Science.gov

Sample records for baseline characterization measurements

  1. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  2. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the

  3. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  4. SEAGRASS BASELINE CHARACTERIZATION MX974334

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will continue to develop baseline data to document the current status of seagrass habitat and its relationship to water quality in the region. Implement monitoring programs and map seagrassess throughout the entire Big Bend region. Within this study area, three ap...

  5. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  6. Second biannaul recalibration of two spectral gamma-ray logging systems used for baseline characterization measurements in the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is establishing an initial, or baseline, characterization of gamma-ray-emitting contaminants in the subsurface of the Tank Farms at the DOE Hanford Site in the State of Washington. These baseline data are gathered by logging existing monitoring boreholes with two high-resolution passive spectral gamma-ray logging systems (SGLSs) informally known as Gamma 1 and Gamma 2. Calibration of the logging systems is crucial to the assurance of data quality. The project document Vadose Zone Monitoring Project at the Hanford Tank Farms, Spectral Gamma-Ray Borehole Geophysical Logging Characterization and Baseline Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks specifies that both systems must be recalibrated, using the calibration standards at the Hanford borehole logging calibration center, every 6 months. DOE presents a description of the first recalibrations.

  7. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  8. Cognitive performance baseline measurement and eye movement performance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirre, Erik S.; Chase, Bradley; Tsai, Yi-Fang

    2005-05-01

    Personnel are often required to perform multiple simultaneous tasks at the limits of their cognitive capacity. In research surrounding cognitive performance resources for tasks during stress and high cognitive workload, one area of deficiency is measurement of individual differences. To determine the amount of attentional demand a stressor places on a subject, one must first know that all subjects are performing at the same level with the same amount of available capacity in the control condition. By equating the baselines of performance across all subjects ("baselining") we can control for differing amounts of performance capacity or attentional resources in each individual. For example, a given level of task performance without a time restriction may be equated across subjects to account for attentional resources. Training to a fixed level of proficiency with time limits might obliterate individual differences in mental resources. Eye movement parameters may serve as a real-time measure of attentional demand. In implementing a baselining technique to control for individual differences, eye movement behaviors will be associated with the true cognitive demands of task loading or other stressors. Using eye movement data as a proxy for attentional state, it may be possible to "close the loop" on the human-machine system, providing a means by which the system can adapt to the attentional state of the human operator. In our presentation, eye movement data will be shown with and without the benefit of the baselining technique. Experimental results will be discussed within the context of this theoretical framework.

  9. BASELINE UT MEASUREMENTS FOR ARMOR INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nate; Barnard, Dan; Hsu, David; Gray, Tim; Brasche, Lisa; Bruce Thompson, R.

    2010-02-22

    Some prototype armor panels are fabricated from several layers of dissimilar material bonded together. These may include ceramics, graphite composites, fiberglass composites and rubber. The ultrasonic properties of these layers influence inspections for armor defects. In this paper we describe measurements of ultrasonic velocity, attenuation, sound beam distortion and signal fluctuations for the individual layers comprising one armor prototype. We then discuss how knowledge of these properties can be used when choosing an optimum frequency for an ultrasonic pitch/catch immersion inspection. In our case an effective inspection frequency near 1.5 MHz affords: (1) adequate strength of through-transmitted signals in unflawed armor; (2) adequate lateral resolution for detecting small disbonds at interfaces; and (3) low levels of UT signal fluctuations due to the natural inhomogeneity of certain armor layers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated using armor panels containing artificial disbonds at selected interfaces.

  10. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...

  11. GPS Measurements of the Baseline Between Quincy and Platform Harvest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, G., Jr.; Dinardo, S.; Vigue, Y.; Jefferson, D.; Lichten, S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of TOPEX altimeter verification, the Global Positioning System has been used to measure the baseline between the verification site at oil platform Harvest and a GPS antenna collocated with the satellite laser ranging site at Quincy, California.

  12. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  13. Measuring ocean coherence time with dual-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) interferometer, measurements of the ocean coherence time at L and C band can be made at high spatial resolution. Fundamental to this measurement is the ability to image the ocean interferometrically at two different time-lags, or baselines. By modifying the operating procedure of the existing two antenna interferometer, a technique was developed make these measurements. L band coherence times are measured and presented.

  14. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  15. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  16. Baseline measurements of terrestrial gamma radioactivity at the CEBAF site

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    A survey of the gamma radiation background from terrestrial sources was conducted at the CEBAF site, Newport News, Virginia, on November 12--16, 1990, to provide a gamma radiation baseline for the site prior to the startup of the accelerator. The concentrations and distributions of the natural radioelements in exposed soil were measured, and the results of the measurements were converted into gamma-ray exposure rates. Concurrently, samples were collected for laboratory gamma spectral analyses.

  17. Measurement of Baseline and Orientation between Distributed Aerospace Platforms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results. PMID:23844416

  18. First epoch measurements by Mark III VLBI of the San Andreas Fault experiment baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    The 883-km-long San Andreas Fault Experiment (SAFE) baseline between Quincy in northern California and Monument Peak in southern California spans the San Andreas Fault in a way designed to measure motion between the North American and the Pacific Plates. This baseline and a closely related baseline have been measured with the satellite laser ranging techniques (SLR) for over 10 years. The baseline was measured with the very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique to confirm or reject the results already obtained from SLR.

  19. Toward an Appropriate Baseline for Measures of Eye Movement Behavior During Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Scott A.; Shillcock, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    In empirical studies of human eye movement behavior during reading, it is common to compute various summary measures from the data, but these measures are typically not evaluated with respect to corresponding measures of baseline performance. The authors present a method for deriving an appropriate baseline by mapping the actual behavior to a…

  20. Baseline Measurement of Running Away among Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherup, Luanne R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Goh, Han-Leong; Borrero, John C.; Mayfield, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    The current study evaluated the use of various behavioral measures of running away with regard to (a) the differential utility of interval- versus event-based measures, (b) the differential utility of rate versus duration measures, (c) the utility of correcting for occurrence opportunity, and (d) the influence of unit of analysis (i.e.,…

  1. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  2. Baseline measurements of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Timothy E; Ottmar, Roger D

    2004-09-01

    Extensive measurements of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters are summarized, showing that firefighters can be exposed to significant levels of carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants, including formaldehyde, acrolein, and respirable particulate matter. Benzene was also measured and found to be well below permissible exposure limits, with the highest concentrations occurring among firefighters working with engines and torches burning petroleum-based fuel. Exposures to all pollutants were higher among firefighters at prescribed burns than at wildfires, while shift-average smoke exposures were lowest among firefighters who performed initial attack of wildfires in the early stages of the fires. Smoke exposure reaches its highest levels among firefighters maintaining fire within designated firelines and performing direct attack of spot fires that cross firelines. These events and the associated smoke exposures were positively correlated with increasing ambient wind speeds, which hamper fire management and carry the convective plume of the fire into firefighters' breathing zone. The pollutants measured in smoke were reasonably well-correlated with each other, enabling estimation of exposure to multiple pollutants in smoke from measurements of a single pollutant such as carbon monoxide. PMID:15559331

  3. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  4. Seeing measurements with autonomous, short-baseline shadow band rangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2010-07-01

    There is growing interest in measuring seeing at existing and prospective telescope sites. Several methods exist to quantify seeing, one among them is by measuring the scintillation of solar or lunar light using a photodiode. A shadow band ranger (SHABAR) analyses the covariance of the signals from an array of such photodiodes, which allows for the spatial resolution of the index of refraction above the SHABAR device. This allows one to estimate the index of refraction structure parameter as a function of height, C2n(h). Although a SHABAR has a limited range compared to a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) or the latest wavefront sensors, the advantage is that it does not need telescope optics to work. A SHABAR device can be made very compact and can operate independent of other instruments. We describe the design of such a SHABAR device with six photodiodes that can operate virtually indefinitely without requiring human intervention. An inversion algorithm is used to convert the raw scintillation signals of the photodiodes to the desired C2n(h) profile and a value for the Fried parameter r0 at height zero. We show that it is possible to perform inversions of 10 s periods in real time on relatively low-end hardware, such as an Intel Atom based computer, which allows the results to be presented live to astronomers, who can use this information to help make decisions about their observation schedule.

  5. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  6. Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.

    PubMed

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23900718

  7. Baseline optimization for the measurement of C P violation, mass hierarchy, and θ23 octant in a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, M.; Bishai, M.; Cherdack, D.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Hernandez, J.; Lundberg, B.; Paolone, V.; Qian, X.; Rameika, R.; Whitehead, L.; Wilson, R. J.; Worcester, E.; Zeller, G.

    2015-03-01

    Next-generation long-baseline electron neutrino appearance experiments will seek to discover C P violation, determine the mass hierarchy and resolve the θ23 octant. In light of the recent precision measurements of θ13, we consider the sensitivity of these measurements in a study to determine the optimal baseline, including practical considerations regarding beam and detector performance. We conclude that a detector at a baseline of at least 1000 km in a wide-band muon neutrino beam is the optimal configuration.

  8. Detection of atmospheric pressure loading using very long baseline interferometry measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, T. M.; Herring, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    Loading of the Earth by the temporal redistribution of global atmospheric mass is likely to displace the positions of geodetic monuments by tens of millimeters both vertically and horizontally. Estimates of these displacements are determined by convolving National Meteorological Center (NMC) global values of atmospheric surface pressure with Farrell's elastic Green's functions. An analysis of the distances between radio telescopes determined by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) between 1984 and 1992 reveals that in many of the cases studied there is a significant contribution to baseline length change due to atmospheric pressure loading. Our analysis covers intersite distances of between 1000 and 10,000 km and is restricted to those baselines measured more than 100 times. Accounting for the load effects (after first removing a best fit slope) reduces the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length residuals on 11 of the 22 baselines investigated. The slight degradation observed in the WRMS scatter on the remaining baselines is largely consistent with the expected statistical fluctuations when a small correction is applied to a data set having a much larger random noise. The results from all baselines are consistent with approximately 60% of the computed pressure contribution being present in the VLBI length determinations. Site dependent coefficients determined by fitting local pressure to the theoretical radial displacement are found to reproduce the deformation caused by the regional pressure to within 25% for most inland sites. The coefficients are less reliable at near coastal and island stations.

  9. The need for preoperative baseline arm measurement to accurately quantify breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fangdi; Skolny, Melissa N; Swaroop, Meyha N; Rawal, Bhupendra; Catalano, Paul J; Brunelle, Cheryl L; Miller, Cynthia L; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a feared outcome of breast cancer treatment, yet the push for early screening is hampered by a lack of standardized quantification. We sought to determine the necessity of preoperative baseline in accounting for temporal changes of upper extremity volume. 1028 women with unilateral breast cancer were prospectively screened for lymphedema by perometry. Thresholds were defined: relative volume change (RVC) ≥10 % for clinically significant lymphedema and ≥5 % including subclinical lymphedema. The first postoperative measurement (pseudo-baseline) simulated the case of no baseline. McNemar's test and binomial logistic regression models were used to analyze BCRL misdiagnoses. Preoperatively, 28.3 and 2.9 % of patients had arm asymmetry of ≥5 and 10 %, respectively. Without baseline, 41.6 % of patients were underdiagnosed and 40.1 % overdiagnosed at RVC ≥ 5 %, increasing to 50.0 and 54.8 % at RVC ≥ 10 %. Increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry, increased weight change between baselines, hormonal therapy, dominant use of contralateral arm, and not receiving axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were associated with increased risk of underdiagnosis at RVC ≥ 5 %; not receiving regional lymph node radiation was significant at RVC ≥ 10 %. Increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry, not receiving ALND, and dominant use of ipsilateral arm were associated with overdiagnosis at RVC ≥ 5 %; increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry and not receiving ALND were significant at RVC ≥ 10 %. The use of a postoperative proxy even early after treatment results in poor sensitivity for identifying BCRL. Providers with access to patients before surgery should consider the consequent need for proper baseline, with specific strategy tailored by institution. PMID:27154787

  10. Mobile very long baseline interferometry and Global Positioning System measurement of vertical crustal motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroger, Peter M.; Davidson, John M.; Gardner, Elaine C.

    1986-01-01

    Mobile Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic measurements have many error sources in common. Calibration of the effects of water vapor on signal transmission through the atmosphere, however, remains the primary limitation to the accuracy of vertical crustal motion measurements made by either technique. The two primary methods of water vapor calibration currently in use for mobile VLBI baseline measurements were evaluated: radiometric measurements of the sky brightness near the 22 GHz emission line of free water molecules and surface meteorological measurements used as input to an atmospheric model. Based upon a limited set of 9 baselines, it is shown that calibrating VLBI data with water vapor radiometer measurements provides a significantly better fit to the theoretical decay model than calibrating the same data with surface meteorological measurements. The effect of estimating a systematic error in the surface meteorological calibration is shown to improve the consistency of the vertical baseline components obtained by the two calibration methods. A detailed error model for the vertical baseline components obtained indicates current mobile VLBI technology should allow accuracies of order 3 cm with WVR calibration and 10 cm when surface meteorological calibration is used.

  11. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  12. Forest Structure Characterization Using JPL's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  13. Characterization Plan for Establishing a PCB Baseline Inventory in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-08-09

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted meetings to discuss management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the doubleshell tanks (DSTs) will be managed to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. One component of the PCB management plans is this characterization plan. At this time, available PCB data for Hanford tank waste is limited to thirteen DSTs and one single-shell tank (SST). Only concentration data for some individual Aroclors (i.e., commercial PCB mixtures) are available for these tanks. Total PCB data is needed to establish a baseline inventory of PCBs in the DSTs. Appropriate transfer controls for the tanks will be developed based on the baseline inventory. The controls will be used to ensure PCB levels in the DSTs will not exceed anticipated waste feed acceptance criteria of the Waste Treatment Facility (WTF). Approximately ninety percent of the waste to be received at the DSTs in the future will come from the SSTs (Strode and Boyles 1999). Single-shell tank waste will be retrieved into the DSTs prior to treatment for disposal. Liquids from the SSTs currently are being transferred to the DSTs as part of the interim stabilization effort. In addition, waste sample materials taken from the SSTs have been and will continue to be sent to the DSTs after analysis by the site laboratories. Thus, to properly manage the PCB inventory in the DSTs, baseline characterization data of SST waste is also needed.

  14. A baseline study characterizing the municipal solid waste in the State of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarallah, Rawa; Aleisa, Esra

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides a new reference line for municipal solid waste characterization in Kuwait. The baseline data were collected in accordance with the Standard Test Method for the Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste (ASTM). The results indicated that the average daily municipal waste generation level is 1.01 kg/person. Detailed waste stream surveys were conducted for more than 600 samples of municipal solid waste (MSW). The waste categories included paper, corrugated fibers, PET bottles, film, organic matter, wood, metal, glass, and others. The results indicated that organic waste dominated the characterization (44.4%), followed by film (11.2%) and then corrugated fibers (8.6%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the influence of season and governorate on waste composition. A significant seasonal variation was observed in almost all waste categories. In addition, significant differences in proportions between the current level and 1995 baseline were observed in most waste categories at the 95% confidence level. PMID:24656421

  15. Updated neutron spectrum characterization of SNL baseline reactor environments. Volume 1, Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Vehar, D.W.

    1994-04-01

    The neutron spectrum characteristics of the primary reactor environments are defined for use by facility customers and to provide an audit trail in support of current quality assurance initiatives. The neutron and gamma environments in the four primary customer environments at SPR-III and ACRR facilities are characterized in detail. Enough detail is provided on other frequently-used environments to support the definition of the 3-MeV and 1-MeV(Si) fluence provided on the Radiation Metrology Laboratory dosimetry reports.

  16. Measurements and characterization - Electro-optical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.

    2000-03-16

    This brochure presents the capabilities that the Measurements and Characterization Division has in Electro-Optical Characterization, in which a variety of spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and capacitance techniques are used to probe the fundamental electrical and optical properties of solid-state materials.

  17. Exploring deep sea habitats for baseline characterization using NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, L.; Cantwell, K. L.; Kennedy, B. R.; Lobecker, E.; Sowers, D.; Elliott, K.

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the only US federal ship dedicated to ocean exploration, systematically explored previously unknown deep sea ecosystems in the Caribbean and remote regions in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. Initial characterization of these areas is essential in order to establish a baseline against which to assess potential future changes due to climate and anthropogenic change. In the Caribbean, over 37,500 sq km of previously unmapped seafloor were mapped with a high resolution multibeam revealing rugged canyons along shelf breaks, intricate incised channels, and complex tectonic features. 12 ROV dives, in the 300-6,000 m depth range, visually explored seamounts, escarpments, submarine canyons, and the water column revealing diverse ecosystems and habitats. Discoveries include large assemblages of deep sea corals, range extensions, and observations of several rare and potentially new organisms - including a seastar that had not been documented since its holotype specimen. In the Pacific, over 50,000 sq km of seafloor were mapped in high-resolution, revealing long linear ridge and tectonic fracture zone features, both peaked and flat-topped seamounts, and numerous features that appear to be volcanic in origin. To better understand ecosystem dynamics in depths greater than 2,000 m, the deepest ever ROV surveys and sampling were conducted in remote Pacific island marine sanctuaries and monuments. Novel observations include range extensions and exploration of dense deep sea coral and sponge habitat. Baseline habitat characterization was also conducted on seamounts within the Prime Crust Zone (PCZ), an area with the highest expected concentration of deep-sea minerals in the Pacific. The Hawaiian operations marked the first ever ROV sampling effort conducted onboard Okeanos, and several geological and biological samples are now available at museums and sample repositories in addition to all digital data available through the National

  18. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  19. Classifying Vulnerability to Sleep Deprivation Using Baseline Measures of Psychomotor Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Patanaik, Amiya; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chua, Eric C.P.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify measures derived from baseline psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance that can reliably predict vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Design: Subjects underwent total sleep deprivation and completed a 10-min PVT every 1–2 h in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants were categorized as vulnerable or resistant to sleep deprivation, based on a median split of lapses that occurred following sleep deprivation. Standard reaction time, drift diffusion model (DDM), and wavelet metrics were derived from PVT response times collected at baseline. A support vector machine model that incorporated maximum relevance and minimum redundancy feature selection and wrapper-based heuristics was used to classify subjects as vulnerable or resistant using rested data. Setting: Two academic sleep laboratories. Participants: Independent samples of 135 (69 women, age 18 to 25 y), and 45 (3 women, age 22 to 32 y) healthy adults. Measurements and Results: In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. Conclusions: Despite differences in experimental conditions across studies, drift diffusion model parameters associated reliably with individual differences in performance during total sleep deprivation. These results demonstrate the utility of drift diffusion modeling of baseline performance in estimating vulnerability to psychomotor vigilance decline following sleep deprivation. Citation: Patanaik A, Kwoh CK, Chua EC, Gooley JJ, Chee MW. Classifying vulnerability to sleep deprivation using baseline measures of psychomotor vigilance. SLEEP 2015;38(5):723–734. PMID:25325482

  20. The impact of sterile neutrinos on CP measurements at long baselines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gandhi, Raj; Kayser, Boris; Masud, Mehedi; Prakash, Suprabh

    2015-09-01

    With the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as an example, we show that the presence of even one sterile neutrino of mass ~1 eV can significantly impact the measurements of CP violation in long baseline experiments. Using a probability level analysis and neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry calculations, we discuss the large magnitude of these effects, and show how they translate into significant event rate deviations at DUNE. These results demonstrate that measurements which, when interpreted in the context of the standard three family paradigm, indicate CP conservation at long baselines, may, in fact hide large CP violation if there is a sterilemore » state. Similarly, any data indicating the violation of CP cannot be properly interpreted within the standard paradigm unless the presence of sterile states of mass O(1 eV) can be conclusively ruled out. Our work underscores the need for a parallel and linked short baseline oscillation program and a highly capable near detector for DUNE, but in order that its highly anticipated results on CP violation in the lepton sector may be correctly interpreted.« less

  1. The impact of sterile neutrinos on CP measurements at long baselines

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Raj; Kayser, Boris; Masud, Mehedi; Prakash, Suprabh

    2015-09-01

    With the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as an example, we show that the presence of even one sterile neutrino of mass ~1 eV can significantly impact the measurements of CP violation in long baseline experiments. Using a probability level analysis and neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry calculations, we discuss the large magnitude of these effects, and show how they translate into significant event rate deviations at DUNE. These results demonstrate that measurements which, when interpreted in the context of the standard three family paradigm, indicate CP conservation at long baselines, may, in fact hide large CP violation if there is a sterile state. Similarly, any data indicating the violation of CP cannot be properly interpreted within the standard paradigm unless the presence of sterile states of mass O(1 eV) can be conclusively ruled out. Our work underscores the need for a parallel and linked short baseline oscillation program and a highly capable near detector for DUNE, but in order that its highly anticipated results on CP violation in the lepton sector may be correctly interpreted.

  2. Very-long-baseline-interferometry measurements of planetary orbiters at Mars and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroger, Peter M.; Folkner, William M.; Iijima, Byron A.; Hildebrand, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    The first attempts to use radio interferometric techniques to measure the positions of planetary orbiters were made in 1980 with the Viking Mars orbiter and again in 1993 using the Pioneer Venus orbiter. The angular accuracy of these early measurements was on the order of 200 nrad. This work describes more recent very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements made in 1989 of the Soviet Martian orbiter, Phobos 2, and several measurements made since September of 1990 of the Magellan spacecraft orbiting Venus. Both the Phobos and Magellan measurements recorded data with the Mark 3 VLBI systems located at antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The much wider bandwidth of this recording system and the availability of ionospheric calibrations should allow angular accuracy approaching 5 nrad to be achieved with these measurements.

  3. Microvascular oxygen tension and flow measurements in rodent cerebral cortex during baseline conditions and functional activation

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Sakadžić, Sava; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Gorczynska, Iwona; Wu, Weicheng; Fujimoto, James G; Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Measuring cerebral oxygen delivery and metabolism microscopically is important for interpreting macroscopic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and identifying pathological changes associated with stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and brain injury. Here, we present simultaneous, microscopic measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in cortical microvessels of anesthetized rats under baseline conditions and during somatosensory stimulation. Using a custom-built imaging system, we measured CBF with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and vascular pO2 with confocal phosphorescence lifetime microscopy. Cerebral blood flow and pO2 measurements displayed heterogeneity over distances irresolvable with fMRI and positron emission tomography. Baseline measurements indicate O2 extraction from pial arterioles and homogeneity of ascending venule pO2 despite large variation in microvessel flows. Oxygen extraction is linearly related to flow in ascending venules, suggesting that flow in ascending venules closely matches oxygen demand of the drained territory. Oxygen partial pressure and relative CBF transients during somatosensory stimulation further indicate arteriolar O2 extraction and suggest that arterioles contribute to the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent response. Understanding O2 supply on a microscopic level will yield better insight into brain function and the underlying mechanisms of various neuropathologies. PMID:21179069

  4. Background Characterization for PROSPECT: a US Short-baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Segmented antineutrino detectors placed near compact research reactors provide an excellent opportunity to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. The PROSPECT collaboration has developed a conceptual design for an experiment covering the favored reactor anomaly parameter space using two detectors located within 4-20 m of an existing reactor. Research reactors offer the benefits of compact cores, distinct reactor-off periods, and single-isotope fuel. However, they are typically located at ground level, providing little to no overburden to shield detectors. This talk will present the background requirements of the PROSPECT experiment and discuss feasibility studies that have been performed for three potential locations: NIST, INL, and ORNL. Two fast neutron detectors, a muon telescope, and HPGE and NaI gamma detectors have been deployed at the sites to measure reactor-related and cosmogenic backgrounds. The results of background measurements at each site during reactor operation and shutdown will be shown. Additionally, the planned techniques to reduce the impact of each background on the physics reach of the full experiment will also be discussed.

  5. Measuring the mass of a sterile neutrino with a very short baseline reactor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, D. C.; Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.

    2007-04-01

    An analysis of the world's neutrino oscillation data, including sterile neutrinos, [M. Sorel, C. M. Conrad, and M. H. Shaevitz, Phys. Rev. D 70, 073004 (2004)] found a peak in the allowed region at a mass-squared difference Δm2≅0.9eV2. We trace its origin to harmonic oscillations in the electron survival probability Pee as a function of L/E, the ratio of baseline to neutrino energy, as measured in the near detector of the Bugey experiment. We find a second occurrence for Δm2≅1.9eV2. We point out that the phenomenon of harmonic oscillations of Pee as a function of L/E, as seen in the Bugey experiment, can be used to measure the mass-squared difference associated with a sterile neutrino in the range from a fraction of an eV2 to several eV2 (compatible with that indicated by the LSND experiment), as well as measure the amount of electron-sterile neutrino mixing. We observe that the experiment is independent, to lowest order, of the size of the reactor and suggest the possibility of a small reactor with a detector sitting at a very short baseline.

  6. Baseline and reactivity measures of blood pressure and negative affect in borderline hypertension.

    PubMed

    Waked, E G; Jutai, J W

    1990-02-01

    Measures of blood pressure (BP) and negative affect were taken prior to, immediately following, and ten minutes after a cognitive stressor in groups of normotensive (group N; n = 15) and borderline hypertensive (group B; n = 15) young adults. Two testing sessions, one week apart, involved performance of a simple, congruent color-word ("easy") and a cognitive stress-inducing, incongruent color-word ("difficult") version of the Stroop test. In both sessions, group B showed significantly higher baseline systolic and diastolic BP, higher systolic responses to the difficult Stroop task, and higher recovery measures of systolic and diastolic BP than group N. In general, group B had significantly elevated baseline and reactivity scores on state measures of negative affect in both sessions. Correlations revealed strong positive associations between blood pressure and mood reactivity only for borderline subjects. Depressed mood was more strongly and consistently related to blood pressure reactivity than was hostility. Borderline hypertension appears to be associated with stable, perhaps clinically significant elevations in negative affect, and with dysphoric response to mild cognitive stress. PMID:2333341

  7. Measuring the mass of a sterile neutrino with a very short baseline reactor experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, D. C.; Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.

    2007-04-15

    An analysis of the world's neutrino oscillation data, including sterile neutrinos, [M. Sorel, C. M. Conrad, and M. H. Shaevitz, Phys. Rev. D 70, 073004 (2004)] found a peak in the allowed region at a mass-squared difference {delta}m{sup 2} congruent with 0.9 eV{sup 2}. We trace its origin to harmonic oscillations in the electron survival probability P{sub ee} as a function of L/E, the ratio of baseline to neutrino energy, as measured in the near detector of the Bugey experiment. We find a second occurrence for {delta}m{sup 2} congruent with 1.9 eV{sup 2}. We point out that the phenomenon of harmonic oscillations of P{sub ee} as a function of L/E, as seen in the Bugey experiment, can be used to measure the mass-squared difference associated with a sterile neutrino in the range from a fraction of an eV{sup 2} to several eV{sup 2} (compatible with that indicated by the LSND experiment), as well as measure the amount of electron-sterile neutrino mixing. We observe that the experiment is independent, to lowest order, of the size of the reactor and suggest the possibility of a small reactor with a detector sitting at a very short baseline.

  8. Calibration and Validation of Third Stokes Parameter Measurements of SMOS Zero-Baseline Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, C.; Kainulainen, J.; Colliander, A.

    2012-12-01

    SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity) zero-baseline radiometers provide absolute brightness temperature reference for SMOS images. Thus, accurate calibration of the zero-baseline radiometers is of great importance for the quality of SMOS data. The primary utility of the third Stokes parameter at L-band is to estimate the Faraday rotation caused by the Earth's ionosphere which affects the balance of vertical and horizontal brightness temperatures. In this presentation a calibration and validation approach to improve the accuracy of the of the third Stokes parameter measurement of the SMOS zero-baselines is described. The approach relies on modeling of the third Stokes parameter over non-uniform scenes (e.g. sea-land boundaries) over antenna Field of View (FOV) to establish reference scenes for calibration. The basis of the method is the fact that the non-uniform scenes which are asymmetrical about the along-track direction within the FOV invoke the third Stokes parameter as a result of the integration over the antenna pattern. The FOV of the zero-baselines is very large and therefore this effect is significant (on the order of 10 K). The surface brightness temperature for vertical and horizontal polarization is acquired from the SMOS images instead of surface emission models to initiate the model with as realistic brightness temperature distribution as possible. These measurements can be used since the critical information for the calibration approach is the geometric distribution of the brightness temperature within the FOV instead of the very accurate knowledge of the brightness temperature magnitude (i.e. features in the measurement of vertical and horizontal polarization will not propagate back to reference). Three additional sources which contribute to the modeling of the third Stokes parameter are studied. First, the knowledge of the antenna pattern shape over the non-uniform scenes; second, the unpolarized atmospheric attenuation and upwelling brightness

  9. Comparison of Tone Mode Measurements for a Forward Swept and Baseline Rotor Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2003-01-01

    A forward swept fan, designated the Quite High Speed Fan (QHSF), was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate its noise reduction relative to a baseline fan of the same aerodynamic performance. The design objective of the QHSF was a 6 dB reduction in Effective Perceived Noise Level relative to the baseline fan at the takeoff condition. The design noise reduction was to be a result of lower levels of multiple pure tone noise due to the forward swept rotor, and lower rotor/stator interaction tone noise from a leaned stator. Although the design 6 dB reduction was observed in far-field measurements, the induct mode measurements revealed the reasons for goals. All of the noise reduction was from the blade passing tone and its harmonics and most of this was unexpectedly from rotor/strut interaction modes. The reason for large differences in rotor/strut noise sources could not be determined with certainty. The reductions in the multiple pure tone noise for the forward swept rotor were not observed. this reduction were not the ones related to the design

  10. Physical exposure of sign language interpreters: baseline measures and reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Imbeau, Daniel; Durand, Marie-José

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of physical exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors must generally be performed directly in the field to assess the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. To perform such an evaluation, the reliability of physical exposure measures under similar field conditions must be known. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reliability of physical exposure measures performed in the field and to establish the baseline values of physical exposure in sign language interpreters (SLI) before the implementation of an intervention. The electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscles as well as the wrist motions of the dominant arm were measured using goniometry on nine SLI on four different days. Several exposure parameters, proposed in the literature, were computed and the generalizability theory was used as a framework to assess reliability. Overall, SLI showed a relatively low level of trapezius muscle activity, but with little time at rest, and highly dynamic wrist motions. Electromyography exposure parameters showed poor to moderate reliability, while goniometry parameter reliability was moderate to excellent. For EMG parameters, performing repeated measurements on different days was more effective in increasing reliability than extending the duration of the measurement over one day. For goniometry, repeating measurements on different days was also effective in improving reliability, although good reliability could be obtained with a single sufficiently long measurement period. PMID:15830245

  11. Very long baseline interferometer measurements of plasma turbulence in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Takayuki Sakurai; Spangler, S.R.; Armstrong, J.W.

