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  1. Design and baseline characteristics of the PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians) trial: a cluster, randomised lifestyle intervention in Indian and Pakistani adults with impaired glycaemia at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj S; Bhopal, Ruby; Forbes, John F; Gill, Jason M R; McKnight, John; Murray, Gordon; Sattar, Naveed; Sharma, Anu; Wallia, Sunita; Wild, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the design and baseline population characteristics of an adapted lifestyle intervention trial aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity in people of Indian and Pakistani origin at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Design Cluster, randomised controlled trial. Setting Community-based in Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Participants 156 families, comprising 171 people with impaired glycaemia, and waist sizes ≥90 cm (men) and ≥80 cm (women), plus 124 family volunteers. Interventions Families were randomised into either an intensive intervention of 15 dietitian visits providing lifestyle advice, or a light (control) intervention of four visits, over a period of 3 years. Outcome measures The primary outcome is a change in mean weight between baseline and 3 years. Secondary outcomes are changes in waist, hip, body mass index, plasma blood glucose and physical activity. The cost of the intervention will be measured. Qualitative work will seek to understand factors that motivated participation and retention in the trial and families’ experience of adhering to the interventions. Results Between July 2007 and October 2009, 171 people with impaired glycaemia, along with 124 family volunteers, were randomised. In total, 95% (171/196) of eligible participants agreed to proceed to the 3-year trial. Only 13 of the 156 families contained more than one recruit with impaired glycaemia. We have recruited sufficient participants to undertake an adequately powered trial to detect a mean difference in weight of 2.5 kg between the intensive and light intervention groups at the 5% significance level. Over half the families include family volunteers. The main participants have a mean age of 52 years and 64% are women. Conclusions Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) is one of the first community-based, randomised lifestyle intervention trials in a UK South Asian population. The main trial results will

  2. Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT): Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda; Schiffer, Linda; Sharp, Lisa; Singh, Vicky; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases, and weight loss can reduce the risk of developing these diseases. Obesity is highly prevalent among Black women, but weight loss treatment for black women has been understudied until recently. The Obesity Reduction black Intervention Trial (ORBIT) is a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a culturally proficient weight loss and weight loss maintenance program for black women. This paper describes the design of the trial, the intervention, and baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods Two hundred thirteen obese black women aged 30–65 years were randomized to the intervention group or a general health control group. The intervention consists of a 6-month weight loss program followed by a 1-year maintenance program. Weight, dietary intake, and energy expenditure are measured at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. Results More than 40% of participants had a baseline body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m2 (class III obesity). Intake of fat and saturated fat was higher and consumption of fruit, vegetables, and fiber was lower than currently recommended guidelines. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity was high (median 85 min/day). However, objectively measured physical activity among a subgroup of participants was lower (median 15 min/day). Conclusions Weight loss among obese black women has received inadequate attention in relation to the magnitude of the problem. Factors that contribute to successful weight loss and more importantly, weight loss maintenance need to be identified. PMID:18774895

  3. Baseline Characteristics of Patients Predicting Suitability for Rapid Naltrexone Induction

    PubMed Central

    Mogali, Shanthi; Khan, Nabil A.; Drill, Esther S.; Pavlicova, Martina; Sullivan, Maria A.; Nunes, Edward; Bisaga, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Extended-release (XR) injection naltrexone has proved promising in the treatment of opioid dependence. Induction onto naltrexone is often accomplished with a procedure known as rapid naltrexone induction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pre-treatment patient characteristics as predictors of successful completion of a rapid naltrexone induction procedure prior to XR naltrexone treatment. Methods A chart review of 150 consecutive research participants (N = 84 completers and N = 66 non-completers) undergoing a rapid naltrexone induction with the buprenorphone-clonidine procedure were compared on a number of baseline demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Logistic regression was used to identify client characteristics that may predict successful initiation of naltrexone after a rapid induction-detoxification. Results Patients who failed to successfully initiate naltrexone were younger (AOR: 1.040, CI: 1.006, 1.075), and using 10 or more bags of heroin (or equivalent) per day (AOR: 0.881, CI: 0.820, 0.946). Drug use other than opioids was also predictive of failure to initiate naltrexone in simple bivariate analyses, but was no longer significant when controlling for age and opioid use level. Conclusions Younger age, and indicators of greater substance dependence severity (more current opioid use, other substance use) predict difficulty completing a rapid naltrexone induction procedure. Such patients might require a longer period of stabilization and/or more gradual detoxification prior to initiating naltrexone. Scientific Significance Our study findings identify specific characteristics of patients who responded positively to rapid naltrexone induction. PMID:25907815

  4. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate-high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤ 7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  5. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate–high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  6. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    PubMed Central

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D; Björck, I; Bozzetto, L; Brouns, F; Diamant, M; Dye, L; Hulshof, T; Holst, J J; Lamport, D J; Laville, M; Lawton, C L; Meheust, A; Nilson, A; Normand, S; Rivellese, A A; Theis, S; Torekov, S S; Vinoy, S

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose in relation to body weight control, the development of oxidative stress, T2DM, and CVD and in maintaining optimal exercise and cognitive performance. There is mechanistic evidence linking postprandial glycaemia or glycaemic variability to the development of these conditions or in the impairment in cognitive and exercise performance. Nevertheless, postprandial glycaemia is interrelated with many other (risk) factors as well as to fasting glucose. In many studies, meal-related glycaemic response is not sufficiently characterized, or the methodology with respect to the description of food or meal composition, or the duration of the measurement of postprandial glycaemia is limited. It is evident that more randomized controlled dietary intervention trials using effective low vs. high glucose response diets are necessary in order to draw more definite conclusions on the role of postprandial glycaemia in relation to health and disease. Also of importance is the evaluation of the potential role of the time course of postprandial glycaemia. PMID:22780564

  7. Impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes of carotid artery stenting in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Ming; Liu, Chi-Kuang; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke patients with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis. However, the midterm outcome for patients undergoing this procedure varies considerably with baseline characteristics. To determine the impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes following carotid artery stenting, data from 107 eligible patients with a first episode of ischemic stroke were collected by retrospective chart review. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to divide patients into two baseline groups, mRS ≤2 and mRS >2. A three-step decision-tree statistical analysis was conducted. After weighting the decision-tree parameters, the following impact hierarchy was obtained: admission low-density lipoprotein, gouty arthritis, chronic kidney disease, ipsilateral common carotid artery resistance index, contralateral ophthalmic artery resistance index, sex, and dyslipidemia. The finite-state machine model demonstrated that, in patients with baseline mRS ≤2, 46% had an improved mRS score at follow-up, whereas 54% had a stable mRS score. In patients with baseline mRS >2, a stable mRS score was observed in 75%, improved score in 23%, and a poorer score in 2%. Admission low-density lipoprotein was the strongest predictive factor influencing poststenting outcome. In addition, our study provides further evidence that carotid artery stenting can be of benefit in first-time ischemic stroke patients with baseline mRS scores >2. PMID:27099508

  8. Impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes of carotid artery stenting in acute ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Ming; Liu, Chi-Kuang; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke patients with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis. However, the midterm outcome for patients undergoing this procedure varies considerably with baseline characteristics. To determine the impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes following carotid artery stenting, data from 107 eligible patients with a first episode of ischemic stroke were collected by retrospective chart review. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to divide patients into two baseline groups, mRS ≤2 and mRS >2. A three-step decision-tree statistical analysis was conducted. After weighting the decision-tree parameters, the following impact hierarchy was obtained: admission low-density lipoprotein, gouty arthritis, chronic kidney disease, ipsilateral common carotid artery resistance index, contralateral ophthalmic artery resistance index, sex, and dyslipidemia. The finite-state machine model demonstrated that, in patients with baseline mRS ≤2, 46% had an improved mRS score at follow-up, whereas 54% had a stable mRS score. In patients with baseline mRS >2, a stable mRS score was observed in 75%, improved score in 23%, and a poorer score in 2%. Admission low-density lipoprotein was the strongest predictive factor influencing poststenting outcome. In addition, our study provides further evidence that carotid artery stenting can be of benefit in first-time ischemic stroke patients with baseline mRS scores >2. PMID:27099508

  9. The Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial: Rationale, Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe the design and methods of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial, and the baseline characteristics of enrolled patients. Design Baseline data from a 1:1 randomized, parallel treatment design clinical trial at 23 clinical centers comparing systemic corticosteroid therapy (and immunosuppression when indicated) to fluocinolone acetonide implant placement. Methods Eligible patients have active or recently active non-infectious intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis. The study design had 90% power (two-sided type I error rate=0.05) to detect a 7.5 letter (1.5 line) difference between groups in the mean visual acuity change between baseline and two years. Secondary outcomes include ocular and systemic complications of therapy and quality of life. Baseline characteristics include demographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, and reading center gradings of lens and fundus photos, optical coherence tomography images, and fluorescein angiograms. Results Over three years, 255 patients were enrolled (481 eyes with uveitis). At baseline, 50% of eyes with uveitis had best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/40 (16% worse than 20/200), with a similar distribution of reduced visual acuity for intermediate uveitis and posterior or panuveitis cases. Structural complications, including macular edema (36%) and epiretinal membrane (48%), were common. Conclusions The MUST Trial will compare fluocinolone acetonide implant versus systemic therapy for management of intermediate, posterior and panuveitis. Patients with intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis enrolled in the trial had a high burden of reduced visual acuity, cataract, macular edema and epiretinal membrane; overall quality of life was lower than expected based on visual acuity. PMID:20097325

  10. Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) Trial: Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Ager, Joel; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G. Wright; Rosen, R. Mitchell; Haisonleder, Daniell; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J.C.; Jin, Yufeng; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify baseline characteristics of women with unexplained infertility to determine whether treatment with an aromatase inhibitor will result in a lower rate of multiple gestations than current standard ovulation induction medications. Design Randomized, prospective clinical trial Patients 900 couples with unexplained infertility Interventions: Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins, clomiphene citrate, or letrozole in conjunction with intrauterine insemination. Setting Multicenter University based clinical practices. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and survey characteristics. Interventions Collection of baseline demographics, blood samples, and ultrasonographic assessments. Results Demographic characteristics of women receiving clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation were very consistent. Their mean age was 32.2 ± 4.4 years and infertility duration was 34.7± 25.7 months, with 59% primary infertility. More than 1/3 of the women were current or past smokers. The mean BMI was 27 and mean AMH level was 2.6; only 11 women (1.3%) had antral follicle counts of less than 5. Similar observations were identified for hormonal profiles, ultrasound characterization of the ovaries, semen parameters, and quality of life assessments in both male and female partners. Conclusion The cause of infertility in the couples recruited to this treatment trial is elusive, as the women were regularly ovulating and had evidence of good ovarian reserve both by basal FSH, AMH levels, and antral follicle counts; the male partners had normal semen parameters. The three treatment subgroups have common baseline characteristics, thereby providing comparable patient populations for testing the hypothesis that use of letrozole for ovarian stimulation can reduce the rates of multiples from that observed with gonadotropin and clomiphene citrate treatment. PMID:25707331

  11. Baseline characteristics and Latino versus non-Latino contrasts among Bronx A1C study participants

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Silver, Lynn D.; Chamany, Shadi; Schechter, Clyde B.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Carrasco, Jeidy; Powell, Danielle; Berger, Diana; Basch, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the New York City A1c Registry and associations among baseline characteristics of low-income, diverse adults with diabetes enrolled in a telephonic intervention trial. Baseline data were analyzed from 941 participants randomized to a telephonic/print or a print-only intervention to improve glycemic control in the context of an A1c Registry program. Summary statistics for key variables were calculated and we highlight contrasts between Latino and non-Latino participants. There were high proportions of Latino (67.7%) and Black (28.0%) participants from the South Bronx. Mean age was 56.3 years, almost 70.0% were foreign born, and 55.8% preferred Spanish language. Mean A1c was 9.2% and mean BMI 32.1kg/m2. There were significant contrasts between the Latino and non-Latino participants for behavioral and psychosocial variables. A telephonic intervention study was able to randomize a large number of low-income, ethnically diverse, urban participants with poor diabetes control. Latino vs. non-Latino differences at baseline were striking. PMID:24407771

  12. Baseline characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Still, Carolyn H; Craven, Timothy E; Freedman, Barry I; Van Buren, Peter N; Sink, Kaycee M; Killeen, Anthony A; Bates, Jeffrey T; Bee, Alberta; Contreras, Gabriel; Oparil, Suzanne; Pedley, Carolyn M; Wall, Barry M; White, Suzanne; Woods, Delia M; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Wright, Jackson T

    2015-09-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mm Hg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mm Hg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. SPRINT enrolled 9361 hypertensive participants aged older than 50 years. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared with non-AAs. AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared with non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared with non-AAs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mm Hg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of systolic blood pressure targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs. PMID:26320890

  13. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Ross A.; Crawley, William R.; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crawley, AA, Sherman, RA, Crawley, WR, and Cosio-Lima, LM. Physical fitness of police academy cadets: baseline characteristics and changes during a 16-week academy. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1416–1424, 2016—Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk−1, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8–16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark. PMID:26466133

  14. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Amy A; Sherman, Ross A; Crawley, William R; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M

    2016-05-01

    Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8-16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark. PMID:26466133

  15. The polyp prevention trial II: dietary intervention program and participant baseline dietary characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lanza, E; Schatzkin, A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Corle, D; Clifford, C; Paskett, E; Hayes, D; Bote, E; Caan, B; Shike, M; Weissfeld, J; Slattery, M; Mateski, D; Daston, C; Clifford, D C

    1996-05-01

    The Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a low-fat, high-dietary fiber, high-fruit and -vegetable eating pattern will reduce the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel. Men and women who had one or more adenomas removed recently were randomized into either the intervention (n = 1037) or control (n = 1042) arms. Food frequency questionnaire data indicate that PPT participants at the beginning of the trial consumed 36.8% of total energy from fat, 9.7 g of dietary fiber/1000 kcal, and 3.8 daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Baseline dietary characteristics, including intake of fat, fiber, and fruits and vegetables, as well as other macro- and micronutrients, were similar in the two study groups. The intervention participants receive extensive dietary and behavioral counseling to achieve the PPT dietary goals of 20% of total energy from fat, 18 g/1000 kcal of dietary fiber, and 5-8 daily servings (depending on total caloric intake) of fruits and vegetables. Control participants do not receive such counseling and are expected to continue their usual intake. Dietary intake in both groups is mentioned annually using a 4-day food record (also completed at 6 months by intervention participants only) and a food frequency questionnaire, with a 10% random sample of participants completing an annual unscheduled 24-h telephone recall. Blood specimens are drawn and analyzed annually for lipids and carotenoids. This article provides details on the rationale and design of the PPT dietary intervention program and describes the participant baseline dietary intake data characteristics. PMID:9162305

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet baseline airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an executive-jet baseline airfoil model was conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The primary goal of the test was to measure airfoil aerodynamic characteristics over a wide range of flow conditions that encompass two design points. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735 with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6) based on chord, respectively, and normal-force coefficients of 0.98 and 0.51, respectively. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.250 to 0.780 and a chord Reynolds number range from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from -2 deg to a maximum below 10 deg with one exception in which the maximum was 14 deg for a Mach number of 0.250 at a chord Reynolds number of 4.5 x 10(exp 6). Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The adaptive-wall test section had flexible top and bottom walls and rigid sidewalls. Wall interference was minimized by the movement of the adaptive walls, and the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics were corrected for any residual top and bottom wall interference.

  17. Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study: Design, Baseline Characteristics, and Inter-Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phuc V.; Zhang, Xinbo; Francis, Brian A.; Varma, Rohit; Greenfield, David S.; Schuman, Joel S.; Loewen, Nils; Huang, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the baseline characteristics of the participants in the Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study. To compare the participating sites for variations among subjects and the performance of imaging instruments. Design Multi-center longitudinal observational cohort study Methods A total of 788 participants (1,329 eyes) were enrolled from three academic referral centers. There were 145 participants (289 eyes) in the normal group, 394 participants (663 eyes) in the glaucoma suspect/preperimetric glaucoma group, and 249 participants (377 eyes) in the perimetric glaucoma group. Participants underwent a full clinical exam, standard automated perimetry, and imaging with time-domain and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser polarimetry, and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Main Outcome Measures The baseline average, population standard deviation, and repeatability of imaging-derived anatomic variables were reported for each technology and center. Results Compared to the normal participants, glaucoma suspect/preperimetric glaucoma and perimetric glaucoma groups had significantly reduced anatomic measurements. Repeatability of nerve fiber layer thickness was best for Fourier-domain OCT (overall coefficient of variation < 2%), followed by time-domain OCT (coefficient of variation 2-2.9%), scanning laser polarimetry (coefficient of variation 2.6-4.5%), and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy rim area (coefficient of variation 4.2-7.6%). A mixed-effects model showed that the differences between sites was less than 25 percent of the variation within groups and less than the differences between the normal and glaucoma suspect/preperimetric glaucoma group. Conclusions Site-to-site variation was smaller than both the variation within groups and the changes due to glaucoma. Therefore pooling of participants between sites is appropriate. PMID:25447111

  18. Baseline Demographic, Anthropometric, Psychosocial, and Behavioral Characteristics of Rural, Southern Women in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Objectives Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) characteristics of rural, Southern, pregnant women enrolled in a maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting program are described. Methods Participants included 82 women early in their second trimester of pregnancy and residing in three Lower Mississippi Delta counties in the United States. Baseline data were collected through direct measurement and surveys. Results Participants were primarily African American (96 %), young (mean age = 23 years), single (93 %), and received Medicaid (92 %). Mean gestational age was 18 weeks, 67 % of participants were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant, and 16 % tested positive for major depression. Participants were sedentary (mean minutes of moderate intensity physical activity/week = 30), had low diet quality (mean Healthy Eating Index-2010 total score = 43 points), with only 38, 4, and 7 % meeting recommendations for saturated fat, fiber, and sodium intakes, respectively. Conclusions for Practice In the Lower Mississippi Delta, there is a need for interventions that are designed to help women achieve optimal GWG by improving their diet quality and increasing the amount of physical activity performed during pregnancy. Researchers also should consider addressing barriers to changing health behaviors during pregnancy that may be unique to this region of the United States. PMID:27146396

  19. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Baseline Characteristics and Associations with Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Go, Alan S.; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes. PMID:19541818

  20. Baseline observations from the POSSIBLE EU® study: characteristics of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Guillemin, Francis; Jonsson, Bengt; Ortolani, Sergio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Horne, Rob; Kakad, Shilpa; Shepherd, Susan; Möller, Gerd; Marciniak, Anne; Martinez, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience in Europe (POSSIBLE EU®) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study that utilises physician- and patient-reported measures to describe the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women on bone loss therapies. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of 3,402 women recruited from general practice across five European countries. Purpose The POSSIBLE EU® is a study describing the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications. Methods Between 2005 and 2008, general practitioners enrolled postmenopausal women initiating, switching or continuing treatment with bone loss treatment in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Patients and physicians completed questionnaires at study entry and at 3-month intervals, for 1 year. Results Of 3,402 women enrolled (mean age 68.2 years [SD] 9.83), 96% were diagnosed with low bone mass; 55% of these using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most women (92%) had comorbidities. Mean minimum T score (hip or spine) at diagnosis was −2.7 (SD 0.89; median −2.7 [interquartile range, −3.2, −2.2]) indicating low bone mineral density. Almost 40% of the women had prior fractures in adulthood, mostly non-vertebral, non-hip in nature, 30% of whom had at least two fractures and more than half experienced moderate/severe pain or fatigue. Bisphosphonates were the most common type of bone loss treatment prescribed in the 12 months preceding the study. Conclusions POSSIBLE EU® characterises postmenopausal women with low bone mass, exhibiting a high rate of prevalent fracture, substantial bone fragility and overall comorbidity burden. Clinical strategies for managing osteoporosis in this population varied across the five participating European countries, reflecting their different guidelines, regulations and standards of care. PMID:21258637

  1. Baseline Characteristics and Risk Factors of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Can; Li, Mengtao; Liu, Yongtai; Wang, Qian; Guo, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Jiuliang; Lai, Jinzhi; Tian, Zhuang; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) has started a single-center right heart catheterization (RHC)-based pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) study in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) since 2006. The baseline characteristics of these patients were described and the risk factor for PAH in lupus was identified.The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment characteristics of SLE patients with PAH when they were registered were collected as the baseline data. A case-control study was conducted by taking the admitted SLE-non-PAH patients adjusted for age and gender in a 4:1 ratio during the same period as the controls. The associated variables were examined by binary multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify possible risk factors. A total of 111 RHC-confirmed SLE-PAH patients were enrolled, with the onset age of 34.6 ± 8.6 years old and the average SLE duration of 5 years. RHC revealed mPAP as 46.4 ± 11.4 mm Hg, CI as 2.7 ± 0.8 L/min × m, and PVR as 10.5 ± 4.8 WU. 46% of patients were WHO Fc I-II. All patients were treated with immunosuppressive agents and 65% patients had PAH-targeted therapy. The case-control study had confirmed 2 independent risk factors previously published: pericardial effusion (OR = 21.290, P < 0.001) and anti-RNP antibody (OR = 12.399, P < 0.001). Meanwhile, 6 independent variables were discovered: baseline SLE duration (OR = 1.118, P = 0.007), interstitial lung disease (OR = 17.027, P < 0.001=, without acute rash (OR = 3.258, P = 0.019), anti-SSA antibody (OR = 4.836, P = 0.004), SLEDAI≤9 (OR = 26.426, P < 0.001), ESR≤20 mm/h (OR = 12.068, P < 0.001), and uric acid > 357 μmol/L (OR = 9.666, P < 0.001) to be associated with PAH in SLE patients.The PUMCH study has shown that SLE patients complicated with PAH are usually earlier diagnosed and have less disease severity than patients without PAH. The

  2. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT): Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Smurzynski, Marlene; Collier, Ann C.; Koletar, Susan L.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Wu, Kunling; Bastow, Barbara; Benson, Constance A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose ALLRT is a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected subjects prospectively randomized into selected clinical trials for antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-naïve and ARV treatment-experienced individuals conducted by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG). We describe the rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the ALLRT cohort and its potential to address important research questions related to ARV therapy. Method Standardized visits occur every 16 weeks to evaluate long-term clinical, virologic, and immunologic outcomes associated with ARV treatment. Results A total of 4,371 subjects enrolled in ALLRT from January 2000 through June 2007. Of these, 3,146 (72%) were ARV naïve at parent study entry (18% female, 44% white, 32% black, 21% Hispanic; median age 37 years, CD4 count 218 cells/μL, follow-up 3.6 years; 343 [11%] followed ≥8 years) and 1,225 (28%) were treatment experienced (13% female, 59% white, 20% black, 17% Hispanic; median age 42 years, CD4 count 325 cells/μL, follow-up 5.7 years). Conclusions ALLRT provides the opportunity to understand long-term ramifications of therapeutic ARV choices and determine whether these vary by treatment regimen, timing of treatment initiation, or treatment changes over long-term follow-up. Investigations based on uniform data and specimen collection in the context of randomized ARV treatments will be critical to developing more successful long-term therapeutic strategies for HIV treatment. PMID:18753121

  3. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  4. The Study of Progression of Adult Nearsightedness (SPAN): Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    BULLIMORE, MARK A.; REUTER, KATHLEEN S.; JONES, LISA A.; MITCHELL, G. LYNN; ZOZ, JESSICA; RAH, MARJORIE J.

