulose membrane for patients with chronic non-healing wounds.

    PubMed

    Leak, Kathleen; Johnson, Sue

    2015-11-11

    A 20-patient evaluation was undertaken on the most chronic non-healing wounds that had been present in excess of 6 months. Patients were treated with a biotechnology dressing that is provided in a mesh and gel combination. Eighteen of out 20 patients went on to heal. Cost effectiveness examined the cost associated with maintaining non-healing wounds where all alternative therapies had failed. Nursing time both in outpatients and home visits were included. A wide variety of secondary dressings were applied according to clinical preference as the new dressings are designed as a direct wound contact mesh. This is a very new concept to wound care, with initial unit cost being high, but the possibilities of natural plant extracts that can mimic collagen synthesis is exciting. Both the staff and patients have seen a marked improvement, with up to date no recurrence. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish if these early findings are repeatable. PMID:26559240

  17. Silver Nanoparticles as Real Topical Bullets for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Thirumurugan; Nigusse, Tadele; Dhanaraju, Magharla Dasaratha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is on the threshold of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Several areas of medical care are already profiting from the advantage that nanotechnology offers. Recently, silver nanoparticles are attracting interest for a clinical application because of its potential biological properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing efficacy, which could be exploited in developing better dressings for wounds and ulcers. This article reviews the role of silver nanoparticles in wound healing. PMID:24527370

  18. Composite alginate and gelatin based bio-polymeric wafers containing silver sulfadiazine for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua; Burgos-Amador, Rocio; Okeke, Obinna; Pawar, Harshavardhan

    2015-08-01

    Lyophilized wafers comprising sodium alginate (SA) and gelatin (GE) (0/100, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, 0/100 SA/GE, respectively) with silver sulfadiazine (SSD, 0.1% w/w) have been developed for potential application on infected chronic wounds. Polymer-drug interactions and physical form were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively, while morphological structure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Functional characteristics [(mechanical hardness and adhesion using texture analyzer, and swelling capacity)] of blank wafers were determined in order to select the optimal formulations for drug loading. Finally, the in vitro drug dissolution properties of two selected drug loaded wafers were investigated. There was an increase in hardness and a decrease in mucoadhesion with increasing GE content. FTIR showed hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction between carboxyl of SA and amide of GE but no interaction between the polymers and drug was observed, with XRD showing that SSD remained crystalline during gel formulation and freeze-drying. The results suggest that 75/25 SA/GE formulations are the ideal formulations due to their uniformity and optimal mucoadhesivity and hydration. The drug loaded wafers showed controlled release of SSD over a 7h period which is expected to reduce bacterial load within infected wounds. PMID:25936500

  19. Wound contraction effects and antibacterial properties of Tualang honey on full-thickness burn wounds in rats in comparison to hydrofibre

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Full-thickness burn wounds require excision and skin grafting. Multiple surgical procedures are inevitable in managing moderate to severe full-thickness burns. Wound bed preparations prior to surgery are necessary in order to prevent wound infection and promote wound healing. Honey can be used to treat burn wounds. However, not all the honey is the same. This study aims to evaluate the wound contraction and antibacterial properties of locally-produced Tualang honey on managing full-thickness burn wounds in vivo. Methods Thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Under anaesthesia, three full-thickness burn wounds were created on the dorsum of the rats. The full-thickness burn wounds were inoculated with a specific organism (104), namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 12), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 12), or Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 12). The three burn wounds were dressed with Tualang honey, hydrofibre and hydrofibre silver respectively. Swab samples were obtained every 3 days (day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21) for quantitative and semi-quantitative microbiological analyses. Clinical assessments, including observations concerning the appearance and wound size, were measured at the same time. Results There was a rapid 32.26% reduction in wound size by day 6 (p = 0.008) in the Tualang honey-treated wounds, and 49.27% by day 15 (p = 0.005). The wounds remained smaller by day 18 (p < 0.032). Tualang honey-treated rats demonstrated a reduction in bacterial growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated wounds (p = 0.005). However, hydrofibre silver and hydrofibre-treated wounds are superior to honey-treated wounds with Acinetobacter baumannii (p = 0.035). There was no statistical significant of antibacterial property in Klebsiella pneumonia inoculated wounds. Conclusions Tualang honey has better results with regards to its control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its wound contraction effects on full-thickness burn wound in vivo. PMID:20815896

  20. 12. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING DRESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING DRESSING FROM AND WORK/CHAMBER ROOM - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  1. Design of antimicrobial peptides conjugated biodegradable citric acid derived hydrogels for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiwei; Aphale, Nikhil V; Kadapure, Tejaswi D; Wadajkar, Aniket S; Orr, Sara; Gyawali, Dipendra; Qian, Guoying; Nguyen, Kytai T; Yang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Wound healing is usually facilitated by the use of a wound dressing that can be easily applied to cover the wound bed, maintain moisture, and avoid bacterial infection. In order to meet all of these requirements, we developed an in situ forming biodegradable hydrogel (iFBH) system composed of a newly developed combination of biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) maleate citrate (PEGMC) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The in situ forming hydrogel systems are able to conform to the wound shape in order to cover the wound completely and prevent bacterial invasion. A 2(k) factorial analysis was performed to examine the effects of polymer composition on specific properties, including the curing time, Young's modulus, swelling ratio, and degradation rate. An optimized iFBH formulation was achieved from the systematic factorial analysis. Further, in vitro biocompatibility studies using adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) confirmed that the hydrogels and degradation products are not cytotoxic. The iFBH wound dressing was conjugated and functionalized with antimicrobial peptides as well. Evaluation against bacteria both in vitro and in vivo in rats demonstrated that the peptide-incorporated iFBH wound dressing offered excellent bacteria inhibition and promoted wound healing. These studies indicated that our in situ forming antimicrobial biodegradable hydrogel system is a promising candidate for wound treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3907-3918, 2015. PMID:26014899

  2. Evaluation of negative pressure vacuum-assisted system in acute and chronic wounds closure: our experience.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, S; Guarro, G; Pica, A; Alfano, C

    2012-10-01

    Negative-pressure therapy or vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been used in clinical applications since the 1940's and has increased in popularity over the past decade. This dressing technique consists of an open cell foam dressing put into the wound cavity, a vacuum pump produces a negative pressure and an adhesive drape. A controlled sub atmospheric pressure from 75 to 150 mmHg is applied. The vacuum-assisted closure has been applied by many clinicians to chronic wounds in humans; however it cannot be used as a replacement for surgical debridement. The initial treatment for every contaminated wound should be the necrosectomy. The VAC therapy has a complementary function and the range of its indications includes pressure sores, stasis ulcers, chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, post traumatic and post operative wounds, infected wounds such as necrotizing fasciitis or sternal wounds, soft-tissue injuries, bone exposed injuries, abdominal open wounds and for securing a skin graft. We describe our experience with the VAC dressing used to manage acute and chronic wounds in a series of 135 patients, with excellent results together with satisfaction of the patients. PMID:23095568

  3. Wound-healing evaluation of entrapped active agents into protein microspheres over cellulosic gauzes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel; Ferreira, Helena; Matamá, Teresa; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2012-11-01

    The use of active ingredients in wound management have evolved alongside the pharmaceutical agents and dressings used to deliver them. However, the development of gauzes, dressings with specific properties, still remains a challenge for several medical applications. A new methodology for the controlled release of active components for the healing of burn wounds is proposed herein. Cotton and non-woven bandages have been cationised to promote the attachment of protein microspheres. The active agents, piroxicam and vegetable oil, were entrapped into the microspheres using ultrasound energy. Active agents were released from the microspheres by a change in pH. Wound healing was assessed through the use of standardised burn wounds induced by a cautery in human full-thickness skin equivalents (EpidermFT). The best re-epithelialisation and fastest wound closure was observed in wounds treated with proteinaceous microspheres attached to gauzes, after six days of healing, in comparison with commercial collagen dressing and other controls. Furthermore, the ability of these materials to reduce the inflammation process, together with healing improvement, makes these biomaterials suitable for wound-dressing applications. PMID:22777917

  4. Injectable Citrate-Based Mussel-Inspired Tissue Bioadhesives With High Wet Strength for Sutureless Wound Closure

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, M. Reza; Weng, Hong; Gyawali, Dipendra; Tang, Liping; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The existing surgical adhesives are not ideal for wet tissue adhesion required in many surgeries such as those for internal organs. Developing surgical adhesives with strong wet tissue adhesion, controlled degradability and mechanical properties, and excellent biocompatibility has been a significant challenge. Herein, learning from nature, we report a one-step synthesis of a family of injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives (iCMBAs) for surgical use. Within the formulations investigated, iCMBAs showed 2.5–8.0 folds stronger wet tissue adhesion strength over the clinically used fibrin glue, demonstrated controlled degradability and tissue-like elastomeric mechanical properties, and exhibited excellent cyto/tissue-compatibility both in vitro and in vivo. iCMBAs were able to stop bleeding instantly and suturelessly, and close wounds (2 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) created on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, which is impossible when using existing gold standard, fibrin glue, due to its weak wet tissue adhesion strength. Equally important, the new bioadhesives facilitate wound healing, and are completely degraded and absorbed without eliciting significant inflammatory response. Our results support that iCMBA technology is highly translational and could have broad impact on surgeries where surgical tissue adhesives, sealants, and hemostatic agents are used. PMID:22902057

  5. Direct current force sensing device based on compressive spring, permanent magnet, and coil-wound magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Or, Siu Wing; Ho, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    A force sensing device capable of sensing dc (or static) compressive forces is developed based on a NAS106N stainless steel compressive spring, a sintered NdFeB permanent magnet, and a coil-wound Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate. The dc compressive force sensing in the device is evaluated theoretically and experimentally and is found to originate from a unique force-induced, position-dependent, current-driven dc magnetoelectric effect. The sensitivity of the device can be increased by increasing the spring constant of the compressive spring, the size of the permanent magnet, and/or the driving current for the coil-wound laminate. Devices of low-force (20 N) and high-force (200 N) types, showing high output voltages of 262 and 128 mV peak, respectively, are demonstrated at a low driving current of 100 mA peak by using different combinations of compressive spring and permanent magnet.

  6. Dressed spin of polarized {sup 3}He in a cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.-H.; Esler, A. M.; Peng, J. C.; Beck, D. H.; Chandler, D. E.; Clayton, S.; Williamson, S.; Yoder, J.; Hu, B.-Z.; Ngan, S. Y.; Sham, C. H.; So, L. H.

    2011-08-15

    We report a measurement of the modification of the effective precession frequency of polarized {sup 3}He atoms in response to a dressing field in a room-temperature cell. The {sup 3}He atoms were polarized using the metastability spin-exchange method. An oscillating dressing field was then applied perpendicular to the constant magnetic field. Modification of the {sup 3}He effective precession frequency was observed over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field. The observed effects are compared with calculations based on quantum optics formalism.

  7. Dressed Spin of Polarized 3He in a Cell

    E-print Network

    P. H. Chu; A. M. Esler; J. C. Peng; D. H. Beck; D. E. Chandler; S. Clayton; B. Z. Hu; S. Y. Ngan; C. H. Sham; L. H. So; S. Williamson; J. Yoder

    2010-08-24

    We report a measurement of the modification of the effective precession frequency of polarized 3He atoms in response to a dressing field in a room temperature cell. The 3He atoms were polarized using the metastability spin-exchange method. An oscillating dressing field is then applied perpendicular to the constant magnetic field. Modification of the 3He effective precession frequency was observed over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field. The observed effects are compared with calculations based on quantum optics formalism.

  8. Integration of silver nanoparticle-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers into murine-splinted cutaneous wound beds.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kathleen M; Agarwal, Ankit; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R; Abbott, Nicholas L; Murphy, Christopher J; Singh, Harpreet; McAnulty, Jonathan F; Schurr, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Silver is a commonly used topical antimicrobial. However, technologies to immobilize silver at the wound surface are lacking, while currently available silver-containing wound dressings release excess silver that can be cytotoxic and impair wound healing. We have shown that precise concentrations of silver at lower levels can be immobilized into a wound bed using a polyelectrolyte multilayer attachment technology. These silver nanoparticle-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers are noncytotoxic yet bactericidal in vitro, but their effect on wound healing in vivo was previously unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on wound healing of integrating silver nanoparticle/polyelectrolyte multilayers into the wound bed. A full-thickness, splinted, excisional murine wound healing model was employed in both phenotypically normal mice and spontaneously diabetic mice (healing impaired model). Gross image measurements showed an initial small lag in healing in the silver-treated wounds in diabetic mice, but no difference in time to complete wound closure in either normal or diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed modest differences between silver-treated and control groups on day 9, but no difference between groups at the time of wound closure. We conclude that silver nanoparticle/polyelectrolyte multilayers can be safely integrated into the wound beds of both normal and diabetic mice without delaying wound closure, and with transient histological effects. The results of this study suggest the feasibility of this technology for use as a platform to affect nanoscale wound engineering approaches to microbial prophylaxis or to augment wound healing. PMID:23511285

  9. Tourniquet Release Prior to Dressing Application Reduces Blistering Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Heller, Snir; Chen, Antonia; Restrepo, Camilo; Albert, Emily; Hozack, William J

    2015-07-01

    Skin blisters occur in up to 20% of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Tourniquet release results in a limb volume increase of 10%. We hypothesized that releasing tourniquet before application of circumferential dressing will decrease blister formation. A prospective study was conducted on 135 consecutive primary TKAs. The tourniquet was released immediately after wound closure to allow for re-perfusion and then a dressing was applied. These patients were compared to a historical cohort of 200 primary TKAs, where the tourniquet was released after application of dressing. There was a significant difference in the incidence of blisters between the two groups [Late 7.5% (15/200) vs early release 2.2% (3/135) P=0.028]. Releasing the tourniquet prior to dressing application has reduced the incidence of blistering following TKA. PMID:25770863

  10. Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery approximately 200 years ago, chitosan, as a cationic natural polymer, has been widely used as a topical dressing in wound management owing to its hemostatic, stimulation of healing, antimicrobial, nontoxic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. This article covers the antimicrobial and wound-healing effects of chitosan, as well as its derivatives and complexes, and its use as a vehicle to deliver biopharmaceuticals, antimicrobials and growth factors into tissue. Studies covering applications of chitosan in wounds and burns can be classified into in vitro, animal and clinical studies. Chitosan preparations are classified into native chitosan, chitosan formulations, complexes and derivatives with other substances. Chitosan can be used to prevent or treat wound and burn infections not only because of its intrinsic antimicrobial properties, but also by virtue of its ability to deliver extrinsic antimicrobial agents to wounds and burns. It can also be used as a slow-release drug-delivery vehicle for growth factors to improve wound healing. The large number of publications in this area suggests that chitosan will continue to be an important agent in the management of wounds and burns. PMID:21810057

  11. Surgical wound care - open

    MedlinePLUS

    ... off dry. Put the old dressing in a plastic bag and set it aside. Clean your hands again ... dressing and other used supplies in a waterproof plastic bag. Close it tightly, then double it before putting ...

  12. Wound Care in Buruli Ulcer Disease in Ghana and Benin

    PubMed Central

    Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitative data through descriptive statistics. There appeared to be a general understanding of wound assessment. A large variety of different topical antiseptics was reported to be used, pressure irrigation was never reported. Gauze was the main dressing type and a moist environment was preferred, but could not be maintained. Bleeding and pain were observed frequently. Standard of wound care differed importantly between health care personnel and between institutions and adherence to World Health Organization guidelines was low. PMID:24914002

  13. The possibility of microbial cellulose for dressing and scaffold materials.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Uk; Lee, Byung Kwon; Kim, Mi Sun; Park, Kwan Kyu; Sung, Woo Jung; Kim, Hyun Yeon; Han, Dong Gil; Shim, Jeong Su; Lee, Yong Jig; Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, In Ho; Park, Dae Hwan

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, natural polymers such as cellulose, alginate and chitosan have been used worldwide as biomedical materials and devices, as they offer more advantages over synthetic polymers. The aim of this study was to clarify the usefulness of microbial cellulose (MC) for use as a dressing and scaffold material. For evaluating the biodegradability and toxicity of MC, we divided the rats (n = 12) into two groups (the implanted group and the non-implanted group). In the implanted group, we implanted the film type of MC in the backs of six rats. In the non-implanted group, however, we did not implant the film type of MC in the backs of the six rats. Four weeks later, we compared two groups by the gross, histological and biochemical characteristics by using blood and tissue samples. To evaluate the wound healing effects of MC, three full-thickness skin defects were made on the backs of each rat (n = 20). Three wounds on the backs of the same rats were treated with other dressing materials, namely, Vaseline gauze (group Con), Algisite M(®) (group Alg) and MC (group MC). We analysed the gross, histological and biochemical characteristics by western blotting. MC was found to be biodegradable and non-toxic. On day 3, the MC film was visible under the subcutaneous tissue; however, after 4 weeks, no remnants of the film were visible under the subcutaneous tissue. Furthermore, there was no evidence of MC-induced toxicity. Moreover, group MC showed more rapid wound healing compared with group Con. On day 14 after skin excision, group MC showed greater decrease in wound size compared with group Con (33% versus 7·2%). The wound healing effects were also substantiated by the histological findings (greater reduction in inflammation and rapid collagen deposition as well as neovascularisation) and western blotting (decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-?1 in group MC on day 14 after skin excision, unlike group Con). This study showed that, in addition to having wound healing effects, MC is biodegradable and non-toxic and can, therefore, be used as a dressing and scaffold material. PMID:22762434

  14. A literature review of the military uses of silver-nylon dressings with emphasis on wartime operations.

    PubMed

    Barillo, David J; Pozza, Morano; Margaret-Brandt, Mary

    2014-12-01

    Medical support of military operations involves treatment of massive soft tissue wounds, thermal burns, open fractures, blast injuries and traumatic amputations under conditions that are often austere and far from supply lines. Military hospitals, as recently deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan, are designed and equipped for stabilization and rapid transfer of injured patients back to their home nation. These austere facilities are often tasked with the emergency or long-term treatment of local populations when injured or burned, further stressing the medical resupply system. Pathogens encountered in contemporary wartime practice are increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Ionic silver is bactericidal against a broad spectrum of bacteria, yeasts and fungi, has been utilized as a topical antiseptic for over 100 years, and has no known clinically-relevant resistance. Silver-nylon dressings, initially stocked in US military hospitals as a burn dressing, are now finding utility as a universal dressing for all types of combat wounds. Compared to conventional burn dressings, they are easier to transport and store, easier to use, and do not need to be changed as frequently, allowing for conservation of nursing resources. In this literature review, the recent military uses of silver-nylon dressings are examined. The stockpiling and use of silver-nylon as a universal military burn and wound dressing is advocated. PMID:25418434

  15. Molecular and Culture-Based Assessment of the Microbial Diversity of Diabetic Chronic Foot Wounds and Contralateral Skin Sites