    1992-11-01

    Turbulence in the solar wind plasma was studied using angular broadening measurements of 10 extragalactic compact radio sources (quasars) with a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) at 4.99 GHz. Unlike other angular broadening studies, the measured broadening size was corrected for intrinsic source structures which were obtained from a separate VLBI observation. The solar elongations of the sources ranged from 18 R{sub S} to 243 R{sub S}, and five sources with elongations {<=} 60 R{sub S} showed varying degrees of broadening. The measured angular sizes are considerably less than predicted by the well-known empirical relationship of Erickson, as well as two other models for strength of scattering as a function of solar elongation. However, the data are in good agreement with a model for the spatial power spectrum of the turbulence proposed by Coles and Harmon. This model consists of a Kolmogorov spectrum at large scales, but with an enhancement of power near the wavenumber corresponding o the ion inertial length. Two of these sources, 1148-001 and 1253-053 (3C279), show substantial differences in the amount of scattering, even though they are at similar solar elongations (29 versus 35 R{sub S}). Data to which the authors have access indicate that the state of the corona along the lines of sight to these sources may have been quite different. Angular broadening measurements with VLBI interferometers currently under development (primarily the very long baseline array) will allow a global view of plasma turbulence out of the ecliptic plane and thus be complementary to the point in situ measurements with Ulysses. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Lost ecosystem services as a measure of oil spill damages: a conceptual analysis of the importance of baselines.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chris J; Cheong, So-Min

    2013-10-15

    The assessment and quantification of damages resulting from marine oil spills is typically coordinated by NOAA, and has historically utilized Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) to estimate damages. Resource economists and others have called for the damage assessment process to instead estimate injuries through the valuation of lost ecosystem services. Our conceptual analysis explores ecosystem service valuation from the perspective of "baselines," which are a fundamental component of both primary and compensatory restoration activities. In practice, baselines have been defined in ecological terms, with minimal consideration of the socioeconomic side of ecosystem service provision. We argue that, for the purposes of scaling compensatory restoration, it is more appropriate to characterize baselines in value terms, thereby integrating non-market valuation approaches from the onset of the damage assessment process. Benefits and challenges of this approach are discussed, along with guidelines for practitioners to identify circumstances in which socioeconomic variables are likely to be important for baseline characterization. PMID:23712057

  13. Baseline Measurements of Trace Gases at High Mountain and Sea-level Stations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, C.; Wang, J.; Lin, N.; Lee, C.; Sheu, G.; Hsieh, H.; Liu, W.

    2012-12-01

    High mountains in Taiwan may serve as ideal locations to monitor seasonal alternation of air masses from Asian continental outflow from mainland China, biomass burning from Southeast Asia, and oceanic influences from the Pacific. The operation of Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 23.51°N, 120.92°E, 2862 m a.s.l.) started in April 2006, aiming at studying the regional baseline conditions and its coupling with local air quality. Based on six-year's measurements, the springtime maximum of CO and O3 is likely caused by the long-range transport of air masses from Southeast Asia with biomass burning signature. In contrast, the Pacific oceanic air masses cause the summertime minimum. Diurnal variations of CO and O3 at LABS were found to be different from those at the surface. CO show maximum levels in late afternoon, and minima at night. O3 however shows a nearly opposite cycle to CO with minima at noon. Intriguingly, this O3 diurnal pattern repeated for five years, but changed since May 2011 for reasons that remain to be unraveled. Ozone depleting substance such as CFCs and Halons, and GHGs such as CO2 and CH4 were observed continuously at LABS since December 2007 and March 2011, respectively. Years after the implementation of the Montreal Protocols for the A5 countries, the ODS are expected to decline over time. Based on the measurements of seven halocarbons at LABS, most of the species are found to be either leveling off or decreasing during this period. For CO2 and CH4 measurements, a cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used and their seasonal variations were found to be similar to those at other sites in the East Asia. The results of flask samples analyzed by NOAA/ESRL/GMD were also discussed in this study. In addition to LABS, baseline observation was also conducted on a small island - Dongsha (20.70°N, 116.73°E), which is situated between Taiwan and the Philippines, serving as an ideal representative of the northern South China Sea. Both GHGs and O3

  14. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  15. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  16. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  17. Direct measurement of sub-surface mass change using the variable-baseline gravity gradient method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Güntner, Andreas; Abe, Maiko; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Time-lapse gravity data provide a direct, non-destructive method to monitor mass changes at scales from cm to km. But, the effectively infinite spatial sensitivity of gravity measurements can make it difficult to isolate the signal of interest. The variable-baseline gravity gradient method, based on the difference of measurements between two gravimeters, is an alternative to the conventional approach of individually modeling all sources of mass and elevation change. This approach can improve the signal-to-noise ratio for many applications by removing the contributions of Earth tides, loading, and other signals that have the same effect on both gravimeters. At the same time, this approach can focus the support volume within a relatively small user-defined region of the subsurface. The method is demonstrated using paired superconducting gravimeters to make for the first time a large-scale, non-invasive measurement of infiltration wetting front velocity and change in water content above the wetting front.

  18. Characterization of secondary ignition sources in unattended compartments and full-scale baseline test. [aircraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klink, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of five fuel loads burned within a metal lavatory were identified. In 15 of the tests the lavatory door remained closed for the 30-minute test period while in 15 additional tests the door was opened after the fire had developed. Upon completion of these tests the most severe source was selected for use in the baseline test. In the baseline test, the lavatory and adjacent panels, all of which were constructed of contemporary materials, were tested for a period of 1 hour. Thermal, environmental, and biological data were obtained for all fuel loads, door conditions, and the baseline test. All tests were conducted in a cabin fire simulator with separate ventilation of the cabin and lavatory representative of an inflight condition. The baseline test established that by using the most severe fuel source: (1) the exposed animal subject survived without complications; (2) no toxic levels of gas within the cabin were detected; (3) a propagating fire did not develop in adjacent structures; (4) the lavatory containing the fire remained structurally intact; (5) decomposition of portions of the lavatory did occur; and (6) cabin visibility would have presented a problem after 5 minutes.

  19. Updated neutron spectrum characterization of SNL baseline reactor environments. Volume 2, Analysis computer listings

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Vehar, D.W.

    1994-04-01

    This document provides SAND-II and MANIPULATE output listings from calculations used to derive the new spectrum-averaged integral parameters that were reported in volume 1. When used in conjunction with volume 1, this document provides an audit trail for the neutron radiation field characterization and supports current quality assurance initiatives. This document provides detailed information on the neutron spectrum characteristics of the primary Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) reactor environments. The information in this volume is not intended for the casual user of the SNL reactor facilities. This detailed characterization of the neutron and gamma environments at the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR) and the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is provided to aid the users who wish to convert the information given in the Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) dosimetry reports into other (non-silicon) measures of neutron damage. The spectra provided in these appendices can be used as a source term for Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations to study the impact of experimenter`s test package on the neutron environment.

  20. Hair as a meaningful measure of baseline cortisol levels over time in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Adams, Amanda G; Invik, Rosemary M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-03-01

    Cortisol measurements of hair are becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in domestic dogs, we compared the variability of cortisol immunoreactivity in hair with that in saliva and feces of dogs housed under constant social and physical conditions. Fecal (n = 268), and hair (n = 21) samples were collected over 3 mo from 7 dogs housed in a kennel and kept for training veterinary students in minimally invasive procedures. Salivary samples (n = 181) were collected 3 times daily twice weekly during the last month of the study. Hair and salivary samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay and feces by radioimmunoassay. HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of cortisol in 3 hair samples. Variability of cortisol was compared across sample types by using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by paired t tests. Within dogs, cortisol immunoreactivity was less variable in hair than in saliva or feces. Averaged over time, the variability of fecal samples approached that of hair when feces were collected at least 4 times monthly. As predicted, the stable social and environmental condition of the dogs maintained repeatability over time and supported the hypothesis that data from hair samples reflect baseline cortisol levels. These findings indicate that determining cortisol immunoreactivity in hair is a more practical approach than is using samples of saliva or feces in monitoring the effects of long-term stressors such as social or physical environments and disease progression. PMID:23562104

  1. Hair as a Meaningful Measure of Baseline Cortisol Levels over Time in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M; Adams, Amanda G; Invik, Rosemary M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit EG

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol measurements of hair are becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in domestic dogs, we compared the variability of cortisol immunoreactivity in hair with that in saliva and feces of dogs housed under constant social and physical conditions. Fecal (n = 268), and hair (n = 21) samples were collected over 3 mo from 7 dogs housed in a kennel and kept for training veterinary students in minimally invasive procedures. Salivary samples (n = 181) were collected 3 times daily twice weekly during the last month of the study. Hair and salivary samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay and feces by radioimmunoassay. HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of cortisol in 3 hair samples. Variability of cortisol was compared across sample types by using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by paired t tests. Within dogs, cortisol immunoreactivity was less variable in hair than in saliva or feces. Averaged over time, the variability of fecal samples approached that of hair when feces were collected at least 4 times monthly. As predicted, the stable social and environmental condition of the dogs maintained repeatability over time and supported the hypothesis that data from hair samples reflect baseline cortisol levels. These findings indicate that determining cortisol immunoreactivity in hair is a more practical approach than is using samples of saliva or feces in monitoring the effects of long-term stressors such as social or physical environments and disease progression. PMID:23562104

  2. Analysis of associations with change in a multivariate outcome variable when baseline is subject to measurement error.

    PubMed

    Chambless, Lloyd E; Davis, Vicki

    2003-04-15

    A simple general algorithm is described for correcting for bias caused by measurement error in independent variables in multivariate linear regression. This algorithm, using standard software, is then applied to several approaches to the analysis of change from baseline as a function of baseline value of the outcome measure plus other covariates, any of which might have measurement error. The algorithm may also be used when the independent variables differ by component of the multivariate independent variable. Simulations indicate that under various conditions bias is much reduced, as is mean squared error, and coverage of 95 per cent confidence intervals is good. PMID:12652553

  3. Geodetic measurement of deformation in the Loma Prieta, California earthquake with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.A.; Ma, C.; Sauber, J.M.; Ryan, J.W. ); Gordon, D.; Caprette, D.S. ); Shaffer, D.B.; Vandenberg, N.R. )

    1990-07-01

    Following the Loma Prieta earthquake, two mobile Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) systems operated by the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project and the NOAA National Geodetic Survey were deployed at three previously established VLBI sites in the earthquake area: Fort Ord (near Monterey), the Presidio (in San Francisco) and Point Reyes. From repeated VLBI occupations of these sites since 1983, the pre-earthquake rates of deformation have been determined with respect to a North American reference frame with 1{sigma} formal standard errors of {approximately}1 mm/yr. The VLBI measurements immediately following the earthquake showed that the Fort Ord site was displaced 49 {plus minus} 4 mm at an azimuth of 11 {plus minus} 4{degree} and that the Presidio site was displaced 12 {plus minus} 5 mm at an azimuth of 148 {plus minus} 13{degree}. No anomalous change was detected at Point Reyes with 1{sigma} uncertainty of 4 mm. The estimated displacements at Fort Ord and the Presidio are consistent with the static displacements predicted on the basis of a coseismic slip model in which slip on the southern segment is shallower than slip on the more northern segment is shallower than slip on the more northern segment of the fault rupture. The authors also give the Cartesian positions at epoch 1990.0 of a set of VLBI fiducial stations and the three mobile sites in the vicinity of the earthquake.

  4. Displacements of the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading - Effects of gravity and baseline measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loads and deforms the earth's crust. By performing a convolution sum between daily, global barometric pressure data and mass loading Green's functions, the time dependent effects of atmospheric loading, including those associated with short-term synoptic storms, on surface point positioning measurements and surface gravity observations are estimated. The response for both an oceanless earth and an earth with an inverted barometer ocean is calculated. Load responses for near-coastal stations are significantly affected by the inclusion of an inverted barometer ocean. Peak-to-peak vertical displacements are frequently 15-20 mm with accompanying gravity perturbations of 3-6 micro Gal. Baseline changes can be as large as 20 mm or more. The perturbations are largest at higher latitudes and during winter months. These amplitudes are consistent with the results of Rabbel and Zschau (1985), who modeled synoptic pressure disturbances as Gaussian functions of radius around a central point. Deformation can be adequately computed using real pressure data from points within about 1000 km of the station. Knowledge of local pressure, alone, is not sufficient. Rabbel and Zschau's hypothesized corrections for these displacements, which use local pressure and the regionally averaged pressure, prove accurate at points well inland but are, in general, inadequate within a few hundred kilometers of the coast.

  5. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization. Groundwater geochemistry of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  6. Measuring health workers’ motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors to measure. Methods We assessed health worker motivation as part of the baseline assessment for a health system strengthening intervention in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention (Better Health Outcomes Through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA)) aims to increase health worker motivation through training, mentoring and support. We assessed motivation by examining underlying issues grouped around relevant outcome constructs such as job satisfaction, general motivation, burnout, organization commitment, conscientiousness and timeliness that collectively measure overall levels of motivation. The tools and the concepts have been used in high-income countries and they were recently applied in African settings to measure health worker motivation. Results Female participants had the highest motivation scores (female: mean 78.5 (SD 7.8) vs male: mean (SD 7.0)). By type of worker, nurses had the highest scores while environmental health technicians had the lowest score (77.4 (SD 7.8 vs 73.2 (SD 9.3)). Health workers who had been in post longer also had higher scores (>7 months). Health workers who had received some form of training in the preceding 12 months were more likely to have a higher score; this was also true for those older than 40 years when compared to those less than 40 years of age. The highest score values were noted in conscientiousness and timeliness, with all districts scoring above 80. Conclusions This study evaluated motivation among rural health workers using a simple adapted tool to measure the concept of motivation. Results showed variation in motivation score by sex, type of health

  7. Spectrum Resolving Power of Hearing: Measurements, Baselines, and Influence of Maskers

    PubMed Central

    Supin, Alexander Ya.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary methods of measurement of frequency resolving power in the auditory system are reviewed. Majority of classical methods are based on the frequency-selective masking paradigm and require multi-point measurements (a number of masked thresholds should be measured to obtain a single frequency-tuning estimate). Therefore, they are rarely used for practical needs. As an alternative approach, frequency-selective properties of the auditory system may be investigated using probes with complex frequency spectrum patterns, in particular, rippled noise that is characterized by a spectrum with periodically alternating maxima and minima. The maximal ripple density discriminated by the auditory system is a convenient measure of the spectrum resolving power (SRP). To find the highest resolvable ripple density, a phase-reversal test has been suggested. Using this technique, normal SRP, its dependence on probe center frequency, spectrum contrast, and probe level were measured. The results were not entirely predictable by frequency-tuning data obtained by masking methods. SRP is influenced by maskers, with on- and off-frequency maskers influencing SRP very differently. Dichotic separation of the probe and masker results in almost complete release of SRP from influence of maskers. PMID:26557320

  8. Spectrum Resolving Power of Hearing: Measurements, Baselines, and Influence of Maskers.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander Ya

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary methods of measurement of frequency resolving power in the auditory system are reviewed. Majority of classical methods are based on the frequency-selective masking paradigm and require multi-point measurements (a number of masked thresholds should be measured to obtain a single frequency-tuning estimate). Therefore, they are rarely used for practical needs. As an alternative approach, frequency-selective properties of the auditory system may be investigated using probes with complex frequency spectrum patterns, in particular, rippled noise that is characterized by a spectrum with periodically alternating maxima and minima. The maximal ripple density discriminated by the auditory system is a convenient measure of the spectrum resolving power (SRP). To find the highest resolvable ripple density, a phase-reversal test has been suggested. Using this technique, normal SRP, its dependence on probe center frequency, spectrum contrast, and probe level were measured. The results were not entirely predictable by frequency-tuning data obtained by masking methods. SRP is influenced by maskers, with on- and off-frequency maskers influencing SRP very differently. Dichotic separation of the probe and masker results in almost complete release of SRP from influence of maskers. PMID:26557320

  9. Aircraft Engine On-Line Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements: Development of a Baseline System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a baseline system which utilizes dual-channel sensor measurements for aircraft engine on-line diagnostics is developed. This system is composed of a linear on-board engine model (LOBEM) and fault detection and isolation (FDI) logic. The LOBEM provides the analytical third channel against which the dual-channel measurements are compared. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the FDI logic determines the cause of the discrepancy. Through this approach, the baseline system achieves the following objectives: (1) anomaly detection, (2) component fault detection, and (3) sensor fault detection and isolation. The performance of the baseline system is evaluated in a simulation environment using faults in sensors and components.

  10. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

  11. Geodetic and Astrometric Measurements with Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations for the estimation of geodetic and astrometric parameters is discussed. Analytic models for the dependence of delay and delay rate on these parameters are developed and used for parameter estimation by the method of weighted least squares. Results are presented from approximately 15,000 delay and delay-rate observations, obtained in a series of nineteen VLBI experiments involving a total of five stations on two continents. The closure of baseline triangles is investigated and found to be consistent with the scatter of the various baseline-component results. Estimates are made of the wobble of the earth's pole and of the irregularities in the earth's rotation rate. Estimates are also made of the precession constant and of the vertical Love number, for which a value of 0.55 + or - 0.05 was obtained.

  12. Implications of very long baseline interferometry measurements on North American intra-plate crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry experiments over the last 1-3/4 years between Owens Valley, CA and Haystack, MA Radio Observatories suggest an upper limit of east-west crustal deformation between the two sites of about 1 cm/yr. In view of the fact that the baseline between the two sites traverses most of the major geological provinces of the United States, this low rate of crustal deformation has direct relevance to intra-plate crustal tectonics. The most active region traversed by this baseline is the Basin and Range province, which was estimated by various researchers to be expanding in an east-west direction at rates of .3 to 1.5 cm/yr. The Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountain system also appear to be expanding, but at a somewhat lower rate, while east of the Rocky Mountains, the predominant stress appears to be compressional, nearly horizontal, and east to northeast trending.

  13. Broadband continuous-wave technique to measure baseline values and changes in the tissue chromophore concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Hadi Zabihi; Toronov, Vladislav; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2012-01-01

    We present a broad-band, continuous-wave spectral approach to quantify the baseline optical properties of tissue and changes in the concentration of a chromophore, which can assist to quantify the regional blood flow from dynamic contrast-enhanced near-infrared spectroscopy data. Experiments were conducted on phantoms and piglets. The baseline optical properties of tissue were determined by a multi-parameter wavelength-dependent data fit of a photon diffusion equation solution for a homogeneous medium. These baseline optical properties were used to find the changes in Indocyanine green concentration time course in the tissue. The changes were obtained by fitting the dynamic data at the peak wavelength of the chromophore absorption, which were used later to estimate the cerebral blood flow using a bolus tracking method. PMID:23162714

  14. Radioactivity in the Kuwait marine environment--Baseline measurements and review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Fowler, S W; Behbehani, M; Ismaeel, A; Al-Shammari, H; Alboloushi, A; Mietelski, J W; Al-Ghadban, A; Al-Ghunaim, A; Khabbaz, A; Alboloushi, O

    2015-11-30

    The Arabian Gulf region is moving towards a nuclear energy option with the first nuclear power plant now operational in Bushehr, Iran, and others soon to be constructed in Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. Radiological safety is becoming a prime concern in the region. This study compiles available data and presents recent radionuclide data for the northern Gulf waters, considered as pre-nuclear which will be a valuable dataset for future monitoring work in this region. Radionuclide monitoring in the marine environment is a matter of prime concern for Kuwait, and an assessment of the potential impact of radionuclides requires the establishment and regular updating of baseline levels of artificial and natural radionuclides in various environmental compartments. Here we present baseline measurements for (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (3)H in Kuwait waters. The seawater concentration of (3)H, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr vary between 130-146, 0.48-0.68, 0.75-0.89, 1.25-1.38 and 0.57-0.78 mBq L(-1), respectively. The (40)K concentration in seawater varies between 8.9-9.3 Bq L(-1). The concentration of (40)K, total (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (239+240)Pu and (238)Pu were determined in sediments and range, respectively, between 353-445, 23.6-44.3, 1.0-3.1, 4.8-5.29, 17.3-20.5, 15-16.4, 28.7-31.4, 1.26-1.30, 29.7-30.0, 0.045-0.21 and 0.028-0.03 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. Since, radionuclides are concentrated in marine biota, a large number of marine biota samples covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. The whole fish concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs, (210)Po and (90)Sr range between 230-447, 0.7-7.3, <0.5-6.6, <0.5-15.80, <0.17, 0.88-4.26 and 1.86-5.34 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. (210)Po was found to be highly concentrated in several marine organisms with the highest (210)Po concentration found in Marica marmorata (193.5-215.6 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). (210)Po in

  15. Estimation of CO2 baseline level using a statistical approach for near-road vehicle emission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka Chun; Ning, Zhi; Chan, Ka Lok

    2016-04-01

    Vehicle emission is widely accepted as one of the major air pollution problems in metropolitan. Many different experimental setups have been designed to measure the direct emission from vehicles in order to study their impact to local air quality. Near-road/roadside in-situ measurement is one of the most common methods for vehicle emission measurement, providing emission data of vehicle under real driving conditions. In addition, the measurement system can be fully automatized and provides a better way to collect vehicular emission data. Previous studies show that 5% of the total vehicles contribute 50% of the total vehicle emission. In this study, we use the roadside measurement data for the fuel-based emission factor calculation in order to identify heavy emitters. The emission factor calculation uses CO2 as an indicator for the fuel consumption rate. However, this measurement technique suffers from high detection limit and large uncertainty of the CO2 measurement. As a result, heavy emitters with low fuel consumption rate cannot be easily detected. A new data analysis algorithm is developed to estimate the CO2 baseline for near-road/roadside vehicle emission measurements. We investigated the error distribution of the CO2 measurement and use a statistical approach to identify the baseline levels. Our study provides an alternative solution for the CO2 concentration baseline calculation.

  16. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  17. [Establishing IAQ Metrics and Baseline Measures.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) IAQ Profile: Establishing Your Baseline for Long-Term Success (Feature Article); (3) Insight into Excellence: Belleville Township High School District #201, 2009 Leadership Award Winner; and (4) Have Your Questions…

  18. Baseline characterization of combustion products at the GRI (Gas Research Institute) conventional research house. Final report, October 1987-May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, N.P.; Ghassan, P.G.; Krug, E.K.

    1989-08-01

    The Gas Research Institute has arranged to conduct a series of experiments in an unoccupied research house to evaluate indoor air quality in relation to various space-conditioning systems and control strategies. Baseline trace combustion-product characterization experiments were completed, and a detailed analysis of experiment results was performed. Results of the baseline characterization and unvented space-heater experiments were compared with previously acquired data at other houses. Results show a low NO{sub 2} decay constant and a moderate infiltration rate. A blower door test and perfluorocarbon tracer gas experiments were also performed. Results of these experiments confirm an average to low infiltration rate for this house and are consistent with results obtained by the SF{sub 6} tracer decay method. Range hood experiments show effective capture of range emissions but poor capture of oven emissions, due to the location of the oven away from the range and hood. The emission rates of combustion products from the range, oven, and fan-forced unvented space heater were determined using a probe test and a hood test. Emission rates for appliances were within the expected range based on published results.

  19. Solar gravitational deflection of radio waves measured by very-long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Kent, S. M.; Knight, C. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Clark, T. A.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing a four-antenna technique, simultaneous observations were made, at each end of an 845-km baseline, of the radio sources 3C279 and 3C273B, which are 10 deg apart in the sky. Differences in interferometric phases at 3.7-cm wavelength monitored near the time of the 1972 occultation of 3C279 by the sun, yielded a gravitational deflection of 0.99 plus or minus 0.03 times the value predicted by general relativity, corresponding to gamma = 0.98 plus or minus 0.06 (standard error).

  20. O3, SO2, NO2, and UVB measurements in Beijing and Baseline Station of northwestern part of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Song; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Xiachun

    1994-01-01

    A MKII Brewer ozone spectrometer was used in Beijing from Oct. 1990 to June 1991 to measure O3, SO2 and UVB radiation. And since Nov. 1991 a new MKIV Brewer spectrometer, which can take the measurements of O3, SO2, NO2 and UVB radiation, has been set up in Beijing. The MKII Brewer spectrometer was moved to Qinghai baseline station which is on the Qinghai-tibetean plateau in the northwestern part of China. Both the data in Beijing and Qinghai baseline station has been analyzed and some results will be shown here along with the ozone profiles botained through the Umkehr program given by AES of Canada for the Brewer ozone spectrometer.

  1. Baseline groundwater chemistry characterization in an area of future Marcellus shale gas development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, P.; Zegre, N.; Edwards, P. J.; Strager, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recent increase in development of the Marcellus shale formation for natural gas in the mid-Atlantic can be attributed to advances in unconventional extraction methods, namely hydraulic fracturing, a process that uses water to pressurize and fracture relatively impermeable shale layers to release natural gas. In West Virginia, the Department of Energy estimates 95 to 105 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of expected ultimately recovery (EUR) of natural gas for this formation. With increased development of the Marcellus shale formation comes concerns for the potential of contamination to groundwater resources that serve as primary potable water sources for many rural communities. However, the impacts of this practice on water resources are poorly understood because of the lack of controlled pre versus post-drilling experiments attributed to the rapid development of this resource. To address the knowledge gaps of the potential impacts of Marcellus shale development on groundwater resources, a pre versus post-drilling study has been initiated by the USFS Fernow Experimental Forest in the Monongahela National Forest. Drilling is expected to start at three locations within the next year. Pre-drilling water samples were collected and analyzed from two groundwater wells, a shallow spring, a nearby lake, and river to characterize background water chemistry and identify potential end-members. Geochemical analysis includes major ions, methane, δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, 226Radium, and δ13C-DIC. In addition, a GIS-based conceptual ground water flow model was developed to identify possible interactions between shallow groundwater and natural gas wells given gas well construction failure. This model is used to guide management decisions regarding groundwater resources in an area of increasing shale gas development.

  2. The relationship, structure and profiles of schizophrenia measurements: a post-hoc analysis of the baseline measures from a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To fully assess the various dimensions affected by schizophrenia, clinical trials often include multiple scales measuring various symptom profiles, cognition, quality of life, subjective well-being, and functional impairment. In this exploratory study, we characterized the relationships among six clinical, functional, cognitive, and quality-of-life measures, identifying a parsimonious set of measurements. Methods We used baseline data from a randomized, multicenter study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder who were experiencing an acute symptom exacerbation (n = 628) to examine the relationship among several outcome measures. These measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding Test, Subjective Well-being Under Neuroleptics Scale Short Form (SWN-K), Schizophrenia Objective Functioning Instrument (SOFI), and Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Three analytic approaches were used: 1) path analysis; 2) factor analysis; and 3) categorical latent variable analysis. In the optimal path model, the SWN-K was selected as the final outcome, while the SOFI mediated the effect of the exogenous variables (PANSS, MADRS) on the QLS. Results The overall model explained 47% of variance in QLS and 17% of the variance in SOFI, but only 15% in SWN-K. Factor analysis suggested four factors: "Functioning," "Daily Living," "Depression," and "Psychopathology." A strong positive correlation was observed between the SOFI and QLS (r = 0.669), and both the QLS and SOFI loaded on the "Functioning" factor, suggesting redundancy between these scales. The measurement profiles from the categorical latent variable analysis showed significant variation in functioning and quality of life despite similar levels of psychopathology. Conclusions Researchers should consider collecting PANSS, SOFI, and SWN-K in

  3. Measuring rapid ocean tidal earth orientation variations with very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Jacobs, C. S.; Gross, R. S.