    2009-01-01

    vs. late) still had a significant effect on degree of myopia (F = 115.1, p < 0.001), but the number of myopic parents was no longer significant (F = 0.65, p = 0.52). For the ESM, the most frequently reported visual task was computer use (mean, 18.9%; range, 0–60.0%) and, overall, subjects reported near work activity 34.1% of the time (range, 0–67.3%). Conclusions The design of SPAN and the baseline characteristics of the cohort have been described. Parental history of myopia is related to the degree of myopia at baseline, but this effect is mediated by the age of onset of myopia. PMID:16909085

  5. Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most preschool centers provide two 30-min sessions of gross-motor/outdoor playtime per preschool day. Within this time frame, children accumulate most of their activity within the first 10 min. This paper describes the design and baseline participant characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study. The STEP study is a cluster randomized controlled study designed to examine the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on during-school physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Methods/Design Ten preschool centers serving low-income families were randomized into SBS-PA versus unstructured PA (UPA). SBS-PA schools were asked to implement age-appropriate 10 min structured PA routines within the classroom setting, twice daily, followed by 20 min of usual unstructured playtime. UPA intervention consisted of 30 min of supervised unstructured free playtime twice daily. Interventions were implemented during the morning and afternoon designated gross-motor playtime for 30 min/session, five days/week for six months. Outcome measures were between group difference in during-preschool PA (accelerometers and direct observation) over six-months. Ten preschool centers, representing 34 classrooms and 315 children, enrolled in the study. The average age and BMI percentile for the participants was 4.1 ± 0.8 years and 69th percentile, respectively. Participants spent 74% and 6% of their preschool day engaged in sedentary and MVPA, respectively. Discussion Results from the STEP intervention could provide evidence that a PA policy that exposes preschoolers to shorter bouts of structured PA throughout the preschool day could potentially increase preschoolers’ PA levels. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01588392 PMID:22853642

  6. Ocular Hypertension after Pediatric Cataract Surgery: Baseline Characteristics and First-Year Report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Jingjing; Lin, Zhuoling; Qu, Bo; Zhan, Jiao; Zheng, Danying; Zhong, Xiaojian; Tian, Zhen; Liu, Yizhi

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring intraocular pressure (IOP) is essential for pediatric cataract treatment but always difficult due to lack of cooperation in young children. We present the baseline characteristics and the first-year results of a long-term prospective cohort study, which are aimed to determine the relationship of the incidence of ocular hypertension (OH) in children after cataract surgery during the first-year period and the risk of developing late-onset glaucoma. Children were included with the following criteria: they were≤10 years old and scheduled to undergo cataract surgery with/without intraocular lens implantation; they were compliant with our follow-up protocol, which included monitoring IOP using a Tono-Pen under sedation or anesthesia. Incidence of OH, peak OH value, OH onset time and OH duration within a 12-month period following surgery were measured. In brief, 206 patients (379 eyes) were included and OH developed in 66 of 379 (17.4%) eyes. The mean follow-up period was 14.0±3.2 months (median, 12 months; range, 10–16 months). Moreover, 33 of 196 (16.8%) aphakic eyes and 33 of 183 (18.0%) IOL eyes were diagnosed with OH. The peak OH onset times were at 1-week (34/66, 51.5%) and 1-month (14/66, 21.2%) appointments postsurgery. The peak IOP value in the OH eyes was 29.9±7.5 mmHg (median, 29 mmHg; range, 21–48 mmHg). The duration of OH was 30.9±31.2 days (median, 30 days; range, 3–150 days). OH recurred in 13 eyes with a history of OH diagnosed within 1 month postsurgery (13/54, 24.1%), which needed temporary or long term use of antiglaucoma medications. In conclusion, the incidence of OH in children after cataract surgery was 17.4% during the first-year period. Children who have suffered elevated IOP in the first year after cataract surgery should be followed closely to determine if there is an increased risk of developing late-onset glaucoma. PMID:23922832

  7. Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily and Nocturnal Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Michael V.; Larive, Brett; Eggers, Paul W.; Beck, Gerald J.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Levin, Nathan W.; Kliger, Alan S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The annual mortality rate for maintenance hemodialysis patients in the United States remains unacceptably high at 15–20%. In 2004, we initiated the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) clinical trials. This report presents baseline characteristics of FHN trial participants and compares them to hemodialysis patients tracked in USRDS data. Study design Two separate randomized clinical trials Settings and participants FHN includes 332 patients with chronic kidney disease requiring chronic dialysis therapy enrolled in two separate randomized clinical trials. The FHN Daily Trial (245 randomized subjects) was designed to compare outcomes of six times per week in-center daily hemodialysis (1.5 to 2.75 hours/session) with conventional three times per week in-center hemodialysis. The FHN Nocturnal Trial (87 randomized subjects) was designed to compare outcomes of six times per week nocturnal (6 to 8 hours/session) with conventional three times per week hemodialysis. USRDS data includes 338109 incident and prevalent chronic hemodialysis patients from the calendar year 2007. Results Subjects in both trials were, on average, younger than the average hemodialysis patient in the United States (50.4 years; p<0.001 for Daily and 52.8 years; p<0.001 for Nocturnal). Compared to USRDS data, whites were underrepresented in the Daily Trial (36% versus 55%, p<0.001) while Hispanics were underrepresented in the Nocturnal Trial and overrepresented in the Daily Trial (0% versus 28%; p<0.001). In addition, there were more fistulas and fewer catheters in the Daily Trial (61% and 20% respectively, p<0.001 for both) and fewer grafts and more catheters in the Nocturnal Trial (10% and 44% respectively, p<0.005 for both). Limitations Clinical trial exclusion criteria and patient willingness to participate limit comparisons with the USRDS. Conclusions FHN participants are younger and the racial composition for each study was different than the racial composition of the aggregate US

  8. Baseline demographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of rural, Southern women in early pregnacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...

  9. BeLieving in Native Girls: Characteristics from a Baseline Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Deborah; Langhorne, Aleisha

    2012-01-01

    BeLieving In Native Girls (BLING) is a juvenile delinquency and HIV intervention at a residential boarding school for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescent girls ages 12-20 years. In 2010, 115 participants completed baseline surveys to identify risk and protective factors. Initial findings are discussed regarding a variety of topics, including…

  10. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD.

    PubMed

    Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; López-Gálvez, Maria I; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Margaron, Philippe; Lambrou, George N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response. PMID:27073691

  11. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

    PubMed Central

    López-Gálvez, Maria I.; Margaron, Philippe; Lambrou, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response. PMID:27073691

  12. Baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF)

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, John J.V.; Anand, Inder S.; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P.; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Albizem, Moetaz; Cheng, Sunfa; Scarlata, Debra; Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B.; Amuchastegui, M.; Belziti, C.; Bluguermann, J.; Caccavo, M.; Cartasegna, L.; Colque, R.; Cuneo, C.; Fernandez, A.; Gabito, A.; Goicochea, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Gorosito, V.; Grinfeld, L.; Hominal, M.; Kevorkian, R.; Litvak Bruno, M.; Llanos, J.; Mackinnon, I.; Manuale, O.; Marzetti, E.; Nul, D.; Perna, E.; Riccitelli, M.; Sanchez, A.; Santos, D.; Schygiel, P.; Toblli, J.; Vogel, D.; Aggarwal, A.; Amerena, J.; De Looze, F.; Fletcher, P.; Hare, D.; Ireland, M.; Krum, H.; Lattimore, J.; Marwick, T.; Sindone, A.; Thompson, P.; Waites, J.; Altenberger, J.; Ebner, C.; Lenz, K.; Pacher, R.; Poelzl, G.; Charlier, F.; de Ceuninck, M.; De Keulenaer, G.; Dendale, P.; Maréchal, P.; Mullens, W.; Thoeng, J.; Vanderheyden, M.; Vanhaecke, J.; Weytjens, C.; Wollaert, B.; Albuquerque, D.; Almeida, D.; Aspe y Rosas, J.; Bocchi, E.; Bordignon, S.; Clausell, N.; Kaiser, S.; Leaes, P.; Martins Alves, S.; Montera, M.; Moura, L.; Pereira de Castro, R.; Rassi, S.; Reis, A.; Saraiva, J.; Simões, M.; Souza Neto, J.; Teixeira, M.; Benov, H.; Chompalova, B.; Donova, T.; Georgiev, P.; Gotchev, D.; Goudev, A.; Grigorov, M.; Guenova, D.; Hergeldjieva, V.; Ivanov, D.; Kostova, E.; Manolova, A.; Marchev, S.; Nikolov, F.; Popov, A.; Raev, D.; Tzekova, M.; Czarnecki, W.; Giannetti, N.; Haddad, H.; Heath, J.; Huynh, T.; Lepage, S.; Liu, P.; Lonn, E.; Ma, P.; Manyari, D.; Moe, G.; Parker, J.; Pesant, Y.; Rajda, M.; Ricci, J.; Roth, S.; Sestier, F.; Sluzar, V.; Sussex, B.; Vizel, S.; Antezana, G.; Bugueno, C.; Castro, P.; Conejeros, C.; Manriquez, L.; Martinez, D.; Potthoff, S.; Stockins, B.; Vukasovic, J.; Gregor, P.; Herold, M.; Jerabek, O.; Jirmar, R.; Kuchar, R.; Linhart, A.; Podzemska, B.; Soucek, M.; Spac, J.; Spacek, R.; Vodnansky, P.; Bronnum-Schou, J.; Clemmensen, K.; Egstrup, K.; Jensen, G.; Kjoller-Hansen, L.; Kober, L.; Markenvard, J.; Rokkedal, J.; Skagen, K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Tuxen, C.; Videbak, L.; Laks, T.; Vahula, V.; Harjola, V.; Kettunen, R.; Kotila, M.; Bauer, F.; Cohen Solal, A.; Coisne, D.; Davy, J.; De Groote, P.; Dos Santos, P.; Funck, F.; Galinier, M.; Gibelin, P.; Isnard, R.; Neuder, Y.; Roul, G.; Sabatier, R.; Trochu, J.; Anker, S.; Denny, S.; Dreykluft, T.; Flesch, M.; Genth-Zotz, S.; Hambrecht, R.; Hein, J.; Jeserich, M.; John, M.; Kreider-Stempfle, H.; Laufs, U.; Muellerleile, K.; Natour, M.; Sandri, M.; Schäufele, T.; von Hodenberg, E.; Weyland, K.; Winkelmann, B.; Tse, H.; Yan, B.; Barsi, B.; Csikasz, J.; Dezsi, C.; Edes, I.; Forster, T.; Karpati, P.; Kerekes, C.; Kis, E.; Kosa, I.; Lupkovics, G.; Nagy, A.; Preda, I.; Ronaszeki, A.; Tomcsanyi, J.; Zamolyi, K.; Agarwal, D.; Bahl, V.; Bordoloi, A.; Chockalingam, K.; Chopda, M.; Chopra, V.; Dugal, J.; Ghaisas, N.; Ghosh, S.; Grant, P.; Hiremath, S.; Iyengar, S.; Jagadeesa Subramania, B.; Jain, P.; Joshi, A.; Khan, A.; Mullasari, A.; Naik, S.; Oomman, A.; Pai, V.; Pareppally Gopal, R.; Parikh, K.; Patel, T.; Prakash, V.; Sastry, B.; Sathe, S.; Sinha, N.; Srikanthan, V.; Subburamakrishnan, P.; Thacker, H.; Wander, G.; Admon, D.; Katz, A.; Klainman, E.; Lewis, B.; Marmor, A.; Moriel, M.; Mosseri, M.; Shotan, A.; Weinstein, J.; Zimlichman, R.; Agostoni, P.; Albanese, M.; Alunni, G.; Bini, R.; Boccanelli, A.; Bolognese, L.; Campana, C.; Carbonieri, E.; Carpino, C.; Checco, L.; Cosmi, F.; D'Angelo, G.; De Cristofaro, M.; Floresta, A.; Fucili, A.; Galvani, M.; Ivleva, A.; Marra, S.; Musca, G.; Peccerillo, N.; Perrone Filardi, P.; Picchio, E.; Russo, T.; Scelsi, L.; Senni, M.; Tavazzi, L.; Erglis, A.; Jasinkevica, I.; Kakurina, N.; Veze, I.; Volans, E.; Bagdonas, A.; Berukstis, E.; Celutkiene, J.; Dambrauskaite, A.; Jarasuniene, D.; Luksiene, D.; Rudys, A.; Sakalyte, G.; Sliaziene, S.; Aguilar-Romero, R.; Cardona-Muñoz, E.; Castro-Jimenez, J.; Chavez-Herrera, J.; Chuquiure Valenzuela, E.; De la Pena, G.; Herrera, E.; Leiva-Pons, J.; Lopez Alvarado, A.; Mendez Machado, G.; Ramos-Lopez, G.; Basart, D.; Buijs, E.; Cornel, J.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Dunselman, P.; Freericks, M.; Hamraoui, K.; Lenderlink, T.; Linssen, G.; Lodewick, P.; Lodewijks, C.; Lok, D.; Nierop, P.; Ronner, E.; Somsen, A.; van Dantzig, J.; van der Burgh, P.; van Kempen, L.; van Vlies, B.; Voors, A.; Wardeh, A.; Willems, F.; Dickstein, K.; Gundersen, T.; Hole, T.; Thalamus, J.; Westheim, A.; Dabrowski, M.; Gorski, J.; Korewicki, J.; Kuc, K.; Miekus, P.; Musial, W.; Niegowska, J.; Piotrowski, W.; Podolec, P.; Polonski, L.; Ponikowski, P.; Rynkiewicz, A.; Szelemej, R.; Trusz-Gluza, M.; Ujda, M.; Wojciechowski, D; Wysokinski, A.; Camacho, A.; Fonseca, C.; Monteiro, P.; Apetrei, E.; Bruckner, I.; Carasca, E.; Coman, I.; Datcu, M.; Dragulescu, S.; Ionescu, P.; Iordachescu-Petica, D.; Manitiu, I.; Popa, V.; Pop-Moldovan, A.; Radoi, M.; Stamate, S.; Tomescu, M.; Vita, I.; Aroutiounov, G.; Ballyuzek, M.; Bart, B.; Churina, S.; Glezer, M.; Goloshchekin, B.; Ivleva, A.; Kobalava, Z.; Kostenko, V.; Lopatin, Y.; Martynov, A.; Orlov, V.; Semernin, E.; Shogenov, Z.; Sidorenko, B.; Skvortsov, A.; Storzhakov, G.; Sulimov, V.; Talibov, O.; Tereshenko, S.; Tsyrline, V.; Zadionchenko, V.; Zateyshchikov, D.; Dzupina, A.; Hranai, M.; Kmec, J.; Micko, K.; Murin, J.; Pella, D.; Sojka, G.; Spisak, V.; Vahala, P.; Vinanska, D.; Badat, A.; Bayat, J.; Dawood, S.; Delport, E.; Ellis, G.; Garda, R.; Klug, E.; Mabin, T.; Naidoo, D.; Pretorius, M.; Ranjith, N.; Van Zyl, L.; Weich, H.; Anguita, M.; Berrazueta, J.; Bruguera i Cortada, J.; de Teresa, E.; Gómez Sánchez, M.; González Juanatey, J.; Gonzalez-Maqueda, I.; Jordana, R.; Lupon, J.; Manzano, L.; Pascual Figal, D.; Pulpón, L.; Recio, J.; Ridocci Soriano, F.; Rodríguez Lambert, J.; Roig Minguell, E.; Roig Minguell, E.; Romero, J.; Valdovinos, P.; Klintberg, L.; Kronvall, T.; Lycksell, M.; Morner, S.; Rydberg, E.; Swedberg, K.; Timberg, I.; Wikstrom, G.; Moccetti, T.4; Ashok, J.; Banerjee, P.; Carr-White, G.; Cleland, J.; Connolly, E.; Francis, M.; Greenbaum, R.; Kadr, H.; Lindsay, S.; McMurray, J.; Megarry, S.; Memon, A.; Murdoch, D.; Senior, R.; Squire, I.; Tan, L.; Witte, K.; Adams, K.; Adamson, P.; Adler, A.; Altschul, L.; Altschuller, A.; Amirani, H.; Anand, I.; Andreou, C.; Ansari, M.; Antonishen, M.; Banchs, H.; Banerjee, S.; Banish, D.; Bank, A.; Barbagelata, A.; Barnard, D.; Bellinger, R.; Benn, A.; Berk, M.; Berry, B.; Bethala, V.; Bilazarian, S.; Bisognano, J.; Bleyer, F.; Blum, M.; Boehmer, J.; Bouchard, A.; Boyle, A.; Bozkurt, B.; Brown, C.; Burlew, B.; Burnham, K.; Butler, J.; Call, J.; Cambier, P.; Cappola, T.; Carlson, R.; Chandler, B.; Chandra, R.; Chandraratna, P.; Chernick, R.; Colan, D.; Colfer, H.; Colucci, W.; Connelly, T.; Costantini, O.; Dadkhah, S.; Dauber, I.; Davis, J.; Davis, S.; Denning, S.; Drazner, M.; Dunlap, S.; Egbujiobi, L.; Elkayam, U.; Elliott, J.; El-Shahawy, M.; Essandoh, L.; Ewald, G.; Fang, J.; Farhoud, H.; Felker, G.; Fernandez, J.; Festin, R.; Fishbein, G.; Florea, V.; Flores, E.; Floro, J.; Gabris, M.; Garg, M.; Gatewood, R.; Geller, M.; Ghali, J.; Ghumman, W.; Gibbs, G.; Gillespie, E.; Gilmore, R.; Gogia, H.; Goldberg, L.; Gradus-Pizlo, I.; Grainger, T.; Gudmundsson, G.; Gunawardena, D.; Gupta, D.; Hack, T.; Hall, S.; Hamroff, G.; Hankins, S.; Hanna, M.; Hargrove, J.; Haught, W.; Hauptman, P.; Hazelrigg, M.; Herzog, C.; Heywood, J.; Hill, T.; Hilton, T.; Hirsch, H.; Hunter, J.; Ibrahim, H.; Imburgia, M.; Iteld, B.; Jackson, B.; Jaffrani, N.; Jain, D.; Jain, A.; James, M.; Jimenez, J.; Johnson, E.; Kale, P.; Kaneshige, A.; Kapadia, S.; Karia, D.; Karlsberg, R.; Katholi, R.; Kerut, E.; Khoury, W.; Kipperman, R.; Klapholz, M.; Kosinski, E.; Kozinn, M.; Kraus, D.; Krueger, S.; Krum, H.; Kumar, S.; Lader, E.; Lee, C.; Levy, W.; Lewis, E.; Light-McGroary, K.; Loh, I.; Lombardi, W.; Machado, C.; Maislos, F.; Mancini, D.; Markus, T.; Mather, P.; McCants, K.; McGrew, F.; McLaurin, B.; McMillan, E.; McNamara, D.; Meyer, T.; Meymandi, S.; Miller, A.; Minami, E.; Modi, M.; Mody, F.; Mohanty, P.; Moscoso, R.; Moskowitz, R.; Moustafa, M.; Mullen, M.; Naz, T.; Noonan, T.; O'Brien, T.; Oellerich, W.; Oren, R.; Pamboukian, S.; Pereira, N.; Pitt, W.; Porter, C.; Prabhu, S.; Promisloff, S.; Ratkovec, R.; Richardson, R.; Ross, A.; Saleh, N.; Saltzberg, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schmedtje, J.; Schneider, R.; Schuyler, G.; Shanes, J.; Sharma, A.; Siegel, C.; Siegel, R.; Silber, D.; Singh, V.; Singh, N.; Singh, J.; Sklar, J.; Small, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smull, D.; Sotolongo, R.; Staniloae, C.; Stapleton, D.; Steele, P.; Stehlik, J.; Stein, M.; Tang, W.; Thadani, U.; Torre-Amoine, G.; Trichon, B.; Tsai, C.; Tummala, R.; Van Bakel, A.; Vicari, R.; Vijay, N.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Vittorio, T.; Vossler, M.; Wagoner, L.; Wallis, D.; Ward, N.; Widmer, M.; Wight, J.; Wilkins, C.; Williams, C.; Williams, G.; Winchester, M.; Winkel, E.; Wittmer, B.; Wood, D.; Wormer, D.; Wright, R.; Xu, Z.; Yasin, M.; Zolty, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital admission for worsening heart failure, and improve other outcomes. Methods and results Key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in other recent clinical trials in heart failure. Compared with other recent trials, RED-HF enrolled more elderly [mean age 70 (SD 11.4) years], female (41%), and black (9%) patients. RED-HF patients more often had diabetes (46%) and renal impairment (72% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients in RED-HF had heart failure of longer duration [5.3 (5.4) years], worse NYHA class (35% II, 63% III, and 2% IV), and more signs of congestion. Mean EF was 30% (6.8%). RED-HF patients were well treated at randomization, and pharmacological therapy at baseline was broadly similar to that of other recent trials, taking account of study-specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) haemoglobin at baseline was 112 (106–117) g/L. Conclusion The anaemic patients enrolled in RED-HF were older, moderately to markedly symptomatic, and had extensive co-morbidity. PMID:23329651

  13. Myopia Control with Orthokeratology Contact Lenses in Spain (MCOS): Study Design and General Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Villa-Collar, César; Gilmartin, Bernard; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Although previous studies suggest that orthokeratology contact lens wear slows eye growth in children with progressing myopia, some limitations in the methodology employed have become evident. Furthermore, the safety of this modality of visual correction has not been assessed. The study “Myopia Control with Orthokeratology Contact Lenses in Spain” (MCOS) is being conducted to compare axial length growth between white European myopic children wearing orthokeratology contact lenses (OK) and wearing distance single-vision spectacles (SV). Additionally, the incidence of adverse events and discontinuations is also recorded. We outline the methodology and baseline data adopted. Methods Subjects aged 6 to 12, with myopia ranging from 0.75 to 4.00 D and astigmatism ≤1.00 D were prospectively allocated OK or SV correction. Measurements of axial length, anterior chamber depth, corneal topography, cycloplegic autorefraction, visual acuity and corneal staining are performed at 6-month intervals. The incidence of adverse events and discontinuations are also recorded. Results Thirty one children were fitted with OK and 31 with SV correction. Eight subjects did not meet the refraction-related inclusion criteria for enrollment. No significant differences were found in baseline mean age and refractive and biometric data betwseen the two groups (P>0.05). No adverse events were found in any of the two groups at baseline. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, MCOS is the first prospective clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of orthokeratology contact lens wear to slow myopia progression vs. single-vision spectacle wear. The MCOS offers a number of notable features: prospective design; well-matched samples and high-resolution ocular biometry measures, which should collectively elucidate whether orthokeratology contact lens wear is a feasible and safe method for myopia-progression control.

  14. Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study in China: Objectives, Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Xu, Jie; Wang, Anxing; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Wei, Wen Bin; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The population-based “Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study was designed to examine prevalence and associations of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities (APA) in a general population. In this report, the objectives, design and baseline data of the APAC study are described. Methods The study included 5,440 participants (40.1% women) with an age of 40+ years who were randomly selected from the population of the Kailuan Study which included 101,510 employees and retirees of the Kailuan Co. Ltd, a large coal mine industry located in Tangshan, Hebei, China. Exclusion criteria were previous cerebral stroke, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease. In 2010 and 2011, information on potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all participants underwent transcranial Doppler sonography, measurement of the ankle brachial index, and bilateral carotid duplex sonography. In a first follow-up examination in 2012/2013, retinal photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were additionally performed. In a planned long-term follow-up, data from clinical examinations and laboratory tests and the occurrence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events will be collected to build up a predicting model for the risk of ischemic events. Results At baseline, mean age of the participants was 55.2±11.8 years, and men showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence of arterial hypertension (55.5% vs. 36.5%) and hyperlipidemia (50.7% vs. 46.0%) and a higher blood homocysteine concentration (18.68±10.28µmol/L versus 11.69±6.40µmol/L). Conclusions The APAC is the first study to prospectively evaluate the relationship between intracranial arterial stenosis, retinal nerve fiber layer changes, retinal microvascular signs, and the eventual development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events. PMID:24386406

  15. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  16. A Telephone Intervention for Dementia Caregivers: Background, Design, and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tremont, Geoffrey; Davis, Jennifer; Papandonatos, George D.; Grover, Christine; Ott, Brian R.; Fortinsky, Richard H.; Gozalo, Pedro; Bishop, Duane S.

    2013-01-01

    Family caregivers of individuals with dementia are at heightened risk for emotional and mental health problems. Many caregivers do not seek assistance or become isolated in their caregiving role. Multi-component interventions have demonstrated efficacy for reducing emotional distress and burden, although these approaches are potentially costly and are not widely accessible. In response to these issues, we developed the Family Intervention: Telephone Tracking – Caregiver (FITT-C), which is an entirely telephone-based psychosocial intervention. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design, methodology, and baseline data for the trial. This study uses a randomized controlled trial design to examine the efficacy of the FITT-C to reduce depressive symptoms and burden in distressed dementia caregivers. All participants (n = 250) received a packet of educational materials and were randomly assigned to receive 6 months of the FITT-C intervention or non-directive telephone support. The FITT-C intervention was designed to reduce distress in caregivers and is based on the McMaster Model of Family Functioning and the Lazarus, transition theory, and Folkman Stress and Coping Models. The primary dependent variables were depressive symptoms (Centers for Epidemiological Studies – Depression) and burden (Zarit Burden Interview, Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist – Reaction). Secondary outcome measures included family functioning, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results of the study will provide important data about the efficacy of a telephone-based approach to reduce distress in dementia caregivers. PMID:23916916

  17. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases: Study Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rennan; Li, Jie; Han, Tianshu; Lin, Liqun; Lan, Li; Yang, Chao; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥28 kg/m2), 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases. PMID:25856294

  18. Characteristics of Young Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Baseline Features from the POTS Jr. Sample.