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Angela; Bowling, Frank L.; Boulton, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Wound debridement samples and contralateral (healthy) skin swabs acquired from 26 patients attending a specialist foot clinic were analyzed by differential isolation and eubacterium-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in conjunction with DNA sequencing. Thirteen of 26 wounds harbored pathogens according to culture analyses, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common (13/13). Candida (1/13), pseudomonas (1/13), and streptococcus (7/13) were less prevalent. Contralateral skin was associated with comparatively low densities of bacteria, and overt pathogens were not detected. According to DGGE analyses, all wounds contained significantly greater eubacterial diversity than contralateral skin (P < 0.05), although no significant difference in total eubacterial diversity was detected between wounds from which known pathogens had been isolated and those that were putatively uninfected. DGGE amplicons with homology to Staphylococcus sp. (8/13) and S. aureus (2/13) were detected in putatively infected wound samples, while Staphylococcus sp. amplicons were detected in 11/13 noninfected wounds; S. aureus was not detected in these samples. While a majority of skin-derived DGGE consortial fingerprints could be differentiated from wound profiles through principal component analysis (PCA), a large minority could not. Furthermore, wounds from which pathogens had been isolated could not be distinguished from putatively uninfected wounds on this basis. In conclusion, while chronic wounds generally harbored greater eubacterial diversity than healthy skin, the isolation of known pathogens was not associated with qualitatively distinct consortial profiles or otherwise altered diversity. The data generated support the utility of both culture and DGGE for the microbial characterization of chronic wounds. PMID:22553231

  16. Business Services Business Casual Dress Policy

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Business Services Business Casual Dress Policy A business casual dress policy calls for everyone general parameters for proper business casual dress within Business Services and to help you make appropriate dress decisions. Keep in mind that business casual does not mean weekend or sport casual

  17. Application of vacuum-assisted closure in seawater-immersed wound treatment under different negative pressures.

    PubMed

    Cao, L; Peng, M M; Sun, J J; Yu, X C; Shi, B

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been confirmed in many types of complex wounds, but there are few relevant reports regarding seawater-immersed wounds. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of VAC on seawater-immersed wound healing under different negative pressures and explore the optimal negative pressure value. Four purebred miniature pigs were used as the experimental animal models. Four acute, symmetrical wounds were made on each side of the spine and designated as the experimental group (wounds with 2 h of seawater immersion) and the control group (wounds without seawater immersion). Wounds were divided into a conventional dressing group and 3 further groups with different VAC therapies (negative pressure at either 120, 180, or 240 mmHg). The extent of wound healing, and speed of granulation growth and re-epithelialization were measured. Bacterial flora distribution in the wounds was observed, and fibronectin levels in the exudate of the wounds were tested. Results showed that seawater immersion aggravated wound injury and that VAC therapy with 180 mmHg negative pressure induced the fastest epidermis migration, obvious edema elimination, significant capillary proliferation, and the highest level of fibronectin, and that in wounds, the proportion of Gram-negative bacteria tended to decrease and that of Gram-positive bacteria tended to increase. Our results show that VAC promotes seawater-immersed wound healing and that 180 mmHg negative pressure may be optimal for wound healing. PMID:26125815

  18. Surgical dressings and turbulent years of cotton industry.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Borg, Keith

    2008-07-01

    Everyday use of a simple cotton bud should remind us of our not so distant past and of the appalling trade in people. Harvesting this precious commodity required forced labour eventually leading to a key turning point in the history of surgery, as civil war raged in America during the 1860s. The fight to end slavery was to reveal a new weapon against disease and certain death. A material used in this struggle against wound infection was the available stockpiles of redundant cotton. Once boiled to make softer, its use on patients in military hospitals proved to be the first clinical application of sterile surgical dressings. PMID:18710130

  19. Innovative use of povidone-iodine to guide burn wound debridement and predict the success of biobrane as a definitive treatment for burns.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yu Sin; Brooks, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The success of Biobrane (Smith & Nephew, St. Petersburg, Florida) dressing in superficial burns depends on wound selection and preparation. After wound debridement, povidone-iodine is applied, and changes in wound color are recorded. Next, Biobrane is applied, and adherence is checked after 48 hours. The authors' study showed that remaining brown areas of the wound are predictive of Biobrane nonadherence, which is indicative of deeper burns. PMID:24531516

  20. Managing venous leg ulcers using compression therapy and dressings.

    PubMed

    Powell, Gail; Wicks, Gill; Will, Katrin

    Patient comfort and satisfaction with both compression therapy and wound care are critical to the success of venous leg ulcer treatment. This study observed 22 patients with venous leg ulcers treated over 12 weeks with two-layer compression hosiery and a range of wound dressings. The mean duration of the ulcers was 10.5 months and 48% had a history of recurrent ulcers. Half the ulcers healed within 12 weeks; there was an increase in the proportion of patients reporting 'no impairment' to their mobility, but it was not significant. The ease of donning the two-layer hosiery was rated as excellent or good at 86% of control visits and the ease of doffing at 78%. In 95% of cases the clinicians said they would use the same combination of products again and 73% of patients were satisfied with it. PMID:26266566

  1. Teacher Dress Codes in Employee Handbooks: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey

    2010-01-01

    This study used role theory to analyze dress codes for teachers to discern what dress items expressed role embracement and role distance. Inductive content analysis of teacher dress codes in 103 U.S. K-12 school handbooks revealed three categories of dress: (a) conventional dress (mentioned in 97.1% of the dress codes); (b) casual dress (mentioned…

  2. Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Wounds.

    PubMed

    Oyarzun-Ampuero, Felipe; Vidal, Alejandra; Concha, Miguel; Morales, Javier; Orellana, Sandra; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of skin wounds represents an important research area due to the important physiological and aesthetic role of this tissue. During the last years, nanoparticles have emerged as important platforms to treat skin wounds. Silver, gold, and copper nanoparticles, as well as titanium and zinc oxide nanoparticles, have shown potential therapeutic effects on wound healing. Due to their specific characteristics, nanoparticles such as nanocapsules, polymersomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and polymeric nanocomplexes are ideal vehicles to improve the effect of drugs (antibiotics, growth factors, etc.) aimed at wound healing. On the other hand, if active excipients are added during the formulation, such as hyaluronate or chitosan, the nanomedicine could significantly improve its potential. In addition, the inclusion of nanoparticles in different pharmaceutical materials may enhance the beneficial effects of the formulations, and allow achieving a better dose control. This paper aims at reviewing significant findings in the area of nanoparticles and wound treatment. Among the reviewed topics, we underline formulations comprising inorganic, polymeric, surfactant self-assembled, and lipid nanosystems. Among the drugs included in the nanoformulations, the paper refers to antibiotics, natural extracts, proteins, and growth factors, among others. Finally, the paper also addresses nanoparticles embedded in secondary vehicles (fibers, dressings, hydrogels, etc.) that could improve their application and/or upgrade the release profile of the active. PMID:26323420

  3. Physics of Wound Healing I: Energy Considerations

    E-print Network

    Apell, S Peter; Papazoglou, Elisabeth S; Pizziconi, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process with many components and interrelated processes on a microscopic level. This paper addresses a macroscopic view on wound healing based on an energy conservation argument coupled with a general scaling of the metabolic rate with body mass M as M^{\\gamma} where 0 wound healing rate peaks at a value determined by {\\gamma} alone, suggesting a concept of wound acceleration to monitor the status of a wound. 2) We find that the time-scale for wound healing is a factor 1/(1 -{\\gamma}) longer than the average internal timescale for producing new material filling the wound cavity in corresondence with that it usually takes weeks rather than days to heal a wound. 3) The model gives a prediction for the maximum wound mass which can be generated in terms of measurable quantities related to wound status. We compare our model predictions to experimental results for a range of different wound conditions (healthy, lean, diabetic and obses...

  4. The Healing Effect of Licorice on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infected Burn Wounds in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Rokhsari, Pedram; Mehrabani, Davood; Mohammadi Samani, Soleiman; Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Koohi Hosseinabadi, Omid; Shamsian, Shahram; Ahmadi, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is still one of the most devastating injuries in emergency medicine while improvements in wound healing knowledge and technology have resulted into development of new dressings. This study was undertaken to evaluate the healing effect of licorice in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected burn wounds of experimental rat model. METHODS One hundred and twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups. Group A received silver sulfadiazine ointment, Group B received 10% licorice extract and Group C was considered as control group and received gel base as the base of medication. Group D did not receive any medication and just underwent burn injury. A standard 3rd degree burn wound was produced by a hot plate with similar size about 20% of total body surface area (TBSA) and at identical temperature. After 24 h of burn production, 108 colony forming units (CFU) of toxigenic strains of P. aeruginosa (PA 103) were inoculated subcutaneously into the burnt area. After 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of therapy, the animals were sacrificed and burn areas were macroscopically examined and histologically evaluated. RESULTS Decrease in size of the burn wounds, in inflammation and re-epithelialization were poor in groups B-D. Infection to P. aeruginosa was still visible in groups B-D but was absent in Group A. The mean histological score, tensile strength, maximum stress, yield strength and stiffness in groups B-D were lower compared with Group A. CONCLUSION Licorice extract in 10% concentration was shown not to be effective in healing of P. aeruginosa infected burn wounds. PMID:25489532

  5. siRNA-based spherical nucleic acids reverse impaired wound healing in diabetic mice by ganglioside GM3 synthase knockdown

    PubMed Central

    Randeria, Pratik S.; Seeger, Mark A.; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Wilson, Heather; Shipp, Desmond; Mirkin, Chad A.; Paller, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) gold nanoparticle conjugates (13-nm-diameter gold cores functionalized with densely packed and highly oriented nucleic acids) dispersed in Aquaphor have been shown to penetrate the epidermal barrier of both intact mouse and human skin, enter keratinocytes, and efficiently down-regulate gene targets. ganglioside-monosialic acid 3 synthase (GM3S) is a known target that is overexpressed in diabetic mice and responsible for causing insulin resistance and impeding wound healing. GM3S SNAs increase keratinocyte migration and proliferation as well as insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) receptor activation under both normo- and hyperglycemic conditions. The topical application of GM3S SNAs (50 nM) to splinted 6-mm-diameter full-thickness wounds in diet-induced obese diabetic mice decreases local GM3S expression by >80% at the wound edge through an siRNA pathway and fully heals wounds clinically and histologically within 12 d, whereas control-treated wounds are only 50% closed. Granulation tissue area, vascularity, and IGF1 and EGF receptor phosphorylation are increased in GM3S SNA-treated wounds. These data capitalize on the unique ability of SNAs to naturally penetrate the skin and enter keratinocytes without the need for transfection agents. Moreover, the data further validate GM3 as a mediator of the delayed wound healing in type 2 diabetes and support regional GM3 depletion as a promising therapeutic direction. PMID:25902507

  6. siRNA-based spherical nucleic acids reverse impaired wound healing in diabetic mice by ganglioside GM3 synthase knockdown.

    PubMed

    Randeria, Pratik S; Seeger, Mark A; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Wilson, Heather; Shipp, Desmond; Mirkin, Chad A; Paller, Amy S

    2015-05-01

    Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) gold nanoparticle conjugates (13-nm-diameter gold cores functionalized with densely packed and highly oriented nucleic acids) dispersed in Aquaphor have been shown to penetrate the epidermal barrier of both intact mouse and human skin, enter keratinocytes, and efficiently down-regulate gene targets. ganglioside-monosialic acid 3 synthase (GM3S) is a known target that is overexpressed in diabetic mice and responsible for causing insulin resistance and impeding wound healing. GM3S SNAs increase keratinocyte migration and proliferation as well as insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) receptor activation under both normo- and hyperglycemic conditions. The topical application of GM3S SNAs (50 nM) to splinted 6-mm-diameter full-thickness wounds in diet-induced obese diabetic mice decreases local GM3S expression by >80% at the wound edge through an siRNA pathway and fully heals wounds clinically and histologically within 12 d, whereas control-treated wounds are only 50% closed. Granulation tissue area, vascularity, and IGF1 and EGF receptor phosphorylation are increased in GM3S SNA-treated wounds. These data capitalize on the unique ability of SNAs to naturally penetrate the skin and enter keratinocytes without the need for transfection agents. Moreover, the data further validate GM3 as a mediator of the delayed wound healing in type 2 diabetes and support regional GM3 depletion as a promising therapeutic direction. PMID:25902507

  7. Poly (3-hydroxyalkanoates)-co-(6-hydroxyhexanoate) hydrogel promotes angiogenesis and collagen deposition during cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Gumel, Ahmad Mohammed; Razaif-Mazinah, Mohd Rafais Mohd; Anis, Siti Nor Syairah; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2015-08-01

    Wound management and healing in several physiological or pathological conditions, particularly when comorbidities are involved, usually proves to be difficult. This presents complications leading to socio-economic and public health burdens. The accelerative wound healing potential of biocompatible poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates)-co-(6-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHA-PCL) composite hydrogel is reported herein. The biosynthesized PHA-PCL macromer was cross-linked with PEGMA to give a hydrogel. Twenty-four rats weighing 200-250?g each were randomly assigned to four groups of six rats. Rats in group I (negative control) were dressed with sterilized gum acacia paste in 10% normal saline while PEGMA-alone hydrogel (PH) was used to dress group II (secondary control) rats. Group III rats were dressed with PHAs-PCL cross-linked PEGMA hydrogel (PPH). For the positive control (group IV), the rats were dressed with Intrasite(®) gel. Biochemical, histomorphometric and immunohistomorphometric analyses revealed a significant difference in area closure and re-epithelialization on days 7 and 14 in PPH or Intrasite(®) gel groups compared to gum acacia or PEGMA-alone groups. Furthermore, wounds dressed with PPH or Intrasite(®) gel showed evident collagen deposition, enhanced fibrosis and extensively organized angiogenesis on day 14 compared to the negative control group. While improvement in wound healing of the PH dressed group could be observed, there was no significant difference between the negative control group and the PH dressed group in any of the tests. The findings suggested that topical application of PPH accelerated the rats' wound healing process by improving angiogenesis attributed to the increased microvessel density (MVD) and expressions of VEGF-A in tissue samples. Thus, PPH has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous wounds in rats, and could be a potential novel agent in the management and acceleration of wound healing in humans and animals. PMID:26154416

  8. Properties of periodontal dressings.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Argyropoulos, D C

    1990-01-01

    The physical properties of periodontal dressing materials, two chemically curing and one photocured, were examined. A modified penetrometer test showed that COEpak and PerioCare were similar in behavior, setting at 10-15 min post-mixing. Barricaid required 30 s of minimum light exposure to achieve curing. All materials absorbed water; both COEpak and PerioCare behaved similarly at 23 degrees C, but PerioCare absorbed far more water at 37 degrees C. Increased light exposure had little effect on Barricaid water sorption or solubility. There was no difference (p greater than 0.05) in the solubility of each material when immersed at 23 and 37 degrees C. When immersed in 0.9% KCl solution, Barricaid had no effect on solution conductivity or pH. COEpak and PerioCare increased conductivity slightly and the pH markedly. The adhesion of COEpak to a single tooth at one h was about 7 kg, but this decreased to about 6.5 kg at 24 h and to 5 kg at seven d. The adhesion of PerioCare was 2 kg at one h and 8.5 kg at 24 h, but it decreased to 7.5 kg at seven d. The adhesion of Barricaid was about 5 kg at one h, but it decreased to 3.5 kg at 24 h and to ca. 1.5 kg at seven d. The adhesion of Barricaid appears to involve mechanical locking and differs from that of COEpak and PerioCare. PMID:2376296

  9. Unprecedented Silver Resistance in Clinically Isolated Enterobacteriaceae: Major Implications for Burn and Wound Management.

    PubMed

    Finley, Phillip J; Norton, Rhy; Austin, Cindy; Mitchell, Amber; Zank, Sara; Durham, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Increased utilization of inorganic silver as an adjunctive to many medical devices has raised concerns of emergent silver resistance in clinical bacteria. Although the molecular basis for silver resistance has been previously characterized, to date, significant phenotypic expression of these genes in clinical settings is yet to be observed. Here, we identified the first strains of clinical bacteria expressing silver resistance at a level that could significantly impact wound care and the use of silver-based dressings. Screening of 859 clinical isolates confirmed 31 harbored at least 1 silver resistance gene. Despite the presence of these genes, MIC testing revealed most of the bacteria displayed little or no increase in resistance to ionic silver (200 to 300 ?M Ag(+)). However, 2 isolates (Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae) were capable of robust growth at exceedingly high silver concentrations, with MIC values reaching 5,500 ?M Ag(+). DNA sequencing of these two strains revealed the presence of genes homologous to known genetic determinants of heavy metal resistance. Darkening of the bacteria's pigment was observed after exposure to high silver concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of silver nanoparticles embedded in the extracellular polymeric substance of both isolates. This finding suggested that the isolates may neutralize ionic silver via reduction to elemental silver. Antimicrobial testing revealed both organisms to be completely resistant to many commercially available silver-impregnated burn and wound dressings. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence of clinical bacteria capable of expressing silver resistance at levels that could significantly impact wound management. PMID:26014954

  10. A comparison of the in vitro moisture vapour transmission rate and in vivo fluid-handling capacity of six adhesive foam dressings to a newly reformulated adhesive foam dressing.

    PubMed

    Zehrer, Cindy L; Holm, David; Solfest, Staci E; Walters, Shelley-Ann

    2014-12-01

    This study compared moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR) and wear time or fluid-handling capacities of six adhesive foam dressings to a reformulated control dressing. Standardised in vitro MVTR methodology and a previously published in vivo artificial wound model (AWM) were used. Mean inverted MVTR for the reformulated dressing was 12 750 g/m(2) /24 hours and was significantly higher than four of the six comparator dressings (P < 0·0001), which ranged from 830 to 11 360 g/m(2) /24 hours. Mean upright MVTR for the reformulated dressing was 980 g/m(2) /24 hours and was significantly different than all of the comparator dressings (P < 0·0001), which ranged from 80 to 1620 g/m(2) /24 hours (three higher/three lower). The reformulated dressing median wear time ranged from 6·1 to >7·0 days, compared with 1·0 to 3·5 days for the comparator dressings (P = 0·0012 to P < 0·0001). The median fluid volume handled ranged from 78·0 to >87 ml compared with 13·0 to 44·5 ml for the comparator dressings (P = 0·0007 to P < 0·001). Interestingly, inverted MVTR did not correspond well to the AWM. These results suggest that marked differences exist between the dressings in terms of both MVTR and wear time or fluid-handling capacity. Furthermore, high inverted MVTR does not necessarily predict longer wear time or fluid-handling capacities of absorbent dressings. PMID:23362795

  11. Biofilms in chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    James, Garth A; Swogger, Ellen; Wolcott, Randall; Pulcini, Elinor deLancey; Secor, Patrick; Sestrich, Jennifer; Costerton, John W; Stewart, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic wound specimens were obtained from 77 subjects and acute wound specimens were obtained from 16 subjects. Culture data were collected using standard clinical techniques. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze 50 of the chronic wound specimens and the 16 acute wound specimens. Molecular analyses were performed on the remaining 27 chronic wound specimens using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. Of the 50 chronic wound specimens evaluated by microscopy, 30 were characterized as containing biofilm (60%), whereas only one of the 16 acute wound specimens was characterized as containing biofilm (6%). This was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Molecular analyses of chronic wound specimens revealed diverse polymicrobial communities and the presence of bacteria, including strictly anaerobic bacteria, not revealed by culture. Bacterial biofilm prevalence in specimens from chronic wounds relative to acute wounds observed in this study provides evidence that biofilms may be abundant in chronic wounds. PMID:18086294

  12. Development of a Porcine Delayed Wound-Healing Model and Its Use in Testing a Novel Cell-Based Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hadad, Ivan; Johnstone, Brian H.; Brabham, Jeffrey G.; Blanton, Matthew W.; Rogers, Pamela I.; Fellers, Cory; Solomon, James L.; Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie; DesRosiers, Colleen M.; Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Coleman, John J.; March, Keith L.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A delayed full-thickness wound-healing model was developed and used for examining the capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), either alone or in platelet-rich fibrin gels, to promote healing. Methods and Materials: Four pigs received electron beam radiation to the dorsal skin surface. Five weeks after radiation, subcutaneous fat was harvested from nonirradiated areas and processed to yield ASCs. Two weeks later, 28 to 30 full-thickness 1.5-cm{sup 2} wounds were made in irradiated and nonirradiated skin. Wounds were treated with either saline solution, ASCs in saline solution, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) fibrin gel, ASCs in PRP, or non-autologous green fluorescence protein-labeled ASCs. Results: The single radiation dose produced a significant loss of dermal microvasculature density (75%) by 7 weeks. There was a significant difference in the rate of healing between irradiated and nonirradiated skin treated with saline solution. The ASCs in PRP-treated wounds exhibited a significant 11.2% improvement in wound healing compared with saline solution. Enhancement was dependent on the combination of ASCs and PRP, because neither ASCs nor PRP alone had an effect. Conclusions: We have created a model that simulates the clinically relevant late radiation effects of delayed wound healing. Using this model, we showed that a combination of ASCs and PRP improves the healing rates of perfusion-depleted tissues, possibly through enhancing local levels of growth factors.