    1993-11-01

    Ocean tidal effects on universal time and polar motion (UTPM) are investigated at four nearly diurnal (K1, P1, O1, and Q1) and four nearly semidiurnal (K2, S2, M2, and N2) frequencies by analyzing very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data extending from 1978 to 1992. We discuss limitations of comparisons between experiment and theory for the retrograde nearly diurnal polar motion components due to their degeneracy with prograde components of the nutation model. Estimating amplitudes of contributions to the modeled VLBI observables at these eight frequencies produces a statistically highly significant improvement of 7 mm to the residuals of a fit to the observed delays. Use of such an improved UTPM model also reduces the 14-30 mm scatter of baseline lengths about a time-linear model of tectonic motion by 3-14 mm, also with high significance levels. A total of 28 UTPM ocean tidal amplitudes can be unambiguously estimated from the data, with resulting UT1 and PM magnitudes as large as 21 μs and 270 microarc seconds (μas) and formal uncertainties of the order of 0.3 μs and 5 μas for UTI and PM, respectively. Empirically determined UTPM amplitudes and phases are compared to values calculated theoretically by Gross from Seiler's global ocean tide model. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is larger by a factor of 3 for UT1 amplitudes (9 μs) than for prograde PM amplitudes (42 μas). The 14-year VLBI data span strongly attenuates the influence of mismodeled effects on estimated UTPM amplitudes and phases that are not coherent with the eight frequencies of interest. Magnitudes of coherent and quasi-coherent systematic errors are quantified by means of internal consistency tests. We conclude that coherent systematic effects are many times larger than the formal uncertainties and can be as large as 4 μs for UT1 and 60 μas for polar motion. On the basis of such realistic error estimates, 22 of the 31 fitted UTPM ocean tidal amplitudes differ from zero by

  4. Measuring rapid ocean tidal earth orientation variations with very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Jacobs, C. S.; Gross, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Ocean tidal effects on universal time and polar motion (UTPM) are investigated at four nearly diurnal (K(sub 1), P(sub 1), O(sub 1), and Q(sub 1)) and four nearly semidiurnal (K(sub 2), S(sub 2), M(sub 2), and N(sub 2)) frequencies by analyzing very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data extending from 1978 to 1992. We discuss limitations of comparisons between experiment and theory for the retograde nearly diurnal polar motion components due to their degeneracy with prograde components of the nutation model. Estimating amplitudes of contributions to the modeled VLBI observables at these eight frequencies produces a statistically highly significant improvement of 7 mm to the residuals of a fit to the observed delays. Use of such an improved UTPM model also reduces the 14-30 mm scatter of baseline lengths about a time-linear model of tectonic motion by 3-14 mm, also withhigh significance levels. A total of 28 UTPM ocean tidal amplitudes can be unambiguously estimated from the data, with resulting UTI and PM magnitudes as large as 21 micro secs and 270 microarc seconds and formal uncertainties of the order of 0.3 micro secs and 5 microarc secs for UTI and PM, respectively. Empirically determined UTPM amplitudes and phases are com1pared to values calculated theoretically by Gross from Seiler's global ocean tide model. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is larger by a factor of 3 for UTI amplitudes (9 micro secs) than for prograde PM amplitudes (42 microarc secs). The 14-year VLBI data span strongly attenuates the influence of mismodeled effects on estimated UTPM amplitudes and phases that are not coherent with the eight frequencies of interest. Magnitudes of coherent and quasi-coherent systematic errors are quantified by means of internal consistency tests. We conclude that coherent systematic effects are many times larger than the formal uncertainties and can be as large as 4 micro secs for UTI and 60 microarc secs for polar motion. On the basis of such

  5. Hot Exozodiacal Dust Disks, their Detection and Variability, as Measured with Long-Baseline Optical Interferometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Nicholas Jon

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared long-baseline optical interferometry has provided the first unambiguous resolved detections of hot dust around main sequence stars (Absil et al. 2006). This showed that an unexpectedly dense population of (sub)micrometer dust grains close exists to their sublimation temperature of approximately 1400K. A later survey (Absil et al. 2013) revealed that these "hot exozodiacal disks" are relatively common around spectral type A-K stars. Current models of circumstellar debris disks suggest that in the inner region, within 1 AU, of the disk the timescale for complete removal of submicron dust is on the order of a few years (Wyatt 2008). The presence of dust close to the star is surprising because most cold debris belts detected are collisionally dominated. Mutual collisions grind the dust down to the size where radiation pressure pushes the dust out before Poynting-Robertson drag has a chance to pull the dust inward. Competing models exist to explain the persistence of this dust; some of which suggest that dust production is a punctuated and chaotic process fueled by asteroid collisions and comet infall that would show variability on timescales of a few years.High precision long-baseline interferometry observations in the K-band with the FLUOR (Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination) beam combiner at the CHARA (Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy) Array provided the data for these exozodiacal dust detections. This original instrument has undergone upgrades as part of JouFLU (Jouvence of FLUOR) project. The new instrument has been used to expand the original survey and to re-observe stars from the previous exozodiacal disk survey to search for predicted variations in the detected disks. We have found evidence that for some systems the amount of circumstellar flux from these previously detected exozodiacal disks, or exozodis, has varied greatly. The flux from some exozodis has increased, others decreased, and for a few the amount has remained

  6. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  7. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE QUASAR 3C 279 MEASURED WITH 1.3 mm VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Honma, Mareki; Algaba, Juan C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Matt; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Chamberlin, Richard; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark A.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Loinard, Laurent; and others

    2013-07-20

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of {approx}1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign ), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of {approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 {mu}as (5-7 light months) resolution.

  8. Fine-scale Structure of the Quasar 3C 279 Measured with 1.3 mm Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ru-Sen; Fish, Vincent L.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Algaba, Juan C.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Chamberlin, Richard; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J.; Dexter, Matt; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark A.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Loinard, Laurent; MacMahon, David; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Moran, James M.; Plambeck, Richard; Pradel, Nicolas; Primiani, Rurik; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2013-07-01

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of ~1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127° ± 3°), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of ~8 × 1010 K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 μas (5-7 light months) resolution.

  9. Measurement Characteristics of the Stages of Concerns Questionnaire (SoCQ) during Baseline Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jibaja-Rusth, Maria; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal consistency reliability of the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ) when the measure is administered to naive subjects as a pretest. The SoCQ was developed by G. E. Hall, A. A. George, and W. L. Rutherford (1979/1986). In the present study, the SoCQ was administered to secondary school…

  10. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    PubMed

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement. PMID:25257093

  11. Genotypic Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered at Baseline from Phase 3 Pneumonia Clinical Trials for Ceftobiprole

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Lalitagauri M.; Costello, Andrew J.; Farrell, David J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Flamm, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Baseline methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients with nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia collected during Phase 3 trials for ceftobiprole were characterized. Eighty-four unique isolates from patients enrolled in Europe (50.0%), Asia-Western Pacific region (APAC; 20.2%), North America (19.0%), Latin America (8.3%), and South Africa (2.4%) were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and isolates screened for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. SCCmec and agr types were determined. Strains were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing. Clonal complexes (CCs) were assigned based on spa and/or multilocus sequence typing. Most isolates were CC5-MRSA-I/II/IV (44.0%; 37/84), followed by CC8-MRSA-IV (22.6%; 19/84) and CC239-MRSA-III (21.4%; 18/84). Other MRSA formed seven clonal clusters. Isolates from North America were associated with USA100, while those from South America belonged to the Cordobes/Chilean CC. A greater clonal diversity was observed in Europe; however, each country had CC5, CC8, or CC239 as prevalent lineages. Isolates from APAC were CC5-MRSA-II (47.1%; 8/17) or CC239-MRSA-III (47.1%; 8/17). Isolates carrying SCCmec I and III had ceftobiprole MIC50 values of 2 μg/ml, while those isolates with SCCmec II and IV had MIC50 values of 1 μg/ml. Ceftobiprole inhibited 96% and 100.0% of the isolates at ≤2 and ≤4 μg/ml, respectively. These isolates represented common circulating MRSA clones. Ceftobiprole demonstrated in vitro activity with a slight variation of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) according to SCCmec or clonal type. PMID:26230870

  12. BASELINE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Baseline Assessment is a project to collect data on environmental conditions in Indian country from existing data sources using a geographic enabling system called the Oracle Spatial Data Cartridge.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:None
    S...

  13. Characterization of site-specific GPS errors using a short-baseline network of braced monuments at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Emma M.; Davis, James L.; Elósegui, Pedro; Wernicke, Brian P.; Malikowski, Eric; Niemi, Nathan A.

    2009-11-01

    We use a short-baseline network of braced monuments to investigate site-specific GPS effects. The network has baseline lengths of ˜10, 100, and 1000 m. Baseline time series have root mean square (RMS) residuals, about a model for the seasonal cycle, of 0.05-0.24 mm for the horizontal components and 0.20-0.72 mm for the radial. Seasonal cycles occur, with amplitudes of 0.04-0.60 mm, even for the horizontal components and even for the shortest baselines. For many time series these lag seasonal cycles in local temperature measurements by 23-43 days. This could suggest that they are related to bedrock thermal expansion. Both shorter-period signals and seasonal cycles for shorter baselines to REP2, the one short-braced monument in our network, are correlated with temperature, with no lag time. Differences between REP2 and the other stations, which are deep-braced, should reflect processes occurring in the upper few meters of the ground. These correlations may be related to thermal expansion of these upper ground layers, and/or thermal expansion of the monuments themselves. Even over these short distances we see a systematic increase in RMS values with increasing baseline length. This, and the low RMS levels, suggests that site-specific effects are unlikely to be the limiting factor in the use of similar GPS sites for geophysical investigations.

  14. Baseline measurements of ethene in 2002: Implications for increased ethanol use and biomass burning on air quality and ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.; Blake, Donald R.

    2012-09-01

    While it is well known that combustion of ethanol as a biofuel will lead to enhanced emissions of methane, ethene (ethylene), acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and oxides of nitrogen (primarily NO) when compared to gasoline alone, especially during cold starts or if catalytic converters are not operating properly, the impacts of increases in atmospheric ethene levels from combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content has not received much attention. Ethene is a well known and potent plant growth hormone and exposure to agricultural crops and natural vegetation results in yield reductions especially when combined with higher levels of PAN and ozone also expected from the increased use of ethanol/gasoline blends. We report here some baseline measurements of ethene obtained in 2002 in the southwestern and south central United States. These data indicate that current ethene background levels are less than 1 ppb. Anticipated increases in fuel ethanol content of E30 or greater is expected to lead to higher atmospheric levels of ethene on regional scales due to its atmospheric lifetime of 1.5-3 days. These background measurements are discussed in light of the potential enhancement of ethene levels expected from the anticipated increases in ethanol use as a renewable biofuel.

  15. Baseline OCT Measurements in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial, Part II: Correlations and Relationship to Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The accepted method to evaluate and monitor papilledema, Frisén grading, uses an ordinal approach based on descriptive features. Part I showed that spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a clinical trial setting provides reliable measurement of the effects of papilledema on the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary retina, particularly if a 3-D segmentation method is used for analysis.1 We evaluated how OCT parameters are interrelated and how they correlate with vision and other clinical features in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients. Methods. A total of 126 subjects in the IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) OCT substudy had Cirrus SD-OCT optic disc and macula scans analyzed by using a 3-D segmentation algorithm to derive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, total retinal thickness (TRT), retinal ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness, and ONH volume. The SD-OCT parameter values were correlated with high- and low-contrast acuity, perimetric mean deviation, Frisén grading, and IIH features. Results. At study entry, the average RNFL thickness, TRT, and ONH volume showed significant strong correlations (r ≥ 0.90) with each other. The same OCT parameters showed a strong (r > 0.76) correlation with Frisén grade and a mild (r > 0.24), but significant, correlation with lumbar puncture opening pressure. For all eyes at baseline, neither visual acuity (high or low contrast) nor mean deviation correlated with any OCT measure of swelling or GCL+IPL thickness. Conclusions. In newly diagnosed IIH, OCT demonstrated alterations of the peripapillary retina and ONH correlate with Frisén grading of papilledema. At presentation, OCT measures of papilledema, in patients with newly diagnosed IIH and mild vision loss, do not correlate with clinical features or visual dysfunction. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.) PMID:25370513

  16. Dielectric Constant Measurements for Characterizing Lunar Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert C.; Buehler, M.; Seshadri, S.; Kuhlman, G.; Schaap, M.

    2005-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using fast, reliable in-situ methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils can be very difficult because of the many complex parameters that influence the measurements. In particular, soil electrical property measurements are influenced by temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. Determining the dielectric constant of lunar materials may be very important in providing quick characterization of surface deposits, especially for the Moon. A close examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that the rocks and soils on the Moon are dominated by silicates and oxides. In this presentation, we will show that determining the dielectric constant measurements can provide a simple, quick detection method for minerals that contain titanium, iron, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  17. Precision measurement of solar neutrino oscillation parameters by a long-baseline reactor neutrino experiment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcov, S. T.; Schwetz, T.

    2006-11-01

    We consider the determination of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters Δm212 and θ12 by studying oscillations of reactor anti-neutrinos emitted by nuclear power plants (located mainly in France) with a detector installed in the Frejus underground laboratory. The performances of a water Čerenkov detector of 147 kt fiducial mass doped with 0.1% of gadolinium (MEMPHYS-Gd) and of a 50 kt scale liquid scintillator detector (LENA) are compared. In both cases 3σ uncertainties below 3% on Δm212 and of about 20% on sin2θ12 can be obtained after one year of data taking. The gadolinium doped Super-Kamiokande detector (SK-Gd) in Japan can reach a similar precision if the SK/MEMPHYS fiducial mass ratio of 1 to 7 is compensated by a longer SK-Gd data taking time. Several years of reactor neutrino data collected by MEMPHYS-Gd or LENA would allow a determination of Δm212 and sin2θ12 with uncertainties of approximately 1% and 10% at 3σ, respectively. These accuracies are comparable to those that can be reached in the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters Δm312 and sin2θ23 in long-baseline superbeam experiments.

  18. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  19. Baseline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1992-01-01

    This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

  20. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively ''intra-atmospheric satellites'' but likely have serial

  1. Error estimation for delta VLBI angle and angle rate measurements over baselines between a ground station and a geosynchronous orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    Baselines between a ground station and a geosynchronous orbiter provide high resolution Delta VLBI data which is beyond the capability of ground-based interferometry. The effects of possible error sources on such Delta VLBI data for the determination of spacecraft angle and angle rate are investigated. For comparison, the effects on spacecraft-only VLBI are also studied.

  2. Measurement and characterization techniques for thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tritt, T.M.

    1997-07-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric materials can pose many problems. A temperature difference can be established across these materials as an electrical current is passed due to the Peltier effect. The thermopower of these materials is quite large and thus large thermal voltages can contribute to many of the measurements necessary to investigate these materials. This paper will discuss the chracterization techniques necessary to investigate these materials and provide an overview of some of the potential systematic errors which can arise. It will also discuss some of the corrections one needs to consider. This should provide an introduction to the characterization and measurement of thermoelectric materials and provide references for a more in depth discussion of the concepts. It should also serve as an indication of the care that must be taken while working with thermoelectric materials.

  3. Optical Measurement Technique for Space Column Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Watson, Judith J.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Phelps, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A simple optical technique for the structural characterization of lightweight space columns is presented. The technique is useful for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion during cool down as well as the induced strain during tension and compression testing. The technique is based upon object-to-image plane scaling and does not require any photogrammetric calibrations or computations. Examples of the measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion are presented for several lightweight space columns. Examples of strain measured during tension and compression testing are presented along with comparisons to results obtained with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) position transducers.

  4. MARBLE (Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometry for Baseline Length Evaluation): Development of a Compact VLBI System for Calibrating GNSS and Electronic Distance Measurement Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, R.; Ishii, A.; Takiguchi, H.; Kimura, M.; Sekido, M.; Takefuji, K.; Ujihara, H.; Hanado, Y.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Kawabata, R.; Nozawa, K.; Mukai, Y.; Kuroda, J.; Ishihara, M.; Matsuzaka, S.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a compact VLBI system with a 1.6-m diameter aperture dish in order to provide reference baseline lengths for calibration. The reference baselines are used to validate surveying instruments such as GPS and EDM and is maintained by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). The compact VLBI system will be installed at both ends of the reference baseline. Since the system is not sensitive enough to detect fringes between the two small dishes, we have designed a new observation concept including one large dish station. We can detect two group delays between each compact VLBI system and the large dish station based on conventional VLBI measurement. A group delay between the two compact dishes can be indirectly calculated using a simple equation. We named the idea "Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometry for Baseline Length Evaluation", or MARBLE system. The compact VLBI system is easy transportable and consists of the compact dish, a new wide-band front-end system, azimuth and elevation drive units, an IF down-converter unit, an antenna control unit (ACU), a counterweight, and a monument pillar. Each drive unit is equipped with a zero-backlash harmonic drive gearing component. A monument pillar is designed to mount typical geodetic GNSS antennas easily and an offset between the GNSS antenna reference point. The location of the azimuth-elevation crossing point of the VLBI system is precisely determined with an uncertainty of less than 0.2 mm. We have carried out seven geodetic VLBI experiments on the Kashima-Tsukuba baseline (about 54 km) using the two prototypes of the compact VLBI system between December 2009 and December 2010. The average baseline length and repeatability of the experiments is 54184874.0 ± 2.4 mm. The results are well consistent with those obtained by GPS measurements. In addition, we are now planning to use the compact VLBI system for precise time and frequency comparison between separated locations.

  5. Fuzzy similarity measures for ultrasound tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emara, Salem M.; Badawi, Ahmed M.; Youssef, Abou-Bakr M.

    1995-03-01

    Computerized ultrasound tissue characterization has become an objective means for diagnosis of diseases. It is difficult to differentiate diffuse liver diseases, namely cirrhotic and fatty liver from a normal one, by visual inspection from the ultrasound images. The visual criteria for differentiating diffused diseases is rather confusing and highly dependent upon the sonographer's experience. The need for computerized tissue characterization is thus justified to quantitatively assist the sonographer for accurate differentiation and to minimize the degree of risk from erroneous interpretation. In this paper we used the fuzzy similarity measure as an approximate reasoning technique to find the maximum degree of matching between an unknown case defined by a feature vector and a family of prototypes (knowledge base). The feature vector used for the matching process contains 8 quantitative parameters (textural, acoustical, and speckle parameters) extracted from the ultrasound image. The steps done to match an unknown case with the family of prototypes (cirr, fatty, normal) are: Choosing the membership functions for each parameter, then obtaining the fuzzification matrix for the unknown case and the family of prototypes, then by the linguistic evaluation of two fuzzy quantities we obtain the similarity matrix, then by a simple aggregation method and the fuzzy integrals we obtain the degree of similarity. Finally, we find that the similarity measure results are comparable to the neural network classification techniques and it can be used in medical diagnosis to determine the pathology of the liver and to monitor the extent of the disease.

  6. Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to evaluate thermal radiation propagation from partially enclosed nozzle surfaces, an experimental benchmark test case was developed for code comparison. This paper briefly describes the nozzle test rig and the developed analytical nozzle geometry used to compare the experimental and predicted thermal radiation results. A major objective of this effort was to make available the experimental results and the analytical model in a format to facilitate conversion to existing computer code formats. For code validation purposes this nozzle geometry represents one validation case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages based on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single nozzle baseline validation case can be limited for some code comparisons.

  7. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  8. Fluorescent nanosensors for intracellular measurements: synthesis, characterization, calibration, and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Arpan S.; Chauhan, Veeren M.; Johnston, Angus P. R.; Esler, Tim; Aylott, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of intracellular acidification is important for understanding fundamental biological pathways as well as developing effective therapeutic strategies. Fluorescent pH nanosensors are an enabling technology for real-time monitoring of intracellular acidification. The physicochemical characteristics of nanosensors can be engineered to target specific cellular compartments and respond to external stimuli. Therefore, nanosensors represent a versatile approach for probing biological pathways inside cells. The fundamental components of nanosensors comprise a pH-sensitive fluorophore (signal transducer) and a pH-insensitive reference fluorophore (internal standard) immobilized in an inert non-toxic matrix. The inert matrix prevents interference of cellular components with the sensing elements as well as minimizing potentially harmful effects of some fluorophores on cell function. Fluorescent nanosensors are synthesized using standard laboratory equipment and are detectable by non-invasive widely accessible imaging techniques. The outcomes of studies employing this technology are dependent on reliable methodology for performing measurements. In particular, special consideration must be given to conditions for sensor calibration, uptake conditions and parameters for image analysis. We describe procedures for: (1) synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide and silica based nanosensors, (2) nanosensor calibration and (3) performing measurements using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:24474936

  9. Increasing the Accuracy in the Measurement of the Minor Isotopes of Uranium: Care in Selection of Reference Materials, Baselines and Detector Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poths, J.; Koepf, A.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    The minor isotopes of uranium (U-233, U-234, U-236) are increasingly useful for tracing a variety of processes: movement of anthropogenic nuclides in the environment (ref 1), sources of uranium ores (ref 2), and nuclear material attribution (ref 3). We report on improved accuracy for U-234/238 and U-236/238 by supplementing total evaporation protocol TIMS measurement on Faraday detectors (ref 4)with multiplier measurement for the minor isotopes. Measurement of small signals on Faraday detectors alone is limited by noise floors of the amplifiers and accurate measurement of the baseline offsets. The combined detector approach improves the reproducibility to better than ±1% (relative) for the U-234/238 at natural abundance, and yields a detection limit for U-236/U-238 of <0.2 ppm. We have quantified contribution of different factors to the uncertainties associated with these peak jumping measurement on a single detector, with an aim of further improvement. The uncertainties in the certified values for U-234 and U-236 in the uranium standard NBS U005, if used for mass bias correction, dominates the uncertainty in their isotopic ratio measurements. Software limitations in baseline measurement drives the detection limit for the U-236/U-238 ratio. This is a topic for discussion with the instrument manufacturers. Finally, deviation from linearity of the response of the electron multiplier with count rate limits the accuracy and reproducibility of these minor isotope measurements. References: (1) P. Steier et al(2008) Nuc Inst Meth(B), 266, 2246-2250. (2) E. Keegan et al (2008) Appl Geochem 23, 765-777. (3) K. Mayer et al (1998) IAEA-CN-98/11, in Advances in Destructive and Non-destructive Analysis for Environmental Monitoring and Nuclear Forensics. (4) S. Richter and S. Goldberg(2003) Int J Mass Spectrom, 229, 181-197.

  10. Correlation of the CME Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ron L.; Gary, G. Allen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images, it is known qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions in which the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. In this paper, we present measurements from active-region vector magnetograms that begin to quantify the dependence of the CME productivity of an active region on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we obtain a measure of the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three different measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line; I(sub N), the net electric current arching from one polarity to the other; and alpha = muI(subN/phi), a flux-normalized measure of the field twist).

  11. Measuring sin2θw in PV-DIS with the Baseline Spectrometers at JLab 12 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, Paul

    2007-07-18

    The couplings of leptons to quarks are fundamental parameters of the electroweak interaction. Within the framework of the Standard Model, these couplings can be related to sin2θw. Parity violation (PV) in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is proportional to these couplings and hence sensitive sin2θw. PV-DIS, first measured at SLAC in the mid-1970's, was used to establish the Standard Model. The high quality and intensity of the upgraded 11 GeV CEBAF beam at Jefferson Laboratory will make it an ideal tool for PV studies. In DIS the asymmetry from parity violation is large (APV ≈10-4 Q2), allowing precise measurements with modest beam-time. This talk will explore a PV-DIS measurement which can be made using the baseline spectrometers that will exist as part of the 12 GeV JLab upgrade.

  12. Assessment of What/For What? Teachers' and Head Teachers' Views on Using Well-Being and Involvement as a Screening Measure for Conducting Baseline Assessment on School Entry in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Sofia; Howe, Sally; Clausen, Sigrid Brogaard; Cottle, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Baseline assessment has recently been trialled as part of an accountability measure in English primary schools. The research presented in this colloquium examines the views of teachers related to using well-being and involvement indicators as a starting point for baseline assessment. The findings suggest that the focus on well-being was welcomed…

  13. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow baseline and suppressor nozzles. Volume 2: Forward speed effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A model scale flight effects test was conducted in the 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to investigate the effect of aircraft forward speed on single flow jet noise characteristics. The models tested included a 15.24 cm baseline round convergent nozzle, a 20-lobe and annular nozzle with and without lined ejector shroud, and a 57-tube nozzle with a lined ejector shroud. Nozzle operating conditions covered jet velocities from 412 to 640 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K. Wind tunnel speeds were varied from near zero to 91.5 m/s. Measurements were analyzed to (1) determine apparent jet noise source location including effects of ambient velocity; (2) verify a technique for extrapolating near field jet noise measurements into the far field; (3) determine flight effects in the near and far field for baseline and suppressor nozzles; and (4) establish the wind tunnel as a means of accurately defining flight effects for model nozzles and full scale engines.

  14. Establishing baseline data for an experimental appratus that measures heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and flow. M. S. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, C.E.

    1993-05-01

    Mathematical correlations for predicting heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and flow are in their developmental infancy. Such heat transfer is commonly found in reciprocating machinery such as internal combustion engines, gas springs, and Stirling cycle engines. In order to understand and improve the thermodynamic performance of reciprocal engines, it is necessary that mathematical correlations be developed that accurately predict heat loss through the walls of the components within these systems. A heat transfer apparatus has been built that models the oscillating flow of a gas in a pipe as found in the regenerator of a Stirling engine. The apparatus is capable of measuring stream temperature and velocity at any point across the diameter of the pipe, the wall temperature, gas pressure, and gas to wall heat flux. This work addresses the collection of baseline heat transfer data for this apparatus under conditions of oscillating flow and pressure by (1) explaining the addition of a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure stream velocities, (2) investigating velocity profiles within the test section as the flow oscillates, and (3) recording and analyzing baseline heat transfer data. Results show a close correlation between the phase angle between the two compressors mounted at each end of the test section and the complex-valued Nusselt number that has been derived.

  15. Evaluation of multi-modal, multi-site neuroimaging measures in Huntington's disease: Baseline results from the PADDINGTON study☆

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Nicola Z.; Cole, James H.; Farmer, Ruth E.; Rees, Elin M.; Crawford, Helen E.; Malone, Ian B.; Roos, Raymund A.C.; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Durr, Alexandra; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I.; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Frost, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background Macro- and micro-structural neuroimaging measures provide valuable information on the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD) and are proposed as biomarkers. Despite theoretical advantages of microstructural measures in terms of sensitivity to pathology, there is little evidence directly comparing the two. Methods 40 controls and 61 early HD subjects underwent 3 T MRI (T1- and diffusion-weighted), as part of the PADDINGTON study. Macrostructural volumetrics were obtained for the whole brain, caudate, putamen, corpus callosum (CC) and ventricles. Microstructural diffusion metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean-, radial- and axial-diffusivity (MD, RD, AD) were computed for white matter (WM), CC, caudate and putamen. Group differences were examined adjusting for age, gender and site. A formal comparison of effect sizes determined which modality and metrics provided a statistically significant advantage over others. Results Macrostructural measures showed decreased regional and global volume in HD (p < 0.001); except the ventricles which were enlarged (p < 0.01). In HD, FA was increased in the deep grey-matter structures (p < 0.001), and decreased in the WM (CC, p = 0.035; WM, p = 0.053); diffusivity metrics (MD, RD, AD) were increased for all brain regions (p < 0.001). The largest effect sizes were for putamen volume, caudate volume and putamen diffusivity (AD, RD and MD); each was significantly larger than those for all other metrics (p < 0.05). Conclusion The highest performing macro- and micro-structural metrics had similar sensitivity to HD pathology quantified via effect sizes. Region-of-interest may be more important than imaging modality, with deep grey-matter regions outperforming the CC and global measures, for both volume and diffusivity. FA appears to be relatively insensitive to disease effects. PMID:24179770

  16. In vivo baseline measurements of hip joint range of motion in suspensory and non-suspensory anthropoids

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ashley S.

    2014-01-01

    Hominoids and atelines are known to use suspensory behaviors and are assumed to possess greater hip joint mobility than non-suspensory monkeys, particularly for range of abduction. This assumption has greatly influenced how extant and fossil primate hip joint morphology has been interpreted, despite the fact that there are no data available on hip mobility in hominoids or Ateles. This study uses in vivo measurements to test the hypothesis that suspensory anthropoids have significantly greater ranges of hip joint mobility than non-suspensory anthropoids. Passive hip joint mobility was measured on a large sample of anesthetized captive anthropoids (non-human hominids=43, hylobatids=6, cercopithecids=43, Ateles=6, Cebus=6). Angular and linear data were collected using goniometers and tape measures. Range of motion data were analyzed for significant differences by locomotor group using ANOVA and phylogenetic regression. The data demonstrate that suspensory anthropoids are capable of significantly greater hip abduction and external rotation. Degree of flexion and internal rotation were not larger in the suspensory primates, indicating that suspension is not associated with a global increase in hip mobility. Future work should consider the role of external rotation in abduction ability, how the physical position of the distal limb segments are influenced by differences in range of motion proximally, as well as focus on bony and soft tissue differences that enable or restrict abduction and external rotation at the anthropoid hip joint. PMID:24288178

  17. Baseline OCT Measurements in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial, Part I: Quality Control, Comparisons, and Variability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to investigate papilledema in single-site, mostly retrospective studies. We investigated whether spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), which provides thickness and volume measurements of the optic nerve head and retina, could reliably demonstrate structural changes due to papilledema in a prospective multisite clinical trial setting. Methods. At entry, 126 subjects in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) with mild visual field loss had optic disc and macular scans, using the Cirrus SD-OCT. Images were analyzed by using the proprietary commercial and custom 3D-segmentation algorithms to calculate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), total retinal thickness (TRT), optic nerve head volume (ONHV), and retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness. We evaluated variability, with interocular comparison and correlation between results for both methods. Results. The average RNFL thickness > 95% of normal controls in 90% of eyes and the RNFL, TRT, ONH height, and ONHV showed strong (r > 0.8) correlations for interocular comparisons. Variability for repeated testing of OCT parameters was low for both methods and intraclass correlations > 0.9 except for the proprietary GCL thickness. The proprietary algorithm–derived RNFL, TRT, and GCL thickness measurements had failure rates of 10%, 16%, and 20% for all eyes respectively, which were uncommon with 3D-segmentation–derived measurements. Only 7% of eyes had GCL thinning that was less than fifth percentile of normal age-matched control eyes by both methods. Conclusions. Spectral-domain OCT provides reliable continuous variables and quantified assessment of structural alterations due to papilledema. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.) PMID:25370510

  18. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  19. Geodynamical Processes between Antarctica and India as revealed by very long baselines between the continents estimated from continuous and long-term GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, R.; Ec, M.; Akilan, A.