    PubMed

    Skriner, L C; Freeman, J; Garcia, A; Benito, K; Sapyta, J; Franklin, M

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing condition that can emerge early in childhood and persist into adulthood. The primary aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics of a large sample of young children with OCD (age range from 5 to 8). The sample will be described with regard to: demographics, OCD symptoms/severity, family history and parental psychopathology, comorbidity, and global and family functioning. The sample includes 127 youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD who participated in a multi-site, randomized control clinical trial of family-based exposure with response prevention. Key findings include moderate to severe OCD symptoms, high rates of impairment, and significant comorbidity, despite the participants' young age. Discussion focuses on how the characteristics of young children compare with older youth and with the few other samples of young children with OCD. Considerations regarding generalizability of the sample and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:25820921

  19. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. PMID:25460342

  20. The Personalized Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM) Trial: Rationale, Methods and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Boot, Walter R.; Charness, Neil; Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D.; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65 – 98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. PMID:25460342

  1. The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE): a randomized prospective population-based study. Design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel; Høiberg, Mikkel; Barkmann, Reinhard; Gram, Jeppe; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Bech, Mickael; Rasmussen, Ole; Glüer, Claus C; Brixen, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15% were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish National guidelines. The primary outcome is incident clinical fractures as evaluated through annual follow-up using the Danish National Patient Registry. The secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, participation rate, and patient preferences. 20,904 (60%) women participated and included in the baseline analyses (10,411 in screening and 10,949 in control group). The mean age was 71 years. As expected by randomization, the screening and control groups had similar baseline characteristics. Screening for osteoporosis is at present not evidence based according to the WHO screening criteria. The ROSE study is expected to provide knowledge of the effectiveness of a screening strategy that may be implemented in health care systems to prevent fractures. PMID:25578146

  2. Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Randomized National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, Denise R.; Adams, Amanda M.; Berg, Christine D.; Clapp, Jonathan D.; Clingan, Kathy L.; Gareen, Ilana F.; Marcus, Pamela M.; Pinsky, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a randomized study conducted at 33 US sites, is comparing lung cancer mortality among persons screened with reduced dose helical computerized tomography and among persons screened with chest radiograph. In this article, we present characteristics of the study population. Methods Eligible participants were aged 55–74 years and were current or former smokers with a cigarette smoking history of at least 30 pack-years. Randomization was stratified by site, sex, and age. To assess representativeness of the study population, demographic characteristics of individuals from the general population who met NLST age and smoking history inclusion criteria were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the US Census Bureau Current Population Surveys. Results The NLST enrolled 53 456 persons, with 26 733 randomly assigned to chest radiograph screening and 26 723 to computerized tomography screening. Characteristics of the participants were as follows: 31 533 (59%) were men, 39 234 (73%) were younger than 65 years, 25 779 (48%) were current smokers, and 16 839 (32%) had a college or higher degree. Median cigarette exposure was 48 pack-years. Among Tobacco Use Supplement respondents who met NLST age and smoking history criteria, 59% were men, 65% were younger than 65 years, and 57% were current smokers. Median cigarette exposure among this group was 47 pack-years, and 14% had a college degree or higher. Conclusion The NLST cohort has a distribution of sex and pack-year history that is similar to the component of the general US population that meets the major NLST eligibility criteria; however, NLST participants are younger, better educated, and less likely to be current smokers. PMID:21119104

  3. ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS): The study methodology, recruitment, and baseline demographic and disease characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Andrews, Howard; Goetz, Raymond R.; Andrews, Leslie; Rabkin, Judith G.; McElhiney, Martin; Nieves, Jeri; Santella, Regina M.; Murphy, Jennifer; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jess; Merle, David; Kilty, Mary; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S.; Miller, Robert G; Katz, Jonathan S.; Forshew, Dallas; Barohn, Richard J.; Sorenson, Eric J.; Oskarsson, Bjorn; Filho, J Americo M. Fernandes; Kasarskis, Edward J.; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D.; Nations, Sharon P.; Swenson, Andrea J.; Shefner, Jeremy M.; Andrews, Jinsy A.; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In a multicenter study of newly diagnosed ALS patients without a reported family history of ALS, we are prospectively investigating whether markers of oxidative stress (OS) are associated with disease progression. Methods An extensive structured telephone interview ascertained environmental, lifestyle, dietary and psychological risk factors associated with OS. Detailed assessments were performed at baseline and at 3 to 6 month intervals during the ensuing 30 months. Our biorepository includes DNA, plasma, urine, and skin. Results 355 patients were recruited. Subjects were enrolled over a 36 month-period at 16 sites. To meet the target number of subjects, the recruitment period was prolonged and additional sites were included. Demographic and disease characteristics were similar between 477 eligible/non-enrolled and enrolled patients, with the only difference being type of health insurance among enrolled patients. Sites were divided into 3 groups by the number of enrolled subjects. Comparing these 3 groups, the Columbia site had fewer “definite ALS” diagnoses. Conclusion This is the first prospective, interdisciplinary, in-depth, multicenter epidemiological investigation of OS related to ALS progression and was accomplished by an aggressive recruitment process. The baseline demographic and disease features of the study sample are now fully characterized. PMID:24564738

  4. Characteristics of Adolescents and Youth with Recent-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: The TODAY Cohort at Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kenneth C.; Zeitler, Philip; Geffner, Mitchell; Guandalini, Cindy; Higgins, Janine; Hirst, Kathryn; Kaufman, Francine R.; Linder, Barbara; Marcovina, Santica; McGuigan, Paul; Pyle, Laura; Tamborlane, William; Willi, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Context: The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) cohort represents the largest and best-characterized national sample of American youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the baseline characteristics of participants in the TODAY randomized clinical trial. Design: Participants were recruited over 4 yr at 15 clinical centers in the United States (n = 704) and enrolled, randomized, treated, and followed up 2–6 yr. Setting: The study was conducted at pediatric diabetes care clinics and practices. Participants: Eligible participants were aged 10–17 yr inclusive, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for less than 2 yr and had a body mass index at the 85th percentile or greater. Interventions: After baseline data collection, participants were randomized to one of the folllowing groups: 1) metformin alone, 2) metformin plus rosiglitazone, or 3) metformin plus a lifestyle program of weight management. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline data presented include demographics, clinical/medical history, biochemical measurements, and clinical and biochemical abnormalities. Results: At baseline the cohort included the following: 64.9% were female; mean age was 14.0 yr; mean diabetes duration was 7.8 months; mean body mass index Z-score was 2.15; 89.4% had a family history of diabetes; 41.1% were Hispanic, 31.5% were non-Hispanic black; 38.8% were living with both biological parents; 41.5% had a household annual income of less than $25,000; 26.3% had a highest education level of parent/guardian less than a high school degree; 26.3% had a blood pressure at the 90th percentile or greater; 13.6% had a blood pressure at the 95th percentile or greater; 13.0% had microalbuminuria; 79.8% had a low high-density lipoprotein level; and 10.2% had high triglycerides. Conclusions: The TODAY cohort is predominantly from racial/ethnic minority groups, with low socioeconomic status and a family history of diabetes

  5. Baseline characteristics of an incident haemodialysis population in Spain: results from ANSWER—a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-García, Rafael; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Fort, Joan; Cuevas, Xavier; Lladós, Fina; Lozano, Javier; García, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Background. The ANSWER study aims to identify risk factors leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a Spanish incident haemodialysis population. This paper summarizes the baseline characteristics of this population. Methods. A prospective, observational, one-cohort study, including all consecutive incident haemodialysis patients from 147 Spanish nephrology services, was conducted. Patients were enrolled between October 2003 and September 2004. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory and health care characteristics were collected. Results. Baseline characteristics are described for 2341 incident haemodialysis patients [mean (SD) age 65.2 (14.5) years, 63% males]. The main cause of renal failure was diabetic nephropathy (26%). The majority of patients (57%) had a Karnofsky score of 80–100 and 27% were followed up by a nephrologist for ≤6 months. In total, 86% of the patients had hypertension, 43% had dyslipidaemia and 44% had a history of cardiovascular disease. Initial vascular access was obtained via a temporary catheter in 30% of patients, via a permanent catheter in 16% and via an arteriovenous fistula in 54%. Albumin levels were <3.5 g/dl in 43% of patients. Immediately prior to the onset of haemodialysis, the mean (SD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 7.6 (2.8) ml/min/1.73 m2, and only 6.7% of the patients were within the K/DOQI guidelines for all four bone mineral markers. In addition, a high proportion of patients had anaemia markers outside the EBPG guidelines (haemoglobin <11 g/dl, 59%, ferritin <100 or >500 ng/ml, 41% and saturated transferrin <20 or >40%, 50%) despite previous treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in 41% of cases. Conclusions. There is excessive use of temporary catheters and a high prevalence of uraemia-related cardiovascular risk factors among incident haemodialysis patients in Spain. The poor control of hypertension, anaemia, malnutrition and mineral metabolism and late referral to a nephrologist

  6. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): Study Design and Baseline Characteristics (AREDS2 Report Number 1)

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Emily Y.; Clemons, Traci; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Danis, Ronald; Domalpally, Amitha; McBee, Wendy; Sperduto, Robert; Ferris, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) demonstrated beneficial effects of oral supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals on the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in persons with at least intermediate AMD (bilateral large drusen with or without pigment changes). Observational data suggest that other oral nutrient supplements might further reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The primary purpose of Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lutein+zeaxanthin (L+Z) and/or omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation in reducing the risk of developing advanced AMD. The study will also assess the reduction in zinc and the omission of beta-carotene from original AREDS formulation. Design Multicenter phase 3 randomized controlled clinical trial Participants Persons age 50 to 85 with bilateral intermediate AMD or advanced AMD in one eye Methods All participants were randomly assigned to: 1) placebo (n=1012); 2) L+Z (10 mg/2 mg, n=1044); 3) ω-3 LCPUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [650gmg/350 mg] n=1069); or 4) the combination of L+Z and ω -3 LCPUFAs (n=1078). All participants were offered a secondary randomization to 1 of 4 variations of the original AREDS formulation keeping vitamins C (500 mg), E (400 IU), and copper (2 mg) unchanged while varying zinc and beta-carotene as follows: zinc remains at the original level (80mg), lower only zinc to 25mg, omit beta-carotene only, or lower zinc to 25 mg and omit beta-carotene. Main Outcome Measures Progression to advanced AMD determined by centralized grading of annual fundus photographs. Results 4,203 participants were enrolled at 82 clinical centers located in the U.S. Population characteristics at baseline were as follows: mean age 74 years, 57% female, 97% white, 7% current smokers, 19% with prior cardiovascular disease and 44% and 50% taking statin-class cholesterol

  7. Glycaemia regulates the glucose transporter number in the plasma membrane of rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrakoudis, D; Ramlal, T; Rastogi, S; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1992-01-01

    The number of glucose transporters was measured in isolated membranes from diabetic-rat skeletal muscle to determine the role of circulating blood glucose levels in the control of glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Three experimental groups of animals were investigated in the post-absorptive state: normoglycaemic/normoinsulinaemic, hyperglycaemic/normoinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic/normoinsulinaemic made normoglycaemic/normoinsulinaemic by phlorizin treatment. Hyperglycaemia caused a reversible decrease in total transporter number, as measured by cytochalasin B binding, in both plasma membranes and internal membranes of skeletal muscle. Changes in GLUT4 glucose transporter protein mirrored changes in cytochalasin B binding in plasma membranes. However, there was no recovery of GLUT4 levels in intracellular membranes with correction of glycaemia. GLUT4 mRNA levels decreased with hyperglycaemia and recovered only partially with correction of glycaemia. Conversely, GLUT1 glucose transporters were only detectable in the plasma membranes; the levels of this protein varied directly with glycaemia, i.e. in the opposite direction to GLUT4 glucose transporters. This study demonstrates that hyperglycaemia, in the absence of hypoinsulinaemia, is capable of down-regulating the glucose transport system in skeletal muscle, the major site of peripheral resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose transport in diabetes. Furthermore, correction of hyperglycaemia causes a complete restoration of the transport system in the basal state (determined by the transporter number in the plasma membrane), but possibly only an incomplete recovery of the transport system's ability to respond to insulin (since there is no recovery of GLUT4 levels in the intracellular membrane insulin-responsive transporter pool). Finally, the effect of hyperglycaemia is specific for glucose transporter isoforms, with GLUT1 and GLUT4 proteins varying respectively in parallel and opposite directions to levels of

  8. Baseline Characteristics of Patients with Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease Enrolled in the BARI 2D Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Maria Mori; Barsness, Gregory; Chaitman, Bernard; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Faxon, David; Feit, Frederick; Frye, Robert; Genuth, Saul; Green, Jennifer; Hlatky, Mark; Kelsey, Sheryl; Kennedy, Frank; Krone, Ronald; Nesto, Richard; Orchard, Trevor; O'Rourke, Robert; Rihal, Charanjit; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) was undertaken to determine whether early revascularization intervention is superior to deferred intervention in the presence of aggressive medical therapy and whether antidiabetes regimens targeting insulin sensitivity are more or less effective than regimens targeting insulin provision in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods BARI 2D is an NIH-sponsored randomized clinical trial with a 2×2 factorial design. Between 2001 and 2005, 49 clinical sites in North America, South America and Europe randomized 2,368 patients. At baseline, the trial collected data on clinical history, symptoms and medications along with centralized evaluations of angiograms, electrocardiograms, and blood and urine specimens. Results The majority of BARI 2D patients were referred from the cardiac catheterization laboratory (54%) or cardiology clinic (27%). Of the randomized participants, 30% were women, 34% were minorities, 61% had angina, and 67% had multi-region CAD. Moreover, 29% had been treated with insulin, 58% had HbA1c > 7.0%, 41% LDL cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dl, 52% blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg, and 56% BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Conclusions Baseline characteristics in BARI 2D are well-balanced between the randomized treatment groups, and the clinical profile of the study cohort is representative of the target population. As a result, the BARI 2D clinical trial is in an excellent position to evaluate alternative treatment approaches for diabetes and CAD. PMID:18760137

  9. Baseline characteristics of participants in the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL).

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Shari S; Manson, JoAnn E; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R; Christen, William G; Bubes, Vadim Y; Gordon, David S; Copeland, Trisha; Friedenberg, Georgina; D'Agostino, Denise M; Ridge, Claire Y; MacFadyen, Jean G; Kalan, Kate; Buring, Julie E

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for a role of supplemental vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids in preventing cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains inconclusive and insufficient to inform nutritional recommendations for primary prevention. The VITamin D and Omega-A 3 TriaL (VITAL) is an ongoing nationwide, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to fill this knowledge gap. The study population consists of 25,874 U.S. adults without cancer or CVD at baseline, who were selected only on age (men aged ≥50 and women aged ≥55), with an oversampling of African Americans (n=5,107). In a 2×2 factorial design, participants were randomized to one of four supplement groups: [1] active vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; 2000IU/d) and active marine omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/d); [2] active vitamin D and omega-3 placebo; [3] vitamin D placebo and active marine omega-3 fatty acids; or [4] vitamin D placebo and omega-3 placebo. The mean length of the randomized treatment period will be 5years. The randomization was successful, as evidenced by similar distributions of baseline demographic, health, and behavioral characteristics across treatment groups. The similar distribution of known potential confounders across treatment groups strongly suggests that unmeasured or unknown potential confounders are also equally distributed. VITAL is expected to provide important information on the benefit-risk balance of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation when taken for the primary prevention of cancer and CVD. PMID:26767629

  10. Newly Diagnosed Diabetes and Stress Glycaemia and Its’ Association with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamceva, Gordana; Vavlukis, Marija; Kitanoski, Darko; Kedev, Sashko

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is diagnosed in 10-20% of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) not known to be diabetics. Elevated blood glucose is an independent risk factor for cardiac events, regardless of presence of diabetes. AIM: Evaluating the prevalence of new-diagnosed DM among patients with ACS, and assessing the relationship between stress glycaemia and new diagnosed DM with in-hospital cardiac events. METHODS: Prospective observational study, in patients with ACS, in whom we analyzed parameters of glycemic metabolism, clinical data, and in-hospital cardiac events. We comparatively analyzed patients according to the HgbA1C and known DM in five groups: non-DM (< 5.6%), new pre-DM (5.6-6.5%), new DM (≥ 6.5%), controlled (<7%) and uncontrolled (≥7%) known DM. RESULTS: 150 patients, (93 male and 57 female) were included. Impaired glucose metabolism was detected in 44.5% of patients, 7.9% of whom were newly-diagnosed DM. The highest levels of stress glycaemia were found in new and uncontrolled known DM. The in-hospital event rate was 20.7%, the mortality rate 7.3%, being the highest in new diagnosed and uncontrolled known DM patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of unknown DM was high among patients with ACS. Stress glycaemia and failure to achieve glycemic controlee, were an independent predictors of in-hospital cardiac events.

  11. Infrared thermal imaging as a physiological access pathway: a study of the baseline characteristics of facial skin temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nhan, B R; Chau, T

    2009-04-01

    In this study we examine the baseline characteristics of facial skin temperature, as measured by dynamic infrared thermal imaging, to gauge its potential as a physiological access pathway for non-verbal individuals with severe motor impairments. Frontal facial recordings were obtained from 12 asymptomatic adults in a resting state with a high-end infrared thermal imaging system. From the infrared thermal recordings, mean skin temperature time series were generated for regions of interest encompassing the nasal, periorbital and supraorbital areas. A 90% bandwidth for all regions of interest was found to be in the 1 Hz range. Over 70% of the time series were identified as nonstationary (p<0.05), with the nonstationary mean as the greatest contributing source. Correlation coefficients between regions were significant (p<0.05) and ranged from values of 0.30 (between periorbital and supraorbital regions) to 0.75 (between contralateral supraorbital regions). Using information measures, we concluded that the greatest degree of information existed in the nasal and periorbital regions. Mutual information existed across all regions but was especially prominent between the nasal and periorbital regions. Results from this study provide insight into appropriate analysis methods and potential discriminating features for the application of facial skin temperature as a physiological access pathway. PMID:19332894

  12. Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Methods Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. Results The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer’s Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28–112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0–10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range −0.171–1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0–100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). Conclusions The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies. PMID:26235456

  13. Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study: baseline characteristics and short-term effects of fenofibrate [ISRCTN64783481

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Objective The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) Study is examining the effects of long-term fibrate therapy on coronary heart disease (CHD) event rates in patients with diabetes mellitus. This article describes the trial's run-in phase and patients' baseline characteristics. Research design and methods FIELD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 63 centres in 3 countries evaluating the effects of fenofibrate versus placebo on CHD morbidity and mortality in 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were to have no indication for lipid-lowering therapy on randomization, but could start these or other drugs at any time after randomization. Follow-up in the study was to be for a median duration of not less than 5 years and until 500 major coronary events (fatal coronary heart disease plus nonfatal myocardial infarction) had occurred. Results About 2100 patients (22%) had some manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline and thus high risk status. Less than 25% of patients without CVD had a (UKPDS determined) calculated 5-year CHD risk of <5%, but nearly all had a 5-year stroke risk of <10%. Despite this, half of the cohort were obese (BMI > 30), most were men, two-thirds were aged over 60 years, and substantial proportions had NCEP ATP III features of the metabolic syndrome independent of their diabetes, including low HDL (60%), high blood pressure measurement or treatment for hypertension (84%), high waist measurement (68%), and raised triglycerides (52%). After a 6-week run-in period before randomisation with all participants receiving 200 mg comicronized fenofibrate, there were declines in total and LDL cholesterol (10%) and triglycerides (26%) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (6.5%). Conclusion The study will show the effect of PPAR-alpha agonist action on CHD and other vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes including substantial numbers with low to moderate CVD risk but with the various

  14. A Multi-Center International Study Assessing the Impact of Differences in Baseline Characteristics and Perioperative Care Following Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Takahiro; Lee, Cheryl T.; Abe, Takashige; Takada, Norikata; Hafez, Khaled S.; Montgomery, Jeffrey S.; Weizer, Alon Z.; Hollenbeck, Brent K.; Skolarus, Ted A.; Murai, Sachiyo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Morgan, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To identify potential avenues for quality improvement, we compared the variations in clinical practice and their association with perioperative morbidity and mortality following radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer in the United States (US) and Japan. Methods: We reviewed our retrospectively collected database of 2240 patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer at the University of Michigan (n = 1427) and in 21 Japanese institutions (n = 813) between 1997 and 2014. We performed a systematic comparison of clinical and perioperative factors and assessed predictors of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Death within 90 days of surgery was the primary outcome. Results: There were apparent differences between the two study populations. Notably, US patients had a significantly greater BMI and higher ASA score. In Japanese institutions, median postoperative hospital stay was significantly higher (40 days vs. 7 days, p <  0.001) and 90-day readmission rates were significantly lower (0.6% vs. 26.8% , p <  0.001). There was a total of 1372/2240 (61.2%) patients with complications within 90 days and 66/2240 (2.9%) patient deaths. Significant predictors of 90-day mortality were older age (OR 1.04, CI 1.01–1.07), higher body mass index (OR 1.07, CI 1.02–1.12), node-positive disease (OR 3.14, CI 1.78–5.47), increased blood loss (OR 1.02, CI 1.01–1.03), and major (Clavien-grade 3 or greater) complication (OR 3.29, CI 1.88–5.71). Conclusion: Despite major differences in baseline characteristics and care of cystectomy patients between the two study populations, peri-operative mortality rates proved to be comparable. This data supports an exploration of non-traditional factors that may influence mortality after cystectomy. PMID:27376144

  15. CKD in Hispanics: Baseline Characteristics From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Go, Alan; Lora, Claudia M.; Ackerson, Lynn; Cohan, Janet; Kusek, John; Mercado, Alejandro; Ojo, Akinlolu; Ricardo, Ana C.; Rosen, Leigh; Tao, Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis Setting and Participants Participants were aged 21–74 years with CKD using age-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois from 2005–2008 while CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at seven clinical centers from 2003–2007. Factor Race/ethnicity Outcomes Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, CKD-associated complications Measurements Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols Results Among H-CRIC/ CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1650 non-Hispanic Black, and 1638 non-Hispanic White. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (p<0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic Blacks (51%) and Whites (40%) (p<0.01). Blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg was more common in Hispanics (62%) compared with Blacks (57%) and Whites (35%) (p<0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (p<0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest receipt of ACE inhibitor/ARB among high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR (ml/min/m2) was lower in Hispanics (39.6) than in Blacks (43.7) and Whites (46.2), while median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (0.72 g/d) than in Blacks (0.24 g/d) and Whites (0.12 g/d) (p<0.01). Limitations Generalizability; observed

  16. AGING AND ACTIVITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR ACTIVITY AND THE EFFECT OF TOLUENE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapidly aging population raises many uncertainties regarding the susceptibility of older adults to environmental pollutants. Research to reduce these uncertainties must consider age-related changes in baseline function and its variability. For example, activity levels are gen...

  17. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (P<0.05), HBV DNA (P<0.001) and APRI (P<0.05) compared to those who were HBeAg negative. HBV/D was the predominant genotype (73.2%) and D2 (43.7%) was the commonest subgenotype. Interpretation & conclusions: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to

  18. A molecular epidemiology project on diet and cancer: the EPIC-Italy Prospective Study. Design and baseline characteristics of participants.