  13. Low-cost uncalibrated video-based tool for tridimensional reconstruction oriented to assessment of chronic wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Leslie; Treuillet, Sylvie; Valencia, Braulio; Llanos, Alejandro; Castañeda, Benjamín.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds are a major problem worldwide which mainly affects to the geriatric population or patients with limited mobility. In tropical countries, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis(CL)s is also a cause for chronic wounds,being endemic in Peru in the 75% of the country. Therefore, the monitoring of these wounds represents a big challenge due to the remote location of the patients. This papers aims to develop a low-cost user-friendly technique to obtain a 3D reconstruction for chronic wounds oriented to clinical monitoring and assessment. The video is taken using a commercial hand-held video camera without the need of a rig. The algorithm has been specially designed for skin wounds which have certain characteristics in texture where techniques used in regular SFM applications with undefined edges wouldn't work. In addition, the technique has been developed using open source libraries. The 3D cloud point estimated allows the computation of metrics as volume, depth, superficial area which recently have been used by CL specialists showing good results in clinical assessment. Initial results in cork phantoms and CL wounds show an average distance error of less than 1mm when compared against models obtained with a industrial 3D laser scanner.

  14. Combined Treatment Of Purulent Wounds With CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstych, P. I.; Skobelkin, O. K.; Derbenev, V. A.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have worked out a programme for combined treatment of purulent wounds with CO2 laser. It consists of following components: a) laserinsision of suppurative wounds,necrectomy,or irradiation of the incised wound with the defocused laser beam; b )diplication of proteinerses and antiseptics immobilized on the textile dressing and dranaige materials; c) applications of biocompatible materials with the immobilized antiseptics and enzyme agents; d) application of low energy laser irradiation in the postoperative period; e) lavage of the sutured wound if indicated. The points of the above-mentioned programme can be used separately as independed methods in several thousands of patients. Their combined applications has been studied on 400 patients. Such treatment allowed to refuse the antibioticotherapy in 98,3% of cases,to reduce the terms of trestment in I,5-2 % times as compared with traditional methods, and to low significantely costs.

  15. Reduction in Wound Bioburden using a Silver-Loaded Dissolvable Microfilm Construct

    PubMed Central

    Herron, Maggie; Agarwal, Ankit; Kierski, Patricia R.; Calderon, Diego F.; Teixeira, Leandro B. C.; Schurr, Michael J.; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Silver is a widely used antimicrobial agent, yet when impregnated in macroscopic dressings, it stains wounds, can lead to tissue toxicity and can inhibit healing. Recently, we reported that polymeric nanofilms containing silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity at loadings and release rates of silver that are 100x lower than conventional dressings. Here we report fabrication of composite microfilm constructs that provide a facile way to transfer the silver-loaded polymeric nanofilms onto wounds in vivo. The construct is fabricated from a silver nanoparticle-loaded polymeric nanofilm that is laminated with a micrometer-thick soluble film of polyvinylalcohol (PVA). When placed on a moist wound, the PVA dissolves, leaving the silver-loaded nanofilm immobilized on the wound-bed. In vitro, the immobilized nanofilms release <1 ?g cm?2/day of silver over 30 days from skin-dermis and they kill 5 log10 CFUs of Staphylococcus aureus in 24 h. In mice, wounds inoculated with 105 CFU S. aureus presented up to 3 log10 less bacterial burden when treated with silver/nanofilms for 3 days, as compared to unmodified wounds. In uncontaminated wounds, silver/nanofilms allow normal and complete wound closure by re-epithelialization. We conclude that dissolvable microfilm constructs may overcome key limitations associated with current uses of silver in wound healing. PMID:24523027

  16. Reduction in wound bioburden using a silver-loaded dissolvable microfilm construct.

    PubMed

    Herron, Maggie; Agarwal, Ankit; Kierski, Patricia R; Calderon, Diego F; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Schurr, Michael J; Murphy, Christopher J; Czuprynski, Charles J; McAnulty, Jonathan F; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2014-06-01

    Silver is a widely used antimicrobial agent, yet, when impregnated in macroscopic dressings, it stains wounds, can lead to tissue toxicity, and can inhibit healing. Recently, polymeric nanofilms containing silver nanoparticles were reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity at loadings and release rates of silver that are 100× lower than conventional dressings. Here, fabrication of composite microfilm constructs that provide a facile way to transfer the silver-loaded polymeric nanofilms onto wounds in vivo is reported. The construct is fabricated from a silver nanoparticle-loaded polymeric nanofilm that is laminated with a micrometer-thick-soluble film of polyvinylalcohol (PVA). When placed on a moist wound, the PVA dissolves, leaving the silver-loaded nanofilm immobilized on the wound-bed. In vitro, the immobilized nanofilms release <1 ?g cm(-2) d(-1) of silver over 30 d from skin dermis and they kill 5 log10 CFUs of Staphylococcus aureus in 24 h. In mice, wounds inoculated with 10(5) CFU S. aureus presented up to 3 log10 less bacterial burden when treated with silver/nanofilms for 3 d, as compared to unmodified wounds. In uncontaminated wounds, silver/nanofilms allow normal and complete wound closure by re-epithelialization. Dissolvable microfilm constructs may overcome key limitations associated with current uses of silver in wound healing. PMID:24523027

  17. [Ambulant treatment of wounds by vacuum sealing].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, U E; Schmidt, K; Breithaupt, B; Menig, R; Debus, E S; Thiede, A

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of chronic wounds by vacuum sealing as an outpatient procedure is a new method of wound conditioning before closing the defect. The quality of life for the patient in his usual surrounding is maintained. Financial aspects also play a role in this treatment since costs for the health care system can be reduced. Various vacuum pumps, drainages and polymere foams are available and suitable for the outpatient treatment. The most important condition is to regularly check the vacuum. This can performed by the patient, the relatives or nursing staff. The main complication consists in loss of vacuum but technical and local or systemic complications can also appear. Individually applied vacuum dressings (polyvinyl foam, drainage tube and polymere foil) are practical. The ideal pump systems for the outpatient treatment are still not trial. PMID:10929655

  18. Development and characterization of cefazolin loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles composite gelatin nanofiber mats for postoperative surgical wounds.

    PubMed

    Rath, Goutam; Hussain, Taqadus; Chauhan, Gaurav; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Systemic antibiotic therapy in post-operative wound care remain controversial leading to escalation in levels of multi-resistant bacteria with unwanted morbidity and mortality. Recently zinc (Zn) because of multiple biophysiological functions, gain considerable interest for wound care. Based on our current understanding, the present study was designed with an intent to produce improve therapeutic approaches for post-operative wound management using composite multi-functional antibiotic carrier. The study involved the fabrication, characterization and pre-clinical evaluation of cefazolin nanofiber mats loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) and comparing co-formulated mats with individual component, enable a side by side comparison of the benefits of our intervention. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and drug-ZnONP mixture against Staphylococcus aureus was determined using micro dilution assay. The fabricated nanofibers were then evaluated for in-vitro antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of inhibition was predicted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further these nanofiber mats were evaluated in-vivo for wound healing efficacy in Wistar rats. Study revealed that the average diameter of the nanofibers is around 200-900nm with high entrapment efficiency and display sustained drug release behavior. The combination of ZnO and cefazolin in 1:1 weight ratio showed higher anti-bacterial activity of 1.9±0.2?g/ml. Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial cells taken from the zone of inhibition revealed the phenomenon of cell lysis in tested combination related to cell wall disruption. Further composite medicated nanofiber mats showed an accelerated wound healing as compared to plain cefazolin and ZnONP loaded mats. Macroscopical and histological evaluations demonstrated that ZnONP hybrid cefazolin nanofiber showed enhanced cell adhesion, epithelial migration, leading to faster and more efficient collagen synthesis. Hence the fabricated composite nanofiber mats have the potential to be used as a postoperative antimicrobial wound dressings. PMID:26478308

  19. Bacterial cellulose as a material for wound treatment: Properties and modifications. A review.

    PubMed

    Sulaeva, Irina; Henniges, Ute; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje

    2015-12-01

    Advanced approaches to wound healing have attracted much attention in the last decades due to the use of novel types of dressings that provide a moist environment and take an active part in wound protection and tissue regeneration processes. The materials for novel wound dressings should have a set of features that will contribute to efficient skin recovery. The use of bacterial cellulose (BC) is attractive for advanced wound management because of the favorable characteristics of BC, such as its biocompatibility, non-toxicity, mechanical stability, and high moisture content. Numerous approaches can be taken to modify BC to address the shortcomings of the native material and to optimize its biocompatibility, water uptake and release, and antimicrobial activity. This review highlights possible pathways for functionalization of BC, affecting all levels of its structural organization. The focus is on post-production treatment of BC, although selected studies concerning in situ modifications during the biosynthesis process are also emphasized. PMID:26253857

  20. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  1. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  2. Wound Healing Essentials: Let There Be Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Chandan K.

    2009-01-01

    The state of wound oxygenation is a key determinant of healing outcomes. From a diagnostic standpoint, measurements of wound oxygenation are commonly used to guide treatment planning such as amputation decision. In preventive applications, optimizing wound perfusion and providing supplemental O2 in the peri-operative period reduces the incidence of post-operative infections. Correction of wound pO2 may, by itself, trigger some healing responses. Importantly, approaches to correct wound pO2 favorably influence outcomes of other therapies such as responsiveness to growth factors and acceptance of grafts. Chronic ischemic wounds are essentially hypoxic. Primarily based on the tumor literature, hypoxia is generally viewed as being angiogenic. This is true with the condition that hypoxia be acute and mild to modest in magnitude. Extreme near-anoxic hypoxia, as commonly noted in problem wounds, is not compatible with tissue repair. Adequate wound tissue oxygenation is required but may not be sufficient to favorably influence healing outcomes. Success in wound care may be improved by a personalized health care approach. The key lies in our ability to specifically identify the key limitations of a given wound and in developing a multifaceted strategy to specifically address those limitations. In considering approaches to oxygenate the wound tissue it is important to recognize that both too little as well as too much may impede the healing process. Oxygen dosing based on the specific need of a wound therefore seems prudent. Therapeutic approaches targeting the oxygen sensing and redox signaling pathways are promising. PMID:19152646

  3. Tacky but refined: a "slick" technique for dressings that hold better.

    PubMed

    Carrington, P R

    2000-10-01

    For decades benzoin has been used to enhance the "stickiness" of the skin for improved adherence complementing the protective and functional aspects of well-constructed surgical bandages/dressings. The fully adherent and longer-lasting pressure dressing is both aesthetically pleasing to the patient (and surgeon) and, at the same time, functions to decrease seroma or hematoma formation, enhances antisepsis by blocking transient bacterial contamination, and inhibits traumatic sabotage of surgical wounds due to patient overactivity or inadvertent collision with a door jam, car door, table leg, or grandchild, etc. Also, when the bandage looks good, the patient realizes the operation was a success (at least aesthetically). Although simple, our additional steps of deoiling the skin with acetone, followed by multiple compress/release cycles of gauze to the Mastisol area reaps benefits to the patient and surgeon both in function (adherence) and in the production of a truly "dressy" beautiful and long-lasting dressing. In this way, the dressing "bed" is not only more receptive to one's aesthetically pleasing bandage, but is more tacky, yet refined. This same technique can be utilized prior to application of adhesive strips to healing wounds after sutures have been removed, allowing them to "stay on" longer with potentially better cosmesis and less spreading of the scar. PMID:11050495

  4. Pyoderma gangrenosum following a routine caesarean section: Pseudo-infection in a caesarean wound

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, A.G.; Singal, Archana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Singh, Smita

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old booked primigravida underwent lower segment caesarean section for breech presentation. She developed signs and symptoms of wound infection by the fourth postoperative day. This was initially managed with antibiotics and wound dressing, but debridement was later undertaken after consulting surgeons. This resulted in an alarming worsening of the wound with sudden and fast increase in its size along with systemic symptoms. Wound biopsy established the diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum. The patient's management included oral medication with prednisolone, cyclosporin and dapsone and wound care. There was a dramatic response to this treatment. The wound completely healed by the eighth postoperative month. The oral medications were tapered off slowly and stopped by that time. PMID:26535169

  5. Gunshot wounds - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 11(9):546-551. Leong M, Phillips LG. Wound Healing. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. ... Of Gunshot Wounds To The Limbs: A Review. The Internet Journal ...

  6. Diabetic Wound Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... care, and what is being applied to the wound. Healing may occur within weeks or require several months. ... may seem to you. The key to successful wound healing is regular podiatric medical care to ensure the ...

  7. Wound Healing and Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gastrointestinal system, or respiratory system — fluids and other contaminants could get into the wound and cause infection. ... sure there are no remaining bacteria or other contaminants, they will stitch or close the wound. Sometimes, ...

  8. Sweet NETs, Bitter Wounds.

    PubMed

    Papayannopoulos, Venizelos

    2015-08-18

    What causes slow wound healing rates in diabetes is poorly understood. Wong et al. (2015) report that an increase in the deployment of neutrophil extracellular traps associated with hyperglycemia slows down wound healing. PMID:26287680

  9. Management of radiation-induced moist skin desquamation using hydrocolloid dressing

    SciTech Connect

    Margolin, S.G.; Breneman, J.C.; Denman, D.L.; LaChapelle, P.; Weckbach, L.; Aron, B.S. )

    1990-04-01

    Moist skin desquamation has been of concern to radiation oncologists, nurses and patients since the inception of this mode of therapy. As radiation treatment machines became more sophisticated, severe reactions became less of a problem. However, with the increasing use of chemotherapy and radiation as combined modalities, moist skin reaction is occurring with greater frequency. A noncomparative study of 20 patients using a hydrocolloid occlusive dressing (Duoderm) was initiated. The purpose of the study was to determine whether moist occlusive healing would be beneficial. The dressing was evaluated on the basis of healing time, safety, wound temperature, bacterial growth, and comfort. Data were collected using photographs, bacterial cultures, temperature probes, and patient evaluations. Eighteen patients completed the study. All patients' skin reactions healed. There were no wound infections evident. Mean healing time was 12 days, with mean wound temperature relative to body core -0.8 degree C on day 1 and -1.2 degrees C on the healed site. Patient results on comfort were: 8 of 18 excellent, 7 of 18 good, 3 of 18 fair, and 0 of 18 poor. The results of this study indicate that a hydrocolloid occlusive dressing can be effective in the healing process of moist skin reaction that is due to radiation therapy.

  10. Negative pressure dressing combined with a traditional approach for the treatment of skull burn.

    PubMed

    Gumus, N

    2012-01-01

    Deep burns of the calvarium due to high-voltage electrical current present serious therapeutic challenges in the healing. In this study, as an alternative approach to the treatment of burned skull, negative pressure dressing is used to facilitate separation of the necrotic bones from healthy margins of the cranium, and to encourage rapid granulation tissue formation after trephination of the bone. A 36-year-old male patient, who had been seriously injured on his head with high-voltage electrical current, is presented. On the fifth day after injury, necrosis of the scalp became clearly significant, thereby necessitating extensive debridement. Under general anesthesia, necrotic scalp was removed, leaving the calvarial bone exposed, and while devitalized calvaria was left in place, exposed bone was drilled. A vacuum-assisted dressing was then applied to the wound and set to 125 mmHg continuous pressure. Some granulation tissue developed in the holes and margins of the wound, but it was not sufficient to allow successful closure of the wound with skin grafting. Therefore, the patient underwent another operation in which devitalized outer table of the skull was easily removed from viable bone by using a little force. Elevation of the necrotic outer bony layer revealed profuse granulation tissue formation over the inner layer. When dealing with this experience, vacuum-assisted dressing seems to be a useful tool in acceleration of the separation of necrotic bones and stimulation of granulation tissue formation in burned calvarium. PMID:23238206

  11. Vacuum Assisted Closure Therapy versus Standard Wound Therapy for Open Musculoskeletal Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Kushagra; Chauhan, Vijendra D; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Chauhan, Neena; Rajan, Manu; Agrawal, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study was performed to evaluate the results of vacuum assisted wound therapy in patients with open musculoskeletal injuries. Study Design and Setting. Prospective, randomized, and interventional at tertiary care hospital, from 2011 to 2012. Materials and Methods. 30 patients of open musculoskeletal injuries underwent randomized trial of vacuum assisted closure therapy versus standard wound therapy around the upper limb and lower limb. Mean patient age was 39 ± 18 years (range, 18 to 76 years). Necrotic tissues were debrided before applying VAC therapy. Dressings were changed every 3 or 4 days. For standard wound therapy, debridement followed by daily dressings was done. Data Management and Statistical Analysis. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results. The size of soft tissue defects reduced more than 5?mm to 25?mm after VAC (mean decrease of 26.66%), whereas in standard wound therapy, reduction in wound size was less than 5?mm. A free flap was needed to cover exposed bone and tendon in one case in standard wound therapy group. No major complication occurred that was directly attributable to treatment. Conclusion. Vacuum assisted wound therapy was found to facilitate the rapid formation of healthy granulation tissue on open wounds in the upper limb and lower limb, thus to shorten healing time and minimize secondary soft tissue defect coverage procedures. PMID:23878741

  12. Mind-body techniques in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Karen A

    2002-11-01

    Even the most skilled and resourceful wound care provider encounters stagnation of wound healing from time to time. Patients with chronic, nonhealing wounds often display negative thought patterns and behavioral tendencies that, in turn, hinder biological and emotional healing. An increasing body of research supports the negative effect of stress on wound healing. The impact of deeper, emotion-based "wounds" as complicating factors in conventional wound healing are being further explored. It is theorized that emotions such as lack of self worth, guilt, and anger are strongly correlated to the chronic, nonhealing wound. Mind-body techniques such as affirmations, creative visualization, relaxation, and conscious breathing are suggested for incorporation into the treatment program. These techniques seek to empower and engage the patient by promoting greater personal awareness and assertion in the healing process. Wound care providers are seen as facilitators of the innate healing potential inside each individual. Mind-body techniques are offered as a complement for a more comprehensive wound healing strategy. PMID:12426453

  13. Transient absorption spectra of the laser-dressed hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Mitsuko; Chu, Shih-I.