    2006-12-01

    To holistically understand the geodynamical and crustal deformation processes in the south of Indian peninsula between India and Antarctica, two global networks have been chosen that geodetically connect the two continents, the IGS Station at Diego Garcia (DGAR) being the common station between the two networks. 8 years of data from 1997 to 2005 were used. Very long baselines have been estimated from HYDE to other chosen IGS stations in and around India including DGAR. Similarly in the other network, very long baselines have been estimated from Kerguelen to other stations in and around Antarctica again including DGAR. Since the baseline length between HYDE, India and MAITRI, Antarctica is more than 10,000 km, it is mandatory to form these two different networks to improve the accuracy of the baseline measurements by GPS. This is to circumvent the limitation in the estimation of maximum base line length by GPS is of 6,900 km only due to the availability of less number of double difference observables in the GPS data analysis. Our analysis and results show increase of baseline lengths between Kerguelen in Antarctic plate and other stations and shortening of baseline lengths between HYDE in Indian plate and other common stations. By this global network analyses, the stations HYDE and MAITRI are geodetically tied through DGAR. With this geodetic tie up, having got the first geodetic signatures of the geodynamical processes between India and Antarctica, continuous monitoring and estimation would help enhancing the understanding the crustal deformation processes between these two continents despite many plates, micro plates and ridges in this study region.These estimations reveal clearly that the stations in the Australian plate are moving away from the Indian plate conforming to the recent Plate tectonic theory that India and Australia lie in two different plates with a diffuse boundary separating them. GPS derived velocity vectors for the Australian Plate also

  20. Randomization, matching, and propensity scores in the design and analysis of experimental studies with measured baseline covariates.

    PubMed

    Loux, Travis M

    2015-02-20

    In many experimental situations, researchers have information on a number of covariates prior to randomization. This information can be used to balance treatment assignment with respect to these covariates as well as in the analysis of the outcome data. In this paper, we investigate the use of propensity scores in both of these roles. We also introduce a randomization procedure in which the balance of all measured covariates is approximately indexed by the variance of the empirical propensity scores and randomization is restricted to those permutations with the least variable propensity scores. This procedure is compared with recently proposed methods in terms of resulting covariate balance and estimation efficiency. Properties of the estimators resulting from each procedure are compared with estimates which incorporate the propensity score in the analysis stage. Simulation results show that analytical adjustment for the propensity score yields results on par with those obtained through restricted randomization procedures and can be used in conjunction with such procedures to further improve inferential efficiency. PMID:25384851

  1. Characterization of measurements in quantum communication. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, V. W. S.

    1975-01-01

    A characterization of quantum measurements by operator valued measures is presented. The generalized measurements include simultaneous approximate measurement of noncommuting observables. This characterization is suitable for solving problems in quantum communication. Two realizations of such measurements are discussed. The first is by adjoining an apparatus to the system under observation and performing a measurement corresponding to a self-adjoint operator in the tensor-product Hilbert space of the system and apparatus spaces. The second realization is by performing, on the system alone, sequential measurements that correspond to self-adjoint operators, basing the choice of each measurement on the outcomes of previous measurements. Simultaneous generalized measurements are found to be equivalent to a single finer grain generalized measurement, and hence it is sufficient to consider the set of single measurements. An alternative characterization of generalized measurement is proposed. It is shown to be equivalent to the characterization by operator-values measures, but it is potentially more suitable for the treatment of estimation problems. Finally, a study of the interaction between the information-carrying system and a measurement apparatus provides clues for the physical realizations of abstractly characterized quantum measurements.

  2. The use of baseline measurements and geophysical models for the estimation of crustal deformations and the terrestrial reference system. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Four possible estimators are investigated for the monitoring of crustal deformations from a combination of repeated baseline length measurements and adopted geophysical models, particularly an absolute motion plate model. The first estimator is an extension of the familiar free adjustment. The next two are Bayesian type estimators, one weak and one strong. Finally, a weighted constraint estimator is presented. The properties of these four estimators are outlined and their physical interpretations discussed. A series of simulations are performed to test the four estimators and to determine whether or not to incorporate a plate model for the monitoring of deformations. The application of these estimations to the maintenance of a new conventional terrestrial reference system is discussed.

  3. Characterization and measurement of polymer wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Aron, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical tools which characterize the polymer wear process are discussed. The devices discussed include: visual observation of polymer wear with SEM, the quantification with surface profilometry and ellipsometry, to study the chemistry with AES, XPS and SIMS, to establish interfacial polymer orientation and accordingly bonding with QUARTIR, polymer state with Raman spectroscopy and stresses that develop in polymer films using a X-ray double crystal camera technique.

  4. Characterization and measurement of polymer wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Aron, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical tools which characterize the polymer wear process are discussed. The devices discussed include: visual observation of polymer wear with SEM, the quantification with surface profilometry and ellipsometry, to study the chemistry with AES, XPS and SIMS, to establish interfacial polymer orientation and accordingly bonding with QUARTIR, polymer state with Raman spectroscopy and stresses that develop in polymer films using a X-ray double crystal camera technique.

  5. Precision surveying using very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Clark, T. A.; Coates, R.; Ma, C.; Robertson, D. S.; Corey, B. E.; Counselman, C. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Wittels, J. J.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Radio interferometry measurements were used to measure the vector baselines between large microwave radio antennas. A 1.24 km baseline in Massachusetts between the 36 meter Haystack Observatory antenna and the 18 meter Westford antenna of Lincoln Laboratory was measured with 5 mm repeatability in 12 separate experiments. Preliminary results from measurements of the 3,928 km baseline between the Haystack antenna and the 40 meter antenna at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California are presented.

  6. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs < 10 ng/g-pellet, DDTs < 6 ng/g-pellet, HCHs < 2 ng/g-pellet). However, the present samples were from tropical and subtropical areas. To establish global baseline, especially to understand the effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high

  7. Measurement System Characterization in the Presence of Measurement Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Commo, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    In the calibration of a measurement system, data are collected in order to estimate a mathematical model between one or more factors of interest and a response. Ordinary least squares is a method employed to estimate the regression coefficients in the model. The method assumes that the factors are known without error; yet, it is implicitly known that the factors contain some uncertainty. In the literature, this uncertainty is known as measurement error. The measurement error affects both the estimates of the model coefficients and the prediction, or residual, errors. There are some methods, such as orthogonal least squares, that are employed in situations where measurement errors exist, but these methods do not directly incorporate the magnitude of the measurement errors. This research proposes a new method, known as modified least squares, that combines the principles of least squares with knowledge about the measurement errors. This knowledge is expressed in terms of the variance ratio - the ratio of response error variance to measurement error variance.

  8. Measurement of dielectron continuum in p + p at sqrt(s) = 200 GeV as a baseline study for chiral symmetry restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolnick, Sky Deva

    Dielectrons are a very important probe used for studying the properties of hot dense nuclear matter created in heavy ion collisions. Since dielectrons are color neutral and produced during all stages of the collision, they provide access to an abundance of information not readily available from other sources. These include thermal sources, vector meson resonances, heavy charm and bottom decay, and Drell-Yan processes. Previous measurements of the dielectron continuum in PHENIX have indicated an unexpectedly large enhancement in Au+Au collisions in the low mass region (0.3 - 0.8GeV/c2), a possible signal of chiral symmetry restoration, but these measurements were limited by large systematic uncertainties primarily from a poor signal to background ratio. In 2009 the PHENIX experiment was upgraded with the addition of the Hadron Blind Detector which improves the background rejection by detecting partially reconstructed Dalitz decays and gamma conversion pairs. In this thesis, I will review the status of electromagnetic probes measured from the collision of heavy nuclei and present and compare the results obtained from 2009 data in p + p at 200 GeV using the HBD which will serve as a baseline for Au+Au results obtained in 2010.

  9. Orbital Debris Characterization via Laboratory Optical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, Healther

    2011-01-01

    Optical observations of orbital debris offer insights that differ from radar measurements (specifically the size parameter,wavelength regime,and altitude range). For example, time-dependent photometric data yield lightcurves in multiple bandpasses that aid in material identification and possible periodic orientations. These data can also be used to help identify shapes and optical properties at multiple phase angles. Capitalizing on optical data products and applying them to generate a more complete understanding of orbital objects is a key objective of NASA's Optical Measurement Program, and the primary reason for the creation of the Optical Measurements Center(OMC). The OMC attempts to emulate space-based illumination conditions using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations.

  10. Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

  11. Magnetorheological fluid characterization using ultrasound measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2012-12-01

    In this work the variations of velocity of sound and attenuation in magnetorheological (MR) suspensions have been studied when the temperature and the intensity of magnetic field have been varied and, also, when the suspension is observed for a long period of time. It has been shown that the behaviour of the MR fluids depends strongly on the fluid used as solvent when temperature is varied. Regarding the sedimentation process, it has been proved that the application of an external magnetic field enhances the stabilization process. Analyzing the hysteretic behaviour it is seen that the system does not recover its initial state when the magnetic field is removed, because the ordered microstructure does not disappear completely. As ultrasound parameters are sensitive to changes in the temperature, in the structure and also in the volume fraction, they are a promising tool to characterize MR fluids in order to improve its performances.

  12. Mesoscale meteorological measurements characterizing complex flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbe, J.M.; Allwine, K.J.

    1993-09-01

    Meteorological measurements are an integral and essential component of any emergency response system for addressing accidental releases from nuclear facilities. An important element of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program is the refinement and use of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation. ASCOT is currently making use of ground-based remote wind sensing instruments such as doppler acoustic sounders (sodars). These instruments are capable of continuously and reliably measuring winds up to several hundred meters above the ground, unattended. Two sodars are currently measuring the winds, as part of ASCOT`s Front Range Study, in the vicinity of DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Boulder, Colorado. A brief description of ASCOT`s ongoing Front Range Study is given followed by a case study analysis that demonstrates the utility of the meteorological measurement equipment and the complexity of flow phenomena that are experienced near RFP. These complex flow phenomena can significantly influence the transport of the released material and consequently need to be identified for accurate assessments of the consequences of a release.

  13. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  14. UV RADIATION MEASUREMENTS/ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an ecosystem stressor and poses a human health risk, the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has undertaken a research program to measure the intensity of UV-B radiation at various locations throughout the U.S. In Septem...

  15. Characterizing Quasar Outflows I: Sample, Spectral Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Rajib; Christenson, D. H.; Richmond, J. M.; Derseweh, J. A.; Robbins, J. M.; Townsend, S. L.; Stark, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). For this purpose, we are examining a sample of 11000 z=1.7-2.0 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This redshift range permits the following from the SDSS spectra: (1) separation of objects that do and do not exhibit outflows; (2) classification/measurement of outflow properties (ionization, velocity, velocity width); and (3) measurements of UV emission line and continuum parameters. In this poster, we subjectively divide these quasars into four categories: broad absorption-line quasars (2700 objects), associated absorption-line quasars (1700 objects), reddened quasars (160 objects), and unabsorbed/unreddened quasars (6300 objects). We present measurements of the absorption (velocities, velocity widths, equivalent widths), composite spectral profiles of outflows as a function of velocity, as well as measurements of the continuum and CIV, MgII, and FeII emission-line properties. In accompanying posters, we add photometry from the rest-frame X-ray (ROSAT and Chandra), EUV (GALEX), optical (2MASS), and infrared (WISE) bands to complete the SED. The continuum and emission-line measurements from the SDSS spectra and accompanying photometry provides estimates on the black hole masses, bolometric luminsosities, and SED. We consider empirically how these affect the outflow properties. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under

  16. Comparison of torque measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy in characterization of a wet granulation process.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Rantanen, Jukka; Schaefer, Torben; Juppo, Anne Mari; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impeller torque measurements and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of the water addition phase of a wet granulation process. Additionally, the effect of hydrate formation during granulation on the impeller torque was investigated. Anhydrous theophylline, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were used as materials for the study. The materials and mixtures of them were granulated using purified water in a small-scale high-shear mixer. The impeller torque was registered and NIR spectra of wet samples were recorded at-line. The torque and the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances increased with increasing water content. A plateau in the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances was observed for wet masses containing MCC. This was at the region of optimal water amount for granulation according to the torque results. In the case of anhydrous theophylline, the slope of baseline-corrected water absorbance values increased at the same water amount as the impeller torque started to increase. The hydrate formation of theophylline during granulation was observed as a slight decrease in the impeller torque. In addition, the hydrate formation during granulation affected the granulation liquid requirement. The liquid requirement was different for monohydrate formed during granulation compared to one formed in high relative humidity before the granulation. The results suggest that NIR spectroscopy may be applicable to process monitoring of wet granulation, also in cases where monitoring of impeller torque is difficult to apply. PMID:15295784

  17. Cyclic Concentration Measurements for Characterizing Pulsating Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.

    2013-07-07

    Slurry mixed in vessels via pulse jet mixers has a periodic, rather than steady, concentration profile. Measurements of local concentration taken at the center of the tank at a range of elevations within the mixed region were analyzed to obtain a greater understanding of how the periodic pulse jet mixing cycle affects the local concentration. Data were obtained at the critical suspension velocity, when all solids are suspended at the end of the pulse. The data at a range of solids loadings are analyzed to observe the effect of solids concentration during the suspension and settling portions of the mixing cycle.

  18. Optical measurement system for characterizing plastic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahleitner, R.; Niel, Kurt S.; Frank, S.

    2008-02-01

    Injection molded plastic parts are often influenced with the surface defect tiger stripes, which dramatically reduce the visual quality. Tiger stripes are known as alternating bands of bright and dull regions normally to the molded flow direction. This defect highly depends on the injection time and on the formation of the plastic compound. In the last years, the intensity of the tiger stripes defect was controlled visually. For quantifying the tiger strip defect a new, efficient, repeatable, reliable and nondestructive optical measurement system is proposed. To evaluate the dependency of the injection time, a number of five DIN-A5 plastic specimens are molded. Each of the five plates consists of the same material but they have different injection times. For the measurement, one specimen is put into the specimen holder, which is placed on the drawer of a closed cabinet. In this inside black painted cabinet a LED light source and a CCD Camera are mounted. The beams of the LED light are diffuse reflected on the surface of the specimen. To catch only parallel beams by the lens of the camera a large distance between specimen and camera is realized by two justified mirrors in the cabinet. The bright and dull regions of the tiger stripe defect have different diffuse reflection parameters. Thus in a picture of defined brightness the visibility of this defect is very good. To enhance the repeatability the failure of the camera noise and of the light oscillation is reduced by mends of averaging multiple images. Next, the surface structure is filtered out of the image and a representing number of horizontal grey-value lines are extracted. The so called tiger line signal is the difference between the grey line and a calculated polynomial function (degree of 6) and shows the surface defect of each line oscillating on the zero x-axis. For each tiger line signal the mean squared error is evaluated. To calculate a quantitative value of the whole surface, all line errors are

  19. Measurements and Characterization: Cell and Module Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization -- Cell and Module Performance. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  20. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.

  1. Chemical characterization of biogenic SOA generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic VOC profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate, a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. VOCs emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS), respectively. The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+) m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, methyl jasmonate, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O:C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3-0.47. The O:C of standard methyl jasmonate SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient datasets collected in forest environments.

  2. Chemical characterization of biogenic SOA generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic VOC profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate, a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six differentmore » coniferous plant types. VOCs emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS), respectively. The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+) m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, methyl jasmonate, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O:C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3–0.47. The O:C of standard methyl jasmonate SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient datasets collected in forest environments.« less

  3. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- andmore » post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.« less

  4. A Mechanics Baseline Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, David; Wells, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    Reports the design of the "Mechanics Baseline Test," an instrument to assess students' understandings about concepts in mechanics. Discusses how comparisons of test results with extensive baseline data can be used to evaluate instruction at all levels. Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  5. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    An Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) is a review of a supplier?s Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). It is conducted by Program/Project Managers and their technical staffs on contracts and in-house work requiring compliance with NASA Earned Value Management System (EVMS) policy as defined in program/project policy, NPR 7120.5, or in NASA Federal Acquisition Regulations. The IBR Handbook may also be of use to those responsible for preparing the Terms of Reference for internal project reviews. While risks may be identified and actions tracked as a result of the IBR, it is important to note that an IBR cannot be failed.

  6. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY MEASURED PROPER MOTION AND PARALLAX OF THE γ-RAY MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J0218+4232

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yuanjie; Chen, Ding; Yang, Jun; Campbell, Robert M.; Janssen, Gemma; Stappers, Ben

    2014-02-20

    PSR J0218+4232 is a millisecond pulsar (MSP) with a flux density ∼0.9 mJy at 1.4 GHz. It is very bright in the high-energy X-ray and γ-ray domains. We conducted an astrometric program using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz to measure its proper motion and parallax. A model-independent distance would also help constrain its γ-ray luminosity. We achieved a detection of signal-to-noise ratio S/N >37 for the weak pulsar in all five epochs. Using an extragalactic radio source lying 20 arcmin away from the pulsar, we estimate the pulsar's proper motion to be μ{sub α}cos δ = 5.35 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} and μ{sub δ} = –3.74 ± 0.12 mas yr{sup –1}, and a parallax of π = 0.16 ± 0.09 mas. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) proper motion has significantly improved upon the estimates from long-term pulsar timing observations. The VLBI parallax provides the first model-independent distance constraints: d=6.3{sub −2.3}{sup +8.0} kpc, with a corresponding 3σ lower-limit of d = 2.3 kpc. This is the first pulsar trigonometric parallax measurement based solely on EVN observations. Using the derived distance, we believe that PSR J0218+4232 is the most energetic γ-ray MSP known to date. The luminosity based on even our 3σ lower-limit distance is high enough to pose challenges to the conventional outer gap and slot gap models.

  7. Short electron beam bunch characterization through measurement of terahertz radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; David Douglas; Michelle D. Shinn; Gwyn Williams

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the measurement of sub-picosecond relativistic electron beam bunch length by analyzing the spectra of the coherent terahertz pulses through Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with autocorrelation from a scanning polarization autocorrelator that measures the coherent optical transition radiation. The limitations of the different methods to such a characterization are discussed.

  8. Three-dimensional measurement and characterization of grinding tool topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Changcai; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiangqian; Xu, Xipeng; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive 3-dimensional measurement and characterization method for grinding tool topography was developed. A stylus instrument (SOMICRONIC, France) was used to measure the surface of a metal-bonded diamond grinding tool. The sampled data was input the software SurfStand developed by Centre for Precision Technology (CPT) for reconstruction and further characterization of the surface. Roughness parameters pertaining to the general surface and specific feature parameters relating to the grinding grits, such as height and angle peak curvature have been calculated. The methodology of measurement has been compared with that using an optical microscope. The comparison shows that the three-dimensional characterization has distinct advantages for grinding tool topography assessment. It is precise, convenient and comprehensive so it is suitable for precision measurement and analysis where an understanding of the grinding tool and its cutting ability are required.

  9. FY 1992 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dippo, P.C

    1993-03-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/NREL goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility that Is capable of providing information on the full range of PV components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of Pv technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. The Measurements and Characterization Branch encompasses seven coordinated research groups, providing integrated research and development that covers all aspects of photovoltaic materials/devices characterization.

  10. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  11. A baseline measure of tree and gastropod biodiversity in replanted and natural mangrove stands in malaysia: langkawi island and sungai merbok.

    PubMed

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-08-01

    THE DIVERSITIES OF MANGROVE TREES AND OF THEIR ASSOCIATED GASTROPODS WERE ASSESSED FOR TWO MANGROVE REGIONS ON THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m(2) (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H') and Evenness Index (J') were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H' and J' values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H' and J' values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H' = 0.44±0.17 and J' = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H' = 0.96±0.41 and J' = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H' = 0.22±0.39 and J' = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H' = 1.23±0.63 and J' = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  12. A Baseline Measure of Tree and Gastropod Biodiversity in Replanted and Natural Mangrove Stands in Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok

    PubMed Central

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-01-01

    The diversities of mangrove trees and of their associated gastropods were assessed for two mangrove regions on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m2 (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H’) and Evenness Index (J’) were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H’ and J’ values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H’ and J’ values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H’ = 0.44±0.17 and J’ = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H’ = 0.96±0.41 and J’ = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H’ = 0.22±0.39 and J’ = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H’ = 1.23±0.63 and J’ = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  13. Novel scanner characterization method for color measurement and diagnostics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bong-Sun; Bala, Raja; Sharma, Gaurav

    2006-02-01

    We propose a novel scanner characterization approach for applications requiring color measurement of hardcopy output in printer calibration, characterization, and diagnostic applications. It is assumed that a typical printed medium comprises the three basic colorants C, M, Y. The proposed method is particularly advantageous when additional colorants are used in the print (e.g. black (K)). A family of scanner characterization targets is constructed, each varying in C, M, Y and at a fixed level of K. A corresponding family of 3-D scanner characterizations is derived, one for each level of K. Each characterization maps scanner RGB to a colorimetric representation such as CIELAB, using standard characterization techniques. These are then combined into a single 4-D characterization mapping RGBK to CIELAB. A refinement of the technique improves performance significantly by using a function of the scanned values for K (e.g. the scanner's green channel response to printed K) instead of the digital K value directly. This makes this new approach more robust with respect to variations in printed K over time. Secondly it enables, with a single scanner characterization, accurate color measurement of prints from different printers within the same family. Results show that the 4-D characterization technique can significantly outperform standard 3-D approaches especially in cases where the image being scanned is a patch target made up of unconstrained CMYK combinations. Thus the algorithm finds particular use in printer characterization and diagnostic applications. The method readily generalizes to printed media containing other (e.g "hi-fi") colorants, and also to other image capture devices such as digital cameras.

  14. Characterizing baseline concentrations, proportions, and processes controlling deposition of river-transported bitumen-associated polycyclic aromatic compounds at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    PubMed

    Elmes, Matthew C; Wiklund, Johan A; Van Opstal, Stacey R; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate knowledge of baseline conditions challenges ability for monitoring programs to detect pollution in rivers, especially where there are natural sources of contaminants. Here, we use paleolimnological data from a flood-prone lake ("SD2", informal name) in the Slave River Delta (SRD, Canada), ∼ 500 km downstream of the Alberta oil sands development and the bitumen-rich McMurray Formation to identify baseline concentrations and proportions of "river-transported bitumen-associated indicator polycyclic aromatic compounds" (indicator PACs; Hall et al. 2012) and processes responsible for their deposition. Results show that indicator PACs are deposited in SD2 by Slave River floodwaters in concentrations that are 45 % lower than those in sediments of "PAD31compounds", a lake upstream in the Athabasca Delta that receives Athabasca River floodwaters. Lower concentrations at SD2 are likely a consequence of sediment retention upstream as well as dilution by sediment influx from the Peace River. In addition, relations with organic matter content reveal that flood events dilute concentrations of indicator PACs in SD2 because the lake receives high-energy floods and the lake sediments are predominantly inorganic. This contrasts with PAD31 where floodwaters increase indicator PAC concentrations in the lake sediments, and concentrations are diluted during low flood influence intervals due to increased deposition of lacustrine organic matter. Results also show no significant differences in concentrations and proportions of indicator PACs between pre- (1967) and post- (1980s and 1990 s) oil sands development high flood influence intervals (t = 1.188, P = 0.279, d.f. = 6.136), signifying that they are delivered to the SRD by natural processes. Although we cannot assess potential changes in indicator PACs during the past decade, baseline concentrations and proportions can be used to enhance ongoing monitoring efforts. PMID:27071660

  15. Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M.

    1998-11-19

    The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

  16. Baseline tests of the battronic Minivan electric delivery van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An electric passenger vehicle was tested to develop data characterizing the state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles. The test measured vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability and limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability and battery charge efficiency. The data obtained are to serve as a baseline to compare improvements in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and to assist in establishing performance standards.

  17. Origin of the Right Coronary Artery from the Opposite Sinus of Valsalva in Adults: Characterization by Intravascular Ultrasonography at Baseline and After Stent Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Paolo; Uribe, Carlo; Monge, Jorge; Tobis, Jonathan M; Elayda, MacArthur A; Willerson, James T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We attempted to characterize the anatomy, function, clinical consequences, and treatment of right-sided anomalous coronary artery origin from the opposite side (R-ACAOS). Background Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is a source of great uncertainty in cardiology. A recent study by our group found that ACAOS had a high prevalence (0.48%) in a general population of adolescents. Methods Sixty-seven consecutive patients were diagnosed with R-ACAOS according to a new definition: ectopic right coronary artery (RCA) with an intramural proximal course. We used intravascular ultrasonograms of the RCA to quantify congenital stenosis (in patients with potentially serious clinical presentations), and we correlated these measurements with clinical manifestations. Results All patients had some proximal intramural stenosis (mean 50%, range 16–83% of the cross-sectional area). Forty-two patients (62%) underwent stent-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of R-ACAOS because of significant symptoms, positive stress tests, and/or significant stenosis. Stent-PCI was successful in all cases and correlated with improved symptoms at >1-year follow-up in 30 patients (71%) who were available for clinical follow-up. No ACAOS-related deaths occurred. The instent restenosis rate was 4/30 (13%) at a mean follow-up time of 5.0 years. Conclusions This preliminary, but large and unprecedented observational study shows that cases angiographically identified as R-ACAOS universally feature an intramural aortic course but only occasionally severe stenosis on resting IVUS imaging. Our data suggest that stent-PCI with IVUS monitoring ameliorates patients’ presenting symptoms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26178792

  18. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  19. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy`s Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  20. Mapping and characterization of land subsidence in Beijing Plain caused by groundwater pumping using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) InSAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M. L.; Gong, H. L.; Chen, B. B.; Zhou, C. F.; Liu, K. S.; Shi, M.

    2015-11-01

    InSAR time series analysis is widely used for detection and monitoring of slow surface deformation. In this paper, 15 TerraSAR-X radar images acquired in stripmap mode between 2012 and 2013 are processed for land subsidence monitoring with the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach in Beijing Plain in China. Mapping results produced by SBAS show that the subsidence rates in the area of Beijing Plain range from -97.5 (subsidence) and to +23.8 mm yr-1 (uplift), relative to a presumably stable benchmark. The mapping result also reveals that there are the five subsidence centers formed by surface deformation spreading north to south east of the downtown. An uneven subsidence patten was detected near the Beijing Capital International Airpor, which may be related to loading of buildings and the aircraft.

  1. DISTANCE AND PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENT OF THE RED SUPERGIANT, PZ CAS, IN VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY H{sub 2}O MASER ASTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuno, K.; Asaki, Y.; Imai, H.; Oyama, T. E-mail: asaki@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp E-mail: t.oyama@nao.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    We present the very long baseline interferometry H{sub 2}O maser monitoring observations of the red supergiant, PZ Cas, at 12 epochs from 2006 April to 2008 May. We fitted maser motions to a simple model composed of a common annual parallax and linear motions of the individual masers. The maser motions with the parallax subtracted were well modeled by a combination of a common stellar proper motion and a radial expansion motion of the circumstellar envelope. We obtained an annual parallax of 0.356 {+-} 0.026 mas and a stellar proper motion of {mu}{sub {alpha}}{sup *} cos {delta} = -3.7 {+-} 0.2 and {mu}{sup *}{sub {delta}}=-2.0{+-}0.3 mas yr{sup -1} eastward and northward, respectively. The annual parallax corresponds to a trigonometric parallax of 2.81{sup +0.22}{sub -0.19} kpc. By rescaling the luminosity of PZ Cas in any previous studies using our trigonometric parallax, we estimated the location of PZ Cas on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and found that it approaches a theoretically evolutionary track around an initial mass of {approx}25 M{sub Sun }. The sky position and the distance to PZ Cas are consistent with the OB association, Cas OB5, which is located in a molecular gas super shell. The proper motion of PZ Cas is close to that of the OB stars and other red supergiants in Cas OB5 measured by the Hipparcos satellite. We derived the peculiar motion of PZ Cas of U{sub s} = 22.8 {+-} 1.5, V{sub s} = 7.1 {+-} 4.4, and W{sub s} = -5.7 {+-} 4.4 km s{sup -1}. This peculiar motion has rather a large U{sub s} component, unlike those of near high-mass star-forming regions with negatively large V{sub s} motions. The uniform proper motions of the Cas OB5 member stars suggest random motions of giant molecular clouds moving into local potential minima in a time-dependent spiral arm, rather than a velocity field caused by the spiral arm density wave.