    PubMed

    Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Salvini, Simonetta; Ceroti, Marco; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Fiorini, Laura; Celentano, Egidio; Galasso, Rocco; Decarli, Adriano; Krogh, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    cancer risk and different dietary patterns. Baseline characteristics of participants are briefly described. PMID:14870823

  19. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Filip; Ericson, Ulrika; Almgren, Peter; Nilsson, Jeanette; Magnusson, Martin; Fernandez, Céline; Melander, Olle

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia. PMID:27274867

  20. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ottosson, Filip; Ericson, Ulrika; Almgren, Peter; Nilsson, Jeanette; Magnusson, Martin; Fernandez, Céline; Melander, Olle

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia. PMID:27274867

  1. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434) and 4 (n = 695) defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD) was very high (39.1%). In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p < 0.024). Subdividing stage 3 in 3a and 3b and after adjusting for age, CVD increased with declining GFR with the hierarchy (stage 3a < stage 3b < stage 4) when calculated by CKD-EPI (31.8, 35.4, 42.1%, p 0.039) and Cockcroft-Gault formula (30.9, 35.6, 43.4%, p 0.010) and MDRD formula (32.5, 36.2, 42.2%,) but with the latter, it did not reach statistical significance (p 0.882). Hypertension was almost universal among those with stages 3 and 4 CKD (91.2% and 94.1%, respectively) despite the use of more than 3 anti-hypertensive agents including widespread use of RAS blockers. Proteinuria (> 300 mg/day) was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively). A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p < 0.001) while the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) was limited to 16 and 34.1% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively. Intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH) was elevated in stage 3 and stage 4 CKD patients (121 ± 99 and 166 ± 125 pg/mL p 0

  2. Pycnogenol efficiency on glycaemia, motor nerve conduction velocity and markers of oxidative stress in mild type diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Jankyova, S; Kucera, P; Goldenberg, Z; Yaghi, D; Navarova, J; Kyselova, Z; Stolc, S; Klimas, J; Racanska, E; Matyas, S

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of Pycnogenol at various doses on preprandial and postprandial glucose levels, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAGA) and on motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Pycnogenol treatment (10, 20, 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) lasted for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes. Pycnogenol significantly decreased elevated levels of preprandial glycaemia in treated animals at all doses. At doses of 10 mg/kg b.w./day and 20 mg/kg b.w./day it significantly decreased elevated levels of postprandial glycaemia compared with diabetic non-treated animals. Pycnogenol failed to induce a significant decrease of postprandial glycaemia at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w./day. Pycnogenol improved significantly the impaired MNCV at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w./day compared with non-treated animals. The levels of TBARs were elevated in diabetic rats. The levels of NAGA increased gradually despite the treatment. Pycnogenol failed to affect the increased levels of TBARs and NAGA. Pycnogenollowered the elevated levels of glycaemia and reduced the decline in motor nerve conduction velocity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The effect of Pycnogenol on postprandial glycaemic levels and MNCV was not dose-dependent. PMID:19165752

  3. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  4. China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million people: survey methods, baseline characteristics and long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Guo, Yu; Peto, Richard; Wu, Fan; Li, Liming

    2011-01-01

    Background Large blood-based prospective studies can provide reliable assessment of the complex interplay of lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors as determinants of chronic disease. Methods The baseline survey of the China Kadoorie Biobank took place during 2004–08 in 10 geographically defined regions, with collection of questionnaire data, physical measurements and blood samples. Subsequently, a re-survey of 25 000 randomly selected participants was done (80% responded) using the same methods as in the baseline. All participants are being followed for cause-specific mortality and morbidity, and for any hospital admission through linkages with registries and health insurance (HI) databases. Results Overall, 512 891 adults aged 30–79 years were recruited, including 41% men, 56% from rural areas and mean age was 52 years. The prevalence of ever-regular smoking was 74% in men and 3% in women. The mean blood pressure was 132/79 mmHg in men and 130/77 mmHg in women. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.4 kg/m2 in men and 23.8 kg/m2 in women, with only 4% being obese (>30 kg/m2), and 3.2% being diabetic. Blood collection was successful in 99.98% and the mean delay from sample collection to processing was 10.6 h. For each of the main baseline variables, there is good reproducibility but large heterogeneity by age, sex and study area. By 1 January 2011, over 10 000 deaths had been recorded, with 91% of surviving participants already linked to HI databases. Conclusion This established large biobank will be a rich and powerful resource for investigating genetic and non-genetic causes of many common chronic diseases in the Chinese population. PMID:22158673

  5. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    PubMed

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  6. Investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of baseline-II E-2 blended wing-body aircraft with canard via computational simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Rizal E. M.; Ali, Zurriati; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Wisnoe, Wirachman

    2012-06-01

    Previous wind tunnel test has proven the improved aerodynamic charasteristics of Baseline-II E-2 Blended Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft studied in Universiti Teknologi Mara. The E-2 is a version of Baseline-II BWB with modified outer wing and larger canard, solely-designed to gain favourable longitudinal static stability during flight. This paper highlights some results from current investigation on the said aircraft via computational fluid dynamics simulation as a mean to validate the wind tunnel test results. The simulation is conducted based on standard one-equation turbulence, Spalart-Allmaras model with polyhedral mesh. The ambience of the flight simulation is made based on similar ambience of wind tunnel test. The simulation shows lift, drag and moment results to be near the values found in wind tunnel test but only within angles of attack where the lift change is linear. Beyond the linear region, clear differences between computational simulation and wind tunnel test results are observed. It is recommended that different type of mathematical model be used to simulate flight conditions beyond linear lift region.

  7. Genotype-phenotype characteristics and baseline natural history of heritable neuropathies caused by mutations in the MPZ gene.

    PubMed

    Sanmaneechai, Oranee; Feely, Shawna; Scherer, Steven S; Herrmann, David N; Burns, Joshua; Muntoni, Francesco; Li, Jun; Siskind, Carly E; Day, John W; Laura, Matilde; Sumner, Charlotte J; Lloyd, Thomas E; Ramchandren, Sindhu; Shy, Rosemary R; Grider, Tiffany; Bacon, Chelsea; Finkel, Richard S; Yum, Sabrina W; Moroni, Isabella; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Reilly, Mary M; Shy, Michael E

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to characterize genotype-phenotype correlations and establish baseline clinical data for peripheral neuropathies caused by mutations in the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene. MPZ mutations are the second leading cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1. Recent research makes clinical trials for patients with MPZ mutations a realistic possibility. However, the clinical severity varies with different mutations and natural history data on progression is sparse. We present cross-sectional data to begin to define the phenotypic spectrum and clinical baseline of patients with these mutations. A cohort of patients with MPZ gene mutations was identified in 13 centres of the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium - Rare Disease Clinical Research Consortium (INC-RDCRC) between 2009 and 2012 and at Wayne State University between 1996 and 2009. Patient phenotypes were quantified by the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease neuropathy score version 1 or 2 and the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease paediatric scale outcome instruments. Genetic testing was performed in all patients and/or in first- or second-degree relatives to document mutation in MPZ gene indicating diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B. There were 103 patients from 71 families with 47 different MPZ mutations with a mean age of 40 years (range 3-84 years). Patients and mutations were separated into infantile, childhood and adult-onset groups. The infantile onset group had higher Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease neuropathy score version 1 or 2 and slower nerve conductions than the other groups, and severity increased with age. Twenty-three patients had no family history of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Sixty-one patients wore foot/ankle orthoses, 19 required walking assistance or support, and 10 required wheelchairs. There was hearing loss in 21 and scoliosis in 17. Forty-two patients did not begin walking until after 15 months of age. Half of the infantile onset patients then required ambulation aids or wheelchairs for

  8. Operating and environmental characteristics of Sigma Tau hydrogen masers used in the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, T. K.

    1989-01-01

    Presented here are the results obtained from performance evaluation of a pair of Sigma Tau Standards Corporation Model VLBA-112 active hydrogen maser frequency standards. These masers were manufactured for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for use on the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) project and were furnished to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the purpose of these tests. Tests on the two masers were performed in the JPL Frequency Standards Laboratory (FSL) and included the characterization of output frequency stability versus environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, magnetic field, and barometric pressure. The performance tests also included the determination of phase noise and Allan variance using both FSL and Sigma Tau masers as references. All tests were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions, with only the desired environmental and operational parameters varied to determine sensitivity to external environment.

  9. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis) - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis) is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0%) followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%). Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients during multiple

  10. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Study II: Baseline Characteristics and Effects of Obesity from a Multi-Center Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Legro, Richard S.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Diamond, Michael P.; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D.; Alvero, Ruben; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Huang, Hao; Yan, Qingshang; Haisenleder, Daniel J.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Bates, G. Wright; Usadi, Rebecca; Lucidi, Richard; Baker, Valerie; Trussell, J.C.; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Snyder, Peter; Ohl, Dana; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize baseline characteristics from a large multi-center infertility clinical trial. Design Cross-sectional baseline data from a double-blind randomized trial of 2 treatment regimens (letrozole vs. clomiphene). Setting Academic Health Centers throughout the U.S. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure(s) Historical, biometric, biochemical and questionnaire parameters. Participants 750 women with PCOS and their male partners took part in the study. Results Females averaged ~30 years old and were obese (BMI 35) with ~20% from a racial/ethnic minority. Most (87%) were hirsute and nulligravid (63%). . Most of the females had an elevated antral follicle count and enlarged ovarian volume on ultrasound. Women had elevated mean circulating androgens, LH:FSH ratio (~2), and AMH levels (8.0 ng/mL). Additionally, women had evidence for metabolic dysfunction with elevated mean fasting insulin and dyslipidemia. Increasing obesity was associated with decreased LH:FSH levels, AMH levels and antral follicle counts but increasing cardiovascular risk factors, including prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Males were obese (BMI 30) and had normal mean semen parameters. Conclusions The treatment groups were well-matched at baseline. Obesity exacerbates select female reproductive and most metabolic parameters. We have also established a database and sample repository that will eventually be accessible to investigators. PMID:24156957

  11. Design and baseline characteristics of the 10 Small Steps Study: a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote healthy behaviour using a lifestyle score and personalised feedback

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of death globally and are associated with a limited set of common, modifiable health behaviours: tobacco use, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diet. General practice offers an ideal avenue for addressing such health behaviours on a population-wide basis. This paper describes the protocol of a multiple health behaviour change intervention designed for implementation in general practice and summarises the baseline characteristics of its participants. Method/Design The 10 Small Steps (10SS) study, a randomised controlled trial, involved 4,678 adult general practice patients in Queensland, Australia. Self-reported data were collected to establish the proportion of participants meeting recommended guidelines for ten health behaviours: physical activity, body mass index, alcohol, smoking and six dietary behaviours. Participants were randomised to four groups: contact at baseline only ('single intervention' and corresponding control group) and contact at baseline and 3 months ('dual intervention' and corresponding control group). At each contact the participants received a computer-tailored feedback and one page information sheet according to their allocation to intervention or control groups. Change in the intervention group compared to the control group was assessed at 3 and12 months after baseline data collection. Responses were summed to calculate an individual lifestyle score (the Prudence Score), which ranged from 0 to 10. The baseline response was 56.5% (4678 of 8343 invited participants) and the study sample was primarily female (68.7%) with an average age of 47 years. The mean Prudence Score was 5.8 (95%CI 5.75-5.85). Discussion Baseline data from the 10SS study show that nearly all participants engage in some health behaviours but relatively few adhere simultaneously to a core set of dietary and lifestyle behaviours associated with risk of NCDs. Ample scope exists to

  12. BASELINE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Baseline Assessment is a project to collect data on environmental conditions in Indian country from existing data sources using a geographic enabling system called the Oracle Spatial Data Cartridge.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:None
    S...

  13. The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study: Baseline Characteristics of a Korean Long-Term Hospital-Based Observational Collaborative Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530

  14. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Baseline County-Level Migration Characteristics and Trends 1995-2000 and 2001-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards. In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report uses historical, estimated, and projected population data from several Federal and State data sources to estimate baseline characteristics and trends of the region's population migration (that is, changes in a person's place of residence over time). The analysis characterizes migration by various demographic, economic, family, and household variables for the period 1995-2000. It also uses existing estimates (beginning in 2001) of the three components of population change - births, deaths, and migration - to extrapolate near-term projections of county-level migration trends through 2010. The 2010 date was chosen to provide baseline projections corresponding to a two-year recovery period following the November 2008 date that was selected for the occurrence of the ShakeOut Scenario earthquake. The baseline characteristics and projections shall assist with evaluating the effects of inflow and outflow migration trends for alternative futures in which the simulated M7.8 earthquake either does or does not occur and the impact of the event on housing and jobs, as well as community composition and regional economy changes based on dispersion of intellectual, physical, economic, and cultural capital.

  15. Cohort profile: LifeLines DEEP, a prospective, general population cohort study in the northern Netherlands: study design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Dekens, Jackie A M; Hermes, Gerben; Baranska, Agnieszka; Mujagic, Zlatan; Swertz, Morris A; Muñoz, Angélica M; Deelen, Patrick; Cénit, Maria C; Franke, Lude; Scholtens, Salome; Stolk, Ronald P; Wijmenga, Cisca; Feskens, Edith J M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a critical need for population-based prospective cohort studies because they follow individuals before the onset of disease, allowing for studies that can identify biomarkers and disease-modifying effects, and thereby contributing to systems epidemiology. Participants This paper describes the design and baseline characteristics of an intensively examined subpopulation of the LifeLines cohort in the Netherlands. In this unique subcohort, LifeLines DEEP, we included 1539 participants aged 18 years and older. Findings to date We collected additional blood (n=1387), exhaled air (n=1425) and faecal samples (n=1248), and elicited responses to gastrointestinal health questionnaires (n=1176) for analysis of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, microbiome, metabolome and other biological levels. Here, we provide an overview of the different data layers in LifeLines DEEP and present baseline characteristics of the study population including food intake and quality of life. We also describe how the LifeLines DEEP cohort allows for the detailed investigation of genetic, genomic and metabolic variation for a wide range of phenotypic outcomes. Finally, we examine the determinants of gastrointestinal health, an area of particular interest to us that can be addressed by LifeLines DEEP. Future plans We have established a cohort of which multiple data levels allow for the integrative analysis of populations for translation of this information into biomarkers for disease, and which will offer new insights into disease mechanisms and prevention. PMID:26319774

  16. Temporal distribution of baseline characteristics and association with early mortality among HIV-positive patients at University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Adesina, Olubukola A; Kuti, Modupe O; Ogunbosi, Babatunde O; Irabor, Achiaka E; Odaibo, Georgina N; Olaleye, David O; Adewole, Isaac F

    2015-01-01

    The first six months of HIV care and treatment are very important for long-term outcome. Early mortality (within 6 months of care initiation) undermines care and treatment goals. This study assessed the temporal distribution in baseline characteristics and early mortality among HIV patients at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria from 2006-2013. Factors associated with early mortality were also investigated. This was a retrospective analysis of data from 14 857 patients enrolled for care and treatment at the adult antiretroviral clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Effects of factors associated with early mortality were summarised using a hazard ratio with a 95% confidence interval obtained from Cox proportional hazard regression models. The mean age of the subjects was 36.4 (SD=10.2) years with females being in the majority (68.1%). While patients' demographic characteristics remained virtually the same over time, there was significant decline in the prevalence of baseline opportunistic infections (2006-2007=55.2%; 2011-2013=38.0%). Overall, 460 (3.1%) patients were known to have died within 6 months of enrollment in care/treatment. There was no significant trend in incidence of early mortality. Factors associated with early mortality include: male sex, HIV encephalopathy, low CD4 count (< 50 cells), and anaemia. To reduce early mortality, community education should be promoted, timely access to care and treatment should be facilitated and the health system further strengthened to care for high risk patients. PMID:26282931

  17. [Comparative study of the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the glycaemia at rest in sportsmen and sedentaries].

    PubMed

    Ba, A; Samb, A; Seck, D; Kane, M O; Seck, M B; Sarr, F B; Ciss, M; Gueye, L; Cisse, F

    2005-01-01

    The fast of Ramadan submits body to transient metabolic modifications; and decrease of glycaemia can be one of results. Physical exercise modifies rate of plasmatic hormones responsible for its regulation. The purpose of this study is to appreciate the influence of the fast on this biologic parameter in sportsmen and sedentaries. Thirty (30) healthy subjects (15 sportsmen of stamina and 15 sedentaries), with 25 years of average age were recruited. They have all a comparable diet. We excluded subjects having practised a physical exercise the day of the test. Capillary glycaemia was measured after weighed and physical exam, in 2 periods: in second Ramadan's fortnight, 15 minutes before food intake, two (2) months after Ramadan at least 4 hours at distance of the last meal. Comparisons were remitted in the test of Student, significant for p value lower than 0.05. During Ramadan, the glycaemia of the sportsmen at rest, is at one exception always superior or equal to that of the sedentaries. However, there is non significant difference as much during the fast as in normal food intake. Respective averages are 4.6 mmol/l, 0.15 and 4.5 mmol/l, 0.01 during Ramadan. They cross then in 4.8 mmol/l, 0.2 and 4.8 mmol/l, 0.4 in normal food intake. Landmark, the comparison of the averages from period to the other one in every group shows a significant difference only for the sedentaries. The return to normal food intake was expressed by an important gain in weight for all subjects. The fast of Ramadan has no notorious influence on sportsman's glycaemia contrary to that of sedentary. In other words, the sportsman administers better his stocks of glucose. Previous works however strongly advised against sports practice during Ramadan and more particularly the competitions, because, exercises of strong intensity can induce dehydration. PMID:16190121

  18. Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  19. Baseline characteristics of the randomized cohort from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Research Study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study is a 16-center randomized clinical trial in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes designed to evaluate the long-term effects (up to 11.5 years) of an intensive weight loss intervention on the time to incidence for major cardiovascular events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eligibility requirements are diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (determined by self-report and verification) in individuals age 45–74 years, BMI >25 kg/m2 (>27 kg/m2 if currently taking insulin). The intensive lifestyle intervention is designed to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity. The study is designed to provide 90% probability of detecting an 18% difference in major cardiovascular disease event rates in patients randomized to the intensive lifestyle intervention compared to the control group receiving standard diabetes support and education. RESULTS The 5145 participants who were randomized between 2001 and 2004 were 63.3 % white, 15.6% African-American, 13.2% Hispanic, 5.1% American Indian, and 1.0% Asian-American, which closely paralleled the ethnic distribution of diabetes in the NHANES 1999–2000 survey. Their average age at entry was 59 ± 6.8 years (mean ± SD), and 60% were women. There were 31.5% between 45-54 years of age, 51.5% were 55–64, and 17.0% ≥65 years of age. There were 14.6% of participants who were taking insulin at the time of randomization and 14.1 % had a history of cardiovascular disease. More men (21.2%) than women (9.3%) had a history of cardiovascular disease. Few participants (4.4%) were current cigarette smokers compared to 16.2% in the NHANES 1999–2000 survey. Furthermore, 65% of participants had a first-degree relative with diabetes. Overall, BMI averaged 36 ± 5.9 kg/m2 at baseline with 83.6% of the men and 86.0% of women having a BMI >30 kg/m2 and 17.9% of men and 25.4% of women having a BMI > 40 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS The Look

  20. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a randomized, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcome trial of empagliflozin (EMPA-REG OUTCOME™)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence concerning the importance of glucose lowering in the prevention of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes remains controversial. Given the multi-faceted pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes, it is likely that any intervention to mitigate this risk must address CV risk factors beyond glycemia alone. The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin improves glucose control, body weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or add-on to other antihyperglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the ongoing EMPA-REG OUTCOME™ trial is to determine the long-term CV safety of empagliflozin, as well as investigating potential benefits on macro-/microvascular outcomes. Methods Patients who were drug-naïve (HbA1c ≥7.0% and ≤9.0%), or on background glucose-lowering therapy (HbA1c ≥7.0% and ≤10.0%), and were at high risk of CV events, were randomized (1:1:1) and treated with empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo (double blind, double dummy) superimposed upon the standard of care. The primary outcome is time to first occurrence of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. CV events will be prospectively adjudicated by an independent Clinical Events Committee. The trial will continue until ≥691 confirmed primary outcome events have occurred, providing a power of 90% to yield an upper limit of the adjusted 95% CI for a hazard ratio of <1.3 with a one-sided α of 0.025, assuming equal risks between placebo and empagliflozin (both doses pooled). Hierarchical testing for superiority will follow for the primary outcome and key secondary outcomes (time to first occurrence of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or hospitalization for unstable angina pectoris) where non-inferiority is achieved. Results Between Sept 2010 and April 2013, 592 clinical sites randomized and treated 7034 patients (41% from Europe, 20% from North America, and 19% from Asia). At baseline, the mean age was 63

  1. Impact of polyphenol-rich sources on acute postprandial glycaemia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coe, S; Ryan, L

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, evidence suggests a role for polyphenols in blood glucose control. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of polyphenol-rich sources in combination with carbohydrate sources on resulting postprandial glycaemic and insulin responses. A literature search was conducted using Medline, CINHAL and Web of Science databases. Selected studies included randomised controlled trials in which the association of polyphenol-containing food or beverage consumption with a carbohydrate source and effect on acute postprandial glycaemia and/or insulin was reported. A total of thirteen full articles were included in the review. Polyphenol sources included coffee, black tea, fruit juice, plant extracts, berries and different rye breads, and carbohydrate sources included bread, pancakes and simple sugars such as sucrose, glucose and fructose. Although glycaemic and insulin responses differed depending on the polyphenol-carbohydrate combination, overall, polyphenol sources were shown to reduce the peak and early-phase glycaemic response and maintain the glycaemic response in the later stages of digestion. To a lesser extent, polyphenol sources were also shown to reduce peak insulin response and sustain the insulin response, especially when consumed with bread. This review supports epidemiological data suggesting that polyphenols in foods and beverages may have a beneficial effect on reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the extent of this effect is variable depending on the polyphenol and carbohydrate source. PMID:27547387

  2. Age-dependent association of serum prolactin with glycaemia and insulin sensitivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Wagner, R; Heni, M; Linder, K; Ketterer, C; Peter, A; Böhm, A; Hatziagelaki, E; Stefan, N; Staiger, H; Häring, H-U; Fritsche, A

    2014-02-01

    The dopamine agonist bromocriptine has been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the United States. Bromocriptine inhibits prolactin secretion, and patients with hyperprolactinaemia display impaired insulin sensitivity. We therefore hypothesized that low prolactin levels are associated with lower glycaemia and higher insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Prolactin levels were determined from fasting serum in participants without diabetes from the cross-sectional Tübingen family study for type 2 diabetes (m/f = 562/1,121, age = 40 ± 13 years, BMI = 30 ± 9 kg/m(2)). A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and the area under the glucose curve (AUC(0-120)Glucose) and insulin sensitivity index were calculated. A subgroup (n = 494) underwent hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp tests. Prolactin associated positively with insulin sensitivity (p = 0.001, adjusted for gender, age, and BMI). Age strongly interacted (p < 0.0001) with the effect of prolactin on insulin sensitivity, inverting the positive relationship to a negative one in younger participants. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and AUC(0-120)Glucose correlated negatively with prolactin, and an interaction with age was found as well. Higher prolactin levels are associated with improved insulin sensitivity and lower glucose in individuals without diabetes. This relationship turns to its opposite in younger persons. As prolactin is a proxy for the dopaminergic tone in the central nervous system, these associations may indicate an age-dependent influence of the brain on peripheral insulin sensitivity. PMID:23836327

  3. GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth System Models. Part I: physical formulation and baseline simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, John P.; John, Jasmin G.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hallberg, Robert W.; Shevalikova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Cooke, William; Dunne, Krista A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Krasting, John P.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Phillipps, Peter J.; Sentman, Lori A.; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spelman, Michael J.; Winton, Michael; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Zadeh, Niki

    2012-01-01

    We describe the physical climate formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G. These models demonstrate similar climate fidelity as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's previous CM2.1 climate model while incorporating explicit and consistent carbon dynamics. The two models differ exclusively in the physical ocean component; ESM2M uses Modular Ocean Model version 4.1 with vertical pressure layers while ESM2G uses Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics with a bulk mixed layer and interior isopycnal layers. Differences in the ocean mean state include the thermocline depth being relatively deep in ESM2M and relatively shallow in ESM2G compared to observations. The crucial role of ocean dynamics on climate variability is highlighted in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation being overly strong in ESM2M and overly weak ESM2G relative to observations. Thus, while ESM2G might better represent climate changes relating to: total heat content variability given its lack of long term drift, gyre circulation and ventilation in the North Pacific, tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and depth structure in the overturning and abyssal flows, ESM2M might better represent climate changes relating to: surface circulation given its superior surface temperature, salinity and height patterns, tropical Pacific circulation and variability, and Southern Ocean dynamics. Our overall assessment is that neither model is fundamentally superior to the other, and that both models achieve sufficient fidelity to allow meaningful climate and earth system modeling applications. This affords us the ability to assess the role of ocean configuration on earth system interactions in the context of two state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate models.