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of transient absorption spectra of laser-dressed hydrogen atoms, based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The timing of absorption is controlled by the delay between an extreme ultra violet (XUV) pulse and an infrared (IR) laser field. The XUV pulse is isolated and several hundred attoseconds in duration, which acts as a pump to drive the ground-state electron to excited p states. The subsequent interaction with the IR field produces dressed states, which manifest as sidebands between the 1s-np absorption spectra separated by one IR-photon energy. We demonstrate that the population of dressed states is maximized when the timing of the XUV pulse coincides with the zero crossing of the IR field, and that their energies can be manipulated in a subcycle time scale by adding a chirp to the IR field. An alternative perspective to the problem is to think of the XUV pulse as a probe to detect the dynamical ac Stark shifts. Our results indicate that the accidental degeneracy of the hydrogen excited states is removed while they are dressed by the IR field, leading to large ac Stark shifts. Furthermore, we observe the Autler-Townes doublets for the n=2 and 3 levels using the 656 nm dressing field, but their separation does not agree with the prediction by the conventional three-level model that neglects the dynamical ac Stark shifts.

  14. Biofilms and Wounds: An Identification Algorithm and Potential Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Steven L.; Vuotto, Claudia; Donelli, Gianfranco; Lipsky, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The presence of a “pathogenic” or “highly virulent” biofilm is a fundamental risk factor that prevents a chronic wound from healing and increases the risk of the wound becoming clinically infected. There is presently no unequivocal gold standard method available for clinicians to confirm the presence of biofilms in a wound. Thus, to help support clinician practice, we devised an algorithm intended to demonstrate evidence of the presence of a biofilm in a wound to assist with wound management. Recent Advances: A variety of histological and microscopic methods applied to tissue biopsies are currently the most informative techniques available for demonstrating the presence of generic (not classified as pathogenic or commensal) biofilms and the effect they are having in promoting inflammation and downregulating cellular functions. Critical Issues: Even as we rely on microscopic techniques to visualize biofilms, they are entities which are patchy and dispersed rather than confluent, particularly on biotic surfaces. Consequently, detection of biofilms by microscopic techniques alone can lead to frequent false-negative results. Furthermore, visual identification using the naked eye of a pathogenic biofilm on a macroscopic level on the wound will not be possible, unlike with biofilms on abiotic surfaces. Future Direction: Lacking specific biomarkers to demonstrate microscopic, nonconfluent, virulent biofilms in wounds, the present focus on biofilm research should be placed on changing clinical practice. This is best done by utilizing an anti-biofilm toolbox approach, rather than speculating on unscientific approaches to identifying biofilms, with or without staining, in wounds with the naked eye. The approach to controlling biofilm should include initial wound cleansing, periodic debridement, followed by the application of appropriate antimicrobial wound dressings. This approach appears to be effective in removing pathogenic biofilms. PMID:26155381

  15. The Use of Biologic Scaffolds in the Treatment of Chronic Nonhealing Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Neill J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Injuries to the skin as a result of illness or injury, particularly chronic nonhealing wounds, present a major healthcare problem. Traditional wound care approaches attempt to control the underlying causes, such as infection and ischemia, while the application of wound dressings aims to modify a poorly healing wound environment into a microenvironment more closely resembling an acute wound allowing the body to heal the wound naturally. Recent Advances: Regenerative medicine approaches, such as the use of biologic scaffold materials comprising an intact extracellular matrix (ECM) or individual components of the ECM, are providing new therapeutic options that focus upon the provision of biochemical cues that alter the wound microenvironment to facilitate rapid restoration of normal skin architecture. Critical Issues: The incidence of chronic nonhealing wounds continues to increase. For example, between 15% and 20% of diabetics are likely to develop chronic, nonhealing foot wounds creating an increasing burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Future Directions: Developing a thorough understanding of wound microenvironment and the mechanisms by which biologic scaffolds work in vivo has the potential to markedly improve outcomes in the clinical translation for the treatment of chronic wounds. PMID:26244105

  16. Optimized polymeric film-based nitric oxide delivery inhibits bacterial growth in a mouse burn wound model

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J.; Bayliss, Jill; Wu, Jianfeng; Major, Terry C.; Xi, Chuanwu; Wang, Stewart C.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Handa, Hitesh; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has many biological roles (e.g., antimicrobial agent, promoter of angiogenesis, prevention of platelet activation, etc.) that make NO releasing materials desirable for a variety of biomedical applications. Localized NO release can be achieved from biomedical grade polymers doped with diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/N2O2) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). In this study, the optimization of this chemistry to create film/patches that can be used to decrease microbial infection at wound sites is examined. Two polyurethanes with different water uptakes (Tecoflex SG-80A (6.2 ± 0.7 wt %) and Tecophillic SP-60D-20 (22.5 ± 1.1 wt%)) were doped with 25 wt% DBHD/N2O2 and 10 wt% of PLGA with various hydrolysis rates. Films prepared with the polymer that has the higher water uptake (SP-60D-20) were found to have higher NO release and for a longer duration than the polyurethane with lower water uptake (SG-80A). The more hydrophilic polymer enhances the hydrolysis rate of the PLGA additive, thereby providing a more acidic environment that increases the rate of NO release from the NO donor. The optimal NO releasing and control SG-80A patches were then applied to scald burn wounds that were infected with Acinetobacter baumannii. The NO released from these patches applied to the wounds is shown to significantly reduce the A. baumannii infection after 24 h (~4 log reduction). The NO release patches are also able to reduce the TGF-? levels, in comparison to controls, which can enhance reepithelialization, decrease scarring, and reduce migration of bacteria. The combined DBHD/N2O2 and PLGA-doped polymer patches, which could be replaced periodically throughout the wound healing process, demonstrate the potential to reduce risk of bacterial infection and promote the overall wound healing process. PMID:24980058

  17. Laser-dressed scattering of an attosecond electron wave packet

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Justin; Krausz, Ferenc; Yakovlev, Vladislav S.

    2010-09-15

    We theoretically investigate the scattering of an attosecond electron wave packet launched by an attosecond pulse under the influence of an infrared laser field. As the electron scatters inside a spatially extended system, the dressing laser field controls its motion. We show that this interaction, which lasts just a few hundreds of attoseconds, clearly manifests itself in the spectral interference pattern between different quantum pathways taken by the outgoing electron. We find that the Coulomb-Volkov approximation, a standard expression used to describe laser-dressed photoionization, cannot properly describe this interference pattern. We introduce a quasiclassical model, based on electron trajectories, which quantitatively explains the laser-dressed photoelectron spectra, notably the laser-induced changes in the spectral interference pattern.

  18. Laser Dressed Scattering of an Attosecond Electron Wave Packet

    E-print Network

    Justin Gagnon; Ferenc Krausz; Vladislav S. Yakovlev

    2010-08-13

    We theoretically investigate the scattering of an attosecond electron wave packet launched by an attosecond pulse under the influence of an infrared laser field. As the electron scatters inside a spatially extended system, the dressing laser field controls its motion. We show that this interaction, which lasts just a few hundreds of attoseconds, clearly manifests itself in the spectral interference pattern between different quantum pathways taken by the outgoing electron. We find that the Coulomb-Volkov approximation, a standard expression used to describe laser-dressed photoionization, cannot properly describe this interference pattern. We introduce a quasi-classical model, based on electron trajectories, which quantitatively explains the laser-dressed photoelectron spectra, notably the laser-induced changes in the spectral interference pattern.

  19. Dressed bound states for attosecond dynamics in strong laser fields

    E-print Network

    Vladislav S. Yakovlev; Michael Korbman; Armin Scrinzi

    2012-01-27

    We propose a theoretical approach for the interpretation of pump-probe measurements where an attosecond pulse is absorbed in the presence of an intense laser pulse. This approach is based on abstractly defined dressed bound states, which capture the essential aspects of the interaction with the laser pulse and facilitate a perturbative description of transitions induced by the attosecond pulse. Necessary properties of dressed bound states are defined and various choices are discussed and compared to accurate numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation.

  20. Penetrating wounds of the neck.

    PubMed

    Miller, R H; Duplechain, J K

    1991-02-01

    The management of penetrating wounds of the neck provides several decision-making steps that remain controversial. The two basic concepts of management include the idea that all wounds deep to the platysma should be explored and (the more conservative concept) that selective neck exploration should be based on a battery of tests to identify traumatic injuries. The areas of agreement within these two schools of thought include exploration of wounds with obvious injury, exploration of wounds in which patients cannot be stabilized satisfactorily for further testing, and the idea that all patients with wounds deep to the platysma should be admitted to the hospital. The remaining issues, including the need for angiography, barium swallow, or endoscopy, still are contested. Mandatory exploration of neck wounds became popular during World War II. The weapons used, the lack of accurate testing, and delays in treatment caused by transport problems played significant roles in the development of this policy. Proponents of mandatory exploration of neck wounds contend that delays in treatment result in increased mortality rates. Also delays caused by lengthy diagnostic testing have resulted in rapid exsanguination of patients who might otherwise have been surgically salvageable. These factors, along with the potential for undetected injuries and the associated complications (including false aneurysms and mediastinitis) favor mandatory exploration. Advocates of routine neck explorations also note the low morbidity rates associated with a neck exploration. Reported rates of negative exploration are high, however, approaching 45%, and mortality rates vary from 2% to 9%. Selective neck exploration has gained popularity in some centers because of the lower negative exploration rates associated with this treatment, while comparable mortality rates are achieved. May found a negative exploration rate of 12% in his series of selective neck explorations and a mortality rate of approximately 3%. Furthermore, Noyes found that the hospital stay for patients with selective observation management not requiring a neck exploration was 2.8 days, compared with 4.2 days for patients with mandatory but negative neck explorations. A summary of diagnostic techniques and their indications in selecting patients with penetrating neck wounds for surgery is presented in Table 5. It has become apparent that both selective and mandatory explorations of neck wounds play important roles in treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2027695

  1. Nitrofurantoin: cause of DRESS syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Barreto, Paulo; Leão, Ricardo R; Ribeiro, José Vaz

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common pathological entity among elderly patients. The widespread use of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs has gained many opponents mainly due to the increasing drug resistance observed. Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used antibacterial drug because it has low side effects and a good antiurinary bacterial profile. However, in this paper, we present a case of a nitrofurantoin-induced DRESS (drug reaction/rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome in a 77-year-old woman. During UTI treatment, the patient developed an acute skin rash which spread all over the body and a considerable decrease in urine volume. At the emergency department, we found her developing eosinophilic pneumonia, anaemia and renal impairment that we relate to nitrofurantoin administration. To our knowledge, this is the second published case report which evokes nitrofurantoin as a possible cause of DRESS syndrome. PMID:23661654

  2. Nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes for dermal wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Karahalilo?lu, Zeynep; Ercan, Batur; Denkba?, Emir B; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    As an effort to create the next generation of improved skin graft materials, in this study, we modified the surfaces of a previously investigated material, silk fibroin, using a NaOH alkaline treatment to obtain a biologically inspired nanofeatured surface morphology. Such surfaces were characterized for roughness, energy, and chemistry. In addition, keratinocyte (skin-forming cells) adhesion and proliferation on such nanofeatured silk fibroin wound dressings were studied in an initial attempt to determine the promotion of an epidermal cover on the wound bed to form a new epidermal barrier. Dermal fibroblast adhesion and proliferation were also studied to assess the ability of nanostructured silk fibroin to replace damaged dermal tissue in chronic wounds (i.e., for diabetic foot ulcers). Results demonstrated for the first time that keratinocyte and fibroblast cell density was greater on nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes compared with non-treated silk fibroin surfaces. The enhancement in cellular functions was correlated with an increase in silk surface nanotopography, wettability and change in chemistry after NaOH treatment. Due to the present promising results, the newly developed nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes are exciting alternative skin graft materials which should be further studied for various skin patch and wound dressing applications. PMID:24616219

  3. Honey: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Managing Diabetic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds. In addition, honey is known as an “all in one” remedy for diabetic wound healing because it can combat many microorganisms that are involved in the wound process and because it possesses antioxidant activity and controls inflammation. In this review, the potential role of honey's antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey's clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims. PMID:25386217

  4. Challenges in the Treatment of Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Banks, Jaminelli

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds include, but are not limited, to diabetic foot ulcers, venous leg ulcers, and pressure ulcers. They are a challenge to wound care professionals and consume a great deal of healthcare resources around the globe. This review discusses the pathophysiology of complex chronic wounds and the means and modalities currently available to achieve healing in such patients. Recent Advances: Although often difficult to treat, an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and specific attention toward managing these perturbations can often lead to successful healing. Critical Issues: Overcoming the factors that contribute to delayed healing are key components of a comprehensive approach to wound care and present the primary challenges to the treatment of chronic wounds. When wounds fail to achieve sufficient healing after 4 weeks of standard care, reassessment of underlying pathology and consideration of the need for advanced therapeutic agents should be undertaken. However, selection of an appropriate therapy is often not evidence based. Future Directions: Basic tenets of care need to be routinely followed, and a systematic evaluation of patients and their wounds will also facilitate appropriate care. Underlying pathologies, which result in the failure of these wounds to heal, differ among various types of chronic wounds. A better understanding of the differences between various types of chronic wounds at the molecular and cellular levels should improve our treatment approaches, leading to better healing rates, and facilitate the development of new more effective therapies. More evidence for the efficacy of current and future advanced wound therapies is required for their appropriate use. PMID:26339534

  5. Acute wound management: revisiting the approach to assessment, irrigation, and closure considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayello, Elizabeth A.; Woo, Kevin; Nitzki-George, Diane; Sibbald, R. Gary

    2010-01-01

    Background As millions of emergency department (ED) visits each year include wound care, emergency care providers must remain experts in acute wound management. The variety of acute wounds presenting to the ED challenge the physician to select the most appropriate management to facilitate healing. A complete wound history along with anatomic and specific medical considerations for each patient provides the basis of decision making for wound management. It is essential to apply an evidence?based approach and consider each wound individually in order to create the optimal conditions for wound healing. Aims A comprehensive evidence?based approach to acute wound management is an essential skill set for any emergency physician or acute care practitioner. This review provides an overview of current evidence and addresses frequent pitfalls. Methods A systematic review of the literature for acute wound management was performed. Results A structured MEDLINE search was performed regarding acute wound management including established wound care guidelines. The data obtained provided the framework for evidence?based recommendations and current best practices for wound care. Conclusion Acute wound management varies based on the wound location and characteristics. No single approach can be applied to all wounds; however, a systematic approach to acute wound care integrated with current best practices provides the framework for exceptional wound management. PMID:21373312

  6. Wound healing and antibacterial properties of methanolic extract of Pupalia lappacea Juss in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wound healing is a natural process that enables tissue repair after an injury. To shorten its duration and minimize associated complications, wounds are treated with medications. Currently there is a growing interest in the use of alternative wound dressing agents such as plant extracts. One plant used traditionally in wound treatment is Pupalia lappacea. In view of its use in wound care, we investigated the wound healing activities of 80% methanolic leave extract of Pupalia lappacea using excision, incision and dead space wound models. Also its effects on three common wound contaminants were investigated. Methods Excision wounds were created, contaminated with microbes and treated with ointments (10% and 20% w/w) prepared from Pupalia lappacea. Incision and dead space wounds were also created in rats which were subsequently dosed orally with the extract. The wound healing activities of Pupalia lappacea ointment on excision wound was assessed by rates of wound contraction and epithelialization as well as its antibacterial effects. The effects of Pupalia lappacea on incision and dead-space wounds were determined by the wound breaking strengths and weights of the granuloma tissues formed, respectively. Results Pupalia. lappacea ointments significantly (p?wound healing with 20% ointment having the highest percentage wound contraction and rate of epithelialization. At 4, 7 and 14 days post treatment, mean total viable bacterial count of excision wounds of the extract treated groups were significantly (p?Wound breaking strengths and weights of granuloma tissues formed in the extract treated groups were significantly (p?wound healing and antibacterial activities. These findings validate the use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of wounds. PMID:24886368

  7. Pathology case of the month. Swamp-related wound infection. Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Donthamsetty, Supriya; Figueroa, Julio; Barbeau, James; McGoey, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A 38 year-old woman with no significant past medical history was brought to the emergency department following a motor vehicle rollover and submersion into swampy waters alongside a Louisiana interstate. In addition to multiple blunt force injuries, she suffered a laceration injury over the right lower extremity, which initially required irrigation and sterile dressing. On hospital day two, the wound became grossly infected. The wound was swabbed for culture and Gram stain, and the patient was empirically started on intravenous Piperacillin/tazobactam. Results from the Gram stain showed few white blood cells and numerous Gram negative rods. The following day, the wound continued to drain purulent material but with a stable zone of erythema. The wound was drained and debrided. On hospital day four, the blood agar plate, previously inoculated with the wound culture, grew the colonies shown in the below photograph. PMID:25073265

  8. TOPICAL APPLICATION OF LAMININ-322 TO DIABETIC MOUSE WOUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen R.; Underwood, Robert A.; Sigle, Randall O.; Fukano, Yuko; Muffley, Lara A.; Usui, Marcia L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Antezana, Marcos A.; Carter, William G.; Olerud, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Background Keratinocyte migration is essential for wound healing and diabetic wound keratinocytes migrate poorly. Keratinocyte migration and anchorage appears to be mediated by laminin-332 (LM-332). Impaired diabetic wound healing may be due to defective LM-332 mediated keratinocyte migration. Objective To evaluate LM-332 expression in diabetic (db/db) and control (db/-) mice and to test LM-332 wound healing effects when applied to mouse wounds. Methods LM-332 expression in mouse wounds was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. LM-332 wound healing effects were evaluated by directly applying soluble LM-332, a LM-332 biomaterial, or a control to mouse wounds. Percent wound closure and histology score, based on healing extent, were measured. Results Precursor LM-332 expression was markedly reduced in db/db when compared to db/- mice. In vitro, soluble LM-332 and LM-332 biomaterial demonstrated significant keratinocyte adhesion. In vivo, soluble LM-332 treated wounds had the highest histology score, but significant differences were not found between wound treatments (p>0.05). No differences in percentage wound closure between treatment and control wounds were found (p>0.05). Conclusion The db/db wounds express less precursor LM-332 when compared to db/-. However, LM-332 application did not improve db/db wound healing. LM-332 purified from keratinocytes was primarily physiologically cleaved LM-332 and may not regulate keratinocyte migration. Application of precursor LM-332 rather than cleaved LM-332 may be necessary to improve wound healing, but this isoform is not currently available in quantities sufficient for testing. PMID:17719208

  9. Telemedicine for wound management

    PubMed Central

    Chittoria, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    The escalating physiological, psychological, social and financial burdens of wounds and wound care on patients, families and society demand the immediate attention of the health care sector. Many forces are affecting the changes in health care provision for patients with chronic wounds, including managed care, the limited number of wound care therapists, an increasingly ageing and disabled population, regulatory and malpractice issues, and compromised care. The physician is also faced with a number of difficult issues when caring for chronic wound patients because their conditions are time consuming and high risk, represent an unprofitable part of care practice and raise issues of liability. Telemedicine enhances communication with the surgical wound care specialist. Digital image for skin lesions is a safe, accurate and cost-effective referral pathway. The two basic modes of telemedicine applications, store and forward (asynchronous transfer) and real-time transmission (synchronous transfer, e.g. video conference), are utilized in the wound care setting. Telemedicine technology in the hands of an experienced physician can streamline management of a problem wound. Although there is always an element of anxiety related to technical change, the evolution of wound care telemedicine technology has demonstrated a predictable maturation process. PMID:23162242

  10. Predebridement wound culture in open fractures does not predict postoperative wound infection: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lingaraj, Reddy; Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Devi, Sheela; Najimudeen, Syed; Gnanadoss, James J.; Kanagasabai, Rengasamy; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is confusion in the current literature regarding the value of obtaining predebridement wound cultures in the management of open fractures with several studies reporting contrasting results. We undertook a pilot study to determine the initial bacterial flora of open fractures in our environment and determine the correlation between subsequent wound infection if any, and the initial bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Initial/predebridement wound swabs were obtained for 32 patients with open fractures. Patients underwent a debridement of the open wound and preliminary stabilization of fracture in the operating room within 24 h. Postdebridement wound cultures were obtained at 48 h and repeated subsequently, if indicated, during the follow-up period. The antibiotic therapy was modified based on the culture reports. Results: Initial wound swab culture showed bacterial contamination in 18 patients (56%); 14 patients (44%) developed an infection in the immediate postoperative period or during follow-up. Age, gender, co-morbid medical condition, delay in presentation, and grade of open fracture were not found to be predictors of postoperative infection. No patient had an infection with the same organism, which was present in the initial culture. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the initial flora are not the infecting organisms in the open fracture wounds, and predebridement wound cultures have no value in predicting postdebridement wound infection.