  2. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    Rectangular waveguide methods are appealing for measuring isotropic and anisotropic materials because of high signal strength due to field confinement, and the ability to control the polarization of the applied electric field. As a stepping stone to developing methods for characterizing materials with fully-populated anisotropic tensor characteristics, techniques are presented in this dissertation to characterize isotropic, biaxially anisotropic, and gyromagnetic materials. Two characterization techniques are investigated for each material, and thus six different techniques are described. Additionally, a waveguide standard is introduced which may be used to validate the measurement of the permittivity and permeability of materials at microwave frequencies. The first characterization method examined is the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) technique for the extraction of isotropic parameters of a sample completely filling the cross-section of a rectangular waveguide. A second technique is proposed for the characterization of an isotropic conductor-backed sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. If the sample is conductor-backed, and occupies the entire cross-section, a transmission measurement is not available, and thus a method must be found for providing two sufficiently different reflection measurements.The technique proposed here is to place a waveguide iris in front of the sample, exposing the sample to a spectrum of evanescent modes. By measuring the reflection coefficient with and without an iris, the necessary two data may be obtained to determine the material parameters. A mode-matching approach is used to determine the theoretical response of a sample placed behind the waveguide iris. This response is used in a root-searching algorithm to determine permittivity and permeability by comparing to measurements of the reflection coefficient. For the characterization of biaxially anisotropic materials, the first method considers an extension of the NRW technique

  3. The Influence of Casting Conditions on the Microstructure of As-Cast U-10Mo Alloys: Characterization of the Casting Process Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-12-13

    Sections of eight plate castings of uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) were sent from Y-12 to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for microstructural characterization. This report summarizes the results from this study.

  4. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  5. Detecting CP violation in a single neutrino oscillation channel at very long baselines

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, D. C.; Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.

    2007-11-15

    We propose a way of detecting CP violation in a single neutrino oscillation channel at very long baselines (on the order of several thousands of kilometers), given precise knowledge of the smallest mass-squared difference. It is shown that CP violation can be characterized by a shift in L/E of the peak oscillation in the {nu}{sub e}-{nu}{sub {mu}} appearance channel, both in vacuum and in matter. In fact, matter effects enhance the shift at a fixed energy. We consider the case in which sub-GeV neutrinos are measured with varying baseline and also the case of a fixed baseline. For the varied baseline, accurate knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux would not be necessary; however, neutrinos must be distinguishable from antineutrinos. For the fixed baseline, it is shown that CP violation can be distinguished if the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} were known.

  6. PFNA-based measurements for non-intrusive waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pentaleri, E.

    1994-12-31

    Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) is a non-intrusive technique for inspecting bulk samples whose size may range from that of a suitcase to that of a commercial-cargo truck trailer. In an earlier paper, the authors discussed techniques for performing PFNA-based TRU assays on waste drums, and described why such measurements would yield improved accuracy, sensitivity, and throughput over existing instruments. Here they describe a set of non-intrusive measurements useful for further improving the accuracy of TRU assay results, certifying compliance with waste acceptance criteria, or enhancing the control of waste-treatment processes. In principle, these measurements, based mainly upon the analysis of inelastic-neutron-scattering and neutron-capture gamma rays, can be performed concurrently with TRU-assay measurements. Based on the measurements described, a single PFNA-based waste inspection system would allow substantially complete non-intrusive characterization of waste containers to be performed.

  7. Transportation Baseline Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

    2000-01-01

    The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

  8. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  9. Baseline Morbidity in 2,990 Adult African Volunteers Recruited to Characterize Laboratory Reference Intervals for Future HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Wendy; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Jaoko, Walter; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mulenga, Joseph; Dally, Len; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Farah, Bashir; Birungi, Josephine; Hughes, Peter; Manigart, Olivier; Stevens, Gwynn; Yates, Sarah; Thomson, Helen; von Lieven, Andrea; Krebs, Marietta; Price, Matt A.; Stoll-Johnson, Lisa; Ketter, Nzeera

    2008-01-01

    Background An understanding of the health of potential volunteers in Africa is essential for the safe and efficient conduct of clinical trials, particularly for trials of preventive technologies such as vaccines that enroll healthy individuals. Clinical safety laboratory values used for screening, enrolment and follow-up of African clinical trial volunteers have largely been based on values derived from industrialized countries in Europe and North America. This report describes baseline morbidity during recruitment for a multi-center, African laboratory reference intervals study. Methods Asymptomatic persons, aged 18–60 years, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at seven sites (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; Kangemi, Kenyatta National Hospital and Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia). Gender equivalency was by design. Individuals who were acutely ill, pregnant, menstruating, or had significant clinical findings were not enrolled. Each volunteer provided blood for hematology, immunology, and biochemistry parameters and urine for urinalysis. Enrolled volunteers were excluded if found to be positive for HIV, syphilis or Hepatitis B and C. Laboratory assays were conducted under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP). Results and Conclusions Of the 2990 volunteers who were screened, 2387 (80%) were enrolled, and 2107 (71%) were included in the analysis (52% men, 48% women). Major reasons for screening out volunteers included abnormal findings on physical examination (228/603, 38%), significant medical history (76, 13%) and inability to complete the informed consent process (73, 13%). Once enrolled, principle reasons for exclusion from analysis included detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (106/280, 38%) and antibodies against Hepatitis C (95, 34%). This is the first large scale, multi-site study conducted to the standards of GCLP to describe African laboratory reference intervals applicable to potential volunteers in clinical

  10. Measurements and characterization in photovoltaics: Lessons learned for TPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1997-03-01

    The NREL measurements and characterization activities, with origins in the late 1970s, have evolved with and within the DOE Photovoltaics Program—specifically to support that effort. These centralized facilities, established for reasons of technical and economical advantages for the program, have included four major functions or approaches: (1) analytical measurement service; (2) standardized evaluations (performance through materials); (3) collaborative research; and, (4) measurement technique development. Each of these are described in terms of their importance and contributions to program and project support. The current facilities and activities are highlighted, and the growth and change of these support efforts are historically delineated. The evolution and contributions of these laboratories to photovoltaics provide some lessons and models for the emerging TPV program. The utility of centralized measurement and characterization functions for technology development is assessed in terms of methods of operation, prioritization and customer satisfaction, program unity and focus, response time, and proprietary data and materials. Specifics relating to materials and measurement standards, centralized data bases, client interactions, program directions, and expectations are cited in terms of both successes and deficiencies for these program-support efforts. The return on investment for estimated in terms of benefits to the program compared to alternative approaches.

  11. Measuring Health System Strengthening: Application of the Balanced Scorecard Approach to Rank the Baseline Performance of Three Rural Districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. Methodology The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Results Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff −0.40, p = 0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03). Conclusion The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery

  12. Altered baseline brain activity in experts measured by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF): a resting state fMRI study using expertise model of acupuncturists

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Minghao; Li, Jun; Shi, Xinfa; Gao, Shudan; Fu, Shijun; Liu, Zongquan; Liang, Fanrong; Gong, Qiyong; Shi, Guangming; Tian, Jie

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that expertise modulates evoked brain activity in response to specific stimuli. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate how expertise influences the resting brain. Among these studies, most focused on the connectivity features within/across regions, i.e., connectivity patterns/strength. However, little concern has been given to a more fundamental issue whether or not expertise modulates baseline brain activity. We investigated this question using amplitude of low-frequency (<0.08 Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) as the metric of brain activity and a novel expertise model, i.e., acupuncturists, due to their robust proficiency in tactile perception and emotion regulation. After the psychophysical and behavioral expertise screening procedure, 23 acupuncturists and 23 matched non-acupuncturists (NA) were enrolled. Our results explicated higher ALFF for acupuncturists in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the contralateral hand representation of the primary somatosensory area (SI) (corrected for multiple comparisons). Additionally, ALFF of VMPFC was negatively correlated with the outcomes of the emotion regulation task (corrected for multiple comparisons). We suggest that our study may reveal a novel connection between the neuroplasticity mechanism and resting state activity, which would upgrade our understanding of the central mechanism of learning. Furthermore, by showing that expertise can affect the baseline brain activity as indicated by ALFF, our findings may have profound implication for functional neuroimaging studies especially those involving expert models, in that difference in baseline brain activity may either smear the spatial pattern of activations for task data or introduce biased results into connectivity-based analysis for resting data. PMID:25852511

  13. Baseline measurement of the noise generated by a short-to-medium range jet transport flying standard ILS approaches and level flyovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Mueller, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of baseline noise flight tests are presented. Data are given for a point 1.85 kilometers (1.0 nautical mile) from the runway threshold, and experimental results of level flyover noise at altitudes of 122 meters (400 feet) and 610 meters (2,000 feet) are also shown for several different power levels. The experimental data are compared with data from other sources and reasonable agreement is noted. A description of the test technique, instrumentation, and data analysis methods is included.

  14. Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

    2011-09-01

    A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x-y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments.

  15. Transportation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

    1999-12-01

    The National Transportation Program 1999 Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste and materials transportation. In addition, this Report provides a summary overview of DOE’s projected quantities of waste and materials for transportation. Data presented in this report were gathered as a part of the IPABS Spring 1999 update of the EM Corporate Database and are current as of July 30, 1999. These data were input and compiled using the Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) which is used to update all stream-level components of the EM Corporate Database, as well as TSD System and programmatic risk (disposition barrier) information. Project (PBS) and site-level IPABS data are being collected through the Interim Data Management System (IDMS). The data are presented in appendices to this report.

  16. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.

    2015-12-01

    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (< 5-30m AGL). 2D photographs captured by the standard UAS camera payload were imported into Agisoft Photoscan to create three-dimensional point clouds. Within the area of interest, careful installation of surveyed ground control fiducial markers supplied necessary targets for field collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely ground-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect

  17. Liver iron concentration measurements by MRI in chronically transfused children with sickle cell anemia: baseline results from the TWiTCH trial.

    PubMed

    Wood, John C; Pressel, Sara; Rogers, Zora R; Odame, Isaac; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Lee, Margaret T; Owen, William C; Cohen, Alan R; St Pierre, Timothy; Heeney, Matthew M; Schultz, William H; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2015-09-01

    Noninvasive, quantitative, and accurate assessment of liver iron concentration (LIC) by MRI is useful for patients receiving transfusions, but R2 and R2* MRI techniques have not been systematically compared in sickle cell anemia (SCA). We report baseline LIC results from the TWiTCH trial, which compares hydroxyurea with blood transfusion treatment for primary stroke prophylaxis assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography in pediatric SCA patients. Liver R2 was collected and processed using a FDA-approved commercial process (FerriScan®), while liver R2* quality control and processing were performed by a Core Laboratory blinded to clinical site and patient data. Baseline LIC studies using both MRI techniques were available for 120 participants. LICR2* and LICR2 results were highly correlated (r(2)  = 0.93). A proportional bias of LIC(R2*)/LIC(R2), decreasing with average LIC, was observed. Systematic differences between LICR2* and LICR2 were also observed by MRI manufacturer. Importantly, LICR2* and LICR2 estimates had broad 95% limits of agreement with respect to each other. We recommend LICR2 and LICR2* not be used interchangeably in SCA patients to follow individual patient trends in iron burden. PMID:26087998

  18. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  19. Lidar Measurements for Desert Dust Characterization: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mona, L.; Liu, Z.; Mueller, D.; Omar, A.; Papayannis, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Sugimoto, N.; Vaughan, M.

    2012-01-01

    We provide an overview of light detection and ranging (lidar) capability for describing and characterizing desert dust. This paper summarizes lidar techniques, observations, and fallouts of desert dust lidar measurements. The main objective is to provide the scientific community, including non-practitioners of lidar observations with a reference paper on dust lidar measurements. In particular, it will fill the current gap of communication between research-oriented lidar community and potential desert dust data users, such as air quality monitoring agencies and aviation advisory centers. The current capability of the different lidar techniques for the characterization of aerosol in general and desert dust in particular is presented. Technical aspects and required assumptions of these techniques are discussed, providing readers with the pros and cons of each technique. Information about desert dust collected up to date using lidar techniques is reviewed. Lidar techniques for aerosol characterization have a maturity level appropriate for addressing air quality and transportation issues, as demonstrated by some first results reported in this paper

  20. Geotaxis baseline data for Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnebel, E. M.; Bhargava, R.; Grossfield, J.

    1987-01-01

    Geotaxis profiles for 20 Drosophila species and semispecies at different ages have been examined using a calibrated, adjustable slant board device. Measurements were taken at 5 deg intervals ranging from 0 deg to 85 deg. Clear strain and species differences are observed, with some groups tending to move upward (- geotaxis) with increasing angles, while others move downward (+ geotaxis). Geotactic responses change with age in some, but not all experimental groups. Sample geotaxis profiles are presented and their application to ecological and aging studies are discussed. Data provide a baseline for future evaluations of the biological effects of microgravity.

  1. High temperature Hall measurement setup for thin film characterization.

    PubMed

    Adnane, L; Gokirmak, A; Silva, H

    2016-07-01

    Hall measurement using the van der Pauw technique is a common characterization approach that does not require patterning of contacts. Measurements of the Hall voltage and electrical resistivity lead to the product of carrier mobility and carrier concentration (Hall coefficient) which can be decoupled through transport models. Based on the van der Paw method, we have developed an automated setup for Hall measurements from room temperature to ∼500 °C of semiconducting thin films of a wide resistivity range. The resistivity of the film and Hall coefficient is obtained from multiple current-voltage (I-V) measurements performed using a semiconductor parameter analyzer under applied constant "up," zero, and "down" magnetic field generated with two neodymium permanent magnets. The use of slopes obtained from multiple I-Vs for the three magnetic field conditions offer improved accuracy. Samples are preferred in square shape geometry and can range from 2 mm to 25 mm side length. Example measurements of single-crystal silicon with known doping concentration show the accuracy and reliability of the measurement. PMID:27475605

  2. High temperature Hall measurement setup for thin film characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnane, L.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.

    2016-07-01

    Hall measurement using the van der Pauw technique is a common characterization approach that does not require patterning of contacts. Measurements of the Hall voltage and electrical resistivity lead to the product of carrier mobility and carrier concentration (Hall coefficient) which can be decoupled through transport models. Based on the van der Paw method, we have developed an automated setup for Hall measurements from room temperature to ˜500 °C of semiconducting thin films of a wide resistivity range. The resistivity of the film and Hall coefficient is obtained from multiple current-voltage (I-V) measurements performed using a semiconductor parameter analyzer under applied constant "up," zero, and "down" magnetic field generated with two neodymium permanent magnets. The use of slopes obtained from multiple I-Vs for the three magnetic field conditions offer improved accuracy. Samples are preferred in square shape geometry and can range from 2 mm to 25 mm side length. Example measurements of single-crystal silicon with known doping concentration show the accuracy and reliability of the measurement.

  3. Optical characterization and measurements of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmimaa, Marja; Järvenpää, Toni

    2008-04-01

    3D or autostereoscopic display technologies offer attractive solutions for enriching the multimedia experience. However, both characterization and comparison of 3D displays have been challenging when the definitions for the consistent measurement methods have been lacking and displays with similar specifications may appear quite different. Earlier we have investigated how the optical properties of autostereoscopic (3D) displays can be objectively measured and what are the main characteristics defining the perceived image quality. In this paper the discussion is extended to cover the viewing freedom (VF) and the definition for the optimum viewing distance (OVD) is elaborated. VF is the volume inside which the eyes have to be to see an acceptable 3D image. Characteristics limiting the VF space are proposed to be 3D crosstalk, luminance difference and color difference. Since the 3D crosstalk can be presumed to be dominating the quality of the end user experience and in our approach is forming the basis for the calculations of the other optical parameters, the reliability of the 3D crosstalk measurements is investigated. Furthermore the effect on the derived VF definition is evaluated. We have performed comparison 3D crosstalk measurements with different measurement device apertures and the effect of different measurement geometry on the results on actual 3D displays is reported.

  4. A measure for characterizing sliding on lung boundaries.

    PubMed

    Amelon, Ryan E; Cao, Kunlin; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Christensen, Gary E; Raghavan, Madhavan L

    2014-03-01

    The lobes of the lung slide relative to each other during breathing. Quantifying lobar sliding can aid in better understanding lung function, better modeling of lung dynamics, and for studying phenomenon such as pleural adhesion. We propose a novel measure to characterize lobe sliding in the lung based on the displacement field obtained from image registration of CT scans. When two sliding lobes are modeled as a continuum, the discontinuity in the displacement field at the fissure will manifest as elevated maximum shear--the proposed measure--which is capable of capturing both the level and orientation of sliding. Six human lungs were analyzed using scans spanning functional residual capacity to total lung capacity. The lung lobes were segmented and registered on a lobe-by-lobe basis to obtain the displacement field from which the proposed sliding measure was calculated. The sliding measure was found to be insignificant in the parenchyma, as relatively little tissue shear occurs here. On the other hand, it was elevated along the fissures. Thus, a map of the proposed sliding measure of the entire lung clearly delineates and quantifies sliding between lung lobes. Sliding is a key aspect of lung deformation during breathing. The proposed measure may help resolve artifacts introduced by sliding in deformation analysis techniques used for radiotherapy. PMID:24114112

  5. Measuring In Vitro ATPase Activity for Enzymatic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rule, Chelsea S; Patrick, Marcella; Sandkvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes, or ATPases, play a critical role in a diverse array of cellular functions. These dynamic proteins can generate energy for mechanical work, such as protein trafficking and degradation, solute transport, and cellular movements. The protocol described here is a basic assay for measuring the in vitro activity of purified ATPases for functional characterization. Proteins hydrolyze ATP in a reaction that results in inorganic phosphate release, and the amount of phosphate liberated is then quantitated using a colorimetric assay. This highly adaptable protocol can be adjusted to measure ATPase activity in kinetic or endpoint assays. A representative protocol is provided here based on the activity and requirements of EpsE, the AAA+ ATPase involved in Type II Secretion in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The amount of purified protein needed to measure activity, length of the assay and the timing and number of sampling intervals, buffer and salt composition, temperature, co-factors, stimulants (if any), etc. may vary from those described here, and thus some optimization may be necessary. This protocol provides a basic framework for characterizing ATPases and can be performed quickly and easily adjusted as necessary. PMID:27584824

  6. Comprehensive baseline hazard assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.B.; Amundson, T.M.

    1994-10-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and implemented a cost effective/value-added program/process that assists in fulfilling key elements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) voluntary Protection Program (VPP) requirements. WHC is the prime contractor for the US Department of Energy (US DOE) at the Hanford site, located in Richland, Washington. The site consists of over 560 square miles, contains over 1100 facilities and has an employment of approximately 18,000. WHC is currently in the application review phase for the US DOE equivalent of OSHA-VPP ``merit`` program status. The program involves setting up a team consisting of industrial safety and health (industrial hygienists) professionals, members of the maintenance and operations work force, and facility management. This team performs a workplace hazard characterization/analysis and then applies a risk assessment approach to prioritize observed and potential hazards in need of abatement. The process involves using checklists that serve as a guide for evaluation/inspection criteria. Forms are used to document meetings, field observations, instrument calibration and performance testing. Survey maps are generated to document quality records of measurement results. A risk assessment code matrix with a keyword index was developed to facilitate consistency. The end product is useful in communicating hazards to facility management, health and safety professionals, audit/appraisal groups, and most importantly, facility workers.

  7. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  8. Residual stress measurement and microstructural characterization of thick beryllium films

    SciTech Connect

    Detor, A; Wang, M; Hodge, A M; Chason, E; Walton, C; Hamza, A V; Xu, H; Nikroo, A

    2008-02-11

    Beryllium films are synthesized by a magnetron sputtering technique incorporating in-situ residual stress measurement. Monitoring the stress evolution in real time provides quantitative through-thickness information on the effects of various processing parameters, including sputtering gas pressure and substrate biasing. Specimens produced over a wide range of stress states are characterized via transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, in order to correlate the stress data with microstructure. A columnar grain structure is observed for all specimens, and surface morphology is found to be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Analytical models of stress generation are reviewed and discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.

  9. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  10. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  11. Guided wave measurements for characterization of sol-gel layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piombini, Hervé; Dieudonne, Xavier; Wood, Thomas; Flory, François

    2013-09-01

    Sol-gel applications require very thick layers with a good understanding of the interfaces. To address this problem, we have installed at CEA Le Ripault a characterization bench using guided waves with assistance from the IM2NP lab in Marseille. This bench allows us to measure the thickness and the refractive index and determine the extinction coefficient of a thin layer. We can distinguish losses at interfaces from those in the bulk according to the chosen propagation mode. This allows us to know if we can stack elementary layers to make thick layers without incurring problems.

  12. Mode S baseline radar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancus, E. F.; Baker, L. H.

    1982-11-01

    The baseline performance characteristics of the moving target detector (MTD) and radar data acquisition system (RDAS) as an integral part of the Mode S sensor, were determined. The MTD and RDAS were separately evaluated to determine their capability to provide radar data suitable for utilization by the Mode S sensor and automated radar terminal system (ARTS). The design modifications made to the Mode S sensor to provide the capability of interfacing to either an MTD or RDAS were evaluated to determine if they were in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration engineering requirement, FAA-ER-240-26. Radar baseline technical performance data was provided to characterize the MTD, RDAS, Mode S, and ARTS. The minimum radar tracking requirements are studied to determine if they are adequate to provide reliable radar track data to an air traffic control facility. It was concluded that the Mode S sensor, when integrated with an MTD-2 radar digitizer, can provide reliable primary radar track data to the ARTS III system for automated radar track acquisition.

  13. Particle Imaging, Characterization and Extinction Measurement with Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Nava; Berg, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Digital holographic microcopy (DHM) can be a ground breaking technique in the field of particle diagnostic because of its capability for imaging, characterization and extinction measurement in situ. The beauty of this technique is that a single experimental set up is able to do all these works at the same time. In this sense DHM can be used to establish a new kind of instrumentation having the properties of cost-effective, light-weight and portable. Besides this, this technique also has lots of useful applications in the field of aerosol research, climate modeling, life science, polymer crystallization, and defense. We are using DHM for sub-micron sized particle imaging, characterization and extinction. In this work, a particle is illuminated by a pulsed laser and the interference pattern produced by superposition of particle's forward-scattered wave with the incident wave is recorded by a digital camera. The recorded pattern constitutes a digital hologram which can be numerically processed to get image, composition information and extinction cross-section of the particle. These information of the particle are the basic requirements for the characterization of respirable-sized (1-10 μm) aerosols particles.

  14. Secondary electron measurement and XPS characterization of NEG coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. K. Sinha, Atul K. Gupta, Nidhi Nuwad, J. Jagannath, Gadkari, S. C. Singh, M. R. Gupta, S. K.

    2014-04-24

    Ternary alloy coatings of IVB and VB materials provide many of benefits over traditional material surfaces such as creation of extreme high vacuum(XHV), lower secondary electron yield(SEY), low photon desorption coefficient. XHV (pressure < 10{sup −10} mbar) is very useful to the study of surfaces of the material in as it is form, high energy particle accelerators(LHC, Photon Factories), synchrotrons (ESRF, Ellectra) etc.. Low secondary electron yield leads to very low multi-pacting utilizes to increase beam life time. In this paper preparation of the coatings and a study of secondary electron yield measurement after heating at different temperatures has been shown also results of their surface characterization based on shift in binding energy has been produced using the surface techniques XPS. Stoichiometry of the film was measured by Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX)

  15. Characterization measurements of ASC FLASH 3D ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Håkan; Gustafsson, Frank; Johnson, Bruce; Richmond, Richard; Armstrong, Ernest

    2009-09-01

    As a part of the project agreement between the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) and the United States of American's Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), a joint field trial was performed in Sweden during two weeks in January 2009. The main purpose for this trial was to characterize AFRL's latest version of the ASC (Advanced Scientific Concepts [1]) FLASH 3D LADAR sensor. The measurements were performed essentially in FOI´s optical hall whose 100 m indoor range offers measurements under controlled conditions minimizing effects such as atmospheric turbulence. Data were also acquired outdoor in both forest and urban scenarios, using vehicles and humans as targets, with the purpose of acquiring data from more dynamic platforms to assist in further algorithm development. This paper shows examples of the acquired data and presents initial results.

  16. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  17. Spectral characterization of dielectric materials using terahertz measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Jeffrey M.

    The performance of modern high frequency components and electronic systems are often limited by the properties of the materials from which they are made. Over the past decade, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of new, high performance dielectrics for use in high frequency systems. The development of these materials requires novel broadband characterization, instrumentation, and extraction techniques, from which models can be formulated. For this project several types of dielectric sheets were characterized at terahertz (THz) frequencies using quasi-optical (free-space) techniques. These measurement systems included a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS, scalar), a Time Domain Spectrometer (TDS, vector), a Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA), and a THz Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Using these instruments the THz spectral characteristics of dielectric samples were obtained. Polarization based anisotropy was observed in many of the materials measured using vector systems. The TDS was the most informative and flexible instrument for dielectric characterization at THz frequencies. To our knowledge, this is the first such comprehensive study to be performed. Anisotropy effects within materials that do not come into play at microwave frequencies (e.g. ~10 GHz) were found, in many cases, to increase measured losses at THz frequencies by up to an order of magnitude. The frequency dependent properties obtained during the course of this study included loss tangent, permittivity (index of refraction), and dielectric constant. The results were largely consistent between all the different systems and correlated closely to manufacturer specifications over a wide frequency range (325 GHz-1.5 THz). Anisotropic behavior was observed for some of the materials. Non-destructive evaluation and testing (NDE/NDT) techniques were used throughout. A precision test fixture was developed to accomplish these measurements. Time delay, insertion loss, and S-parameters were

  18. Characterization Of Multilayer X-Ray Analyzers: Models And Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, B. L.; Uejio, J. Y.; Yamada, H. T.; Tackaberry, R. E.

    1986-08-01

    A procedure is described for a detailed characterization of multilayer analyzers that can be effectively applied to their design, optimization, and application for absolute x-ray spectrometry in the 100 to 10,000 eV photon energy region. An accurate analytical model has been developed that is based upon a simple modification of the dynamical Darwin-Prins theory to extend its application to finite multilayer systems and to the low energy x-ray region. Its equivalence to the optical E&M solution of the Fresnel equations at each interface is demonstrated by detailed comparisons for the reflectivity of a multilayer throughout the angular range of incidence of 0° to 90°. A special spectrograph and an experimental method are described for the measurement of the absolute reflectivity characteristics of the multilayer. The experimental measurements at three photon energies in the 100 to 2000 eV region are fit by the analytical modified Darwin-Prins equation (MDP) for 1(0), generating a detailed characterization of two state-of-the-art multilayers: sputtered tungsten-carbon with 2d 70 A and a molecular lead stearate with 2d 100 A. The fitting parameters that are determined by this procedure are applied to help establish the structural characteristics of these multilayers.

  19. Characterizing GEO Titan Transtage Fragmentations using Ground-based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Anz-Meador, P.

    2016-01-01

    In a continued effort to better characterize the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) environment, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) utilizes various ground-based optical assets to acquire photometric and spectral data of known debris associated with fragmentations in or near GEO. The Titan IIIC Transtage upper stage is known to have fragmented four times. Two of the four fragmentations were in GEO while a third Transtage fragmented in GEO transfer orbit. The forth fragmentation occurred in Low Earth Orbit. In order to better assess what may be causing these fragmentations, the NASA ODPO recently acquired a Titan Transtage test and display article that was previously in the custody of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) in Tucson, Arizona. After initial inspections at AMARG demonstrated that the test article was of sufficient fidelity to be of interest, the test article was brought to JSC to continue material analysis and historical documentation of the Titan Transtage. The Transtage will be a subject of forensic analysis using spectral measurements to compare with telescopic data; as well, a scale model will be created to use in the Optical Measurement Center for photometric analysis of an intact Transtage, including a BRDF. The following presentation will provide a review of the Titan Transtage, the current analysis that has been done to date, and the future work to be completed in support of characterizing the GEO and near GEO orbital debris environment.

  20. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on

  1. Spectroscopic measurements and characterization of soft tissue phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Ipus, Erick

    2013-02-01

    Tissue phantoms are important tools to calibrate and validate light propagation effects, measurements and diagnostic test in real biological soft tissue. We produce low cost phantoms using standard commercial jelly, distillated water, glycerol and a 20% lipid emulsion (Oliclinomel N7-1000 ®) was used in place of the usual Intralipid®. In a previous work we designed a protocol to elaborate high purity phantoms which can be used over months. We produced three different types of phantoms regarding the lipid emulsion - glycerol - gelatin - water composition: Pure gelatin phantoms, lipid in glycerol, and lipid in gelatin phantoms were produced and different concentrations of the lipid emulsion were used to study optical propagation properties of diffusive mixtures. Besides, 1.09 μm poly latex spheres in distilled water were used to produce reference phantoms. In order to use all the phantom sides, the phantoms were produced in disposable spectrometer cuvettes, designed for fluorescence studies. Measurements were performed using an OceanOptics 4000 channels spectrophotometer and integrating spheres. For the scattering measurements a homemade goniometer with a high resolution angular scale was used and the scattering detector was a linear array of optical fibers, with an angular collimator, connected to the spectrophotometer. White LED was used as light source, and the 6328.8 nm HeNe Laser was used for calibration. In this work we present characterization measurements for gelatin and microspheres phantoms using spectral reflectance, diffuse and direct spectral transmittance, and angle scattering measurements. The results of these measurements and their comparison are presented.

  2. Characterizing the kinetics of suspended cylindrical particles by polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ran; Ou, Xueheng; Ma, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Polarization has promising potential to retrieve the information of the steady samples, such as tissues. However, for the fast changing sample such as the suspended algae in the water, the kinetics of the particles also influence the scattered polarization. The present paper will show our recent results to extract the information about the kinetics of the suspended cylindrical particles by polarization measurements. The sample is the aqueous suspension of the glass fibers stirred by a magnetic stirrer. We measure the scattered polarization of the fibers by use of a simultaneous polarization measurement system and obtain the time series of two orthogonal polarization components. By use of correlation analysis, we obtain the time parameters from the auto-correlation functions of the polarization components, and observe the changes with the stirring speeds. Results show that these time parameters indicate the immigration of the fibers. After discussion, we find that they may further characterize the kinetics, including the translation and rotation, of the glass fibers in the fluid field.