  4. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)—A Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Trial †

    PubMed Central

    Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60–77 years, the dementia risk score ≥6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons. PMID:25211775

  5. Recruitment and baseline characteristics of participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)-a randomized controlled lifestyle trial.

    PubMed

    Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-09-01

    Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60-77 years, the dementia risk score ≥ 6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons. PMID:25211775

  6. Baseline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1992-01-01

    This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

  7. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cardiac contractility modulation in patients with systolic heart failure: rationale, design, and baseline patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Burkhoff, Daniel; Nademanee, Koonlawee; Carson, Peter; Bourge, Robert; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Parides, Michael; Kadish, Alan

    2008-10-01

    Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) signals are nonexcitatory electrical signals delivered during the cardiac absolute refractory period that enhance the strength of cardiac muscular contraction. Prior research in experimental and human heart failure has shown that CCM signals normalize phosphorylation of key proteins and expression of genes coding for proteins involved in regulation of calcium cycling and contraction. The results of prior clinical studies of CCM have supported its safety and efficacy. A large-scale clinical study, the FIX-HF-5 study, is currently underway to test the safety and efficacy of this treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of the system used to deliver CCM signals, the implant procedure, and the details and rationale of the FIX-HF-5 study design. Baseline characteristics for patients randomized in this trial are also presented. PMID:18926146

  8. Prevalence of diabetes complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with baseline characteristics in the multinational A1chieve study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current International Diabetes Federation guidelines recommend a target HbA1c <7.0%, but many people with diabetes worldwide find this difficult to achieve, increasing their risk of developing complications. This publication examines the prevalence of diabetes complications and its association with baseline characteristics in people with type 2 diabetes who participated in the A1chieve study. Methods A1chieve was a 24-week, multinational, open-label, observational study of 66,726 people with type 2 diabetes who had begun using biphasic insulin aspart 30, insulin aspart, or insulin detemir in routine clinical care. Participants were enrolled from 28 countries across four continents (Asia, Africa, Europe and South America). Baseline measurements of disease characteristics included: glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting (FPG) and post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (H- or LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and body mass index (BMI). Data on complications and use of vascular disease preventative drugs were collected. Results Complication rates were high (27.2% had macrovascular complications and 53.5% had microvascular complications), particularly in Russia, and use of vascular disease preventative drugs was lower than expected. Age, BMI, diabetes duration, LDL-C, and SBP were positively associated, and HDL-C negatively associated, with macro- and microvascular complications (all p < 0.05). HbA1c and FPG were negatively associated with macrovascular complications (both p < 0.05), which may be linked to the cross-sectional study design. Conclusions These results suggest a worldwide failure to achieve glycaemic targets. Better diabetes management with earlier initiation and optimisation of insulin regimens (e.g., with insulin analogues in the A1chieve population) may reduce the prevalence of vascular complications, improve the lives of people with diabetes and reduce the burden on healthcare systems

  9. Mechanism of action study to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Bilezikian, John P.; Wooddell, Margaret; Paul, Gitanjali; Kolatkar, Nikheel S.; Nino, Antonio J.; Miller, Colin G.; Bogado, Cesar E.; Arnaud, Claude D.; Cobitz, Alexander R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Post-hoc analyses have shown an increase incidence of fractures among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). The mechanisms by which TZDs may be associated with increased fracture risk is not well understood. This article describes the study design and baseline characteristics for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on changes in measures of skeletal structure, surrogates of bone strength and metabolism. Methods Postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and diagnosed with T2DM were randomized in a double-blind design to either rosiglitazone or metformin for 52 weeks, then all subjects received open-label metformin for 24 weeks. Study endpoints included changes in bone mineral density (BMD), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), digitized hip radiography (HXR) and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI). Serum markers of bone metabolism and indices of glycemic control were assessed within and between treatment groups. Results A total of 226 subjects were randomized. Baseline characteristics included: age 63.8 ± 6.5 years; years postmenopausal 16.9 ± 8.4; duration of diabetes 3.5 (1.8–7.8) years; body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 5.9 kg/m2; and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.4 ± 0.65%. At baseline, mean T-scores were −0.95 ± 0.91 at the femoral neck, −0.02 ± 0.97 at the total hip and −0.55 ± 1.25 at the total spine. Since there are no well recognized techniques to determine bone mass and structure at the distal limbs (cortical bone sites where fractures were reported in RSG subjects), using the femoral neck as a surrogate for these areas may be a potential limitation of the study. Conclusion This is the first randomized trial utilizing multiple techniques to evaluate bone mass, structure, serum markers of bone remodeling, and potential reversibility of changes after discontinuation of rosiglitazone. This

  10. Diet and glycaemia: the markers and their meaning. A report of the Unilever Nutrition Workshop.

    PubMed

    Alssema, Marjan; Boers, Hanny M; Ceriello, Antonio; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Mela, David J; Priebe, Marion G; Schrauwen, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-01-28

    Consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods leads to transient postprandial rises in blood glucose concentrations that vary between food types. Higher postprandial glycaemic exposures have particularly been implicated in the development of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. Reducing such diet-related exposures may be beneficial not only for diabetic patients but also for the general population. A variety of markers have been used to track different aspects of glycaemic exposures, with most of the relevant knowledge derived from diabetic patients. The assessment of glycaemic exposures among the non-diabetic population may require other, more sensitive markers. The present report summarises key messages of presentations and related discussions from a workshop organised by Unilever intended to consider currently applied markers of glycaemic exposure. The particular focus of the meeting was to identify the potential applicability of glycaemic exposure markers for studying dietary effects in the non-diabetic population. Workshop participants concluded that markers of glycaemic exposures are sparsely used in intervention studies among non-diabetic populations. Continuous glucose monitoring remains the optimal approach to directly assess glycaemic exposure. Markers of glycaemic exposure such as glycated Hb, fructosamine, glycated albumin, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and advanced glycation end products can be preferred dependent on the aspect of interest (period of exposure and glucose variability). For all the markers of glycaemia, the responsiveness to interventions will probably be smaller among the non-diabetic than among the diabetic population. Further validation and acceptance of existing glycaemic exposure markers applied among the non-diabetic population would aid food innovation and better design of dietary interventions targeting glycaemic exposure. PMID:25498786

  11. SKIN WRINKLES AND RIGIDITY IN EARLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN VARY BY RACE/ETHNICITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN ANCILLARY STUDY OF THE KEEPS TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Design Baseline assessment of participants prior to randomization to study drug. Setting Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Patients Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Interventions Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Outcome Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and BMI. Results In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races (p=0.0003), where Black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In White women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity(p<0.001). Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however only in the White subgroup (p<0.01). In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling (p<0.05). Conclusions Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. PMID:20971461

  12. LOG ON RATE AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS IN A WEB BASED PROGRAM PROMOTING HEALTHY EATING BEHAVIORS TO PARENTS/GUARDIANS OF 8-12 YEAR OLD AFRICAN-AMERICAN GIRLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In web-based programs, log on rate (LOR) determines program dose. Little is known about factors influencing LOR. Computer self-efficacy (CSE) and personal characteristics are likely influencers. Purpose: To examine relationships between LOR, CSE, and baseline characteristics of particip...

  13. Prevalence of Comorbidities and Baseline Characteristics of LAP-BAND AP® Subjects in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Nancy; Dixon, John B.; Okerson, Ted; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Globe, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the baseline characteristics in patients who chose placement of a LAP-BAND AP® System (LBAP) and participated in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO) Study across regions. Patients and Methods HERO is a five- year, prospective, multicenter, international study of patients with LBAP placement between July 22, 2009 and January 31, 2011. In addition to baseline and peri-surgery clinical data, seven follow up visits are scheduled at 3, 6 and 12 months, and annually through year five. Data collection included family and medical history, clinical outcomes, laboratory data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), productivity, healthcare resource utilization, and adverse events. Results LBAP were placed in 1106 enrolled patients; 56.6% from the US, 26.3% from Europe, 7.1% from Canada, and 10.0% from Australia. The majority were female (n = 877 (79.3%)) with a mean age of 43 years (s.d. = 11.4) and mean body mass index of 45.1 kg/m2 (s.d. = 6.9). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (HTN) (overall  = 42.9%) and diabetes (overall 22.2%, with 27% from the US and 14% from Europe). Overall, less than 5% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence rates of HTN, diabetes and cardiovascular disease were significantly (p<0.001) higher in men than in women across all regions. Overall HRQoL also worsened with increasing BMI. Conclusions The HERO study is the first large, multinational and long-term registry with the LBAP. This study will provide real-world outcomes data on LAGB that will help inform patient choice, clinician treatment strategies, and payer reimbursement decisions. PMID:24260140

  14. Baseline characteristics and treatment of patients in Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF)

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton; Desai, Akshay S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe the baseline characteristics and treatment of the patients randomized in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of ARNi with ACEi to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure) trial, testing the hypothesis that the strategy of simultaneously blocking the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and augmenting natriuretic peptides with LCZ696 200 mg b.i.d. is superior to enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. in reducing mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Key demographic, clinical and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in the treatment arm of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD-T) and more contemporary drug and device trials in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Results The mean age of the 8442 patients in PARADIGM-HF is 64 (SD 11) years and 78% are male, which is similar to SOLVD-T and more recent trials. Despite extensive background therapy with beta-blockers (93% patients) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (60%), patients in PARADIGM-HF have persisting symptoms and signs, reduced health related quality of life, a low LVEF (mean 29 ± SD 6%) and elevated N-terminal-proB type-natriuretic peptide levels (median 1608 inter-quartile range 886–3221 pg/mL). Conclusion PARADIGM-HF will determine whether LCZ696 is more beneficial than enalapril when added to other disease-modifying therapies and if further augmentation of endogenous natriuretic peptides will reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. PMID:24828035

  15. [Comparative study of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients after consumption of mono- and disaccharides and sweeteners].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Gapparov, M G

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, honey, corn patoka and products with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners on dynamic of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. After ingestion of 30 g fructose, blood glucose did not show a marked increase in comparison with sucrose or honey. After ingestion of 30 g sorbitol or isomalt, blood glucose curve was not significantly different. It was indicated that corn patoka in chewing candies with isomalt has a high hyperglycaemic effect whereas drink with nonnutritive sweeteners did not change blood glucose from fasting levels. PMID:12125470

  16. Implementation of case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart randomized controlled trial: study protocol and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Lee, Ky-Van; Berra, Kathy; Stafford, Randall S

    2006-01-01

    Background Case management has emerged as a promising alternative approach to supplement traditional one-on-one sessions between patients and doctors for improving the quality of care in chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD). However, data are lacking in terms of its efficacy and cost-effectiveness when implemented in ethnic and low-income populations. Methods The Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart (HTH) project is a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to rigorously evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multi-risk cardiovascular case management program in low-income, primarily ethnic minority patients served by a local county health care system in California. Randomization occurred at the patient level. The primary outcome measure is the absolute CHD risk over 10 years. Secondary outcome measures include adherence to guidelines on CHD prevention practice. We documented the study design, methodology, and baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of 419 participants. Results We achieved equal distributions of the sociodemographic, biophysical and lifestyle characteristics between the two randomization groups. HTH participants had a mean age of 56 years, 63% were Latinos/Hispanics, 65% female, 61% less educated, and 62% were not employed. Twenty percent of participants reported having a prior cardiovascular event. 10-year CHD risk averaged 18% in men and 13% in women despite a modest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a high on-treatment percentage at baseline. Sixty-three percent of participants were diagnosed with diabetes and an additional 22% had metabolic syndrome. In addition, many participants had depressed high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and elevated values of total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, triglycerides, triglyceride-to-HDL ratio, and blood pressure. Furthermore, nearly 70% of participants were obese, 45% had a family history of CHD or stroke, and 16% were current

  17. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  18. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA) promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua), participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers) were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups). The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p < 0.001), smoked more cigarettes per day (12 vs.9, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have already done 1 or more quit attempts (64% vs.50%, p < 0.001). The approach of SPRINT study appeared suitable to enrol less educated women who usually smoke more and have more difficulties to quit. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565 PMID:22151834

  19. Primary prevention of childhood obesity through counselling sessions at Swedish child health centres: design, methods and baseline sample characteristics of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting pre-school children and their families in primary health care settings. The aims are to describe the design and methodology of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised controlled trial, assess the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire, and describe the baseline characteristics of the eligible young children and their mothers. Methods/Design The PRIMROSE trial targets first-time parents and their children at Swedish child health centres (CHC) in eight counties in Sweden. Randomisation is conducted at the CHC unit level. CHC nurses employed at the participating CHC received training in carrying out the intervention alongside their provision of regular services. The intervention programme, starting when the child is 8-9 months of age and ending at age 4, is based on social cognitive theory and employs motivational interviewing. Primary outcomes are children’s body mass index and waist circumference at four years. Secondary outcomes are children’s and mothers’ eating habits (assessed by a food frequency questionnaire), and children’s and mothers’ physical activity (measured by accelerometer and a validated questionnaire), and mothers’ body mass index and waist circumference. Discussion The on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75.9%) responded to the validated physical activity and food frequency questionnaire at baseline (i.e., before the first intervention session, or, for children in the control

  20. Value of Baseline Clinical and CT Characteristics for Predicting the Progression of Persistent Pure Ground-glass Nodule 10 mm or Less in Diameter.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Cai, Zu-Long; Tian, Shu-Ping; Jin, Xin; Jing, Rui; Yang, Yue-Qing; Jin, Mei; Zhao, Shao-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of the progression of persistent pure ground-glass nodule (pGGN) and make the risk stratification for pGGN 10 mm or less in diameter. Methods From June 2008 to April 2015,100 patients (108 lesions) with persistent pGGN≤10 mm in diameter were included in this study. Patients were followed up at least 1 year using thin-section computed tomography (CT). Patients' baseline clinical data and CT characteristics of pGGN were compared between progression group (size increased or/and solid component appeared) and non-progression group. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between clinical data,CT characteristics of pGGN,and lesion progression. The risk indices of lesion progression were calculated according to the results of Cox regression analysis and the relative factors of lung adenocarcinoma in previous studies. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between risk indices and lesion progression. The optimal cutoff value was decided on receiver operating characteristic curve of risk indices and verified for predicting lesion progression. Results Fifteen of 108 lesions showed progression. The mean follow-up duration was (1016.36±486.00) days. There were statistically significant differences of lesion size,air bronchogram,and vessel changes between progression group and non-progression group (P=0.040,P=0.003,P=0.030,respectively).Lesion density (CT value≥-542.5 HU) and air bronchogram were the risk factors of lesion progression (P=0.003,P=0.021,respectively). The optimal cutoff value of total risk indices on predicting lesion progression was 4.25,with the sensitivity of 46.7%,specificity of 89.2%,and consistency of 83.3%. Conclusions CT value ≥-542.5 HU of pGGN and air bronchogram within lesion may predict lesion progression in persistent pGGN 10 mm or less in diameter. A risk index of less than 4.25 often suggests small probability of disease progression and thus a longer follow

  1. Estimation of the optimum dose of vitamin D for disease prevention in older people: Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the BEST-D trial

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Robert; Newman, Connie; Tomson, Joseph; Hin, Harold; Kurien, Rijo; Cox, Jolyon; Lay, Michael; Sayer, Jenny; Hill, Michael; Emberson, Jonathan; Armitage, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous large trials of vitamin D for prevention of fractures and other disease outcomes have reported conflicting results, possibly because the doses tested were insufficient to maintain optimum blood levels of vitamin D (25[OH]D) predicted by the observational studies. This report describes the design and baseline characteristics of the BEST-D (Biochemical Efficacy and Safety Trial of vitamin D) trial which aims to establish the best dose of vitamin D to assess in a future large outcome trial. Methods The BEST-D trial will compare the biochemical and other effects of daily dietary supplementation with 100 μg or 50 μg vitamin D3 or placebo, when administered for 12 months, in 305 ambulant community-dwelling older people living in Oxfordshire, England. The primary analyses will compare 12-month mean plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D as well as the proportion of participants with a 12-month concentration >90 nmol/L between participants allocated 100 μg and participants allocated 50 μg daily. Secondary analyses will compare the two active doses (both separately and when combined) with placebo. Additional end-points include biochemical assessments of safety, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, falls, fractures, heel and wrist bone density, grip strength and physical performance and echocardiographic assessments of cardiac function in a random sample of participants. Results About one-third of eligible participants agreed to participate in the trial. The mean age was 72 (SD 6) years with equal numbers of men and women. About one third reported a prior history of fracture or hypertension, one-fifth reported a prior cardiovascular event, and one tenth reported diabetes or a fall in the previous 6 months. Conclusions The results of this trial will help determine the optimum dose of vitamin D to test in a larger trial investigating whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk of fractures, cardiovascular disease or cancer. PMID:25721698

  2. The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study of Younger Women (WHIMS-Y)

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Leslie; Espeland, Mark A.; Snively, Beverly; Shumaker, Sally A.; Rapp, Stephen; Shupe, Jill; Robinson, Jennifer; Sarto, Gloria E.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study-Younger (WHIMS-Y) was designed to assess the effect of prior random assignment to hormone therapy (HT) (conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) alone or CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)) on global cognitive function in younger middle-aged women relative to placebo. WHIMS-Y was an ancillary study to the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) HT trial and enrolled 1361 women who were aged 50-54 years and postmenopausal at WHI enrollment. WHIMS-Y will examine whether an average of 5.4 years of HT during early menopause has longer term protective effects on global cognitive function and if these effects vary by regimen, time between menopause and study initiation, and prior use of HT. We present the study rationale and design. We describe enrollment, adherence to assigned WHI therapy, and compare risk factor characteristics of the WHIMS-Y cohort at the time of WHI enrollment to similar aged women in the WHI HT who did not enroll in WHIMS-Y. Challenges of WHIMS-Y include lower than expected and differential enrollment. Strengths of WHIMS-Y include balance in baseline risk factors between treatment groups, standardized and masked data collection, and high rates of retention and on-trial adherence and exposure. In addition, the telephone-administered cognitive battery showed adequate construct validity. WHIMS-Y provided an unprecedented chance to examine the hypothesis that HT may have protective effects on cognition in younger postmenopausal women aged 50-54 years. Integrated into the WHI, WHIMS-Y optimized the experience of WHI investigators to ensure high retention and excellent quality assurance across sites. PMID:23578696

  3. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. Methods/Design The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Discussion Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks. PMID:24475944

  4. Neuroendocrine disruption in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on chh- and mih-gene expression, glycaemia and ecdysteroid levels.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandrine; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Delbecque, Jean-Paul; Olivier, Stéphanie; Poret, Agnès; Foll, Frank Le; Durand, Fabrice; Knigge, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Serotonin, a highly conserved neurotransmitter, controls many biological functions in vertebrates, but also in invertebrates. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, are commonly used in human medication to ease depression by affecting serotonin levels. Their residues and metabolites can be detected in the aquatic environment and its biota. They may also alter serotonin levels in aquatic invertebrates, thereby perturbing physiological functions. To investigate whether such perturbations can indeed be expected, shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were injected either with serotonin, fluoxetine or a combination of both. Dose-dependent effects of fluoxetine ranging from 250 to 750nM were investigated. Gene expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) as well as moult inhibiting hormone (mih) was assessed by RT-qPCR at 2h and 12h after injection. Glucose and ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph were monitored in regular intervals until 12h. Serotonin led to a rapid increase of chh and mih expression. On the contrary, fluoxetine only affected chh and mih expression after several hours, but kept expression levels significantly elevated. Correspondingly, serotonin rapidly increased glycaemia, which returned to normal or below normal levels after 12h. Fluoxetine, however, resulted in a persistent low-level increase of glycaemia, notably during the period when negative feedback regulation reduced glycaemia in the serotonin treated animals. Ecdysteroid levels were significantly decreased by serotonin and fluoxetine, with the latter showing less pronounced and less rapid, but longer lasting effects. Impacts of fluoxetine on glycaemia and ecdysteroids were mostly observed at higher doses (500 and 750nM) and affected principally the response dynamics, but not the amplitude of glycaemia and ecdysteroid-levels. These results suggest that psychoactive drugs are able to disrupt neuroendocrine control in decapod crustaceans, as they interfere with the

  5. Metabolic management in overweight subjects with naive impaired fasting glycaemia by means of a highly standardized extract from Cynara scolymus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Opizzi, Annalisa; Faliva, Milena; Sala, Patrizio; Perna, Simone; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Giacosa, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a dietary supplementation with an extract from Cynara scolymus (Cs) on the glucose pattern in a group of patients with naïve impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial has been performed in 55 overweight subjects with IFG (fasting blood glucose [FBG]: 6.11 ± 0.56 mmol/l). These subjects were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with either an extract from Cs (600 mg/d) (26 subjects) or placebo (29 matched subjects) for 8 weeks. The decrease of FBG was the primary endpoint. The assessment of Homeostatic Metabolic Assessment (HOMA), glycosylated haemoglobin, A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG), lipidic pattern and anthropometric parameters were the secondary endpoints. The within groups and percent changes from baseline were analyzed by the signed rank test. The comparison between groups was performed by Wilcoxon's two sample test. The supplemented group had significant decreases of: FBG (-9.6%), HOMA (-11.7%), glycosylated haemoglobin (-2.3%), ADAG (-3.1%) and lipidic pattern. The placebo group did not show any significant difference. Compared with the placebo, the supplemented group showed a significant difference in FBG, HOMA and lipidic pattern. These data demonstrate the efficacy of Cs extract on the reduction of glycometabolic parameters in overweight subjects with IFG. PMID:23440660

  6. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    PubMed Central

    Nakhai Pour, Hamid Reza; Emmelot-Vonk, Marielle H; Sukel-Helleman, Marja; Verhaar, Harald JJ; Grobbee, Diederick E; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2006-01-01

    In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth (< 100 cm vs. ≥ 100 cm; testosterone level (<12 versus ≥ 12 nmol/L), age (< median versus ≥ median), and level of outcome under study (< median versus ≥ median). At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively. PMID:16887030

  7. On the possibility to affect the course of glycaemia, insulinaemia, and perceived hunger/satiety to bread meals in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Linda M N K; Björck, Inger M E; Ostman, Elin M

    2013-04-25

    Frequent hyperglycaemia is associated with oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation, and thus increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Possibilities of modulating glycaemia, insulinaemia and perceived satiety for bread products were investigated, with emphasis on the course of glycaemia expressed as a glycaemic profile (defined as the duration of the glucose curve above the fasting concentration divided by the incremental glucose peak). For this purpose white wheat bread was supplemented with whole grain corn flour with an elevated amylose content and different types and levels of guar gum. The bread products were characterised in vitro for release of starch degradation products and content of resistant starch. Fibre related fluidity following enzyme hydrolysis was also studied. By combining medium weight guar gum and whole grain corn flour with an elevated amylose content, the course of glycaemia, insulinaemia and subjective appetite ratings were improved compared to the reference white wheat bread. In addition, the combination beneficially influenced the content of resistant starch. Fluidity measurements showed potential to predict the glycaemic profile. PMID:23334658

  8. White blood cell counts in persons aged 65 years or more from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Correlations with baseline clinical and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bovill, E G; Bild, D E; Heiss, G; Kuller, L H; Lee, M H; Rock, R; Wahl, P W

    1996-06-01

    A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons aged 65 years or older. Baseline data were collected over a 12-month period in 1989-1990. WBC counts were statistically significantly higher in people with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than in those who were free of disease. WBC counts correlated (p < 0.01) positively with coagulation factors, measures of glucose metabolism, creatinine, smoking, and triglycerides. In contrast, WBC counts correlated negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol, forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, and height. The correlations between WBC counts and risk factors were similar in both the entire cohort and the subgroup of persons who had never smoked. The authors conclude that WBC counts in the elderly are associated with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as its risk factors. PMID:8633599