  11. Impact of Mucorales and Other Invasive Molds on Clinical Outcomes of Polymicrobial Traumatic Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Warkentien, Tyler E; Shaikh, Faraz; Weintrob, Amy C; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Murray, Clinton K; Lloyd, Bradley A; Ganesan, Anuradha; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Tribble, David R

    2015-07-01

    Combat trauma wounds with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are often polymicrobial with fungal and bacterial growth, but the impact of the wound microbiology on clinical outcomes is uncertain. Our objectives were to compare the microbiological features between IFI and non-IFI wounds and evaluate whether clinical outcomes differed among IFI wounds based upon mold type. Data from U.S. military personnel injured in Afghanistan with IFI wounds were examined. Controls were matched by the pattern/severity of injury, including blood transfusion requirements. Wound closure timing was compared between IFI and non-IFI control wounds (with/without bacterial infections). IFI wound closure was also assessed according to mold species isolation. Eighty-two IFI wounds and 136 non-IFI wounds (63 with skin and soft tissue infections [SSTIs] and 73 without) were examined. The time to wound closure was longer for the IFI wounds (median, 16 days) than for the non-IFI controls with/without SSTIs (medians, 12 and 9 days, respectively; P < 0.001). The growth of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods was reported among 35% and 41% of the IFI and non-IFI wounds with SSTIs, respectively. Among the IFI wounds, times to wound closure were significantly longer for wounds with Mucorales growth than for wounds with non-Mucorales growth (median, 17 days versus 13 days; P < 0.01). When wounds with Mucorales and Aspergillus spp. growth were compared, there was no significant difference in wound closure timing. Trauma wounds with SSTIs were often polymicrobial, yet the presence of invasive molds (predominant types: order Mucorales, Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium spp.) significantly prolonged the time to wound closure. Overall, the times to wound closure were longest for the IFI wounds with Mucorales growth. PMID:25972413

  12. Origin of Propionibacterium in Surgical Wounds and Evidence-Based Approach for Culturing Propionibacterium from Surgical Sites

    PubMed Central

    Matsen, Frederick A.; Butler-Wu, Susan; Carofino, Bradley C.; Jette, Jocelyn L.; Bertelsen, Alexander; Bumgarner, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background: To explore the origin of Propionibacterium in surgical wounds and to suggest an optimized strategy for culturing this organism at the time of revision surgery, we studied the presence of this organism on the skin and in the surgical wounds of patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for reasons other than apparent infection. Methods: Specimens were cultured in broth and on aerobic and anaerobic media. The presence and degree of positivity of Propionibacterium cultures were correlated with sex. The results of dermal and deep cultures were correlated. Times to positivity and the yields of each media type and specimen source were investigated. Results: Propionibacterium grew in twenty-three of thirty cultures of specimens obtained preoperatively from the unprepared epidermis over the area where a skin incision was going to be made for a shoulder arthroplasty; males had a greater average degree of positivity than females (p < 0.002). Twelve of twenty-one male subjects and zero of twenty female subjects who had cultures of dermal specimens obtained during revision shoulder arthroplasty had positive findings for Propionibacterium (p = 0.0001). Twelve of twenty male subjects and only one of twenty female subjects had positive deep cultures (p = 0.0004). The positivity of dermal cultures for Propionibacterium was significantly associated with the positivity of deep cultures for this organism (p = 0.0001). If Propionibacterium was present in deep tissues, it was likely that it would be recovered by culture if four different specimens were obtained and cultured for a minimum of seventeen days on three different media: aerobic, anaerobic, and broth. Conclusions: Because the surgical incision of dermal sebaceous glands may be a source of Propionibacterium in deep wounds, strategies for minimizing the risk of Propionibacterium infections may need to be directed at minimizing the contamination of surgical wounds from these bacteria residing in rather than on the skin. Obtaining at least four specimens, observing them for seventeen days, and using three types of culture media optimize the recovery of Propionibacterium at the time of revision surgery. PMID:23426775

  13. Atom as a "Dressed" Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Kalitvianski

    2008-11-23

    It is shown that the electrostatic potential of atomic nucleus "seen" by a fast charged projectile at short distances is smeared quantum mechanically due to nucleus motion around the atomic center of inertia. For example, the "positive charge cloud" size in the Hydrogen ground state is much larger than the proper proton size. It is even bigger for the target atoms in excited initial states. The elastic scattering at large angles is generally weaker than the Rutherford one since the effective potential at short distances is softer than the Colombian one due to a natural "cutoff". In addition, the large angle scattering leads to the target atom excitations due to pushing the nucleus (=> inelastic processes). The Rutherford cross section is in fact the inclusive rather than the elastic one. These results are analogous to the QED ones. The difference and the value of presented below non relativistic atomic calculations is in non perturbatively (exact) nucleus "dressing" that immediately leads to correct physical results and to significant technical simplifications. In these respects the nucleus bound in an atom is a simple but a rather realistic model of a "dressed" charge in the QFT. This idea is briefly demonstrated on the real electron model (electronium) that is made free from infinities.

  14. Taming the anti-B ---> X(s) gamma spectrum by dressed gluon exponentiation.

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Jeppe R.; Gardi, Einan

    We show that the ¯B ?? Xs? photon energy (E ) spectrum can be reliably computed by resummed perturbation theory. Our calculation is based on Dressed Gluon Exponentiation (DGE) incorporating Sudakov and renormalon resummation. It is shown...

  15. Optically Dressed States Optical Flux Lattices

    E-print Network

    Dalibard, Jean

    Optically Dressed States Optical Flux Lattices Outlook & Summary Optical Flux Lattices for Cold Atom Gases Coll`ege de FranOptical Flux Lattices for Cold Atom Gases #12;Optically Dressed States Optical Flux Lattices Outlook & Summary Motivation: fractional quantum Hall regime 2D charged particle

  16. Wound cleaning versus wound disinfection: a challenging dilemma.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D; Davey, C

    1997-01-01

    Our experience with this resident has had a significant impact on our approach to wound management. We no longer accept normal saline as the only option for wound cleansing. Instead, we approach wound cleansing systematically using the wound cleansing model outlined in Figure 1. If healing is not apparent, we critically review the situation and consider the bacterial status of the wound, the phase of wound healing, and the effects of wound cleansing versus wound disinfection on both the bacteria and the cells responsible for wound repair. In infected wounds or those colonized with a high bacterial count, careful attention is given to eradicating bacterial contamination. We carefully weigh the benefits of wound disinfection (eradication of bacterial contamination) against wound cleansing and the potential harm to the resident (delayed wound healing and unnecessary discomfort). If the benefits of wound disinfection outweigh the potential harm to the resident, we choose wound disinfection and monitor its effectiveness on a daily basis. When bacterial contamination has been eradicated and the wound is clean, we resume wound cleansing with normal saline. PMID:9460442

  17. Nano-porous nitrocellulose liquid bandage modulates cell and cytokine response and accelerates cutaneous wound healing in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaofeng; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Caizhen; Chen, Xiufang; Cheng, Zhiyun; Bai, Ruyu; Wu, Xunxun; Yu, Qian; Wu, Chunlin; Diao, Yong

    2016-01-20

    Nitrocellulose liquid bandage (L-Bandage) is extensively used in hard-to-cover cuts and wounds management, owing to its flexibility, softness, transparency, and conformability. However, evidence supporting their mechanisms of action as wound dressing is scanty. This study introduces a novel nano-porous L-Bandage, and provides results from a mouse full-thickness wound model investigating its mechanism of action on wound healing. Different characteristics, such as porosity, mechanical properties and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) were determined. The L-Bandage formed film had a porous network structure with mean diameter of 18nm that could effectively prevent the bacterial invasion, and favorable properties of tensile strength, elongation, and WVTR. The L-Bandage treated wound exhibited accelerated healing, with reduced inflammations, enhanced wound re-epithelialization, contraction, granulation tissue formation, and rapid angiogenesis. Our data suggested that L-Bandage could serve as a promising wound dressing, because of its desirable properties for wound healing. PMID:26572394

  18. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI).

    PubMed

    Mills, Joseph L; Conte, Michael S; Armstrong, David G; Pomposelli, Frank B; Schanzer, Andres; Sidawy, Anton N; Andros, George

    2014-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia, first defined in 1982, was intended to delineate a subgroup of patients with a threatened lower extremity primarily because of chronic ischemia. It was the intent of the original authors that patients with diabetes be excluded or analyzed separately. The Fontaine and Rutherford Systems have been used to classify risk of amputation and likelihood of benefit from revascularization by subcategorizing patients into two groups: ischemic rest pain and tissue loss. Due to demographic shifts over the last 40 years, especially a dramatic rise in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and rapidly expanding techniques of revascularization, it has become increasingly difficult to perform meaningful outcomes analysis for patients with threatened limbs using these existing classification systems. Particularly in patients with diabetes, limb threat is part of a broad disease spectrum. Perfusion is only one determinant of outcome; wound extent and the presence and severity of infection also greatly impact the threat to a limb. Therefore, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee undertook the task of creating a new classification of the threatened lower extremity that reflects these important considerations. We term this new framework, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System. Risk stratification is based on three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI). The implementation of this classification system is intended to permit more meaningful analysis of outcomes for various forms of therapy in this challenging, but heterogeneous population. PMID:24126108

  19. Application of Antrodia camphorata Promotes Rat's Wound Healing In Vivo and Facilitates Fibroblast Cell Proliferation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Amin, Zahra A; Ali, Hapipah M; Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Darvish, Pouya H; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a parasitic fungus from Taiwan, it has been documented to possess a variety of pharmacological and biological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Antrodia camphorata ethanol extract to accelerate the rate of wound healing closure and histology of wound area in experimental rats. The safety of Antrodia camphorata was determined in vivo by the acute toxicity test and in vitro by fibroblast cell proliferation assay. The scratch assay was used to evaluate the in vitro wound healing in fibroblast cells and the excision model of wound healing was tested in vivo using four groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats. Our results showed that wound treated with Antrodia camphorata extract and intrasite gel significantly accelerates the rate of wound healing closure than those treated with the vehicle. Wounds dressed with Antrodia camphorata extract showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure and granulation tissue contained less inflammatory cell and more fibroblast compared to wounds treated with the vehicle. Masson's trichrom stain showed granulation tissue containing more collagen and less inflammatory cell in Antrodia camphorata treated wounds. In conclusion, Antrodia camphorata extract significantly enhanced the rate of the wound enclosure in rats and promotes the in vitro healing through fibroblast cell proliferation. PMID:26557855

  20. Application of Antrodia camphorata Promotes Rat's Wound Healing In Vivo and Facilitates Fibroblast Cell Proliferation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Zahra A.; Ali, Hapipah M.; Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Darvish, Pouya H.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a parasitic fungus from Taiwan, it has been documented to possess a variety of pharmacological and biological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Antrodia camphorata ethanol extract to accelerate the rate of wound healing closure and histology of wound area in experimental rats. The safety of Antrodia camphorata was determined in vivo by the acute toxicity test and in vitro by fibroblast cell proliferation assay. The scratch assay was used to evaluate the in vitro wound healing in fibroblast cells and the excision model of wound healing was tested in vivo using four groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats. Our results showed that wound treated with Antrodia camphorata extract and intrasite gel significantly accelerates the rate of wound healing closure than those treated with the vehicle. Wounds dressed with Antrodia camphorata extract showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure and granulation tissue contained less inflammatory cell and more fibroblast compared to wounds treated with the vehicle. Masson's trichrom stain showed granulation tissue containing more collagen and less inflammatory cell in Antrodia camphorata treated wounds. In conclusion, Antrodia camphorata extract significantly enhanced the rate of the wound enclosure in rats and promotes the in vitro healing through fibroblast cell proliferation. PMID:26557855

  1. Electrical stimulation for difficult wounds: only an alternative procedure?

    PubMed

    Fraccalvieri, Marco; Salomone, Marco; Zingarelli, Enrico M; Rivarossa, Filippo; Bruschi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    In the wound healing research, the exact mechanism of action of different modalities of electrical stimulation (ES) remains controversial and unresolved. In this study we discuss a particular ES, with a different type of waveform, corresponding to the principle of stochastic resonance. Between July 2008 and May 2010, 32 patients were enrolled and ES was applied to wounds using the bioelectrical signal therapy (BST) device (LifeWave, Petach Tiqwa, Israel). The outcome evaluated in group 1 (n = 21) was wound healing, while group 2 (n = 11) was evaluated for wound-related pain [Visual Number Scale (VNS) pain scale] during treatment. In group 1, 87% of the wounds closed in an average time of 97 days (range 10-150 days); three patients were lost to follow-up. In group 2, 45% of the patients experienced a complete pain disappearance after 7 days of treatment; 36% reported a reduction in VNS from 9·3 to 3·2 in 7 days; 19% stopped morphine-like painkillers after 2 weeks. The clinical application of the stochastic resonance enables the usage of easy-to-use, non-invasive, painless and pain-relief treatment. Our experience with ES has demonstrated the BST device to be a very good alternative in cases of small size defects, compared with other therapies such as surgery, dressing and negative pressure devices. PMID:24443795

  2. The revisit of 2004 tsunami in Thailand: characteristics of wounds.

    PubMed

    Prasartritha, Thavat; Tungsiripat, Rachata; Warachit, Pairoj

    2008-03-01

    The name, tsunami that was unknown to most Thai people, had hit west southern coast of Thailand on 26 December 2004. Following the disaster, prices have been paid and many lessons have been learnt. The current report provides a historical background of the incident, which was reviewed by documents, brief discussion and observation. Data of the patients from three hospitals involved in the management were collected and reviewed. Some of the illustrations were from the operating rooms of Takuapa, Surat Thani and Songklanagarind hospitals. There were totally 2311 patients. Of these, 45% were males and 40% were multinationals. Nearly 40% suffered from salted water aspiration, while 2% developed complication associated with near drowning. The most common orthopaedic-related injury were minor [559 patients (24%)] and major wounds [586 (25%)]. Around 7% sustained fracture dislocation. Lower extremity fractures were more common. The characteristics of wounds associated with the tsunami were severe contamination, multiple sites and organ involvement. Another characteristic was the early development and spreading of infection. The lessons proposed by the study are that minor wound should be left open, small penetrating wound should be thoroughly explored and observed and lacerated wounds need emergency dressing, debridement and subsequent cleansing procedures. Re-evaluation and closed surveillance of the seriously injured patients are mandatory to eliminate the complicated infection and life-threatening conditions. Medical record of any disastrous event should be completed by health care professionals. The model and reporting system should be internationalised. PMID:18336378

  3. Tilapia Piscidin 4 (TP4) Stimulates Cell Proliferation and Wound Closure in MRSA-Infected Wounds in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hang-Ning; Chan, Yi-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are endogenous antibiotics that directly affect microorganisms, and also have a variety of receptor-mediated functions. One such AMP, Tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4), was isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus); TP4 has antibacterial effects and regulates the innate immune system. The aim of the present study was to characterize the role of TP4 in the regulation of wound closure in mice and proliferation of a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and fibroblast cell line (Hs-68). In vitro, TP4 stimulated cell proliferation and activated collagen I, collagen III, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) gene expression in Hs-68 cells, which induces keratin production by HaCaT cells. This effect was detectable at TP4 concentrations of 6.25 µg/mL in both cell lines. In vivo, TP4 was found to be highly effective at combating peritonitis and wound infection caused by MRSA in mouse models, without inducing adverse behavioral effects or liver or kidney toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that TP4 enhances the survival rate of mice infected with the bacterial pathogen MRSA through both antimicrobial and wound closure activities mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The peptide is likely involved in antibacterial processes and regulation of tissue homeostasis in infected wounds in mice. Overall, these results suggest that TP4 may be suitable for development as a novel topical agent for wound dressing. PMID:25955756

  4. Tilapia Piscidin 4 (TP4) Stimulates Cell Proliferation and Wound Closure in MRSA-Infected Wounds in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hang-Ning; Chan, Yi-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are endogenous antibiotics that directly affect microorganisms, and also have a variety of receptor-mediated functions. One such AMP, Tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4), was isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus); TP4 has antibacterial effects and regulates the innate immune system. The aim of the present study was to characterize the role of TP4 in the regulation of wound closure in mice and proliferation of a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and fibroblast cell line (Hs-68). In vitro, TP4 stimulated cell proliferation and activated collagen I, collagen III, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) gene expression in Hs-68 cells, which induces keratin production by HaCaT cells. This effect was detectable at TP4 concentrations of 6.25 µg/mL in both cell lines. In vivo, TP4 was found to be highly effective at combating peritonitis and wound infection caused by MRSA in mouse models, without inducing adverse behavioral effects or liver or kidney toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that TP4 enhances the survival rate of mice infected with the bacterial pathogen MRSA through both antimicrobial and wound closure activities mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The peptide is likely involved in antibacterial processes and regulation of tissue homeostasis in infected wounds in mice. Overall, these results suggest that TP4 may be suitable for development as a novel topical agent for wound dressing. PMID:25955756

  5. The reinnervation and revascularization of wounds is temporarily altered after treatment with interleukin 10.

    PubMed

    Henderson, James; Ferguson, Mark W J; Terenghi, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Denervated wounds fail to heal normally, and hypertrophic scars are abnormally innervated. Wounds can be manipulated with cytokines to reduce subsequent scarring. Wounds treated with the antiscarring cytokine interleukin 10 (IL10) were investigated to assess if the treatment alterered patterns of reinnervation and revascularization as the wounds matured into scars. Thirty CD1 mice underwent intradermal injection of 100 ?L phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 125 ng IL10 or placebo at the margins of 1 cm(2) full thickness dorsal skin excisions at the time of wounding and at 24 hours after wounding. Wounds were not dressed. Six IL10-treated and six control were harvested days 7, 14, 21, 42 and 84 postoperatively. Sections underwent histological scar assessment along with immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), a pan-neuronal marker, and the sensory neuropeptides calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). The endothelial marker von Willebrand factor (VWF) was used to allow co-localization and quantification of blood vessels. Quantitative analysis was performed on the periphery and center of wounds. Wounds treated with IL10 healed with dermal collagen organized into a pattern more closely resembling normal skin than control wounds. IL10 changed the pattern of CGRP reinnervation during the healing process, but at 84 days, the density levels of all nerve fiber types were similar to controls. Wounds treated with IL10 were more vascular than untreated wounds during healing, but by 84 days, VWF density was that of unwounded skin. PMID:21362095

  6. Novel in vitro approaches for the simulation and analysis of human skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Planz, Viktoria; Franzen, Lutz; Windbergs, Maike

    2015-01-01

    Considering the increasing incidence of chronic wounds and severe wound infections, effective drug delivery to wounded skin is of high importance. The rational development of novel therapeutic systems requires appropriate in vitro testing methodologies. In this context, suitable and reliable in vitro models simulating human wounds and advanced analytical techniques for precise wound characterization are urgently needed. In this study, we introduce a novel in vitro model based on excised human skin. In contrast to the established wound models, our novel approach has a coffin-shaped, linear, rectangular geometry with defined wound edges exhibiting consistent appearance along the entire wound bed. In addition, we introduce optical profilometry as a novel technique for nondestructive wound analysis. We successfully demonstrate the applicability of this optical imaging method based on white light reflection for three-dimensional visualization of different wound models. Furthermore, we create virtual noninvasive cross sections of these wounds to assess wound geometry in direct comparison to conventional histological analysis. Imaging analysis of our novel coffin-shaped model resulted in reproducible virtual sections along the entire wound bed. Our findings indicate the potential of our novel in vitro model for improved simulation of human wounds. Further, we successfully overcome the limitations of conventional histological analysis by the employment of optical profilometry for nondestructive three-dimensional wound characterization. PMID:25341368

  7. Cuts and puncture wounds

    MedlinePLUS

    Lammers RL. Principles of wound management. In: Roberts JR, Hedges JR, eds. Roberts and Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier Saunders; 2009:chap 39. Simon BC, ...