  3. Damping capacity measurements for characterization of degradation in advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mantena, R.; Gibson, R.F.; Place, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the application of damping capacity measurements for characterization of degradation in advanced materials. A recently developed impulse-frequency response technique was used to obtain damping capacity measurements on crossplied E-glass/epoxy laminates which had been subjected to four-point bending and cantilever bending to produce matrix cracking in the transverse plies. The size and location of the damage zone were correlated with changes in damping. With the expected introduction of Rapidly Solidified Alloys (RSA) as effective alternatives to conventional materials, the applicability of damping capacity measurements as a nondestructive means of evaluating degradation in these materials was also studied. A conventional A710 structural steel having three different microstructures was used for developing the methodology to be used later on RSA specimens. It is shown that damping is more sensitive to matrix cracking than stiffness is in E-glass/epoxy composite specimens. In the case of A710 steel, the damping changes at low strain, though significant, do not correlate with the mechanical property data. Damping data at high strains does correlate with the mechanical property data, however.

  4. High heat flux measurements and experimental calibrations/characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Carl T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in techniques employed in the measurement of very high heat-transfer rates in reentry-type facilities at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is described. These advances include thermal analyses applied to transducer concepts used to make these measurements; improved heat-flux sensor fabrication methods, equipment, and procedures for determining the experimental time response of individual sensors; performance of absolute heat-flux calibrations at levels above 2,000 Btu/cu ft-sec (2.27 kW/cu cm); and innovative methods of performing in-situ run-to-run characterizations of heat-flux probes installed in the test facility. Graphical illustrations of the results of extensive thermal analyses of the null-point calorimeter and coaxial surface thermocouple concepts with application to measurements in aerothermal test environments are presented. Results of time response experiments and absolute calibrations of null-point calorimeters and coaxial thermocouples performed in the laboratory at intermediate to high heat-flux levels are shown. Typical AEDC high-enthalpy arc heater heat-flux data recently obtained with a Calspan-fabricated null-point probe model are included.

  5. Low baseline startle in anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Bellodi, Laura; Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Galimberti, Elisa; Cavallini, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-10

    This study examined baseline startle magnitude, using eye blink response and skin conductance response in anorexia nervosa patients. Twenty female in-patients with anorexia nervosa and an equal number of female healthy controls were tested. Baseline startle response was assessed during blank screens while four startling loud sounds (a 116 dB, 1s, 250 Hz tone) were delivered with a time interval ranging from 35 to 55 s. It was investigated if BMI and state anxiety correlated with physiological responses. The clinical sample showed a lower baseline startle reflex measured with both indices, than healthy controls. Across the whole sample, a single regression model partially explained the relationship between BMI and baseline skin conductance response. PMID:22954471

  6. Measurement, characterization, and prediction of strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, William; Boore, David M.

    1988-01-01

    A number of predictive relationships derived from regression analysis of strong-motion data are available for horizontal peak acceleration, velocity, and response spectral values. Theoretical prediction of ground motion calls for stochastic source models because source heterogeneities control the amplitude of ground motion at most, if not all, frequencies of engineering interest. Theoretical methods have been developed for estimation of ground-motion parameters and simulation of ground-motion time series. These methods are particularly helpful for regions such, as eastern North America where strong-motion data are sparse. The authors survey the field, first reviewing developments in ground-motion measurement and data processing. The authors then consider the choice of parameters for characterizing strong ground motion and describe the wave-types involved in strong ground motion and the factors affecting ground-motion amplitudes. They conclude by describing methods for predicting ground motion.

  7. Compound-Specific δ15N Amino Acid Measurements in Littoral Mussels in the California Upwelling Ecosystem: A New Approach to Generating Baseline δ15N Isoscapes for Coastal Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Vokhshoori, Natasha L.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    We explored δ15N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA) in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ15N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE), determining bulk δ15N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ15N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼7‰ to ∼12‰, R2 = 0.759). In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ15N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ15N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ15N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC), with15N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ15N values of phenylalanine (δ15NPhe), the best AA proxy for baseline δ15N values. We hypothesize δ15NPhe values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ15N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ15NPhe values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ15N values. We propose that δ15NPhe isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ15N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives. PMID:24887109

  8. A comparison between Lageos laser ranging and VLBI determined baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, R.; Ryan, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Two independent measurement techniques, Lageos satellite laser ranging (SLR), and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) are compared in the measurement of distances (or baselines) between several locations in the continental U.S. The results of this analysis is summarized where both the SLR and VLBI baseline lengths and their differences (SLR minus VLBI) are presented. A comparison of the 22 baselines shows a mean difference of 1.0 + or - 1.1 cm with a scatter about zero of 5.2 cm. No apparent systematic scale difference between the networks is evident. A map of the baselines is included and indicates their differences, SLR minus VLBI, in centimeters.

  9. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Burjánek, Jan; Fäh, Donat

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. Analysing unstable rock slopes by means of ambient vibrations might be a new alternative to the already existing methods as for example geotechnical displacement measurements. A systematic measurement campaign has been initiated recently in Switzerland in order to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. First results are presented in this contribution. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. During each measurement a reference station was installed on a stable part close to the instability. The total number of stations used varies from 16 down to 2, depending on the site scope and resource availability. Instable rock slopes show a highly directional ground motion which is significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies which are identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. The eigenfrequencies and predominant directions have been estimated by frequency dependent polarization analysis. Site-to-reference spectral ratios have been calculated as well in order to estimate the relative amplification of ground motion at unstable parts. The retrieved results were compared with independent in-situ observations and other available data. The directions of maximum amplification are in most cases perpendicular to open cracks mapped on the surface and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. The interpretation of the observed wave field is done through numerical modelling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex

  10. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  11. Measurement and Characterization of Apoptosis by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William; Tamul, Karen; Bradford, Jolene

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism in cell biology, playing a critical regulatory role in virtually every organ system. It has been particularly well characterized in the immune system, with roles ranging from immature immune cell development and selection to down-regulation of the mature immune response. Apoptosis is also the primary mechanism of action of anti-cancer drugs. Flow cytometry has been the method of choice for analyzing apoptosis in suspension cells for more than 25 years. Numerous assays have been devised to measure both the earliest and latest steps in the apoptotic process, from the earliest signal-transduction events to the late morphological changes in cell shape and granularity, proteolysis, and chromatin condensation. These assays are particularly powerful when combined into multicolor assays determining several apoptotic characteristics simultaneously. The multiparametric nature of flow cytometry makes this technology particularly suited to measuring apoptosis. In this unit, we will describe the four main techniques for analyzing caspase activity in apoptotic cells, combined with annexin V and cell permeability analysis. These relatively simple multiparametric assays are powerful techniques for assessing cell death. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367289

  12. Combining Remote Sensing with in situ Measurements for Riverine Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, J.; Palmsten, M. L.; Simeonov, J.; Dobson, D. W.; Zarske, K.; Puleo, J. A.; Holland, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    At the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory we are employing a wide variety of novel remote sensing techniques combined with traditional in situ sampling to characterize riverine hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Surface currents were estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) using imagery from visible to infrared bands, from both fixed and airborne platforms. Terrestrial LIDAR has been used for subaerial mapping from a fixed platform. Additionally, LIDAR has been combined with hydrographic surveying (multibeam) in mobile scanning mode using a small boat. Hydrographic surveying (side scan) has also been performed using underwater autonomous vehicles. Surface drifters have been deployed in combination with a remotely operated, floating acoustic Doppler current profiler. Other fixed platform, in situ sensors, such as pencil beam and sector scanning sonars, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and water level sensors have been deployed. We will present an overview of a variety of measurements from different rivers around the world focusing on validation examples of remotely sensed quantities with more traditional in situ measurements. Finally, we will discuss long-term goals to use remotely sensed data within an integrated environmental modeling framework.

  13. Correlation of the Coronal Mass Ejection Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images show qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions where the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. We present measurements from active region vector magnetograms that start to quantify the dependence of an active region's CME productivity on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we measured the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three separate measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line: I(sub N), the net electric current connecting one polarity to the other; and alpha = (mu)I(sub N)/phi), a flux normalized measure of the field twist). From these measurements and the observed CME productivity of the active regions, we find that: (1) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are statistically correlated with the active region flux content and with each other; (2) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are significantly correlated with CME productivity. The flux content correlates with CME productivity, but at a lower statistically significant confidence level (less than 95%); (3) The net current is less closely correlated with CME productivity than alpha and the correlation of CME productivity with flux content is even weaker. If these differences in correlation strength, and a significant correlation of alpha with flux content, persist to larger active regions, this would imply that the size of active regions does not affect CME productivity except through global nonpotentiality; and (4) For each of the four global magnetic quantities, the correlation with CME productivity is stronger for a two-day time window for the CME production than for windows half as wide or twice as wide. This plausibly is a

  14. Therapeutic magnetic microcarriers characterization by measuring magnetophoretic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Ibacache, Guillermo

    Micro/nano robots are considered a promising approach to conduct minimally invasive interventions. We have proposed to embed magnetic nanoparticles in therapeutic or diagnostic agents in order to magnetically control them. A modified clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner is used to provide the driving force that allows these magnetically embedded microcarriers to navigate the vascular human network. By using specific Magnetic Resonance (MR) gradient sequences this method has been validated in previous research works. Magnetophoresis is the term used to describe the fact that a magnetic particle changes its trajectory under the influence of a magnetic force while being carried by a fluid flow. This movement depends on the particle's magnetic characteristics, the particle's geometric shape, the fluid flow's attributes and other factors. In our proposed method, magnetic microcarriers can be produced in several different ways, and so their response will differ to the same magnetic force and fluid flow conditions. The outcome of the therapeutic treatment using our method depends on the adequate selection of the therapeutic and/or diagnosis agents to be used. The selected therapeutic and/or diagnosis magnetic microcarrier also influences the selection of the MR gradient sequence that best fit for a given treatment. This master's thesis presents the design of a device intended to assess the magnetophoretic properties of magnetic therapeutic microcarriers and/or diagnostic agents. Such characterization is essential for determining the optimal sequences of magnetic gradients to deflect their trajectory through relatively complex vascular networks in order to reach a pre-defined target. A microfluidic device was fabricated to validate the design. Magnetophoretic velocities are measured and a simple tracking method is proposed. The preliminary experimental results indicate that, despite some limitations, the proposed technique has the potential to be appropriate

  15. Characterization, monitoring and imaging of biochar by geoelectrical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haegel, Franz-Hubert; Esser, Odilia; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.; Zimmermann, Egon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Linden, Andreas; Huisman, Johan A.; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a pyrolysis product or a by-product of fuel production from biological materials, mostly from energy plants, plant remains, or manure. Its addition to soil is discussed as a means of carbon sequestration and enhanced soil fertility, among several other beneficial effects. However, detrimental effects of biochar in soil are also discussed. The content of harmful substances, the influence of the material on microorganisms, and the modification of various soil properties may be critical. Although biochar has been intensively investigated in recent years, there is still a lack of knowledge due to the variability of soil and biochar properties, and the wide variety of experimental conditions used in these investigations. The properties of biochar strongly vary depending on the feed material and the production process. Therefore, it is of great interest to have methods which allow the characterization and long-term in-situ monitoring of biochar properties at different scales ranging from small laboratory columns to field sites. In this study, measurements on the complex electrical conductivity have been performed by spectral induced polarization (SIP). The method has been found to be a valuable tool for distinguishing different types of biochar and for monitoring the release of ions from biochar. SIP uses sinusoidal alternative current in the frequency range between 1 mHz and 45 kHz and provides information on the ohmic conductivity and on the electrical polarization of soil materials with added biochars. Whereas the release of ions leads to an increase of the ohmic conductivity, information on the chemical structure of biochars can be obtained from the polarization. Five types of biochar have been investigated in this study. The magnitude and the frequency dependence of the polarization can be used to distinguish the different types of biochar. Biochars with a larger degree of carbonization showed higher electronic conductivity and yielded higher polarization

  16. Objectively measured descriptors for perceptual characterization of speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necioglu, Burhan Fazil

    Speaker recognizability has long been identified as one component in the evaluation process of communications systems. Although the intelligibility and voice quality aspects of evaluation have taken relative precedence, with more widespread use of lower bit rate speech coders, speaker recognizability emerges as an additional major issue. Still, subjective testing of speaker recognizability is intricate, time consuming and very expensive; so potentially, using objectively measurable descriptors to augment the subjective speaker recognizability tests could result in increased efficiency and reliability. This thesis presents a variety of descriptors objectively extracted from the speech waveform that might be useful in characterizing and interpreting perceptual speaker differences. These descriptors belong to the three broad classes of prosodic, vocal tract and glottal properties of speech production, and include various measurements on pitch and energy contours, formant related statistics, average vocal tract length estimates, and glottal pulse parameters. To assess the potential for this large set of speech waveform descriptors, reliability, RMS measurement noise and strength of speaker clustering were estimated using sets of 86 male and 78 female TIMIT speakers. The actual speaker discrimination abilities of the descriptors were determined by maximum-likelihood same/different classification of speaker pairs using their utterance pair measurement distances, without the need to model individual speakers. Using pairs of utterances approximately 12 seconds in length, and combining the likelihood scores of ten descriptors from all three broad classes, it was possible to make zero same-speaker classification errors, while achieving a different-speaker classification error rate of less than 1%, on separate testing/training speaker sets. When utterance lengths were reduced by half, the average error rate stayed below 4%. The perceptual relevance of this set of descriptors

  17. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements

  18. Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from physical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Stephanie M. Wagner, Louis K.; Brateman, Libby F.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: That scattered radiation negatively impacts the quality of medical radiographic imaging is well known. In mammography, even slight amounts of scatter reduce the high contrast required for subtle soft-tissue imaging. In current clinical mammography, image contrast is partially improved by use of an antiscatter grid. This form of scatter rejection comes with a sizeable dose penalty related to the concomitant elimination of valuable primary radiation. Digital mammography allows the use of image processing as a method of scatter correction that might avoid effects that negatively impact primary radiation, while potentially providing more contrast improvement than is currently possible with a grid. For this approach to be feasible, a detailed characterization of the scatter is needed. Previous research has modeled scatter as a constant background that serves as a DC bias across the imaging surface. The goal of this study was to provide a more substantive data set for characterizing the spatially-variant features of scatter radiation at the image detector of modern mammography units. Methods: This data set was acquired from a model of the radiation beam as a matrix of very narrow rays or pencil beams. As each pencil beam penetrates tissue, the pencil widens in a predictable manner due to the production of scatter. The resultant spreading of the pencil beam at the detector surface can be characterized by two parameters: mean radial extent (MRE) and scatter fraction (SF). The SF and MRE were calculated from measurements obtained using the beam stop method. Two digital mammography units were utilized, and the SF and MRE were found as functions of target, filter, tube potential, phantom thickness, and presence or absence of a grid. These values were then used to generate general equations allowing the SF and MRE to be calculated for any combination of the above parameters. Results: With a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of about 0.05 to a maximum of about 0

  19. Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In planning an x-ray imaging experiment one must have an accurate model of the imaging system to obtain optimum results. The blurring caused by the finite size of the x-ray source is often the least understood element in the system. We have developed experimental and analytical methods permitting accurate measurement and modeling of the x-ray source. The model offers a simple and accurate way to optimize the radiographic geometry for any given experimental requirement (i.e., resolution and dose at detector). Any text on radiography will mention the effects of the finite size of the x-ray source on image quality and how one can minimize this influence by the choice of a small radiographic magnification. The film blur (independent of the source blur) is often treated as a single number and combined with an effective blur dimension for the x-ray source to give a total blur on the film. In this paper, we will develop a treatment of x-ray sources based on the modulation transfer function (MTF). This approach allows us to infer the spatial distribution function of the electron beam that produces the bremsstrahlung x-rays and to predict the performance of an x-ray imaging system if we know the MTF of the detector. This treatment is much more accurate than a single number characterization. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Characterization of gaseous effluents from modeling of LWIR hyperspectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Michael K.; Kerekes, John P.; Farrar, Kristine E.; Burke, Hsiao-hua K.

    2001-08-01

    Longwave Infrared (LWIR) radiation comprising atmospheric and surface emissions provides information for a number of applications including atmospheric profiling, surface temperature and emissivity estimation, and cloud depiction and characterization. The LWIR spectrum also contains absorption lines for numerous molecular species which can be utilized in quantifying species amounts. Modeling the absorption and emission from gaseous species using various radiative transfer codes such as MODTRAN-4 and FASE (a follow-on to the line-by-line radiative transfer code FASCODE) provides insight into the radiative signature of these elements as viewed from an airborne or space-borne platform and provides a basis for analysis of LWIR hyperspectral measurements. In this study, a model platform was developed for the investigation of the passive outgoing radiance from a scene containing an effluent plume layer. The effects of various scene and model parameters including ambient and plume temperatures, plume concentration, as well as the surface temperature and emissivity on the outgoing radiance were estimated. A simple equation relating the various components of the outgoing radiance was used to study the scale of the component contributions. A number of examples were given depicting the spectral radiance from plumes composed of single or multiple effluent gases as would be observed by typical airborne sensors. The issue of detectability and spectral identification was also discussed.

  1. Auxiliary measures to assess factors related to food insecurity: Preliminary testing and baseline characteristics of newly designed hunger-coping scales.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Courtney; Smith, Teresa M; Calloway, Eric E; Fricke, Hollyanne E; Bertmann, Farryl M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development and preliminary testing of new scales to assess hunger-coping behaviors in a very low-income population. Very low-income adults (≥ 19 years), caregivers to at least one child (n = 306) completed a survey in a community setting (e.g., libraries). The survey included novel items assessing hunger-coping behaviors (e.g., trade-offs to purchase food, strategies to stretch and obtain food), food insecurity status, and physiological hunger. Internal consistency of hunger-coping scales, one-way ANOVAs, post-hoc analyses, Spearman's correlations among variables. Respondents were 75% female, 51% African American, 34% White, and 15% Hispanic, and 73% earned <$20,000/year. Four scales emerged: hunger-coping trade-offs, financial coping strategies, rationing coping strategies, and physiological adult hunger symptoms. All scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α/KR-20 = 0.70-0.90). Predictive, construct, and content validity were demonstrated by correlations between hunger-coping scales and food insecurity (FI), measured with the USDA 6-item HFSSM (rs = 0.42-0.68, ps < 0.001). Higher levels of hunger-coping trade-offs (F(2,297) = 42.54, p < 0.001), financial coping strategies (F(2,287) = 70.77, p < 0.001), and rationing coping strategies (F(2,284) = 69.19, p < 0.001), corresponded with increasing levels of FI. These preliminary results support use of newly developed hunger-coping scales in a very low-income population and can compliment traditional food security measures to inform hunger prevention policy and programming. PMID:27462530

  2. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  3. Lunar science measurements and instruments for resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.

    1992-12-31

    Resource characterization is a requirement for effective production of any product from planetary materials, whether that product is to be used locally or exported. The characterization required is not necessarily costly or extensive; for example, our current knowledge of lunar regolith is probably sufficient for it to be used immediately for shielding purposes. However, other products from regolith (e.g., oxygen and solar-wind gases) will require more thorough and particularly site-specific resource characterization before actual production commences. If global maps of the Moon are obtained by some combination of gamma ray, reflectance, X-ray fluorescence, and/or imaging methods, the task of targeting resource sites will be considerably improved. Once these sites are selected, however, they must be characterized on the ground. The product of this characterization should be useable maps that will maximize the product output and minimize wasted energy and effort.

  4. Lunar science measurements and instruments for resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.

    1992-01-01

    Resource characterization is a requirement for effective production of any product from planetary materials, whether that product is to be used locally or exported. The characterization required is not necessarily costly or extensive; for example, our current knowledge of lunar regolith is probably sufficient for it to be used immediately for shielding purposes. However, other products from regolith (e.g., oxygen and solar-wind gases) will require more thorough and particularly site-specific resource characterization before actual production commences. If global maps of the Moon are obtained by some combination of gamma ray, reflectance, X-ray fluorescence, and/or imaging methods, the task of targeting resource sites will be considerably improved. Once these sites are selected, however, they must be characterized on the ground. The product of this characterization should be useable maps that will maximize the product output and minimize wasted energy and effort.

  5. The Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Leslie

    2015-10-15

    The Fermilab short-baseline program is a multi-facetted one. Primarily it searches for evidence of sterile neutrinos as hinted at by the MiniBooNE and LSND results. It will also measure a whole suite of ν-Argon cross sections which will be very useful in future liquid argon long-baseline projects. The program is based on MicroBooNE, already installed in the beam line, the recently approved LAr1-ND and the future addition of the refurbished ICARUS.

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  7. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  8. 100-D Area technical baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.W.

    1993-08-20

    This document is prepared in support of the 100 Area Environmental Restoration activity at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of waste sites located at the 100-D Area. The report is based on an environmental investigation undertaken by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) History Office in support of the Environmental Restoration Engineering Function and on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings, and photographs, supplemented by site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigation or sampling was conducted. All Hanford coordinate locations are approximate locations taken from several different maps and drawings of the 100-D Area. Every effort was made to derive coordinate locations for the center of each facility or waste site, except where noted, using standard measuring devices. Units of measure are shown as they appear in reference documents. The 100-D Area is made up of three operable units: 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, and 100-DR-3. All three are addressed in this report. These operable units include liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, the 100-D and 100-DR Reactors. A fourth operable unit, 100-HR-3, is concerned with groundwater and is not addressed here. This report describes waste sites which include cribs, trenches, pits, french drains, retention basins, solid waste burial grounds, septic tanks, and drain fields. Each waste site is described separately and photographs are provided where available. A complete list of photographs can be found in Appendix A. A comprehensive environmental summary is not provided here but may be found in Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act Characterization (Cushing 1988), which describes the geology and soils, meteorology, hydrology, land use, population, and air quality of the area.

  9. Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements

    SciTech Connect

    ZAIDI,SALEEM H.

    2000-04-01

    Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to

  10. Characterization and measurement of hybrid gas journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Tom Marquis

    This thesis concentrates on the study of hybrid gas journal bearings (bearings with externally pressurized mass addition). It differs from most work in that it goes back to "basics" to explore the hydrodynamic phenomena in the bearing gap. The thesis compares geometrically identical bearings with 2 configurations of external pressurization, porous liners where mass-addition compensation is varied by varying the liner's permeability, and bushings with 2 rows of 6 feedholes where the mass-addition compensation is varied by the feedhole diameter. Experimentally, prototype bearings with mass-addition compensation that spans 2 orders of magnitude with differing clearances are built and their aerostatic properties and mass addition characteristics are thoroughly tested. The fundamental equations for compressible, laminar, Poiseuille flow are used to suggest how the mass flow "compensation" should be mathematically modeled. This is back-checked against the experimental mass flow measurements and is used to determine a mass-addition compensation parameter (called Kmeas) for each prototype bushing. In so doing, the methodology of modeling and measuring the mass addition in a hybrid gas bearing is re-examined and an innovative, practical, and simple method is found that makes it possible to make an "apples-to-apples" comparison between different configurations of external pressurization. This mass addition model is used in conjunction with the Reynolds equation to perform theory-based numerical analysis of virtual hybrid gas journal bearings (CFD experiments). The first CFD experiments performed use virtual bearings modeled to be identical to the experimental prototypes and replicate the experimental work. The results are compared and the CFD model is validated. The ontological significance of appropriate dimensionless similitude parameters is re-examined and a, previously lacking, complete set of similitude factors is found for hybrid bearings. A new practical method is

  11. Microgravity acceleration measurement and environment characterization science (17-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is a general purpose instrumentation system designed to measure the accelerations onboard the Shuttle Orbiter and Shuttle/Spacelab vehicles. These measurements are used to support microgravity experiments and investigation into the microgravity environment of the vehicle. Acceleration measurements can be made at locations remote from the SAMS main instrumentation unit by the use of up to three remote triaxial sensor heads. The prime objective for SAMS on the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission will be to measure the accelerations experienced by the Fluid Experiment System (FES). The SAMS acceleration measurements for FES will be complemented by low level, low frequency acceleration measurements made by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) installed on the shuttle. Secondary objectives for SAMS will be to measure accelerations at several specific locations to enable the acceleration transfer function of the Spacelab module to be analyzed. This analysis effort will be in conjunction with similar measurements analyses on other Spacelab missions.

  12. Evaluation of current tropospheric mapping functions by Deep Space Network very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark 3 intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, through the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  13. Evaluation of current tropospheric mapping functions by Deep Space Network very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-11-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark 3 intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, through the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  14. Vibrational mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy using a fiber laser probe: asymptotic limit in signal-to-baseline contrast.

    PubMed

    Totachawattana, Atcha; Liu, Hui; Mertiri, Alket; Hong, Mi K; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Sander, Michelle Y

    2016-01-01

    We report on a mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy system with a near-infrared fiber probe laser and a tunable quantum cascade pump laser. Photothermal spectra of a 6 μm-thick 4-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal sample are measured with a signal-to-baseline contrast above 103. As both the peak photothermal signal and the corresponding baseline increase linearly with probe power, the signal-to-baseline contrast converges to an asymptotic limit for a given pump power. This limit is independent of the probe power and characterizes the best contrast achievable for the system. This enables sensitive quantitative spectral characterization of linear infrared absorption features directly from photothermal spectroscopy measurements. PMID:26696188

  15. Reservoir characterization combining elastic velocities and electrical resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Carmen Teresa

    2009-12-01

    The elastic and electric parameters of rocks that can be obtained from seismic and electromagnetic data depend on porosity, texture, mineralogy, and fluid. However, seismic data seldom allow us to accurately quantify hydrocarbon saturation. On the other hand, in the case of common reservoir rocks (i.e., sandstones and carbonates), resistivity strongly depends on porosity and saturation. Therefore, the recent progress of controlled-source-electromagnetic (CSEM) methods opens new possibilities in identifying and quantifying potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, although its resolution is much lower than that of seismic data. Hence, a combination of seismic and CSEM data arguably offers a powerful means of finally resolving the problem of remote sensing of saturation. The question is how to combine the two data sources (elastic data and electrical resistivity data) to better characterize a reservoir. To address this question, we introduce the concept of P-wave impedance and resistivity templates as a tool to estimate porosity and saturation from well log data. Adequate elastic and resistivity models, according to the lithology, cementation, fluid properties must be chosen to construct these templates. These templates can be upscaled to seismic and CSEM scale using Backus average for seismic data, and total resistance for CSEM data. We also measured velocity and resistivity in Fontainebleau samples in the laboratory. Fontainebleau formation corresponds to clean sandstones (i.e., low clay content). We derived an empirical relation between these P-wave velocity and resistivity at 40MPa effective pressure, which is around 3 km depth at normal pressure gradients. We were not able to test if this relation could be used at well or field data scales (once appropriate upscaling was applied), since we did not have a field dataset over a stiff sandstone reservoir. A relationship between velocity and resistivity laboratory data was also found for a set of carbonates. This expression

  16. Process Development and Integration Lab (PDIL) + Measurements and Characterization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.

    2008-04-01

    The Process Development and Integration Lab (PDIL) Vision is to integrate deposition, characterization, and processing by being flexible and robust; having a standardized transfer interface; and controlled sample ambient between tools. The benefits are: (1) answers to previously inaccessible research questions; (2) control and characterization of critical surfaces (interfaces) and how their impact on subsequent layers; (3) assess process-related source chemistry, surface chemistry and kinetics, and bulk reconstruction; (4) grow layers and alter interfaces using controlled processes and transfer ambients (without exposure to air); (5) develop new techniques, methodologies, device structures, materials, and tools (growth, processing, and analytical); and (6) improved collaborations with university and industry researchers.

  17. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  18. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle-contrast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development. Currently, FPDs are present in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surface which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider images shown in these types of displays to have more vivid colours compared with matte-screen displays. However, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections on the glossy screens. These reflections can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface of FPDs. In this work, we present a method to characterize the front surface of FPDs using laser speckle patterns. We characterized three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23" with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 laptop of 15.4" with glossy screen, and a Papyre electronic book reader. The results show great differences in speckle contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs which have different types of front surfaces.

  19. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  20. Characterizing the uncertainty in holddown post load measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J. A.; Townsend, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand unexpectedly erratic load measurements in the launch-pad supports for the space shuttle, the sensitivities of the load cells in the supports were analyzed using simple probabilistic techniques. NASA engineers use the loads in the shuttle's supports to calculate critical stresses in the shuttle vehicle just before lift-off. The support loads are measured with 'load cells' which are actually structural components of the mobile launch platform which have been instrumented with strain gauges. Although these load cells adequately measure vertical loads, the horizontal load measurements have been erratic. The load measurements were simulated in this study using Monte Carlo simulation procedures. The simulation studies showed that the support loads are sensitive to small deviations in strain and calibration. In their current configuration, the load cells will not measure loads with sufficient accuracy to reliably calculate stresses in the shuttle vehicle. A simplified model of the holddown post (HDP) load measurement system was used to study the effect on load measurement accuracy for several factors, including load point deviations, gauge heights, and HDP geometry.

  1. Measurement and Characterization of Nuclear Material at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester

    2009-07-01

    A measurement plan and preliminary Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the investigation of well-defined mixed-oxide fuel pins. Measurement analysis including pulse-height distributions and time-dependent cross-correlation functions will be performed separately for neutrons and gamma rays. The utilization of Monte Carlo particle transport codes, specifically MCNP-PoliMi, is discussed in conjunction with the anticipated measurements. Four EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors with an accurate pulse timing and digital, offline, optimized pulse-shape discrimination method will be used to prove the dependency of pulse-height distributions, cross-correlation functions, and material multiplicities upon fuel pin composition, fuel pin quantity, and detector geometry. The objective of the measurements and simulations is to identify novel methods for describing mixed-oxide fuel samples by relating measured quantities to fuel characteristics such as criticality, mass quantity, and material composition. This research has applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation.