  9. Methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized trial treating early childhood obesity: The Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Marion; Coday, Mace; Williams, Natalie A.; Richey, Phyllis; Tylavsky, Frances; Bush, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There are few effective obesity interventions directed towards younger children, particularly young minority children. This paper describes the design, intervention, recruitment methods, and baseline data of the ongoing Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) study. This randomized controlled trial is designed to test the efficacy of a 6-month, moderately intense, primary care feasible, family-based behavioral intervention, targeting both young children and their parent, in promoting healthy weight change. Participants are 270 overweight and obese children (ages 4 to 7 years) and their parent, who were recruited from a primarily African American urban population. Parents and children were instructed in proven cognitive behavioral techniques (e.g. goal setting, self-talk, stimulus control and reinforcement) designed to encourage healthier food choices (more whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and less concentrated fats and sugar), reduce portion sizes, decrease sweetened beverages and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement. The main outcome of this study is change in BMI at two years post enrollment. Recruitment using reactive methods (mailings, TV ads, pamphlets) was found to be more successful than using only a proactive approach (referral through physicians). At baseline, most children were very obese with an average BMI z-score of 2.6. Reported intake of fruits and vegetables and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement did not meet national recommendations. If efficacious, Team PLAY would offer a model for obesity treatment directed at families with young children that could be tested and translated to both community and primary care settings. PMID:22342450

  10. The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of PREVENT-DM: A community-based comparative effectiveness trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among Latinas with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Perez, Alberly; Alos, Victor A; Scanlan, Adam; Maia, Catarina M; Davey, Adam; Whitaker, Robert C; Foster, Gary D; Ackermann, Ronald T; O'Brien, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Promotora Effectiveness Versus Metformin Trial (PREVENT-DM) is a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program delivered by community health workers (or promotoras), metformin, and standard care. Eligibility criteria are Hispanic ethnicity, female sex, age ≥ 20 years, fluent Spanish-speaking status, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2), and prediabetes. We enrolled 92 participants and randomized them to one of the following three groups: standard care, DPP-based lifestyle intervention, or metformin. The primary outcome of the trial is the 12-month difference in weight between groups. Secondary outcomes include the following cardiometabolic markers: BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. PREVENT-DM participants are socioeconomically disadvantaged Latinas with a mean annual household income of $15,527 ± 9922 and educational attainment of 9.7 ± 3.6 years. Eighty-six percent of participants are foreign born, 20% have a prior history of gestational diabetes, and 71% have a first-degree relative with diagnosed diabetes. At baseline, PREVENT-DM participants had a mean age of 45.1 ± 12.5 years, weight of 178.8 ± 39.3 lbs, BMI of 33.3 ± 6.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c of 5.9 ± 0.2%, and waist circumference of 97.4 ± 11.1cm. Mean baseline levels of other cardiometabolic markers were normal. The PREVENT-DM study successfully recruited and randomized an understudied population of Latinas with prediabetes. This trial will be the first U.S. study to test the comparative effectiveness of metformin and lifestyle intervention versus standard care among prediabetic adults in a "real-world" setting. PMID:26597415

  11. Association of glycaemia with lipids in adults with type 1 diabetes: modification by dyslipidaemia medication

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, L. G.; Dabelea, D.; Snell-Bergeon, J. K.; Daniels, S. R.; Hamman, R. F.; Rewers, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia are common metabolic abnormalities in adults with type 1 diabetes and both increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The hypothesis of this study was that change in HbA1c over 6 years would be associated with change in fasting lipids in adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods The Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study examined 652 patients with type 1 diabetes (54% female); 559 and 543 had follow-up visits at 3 and 6 years. Baseline age (mean ± SD) was 37±9 years, diabetes duration 23±9 years, and HbA1c 8.0±1.3%. Use of dyslipidaemia medication was 17%, 32%, and 46% at the three visits. Separate longitudinal mixed models were fitted to examine the relationship between change in HbA1c and change in fasting total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c), log triacylglycerols (TG), and non-HDL-cholesterol (non- HDL-c). Because of an interaction between dyslipidaemia medication use and association of HbA1c with lipids, results were stratified by dyslipidaemia medication use. Results Among patients not using dyslipidaemia medication, a higher HbA1c was associated with significantly worse levels of the lipids TC, LDL-c, TG and non-HDL-c (per 1% change in HbA1c, TC 0.101 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.050, 0.152; LDL-c 0.103 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.058, 0.148; TG 0.052 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.024, 0.081; and non-HDL-c 0.129 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.078, 0.180) but not HDL-c (−0.20 mmol/l, 95% CI −0.047, 0.007). The associations between HbA1c and any lipid outcome among those on dyslipidaemia medication were in the same direction, but attenuated compared with persons not on medication. Conclusions/interpretation Change in HbA1c is significantly associated with change in fasting lipids, but dyslipidaemia medications may be required to optimise lipid and cardiovascular health. PMID:20820753

  12. Effect of chronic coffee consumption on weight gain and glycaemia in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rustenbeck, I; Lier-Glaubitz, V; Willenborg, M; Eggert, F; Engelhardt, U; Jörns, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological evidence shows that chronic coffee consumption in humans is correlated with a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For the experimental exploration of the underlying mechanisms, this effect needs to be replicated in an animal model of type 2 diabetes with a short lifespan. Design: Male C57BL/6 mice consumed regular coffee or water ad libitum and the development of obesity and diabetes caused by high-fat diet (55% lipids, HFD) was observed from week 10 on for 35 weeks in comparison with mice feeding on a defined normal diet (9% lipids, ND). Results: The massive weight gain in HFD mice was dose-dependently retarded (P=0.034), the moderate weight gain in ND mice was abolished (P<0.001) by coffee consumption, probably because of a lower feeding efficiency. The consumption of fluid (water or coffee) was significantly diminished by HFD (P<0.001), resulting in a higher coffee exposure of ND mice. On week 21 intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) showed a dose-dependent faster decline of elevated glucose levels in coffee-consuming HFD mice (P=0.016), but not in ND mice. Remarkably, a spontaneous decrease in non-fasting glycaemia occurred after week 21 in all treatment groups (P<0.001). On week 39 the IPGTT showed diminished peak of glucose levels in coffee-consuming HFD mice (P<0.05). HFD mice were hyperinsulinaemic and had significantly (P<0.001) enlarged islets. Coffee consumption did not affect islet size or parameters of beta-cell apoptosis, proliferation and insulin granule content. Conclusion: Coffee consumption retarded weight gain and improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes and corresponding controls. This gives rise to the expectation that further insight into the mechanism of the diabetes-preventive effect of coffee consumption in humans may be gained by this approach. PMID:24979152

  13. Indiana Cancer Pain and Depression (INCPAD) Trial Design of a Telecare Management Intervention for Cancer-Related Symptoms and Baseline Characteristics of Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Kroenke, Kurt; Theobald, Dale; Norton, Kelli; Sanders, Rebecca; Schlundt, Susan; McCalley, Stephanie; Harvey, Pamela; Iseminger, Karen; Morrison, Gwendolyn; Carpenter, Janet S.; Stubbs, Dawana; Jacks, Rakeva; Carney-Doebbeling, Caroline; Wu, Jingwei; Tu, Wanzhu

    2009-01-01

    Objective Pain and depression are two of the most prevalent and treatable cancer-related symptoms, each present in at least 20-30% of oncology patients. Both symptoms, however, are frequently either unrecognized and/or undertreated. The objective is to describe a telecare management intervention delivered by a nurse-psychiatrist team that is designed to improve recognition and treatment of pain and depression. The enrolled sample is also described. Method The Indiana Cancer Pain and Depression (INCPAD) study is an NCI-sponsored randomized clinical trial. A total of 405 patients with cancer-related pain and/or clinically significant depression from 16 urban or rural oncology practices throughout Indiana have been enrolled and randomized to either the intervention or a usual care control group. Intervention patients receive centralized telecare management coupled with automated home-based symptom monitoring. Outcomes will be assessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months by research assistants blinded to treatment arm. Results Of 4465 patients screened, 2185 (49%) endorsed symptoms of pain or depression. Of screen-positive patients, about one-third were ineligible (most commonly due to pain or depression not meeting severity thresholds, or pain that is not cancer-related). Of the 405 patients enrolled, 32% have depression only, 24% pain only, and 44% both depression and pain. At baseline, participants report an average of 16.8 days out of the past 4 weeks in which they were confined to bed or had to reduce their usual activities by ≥ 50% due to pain or depression. Also, 176 (44%) report being unable to work due to health reasons. Conclusions When completed, the INCPAD trial will test whether centralized telecare management coupled with automated home-based symptom monitoring improves outcomes in cancer patients with depression and/or pain. Findings will be important for both oncologists and mental health clinicians confronted with oncology patients' depression or pain. PMID

  14. Baseline reach and adoption characteristics in a randomized controlled trial of two weight loss interventions translated into primary care: A structured report of real-world applicability

    PubMed Central

    Yank, Veronica; Stafford, Randall S.; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Ma, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention reduced type 2 diabetes incidence by 58% among high-risk adults at academic centers, it requires translation into typical primary care settings. Using baseline data from the Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions to Treat Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in Primary Care (E-LITE) randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the potential of its two DPP-based interventions to reach their target populations and be adopted into routine use. Methods Overweight/obese adults with increased cardiometabolic risk enrolled from one primary care clinic. Using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) model, we assessed reach with data on patient identification, participation, and representativeness, and adoption with data on intervention feasibility and potential for organizational diffusion. Results The target population was identified by searching electronic health records. Contact was attempted for 2391 patients who completed initial screening by phone (56% uptake) or online (44%). Most (88%) of those screened ineligible were not within the target population; 12% were excluded because of research requirements. Conservatively estimated participation rate was 44%. Participants (n=241) included 54% men and had a mean (SD) age of 52.9 years (10.6) and body mass index of 32 kg/m2 (5.4). Regarding adoption, all clinic physicians agreed to participate. The feasibility of intervention implementation and dissemination was enhanced by leveraging existing intervention, training, and primary care resources. Conclusions E-LITE's lifestyle interventions had fair-to-good potential for primary care reach and adoption. Our trial evidence and structured reporting may inform real-world implementation of translational trials by health networks, physicians, and payers. PMID:23124047

  15. Diabetes Nurse Case Management and Motivational Interviewing for Change (DYNAMIC): Study Design and Baseline Characteristics in the Chronic Care Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Heather L.; Dellasega, Cheryl; Graber, Nora J.; Mauger, David T.; Lendel, Irina; Gabbay, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that diabetes is costly and devastating, the health care system is poorly equipped to meet the challenges of chronic disease care. The Penn State Institute of Diabetes & Obesity is evaluating a model of managing Type 2 DM which includes nurse case management (NCM) and motivational interviewing (MI) to foster behavior change. The primary care intervention is designed to improve patients' self care and to reduce clinical inertia through provider use of standardized clinical guidelines to achieve better diabetes outcomes. Methods This RCT tests the efficacy of an enhanced NCM intervention on Type 2 DM (n=549) patient outcomes mediated by changes in self-care behavior and diabetes management. Outcome measures include: (a) effect on clinical parameters such as HbA1c (<7), BP (<130/80), and LDL (<100), depression scores and weight; (b) process measures such as complication screening; (c) patient psychological and behavioral outcomes as measured by emotional distress (PAID), diabetes-specific quality of life (ADDQoL), patient satisfaction (DTSQ), self-care activities (SDSCA); and (d) physician satisfaction and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Conclusions Baseline includes (mean) age = 58; BMI = 34.4; 57% females; 47% Caucasian, and 39% Hispanic. Patients had elevated HbA1c (8.4), BP (137/77) and LDL (114). Overall, patients were depressed (CES-D = 21.6) and had an extremely negative quality of life (ADDQoL = -1.58). We believe that enhanced NCM will both improve self-care and reduce emotional distress for patients with diabetes. If proven effective, enhanced NCM may be translated to other chronic illnesses. PMID:19328244

  16. Research: Treatment A randomized crossover study to assess the effect of an oat-rich diet on glycaemic control, plasma lipids and postprandial glycaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McGeoch, S C; Johnstone, A M; Lobley, G E; Adamson, J; Hickson, K; Holtrop, G; Fyfe, C; Clark, L F; Pearson, D W M; Abraham, P; Megson, I L; MacRury, S M

    2013-01-01

    Aims In the UK, lifestyle intervention is first-line management in Type 2 diabetes. It is unclear what type of diet is most efficacious for improving glycaemic control. This study investigated the effects of an oat-enriched diet on glycaemic control, postprandial glycaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress compared with standard dietary advice. Methods In a randomized crossover design, 27 volunteers with Type 2 diabetes, managed on diet and lifestyle only, were observed for two consecutive 8-week periods following either the oat-enriched diet or re-enforced standard dietary advice. Volunteers attended at baseline (habitual intake) and 8 and 16 weeks. Measurements included basic clinical measurements and fasted and postprandial (3-h) glucose and insulin in response to a healthy test meal. Markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, interleukin 18, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, adiponectin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity, oxidized LDL and urinary isoprostanes, were also measured at fasting and in the postprandial period. Results There were no diet-related effects on glycaemic control or glycaemic or insulinaemic responses to the test meal. Total cholesterol (5.1 ± 1.0 vs. 4.9 ± 0.8 mmol/l, P = 0.019) concentrations declined following the oat-enriched diet compared with standard dietary advice. There was a postprandial decline in adiponectin concentration (P = 0.009), but no effect of dietary intervention. None of the measures of oxidative stress or inflammation were altered by the oat-enriched diet compared with standard dietary advice. Conclusion The oat-enriched diet had a modest impact on lipid lowering, but did not impact on oxidative stress or inflammation in these volunteers with Type 2 diabetes. PMID:23668675

  17. Study on risk factors and phenotypes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Guangzhou, China—design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yumin; Bruijnzeel, Piet L.B.; McCrae, Christopher; Zheng, Jinping; Nihlen, Ulf; Zhou, Rong; Van Geest, Marleen; Nilsson, Anna; Hadzovic, Sinela; Huhn, Monika; Taib, Ziad; Gu, Yi; Xie, Jiaxing; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe a study design that focuses on risk factors and patterns of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Methods A 2-year, single centre, observational study was conducted in Guangzhou in China. The study enrolled 318 subjects with COPD aged 40-79 years, stratified into different but equally sized groups according to global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) stage (including Stage 0) and 86 lung healthy controls. An assessment each year was scheduled including questionnaires, lung function testing, Chest X-ray and blood collection. A sub-group, called sub-group X, consisting of 203 subjects with COPD and 51 lung healthy controls, was selected to answer a symptom questionnaire daily (EXACT-PRO) via a BlackBerry Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) device. Upon an alert that indicated a change in daily symptom pattern, the patients were contacted by the clinic to decide whether they had experienced an exacerbation and should have an extra visit within 24-48 hours. At an extra visit, nasal and throat swabs, induced sputum and blood were collected. Air pollution, temperature and humidity were also monitored daily. A subset of sub-group X, called sub-group M that consisted of 52 COPD patients and 15 healthy controls was dedicated to measure muscle strength and a dexa scan. Results More than 78% of the enrolled patients completed the study successfully. There appeared a difference between the patient groups and the controls in gender, age, body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and smoking at baseline. In sub-group X 90 out of 203 (44.4%) selected COPD patients developed one or more exacerbations in the 2-year observation period. They were more severe COPD patients according to GOLD stage at study start. On average most exacerbations occurred in the month March and the least number of exacerbations occurred in October. Conclusions This study with the obtained patient dataset will

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Glycaemia and Diabetes in a Population Living in a Highly Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Polluted Area in Northern Italy: a Cross-sectional and Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Claudia; Donato, Francesco; Magoni, Michele; Feretti, Donatella; Covolo, Loredana; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Scarcella, Carmelo; Bergonzi, Roberto; Apostoli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts of interests: the authors declare no potential conflict of interests. Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS). Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort) study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases) or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases). Results A total of 53 subjects (10.0%) were diabetics: 28 had diabetes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia. PMID:25170473

  19. Differences by sex in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Leo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess differences between men and women in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods In September 2011, the PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for community-based, cross-sectional studies providing sex-specific prevalences of any of the three study conditions among adults living in parts of sub-Saharan Africa (i.e. in Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa according to the United Nations subregional classification for African countries). A random-effects model was then used to calculate and compare the odds of men and women having each condition. Findings In a meta-analysis of the 36 relevant, cross-sectional data sets that were identified, impaired fasting glycaemia was found to be more common in men than in women (OR: 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.20–2.03), whereas impaired glucose tolerance was found to be less common in men than in women (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72–0.98). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus – which was generally similar in both sexes (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91–1.11) – was higher among the women in Southern Africa than among the men from the same subregion and lower among the women from Eastern and Middle Africa and from low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa than among the corresponding men. Conclusion Compared with women in the same subregions, men in Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa were found to have a similar overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus but were more likely to have impaired fasting glycaemia and less likely to have impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24101783

  20. A Mechanics Baseline Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, David; Wells, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    Reports the design of the "Mechanics Baseline Test," an instrument to assess students' understandings about concepts in mechanics. Discusses how comparisons of test results with extensive baseline data can be used to evaluate instruction at all levels. Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  1. Effectiveness, safety and costs of thromboembolic prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: phase I ESC-FA protocol study and baseline characteristics of a cohort from a primary care electronic database

    PubMed Central

    Vedia Urgell, Cristina; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Morros, Rosa; Capellà, Dolors; Castells, Xavier; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Troncoso Mariño, Amelia; Diògene, Eduard; Elorza, Josep Mª; Casajuana, Marc; Bolíbar, Bonaventura; Violan, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia. Its management aims to reduce symptoms and to prevent complications through rate and rhythm control, management of concomitant cardiac diseases and prevention of related complications, mainly stroke. The main objective of Effectiveness, Safety and Costs in Atrial Fibrillation (ESC-FA) study is to analyse the drugs used for the management of the disease in real-use conditions, particularly the antithrombotic agents for stroke prevention. The aim of this work is to present the study protocol of phase I of the ESC-FA study and the baseline characteristics of newly diagnosed patients with atrial fibrillation in Catalonia, Spain. Participants The data source is System for the Improvement of Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP) database. The population included are all patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation diagnosis registered in the electronic health records during 2007–2012. Findings to date A total of 22 585 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation were included in the baseline description. Their mean age was 72.8 years and 51.6% were men. The most commonly prescribed antithrombotics were vitamin K antagonists (40.1% of patients) and platelet aggregation inhibitors (32.9%); 25.3% had not been prescribed antithrombotic treatment. Age, gender, comorbidities and co-medication at baseline were similar to those reported for previous studies. Future plans The next phase in the ESC-FA study will involve assessing the effectiveness and safety of antithrombotic treatments, analysing stroke events and bleeding episodes’ rates in our patients (rest of phase I), describing the current management of the disease and its costs in our setting, and assessing how the introduction of new oral anticoagulants changes the stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. PMID:26823179

  2. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of γ-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa; Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed γ-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether γ-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, γ-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of γ-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, γ-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that γ-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin γ-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Genetic Counseling and a Distance, Computer-Based, Lifestyle Intervention Program for Adult Offspring of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Background, Study Protocol, and Baseline Patient Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Nishigaki, M.; Tokunaga-Nakawatase, Y.; Nishida, J.; Taru, C.; Miyawaki, I.; Sanada, H.; Kazuma, K.

    2012-01-01

    Relatives of type 2 diabetic patients are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and should be regarded as target of intervention for diabetes prevention. However, it is usually hard to motivate them to implement preventive lifestyle changes, because of lack of opportunity to take advises from medical professionals, inadequate risk perception, and low priority for preventive behavior. Prevention strategy for them therefore should be highly acceptable and suited for them. The parallel, three-group trial is now being conducted to investigate the effects of genetic counseling and/or a computerized behavioral program on the prevention of type 2 diabetes in that population. The preventive strategies used in this study could provide a novel solution to the numbers of genetically high-risk individuals, if found to be effective. The objective of this paper is to describe the background, protocol, and baseline patient characteristics of the trial. PMID:22619705

  4. Design, methodology and baseline characteristics of Tai Chi and its protective effect against ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guohua; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; He, Jian; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Controlling risk factors with regular exercise is effective and cost-effective for the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke. As a traditional Chinese form of exercise, Tai Chi might be beneficial in decreasing ischaemic stroke, but the evidence remains insufficient. We hypothesise that elderly community adults with risk factors for ischaemic stroke will decrease their ischaemic stroke risk by improving cerebral haemodynamic parameters, cardiopulmonary function, motor function, plasma risk indices, physical parameters or psychological outcomes after receiving 12 weeks of regular Tai Chi training compared with those who maintained their original physical activities. Therefore, we designed a randomised controlled trial that will systematically evaluate the protective effects of Tai Chi exercise on ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Methods and analysis A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated into either the Tai Chi training group or the usual physical activity group. This paper reports on the design, intervention development and baseline characteristics of the participants. There were no significant differences between comparison groups in demographic characteristics or the baseline data of primary or secondary outcomes. Participants in the Tai Chi training group will receive 12 weeks of Tai Chi training with a frequency of 5 days/week and 60 min/day, while those in the usual physical activities group will maintain their original activities. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Medical Ethics Committee of The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (number 2013-020-02). The findings of this study will be communicated to healthcare professionals, participants and the public through peer

  5. Optimizing management of glycaemia.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J

    2016-06-01

    The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) continues largely unabated due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and obesogenic environment. A cost-effective patient-centred approach, incorporating glucose-lowering therapy and modification of cardiovascular risk factors, could help prevent the inevitable development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Glycaemic optimization requires patient structured education, self-management and empowerment, and psychological support along with early and proactive use of glucose lowering therapies, which should be delivered in a system of care as shown by the Chronic Care Model. From diagnosis, intensive glycaemic control and individualised care is aimed at reducing complications. In older people, the goal is maintaining quality of life and minimizing morbidity, especially as overtreatment increases hypoglycaemia risk. Maintaining durable glycaemic control is challenging and complex to achieve without hypoglycaemia, weight gain and other significant adverse effects. Overcoming patient and physician barriers can help ensure adequate treatment initiation and intensification. Cardiovascular safety studies with newer glucose-lowering agents are now mandatory, with a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (empagliflozin), and two glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide and semaglutide) being the first to demonstrate superior CV outcomes compared with placebo. PMID:27432074

  6. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  7. Subsets of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis in community-dwelling older adults in the United Kingdom: prevalence, inter-relationships, risk factor profiles and clinical characteristics at baseline and 3-years

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M.; Peat, G.; Nicholls, E.; van der Windt, D.; Myers, H.; Dziedzic, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To compare the population prevalence, inter-relationships, risk factor profiles and clinical characteristics of subsets of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (OA) with a view to understanding their relative frequency and distinctiveness. Method 1076 community-dwelling adults with hand symptoms (60% women, mean age 64.7 years) were recruited and classified into pre-defined subsets using physical examination and standardised hand radiographs, scored with the Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) and Verbruggen–Veys grading systems. Detailed information on selected risk factors was obtained from direct measurement (Body Mass Index (BMI)), self-complete questionnaires (excessive use of hands, previous hand injury) and medical record review (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes). Hand pain and disability were self-reported at baseline and 3-year follow-up using Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN). Results Crude population prevalence estimates for symptomatic hand OA subsets in the adult population aged 50 years and over were: thumb base OA (22.4%), nodal interphalangeal joint (IPJ) OA (15.5%), generalised hand OA (10.4%), non-nodal IPJ OA (4.9%), erosive OA (1.0%). Apart from thumb base OA, there was considerable overlap between the subsets. Erosive OA appeared the most distinctive with the highest female: male ratio, and the most disability at baseline and 3-years. A higher frequency of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and metabolic syndrome was observed in this subset. Conclusion Overlap in the occurrence of hand OA subsets poses conceptual and practical challenges to the pursuit of distinct phenotypes. Erosive OA may nevertheless provide particular insight into the role of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:23954700

  8. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): Design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Methods & Research Design Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Change in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. Results A total of 1,438 patients were identified by medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Conclusions Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. PMID:24956324

  9. Transportation Baseline Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

    2000-01-01

    The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

  10. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  11. An improved course of glycaemia after a bread based breakfast is associated with beneficial effects on acute and semi-acute markers of appetite.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Linda M N K; Björck, Inger M E; Östman, Elin M

    2016-02-17

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing all over the world and a diet promoting reduced glycaemic excursions in the postprandial phase may help to prevent the disease. In the present study guar gum (GG) and whole grain rye flour or high amylose maize starch (HAM) was combined to design bread products giving low and sustained glycaemia. A meal study was performed with young, healthy subjects and in addition to glucose and insulin, also subjective appetite ratings and biomarkers of appetite, voluntary energy intake at a second meal and markers of fermentation were studied. The combination of GG and rye was superior with improvements in subjective appetite whereas both test products lead to improvements in biomarkers of appetite compared to the white wheat bread reference. The inclusion of GG, rye and/or HAM in bread products show great potential in lowering risk factors associated with insulin resistance and improving acute and semi-acute appetite. PMID:26762720

  12. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

  13. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the TRial of Economic Incentives to Promote Physical Activity (TRIPPA): a randomized controlled trial of a six month pedometer program with financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Sahasranaman, Aarti; John, Geraldine; Haaland, Benjamin A; Bilger, Marcel; Sloan, Robert A; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the predominant global health challenge of this century. Physical inactivity is one of the primary risk factors for NCDs. Therefore, increasing physical activity levels is a public health imperative. The arrival of affordable wearable technologies, such as wireless pedometers, provides one strategy for encouraging walking. However, the effectiveness of these technologies in promoting sustained behavior change has not been established. Insights from economics suggest that incentives may be a useful strategy for increasing maintenance and effectiveness of behavior change interventions, including physical activity interventions that rely on wearable technologies. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a common wireless pedometer with or without one of two types of incentives (cash or donations to charity) for reaching weekly physical activity goals. We present here the design and baseline characteristics of participants of this four arm randomized controlled trial. 800 full-time employees (desk-bound office workers) belonging to 15 different worksites (on average, 53 (sd: 37) employees at each worksite) were successfully randomized to one of four study arms. If shown to be effective, wearable technologies in concert with financial incentives may provide a scalable and affordable health promotion strategy for governments and employers seeking to increase the physical activity levels of their constituents. PMID:25666856

  14. Transportation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

    1999-12-01

    The National Transportation Program 1999 Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste and materials transportation. In addition, this Report provides a summary overview of DOE’s projected quantities of waste and materials for transportation. Data presented in this report were gathered as a part of the IPABS Spring 1999 update of the EM Corporate Database and are current as of July 30, 1999. These data were input and compiled using the Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) which is used to update all stream-level components of the EM Corporate Database, as well as TSD System and programmatic risk (disposition barrier) information. Project (PBS) and site-level IPABS data are being collected through the Interim Data Management System (IDMS). The data are presented in appendices to this report.