  8. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bacteria, but wounds may have two or more pathogens ( aerobes and/or anaerobes ) that are contributing to ... may indicate a mixture of normal flora and pathogens from a contaminated sample or from a dirty ...

  9. How wounds heal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smooth or jagged. It may be near the surface of the skin or deeper. Deep wounds can ... infection after surgery. Being overweight can also put tension on stitches, which can make them break open. ...

  10. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of standard wound management versus negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of adult patients with an open fracture of the lower limb: UK Wound management of Open Lower Limb Fractures (UK WOLFF)

    PubMed Central

    Achten, Juul; Parsons, Nick R; Bruce, Julie; Petrou, Stavros; Tutton, Elizabeth; Willett, Keith; Lamb, Sarah E; Costa, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients who sustain open lower limb fractures have reported infection risks as high as 27%. The type of dressing applied after initial debridement could potentially affect this risk. In this trial, standard dressings will be compared with a new emerging treatment, negative pressure wound therapy, for patients with open lower limb fractures. Methods and analysis All adult patients presenting with an open lower limb fracture, with a Gustilo and Anderson (G&A) grade 2/3, will be considered for inclusion. 460 consented patients will provide 90% power to detect a difference of eight points in the Disability Rating Index (DRI) score at 12?months, at the 5% level. A randomisation sequence, stratified by trial centre and G&A grade, will be produced and administered by a secure web-based service. A qualitative substudy will assess patients’ experience of giving consent for the trial, and acceptability of trial procedures to patients and staff. Patients will have clinical follow-up in a fracture clinic up to a minimum of 12?months as per standard National Health Service (NHS) practice. Functional and quality of life outcome data will be collected using the DRI, SF12 and EQ-5D questionnaires at 3, 6, 9 and 12?months postoperatively. In addition, information will be requested with regards to resource use and any late complications or surgical interventions related to their injury. The main analysis will investigate differences in the DRI score at 1?year after injury, between the two treatment groups on an intention-to-treat basis. Tests will be two sided and considered to provide evidence for a significant difference if p values are less than 0.05. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was given by NRES Committee West Midlands—Coventry & Warwickshire on 6/2/2012 (ref: 12/WM/0001). The results of the trial will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and presentations at relevant conferences. Trial registration number ISRCTN33756652. PMID:26395498

  11. Surgical wound sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Cruse, P. J. E.

    1970-01-01

    With the help of a surgical nurse and using data-processing techniques, a prospective clinical study was conducted to determine the wound infection rate in two hospitals in Calgary. The overall sepsis rate was 5.2% and the clean wound rate 3.5%. The latter is the more meaningful figure as it allows for comparison between hospitals, specialties and individuals and is a good guide for hospital morbidity reviews. The groundwork for succeeding wound infection is laid in the operating theatre, and it is believed that wound infection would be reduced more by attention to Halsted's principles than by more rigid aseptic techniques. It is estimated that wound sepsis costs the Province of Alberta 1.5 million dollars per year for hospitalization alone. This amounts to roughly $1 per person per year. The annual cost of a prospective study such as the present one is approximately $7000. This is equivalent to the cost of hospitalizing 24 patients with infected wounds for one week (at $300 per week). One dividend of a prospective study is an associated reduction in infection rate. This reduction more than pays for the cost of the program. PMID:5414538

  12. Arginine metabolism in wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Albina, J.E.; Mills, C.D.; Barbul, A.; Thirkill, C.E.; Henry, W.L. Jr.; Mastrofrancesco, B.; Caldwell, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Arginine metabolism in wounds was investigated in the rat in 1) lambda-carrageenan-wounded skeletal muscle, 2) Schilling chambers, and 3) subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponges. All showed decreased arginine and elevated ornithine contents and high arginase activity. Arginase could be brought to the wound by macrophages, which were found to contain arginase activity. However, arginase was expressed by macrophages only after cell lysis and no arginase was released by viable macrophages in vitro. Thus the extracellular arginase of wounds may derive from dead macrophages within the injured tissue. Wound and peritoneal macrophages exhibited arginase deiminase activity as demonstrated by the conversion of (guanido-/sup 14/C)arginine to radiolabeled citrulline during culture, the inhibition of this reaction by formamidinium acetate, and the lack of prokaryotic contamination of the cultures. These findings and the known metabolic fates of the products of arginase and arginine deiminase in the cellular populations of the wound suggest the possibility of cooperativity among cells for the production of substrates for collagen synthesis.

  13. DRESS syndrome: à propos de trois observations

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi, Wafa; Souissi, Jihed; Chelli, Jihène; Larbi, Fatma; Zantour, Baha; Habib Sfar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome d'hypersensibilité médicamenteuse ou Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) est une toxidermie rare mais sévère. Nous rapportons trois observations de DRESS syndromes secondaires à la prise de carbamazipine dans deux cas et de salazopyrine dans un cas. Le délai moyen entre la prise médicamenteuse et la survenue du DRESS syndrome était de six semaines. Le médicament incriminé était arrêté d'une façon définitive dans tous les cas. Une corticothérapie par voie générale était instaurée chez tous les patients devant l'atteinte hépatique sévère. L’évolution était favorable avec disparation des lésions cutanées et normalisation du bilan hépatique. Le diagnostic du syndrome DRESS doit être évoqué devant un tableau associant une éruption fébrile et des signes systémiques faisant suite à une prise médicamenteuse. La précocité du diagnostic est fondamentale pour l'arrêt définitif des médicaments suspects. Le traitement n'est pas bien codifié mais repose actuellement sur la corticothérapie générale. PMID:25810802

  14. Peripherally inserted central catheter - dressing change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the dressing, you need: Sterile gloves A face mask Cleaning solution (such as chlorhexidine) in a single- ... and check your skin. Put on the face mask and a pair of sterile gloves. Gently peel ...

  15. Dressed ion-acoustic soliton in a plasma with electrons featuring Tsallis distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amour, Rabia; Ait Gougam, Leila; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2015-10-01

    Ion-acoustic dressed solitons are addressed in a three component electron-positron-ion plasma with nonextensive electrons. The approach based on the expansion of the Sagdeev potential up to the fourth-order is used. This approach yields the same dressed ion-acoustic soliton solution given by the renormalization procedure in the reductive perturbation method. The dressed soliton is then split into two contributions, the core and cloud structures, and compared to the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) ion-acoustic soliton solution. Our results reveal that the main quantities of these localized structures are significantly modified by the nonextensive effects. In particular, the departure between the dressed and K-dV solitons becomes much marked as the nonextensive parameter q (q < 1) increases.

  16. DSE inspired model for the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Mezrag, C.; Moutarde, H.; Roberts, C. D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.; Sabatié, F.

    2015-07-01

    We sketch here an approach to the computation of genaralised parton distributions (GPDs), based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL) truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, Hv?(x,?,t). Our analysis focuses on the case of zero skewness, ? = 0, and underlines that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for Hv?(x,0,t), expressed as the Radon transform of a single amplitude. Therewith we obtain results for Hv?(x,0,t) and the associated impact-parameter dependent distribution, , which provide a qualitatively sound picture of the pion's dressed-quark structure at an hadronic scale.

  17. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Giles T. S.; Mills, Stuart J.; Cowin, Allison J.; Smith, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase. Cell therapies may be the solution. A range of cell based approaches have begun to cross the rift from bench to bedside and the supporting data suggests that the appropriate administration of stem cells can accelerate wound healing. This review examines the main cell types explored for cutaneous wound healing with a focus on clinical use. The literature overwhelmingly suggests that cell therapies can help to heal cutaneous wounds when used appropriately but we are at risk of clinical use outpacing the evidence. There is a need, now more than ever, for standardised methods of cell characterisation and delivery, as well as randomised clinical trials. PMID:26137471

  18. Developing a toolbox for analysis of warrior wound biopsies: vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Nicole J.; O'Brien, Frederick P.; Forsberg, Jonathan A.; Potter, Benjamin K.; Elster, Eric A.

    2011-03-01

    The management of modern traumatic war wounds remains a significant challenge for clinicians. This is a reflection of the extensive osseous and soft-tissue damage caused by blasts and high-energy projectiles. The ensuing inflammatory response ultimately dictates the pace of wound healing and tissue regeneration. Consequently, the eventual timing of wound closure or definitive coverage is often subjectively based. Some wounds require an extended period of time to close or fail to remain closed, despite the use and application of novel wound-specific treatment modalities. Aside from impaired wound healing, additional wound complications include wound infection, biofilm formation, and heterotopic ossification (the pathological mineralization of soft tissues). An understanding of the molecular environment of acute wounds throughout the debridement process can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms associated with the eventual wound outcome. The analysis of Raman spectra of ex vivo wound biopsy tissue obtained from serial traumatic wound debridements reveals a decreased 1665 cm-1/1445 cm-1 band area ratio in impaired healing wounds, indicative of an impaired remodeling process, in addition to a decreased 1240 cm-1/1270cm-1. The examination of debrided tissue exhibits mineralization during the early development of heterotopic ossification. Finally, preliminary results suggest that Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) images of wound effluent may be able to provide early microbiological information about the wound.

  19. Wounds on wheels: implementing a specialized wound clinic within an established syringe exchange program in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Robinowitz, Natanya; Smith, Maria Elisa; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Chaulk, Patrick; Johnson, Kristine E

    2014-11-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) experience a high incidence of abscesses and chronic wounds. However, many PWID delay seeking care for their wounds. In 2012, the Baltimore Needle Exchange Program (BNEP) in Baltimore, Maryland, partnered with the Johns Hopkins Wound Healing Center to establish a mobile BNEP Wound Clinic. This clinic provided specialized wound care for BNEP patients. In sixteen months, the clinic treated 78 unique patients during 172 visits overall. On average, each visit cost the program $146.45, which was substantially less than clinic-based treatment. This program demonstrates that specialized wound care can be effectively provided through mobile outreach. A community-based service delivery approach might serve as a model for local health departments looking to improve the health of PWID. PMID:25211723

  20. Principles of Wound Management and Wound Healing in Exotic Pets.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, Megan A; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2016-01-01

    The care of wounds in exotic animal species can be a challenging endeavor. Special considerations must be made in regard to the animal's temperament and behavior, unique anatomy and small size, and tendency toward secondary stress-related health problems. It is important to assess the entire patient with adequate systemic evaluation and consideration of proper nutrition and husbandry, which could ultimately affect wound healing. This article summarizes the general phases of wound healing, factors that affect healing, and principles of wound management. Emphasis is placed on novel methods of treating wounds and species differences in wound management and healing. PMID:26611923

  1. Use of Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Closed Median Sternal Incisions after Cardiothoracic Surgery: Clinical Evidence and Consensus Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Dohmen, Pascal M.; Markou, Thanasie; Ingemansson, Richard; Rotering, Heinrich; Hartman, Jean M.; van Valen, Richard; Brunott, Maaike; Segers, Patrique

    2014-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is a concept introduced initially to assist in the treatment of chronic open wounds. Recently, there has been growing interest in using the technique on closed incisions after surgery to prevent potentially severe surgical site infections and other wound complications in high-risk patients. Negative pressure wound therapy uses a negative pressure unit and specific dressings that help to hold the incision edges together, redistribute lateral tension, reduce edema, stimulate perfusion, and protect the surgical site from external infectious sources. Randomized, controlled studies of negative pressure wound therapy for closed incisions in orthopedic settings (which also is a clean surgical procedure in absence of an open fracture) have shown the technology can reduce the risk of wound infection, wound dehiscence, and seroma, and there is accumulating evidence that it also improves wound outcomes after cardiothoracic surgery. Identifying at-risk individuals for whom prophylactic use of negative pressure wound therapy would be most cost-effective remains a challenge; however, several risk-stratification systems have been proposed and should be evaluated more fully. The recent availability of a single-use, closed incision management system offers surgeons a convenient and practical means of delivering negative pressure wound therapy to their high-risk patients, with excellent wound outcomes reported to date. Although larger, randomized, controlled studies will help to clarify the precise role and benefits of such a system in cardiothoracic surgery, limited initial evidence from clinical studies and from the authors’ own experiences appears promising. In light of the growing interest in this technology among cardiothoracic surgeons, a consensus meeting, which was attended by a group of international experts, was held to review existing evidence for negative pressure wound therapy in the prevention of wound complications after surgery and to provide recommendations on the optimal use of negative pressure wound therapy on closed median sternal incisions after cardiothoracic surgery. PMID:25280449

  2. Glove and PICO: a novel technique for treatment of chronic wound due to osteomyelitis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Nitisha; Edwards, Daren; Ragoowansi, Raj H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wounds on the dorsum of the hand are often challenging to treat. Vacuum-assisted closure has enjoyed widespread use in recent years for many difficult chronic wounds as an alternative to surgery. Unfortunately, owing to the unique anatomy of the hand, it is usually very difficult to get a seal without significantly immobilising the hand. We report a case of a chronic wound on the dorsum of the hand as a result of osteomyelitis in a 37-year-old man, which was treated with Single Use Negative Pressure Wound Therapy, 'PICO' (Smith and Nephew Co, UK). We combined the PICO dressing with a rubber glove to get a good seal enabling appropriate suction without immobilising the hand. Once the wound bed was ready, the defect was covered with a reverse forearm flap. PMID:24891478

  3. Quantum transitions and dressed unstable states

    SciTech Connect

    Ordonez, G.; Petrosky, T.; Prigogine, I.

    2001-05-01

    We consider the problem of the meaning of quantum unstable states including their dressing. According to both Dirac and Heitler this problem has not been solved in the usual formulation of quantum mechanics. A precise definition of excited states is still needed to describe quantum transitions. We use our formulation given in terms of density matrices outside the Hilbert space. We obtain a dressed unstable state for the Friedrichs model, which is the simplest model that incorporates both bare and dressed quantum states. The excited unstable state is derived from the stable states through analytic continuation. It is given by an irreducible density matrix with broken time symmetry. It can be expressed by a superposition of Gamow density operators. The main difference from previous studies is that excited states are not factorizable into wave functions. The dressed unstable state satisfies all the criteria that we can expect: it has a real average energy and a nonvanishing trace. The average energy differs from Green's function energy by a small effect starting with fourth order in the coupling constant. Our state decays following a Markovian equation. There are no deviations from exponential decay neither for short nor for long times, as is the case for the bare state. The dressed state satisfies an uncertainty relation between energy and lifetime. We can also define dressed photon states and describe how the energy of the excited state is transmitted to the photons. There is another very important aspect: deviations from exponential decay would be in contradiction with indiscernibility as one could define, e.g., old mesons and young mesons according to their lifetime. This problem is solved by showing that quantum transitions are the result of two processes: a dressing process, discussed in a previous publication, and a decay process, which is much slower for electrodynamic systems. During the dressing process the unstable state is prepared. Then the dressed state decays in a purely exponential way. In the Hilbert space the two processes are not separated. Therefore it is not astonishing that we obtain for the unstable dressed state an irreducible density matrix outside the Liouville-Hilbert-space. This is a limit of Hilbert space states that are arbitrarily close to the decaying state. There are experiments that could verify our proposal. A typical one would be the study of the line shape, which is due to the superposition of the short-time process and the long-time process. The long-time process taken separately leads to a much sharper line shape, and avoids the divergence of the fluctuation predicted by the Lorentz line shape.

  4. Wireless Flexible Smart Bandage for Continuous Monitoring of Wound Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Mostafalu, Pooria; Lenk, William; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Ziaie, Babak; Khademhosseini, Ali; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-10-01

    Current methods in treating chronic wounds have had limited success in large part due to the open loop nature of the treatment. We have created a localized 3D-printed smart wound dressing platform that will allow for real-time data acquisition of oxygen concentration, which is an important indicator of wound healing. This will serve as the first leg of a feedback loop for a fully optimized treatment mechanism tailored to the individual patient. A flexible oxygen sensor was designed and fabricated with high sensitivity and linear current output. With a series of off-the-shelf electronic components including a programmable-gain analog front-end, a microcontroller and wireless radio, an integrated electronic system with data readout and wireless transmission capabilities was assembled in a compact package. Using an elastomeric material, a bandage with exceptional flexibility and tensile strength was 3D-printed. The bandage contains cavities for both the oxygen sensor and the electronic systems, with contacts interfacing the two systems. Our integrated, flexible platform is the first step toward providing a self-operating, highly optimized remote therapy for chronic wounds. PMID:26552096

  5. Observations of ? /4 structure in a low-loss radio-frequency-dressed optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, N.; Ansari, S.; Guo, Y.; Moan, E.

    2014-11-01

    We load a Bose-Einstein condensate into a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice altered through the use of radio-frequency (rf) dressing. The rf resonantly couples the three levels of the 87Rb F =1 manifold and combines with a spin-dependent "bare" optical lattice to result in adiabatic potentials of variable shape, depth, and spatial frequency content. We choose dressing parameters such that the altered lattice is stable over lifetimes exceeding tens of ms at higher depths than in previous work. We observe significant differences between the BEC momentum distributions of the dressed lattice as compared to the bare lattice, and find general agreement with a 1D band-structure calculation informed by the dressing parameters. Previous work using such lattices was limited by very shallow dressed lattices and strong Landau-Zener tunneling loss between adiabatic potentials, equivalent to failure of the adiabatic criterion. In this work we operate with significantly stronger rf coupling (increasing the avoided-crossing gap between adiabatic potentials), observing dressed lifetimes of interest for optical lattice-based analog solid-state physics.