  2. Characterizing Decades of Cloud Measurements from Combined ARM Profiling Radar and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Jensen, M. P.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Wang, M.; Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has continuously operated profiling cloud radars and micropulse lidars at five fixed sites, for periods ranging from eight to nineteen years. The sites include the U.S. southern Great Plains, the Alaska North Slope and three Tropical Western Pacific locations. The radar and lidar observations, along with ceilometer and precipitation measurements, have been synthesized using ARM's Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) value-added product, which provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate radar reflectivities, mean Doppler velocities and spectral widths. The product's time resolution ranges from 10 seconds down to 4 seconds, with height resolution of 45 meters or better. Through its use in retrievals of cloud microphysics and dynamics, this high-resolution, long-term data set has the potential to make major contributions toward improved cloud representations in climate models and the understanding of cloud processes. However, it is essential that data set quality and accuracy be assessed and made available to data users in order to maximize utility and reliability. In this study, we apply a variety of approaches to characterize observation quality throughout the ARSCL data record at each site. We describe instrument availability and radar operating status and possible issues. We track radar sensitivity as a function of time through cirrus detection statistics as well as changes in radar signal saturation level over time. We also examine noise and insect clutter reflectivity levels as possible surrogates for radar calibration changes. Through these and other techniques, we assess the most and least reliable time periods for each instrumented site and provide valuable guidance to potential data users, for both case-study research and long-term climatological applications.

  3. PSF and MTF measurement methods for thick CCD sensor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takacs, P. Z.; Kotov, I.; Frank, J.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) of the sensors to be used in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) camera is essential for optimal extraction of subtle galaxy shape distortions caused by gravitational weak lensing. We have developed a number of techniques for measuring the PSF of candidate CCD sensors to be used in the LSST camera, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The two main optical PSF measurement techniques that we use are the direct Virtual Knife Edge (VKE) scan as developed by Karcher, et al.1 and the indirect interference fringe method after Andersen and Sorensen2 that measures the modulation transfer function (MTF) directly. The PSF is derived from the MTF by Fourier transform. Other non-optical PSF measurement techniques that we employ include 55Fe x-ray cluster image size measurements and statistical distribution analysis, and cosmic ray muon track size measurements, but are not addressed here. The VKE technique utilizes a diffraction-limited spot produced by a Point-Projection Microscope (PPM) that is scanned across the sensor with sub-pixel resolution. This technique closely simulates the actual operating condition of the sensor in the telescope with the source spot size having an f/# close to the actual telescope design value. The interference fringe method uses a simple equal-optical-path Michelson-type interferometer with a single-mode fiber source that produces interference fringes with 100% contrast over a wide spatial frequency range sufficient to measure the MTF of the sensor directly. The merits of each measurement technique and results from the various measurement techniques on prototype LSST sensors are presented and compared.

  4. PSF and MTF Measurement Methods for Thick CCD Sensor Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Kotov, I.; Frank, J.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Lawrence, D.M.

    2010-06-30

    Knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) of the sensors to be used in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) camera is essential for optimal extraction of subtle galaxy shape distortions caused by gravitational weak lensing. We have developed a number of techniques for measuring the PSF of candidate CCD sensors to be used in the LSST camera, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The two main optical PSF measurement techniques that we use are the direct Virtual Knife Edge (VKE) scan as developed by Karcher, et al. and the indirect interference fringe method after Andersen and Sorensen that measures the modulation transfer function (MTF) directly. The PSF is derived from the MTF by Fourier transform. Other non-optical PSF measurement techniques that we employ include {sup 55}Fe x-ray cluster image size measurements and statistical distribution analysis, and cosmic ray muon track size measurements, but are not addressed here. The VKE technique utilizes a diffraction-limited spot produced by a Point-Projection Microscope (PPM) that is scanned across the sensor with sub-pixel resolution. This technique closely simulates the actual operating condition of the sensor in the telescope with the source spot size having an f/number close to the actual telescope design value. The interference fringe method uses a simple equal-optical-path Michelson-type interferometer with a single-mode fiber source that produces interference fringes with 100% contrast over a wide spatial frequency range sufficient to measure the MTF of the sensor directly. The merits of each measurement technique and results from the various measurement techniques on prototype LSST sensors are presented and compared.

  5. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

  6. Four-point potential drop measurements for materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The technique of measuring the voltage difference (potential drop) between two of the four electrodes of a four-point probe, in order to determine conductivity or surface resistivity of a test piece, is well established in the direct-current (dc) or quasi-dc regime. The technique finds wide usage in the semiconductor industry for the purpose of measuring surface resistivity of semiconductors, and also in the measurement of conductivity of metals, particularly of ferromagnetic metals for which conductivity cannot be easily measured using eddy-current nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In these applications, the conductivity of the test piece is deduced from an analytic formula that depends on the geometry of the probe and test piece. Such a formula requires, as an input, the measured value of the potential drop. Several analytical expressions exist for a variety of test-piece geometries and probe arrangements. Recently, it has been shown that broadband measurements of the potential drop, known as 'alternating current potential drop' (ac PD) measurements, can be used not only to obtain the conductivity of a test piece, but also its linear permeability μ. The beauty of this measurement is that the two parameters are completely decoupled in the quasi-static regime. In fact, μ does not appear in the quasi-static expression for σ. Hence, σ may be obtained from low-frequency ac PD measurements and then μ may be deduced as the frequency increases beyond the quasi-static regime, once σ is known. In this review, both dc and ac solutions that are useful in determining the conductivity of metals and semiconductors, and the permeability of ferromagnetic conductors, are summarized. In particular, flat test pieces with arbitrary thickness are considered. At the next level of complexity, a solution for a half-space coated with a surface layer is given, along with a discussion of the use of the four-point potential drop method for determining thickness of a surface layer, such

  7. Characterization of measurement error sources in Doppler global velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2001-04-01

    Doppler global velocimetry uses the absorption characteristics of iodine vapour to provide instantaneous three-component measurements of flow velocity within a plane defined by a laser light sheet. Although the technology is straightforward, its utilization as a flow diagnostics tool requires hardening of the optical system and careful attention to detail during data acquisition and processing if routine use in wind tunnel applications is to be achieved. A development programme that reaches these goals is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted on each technology element to determine methods that increase measurement accuracy and repeatability. Enhancements resulting from these investigations included methods to ensure iodine vapour calibration stability, single frequency operation of the laser and image alignment to sub-pixel accuracies. Methods were also developed to improve system calibration, and eliminate spatial variations of optical frequency in the laser output, spatial variations in optical transmissivity and perspective and optical distortions in the data images. Each of these enhancements is described and experimental examples given to illustrate the improved measurement performance obtained by the enhancement. The culmination of this investigation was the measured velocity profile of a rotating wheel resulting in a 1.75% error in the mean with a standard deviation of 0.5 m s-1. Comparing measurements of a jet flow with corresponding Pitot measurements validated the use of these methods for flow field applications.

  8. Characterization of Measurement Error Sources in Doppler Global Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Doppler global velocimetry uses the absorption characteristics of iodine vapor to provide instantaneous three-component measurements of flow velocity within a plane defined by a laser light sheet. Although the technology is straightforward, its utilization as a flow diagnostics tool requires hardening of the optical system and careful attention to detail during data acquisition and processing if routine use in wind tunnel applications is to be achieved. A development program that reaches these goals is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted on each technology element to determine methods that increase measurement accuracy and repeatability. Enhancements resulting from these investigations included methods to ensure iodine vapor calibration stability, single frequency operation of the laser and image alignment to sub-pixel accuracies. Methods were also developed to improve system calibration, and eliminate spatial variations of optical frequency in the laser output, spatial variations in optical transmissivity and perspective and optical distortions in the data images. Each of these enhancements is described and experimental examples given to illustrate the improved measurement performance obtained by the enhancement. The culmination of this investigation was the measured velocity profile of a rotating wheel resulting in a 1.75% error in the mean with a standard deviation of 0.5 m/s. Comparing measurements of a jet flow with corresponding Pitot measurements validated the use of these methods for flow field applications.

  9. In vivo characterization of ischemic small intestine using bioimpedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Strand-Amundsen, R J; Tronstad, C; Kalvøy, H; Gundersen, Y; Krohn, C D; Aasen, A O; Holhjem, L; Reims, H M; Martinsen, Ø G; Høgetveit, J O; Ruud, T E; Tønnessen, T I

    2016-02-01

    The standard clinical method for the assessment of viability in ischemic small intestine is still visual inspection and palpation. This method is non-specific and unreliable, and requires a high level of clinical experience. Consequently, viable tissue might be removed, or irreversibly damaged tissue might be left in the body, which may both slow down patient recovery. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to measure changes in electrical parameters during ischemia in various tissues. The physical changes in the tissue at the cellular and structural levels after the onset of ischemia lead to time-variant changes in the electrical properties. We aimed to investigate the use of bioimpedance measurement to assess if the tissue is ischemic, and to assess the ischemic time duration. Measurements were performed on pigs (n = 7) using a novel two-electrode setup, with a Solartron 1260/1294 impedance gain-phase analyser. After induction of anaesthesia, an ischemic model with warm, full mesenteric arterial and venous occlusion on 30 cm of the jejunum was implemented. Electrodes were placed on the serosal surface of the ischemic jejunum, applying a constant voltage, and measuring the resulting electrical admittance. As a control, measurements were done on a fully perfused part of the jejunum in the same porcine model. The changes in tan δ (dielectric parameter), measured within a 6 h period of warm, full mesenteric occlusion ischemia in seven pigs, correlates with the onset and duration of ischemia. Tan δ measured in the ischemic part of the jejunum differed significantly from the control tissue, allowing us to determine if the tissue was ischemic or not (P < 0.0001, F = (1,75.13) 188.19). We also found that we could use tan δ to predict ischemic duration. This opens up the possibility of real-time monitoring and assessment of the presence and duration of small intestinal ischemia. PMID:26805916

  10. Characterizing dielectric tensors of anisotropic materials from a single measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paula Kay

    Ellipsometry techniques look at changes in polarization states to measure optical properties of thin film materials. A beam reflected from a substrate measures the real and imaginary parts of the index of the material represented as n and k, respectively. Measuring the substrate at several angles gives additional information that can be used to measure multilayer thin film stacks. However, the outstanding problem in standard ellipsometry is that it uses a limited number of incident polarization states (s and p). This limits the technique to isotropic materials. The technique discussed in this paper extends the standard process to measure anisotropic materials by using a larger set of incident polarization states. By using a polarimeter to generate several incident polarization states and measure the polarization properties of the sample, ellipsometry can be performed on biaxial materials. Use of an optimization algorithm in conjunction with biaxial ellipsometry can more accurately determine the dielectric tensor of individual layers in multilayer structures. Biaxial ellipsometry is a technique that measures the dielectric tensors of a biaxial substrate, single-layer thin film, or multi-layer structure. The dielectric tensor of a biaxial material consists of the real and imaginary parts of the three orthogonal principal indices (n x + ikx, ny +iky and nz + i kz) as well as three Euler angles (alpha, beta and gamma) to describe its orientation. The method utilized in this work measures an angle-of-incidence Mueller matrix from a Mueller matrix imaging polarimeter equipped with a pair of microscope objectives that have low polarization properties. To accurately determine the dielectric tensors for multilayer samples, the angle-of-incidence Mueller matrix images are collected for multiple wavelengths. This is done in either a transmission mode or a reflection mode, each incorporates an appropriate dispersion model. Given approximate a priori knowledge of the dielectric

  11. Aerothermodynamic Facilities And Measurement: Flow Characterization in Shock Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will examine the key performance aspects of shock tunnels as they relate to their use as aerothermodynamic flow simulation facilities. Assessment of shock tube reservoir conditions and flow contaminants generated in the shock tube will be presented along with their limiting impact on viable test envelopes, Facility nozzle performance as it pertains to test time assessment and nozzle exit flow quality (survey of pressure, temperature, and species) will be addressed. Also included will be a discussion of free stream flow diagnostics, both intrusive and nonintrusive, for measurement of critical flow properties not directly inferred from surface mounted transducers. The use of computational fluid dynamics for purposes of validating experimental measurements as well as predicting performance in regimes where measurements are not feasible or possible will be discussed. The use of CFD for facility research and design will also be presented.

  12. Specific conductance measurements in central and western New York streams - A retrospective characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Sinclair, Gaylen J.; Reddy, James E.; Eckhardt, David A.; deVries, M. Peter; Phillips, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Rescue Program funds were used to recover data from paper records for 139 streamgages across central and western New York State; 6,133 different streamflow measurement forms, collected between 1970-80, contained field water-quality measurements. The water-quality data were entered, reviewed, and uploaded into the USGS National Water Information System. In total, 4,285 unique site visits were added to the database. The new values represent baseline water quality from which to measure change and will lead to a comparison of water-quality change over the last 40 years and into the future. Specific conductance was one of the measured properties and represents a simple way to determine if ambient inorganic water quality has been altered by anthropogenic (road salt runoff, wastewater discharges, or natural gas development) or natural sources. The objective of this report is to describe ambient specific conductance characteristics of surface water across the central and western part of New York. This report presents median specific conductance of stream discharge for the period 1970-80 and a description of the relation between specific conductance and concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) retrieved from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database from 1955 to present. The data descriptions provide a baseline of surface-water specific conductance data that can used for comparison to current and future measurements in New York streams.

  13. Characterizing entanglement with global and marginal entropic measures

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-12-01

    We qualify the entanglement of arbitrary mixed states of bipartite quantum systems by comparing global and marginal mixednesses quantified by different entropic measures. For systems of two qubits we discriminate the class of maximally entangled states with fixed marginal mixednesses, and determine an analytical upper bound relating the entanglement of formation to the marginal linear entropies. This result partially generalizes to mixed states the quantification of entanglement with marginal mixednesses holding for pure states. We identify a class of entangled states that, for fixed marginals, are globally more mixed than product states when measured by the linear entropy. Such states cannot be discriminated by the majorization criterion.

  14. Wafer warpage characterization measurement with modified fringe reflection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Po-Yi; Ku, Yi-Sha

    2015-05-01

    We have demonstrated a modified fringe reflection method to compensate the warpage measurement errors caused by the height difference between optical reference mirror and wafer sample surface. We have used a linearity analysis approach to obtain the parabolic height errors for a 4-inch sapphire wafer warpage measurement, which is around 1.48 μm of 100 μm height difference. The experimental results shows the warp discrepancy of 6-inch sapphire wafer is less than 1 μm compared with the reference Tropel instrument.

  15. Characterization of probe contact effects on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, Nina; Mayjonade, Mallory; Ahadi, Aylin; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a rapid, non-invasive optical method widely adopted to gain diagnostic information of tissue. The most flexible approach to this method is a fiber-optic contact-probe used with a spectroscopy system. A challenge of this method is that the external pressure brought by the probe can significantly affect the tissue optical properties as well as the light coupling into the probe, and thus influence the collected DRS-spectrum. In this study we investigate and characterize the effect of probe pressure on DRS-spectra obtained with a calibrated loaded-spring system used with a fiber optic probe in the range (400 - 1600) nm. A multilayer FE-model of the indentation is developed to get a better insight of the distribution of pressure and stresses inside the skin under indentation.

  16. Characterization and measurement of VOC emissions from silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing concern in the U.S. regarding the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from farms and their contribution to smog formation near ozone non-attainment areas. The few studies that have measured VOC emissions have identified mixed feed and the exposed silage face as major farm ...

  17. Characterizing generated charged inverse micelles with transient current measurements.

    PubMed

    Strubbe, Filip; Prasad, Manoj; Beunis, Filip

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the generation of charged inverse micelles in nonpolar surfactant solutions relevant for applications such as electronic ink displays and liquid toners. When a voltage is applied across a thin layer of a nonpolar surfactant solution between planar electrodes, the generation of charged inverse micelles leads to a generation current. From current measurements it appears that such charged inverse micelles generated in the presence of an electric field behave differently compared to those present in equilibrium in the absence of a field. To examine the origin of this difference, transient current measurements in which the applied voltage is suddenly increased are used to measure the mobility and the amount of generated charged inverse micelles. The mobility and the corresponding hydrodynamic size are found to be similar to those of charged inverse micelles present in equilibrium, which indicates that other properties determine their different behavior. The amplitude and shape of the transient currents measured as a function of the surfactant concentration confirm that the charged inverse micelles are generated by bulk disproportionation. A theoretical model based on bulk disproportionation with simulations and analytical approximations is developed to analyze the experimental transient currents. PMID:25580883

  18. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  19. Seismoelectric measurements for the characterization of partially saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordes, C.; Garambois, S.; Jouniaux, L.; Senechal, P.

    2009-12-01

    The seismo-electromagnetic tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electrical properties to water-content and permeability to the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. This method consists to measure the electrical field induced by seismic wave propagation. Since water flow is induced by the seismic wave propagation, and because electrochemical properties of the fluid, an electric field can be generated. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic and electric energy are necessary. It needs to take into account the effect of water-content, especially for the shallow subsurface investigations. We measured seismoelectric signals induced by a seismic source in a sand sample as the water level is increased. No seismo-electric signal was measured in dry sand whereas coherent arrivals appear in the moist sand. We show that the global wave form of seismoelectric signals looks poorly modified by an increased water-content, but amplitudes and frequency content are greatly affected. Time-lapse spectral ratios analyses show the strong evolution of the transfert function from seismic to seismoelectric energy. Finally, we compare the water content dependence with steady state and dynamic couplings and show that real measurements can not be fully explained by theoretical models, especially for the lowest water contents.

  20. Measurements and Characterizations of Mechanical Properties of Human Skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Han Wook; Park, Yon Kyu

    A skin is an indispensible organ for humans because it contributes to metabolism using its own biochemical functions and protects the human body from external stimuli. Recently, mechanical properties such as a thickness, a friction and an elastic coefficient have been used as a decision index in the skin physiology and in the skin care market due to the increased awareness of wellbeing issues. In addition, the use of mechanical properties is known to have good discrimination ability in the classification of human constitutions, which are used in the field of an alternative medicine. In this study, a system that measures mechanical properties such as a friction and an elastic coefficient is designed. The equipment consists of a load cell type (manufactured by the authors) for the measurements of a friction coefficient, a decompression tube for the measurement of an elastic coefficient. Using the proposed system, the mechanical properties of human skins from different constitutions were compared, and the relative repeatability error for measurements of mechanical properties was determined to be less than 2%. Combining the inspection results of medical doctors in the field of an alternative medicine, we could conclude that the proposed system might be applicable to a quantitative constitutional diagnosis between human constitutions within an acceptable level of uncertainty.

  1. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  2. Measuring CCN to Characterize Warm Cloud Microphysics Over The Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Hudson, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) are embryos for cloud droplets and are suspected to play a vital role in the production of initial collision drops that explain the classical problem of warm rain initiation. They may also be instrumental in modifying the droplet spectra to promote warm rain initiation. Although the giant nuclei hypothesis seems to be the simplest solution to the problem of warm rain initiation, modeling studies by Johnson 1982 and Ochs and Semonin 1978, suggest that the importance of UGN for precipitation formation diminishes when the CCN concentrations are low as in clear maritime air. Measurement of CCN is essential to verify all hypotheses that investigate precipitation processes. Thus, a detailed analysis of the complete CCN spectra in relation to other cloud parameters is crucial for understanding warm rain initiation. During the RICO field project, aerosol measurements were made by the two DRI instantaneous CCN spectrometers to analyze their distribution and properties. Use of two instruments ensured redundancy and enabled in-flight calibrations without interrupting ambient measurements. These measurements include more than 180 flight hours from 19 flights over a two month period in the western Atlantic near the northeastern corner of the Antilles (Antigua and Barbuda) in December and January (2004-05). During 17 of these flights there were two hours of subcloud measurements at constant altitudes, which enabled evaluation of aerosol characteristics since they allowed long observation times in clear air with very few cloud penetrations. Average and standard deviations of the total particle (CN) and cumulative CCN concentrations during the low altitude horizontal legs showed major variations in the total concentrations and standard deviations. This implies that even in clean maritime air there is some significant day-to-day variability in concentrations, which seems to be related either to wind velocity or to cloudiness. Higher concentrations at

  3. Environmental baseline conditions for impact assessment of unconventional gas exploitation: the G-Baseline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Berhard; Millot, Romain; Parker, Beth L.; Gaucher, Eric; Clarkson, Christopher R.; Cherry, John A.; Humez, Pauline; Cahill, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    A major scientific challenge and an indispensible prerequisite for environmental impact assessment in the context of unconventional gas development is the determination of the baseline conditions against which potential environmental impacts on shallow freshwater resources can be accurately and quantitatively tested. Groundwater and surface water resources overlying the low-permeability hydrocarbon host rocks containing shale gas may be impacted to different extents by naturally occurring saline fluids and by natural gas emanations. Baseline assessments in areas of previous conventional hydrocarbon production may also reveal anthropogenic impacts from these activities not related to unconventional gas development. Once unconventional gas exploitation has started, the baseline may be irrevocably lost by the intricate superposition of geogenic and potential anthropogenic contamination by stray gas, formation waters and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. The objective of the Franco-Canadian NSERC-ANR project G-Baseline is to develop an innovative and comprehensive methodology of geochemical and isotopic characterization of the environmental baseline for water and gas samples from all three essential zones: (1) the production zone, including flowback waters, (2) the intermediate zone comprised of overlying formations, and (3) shallow aquifers and surface water systems where contamination may result from diverse natural or human impacts. The outcome will be the establishment of a methodology based on innovative tracer and monitoring techniques, including traditional and non-traditional isotopes (C, H, O, S, B, Sr, Cl, Br, N, U, Li, Cu, Zn, CSIA...) for detecting, quantifying and modeling of potential leakage of stray gas and of saline formation water mixed with flowback fluids into fresh groundwater resources and surface waters taking into account the pathways and mechanisms of fluid and gas migration. Here we present an outline of the project as well as first

  4. Direct measurements of transport properties are essential for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    Direct measurements of transport parameters on subsurface sediments using, the UFA method provided detailed hydrostratigraphic mapping, and subsurface flux distributions at a mixed-waste disposal site at Hanford. Seven hundred unsaturated conductivity measurements on fifty samples were obtained in only six months total of UFA run time. These data are used to provide realistic information to conceptual models, predictive models and restoration strategies. The UFA instrument consists of an ultracentrifuge with a constant, ultralow flow pump that provides fluid to the sample surface through a rotating seal assembly and microdispersal system. Effluent from the sample is collected in a transparent, volumetrically-calibrated chamber at the bottom of the sample assembly. Using a strobe light, an observer can check the chamber while the sample is being centrifuged. Materials can be run in the UFA as recomposited samples or in situ samples can be subcored directly into the sample UFA chamber.

  5. Measurement and Characterization of Concentrator Solar Cells II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, Dave; Sater, Bernard L.; Chubb, Donald; Jenkins, Phillip; Snyder, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Concentrator solar cells are continuing to get more consideration for use in power systems. This interest is because concentrator systems can have a net lower cost per watt in solar cell materials plus ongoing improvements in sun-tracking technology. Quantitatively measuring the efficiency of solar cells under concentration is difficult. Traditionally, the light concentration on solar cells has been determined by using a ratio of the measured solar cell s short circuit current to that at one sun, this assumes that current changes proportionally with light intensity. This works well with low to moderate (<20 suns) concentration levels on "well-behaved" linear cells but does not apply when cells respond superlinearly, current increases faster than intensity, or sublinearly, current increases more slowly than intensity. This paper continues work on using view factors to determine the concentration level and linearity of the solar cell with mathematical view factor analysis and experimental results [1].

  6. Measurement techniques for characterizing and using low background germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, William H.; Wagner, Sanford E.

    1984-06-01

    An investigation has been undertaken to determine whether an order of magnitude background reduction from present typical cryostat-detector systems can be obtained through the use of low background components. In order to measure progress in this task, a standard, ten-centimeter lead shield was fitted with a five-centimeter, oxygen-free high-conductivity copper liner and a borated polyethylene neutron absorber. This reduced the contribution of uranium-238, thorium daughters, and radium daughters from the shield as seen by the detector by 1.3, 0.02, and 0.1 Bq respectively. The methodology of determining very low net photon peak areas in the presence of high continuum levels to assure maximum accuracy was verified and is presented. By these means the background activities of detectors are being measured at the -10 2 Bq per nuclide and detector component materials at the Bq per gram level, both with total uncertainties of less than 50% 1σ. The hardware and software developed is being used to measure the background activity of the detectors and for the analysis of low activity samples.

  7. Flow Disturbance Characterization Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.; Tsoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) to assess the unsteady flow environment in the test section. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the NTF to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition sensitive testing. The NTF can operate in two modes, warm (air) and cold/cryogenic (nitrogen) test conditions for testing full and semispan scaled models. The warm-air mode enables low to moderately high Reynolds numbers through the use of high tunnel pressure, and the nitrogen mode enables high Reynolds numbers up to flight conditions, depending on aircraft type and size, utilizing high tunnel pressure and cryogenic temperatures. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project is interested in demonstrating different laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range and the NTF is well suited for the initial ground-based demonstrations. Roll polar data at selected test conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired from the rake probes included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. . Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the NTF is a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

  8. Measuring Pickup Ions to Characterize the Lunar Surface and Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Hartle, R. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    It has been known for some time that measurement of the ion components, born from neutral exospheres imbedded in the solar wind, can be used to determine the composition and structure of the parent neutral exospheres (Hartle et al., 1973, Hartle and Thomas, 1974, Luhmann, 1996). The ion pickup process has been observed and verified for more than two decades, including pickup ions born from cometary comas, exospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan, and interstellar gases. Several observations (Mall, et al., 1998 and Hilchenbach et al., 1992) of lunar pickup ions have been reported from passing spacecraft including observations of metallic elements that were presumably sputtered from the lunar surface. The ions so formed, primarily by photoionization, electron impact and charge exchange, are picked up and accelerated by the motional electric field E = -V × B, where V is the plasma bulk velocity and B the magnetic field. The unique orbital characteristics of pickup ions make it possible to infer important details about their sources. For a given ion mass, energy, and incoming direction, the ion trajectory can be mapped back to a point where the velocity vanishes at the cusp of a cycloid. When the gyroradius is much greater than the neutral source scale height (most cases), this cusp point is, it can be safely assumed, the source point. This also requires that the source velocity is much less than pickup acceleration integrated from the source point to spacecraft (again, true in most cases). This makes it possible to derive the neutral exosphere density at that point, assuming the ionization rate is known. When this measurement scheme is carried out on numerous orbits of a mission, it will be possible to derive neutral exosphere densities of all those species whose pickup ions can be measured. With the exception of H+, ion gyroradii are much greater than their source gas scale heights for typical solar wind conditions. Then, for a given ion mass, a spectrometer in lunar

  9. Measurement and Characterization of Helicopter Noise at Different Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Stephenson, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a flight test campaign performed at different test sites whose altitudes ranged from 0 to 7000 feet above mean sea level (AMSL) between September 2014 and February 2015. The purposes of this campaign were to: investigate the effects of altitude variation on noise generation, investigate the effects of gross weight variation on noise generation, establish the statistical variability in acoustic flight testing of helicopters, and characterize the effects of transient maneuvers on radiated noise for a medium-lift utility helicopter. In addition to describing the test campaign, results of the acoustic effects of altitude variation for the AS350 SD1 and EH-60L aircraft are presented. Large changes in acoustic amplitudes were observed in response to changes in ambient conditions when the helicopter was flown at constant indicated airspeed and gross weight at the three test sites. However, acoustic amplitudes were found to scale with ambient pressure when flight conditions were defined in terms of the non-dimensional parameters, such as the weight coefficient and effective hover tip Mach number.

  10. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  11. Probability measurements characterizing the classicality of a physical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorninger, Dietmar; Länger, Helmut

    2014-02-01

    Let S be a set of states of a physical system. The probabilities p(s) of the occurrence of an event when the system is in different states s ∈ S define a function from S to [0,1] called a multidimensional probability. When appropriately structured in respect to the order, complements and sums of functions, sets P of multidimensional probabilities give rise to the so-called algebras of S-probabilities which, in the case of classical physical systems, are Boolean algebras. Knowing only a (small) subset X of P, and not the whole of P, the question arises whether the functions of X indicate that one deals with a classical physical system or not. We will show that this question can be settled by (experimentally) finding further multidimensional probabilities which are terms of the given ones and can be precalculated by a recursive procedure depending on the number of elements of X. Our main tool for this procedure is a characterization of commuting pairs of multidimensional probabilities.

  12. Development and Characterization of NMR Measurements for Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Zachary; Whitney, Heather

    2012-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are systems of water, gelatin, and monomers which form polymers upon irradiation. The gelatin matrix retains dose distribution in 3D form, facilitating truly integrated measurements of complex dose plans for radiation therapy. Polymer gels have two proton pools coupled by exchange: free solvent protons and bound polymerized macromolecular protons. Measuring magnetization transfer (MT) and relaxation affords useful insights into particle rigidity and chemical exchange effects on relaxation in polymer gels. Polymer gel dose response has been previously quantified with several techniques, most often in terms of MRI parameters, usually at field strengths of 1.5 T and below. The research described here investigates the dose response of a revised MAGIC gel dosimeter via both high-field imaging and simpler nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This includes both transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates (R2 and R1) and quantitative MT parameters. We investigated estimating polymer molecular weight for a given applied dose using the Rouse model and R2 data from the imaging study. Finally, we began development of NMR methods for studying dose response, requiring adaption of NMR experiments to accommodate for radiation damping.