  15. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  16. Mode S baseline radar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancus, E. F.; Baker, L. H.

    1982-11-01

    The baseline performance characteristics of the moving target detector (MTD) and radar data acquisition system (RDAS) as an integral part of the Mode S sensor, were determined. The MTD and RDAS were separately evaluated to determine their capability to provide radar data suitable for utilization by the Mode S sensor and automated radar terminal system (ARTS). The design modifications made to the Mode S sensor to provide the capability of interfacing to either an MTD or RDAS were evaluated to determine if they were in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration engineering requirement, FAA-ER-240-26. Radar baseline technical performance data was provided to characterize the MTD, RDAS, Mode S, and ARTS. The minimum radar tracking requirements are studied to determine if they are adequate to provide reliable radar track data to an air traffic control facility. It was concluded that the Mode S sensor, when integrated with an MTD-2 radar digitizer, can provide reliable primary radar track data to the ARTS III system for automated radar track acquisition.

  17. Design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the Kids’ Health Insurance by Educating Lots of Parents (Kids’ HELP) trial: A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of parent mentors in insuring uninsured minority children✰

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Glenn; Walker, Candy; Lin, Hua; Lee, Michael; Fierro, Marco; Henry, Monica; Massey, Kenneth; Portillo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives Six million US children have no health insurance, and substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist. The design, methods, and baseline characteristics are described for Kids’ Health Insurance by Educating Lots of Parents (Kids’ HELP), the first randomized, clinical trial of the effectiveness of Parent Mentors (PMs) in insuring uninsured minority children. Methods & research design Latino and African-American children eligible for but not enrolled in Medicaid/CHIP were randomized to PMs, or a control group receiving traditional Medicaid/CHIP outreach. PMs are experienced parents with ≥ 1 Medicaid/CHIP-covered children. PMs received two days of training, and provide intervention families with information on Medicaid/CHIP eligibility, assistance with application submission, and help maintaining coverage. Primary outcomes include obtaining health insurance, time interval to obtain coverage, and parental satisfaction. A blinded assessor contacts subjects monthly for one year to monitor outcomes. Results Of 49,361 candidates screened, 329 fulfilled eligibility criteria and were randomized. The mean age is seven years for children and 32 years for caregivers; 2/3 are Latino, 1/3 are African-American, and the mean annual family income is $21,857. Half of caregivers were unaware that their uninsured child is Medicaid/CHIP eligible, and 95% of uninsured children had prior insurance. Fifteen PMs completed two-day training sessions. All PMs are female and minority, 60% are unemployed, and the mean annual family income is $20,913. Post-PM-training, overall knowledge/skills test scores significantly increased, and 100% reported being very satisfied/satisfied with the training. Conclusions Kids’ HELP successfully reached target populations, met participant enrollment goals, and recruited and trained PMs. PMID:25476583

  18. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on

  19. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  20. Carnosic acid-rich rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and improves cholesterol levels and glycaemia in mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Roller, Marc; Chiralt-Boix, Amparo; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (RE) are natural antioxidants that are used in food, food supplements and cosmetic applications; exert anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic effects; and promote weight loss, which can be exploited to develop new preventive strategies against metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of rosemary leaf extract that was standardised to 20 % carnosic acid (RE) on weight gain, glucose levels and lipid homeostasis in mice that had begun a high-fat diet (HFD) as juveniles. The animals were given a low-fat diet, a HFD or a HFD that was supplemented with 500 mg RE/kg body weight per d (mpk). Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 16 weeks. Body and epididymal fat weight in animals on the HFD that was supplemented with RE increased 69 and 79 % less than those in the HFD group. Treatment with RE was associated with increased faecal fat excretion but not with decreased food intake. The extract also reduced fasting glycaemia and plasma cholesterol levels. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of RE in vitro on pancreatic lipase and PPAR-γ agonist activity; the in vitro findings correlated with our observations in the animal experiments. Thus, the present results suggest that RE that is rich in carnosic acid can be used as a preventive treatment against metabolic disorders, which merits further examination at physiological doses in randomised controlled trials. PMID:21676274

  1. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    PubMed Central

    Solah, Vicky A.; O’Mara-Wallace, Babette; Meng, Xingqiong; Gahler, Roland J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; James, Anthony P.; Fenton, Haelee K.; Johnson, Stuart K.; Wood, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) was compared to wheat dextrin (WD) in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC), mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form) gave higher satiety (AUC) (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min), than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min) (p < 0.001). Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules) and WD. Glucose response (AUC) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study. PMID:27164135

  2. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX(®) Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially.

    PubMed

    Solah, Vicky A; O'Mara-Wallace, Babette; Meng, Xingqiong; Gahler, Roland J; Kerr, Deborah A; James, Anthony P; Fenton, Haelee K; Johnson, Stuart K; Wood, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX(®) (PGX(®)) was compared to wheat dextrin (WD) in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC), mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form) gave higher satiety (AUC) (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min), than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min) (p < 0.001). Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules) and WD. Glucose response (AUC) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study. PMID:27164135

  3. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  4. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--BASELINE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 326 baseline questionnaires. The Baseline Questionnaire was used to provide more detailed information on the characteristics of the sample individual and housing, and on the usual frequency of activities over a longer time frame (i.e., last mo...

  6. Concurrent management of postprandial glycaemia and nutrient intake using glycaemic glucose equivalents, food composition data and computer-assisted meal design.

    PubMed

    Monro, J A; Williams, M

    2000-06-01

    A computer system, called SERVE-NZ Nutririon Management System, for use in diabetes management, addresses the problem of concurrently controlling postprandial glycaemic response and nutrient intake in meals containing a number of foods, is described. It converts the weight and relative glycaemic potency of each food to its content of glycaemic glucose equivalents (GGE) - the amount of glucose theoretically inducing the same blood glucose response as would the specified quantity of food. Glycaemic glucose equivalents in a meal can be simply obtained by adding the GGE content of all foods in the meal to give a figure for the maximal glycaemic impact of the meal. Glycaemic glucose equivalents may be calculated using food composition databases that include available carbohydrate, common standard measure weights and glycaemic index values. If GGE is treated as a nutrient, an output of the total nutrient profile of a food or meal, and its glycaemic impact as GGE, can be obtained simultaneously. Application of a nutritional software system incorporating GGE values to management of glycaemic loadings and nutrient intakes over five meals within a day is demonstrated. The system may be a useful aid in self-management of glycaemia, as it will identify quantities of foods that can be consumed without exceeding the predetermined glucose tolerances of individuals. The graphical presentation of GGE and nutrient composition of meals may be a useful visual aid in educating clients with diabetes. The GGE values on food labels would provide easily understood guidance, not obtained from glycaemic index values, to the maximum number of items or quantity of a food that an individual should eat at a time. In its present basic form the calculation of GGE is most likely to slightly overestimate glycaemic impact, so it presents a worst-case prediction. PMID:24394390

  7. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  9. Taking Healthy Steps: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a randomized trial of a pedometer-based internet-mediated walking program in veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and a sedentary lifestyle is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, frequent hospitalizations, and poor health-related quality of life. Internet-mediated physical activity interventions may increase physical activity and improve health outcomes in persons with COPD. Methods/Design This manuscript describes the design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial that tests the effectiveness of Taking Healthy Steps, an Internet-mediated walking program for Veterans with COPD. Taking Healthy Steps includes an uploading pedometer, a website, and an online community. Eligible and consented patients wear a pedometer to obtain one week of baseline data and then are randomized on a 2:1 ratio to Taking Healthy Steps or to a wait list control. The intervention arm receives iterative step-count feedback; individualized step-count goals, motivational and informational messages, and access to an online community. Wait list controls are notified that they are enrolled, but that their intervention will start in one year; however, they keep the pedometer and have access to a static webpage. Discussion Participants include 239 Veterans (mean age 66.7 years, 93.7% male) with 155 randomized to Taking Healthy Steps and 84 to the wait list control arm; rural-living (45.2%); ever-smokers (93.3%); and current smokers (25.1%). Baseline mean St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total Score was 46.0; 30.5% reported severe dyspnea; and the average number of comorbid conditions was 4.9. Mean baseline daily step counts was 3497 (+/- 2220). Veterans with COPD can be recruited to participate in an online walking program. We successfully recruited a cohort of older Veterans with a significant level of disability including Veterans who live in rural areas using a remote national recruitment strategy. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01102777

  10. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  11. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  12. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL and 20.3% patients <70 mg/dL). A total of 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  13. Population Study of Urban, Rural, and Semiurban Regions for the Detection of Endovascular Disease and Prevalence of Risk Factors and Holistic Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design, and Baseline Characteristics of PURSE-HIS.

    PubMed

    Thanikachalam, Sadagopan; Harivanzan, Vijayakumar; Mahadevan, Murugappapillai V; Murthy, J S N; Anbarasi, Chandrasekar; Saravanababu, Chidambaram S; Must, Aviva; Baliga, Ragavendra R; Abraham, William T; Thanikachalam, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    We designed and implemented the PURSE-HIS (Population Study of Urban, Rural and Semiurban Regions for the Detection of Endovascular Disease and Prevalence of Risk Factors and Holistic Intervention Study) to understand the prevalence and progression of subclinical and overt endovascular disease (EVD) and its risk factors in urban, semiurban, and rural communities in South India. The study is also designed to generate clinical evidence for effective, affordable, and sustainable community-specific intervention strategies to control risks factors for EVD. As of June 2012, 8,080 (urban: 2,221; semiurban: 2,821; rural: 3,038) participants >20 years of age were recruited using 2-stage cluster sampling. Baseline measurements included standard cardiovascular disease risk factors, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle habits, psychosocial factors, and nutritional assessment. Fasting blood samples were assayed for putative biochemical risk factors and urine samples for microalbuminuria. All nondiabetic participants underwent oral glucose tolerance test with blood and urine samples collected every 30 min for 2 h. Additional baseline measurements included flow-mediated brachial artery endothelial vasodilation, assessment of carotid intimal medial wall thickness using ultrasonography, screening for peripheral vascular disease using ankle and brachial blood pressures, hemodynamic screening using a high-fidelity applanation tonometry to measure central blood pressure parameters, and aortic pulse wave velocity. To assess prevalence of coronary artery disease, all participants underwent surface electrocardiography and documentation of ventricular wall motion abnormality and function using echocardiography imaging. To detect subclinical lesions, all eligible participants completed an exercise treadmill test. Prospectively, the study will assess progression of subclinical and overt EVD, including risk factor-outcome relation differences across communities. The study will also evaluate

  14. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Acetylcystein for Contrast-Induced nephropaThy (ACT) Trial: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aceltylcysteine has been evaluated in several small trials as a means of reducing the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), however systematic reviews of these studies do not provide conclusive answers. Therefore, a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a reliable answer as to whether acetylcysteine is effective in decreasing the risk of CIN in high-risk patients undergoing angiographic procedures. Methods ACT is a RCT of acetylcysteine versus placebo in 2,300 patients at-risk for CIN undergoing an intravascular angiographic procedure. The randomization list will be concealed. Participants, health care staff, investigators and outcome assessors will be blinded to whether patients receive acetylcysteine or placebo. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. The study drugs (acetylcysteine 1200 mg or placebo) will be administered orally twice daily for two doses before and two doses after the procedure. The primary outcome is the occurrence of CIN, defined as a 25% elevation of serum creatinine above baseline between 48 and 96 hours after angiography. Discussion The first patient entered the trial on September, 2008. Up to April 7, 2009, 810 patients had been included in 35 centers. The mean age was 69 (Standard deviation: 10), 18% had a baseline serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, 57% were diabetics and 13% had a history of heart failure. The ongoing ACT Trial is the largest multicentre RCT that will determine whether acetylcysteine is effective in decreasing the risk of CIN in patients at risk undergoing angiography. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00736866 PMID:19497091

  15. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  16. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    An Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) is a review of a supplier?s Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). It is conducted by Program/Project Managers and their technical staffs on contracts and in-house work requiring compliance with NASA Earned Value Management System (EVMS) policy as defined in program/project policy, NPR 7120.5, or in NASA Federal Acquisition Regulations. The IBR Handbook may also be of use to those responsible for preparing the Terms of Reference for internal project reviews. While risks may be identified and actions tracked as a result of the IBR, it is important to note that an IBR cannot be failed.

  17. Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) Program: Baseline Data and Patient Characteristics from a Population-Based, Randomized Study Evaluating Compliance to Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy in Postmenopausal Women with Hormone-Sensitive Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Nadia; Blettner, Maria; Hadji, Peyman; Jackisch, Christian; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Zaun, Silke; Haidinger, Renate; Schmitt, Doris; Schulte, Hilde; Nitz, Ulrike; Kreienberg, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) program is a large randomized study designed to assess whether the provision of educational materials (EM) could improve compliance with aromatase inhibitor therapy in postmenopausal women with early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Patients and Methods The PACT study presented a large, homogeneous dataset. The baseline analysis included patient demographics and initial treatments and patient perceptions about treatment and quality of life. Results Overall, 4,923 patients were enrolled at 109 German breast cancer centers/clinics in cooperation with 1,361 office-based gynecologists/oncologists. 4,844 women were randomized 1:1 to standard therapy (n = 2,402) or standard therapy plus EM (n = 2,442). Prior breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy had been received by 76% and 24% of the patients, respectively. Radiotherapy was scheduled for 85% of the patients, adjuvant chemotherapy for 38%. Reflecting the postmenopausal, hormone-sensitive nature of this population, only 285 patients (7%) had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions A comparison with epidemiological data from the West German Breast Center suggests that the patients in the PACT study are representative of a general postmenopausal early breast cancer population and that the findings may be applicable to ‘real-world’ Germany and beyond. Compliance data from PACT are eagerly anticipated. PMID:24419247

  18. SEAGRASS BASELINE CHARACTERIZATION MX974334

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will continue to develop baseline data to document the current status of seagrass habitat and its relationship to water quality in the region. Implement monitoring programs and map seagrassess throughout the entire Big Bend region. Within this study area, three ap...

  19. The Mexican-American Trial of Community Health workers (MATCH): Design and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing a culturally tailored community diabetes self-management intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Steven K.; Martin, Molly A.; Swider, Susan M.; Lynas, Carmen T.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been recommended to reduce diabetes disparities, but few robust trials of this approach have been conducted. Limitations of prior studies include: unspecified a priori outcomes; lack of blinded outcome assessments; high participant attrition rates; and lack of attention to intervention fidelity. These limitations reflect challenges in balancing methodologic rigor with the needs of vulnerable populations. The Mexican-American Trial of Community Health workers (MATCH) was a blinded randomized controlled trial testing CHW efficacy in improving physiologic outcomes and self-management behaviors among Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes. This paper describes methods used to overcome limitations of prior studies. Research Design and Methods The primary aim was to determine if a CHW intervention would result in significant reductions in Hemoglobin A1c and rates of uncontrolled blood pressure. 144 Mexican-Americans with diabetes were randomized. The intervention consisted of self-management training delivered by CHWs over a 24-month period; the comparison population received identical information via bilingual newsletter. Blinded research assistants completed assessments at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months post-randomization. Results The MATCH cohort was characterized by low acculturation and socioeconomic status. Study participants had low rates of medication adherence and glucose monitoring. 70% had poor glycemic control with A1c levels over 7.0, and 57.3% had blood pressures worse than ADA target levels (<130/80). Conclusions MATCH preserved community sensitivity and methodologic rigor. The study’s attention to intervention fidelity, behavioral attention control, blinded outcomes assessment, and strategies to enhance participant retention can be replicated by researchers testing culturally-tailored CHW interventions. PMID:22115970

  20. Project FIT: Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a school- and community-based intervention to address physical activity and healthy eating among low-income elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Methods/design There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1) increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2) improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3) improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4) impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5) encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. Discussion At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day), excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of < 2 hours per day), and low intake of vegetables and whole grains and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries and chips and desserts as well as a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (48.5% including 6% with severe obesity) among low income, primarily Hispanic and African American 3rd-5th grade children (n = 403). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046 PMID:21801411

  1. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    -performing peers is reported back to the provider periodically by email. We enrolled 269 clinicians (practicing attending physicians or advanced practice nurses) in 49 participating clinic sites and collected baseline data. The primary outcome is the antibiotic prescribing rate for office visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate ARI diagnoses. Secondary outcomes will examine antibiotic prescribing more broadly. The 18-month intervention period will be followed by a one year follow-up period to measure persistence of effects after interventions cease. Discussion The ongoing BEARI Trial will evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral economic strategies in reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01454947 PMID:23806017

  2. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem. PMID:10387778

  3. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Malbet, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share an interest in long baseline stellar interferometry. It was established in 1995 and is the focus of activity of the IAU Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. Here you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, news items, recent papers and preprints, and resources for further research. The email news forum was established in 2001 to complement the website and to facilitate exchanges and collaborations. The forum includes an email exploder and an archived list of discussions. You are invited to explore the forum and website at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov. Work by PRL was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Multi baseline Grid Software Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritaka, Kimura; Nakajima, Junichi; Kondo, Tetsuro

    Software VLBI correlation is regarded as a solution for next generation VLBI. With a flexibility of the software correlation programming, appropriate scientific correlations by scientists are possible as well as the post processing. As the first experiment to handle Gbps VLBI data, multi baseline Grid correlator have been developing at CRL. The performance of software correlation adopted multi CPUs, SIMD architectures and Grid computing technology has nearly reached hardware correlator performance.

  5. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  6. Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-22

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  7. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.

    1999-06-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  8. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  9. Geotaxis baseline data for Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnebel, E. M.; Bhargava, R.; Grossfield, J.

    1987-01-01

    Geotaxis profiles for 20 Drosophila species and semispecies at different ages have been examined using a calibrated, adjustable slant board device. Measurements were taken at 5 deg intervals ranging from 0 deg to 85 deg. Clear strain and species differences are observed, with some groups tending to move upward (- geotaxis) with increasing angles, while others move downward (+ geotaxis). Geotactic responses change with age in some, but not all experimental groups. Sample geotaxis profiles are presented and their application to ecological and aging studies are discussed. Data provide a baseline for future evaluations of the biological effects of microgravity.

  10. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  11. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  12. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  13. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  14. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  15. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  16. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  17. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  18. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  19. Shuttle mission simulator baseline definition report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.; Small, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline definition of the space shuttle mission simulator is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) physical arrangement of the complete simulator system in the appropriate facility, with a definition of the required facility modifications, (2) functional descriptions of all hardware units, including the operational features, data demands, and facility interfaces, (3) hardware features necessary to integrate the items into a baseline simulator system to include the rationale for selecting the chosen implementation, and (4) operating, maintenance, and configuration updating characteristics of the simulator hardware.

  20. Baseline characteristics of different strata of astronaut corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, Peggy B.; Pepper, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) is an epidemiological study designed to study the effects of the occupational exposures incurred by astronauts in health outcomes and changes in physiological variables. Between 1959 and 1991, 195 individuals were selected for the program. The medical standards for selection have remained essentially unchanged since the Mercury Program, but the range and stringency of these criteria have been modified. Demographic and physiological variables identified during the selection year are examined for various strata of the Astronaut Corps. Specifically, age, sex, race, education, usual occupation, military affiliation, medical history, family medical history, visual and hearing measurements, physical exam variables, and specific laboratory values are investigated. Differences are examined in astronauts for the following criteria: (1) were selected prior to 1970 (n = 73) versus those selected after 1970 (n = 122); (2) have flown multiple missions versus those who have flown less than two missions; (3) have walked in space versus all others; (4) have more than 500 hours of mission time versus all others; and (5) have gone to the Moon versus all others. Length of time served in the Astronaut Corps is examined for each of these strata.

  1. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the

  2. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults.

    PubMed

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial-the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)--to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review. PMID:26784651

  3. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  4. Shifting Baselines, Science, and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    All of us have a deeply personal concept of nature based upon our childhood perceptions of the world around us, and of the subsequent degradation of nature by the experiences of our lifetimes. Yet even the most rudimentary knowledge of history clearly demonstrates that the modern rise of human population and consumption have wreaked havoc on global ecosystems to the extent that nowhere is close to natural or pristine and that most places have been increasingly degraded over many centuries. This disconnect between direct personal experience and abstract historical perspective is the problem of "shifting baselines" that is the fundamental impediment to basic scientific understanding and environmental policy, and affects scientists as much as the general public, business, and government. Scientists in particular suffer from the inability to directly observe and experimentally verify causes and effects of previous changes in ecosystems that now bear so little resemblance to their natural state. Under the circumstances, it is essential for scientists to draw scientific conclusions based on imperfect data and to publicly explain, defend, and discuss their conclusions as the best possible science given present information. The failure to do so makes science virtually irrelevant to social and environmental policy and government.

  5. Multiproject baselines for evaluation of electric power projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; Lefranc, Maurice; Roy, Joyashree; Winkler, Harald; Spalding-Fecher, Randall

    2003-03-12

    Calculating greenhouse gas emissions reductions from climate change mitigation projects requires construction of a baseline that sets emissions levels that would have occurred without the project. This paper describes a standardized multiproject methodology for setting baselines, represented by the emissions rate (kg C/kWh), for electric power projects. A standardized methodology would reduce the transaction costs of projects. The most challenging aspect of setting multiproject emissions rates is determining the vintage and types of plants to include in the baseline and the stringency of the emissions rates to be considered, in order to balance the desire to encourage no- or low-carbon projects while maintaining environmental integrity. The criteria for selecting power plants to include in the baseline depend on characteristics of both the project and the electricity grid it serves. Two case studies illustrate the application of these concepts to the electric power grids in eastern India and South Africa. We use hypothetical, but realistic, climate change projects in each country to illustrate the use of the multiproject methodology, and note the further research required to fully understand the implications of the various choices in constructing and using these baselines.

  6. Precision surveying using very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Clark, T. A.; Coates, R.; Ma, C.; Robertson, D. S.; Corey, B. E.; Counselman, C. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Wittels, J. J.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Radio interferometry measurements were used to measure the vector baselines between large microwave radio antennas. A 1.24 km baseline in Massachusetts between the 36 meter Haystack Observatory antenna and the 18 meter Westford antenna of Lincoln Laboratory was measured with 5 mm repeatability in 12 separate experiments. Preliminary results from measurements of the 3,928 km baseline between the Haystack antenna and the 40 meter antenna at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California are presented.