  6. Wound cleaning and wound healing: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Robert G; Unverdorben, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Chronic wounds present a significant societal burden in their cost of care, and they reduce patient quality of life. Key components of wound care include such measures as debridement, irrigation, and wound cleaning. Appropriate care removes necrotic tissue and reduces wound bioburden to enhance wound healing. Physical cleaning with debridement and irrigation is of documented efficacy. Wounds may be washed with water, saline, or Ringer's solution or cleaned with active ingredients, such as hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, alcohol, ionized silver preparations, chlorhexidine, polyhexanide/betaine solution, or povidone-iodine--the majority of which are locally toxic and of limited or no proven efficacy in enhancing wound healing. Although the consensus opinion is that these topical cleaning agents should not be routinely used, recent clinical evidence suggests that polyhexanide/betaine may be nontoxic and effective in enhancing wound healing. Further well-designed studies are needed. PMID:23507692

  7. [Atypical maxillofacial shot wound].

    PubMed

    Malachovský, I; Straka, L; Novomeský, F; Statelová, D; Janícková, M; Stilla, J; Urbanová, E

    2011-01-01

    Maxillofacial shot wounds belong to the relatively less frequent injuries. The soft tissues might be affected in particular, however the most of injuries are combined with infliction of hard tissues. Shot wounds by the bow or crossbow are very rare. They might result as a consequence of either accident or suicide. In the literature some cases of a suicidal experiments had been published, all of these cases were due to arrow from the crossbow. There was no injury being documented due to arrow from the bow. The authors present a case of maxillofacial injury done by shoot of arrow from the bow in the course of a child's play. PMID:21416697

  8. Management of radiation wounds

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Balasubramanian, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy forms an integral part in cancer treatment today. It is used alone or in combination with surgery and chemotherapy. Although radiotherapy is useful to effect tumour death, it also exerts a deleterious effect on surrounding normal tissues. These effects are either acute or can manifest months or years after the treatment. The chronic wounds are a result of impaired wound healing. This impairment results in fibrosis, nonhealing ulcers, lymphoedema and radionecrosis amongst others. This article will discuss the pathophysiology in brief, along with the manifestations of radiation-induced injury and the treatment available currently PMID:23162232

  9. Efficacy of silver (I) antimicrobial dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burn wounds, particularly those due to third and fourth degree burns, are highly susceptible to infection and scar formation. These complications can be reduced if bacterial growth is inhibited and there is a moist wound environment that promotes healing. Silver has long been known to have antimicr...

  10. A Rat Model of Diabetic Wound Infection for the Evaluation of Topical Antimicrobial Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, João J; Leandro, Clara I; Bonaparte, Dolores P; Pinto, Andreia L

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic multisystemic chronic disease that frequently is complicated by complex wound infections. Innovative topical antimicrobial therapy agents are potentially useful for multimodal treatment of these infections. However, an appropriately standardized in vivo model is currently not available to facilitate the screening of these emerging products and their effect on wound healing. To develop such a model, we analyzed, tested, and modified published models of wound healing. We optimized various aspects of the model, including animal species, diabetes induction method, hair removal technique, splint and dressing methods, the control of unintentional bacterial infection, sampling methods for the evaluation of bacterial burden, and aspects of the microscopic and macroscopic assessment of wound healing, all while taking into consideration animal welfare and the ‘3Rs’ principle. We thus developed a new wound infection model in rats that is optimized for testing topical antimicrobial therapy agents. This model accurately reproduces the pathophysiology of infected diabetic wound healing and includes the current standard treatment (that is, debridement). The numerous benefits of this model include the ready availability of necessary materials, simple techniques, high reproducibility, and practicality for experiments with large sample sizes. Furthermore, given its similarities to infected-wound healing and treatment in humans, our new model can serve as a valid alternative for applied research. PMID:22330650

  11. Chitosan hemostatic dressing for control of hemorrhage from femoral arterial puncture site in dogs.

    PubMed

    Szatmári, Viktor

    2015-12-30

    Removal of an introducer-sheath from a femoral artery after completing transarterial embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus can cause life-threatening hemorrhage in dogs. In the present study, the effectiveness of chitosan acetate dressing in 10 experimental dogs was tested. Under general anesthesia, an introducer-sheath was placed into the femoral artery with percutaneous puncture using Seldinger's technique. The outer diameter of the introducer-sheaths varied from 3.0 to 4.0 mm with an introducer/artery ratio of 80 to 123%. The artery's diameter was measured using ultrasonography. Following removal of the introducer-sheath, a chitosan acetate dressing was applied to the wound and held in place with manual compression for 10 min. Successful hemostasis was reached on 12 arteries. However, on two arteries, hemorrhage was uncontrollable and led to a hypovolemic shock during 10 min of manual compression. Possible causes of the negative outcome in two dogs were their old age and an introducer-sheath with a too large diameter. The chitosan acetate dressing was easy to use and the artery remained patent. Dogs could walk directly after recovery from anesthesia and their femoral arteries were saved. In conclusion, the outer diameter of the introducer-sheath should not exceed 3 mm or the inner diameter of the artery. PMID:26119165

  12. Polymeric membrane dressings for radiotherapy-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    Scott, Audrey

    Radiotherapy is one of the mainline treatments for cancer. One of the side effects associated with radiotherapy includes skin problems, which range from mild (dull erythema and tightening of the skin) to severe (moist desquamation resulting in open wounds that can be very painful associated with sloughy and, in some severe cases, necrosis). The increased use of advanced radical treatments, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment (IMRT), can also result in a higher number of patients experiencing skin reactions. It is estimated that approximately 87% of patients will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction (Harris et al, 2011) An evaluation was undertaken in 20 patients with head and neck cancer following a prescribed treatment of radiotherapy to compare a polymeric membrane dressing (PolyMem®) against the standard treatment. The standard treatment consisted of topical aqueous cream at the start of radiotherapy with the addition of paraffin gauze when moist desquamation occurred. A bespoke evaluation form was completed for a period of 4 weeks or until healed. Patients were asked to complete both qualitative descriptions and numerical scores of pain for symptoms and procedural pain. Analgesia and sleep patterns were logged and, in addition, free text diaries were provided for up to 4 weeks. Common themes were identified and qualitative data analysed. PMID:24851807

  13. On-machine precision preparation and dressing of ball-headed diamond wheel for the grinding of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjun; Li, Ziang; Yu, Bo; Peng, Hui; Fang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    In the grinding of high quality fused silica parts with complex surface or structure using ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel with small diameter, the existing dressing methods are not suitable to dress the ball-headed diamond wheel precisely due to that they are either on-line in process dressing which may causes collision problem or without consideration for the effects of the tool setting error and electrode wear. An on-machine precision preparation and dressing method is proposed for ball-headed diamond wheel based on electrical discharge machining. By using this method the cylindrical diamond wheel with small diameter is manufactured to hemispherical-headed form. The obtained ball-headed diamond wheel is dressed after several grinding passes to recover geometrical accuracy and sharpness which is lost due to the wheel wear. A tool setting method based on high precision optical system is presented to reduce the wheel center setting error and dimension error. The effect of electrode tool wear is investigated by electrical dressing experiments, and the electrode tool wear compensation model is established based on the experimental results which show that the value of wear ratio coefficient K' tends to be constant with the increasing of the feed length of electrode and the mean value of K' is 0.156. Grinding experiments of fused silica are carried out on a test bench to evaluate the performance of the preparation and dressing method. The experimental results show that the surface roughness of the finished workpiece is 0.03 ?m. The effect of the grinding parameter and dressing frequency on the surface roughness is investigated based on the measurement results of the surface roughness. This research provides an on-machine preparation and dressing method for ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel used in the grinding of fused silica, which provides a solution to the tool setting method and the effect of electrode tool wear.

  14. Spiral wound extraction cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Wisted, Eric E. (Apple Valley, MN); Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)

    1999-01-01

    A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite.

  15. Healing Invisible Wounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Erica J.

    2010-01-01

    As many as 9 in 10 justice-involved youth are affected by traumatic childhood experiences. According to "Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense," between 75 and 93 percent of youth currently incarcerated in the justice system have had at least one traumatic experience, including sexual abuse, war,…

  16. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  17. Spiral wound extraction cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Wisted, E.E.; Lundquist, S.H.

    1999-04-27

    A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite. 4 figs.

  18. Improved scar quality following primary and secondary healing of cutaneous wounds.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Amm, Christian A; El Musa, Kusai A

    2003-01-01

    Poor wound healing remains a critical problem in our daily practice of surgery, exerting a heavy toll on our patients as well as on the health care system. In susceptible individuals, scars can become raised, reddish, and rigid, may cause itching and pain, and might even lead to serious cosmetic and functional problems. Hypertrophic scars do not occur spontaneously in animals, which explains the lack of experimental models for the study of pathologic scar modulation. We present the results of three clinical comparative prospective studies that we have conducted. In the first study, secondary healing and cosmetic appearance following healing of partial thickness skin graft donor sites under dry (semi-open Sofra-Tulle dressing) and moist (moist exposed burn ointment, MEBO) was assessed. In the second study, healing of the donor sites was evaluated following treatment with Tegaderm or MEBO, two different types of moisture-retentive dressings. In the third study, 3 comparable groups of primarily healed wounds were evaluated. One group was treated by topical antibiotic ointment, the second group was treated by Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO), and the third group did not receive any topical treatment. In the second study, secondary healing of partial thickness skin graft donor sites was evaluated following treatment with Tegaderm or MEBO, two different types of moisture-retentive dressings. In the second and third studies, healed wounds were evaluated with the quantitative scale for scar assessment described by Beausang et al. Statistical analysis revealed that for both types of wound healing, scar quality was significantly superior in those wounds treated with MEBO. PMID:14648065

  19. Uncontrolled, open-label, pilot study of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil solution in the decolonisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive wounds and its influence on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Margaret; Newall, Nelly; Carville, Keryln; Smith, Joanna; Riley, Thomas V; Carson, Christine F

    2011-08-01

    Many complementary and alternative products are used to treat wounds. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, tea tree oil, has proven antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, may be useful in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonisation regimens and is reputed to have 'wound-healing' properties, but more data are required to support these indications. The primary aim of this uncontrolled case series was to assess whether a tea tree oil solution used in a wound cleansing procedure could decolonise MRSA from acute and chronic wounds of mixed aetiology. The secondary aim was to determine if the tea tree oil solution influenced wound healing outcomes. Nineteen participants with wounds suspected of being colonised with MRSA were enrolled in a pilot study. Seven were subsequently shown not to have MRSA and were withdrawn from the study. As many as 11 of the remaining 12 participants were treated with a water-miscible tea tree oil (3·3%) solution applied as part of the wound cleansing regimen at each dressing change. Dressing changes were three times per week or daily as deemed necessary by the study nurse following assessment. One participant withdrew from the study before treatment. No participants were MRSA negative after treatment. After treatment had been implemented, 8 of the 11 treated wounds had begun to heal and reduced in size as measured by computer planimetry. Although this formulation and mode of delivery did not achieve the primary aim of the study, tea tree oil did not appear to inhibit healing and the majority of wounds reduced in size after treatment. PMID:21564552

  20. Mechanoregulation of Angiogenesis in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lancerotto, Luca; Orgill, Dennis P.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Mechanical forces are important regulators of cell and tissue function. Endothelial cells proliferate in response to tissue stretch and the mechanical properties of the environment direct capillary sprouting and growth. As the vascular network is a key factor in physiology and disease, control of the vascularity by means of mechanical forces could lead to the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Recent Advances: Increased understanding of mechanobiology has stimulated translational research and allowed the development and optimization of clinical devices that exploit mechanical forces for the treatment of diseases, in particular in the field of wound healing. Stretching in distraction osteogenesis and tissue expansion induces neogenesis of well-vascularized tissues. In micro-deformational wound therapy, micro-mechanical distortions of the wound bed stimulate cell proliferation and angiogenesis by stretching resident cells to improve healing of difficult wounds. Relief from tension antagonizes proliferation and angiogenesis in primarily closed wounds allowing for better scar quality. Critical Issues: The integration of mechanobiology into traditional cell biology and pathophysiology in general is not yet complete and further research is needed to fill existing gaps, in particular in the complexity of in vivo conditions. Future Directions: Still largely unexplored approaches based on mechanical perturbation of the micro-/macro-environment can be devised to overcome the limits of current strategies in a broad spectrum of clinical conditions. PMID:25302137

  1. Dressing for England: fashion and nationalism in victorian novels 

    E-print Network

    Montz, Amy Louise

    2009-05-15

    of England at a time when imperial anxiety and xenophobic fears called the definition of Englishness into question. Dress, particularly fashionable dress, often was viewed as a feminine weakness in Victorian England. At the same time women were chastised...

  2. A new cell-free bandage-type artificial skin for cutaneous wounds.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shigehisa; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Satoshi; Narisawa, Yutaka; Oshikata-Miyazaki, Ayumi; Miyauchi, Syohei; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Sawaguchi, Tomoya; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Toda, Shuji

    2015-11-12

    Engineered skin substitutes are widely used in skin wound management. However, no currently available products satisfy all the criteria of usability in emergency situations, easy handling, and minimal scar formation. To overcome these shortcomings, we designed a cell-free bandage-type artificial skin, named "VitriBand" (VB), using adhesive film dressing, silicone-coated polyethylene terephthalate film, and collagen xerogel membrane defined as a dried collagen vitrigel membrane without free water. We analyzed its advantages over in-line products by comparing VB with hydrocolloid dressing and collagen sponge. For evaluation, mice inflicted with full-thickness skin defects were treated with VB, hydrocolloid dressing, and collagen sponge. A plastic film group treated only with adhesive film dressing and silicone-coated polyethylene terephthalate film, and a no treatment group were also compared. VB promoted epithelization while inhibiting the emergence of myofibroblasts and inflammation in the regenerating tissue more effectively than the plastic film, hydrocolloid dressing, and collagen sponge products. We have succeeded in establishing a cell-free bandage-type artificial skin that could serve as a promising first-line medical biomaterial for emergency treatment of skin injuries in various medical situations. PMID:26036768

  3. Office management of minor wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, S.; Patel, H.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review office interventions for minor wounds not requiring sutures, such as abrasions, bites, and lacerations. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most information on minor wound management comes from descriptive studies. Few comparative studies examine the effectiveness of topical antisepsis for minor wounds. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that tissue adhesives produce short- and long-term cosmetic results equivalent to those achieved with suture materials. MAIN MESSAGE: Sterile saline is the least toxic solution for wound irrigation. Chlorhexidine (2%) and povidone iodine (10%) have been the most investigated antiseptic solutions. Systemic antibiotics are unnecessary for wounds unlikely to be infected. All bite wounds require special attention. Primary closure of bite wounds is indicated in certain circumstances: less than 12-hour-old nonpuncture wounds, uninfected wounds, and low-risk lesions (such as on the face). In spite of their many advantages, skin tapes should be used for low-tension wounds only. The popularity of tissue adhesives has greatly increased. Since the advent of newer products (with increased bonding strength and flexibility), adhesives are used to manage most lacerations except those in areas of high tension (e.g., joints) and on mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSION: Minor wounds not requiring sutures can be managed easily in the office. PMID:11340758

  4. Topography-mediated apical guidance in epidermal wound healing Anastasios Marmaras,a

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    Topography-mediated apical guidance in epidermal wound healing Anastasios Marmaras,a Tobias epidermal wound healing may be accelerated. Classic topographic contact guidance is based on the interaction applied to the apical free surface of human dermal fibroblasts during in vitro wound healing. Gratings

  5. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  15. Wound Microbiology and Associated Approaches to Wound Management

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, P. G.; Duerden, B. I.; Armstrong, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of dermal wounds are colonized with aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that originate predominantly from mucosal surfaces such as those of the oral cavity and gut. The role and significance of microorganisms in wound healing has been debated for many years. While some experts consider the microbial density to be critical in predicting wound healing and infection, others consider the types of microorganisms to be of greater importance. However, these and other factors such as microbial synergy, the host immune response, and the quality of tissue must be considered collectively in assessing the probability of infection. Debate also exists regarding the value of wound sampling, the types of wounds that should be sampled, and the sampling technique required to generate the most meaningful data. In the laboratory, consideration must be given to the relevance of culturing polymicrobial specimens, the value in identifying one or more microorganisms, and the microorganisms that should be assayed for antibiotic susceptibility. Although appropriate systemic antibiotics are essential for the treatment of deteriorating, clinically infected wounds, debate exists regarding the relevance and use of antibiotics (systemic or topical) and antiseptics (topical) in the treatment of nonhealing wounds that have no clinical signs of infection. In providing a detailed analysis of wound microbiology, together with current opinion and controversies regarding wound assessment and treatment, this review has attempted to capture and address microbiological aspects that are critical to the successful management of microorganisms in wounds. PMID:11292638

  16. Glycerin-Based Hydrogel for Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Edward I.; McKessor, Angie

    2012-01-01

    Problem Infection is a major problem in the health and wellbeing of patients in hospitals, nursing homes, and other medical facilities as well as the homecare patients and the general public. According to Scientia Advisors, wound care costs the healthcare system over $7 billion in 2009. After adding the cost associated with potential complications such as infections, extended physician care, and lengthy hospital stays, the annual wound care expenditures well exceeded over $20 billion.1 There are 20 million reported cases of diabetes per year and more every day. Because of the fact that leg ulcers are the number one health problem of men coupled with the rise in drug resistance of infections, the importance of providing the professional and the public with relatively simple and affordable wound care is of extreme importance. Often the wounds can become chronic wounds, which then result in long-term nursing expense in time and supplies or, worse yet, can result in expensive amputations ranging from $5000 to $40,000 per patient. Solution There are many dressing options now available for treating wounds with components such as glycerin, honey, salt, and many other natural products, with some dressings being more appropriate than others. In 1988, a patented glycerin-based dressing was introduced to the market, called Elasto-Gel™.2 New Technology Elasto-Gel™ is a glycerin-based gel sheet (65%) combined with a hydrophilic polymer that causes the sheet to absorb the exudate from the wound and simultaneously release the glycerin from the gel, which adds many benefits to the wound for excellent healing outcomes. The gel sheet is 1/8th of an inch thick with a four-way stretch backing. It has the ability to absorb 3–4 times its own weight of fluids. The dressing will not dry out or allow the exudate to dry out, thus keeping the dressing from becoming bonded to the wound or the surrounding tissue. It does not have adhesive properties and, therefore, will not cause damage to the wound bed or periwound area upon dressing removal. Because of the thickness, the product provides excellent cushion and padding support. It has been also proven to be bacteriostatic/fungistatic. (Bacteriostatic is the ability to restrain the development or reproduction of bacteria.3) Product Technology Glycerin is a huamectant by definition and has been recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Humectants attract, bind, and hold moisture to the site of application. The actual concentration of glycerin in a wound dressing is indicative of the ability to absorb excess moisture. Exudate management is an important function of topical treatment. The ability to absorb drainage and prevent pooling of exudate in the wound or on the surrounding skin are attributes specific to high glycerin content. Perhaps, the most significant advantage of the glycerin-based hydrogel sheet is its impact on wound bioburden and pathogenic organisms.4 Glycerin is a simple three-carbon tri-alcohol and is a natural humectant. It is used as a carrier in many medicines and as plasticizer in gelatin gel capsules. Glycerin is a component of cosmetics, conditioners, soaps, foods, and other common products. It is a component of mono-, di-, and triglycerides naturally occurring in the body. These glycerides and glycerin are constantly reacted with each other by the natural enzymes and reversed with the natural metabolic processes already present in the body. Any glycerin that may be absorbed into the body fluid is rapidly diluted in these fluids and is no longer toxic but is metabolized as another component of the food chain. It is well known that glycerin in high concentration will exhibit dehydrating effect on many systems including living cells by the commonly known process of osmosis. (Osmosis: the flow or diffusion that takes place through a semipermable membrane, as of living cell, typically separating a solvent such as water, thus bringing about equilibrium conditions.5) It has been shown that glycerin at high concentration will be cytotoxic to all cel