  7. Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermanis, A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

  8. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  9. Baseline Caries Risk Assessment as a Predictor of Caries Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated clinical outcomes following caries risk assessment in large datasets that reflect risk assessments performed during routine practice. OBJECTIVE From clinical records, compare 18-month caries incidence according to baseline caries risk designation. METHODS For this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from electronic records of non-edentulous adult patients who completed an oral examination and caries risk assessment (CRA) at a university instructional clinic from 2007 to 2012 (N=18,004 baseline patients). The primary outcome was the number of new decayed/restored teeth from the initial CRA to the ensuing oral examination, through June 30, 2013 (N=4468 patients with follow-up). We obtained doubly-robust estimates for 18-month caries increment by baseline CRA category (low, moderate, high, extreme), adjusted for patient characteristics (age, sex, payer type, race/ethnicity, number of teeth), provider type, and calendar year. RESULTS Adjusted mean decayed, restored tooth (DFT) increment from baseline to follow-up was greater with each rising category of baseline caries risk, from low (0.94), moderate (1.26), high (1.79), to extreme (3.26). The percentage of patients with any newly affected teeth (DFT increment >0) was similar among low-risk and moderate-risk patients (cumulative incidence ratio, RR: 1.01; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83, 1.23), but was increased relative to low-risk patients among high-risk (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.52), and extreme-risk patients (RR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.87). CONCLUSIONS These results lend evidence that baseline caries risk predicts future caries in this setting, supporting the use of caries risk assessment to identify candidate patients for more intensive preventive therapy. PMID:25731155

  10. The Very-Long-Baseline Array.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Thompson, A. Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the very-long-baseline array (VLBA) system of radio telescopes that will be completed in the early 1990s. Explains how the VLBA system works and the advantages over present technology. Compares associated international telescopes and very-long-baseline interferometers (VLBI). Illustrates applications for the VLBA and VLBI. (CW)

  11. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  12. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  13. WIDE-ANGLE, NARROW-ANGLE, AND IMAGING BASELINES OF OPTICAL LONG-BASELINE INTERFEROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Woillez, J.; Lacour, S. E-mail: sylvestre.lacour@obspm.fr

    2013-02-10

    For optical interferometers, the baseline is typically defined as the vector joining two perfectly identical telescopes. However, when the telescopes are naturally different or when the requirements on the baseline vector challenge the telescope perfection, the baseline definition depends on how the interferometer is used. This is where the notions of wide-angle, narrow-angle, and imaging baselines come into play. This article explores this variety of baselines, with the purpose of presenting a coherent set of definitions, describing how they relate to each other, and suggesting baseline metrology requirements. Ultimately, this work aims at supporting upcoming long-baseline optical interferometers with narrow-angle astrometry and phase-referenced imaging capabilities at the microarcsecond level.

  14. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as concentration and memory) assessments. Computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological tests may be included as a ... ideally a neuropsychologist should interpret the computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological test components of a baseline exam. ...

  15. Low baseline startle in anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Bellodi, Laura; Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Galimberti, Elisa; Cavallini, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-10

    This study examined baseline startle magnitude, using eye blink response and skin conductance response in anorexia nervosa patients. Twenty female in-patients with anorexia nervosa and an equal number of female healthy controls were tested. Baseline startle response was assessed during blank screens while four startling loud sounds (a 116 dB, 1s, 250 Hz tone) were delivered with a time interval ranging from 35 to 55 s. It was investigated if BMI and state anxiety correlated with physiological responses. The clinical sample showed a lower baseline startle reflex measured with both indices, than healthy controls. Across the whole sample, a single regression model partially explained the relationship between BMI and baseline skin conductance response. PMID:22954471

  16. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    This research presents ultrasonic techniques for baseline-free damage detection in structures in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Conventional SHM methods compare signals obtained from the pristine condition of a structure (baseline signals) with those from the current state, and relate certain changes in the signal characteristics to damage. While this approach has been successful in the laboratory, there are certain drawbacks of depending on baseline signals in real field applications. Data from the pristine condition are not available for most existing structures. Even if they are available, operational and environmental variations tend to mask the effect of damage on the signal characteristics. Most important, baseline measurements may become meaningless while assessing the condition of a structure after an extreme event such as an earthquake or a hurricane. Such events may destroy the sensors themselves and require installation of new sensors at different locations on the structure. Baseline-free structural damage detection can broaden the scope of SHM in the scenarios described above. A detailed discussion on the philosophy of baseline-free damage detection is provided in Chapter 1. Following this discussion, the research questions are formulated. The organization of this document and the major contributions of this research are also listed in this chapter. Chapter 2 describes a fully automated baseline-free technique for notch and crack detection in plates using a collocated pair of piezoelectric wafer transducers for measuring ultrasonic signals. Signal component corresponding to the damage induced mode-converted Lamb waves is extracted by processing the originally measured ultrasonic signals. The damage index is computed as a function of this mode-converted Lamb wave signal component. An over-determined system of Lamb wave measurements is used to find a least-square estimate of the measurement errors. This error estimate serves as the

  17. Low aspect ratio transonic rotors: Part 1. Baseline design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Law, C.H. ); Wadia, A.R. )

    1993-04-01

    The analytical design and experimental test of a single-stage transonic axial-flow compressor are described. This design is the baseline of a compressor design study in which several blade design parameters have been systematically varied to determine their independent effects on compressor performance. The baseline design consisted of ruggedizing an existing compressor design that demonstrated outstanding aerodynamic performance, to correct some undesirable aeromechanical characteristics. The design study was performed by varying only one design parameter at a time, keeping the other design variables as close as possible to the baseline design. Specific design parameters of interest were those for which very few data were available to determine their sensitivity on compressor performance. This paper describes the baseline compressor design and its experimental performance. A detailed definition and flow analysis of the baseline design test point (used as the basis for all subsequent design variations) are provided.

  18. Rapidly Versus Slowly Progressing Patients With Alzheimer's Disease: Differences in Baseline Cognition.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Jennifer N Travis; Massman, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    Rate of progression of cognitive deficits is variable among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of the current study was to compare demographic characteristics and performance on neuropsychological measures at baseline evaluation between rapidly and slowly progressing patients. Participants were divided into 2 groups based on change in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale score from baseline to 2-year follow-up, and baseline performance was compared between the groups. Participants were 55 rapidly progressing and 55 slowly progressing patients with probable AD who had a follow-up evaluation 21 to 27 months after the baseline evaluation. The groups differed in age and initial Clinical Dementia Rating. Performance differed significantly between the groups on Verbal Series Attention Test time, Logical Memory I, Visual Reproduction I, Block Design, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Differences were found between rapidly and slowly progressing patients on baseline neuropsychological testing. PMID:26646117

  19. Baseline estimation from simultaneous satellite laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedes, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous Range Differences (SRDs) to Lageos are obtained by dividing the observing stations into pairs with quasi-simultaneous observations. For each of those pairs the station with the least number of observations is identified, and at its observing epochs interpolated ranges for the alternate station are generated. The SRD observables are obtained by subtracting the actually observed laser range of the station having the least number of observations from the interpolated ranges of the alternate station. On the basis of these observables semidynamic single baseline solutions were performed. The aim of these solutions is to further develop and implement the SRD method in the real data environment, to assess its accuracy, its advantages and disadvantages as related to the range dynamic mode methods, when the baselines are the only parameters of interest. Baselines, using simultaneous laser range observations to Lageos, were also estimated through the purely geometric method. These baselines formed the standards the standards of comparison in the accuracy assessment of the SRD method when compared to that of the range dynamic mode methods. On the basis of this comparison it was concluded that for baselines of regional extent the SRD method is very effective, efficient, and at least as accurate as the range dynamic mode methods, and that on the basis of a simple orbital modeling and a limited orbit adjustment. The SRD method is insensitive to the inconsistencies affecting the terrestrial reference frame and simultaneous adjustment of the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) is not necessary.

  20. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  1. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  2. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  3. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  4. Atmospheric media effects on ARIES baseline determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Different types of media effects on ARIES baseline determination are compared. The effectiveness of simple ionospheric calibration models are studied. To perform the covariance analysis, an ARIES observation sequence needs to be assumed. For the current purposes, the observation sequence is selected to be that of experiment 80D over the JPL/Goldstone baseline (approximately 180 km). This experiment consisted of 96 observations over a period of approximately 25 hours on March 25 to 26, 1980. It is found through covariance analyses that the component most sensitive to media depends heavily upon the correlation, between the two stations, of the media effects. It is also found that relying on the cancellation of ionospheric delays between the two ray paths of VLBI observations at S band results in a large error in baseline length determination. High degree removal of ionospheric effects is possible with a crude model, providing correct diurnal peak and minimum ionospheric levels are input.

  5. The Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Leslie

    2015-10-15

    The Fermilab short-baseline program is a multi-facetted one. Primarily it searches for evidence of sterile neutrinos as hinted at by the MiniBooNE and LSND results. It will also measure a whole suite of ν-Argon cross sections which will be very useful in future liquid argon long-baseline projects. The program is based on MicroBooNE, already installed in the beam line, the recently approved LAr1-ND and the future addition of the refurbished ICARUS.

  6. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--BASELINE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baseline Questionnaire data set provides information about the household using the primary resident (IRN 01) and other residents who chose to participate. The information is from 1106 Baseline Questionnaires for 534 households. The Baseline Questionnaire was administered to...

  7. On Internal Validity in Multiple Baseline Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research designs for evaluating intervention effects on individual cases. The designs are widely applied in certain fields, including special education, school psychology, clinical psychology, social work, and applied behavior analysis. The multiple baseline design (MBD) is the most frequently used single-case…

  8. 75 FR 47291 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings July 29, 2010. ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C Docket No. PR10-67-000. Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid-States Division Docket No. PR10-68-000. Magic Valley...

  9. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  10. 76 FR 8725 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Docket No. PR10-97-002. Transportation, L.L.C.. EasTrans, LLC Docket No. PR10-30-001. DCP Guadalupe Pipeline, LLC...... Docket No. PR10-31-002. DCP...

  11. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  12. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  13. 75 FR 65010 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings October 14, 2010. Cranberry Pipeline Docket No. PR11-1-000 Corporation. New Mexico Gas Company, Inc.. Docket No. PR11-2-000 Peoples Natural Gas...

  14. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  15. Waste management project technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  16. The Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline: A synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the Eighth Biennial Emergy Conference (January, 2014), the need for revisiting the procedures and assumptions used to compute the Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline (GEB) emerged as a necessity to strengthen the method of Emergy Accounting and remove sources of ambiguity and ...

  17. THE LONDON LOW EMISSION ZONE BASELINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators hope that the LEZ baseline study will present a creative effort to lay the groundwork for studying spatial and temporal changes in air pollutant concentrations and health outcomes in advance of a major regulatory intervention. It is hope that the study wil...

  18. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  19. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Mahmood, Faiza; Aandahl, Astrid; Knutsen, Teresa Risopatron; Llohn, Abid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF) elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females) who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L) baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (<150 g/L) baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L) baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (<138 g/L) baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations. PMID:26380265

  20. Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in Professional Lacrosse Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Plancher, Kevin D.; Brooks-James, Ariana; Nissen, Carl W.; Diduch, B. Kent; Petterson, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concussions have become a major public health concern for both youth and professional athletes. The long-term consequences of concussion can be debilitating or even life threatening. To reduce these concerns, baseline neurocognitive performance can aid decision making in postconcussion recovery and return to play for athletes sustaining concussions. To date, these data are not available for lacrosse athletes. Purpose: To present baseline neurocognitive performance for Major League Lacrosse (MLL) players and to determine differences between athletes with and without a history of concussion. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores from MLL players who completed baseline testing from June 2010 to June 2011. Inclusion required a valid baseline test and no history of concussion in the 3 months prior to testing. Means ± standard deviations were computed for all demographic variables and ImPACT composite scores including visual and verbal memory, reaction time, and visual motor processing speed. Independent-samples t tests were used to determine differences between athletes with and without a history of concussion. Results: Valid baseline ImPACT testing was available for 235 MLL athletes (mean age, 25.1 ± 3.0 years). Forty percent of MLL athletes (n = 94) reported a history of concussion, with 14% of those (n = 13) reporting a history of 3 or more previous concussions. There were no differences on any demographic variables between MLL athletes with and without a history of concussion. MLL athletes with a history of concussion had lower ImPACT composite scores than those without a history of concussion, although only the verbal memory composite was found to be statistically significant (MLL with concussion, 83.2 ± 10.8 vs MLL without concussion, 86.9 ± 9.5; P = .007). Conclusion: This study establishes baseline Im

  1. Dissipative effect in long baseline neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Roberto L. N.

    2016-07-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using the Lindblad master equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the behavior of the probabilities. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each of the decoherence parameters changes the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using a numeric and an analytic approach.

  2. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  3. Baseline composition of solar energetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze all existing spacecraft observations of the highly variable heavy element composition of solar energetic particles (SEP) during non-/sup 3/He-rich events. All data show the imprint of an ever-present basic composition pattern (dubbed ''mass-unbiased baseline'' SEP composition) that differs from the photospheric composition by a simple bias related to first ionization potential (FIP). In each particular observation, this mass-unbiased baseline composition is being distorted by an additional bias, which is always a monotonic function of mass (or Z). This latter bias varies in amplitude and even sign from observation to observation. To first order, it seems related to differences in the A/Z* ratio between elements (Z* = mean effective charge).

  4. The Fermilab long-baseline neutrino program

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.; MINOS Collaboration

    1997-10-01

    Fermilab is embarking upon a neutrino oscillation program which includes a long-baseline neutrino experiment MINOS. MINOS will be a 10 kiloton detector located 730 km Northwest of Fermilab in the Soudan underground laboratory. It will be sensitive to neutrino oscillations with parameters above {Delta}m{sup 2} {approximately} 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) {approximately} 0.02.

  5. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  6. Optmization of the beta-beam baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, M.; Fabich, A.; Hancock, S.; Lindroos, M.; Beta-Beam Task Within Eurisol Ds

    2006-05-01

    The beta-beam concept for the production of intense electron (anti-)neutrino beams is now well established. A baseline design has recently been published for a beta-beam facility at CERN. It has the virtue to respect the known limitations of the PS and SPS synchrotrons at CERN but it falls short of delivering the requested annual rate of anti-neutrinos. We here report on a first analysis on how to increase the rate.

  7. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  8. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  9. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conventional gasoline baseline... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a refiner or importer of conventional gasoline, the annual average baseline values of the facility's...

  10. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of adjunct perampanel based on number of antiepileptic drugs at baseline and baseline predictors of efficacy: A phase III post-hoc analysis.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Tracy; Laurenza, Antonio; Yang, Haichen; Williams, Betsy; Ma, Tony; Fain, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Perampanel is a selective, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist with demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in partial seizures in patients aged ≥ 12 years in Phase III studies. Post-hoc analysis of these studies was conducted to determine the efficacy and tolerability of perampanel based on the number of concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at baseline, as well as to examine which baseline characteristics, if any, were predictors of efficacy. Efficacy parameters were based on the number of baseline AEDs, and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of demographic and baseline clinical factors with probability of ≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency. Patients on 1 AED at baseline were significantly more likely to have reduced seizure frequency (P<0.02) and improved 50% responder rate (P<0.02) than patients on 3 AEDs at baseline. Secondarily generalized seizures at baseline, unknown etiology, and use of concomitant non-inducer AEDs were also established as positive predictors of efficacy (50% responder rate; P<0.01). Patients with more AEDs at baseline were associated with greater use of inducers (P<0.01), which may result in decreased exposure of perampanel in these patients and lower efficacy. Patients with 1 AED at baseline had a significantly shorter time since diagnosis compared with patients in the 3 (P<0.01) AEDs group, as well as a lower median seizure frequency at baseline compared to patients on 3 AEDs (P<0.05), suggesting that the reduced efficacy of perampanel with 3 AEDs may also be associated with the greater severity of seizures in the patient groups. The incidence of adverse events in perampanel-treated patients was similar regardless of the number of AEDs at baseline. Greater efficacy is predicted for patients receiving fewer concomitant AEDs when starting perampanel, as well as for those receiving concomitant treatment with AEDs that are not CYP3A4 enzyme-inducers, compared to patients treated with multiple

  12. Space tug avionics definition study. Volume 3: Avionics baseline configuration definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The baseline avionics systems for the space tug is comprised of a central digital computer that integrates the functions of all of the tug's subsystems by means of a redundant digital data bus. The major subsystems of the avionics system are: data management; communications; guidance, navigation, and control; rendezvous and docking; electrical power; and instrumentation. The baseline avionics system for the space tug resulting from system and subsystem trade studies is defined. Tug interfaces with the spacecraft, orbiter and the ground, and the baseline philosophy and configuration for onboard checkout of the tug are included. Baseline configurations, functional and operational features, component details and characteristics, and the supporting software are included in the subsystem descriptions.

  13. Design study of RL10 derivatives. Volume 3, part 1: Preliminary interface control document. [development of baseline engines for space tug vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, A.

    1973-01-01

    The Interface Control Document contains engine information necessary for installation of the baseline RL10 Derivative engines in the Space Tug vehicle. The ICD presents a description of the baseline engines and their operating characteristics, mass and load characteristics, and environmental criteria. The document defines the engine/vehicle mechanical, electrical, fluid and pneumatic interface requirements.

  14. Analysis of wind tunnel test results for a 9.39-per cent scale model of a VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft. Volume 3: Effects of configuration variations from baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lummus, J. R.; Joyce, G. T.; Omalley, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the components of the baseline E205 configuration is presented. Geometric variations from the baseline E205 configuration are also given including a matrix of conrad longitudinal locations and strake shapes.

  15. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; Godfrey, L.; Reynolds, C.; Rioja, M. J.; Deller, A.; Zhang, B.; Gurvits, L.; Bietenholz, M.; Szomoru, A.; Bignall, H. E.; Boven, P.; Charlot, P.; Dodson, R.; Frey, S.; Garrett, M. A.; Imai, H.; Lobanov, A.; Reid, M. J.; Ros, E.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Zensus, A. J.; Zheng, X. W.; Alberdi, A.; Agudo, I.; An, T.; Argo, M.; Beswick, R.; Biggs, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Campbell, B.; Cimo, G.; Colomer, F.; Corbel, S.; Conway, J. E.; Cseh, D.; Deane, R.; Falcke, H. D. E.; Gawronski, M.; Gaylard, M.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Goddi, C.; Goedhart, S.; Gómez, J. L.; Gunn, A.; Kharb, P.; Kloeckner, H. R.; Koerding, E.; Kovalev, Y.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Lindqvist, M.; Lister, M.; Mantovani, F.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Mezcua, M.; McKean, J.; Middelberg, E.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Moldon, J.; Muxlow, T.; O'Brien, T.; Perez-Torres, M.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Quick, J.; Rushton, A.; Schilizzi, R.; Smirnov, O.; Sohn, B. W.; Surcis, G.; Taylor, G. B.; Tingay, S.; Tudose, V. M.; van der Horst, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Venturi, T.; Vermeulen, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; de Witt, A.; Wucknitz, O.; Yang, J.; Gabänyi, K.; Jung, T.

    2015-04-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  16. Dispersion analysis for baseline reference mission 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for baseline reference mission (BRM) 2. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for BRM 2. The analysis was performed to determine state vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated uncertainties. The dispersions are determined at major mission events and fixed times from liftoff (time slices). The dispersion results will be used to evaluate the capability of the vehicle to perform the mission within a specified level of confidence and to determine flight performance reserves.

  17. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  18. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  19. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    SciTech Connect

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; Jackson, Frank; Dalena, Barbara; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas, Rogelio; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  20. Geodetic long baseline interferometry research in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, R. B.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Canon, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and results of several studies using the Canadian long baseline interferometry system (LBI) are presented. The precision of measurements from radio telescopes at the Algonquin Radio Observatory (ARO), Lake Traverse, Ontario; the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), Big Pine, California; and the Chilbolton Observatory (CHIL), Chilbolton, England, is discussed. Also, since LBI is insensitive to the uncertainty in the geocentric gravitational constant, it is a very useful technique for determining the scales of the coordinate systems used by other precise techniques. Beginning in May 1977, a number of LBI observing sessions were accompanied by simultaneous satellite Doppler observations. The baseline components obtained from the satellite Doppler observations were compared to the LBI values. The weighted mean scale bias of the NSWC 9Z-2 satellite Doppler coordinate system relative to the LBI system was found to be 0.42 + or - 0.05 PPM. The weighted mean difference in the origin of longitude was found to be 0.87 sec + or - 0.01 while the difference in declination origin was found to be 0.06 sec + or - 0.01.

  1. Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, D.; Goodman, M.

    1994-12-31

    There is no unambiguous definition for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The term is generally used for accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments which are sensitive to {Delta}m{sup 2} < 1.0 eV{sup 2}, and for which the detector is not on the accelerator site. The Snowmass N2L working group met to discuss the issues facing such experiments. The Fermilab Program Advisory Committee adopted several recommendations concerning the Fermilab neutrino program at their Aspen meeting immediately prior to the Snowmass Workshop. This heightened the attention for the proposals to use Fermilab for a long-baseline neutrino experiment at the workshop. The plan for a neutrino oscillation program at Brookhaven was also thoroughly discussed. Opportunities at CERN were considered, particularly the use of detectors at the Gran Sasso laboratory. The idea to build a neutrino beam from KEK towards Superkamiokande was not discussed at the Snowmass meeting, but there has been considerable development of this idea since then. Brookhaven and KEK would use low energy neutrino beams, while FNAL and CERN would plan have medium energy beams. This report will summarize a few topics common to LBL proposals and attempt to give a snapshot of where things stand in this fast developing field.

  2. Environmental baseline conditions for impact assessment of unconventional gas exploitation: the G-Baseline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Berhard; Millot, Romain; Parker, Beth L.; Gaucher, Eric; Clarkson, Christopher R.; Cherry, John A.; Humez, Pauline; Cahill, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    A major scientific challenge and an indispensible prerequisite for environmental impact assessment in the context of unconventional gas development is the determination of the baseline conditions against which potential environmental impacts on shallow freshwater resources can be accurately and quantitatively tested. Groundwater and surface water resources overlying the low-permeability hydrocarbon host rocks containing shale gas may be impacted to different extents by naturally occurring saline fluids and by natural gas emanations. Baseline assessments in areas of previous conventional hydrocarbon production may also reveal anthropogenic impacts from these activities not related to unconventional gas development. Once unconventional gas exploitation has started, the baseline may be irrevocably lost by the intricate superposition of geogenic and potential anthropogenic contamination by stray gas, formation waters and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. The objective of the Franco-Canadian NSERC-ANR project G-Baseline is to develop an innovative and comprehensive methodology of geochemical and isotopic characterization of the environmental baseline for water and gas samples from all three essential zones: (1) the production zone, including flowback waters, (2) the intermediate zone comprised of overlying formations, and (3) shallow aquifers and surface water systems where contamination may result from diverse natural or human impacts. The outcome will be the establishment of a methodology based on innovative tracer and monitoring techniques, including traditional and non-traditional isotopes (C, H, O, S, B, Sr, Cl, Br, N, U, Li, Cu, Zn, CSIA...) for detecting, quantifying and modeling of potential leakage of stray gas and of saline formation water mixed with flowback fluids into fresh groundwater resources and surface waters taking into account the pathways and mechanisms of fluid and gas migration. Here we present an outline of the project as well as first

  3. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  4. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  5. Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.

    PubMed

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23900718

  6. Mujeres en accion: design and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G

    2011-10-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women. PMID:21298400

  7. Sterile neutrino fits to short baseline data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, G. H.; Argüelles, C. A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation models involving extra mass eigenstates beyond the standard three (3 + N) are fit to global short baseline experimental data. We find that 3 + 1 has a best fit of Δ m412 = 1.75 eV2 with a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 52.34 (3). The 3 + 2 fit has a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 56.99 (7). For the first time, we show Bayesian credible intervals for a 3 + 1 model. These are found to be in agreement with frequentist intervals. The results of these new fits favor a higher Δm2 value than previous studies, which may have an impact on future sterile neutrino searches such as the Fermilab SBN program.

  8. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  9. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  10. Mujeres en Accion: Design and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women. PMID:21298400