  17. Acoustic pressure wound therapy in the treatment of stage II pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Raenell

    2008-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are localized skin injuries secondary to unrelieved pressure or friction. Patients with immobility issues are at increased risk for developing pressure ulcers. In 2004, stricter federal regulations for prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in institutional settings--eg, long-term care facilities--were introduced. Effective, low-cost treatments for pressure ulcers are needed; acoustic pressure wound therapy (APWT), a noncontact, low-frequency, therapeutic ultrasound system, is one option. A retrospective case series of six long-term care patients (two men and one woman, age range 61 to 92 years), each with one Stage II pressure ulcer, is presented. Acoustic pressure wound therapy was provided as an adjunct to standard treatment that included balsam of Peru/castor oil/trypsin ointment, hydrogel, hydrocolloid dressings, silver dressings, and offloading. Outcomes (days to healing) were determined through changes in wound dimensions. Study participants each received APWT for 3 to 4 minutes three to four times weekly. In four of the six wounds, the average number of days to healing was 22. One of the two remaining patients discontinued treatment at 95% healed; treatment for the sixth patient was ongoing due to hospitalization that delayed APWT. In a long-term care setting, APWT added to standard of care may accelerate healing of Stage II pressure ulcers. PMID:19037138

  18. Biochemical association of metabolic profile and microbiome in chronic pressure ulcer wounds.

    PubMed

    Ammons, Mary Cloud B; Morrissey, Kathryn; Tripet, Brian P; Van Leuven, James T; Han, Anne; Lazarus, Gerald S; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Stewart, Philip S; James, Garth A; Copié, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, non-healing wounds contribute significantly to the suffering of patients with co-morbidities in the clinical population with mild to severely compromised immune systems. Normal wound healing proceeds through a well-described process. However, in chronic wounds this process seems to become dysregulated at the transition between resolution of inflammation and re-epithelialization. Bioburden in the form of colonizing bacteria is a major contributor to the delayed headlining in chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers. However how the microbiome influences the wound metabolic landscape is unknown. Here, we have used a Systems Biology approach to determine the biochemical associations between the taxonomic and metabolomic profiles of wounds colonized by bacteria. Pressure ulcer biopsies were harvested from primary chronic wounds and bisected into top and bottom sections prior to analysis of microbiome by pyrosequencing and analysis of metabolome using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bacterial taxonomy revealed that wounds were colonized predominantly by three main phyla, but differed significantly at the genus level. While taxonomic profiles demonstrated significant variability between wounds, metabolic profiles shared significant similarity based on the depth of the wound biopsy. Biochemical association between taxonomy and metabolic landscape indicated significant wound-to-wound similarity in metabolite enrichment sets and metabolic pathway impacts, especially with regard to amino acid metabolism. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a statistically robust correlation between bacterial colonization and metabolic landscape within the chronic wound environment. PMID:25978400

  19. Biochemical Association of Metabolic Profile and Microbiome in Chronic Pressure Ulcer Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Ammons, Mary Cloud B.; Morrissey, Kathryn; Tripet, Brian P.; Van Leuven, James T.; Han, Anne; Lazarus, Gerald S.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Stewart, Philip S.; James, Garth A.; Copié, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, non-healing wounds contribute significantly to the suffering of patients with co-morbidities in the clinical population with mild to severely compromised immune systems. Normal wound healing proceeds through a well-described process. However, in chronic wounds this process seems to become dysregulated at the transition between resolution of inflammation and re-epithelialization. Bioburden in the form of colonizing bacteria is a major contributor to the delayed headlining in chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers. However how the microbiome influences the wound metabolic landscape is unknown. Here, we have used a Systems Biology approach to determine the biochemical associations between the taxonomic and metabolomic profiles of wounds colonized by bacteria. Pressure ulcer biopsies were harvested from primary chronic wounds and bisected into top and bottom sections prior to analysis of microbiome by pyrosequencing and analysis of metabolome using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bacterial taxonomy revealed that wounds were colonized predominantly by three main phyla, but differed significantly at the genus level. While taxonomic profiles demonstrated significant variability between wounds, metabolic profiles shared significant similarity based on the depth of the wound biopsy. Biochemical association between taxonomy and metabolic landscape indicated significant wound-to-wound similarity in metabolite enrichment sets and metabolic pathway impacts, especially with regard to amino acid metabolism. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a statistically robust correlation between bacterial colonization and metabolic landscape within the chronic wound environment. PMID:25978400

  20. Wound infections on board ship--prevention, pathogens, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif

    2011-01-01

    Wounds are common in seafarers and they can easily become infected in the marine environment. Pre-sea tetanus immunization is essential. Without diagnostic facilities and only a limited range of antibiotics onboard, injury prevention and early treatment to reduce the likelihood of infection are important measures. Suturing clean cuts reduces healing time and risk of infection. Fresh, clean cuts, especially on the face or head, can be closed by adhesive tape or sutures, but if infection arises, then one or more sutures should be removed to enable drainage. Most wounds must be considered contaminated and should not be closed, just covered with sterile dressing after cleaning. Antibiotic treatment should be started immediately in seafarers with hand and puncture wounds. The primary treatment for a simple abscess is incision and drainage. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for abscesses if the infection spreads to the surrounding tissue (associated cellulitis), if there is lack of response to incision and drainage alone, or if the abscess is in an area difficult or dangerous to drain (e.g. face, palm, genitalia). Recommended therapy for cellulitis is 5-10 days of dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, or erythromycin, but if there is no improvement after 2-3 days, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) should be suspected. Bites and burn wounds require special attention. Since wound infections can deteriorate rapidly, a telemedicine advice service (TMAS) should be consulted during the early stages, and serial digital photographs of the affected area, transmitted by e-mail to TMAS, are often useful during treatment at sea. PMID:22258845

  1. Alginate-hyaluronan composite hydrogels accelerate wound healing process.

    PubMed

    Catanzano, O; D'Esposito, V; Acierno, S; Ambrosio, M R; De Caro, C; Avagliano, C; Russo, P; Russo, R; Miro, A; Ungaro, F; Calignano, A; Formisano, P; Quaglia, F

    2015-10-20

    In this paper we propose polysaccharide hydrogels combining alginate (ALG) and hyaluronan (HA) as biofunctional platform for dermal wound repair. Hydrogels produced by internal gelation were homogeneous and easy to handle. Rheological evaluation of gelation kinetics of ALG/HA mixtures at different ratios allowed understanding the HA effect on ALG cross-linking process. Disk-shaped hydrogels, at different ALG/HA ratio, were characterized for morphology, homogeneity and mechanical properties. Results suggest that, although the presence of HA does significantly slow down gelation kinetics, the concentration of cross-links reached at the end of gelation is scarcely affected. The in vitro activity of ALG/HA dressings was tested on adipose derived multipotent adult stem cells (Ad-MSC) and an immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Hydrogels did not interfere with cell viability in both cells lines, but significantly promoted gap closure in a scratch assay at early (1 day) and late (5 days) stages as compared to hydrogels made of ALG alone (p<0.01 and 0.001 for Ad-MSC and HaCaT, respectively). In vivo wound healing studies, conducted on a rat model of excised wound indicated that after 5 days ALG/HA hydrogels significantly promoted wound closure as compared to ALG ones (p<0.001). Overall results demonstrate that the integration of HA in a physically cross-linked ALG hydrogel can be a versatile strategy to promote wound healing that can be easily translated in a clinical setting. PMID:26256201

  2. Myiasis of the Tracheostomy Wound Caused by Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): Molecular Identification Based on the Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I Gene.

    PubMed

    Severini, Francesco; Nocita, Emanuela; Tosini, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Wound myiasis is the infestation of open wounds of mammalian hosts caused by larvae of various species of flies. This kind of myiasis can be a serious problem for immobilized patients with open wounds. Here, we identify a dipteran larva found in the tracheostomy wound of a child affected by a severe spinal muscular atrophy. The collected larva was dissected and microscopically analyzed. DNA was extracted from part of the larva and used for the molecular identification. A 487?bp fragment, including part of 5.8?S, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and part of 28S, was amplified using a novel PCR assay to be cloned and sequenced. The barcode region of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was also cloned and sequenced after PCR amplification. The larva, designated as SASI1, was identified as a third instar of Sarcophaga sp. The COI sequencing confirmed a low similarity with Sarcophaga ruficornis (F.) (95%), yet COI showed a 100% similarity with Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) species. Therefore, SASI1 was identified as a S. argyrostoma larva on the basis of its COI barcode. This is one of the rare cases of myiasis of tracheostomy wound and the first caused by S. argyrostoma. PMID:26336248

  3. Accuracy concerns in crush dressed form grinding

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the crushing operation for crush dressed form grinding is given. The implications of rolling vs sliding contact, and the role of loose grit on the accuracy of the parts and the wear on the roll is discussed. Several examples are detailed.

  4. Tzitzéica transformation is a dressing action

    E-print Network

    Erxiao Wang

    2006-05-15

    We classify the simplest rational elements in a twisted loop group, and prove that dressing actions of them on proper indefinite affine spheres give the classical Tzitz\\'eica transformation and its dual. We also give the group point of view of the Permutability Theorem, construct complex Tzitz\\'eica transformations, and discuss the group structure for these transformations.

  5. Dressed-Quark Anomalous Magnetic Moments

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Roberts, Craig D.

    2011-02-18

    Perturbation theory predicts that a massless fermion cannot possess a measurable magnetic moment. We explain, however, that the nonperturbative phenomenon of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking generates a momentum-dependent anomalous chromomagnetic moment for dressed light quarks, which is large at infrared momenta, and demonstrate that consequently these same quarks also possess an anomalous electromagnetic moment with similar magnitude and opposite sign.

  6. 21 CFR 169.150 - Salad dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...by weight of liquid egg yolks. Salad dressing...ingredients. (1) Any vinegar or any vinegar diluted...blend of two or more vinegars is considered to be a vinegar. (2) Lemon juice...with water. (c) Egg yolk-containing...

  7. 21 CFR 169.150 - Salad dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...by weight of liquid egg yolks. Salad dressing...ingredients. (1) Any vinegar or any vinegar diluted...blend of two or more vinegars is considered to be a vinegar. (2) Lemon juice...with water. (c) Egg yolk-containing...

  8. 21 CFR 169.150 - Salad dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...by weight of liquid egg yolks. Salad dressing...ingredients. (1) Any vinegar or any vinegar diluted...blend of two or more vinegars is considered to be a vinegar. (2) Lemon juice...with water. (c) Egg yolk-containing...

  9. 21 CFR 169.150 - Salad dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...by weight of liquid egg yolks. Salad dressing...ingredients. (1) Any vinegar or any vinegar diluted...blend of two or more vinegars is considered to be a vinegar. (2) Lemon juice...with water. (c) Egg yolk-containing...

  10. 21 CFR 169.150 - Salad dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...by weight of liquid egg yolks. Salad dressing...ingredients. (1) Any vinegar or any vinegar diluted...blend of two or more vinegars is considered to be a vinegar. (2) Lemon juice...with water. (c) Egg yolk-containing...

  11. Student Dress Codes and Uniforms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    According to an Education Commission of the States "Policy Report", research on the effects of dress code and school uniform policies is inconclusive and mixed. Some researchers find positive effects; others claim no effects or only perceived effects. While no state has legislatively mandated the wearing of school uniforms, 28 states and the…

  12. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to. Wash your hands with soap and warm water. Rinse with warm water and dry with a clean towel. Remove the ... If the dressing is stuck, wet it with warm tap water, wait 3 to 5 minutes for it to ...

  13. Racks and Orbits of Dressing Transformations

    E-print Network

    A. Balinsky

    1994-06-17

    New algebraic structure on the orbits of dressing transformations of the quasitriangular Poisson Lie groups is provided. This give the topological interpretation of the link invariants associated with the Weinstein--Xu classical solutions of the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. Some applications to the three-dimensional topological quantum field theories are discussed.

  14. Gribov's horizon and the ghost dressing function

    SciTech Connect

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-11-01

    We study a relation recently derived by K. Kondo at zero momentum between the Zwanziger's horizon function, the ghost dressing function and Kugo's functions u and w. We agree with this result as far as bare quantities are considered. However, assuming the validity of the horizon gap equation, we argue that the solution w(0)=0 is not acceptable since it would lead to a vanishing renormalized ghost dressing function. On the contrary, when the cutoff goes to infinity, u(0){yields}{infinity}, w(0){yields}-{infinity} such that u(0)+w(0){yields}-1. Furthermore w and u are not multiplicatively renormalizable. Relaxing the gap equation allows w(0)=0 with u(0){yields}-1. In both cases the bare ghost dressing function, F(0,{lambda}), goes logarithmically to infinity at infinite cutoff. We show that, although the lattice results provide bare results not so different from the F(0,{lambda})=3 solution, this is an accident due to the fact that the lattice cutoffs lie in the range 1-3 GeV{sup -1}. We show that the renormalized ghost dressing function should be finite and nonzero at zero momentum and can be reliably estimated on the lattice up to powers of the lattice spacing; from published data on a 80{sup 4} lattice at {beta}=5.7 we obtain F{sub R}(0,{mu}=1.5 GeV){approx_equal}2.2.

  15. Lamb Shift of Laser-Dressed Atomic States

    E-print Network

    U. D. Jentschura; J. Evers; M. Haas; C. H. Keitel

    2003-07-07

    We discuss radiative corrections to an atomic two-level system subject to an intense driving laser field. It is shown that the Lamb shift of the laser-dressed states, which are the natural state basis of the combined atom-laser system, cannot be explained in terms of the Lamb shift received by the atomic bare states which is usually observed in spectroscopic experiments. In the final part, we propose an experimental scheme to measure these corrections based on the incoherent resonance fluorescence spectrum of the driven atom.

  16. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  17. Study of multi-functional electrospun composite nanofibrous mats for smart wound healing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lin; Hu, Jinlian; Huang, Huahua; Han, Jianping; Hu, Huawen

    2015-08-01

    Composite nanofibers derived from synthetic and natural polymers normally show desirable characteristics in biomedical applications. In this study, composite nanofibrous mats (denoted as CNMs) with diameters of around 300 nm were fabricated facilely using blends of chitosan, gelatin and shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) by electrospinning and subsequent post-treatment with a silver nitrate solution. The obtained CNMs have shape memory effect and show desirable water vapor transmission ratio, surface wettability, satisfactory biological properties including antibacterial activity against the common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, cytocompatibility demonstrated to fibroblast, and the hemostatic property through a whole-blood clotting test. In addition, such CNMs can possibly benefit the wound healing through shape fixation-assisted easy processing and shape recovery-assisted closure of cracked wounds, which can be fine-tuned by pre-programming. Therefore, the CNMs presented in this study can be used as potential smart wound dressings. PMID:26003301

  18. Wound-bed preparation: the importance of rapid and effective desloughing to promote healing.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jeanette

    2015-11-11

    This article describes effective ways of diagnosing and removing slough from a wound bed. It highlights how slough is a key contributor to wound chronicity, and gives practical clinical information on how to address this. The various methods of removing slough will be discussed including the mechanism of action of dressings and other mechanical methods. The ultimate objective of the article is to put the term desloughing on the clinical agenda and increase clinician familiarity with it. The practical focus of the article will help clinicians select a proven method to facilitate the rapid removal of slough, it is hoped that in doing so this will help to prevent chronicity, reduce the potential for bacterial proliferation and promote rapid and effective wound healing outcomes. PMID:26559239

  19. Validation of a Novel Murine Wound Model of Acinetobacter baumannii Infection

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mitchell G.; Black, Chad C.; Pavlicek, Rebecca L.; Honnold, Cary L.; Wise, Matthew C.; Alamneh, Yonas A.; Moon, Jay K.; Kessler, Jennifer L.; Si, Yuanzheng; Williams, Robert; Yildirim, Suleyman; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Green, Romanza K.; Hall, Eric R.; Palys, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Patients recovering from traumatic injuries or surgery often require weeks to months of hospitalization, increasing the risk for wound and surgical site infections caused by ESKAPE pathogens, which include A. baumannii (the ESKAPE pathogens are Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species). As new therapies are being developed to counter A. baumannii infections, animal models are also needed to evaluate potential treatments. Here, we present an excisional, murine wound model in which a diminutive inoculum of a clinically relevant, multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate can proliferate, form biofilms, and be effectively treated with antibiotics. The model requires a temporary, cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia to establish an infection that can persist. A 6-mm-diameter, full-thickness wound was created in the skin overlying the thoracic spine, and after the wound bed was inoculated, it was covered with a dressing for 7 days. Uninoculated control wounds healed within 13 days, whereas infected, placebo-treated wounds remained unclosed beyond 21 days. Treated and untreated wounds were assessed with multiple quantitative and qualitative techniques that included gross pathology, weight loss and recovery, wound closure, bacterial burden, 16S rRNA community profiling, histopathology, peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization, and scanning electron microscopy assessment of biofilms. The range of differences that we are able to identify with these measures in antibiotic- versus placebo-treated animals provides a clear window within which novel antimicrobial therapies can be assessed. The model can be used to evaluate antimicrobials for their ability to reduce specific pathogen loads in wounded tissues and clear biofilms. Ultimately, the mouse model approach allows for highly powered studies and serves as an initial multifaceted in vivo assessment prior to testing in larger animals. PMID:24342634

  20. Human acellular dermal wound matrix: evidence and experience.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, Robert S; Bohn, Greg; Driver, Vickie R; Mills, Joseph L; Nanney, Lillian B; Williams, Marie L; Wu, Stephanie C

    2015-12-01

    A chronic wound fails to complete an orderly and timely reparative process and places patients at increased risk for wound complications that negatively impact quality of life and require greater health care expenditure. The role of extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical in normal and chronic wound repair. Not only is ECM the largest component of the dermal skin layer, but also ECM proteins provide structure and cell signalling that are necessary for successful tissue repair. Chronic wounds are characterised by their inflammatory and proteolytic environment, which degrades the ECM. Human acellular dermal matrices, which provide an ECM scaffold, therefore, are being used to treat chronic wounds. The ideal human acellular dermal wound matrix (HADWM) would support regenerative healing, providing a structure that could be repopulated by the body's cells. Experienced wound care investigators and clinicians discussed the function of ECM, the evidence related to a specific HADWM (Graftjacket(®) regenerative tissue matrix, Wright Medical Technology, Inc., licensed by KCI USA, Inc., San Antonio, TX), and their clinical experience with this scaffold. This article distills these discussions into an evidence-based and practical overview for treating chronic lower extremity wounds with this HADWM. PMID:24283346