  13. Mutual information measures applied to EEG signals for sleepiness characterization.

    PubMed

    Melia, Umberto; Guaita, Marc; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders with a great impact on the patient lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, the automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG signal was proposed. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five maintenance of wakefulness (MWT) and multiple sleep latency (MSLT) tests alternated throughout the day from patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing. A group of 20 patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60-s EEG windows in waking state. Measures obtained from cross-mutual information function (CMIF) and auto-mutual-information function (AMIF) were calculated in the EEG. These functions permitted a quantification of the complexity properties of the EEG signal and the non-linear couplings between different zones of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were found in β band during MSLT events (p-value < 0.0001). WDS group presented more complexity than EDS in the occipital zone, while a stronger nonlinear coupling between occipital and frontal zones was detected in EDS patients than in WDS. The AMIF and CMIF measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and AUC of ROC above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. PMID:25638417

  14. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements for in Situ Characterization of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic separation is a viable method for concentration of components of lunar soils and rocks for use as feedstocks for manufacture of metals, oxygen, and for recovery of volatiles such as He-3. Work with lunar materials indicates that immature soils are the best candidates for magnetic beneficiation. The magnetic susceptibility at which selected soil components such as anorthite, ilmenite, or metallic iron are separated is not affected by soil maturity, but the recovery of the concentrated components is. Increasing soil maturity lowers recovery. Mature soils contain significant amounts of glass-encased metallic iron. Magnetic susceptibility, which is sensitive to metallic iron content, can be used to measure soil maturity. The relationship between the ratio of magnetic susceptibility and iron oxide and the conventional maturity parameter, I(sub s)/FeO, ferromagnetic resonant intensity divided by iron oxide content is given. The magnetic susceptibilities were determined using apparatus designed for magnetic separation of the lunar soils.

  15. ENHANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER THROUGH COMPLEMENTARY DATA INTEGRATION AND IMPROVED MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improvements in fine particle characterization will allow for a more complete understanding of the processes particle in the atmosphere undergo. The integration of complementary measurements into a compact mathematical form, allows for ease of transfer from particle measureme...

  16. Characterization of Lorenz number with Seebeck coefficient measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Sik; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Tang, Yinglu; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    In analyzing zT improvements due to lattice thermal conductivity (κ{sub L}) reduction, electrical conductivity (σ) and total thermal conductivity (κ{sub Total}) are often used to estimate the electronic component of the thermal conductivity (κ{sub E}) and in turn κ{sub L} from κ{sub L} = ∼ κ{sub Total} − LσT. The Wiedemann-Franz law, κ{sub E} = LσT, where L is Lorenz number, is widely used to estimate κ{sub E} from σ measurements. It is a common practice to treat L as a universal factor with 2.44 × 10{sup −8} WΩK{sup −2} (degenerate limit). However, significant deviations from the degenerate limit (approximately 40% or more for Kane bands) are known to occur for non-degenerate semiconductors where L converges to 1.5 × 10{sup −8} WΩK{sup −2} for acoustic phonon scattering. The decrease in L is correlated with an increase in thermopower (absolute value of Seebeck coefficient (S)). Thus, a first order correction to the degenerate limit of L can be based on the measured thermopower, |S|, independent of temperature or doping. We propose the equation: L=1.5+exp[−(|S|)/(116) ] (where L is in 10{sup −8} WΩK{sup −2} and S in μV/K) as a satisfactory approximation for L. This equation is accurate within 5% for single parabolic band/acoustic phonon scattering assumption and within 20% for PbSe, PbS, PbTe, Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} where more complexity is introduced, such as non-parabolic Kane bands, multiple bands, and/or alternate scattering mechanisms. The use of this equation for L rather than a constant value (when detailed band structure and scattering mechanism is not known) will significantly improve the estimation of lattice thermal conductivity.

  17. Characterizing molecular probes for diffusion measurements in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurjinder; Hrabetova, Sabina; Guilfoyle, David N.; Nicholson, Charles; Hrabe, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Brain diffusion properties are at present most commonly evaluated by magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion imaging. MR cannot easily distinguish between the extracellular and intracellular signal components, but the older technique of Real-Time Iontophoresis (RTI) detects exclusively extracellular diffusion. Interpretation of the MR results would therefore benefit from auxiliary RTI measurements. This requires a molecular probe detectable by both techniques. Our aim was to specify a minimum set of requirements that such a diffusion probe should fulfill and apply it to two candidate probes: the cation tetramethylammonium (TMA+), used routinely in the RTI experiments, and the anion hexafluoroantimonate (SbF6−). Desirable characteristics of a molecular diffusion probe include predictable diffusion properties, stability, minimum interaction with cellular physiology, very slow penetration into the cells, and sufficiently strong and selective MR and RTI signals. These properties were evaluated using preparations of rat neocortical slices under normal and ischemic conditions, as well as solutions and agarose gel. While both molecules can be detected by MR and RTI, neither proved an ideal candidate. TMA+ was very stable but it penetrated into the cells and accumulated there within tens of minutes. SbF6− did not enter the cells as readily but it was not stable, particularly in ischemic tissue and at higher temperatures. Its presence also resulted in a decreased extracellular volume. These probe properties help to interpret previously published MR data on TMA+ diffusion and might play a role in other diffusion experiments obtained with them. PMID:18466980

  18. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem. PMID:10387778

  19. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Malbet, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share an interest in long baseline stellar interferometry. It was established in 1995 and is the focus of activity of the IAU Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. Here you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, news items, recent papers and preprints, and resources for further research. The email news forum was established in 2001 to complement the website and to facilitate exchanges and collaborations. The forum includes an email exploder and an archived list of discussions. You are invited to explore the forum and website at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov. Work by PRL was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Multi baseline Grid Software Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritaka, Kimura; Nakajima, Junichi; Kondo, Tetsuro

    Software VLBI correlation is regarded as a solution for next generation VLBI. With a flexibility of the software correlation programming, appropriate scientific correlations by scientists are possible as well as the post processing. As the first experiment to handle Gbps VLBI data, multi baseline Grid correlator have been developing at CRL. The performance of software correlation adopted multi CPUs, SIMD architectures and Grid computing technology has nearly reached hardware correlator performance.

  1. Upscaling Point Velocity Measurements to Characterize a Glacial Outwash Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Schillig, P C; Devlin, J F; Rudolph, D

    2016-05-01

    Small-scale point velocity probe (PVP)-derived velocities were compared to conventional large-scale velocity estimates from Darcy calculations and tracer tests, and the possibility of upscaling PVP data to match the other velocity estimates was evaluated. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated from grain-size data derived from cores, and single-well response testing or slug tests of onsite wells. Horizontal hydraulic gradients were calculated using 3-point estimators from all of the wells within an extensive monitoring network, as well as by representing the water table as a single best fit plane through the entire network. Velocities determined from PVP testing were generally consistent in magnitude with those from depth specific data collected from multilevel monitoring locations in the tracer test, and similar in horizontal flow direction to the average hydraulic gradient. However, scaling up velocity estimates based on PVP measurements for comparison with site-wide Darcy-based velocities revealed issues that challenge the use of Darcy calculations as a generally applicable standard for comparison. The Darcy calculations were shown to underestimate the groundwater velocities determined both by the PVPs and large-scale tracer testing, in a depth-specific sense and as a site-wide average. Some of this discrepancy is attributable to the selective placement of the PVPs in the aquifer. Nevertheless, this result has important implications for the design of in situ treatment systems. It is concluded that Darcy estimations of velocity should be supplemented with independent assessments for these kinds of applications. PMID:26221762

  2. Characterization of Upper Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX using LASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M.; Barrick, J.; Linne, H.; Lammert, A.

    2002-01-01

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere water vapor (UTWV) measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. Initial comparisons showed the average Vaisala radiosonde measurements to be 5-15% drier than the average LASE, Raman lidar, and DC-8 in situ diode laser hygrometer measurements. We show that corrections to the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements significantly reduce these differences. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from the LASE water vapor profiles agrees within 3% on average with PWV derived from the ARM ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR). The agreement among the LASE, Raman lidar, and MWR measurements demonstrates how the LASE measurements can be used to characterize both profile and column water vapor measurements and that ARM Raman lidar, when calibrated using the MWR PWV, can provide accurate UTWV measurements.

  3. First GPS baseline results from the North Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James N.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Dixon, Timothy H.; Neilan, Ruth E.; Ropain, Clemente

    1990-01-01

    The CASA Uno GPS experiment (January-February 1988) has provided the first epoch baseline measurements for the study of plate motions and crustal deformation in and around the North Andes. Two dimensional horizontal baseline repeatabilities are as good as 5 parts in 10 to the 8th for short baselines (100-1000 km), and better than 3 parts in 10 to the 8th for long baselines (greater than 1000 km). Vertical repeatabilities are typically 4-6 cm, with a weak dependence on baseline length. The expected rate of plate convergence across the Colombia Trench is 6-8cm/yr, which should be detectable by the repeat experiment planned for 1991. Expected deformation rates within the North Andes are of the order of 1 cm/yr, which may be detectable with the 1991 experiment.

  4. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  5. Characterization of linearity and uniformity of fiber-based endoscopes for 3D combustion measurements.

    PubMed

    Kang, MinWook; Lei, Qingchun; Ma, Lin

    2014-09-10

    This work reports the application of fiber-based endoscopes (FBEs) for instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) flow and combustion measurements, with an emphasis on characterizing the linearity and uniformity of the FBEs and exploring their potential for obtaining quantitative measurements. Controlled experiments were performed using a uniform illuminator to characterize the linearity and uniformity of the FBEs. Based on such characterization, 3D instantaneous measurements of flames were demonstrated by a combined use of FBEs and tomography. To obtain 3D flame measurement, 3D tomographic reconstructions were made from multiple projections of the target flames collected from various orientations by the FBEs. The results illustrate the potential of FBEs to obtain quantitative 3D flow and combustion measurements and also the advantages FBEs offer, including overcoming optical access restrictions and equipment cost. PMID:25321676

  6. Uncertainties of size measurements in electron microscopy characterization of nanomaterials in foods.

    PubMed

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Boxall, Alistair B A; Chaudhry, Qasim; Mølhave, Kristian; Tiede, Karen; Hofmann, Peter; Linsinger, Thomas P J

    2015-06-01

    Electron microscopy is a recognized standard tool for nanomaterial characterization, and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for the size measurement of nanomaterials in food. Despite this, little data have been published assessing the reliability of the method, especially for size measurement of nanomaterials characterized by a broad size distribution and/or added to food matrices. This study is a thorough investigation of the measurement uncertainty when applying electron microscopy for size measurement of engineered nanomaterials in foods. Our results show that the number of measured particles was only a minor source of measurement uncertainty for nanomaterials in food, compared to the combined influence of sampling, sample preparation prior to imaging and the image analysis. The main conclusion is that to improve the measurement reliability, care should be taken to consider replications and matrix removal prior to sample preparation. PMID:25624258

  7. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  8. Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-22

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  9. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.

    1999-06-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  10. Stellar radii from long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    Long baseline interferometers now measure the angular diameters of nearby stars with sub-percent accuracy. They can be translated in photospheric radii when the parallax is known, thus creating a novel and powerful constraint for stellar models. I present applications of interferometric radius measurements to the modeling of main sequence stars. Over the last few years, we obtained accurate measurements of the linear radius of many of the nearest stars: Procyon A, 61 Cyg A & B, α Cen A & B, Sirius A, Proxima. . . Firstly, I describe the example of our modeling of Procyon A (F5IV-V) with the CESAM code, constrained using spectrophotometry, the linear radius, and asteroseismic frequencies. I also present our recent results on the low-mass 61 Cyg system (K5V+K7V), for which asteroseismic frequencies have not been detected yet.

  11. Similarities in error processing establish a link between saccade prediction at baseline and adaptation performance

    PubMed Central

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive processes are crucial in maintaining the accuracy of body movements and rely on error storage and processing mechanisms. Although classically studied with adaptation paradigms, evidence of these ongoing error-correction mechanisms should also be detectable in other movements. Despite this connection, current adaptation models are challenged when forecasting adaptation ability with measures of baseline behavior. On the other hand, we have previously identified an error-correction process present in a particular form of baseline behavior, the generation of predictive saccades. This process exhibits long-term intertrial correlations that decay gradually (as a power law) and are best characterized with the tools of fractal time series analysis. Since this baseline task and adaptation both involve error storage and processing, we sought to find a link between the intertrial correlations of the error-correction process in predictive saccades and the ability of subjects to alter their saccade amplitudes during an adaptation task. Here we find just such a relationship: the stronger the intertrial correlations during prediction, the more rapid the acquisition of adaptation. This reinforces the links found previously between prediction and adaptation in motor control and suggests that current adaptation models are inadequate to capture the complete dynamics of these error-correction processes. A better understanding of the similarities in error processing between prediction and adaptation might provide the means to forecast adaptation ability with a baseline task. This would have many potential uses in physical therapy and the general design of paradigms of motor adaptation. PMID:24598520

  12. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  13. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  14. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  15. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  16. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  17. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the statutory baseline defined in 40 CFR 80.45(b) and volumes are in gallons. (2) The toxics value, Ti... baseline toxics volume determined? 80.915 Section 80.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?...

  18. Dual baseline and frequency along-track interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) L-band along-track interferometer images currents and waves on the ocean surface. By modifying the operating procedure of this two antenna interferometer, a technique has been developed to enable interferometric measurements to be made simultaneously at two different baselines. The availability of such data allows measurement of the decorrelation process of the ocean in greater detail. The coherence time of the ocean surface can be measured at high resolution over large areas. In addition to the L-band interferometer, a C-band along-track interferometer has been developed. It allows C-band dual-baseline measurements to be made simultaneous with the L-band measurements. The dual-baseline technique and AIRSAR implementation are described, and some example data are presented.

  19. Measurement and characterization of three-dimensional microstructures on precision roller surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, L. B.; Cheung, C. F.; Lee, W. B.; To, S.; Ren, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Precision roller with microstructures is the key tooling component in the precision embossing by roller process such as Roll-to-Roll to manufacture optical plastic plates or films with three dimensional (3D)-microstructures. Measurement and analysis of 3D-microstructures on a precision roller is essential before the embossing process is being undertaken to ensure the quality of the embossed surfaces. Different from 3D-microstructures on a planar surface, it is difficult to measure and characterize the 3D-microstructures on the cylindrical surface of a precision roller due to the geometrical complexity of such integrated surfaces such as V-groove microstructures on a cylindrical surface. This paper presents a study of method and algorithms for the measurement and characterization of 3D-microstructures on a precision roller surface. A feature-based characterization method (FBCM) is proposed to analyze the V-groove microstructures. In this method, a normal template is generated based on the design specifications, and the measured data is fitted with the feature points. Hence alignment and matching of the measured data to the normal template based on the derived feature points are undertaken. After that the V-groove is characterized by some feature parameters such as pitch, depth, angle of the V-grooves. The method also provides an approach for the analysis of burs generated during the machining of Vgroove microstructures. A precision roller with V-groove microstructures has been machined by a Four-axis ultraprecision machine and the machined surface is measured by a contact measuring instrument. The measured data are then characterized and analyzed by the proposed FBCM. The results are presented and discussed, and they indicate the dominant and regular machining errors that are involved in the machining of the V-groove microstructures on roller surfaces.

  20. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far-field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow baseline and suppressor nozzles. Volume 1: Noise source locations and extrapolation of static free-field jet noise data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A test was conducted in the Boeing Large Anechoic Chamber to determine static jet noise source locations of six baseline and suppressor nozzle models, and establish a technique for extrapolating near field data into the far field. The test covered nozzle pressure ratios from 1.44 to 2.25 and jet velocities from 412 to 594 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K.

  1. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  2. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  3. Questa Baseline and Premining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a field-based characterization of fractured and faulted crystalline bedrock in the southern portion of the Questa caldera and its margin. The focus is (1) the identification and description of brittle geological structures and (2) speculation on the potential effects and controls that these structures might have on the potential fluxes of paleo to present-day ground water in relation to natural or mining-related metal and acid loads to surface and ground water. The entire study area is pervasively jointed with a few distinctive patterns such as orthogonal, oblique orthogonal, and conjugate joint sets. Joint intensity, the number of joints measured per unit line length, is high to extreme. Three types of fault zones are present that include partially silicified, low- and high-angle faults with well-developed damage zones and clay-rich cores and high-angle, unsilicified open faults. Conceptually, the joint networks can be thought of as providing the background porosity and permeability structure of the bedrock aquifer system. This background is cut by discrete entities such as the faults with clay-rich cores and open faults that may act as important hydrologic heterogeneities. The southern caldera margin runs parallel to the course of the Red River Valley, whose incision has left an extreme topographic gradient at high angles to the river. Many of the faults and fault intersections run parallel to this assumed hydraulic gradient; thus, these structures have great potential to provide paleo and present-day, discrete and anisotropic pathways for solute transport within the otherwise relatively low porosity and permeability bedrock background aquifer system. Although brittle fracture networks and faults are pervasive and complex, simple Darcy calculations are used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and potential ground-water discharges of the bedrock aquifer, caldera margin, and other faults in order to gain insight into the potential

  4. Disentangling emotion processes in borderline personality disorder: physiological and self-reported assessment of biological vulnerability, baseline intensity, and reactivity to emotionally evocative stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Janice R; Linehan, Marsha M

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated M. Linehan's (1993) theory that individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) have high biological vulnerability to emotion dysregulation, including high baseline emotional intensity and high reactivity to emotionally evocative stimuli. Twenty individuals with BPD, 20 age-matched individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD), and 20 age-matched normal controls (NCs) participated in 2 separate emotion induction conditions, a standardized condition, and a personally relevant condition. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance response (SCR), and self-report measures were collected throughout the experiment. BPD participants displayed heightened biological vulnerability compared with NCs as indicated by reduced basal RSA. BPD participants also exhibited high baseline emotional intensity, characterized by heightened SCR and heightened self-reported negative emotions at baseline. However, the BPD group did not display heightened reactivity, as their physiological and self-reported changes from baseline to the emotion inductions tasks were not greater than the other 2 groups. PMID:19685950

  5. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  6. Characterization of uncertainties when measuring metal cutting temperatures using infrared radiation thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitenton, Eric P.

    2009-05-01

    There are many error sources when using infrared radiation thermography to measure the temperature distribution of the tool, workpiece, and chip during metal cutting. It is important to understand how these error sources affect the measurement uncertainty. Some are familiar to anyone performing thermography measurements, such as uncertainties in the basic camera calibration. However, metal cutting presents unique measurement challenges due to factors such as the high magnification required, high surface speeds, polarization effects, micro-blackbody effects, and changing emissivity as chips form. This paper presents highlights of the current state of efforts at NIST to catalog and characterize error sources and the resulting uncertainties.

  7. Characterization of Detector Response for PROSPECT - A Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Brian; Dolinski, Michelle; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Recently, several experiments have reported an approximately 5% deficit of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors when the measured flux is compared with that predicted by current nuclear models. This is termed the ``Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly''. Furthermore, the predicted shape of the antineutrino spectrum is not in agreement with measurements from those experiments. The PROSPECT (Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Measurement) collaboration plans to investigate this anomaly and constrain the shape of the spectrum with a high precision, short baseline (7-20m) measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) which will include a search for sterile neutrinos as one possible solution to the anomaly. PROSPECT will utilize a segmented, lithium-loaded liquid scintillator detector and is taking a phased approach to detector design by building progressively larger prototypes of this final detector with several prototypes already constructed and taking data. This poster will report on the ongoing analysis of the detector response of these prototypes including aspects such as position reconstruction, energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination.

  8. An automated measurement system for characterization of RF and gradient coil parameters.

    PubMed

    Boyer, J S; Wright, S M; Porter, J R

    1998-01-01

    A fully automated laboratory-based measurement system for characterization of coil system parameters is presented. This method uses an inexpensive personal computer (PC)-controlled stepper motor positioning system in conjunction with a network/spectrum analyzer and an analog-to-digital converter (A/D) board that allows high resolution data acquisition in an unattended manner. A graphical interface was created for complete control of stepper motor movement, measurement, and data acquisition. The system is capable of performing a wide range of measurements that can, either individually or combined, characterize radiofrequency (RF) and gradient coils used in MRI. Measurement methods, theory, and results for conductor and shield current distributions, mutual impedance, and magnetic fields are given. Comparisons with theoretical calculations are included to validate the accuracy and utility of the system. PMID:9626895

  9. Ultrasonic measurement device for the characterization of microbiological and biochemical processes in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Durán, C.; Sierra, C.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2007-07-01

    A measuring device for the characterization of liquid media based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves is presented. It is a four-channel system especially designed for monitoring microbiological and biochemical processes. The liquid samples are placed in commercial glass bottles which can be sterilized. The bottles have inlet and outlet tubes, which can be used for adding substances or extracting samples during the measuring process without interruption. Magnetic stirring can be used to keep the liquid agitated for homogenization purposes. Thermal control elements assure the temperature stability during the measurement. The liquid characterization is based on the detection of amplitude and time-of-flight changes in the sample under study. The main features, operation and performance of this ultrasonic device are analysed in this work, and some measurements and preliminary results are shown.

  10. Geodetic long baseline interferometry research in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, R. B.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Canon, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and results of several studies using the Canadian long baseline interferometry system (LBI) are presented. The precision of measurements from radio telescopes at the Algonquin Radio Observatory (ARO), Lake Traverse, Ontario; the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), Big Pine, California; and the Chilbolton Observatory (CHIL), Chilbolton, England, is discussed. Also, since LBI is insensitive to the uncertainty in the geocentric gravitational constant, it is a very useful technique for determining the scales of the coordinate systems used by other precise techniques. Beginning in May 1977, a number of LBI observing sessions were accompanied by simultaneous satellite Doppler observations. The baseline components obtained from the satellite Doppler observations were compared to the LBI values. The weighted mean scale bias of the NSWC 9Z-2 satellite Doppler coordinate system relative to the LBI system was found to be 0.42 + or - 0.05 PPM. The weighted mean difference in the origin of longitude was found to be 0.87 sec + or - 0.01 while the difference in declination origin was found to be 0.06 sec + or - 0.01.

  11. Computer signal processing for ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements for material property characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1979-01-01

    Instrumentation and computer programming concepts that were developed for ultrasonic materials characterization are described. Methods that facilitate velocity and attenuation measurements are outlined. The apparatus described is based on a broadband, buffered contact probe using a pulse-echo approach for simultaneously measuring velocity and attenuation. Instrumentation, specimen condition, and signal acquisition and acceptance criteria are discussed. Typical results with some representative materials are presented.

  12. Characterizations and Stability of Colloidal Coal-Measure Kaolinite in Aqueous Suspensions: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lingyun; Hu, Yang; Min, Fanfei; Zhang, Mingxu; Song, Shaoxian

    2013-02-01

    Coal-measure kaolinite is a main gangue mineral in coal deposits. Because of the colloidal particle size, the kaolinite is very stable in coal tailing slurries, leading to a high turbidity of recycled water in coal washing plants. The coagulation of colloidal kaolinite in aqueous suspensions is an essential problem in many coal washing plants. This review highlights the characterizations and stability of colloidal coal-measure kaolinite in aqueous suspensions. The characterizations include mineralogy, electrokinetics and hydration layers on kaolinite surfaces. The coagulation of colloidal kaolinite in aqueous suspensions is reviewed and discussed on the basis of the DLVO theory and the characterization. In addition,the main parameters of affecting the coagulation, such as suspension pH, electrolytic ions and temperature, are summarized.

  13. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Pradines, Joël R.; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-01-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements. PMID:27112127

  14. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradines, Joël R.; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements.

  15. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Pradines, Joël R; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-01-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements. PMID:27112127

  16. Characterization of a Photoacoustic Aerosol Absorption Spectrometer for Aircraft-based Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. J.; Wagner, N. L.; Richardson, M.; Brock, C. A.; Murphy, D. M.; Adler, G.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol directly impacts the Earth's climate through extinction of incoming and outgoing radiation. The optical extinction is due to both scattering and absorption. In situ measurements of aerosol extinction and scattering are well established and have uncertainties less than 5%. However measurements of aerosol absorption typically have uncertainties of 20-30%. Development and characterization of more accurate and precise instrumentation for measurement of aerosol absorption will enable a deeper understand of significance and spatial distribution of black and brown carbon aerosol, the effect of atmospheric processes on aerosol optical properties, and influence of aerosol optical properties on direct radiative forcing. Here, we present a detailed characterization of a photoacoustic aerosol absorption spectrometer designed for deployment aboard research aircraft. The spectrometer operates at three colors across the visible spectrum and is calibrated in the field using ozone. The field calibration is validated in the laboratory using synthetic aerosol and simultaneous measurements of extinction and scattering. In addition, the sensitivity of the instrument is characterized under conditions typically encountered during aircraft sampling e.g. as a function of changing pressure. We will apply this instrument characterization to ambient aerosol absorption data collected during the SENEX and SEAC4RS aircraft based field campaigns.

  17. Shifting Baselines, Science, and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    All of us have a deeply personal concept of nature based upon our childhood perceptions of the world around us, and of the subsequent degradation of nature by the experiences of our lifetimes. Yet even the most rudimentary knowledge of history clearly demonstrates that the modern rise of human population and consumption have wreaked havoc on global ecosystems to the extent that nowhere is close to natural or pristine and that most places have been increasingly degraded over many centuries. This disconnect between direct personal experience and abstract historical perspective is the problem of "shifting baselines" that is the fundamental impediment to basic scientific understanding and environmental policy, and affects scientists as much as the general public, business, and government. Scientists in particular suffer from the inability to directly observe and experimentally verify causes and effects of previous changes in ecosystems that now bear so little resemblance to their natural state. Under the circumstances, it is essential for scientists to draw scientific conclusions based on imperfect data and to publicly explain, defend, and discuss their conclusions as the best possible science given present information. The failure to do so makes science virtually irrelevant to social and environmental policy and government.

  18. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  19. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  20. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  1. Design and characterization of a multi-frequency bioimpedance measurement prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia Neto, O. E.; Porto, R. W.; Aya, J. C. C.

    2012-12-01

    A multi-frequency bioimpedance measurement prototype is proposed, validated and characterized. It consists of an Improved Howland Current Source controlled by voltage, a load voltage sensing scheme through a discrete 3-opamp instrumentation amplifier, a phase and quadrature demodulation setup through analog multipliers, and digitization and processing of the signals using a digital benchtop multimeter. The electrical characterization of the measurement channel was done for resistive loads only, on four different circuits. Measurements were made on 10 frequencies, from 100 kHz to 1 MHz, with 10 load resistances, from 100 Ω to 1 kΩ, to obtain linearity, absolute error and frequency response. The best performance among the four circuits was a maximum absolute error of 5.55 %, and -1.93 % of load current variation at the worst case scenario.

  2. Mujeres en accion: design and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G

    2011-10-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women. PMID:21298400

  3. Mujeres en Accion: Design and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women. PMID:21298400

  4. Measurement technique for in situ characterizing aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fan; Wang Xiangzhao; Ma Mingying

    2006-08-20

    As the feature size decreases, degradation of image quality caused by wavefront aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools has become a serious problem in the low-k1 process. We propose a novel measurement technique for in situ characterizing aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools.Considering the impact of the partial coherence illumination, we introduce a novel algorithm that accurately describes the pattern displacement and focus shift induced by aberrations. Employing the algorithm, the measurement condition is extended from three-beam interference to two-, three-, and hybrid-beam interferences. The experiments are performed to measure the aberrations of projection optics in an ArF scanner.

  5. Using a segregation measure for the workload characterization of multi-class queuing networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdy, L.W.; Krantz, A.T.; Leuze, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    When a queuing network model of a computer system is constructed, the workload is characterized by several parameters known as the device demands. The demand that every customer places upon every device must be specified. A complete workload characterization of a K device network with N different customers contains N * K parameters. Substantial savings in complexity result if the number of workload parameters is decreased. If, for example, only the average demands on the K devices are used in the workload characterization, the overhead of parameter collection is reduced, and the solution of the queuing network model is simplified. With this approach, however, the multi-class system is represented by a single-class model. A loss of accuracy results. It has been recently demonstrated that the performance of a multi-class network is bounded below by its single-class counterpart model and is bounded above by a simple function based upon the single-class model. In this paper, a new workload characterization technique is proposed which requires: the K average device demands for the single-class counterpart model and a segregation measure, a value which indicates the degree to which different customers tend to utilize different parts of the network. The segregation measure specifies the point between the two bounds where the multi-class model's performance lies. This measure is quite intuitive and is simple to calculate. The technique provides an accurate estimate of the performance of a multi-class network. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Nondestructive Measurement Material Characterization of Thermal Sprayed Nickel Aluminum Coatings by using Laser Ultrasound Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Cheng Hung; Wu, Tai Chieh; Yang, Che Hua

    This research focused on characterization of mechanical properties in Nickel-Aluminum coating with different thermal technique and processing parameters at high temperature environment up to 295°C. With the laser ultrasound technique (LUT), guided acoustic waves are generated to propagate on the Ni-Al sprayed coatings. By measuring dispersive phase velocity followed by SCE-UA inversion algorithm. The Young's modulus of coatings which fabricated by HVOF technique is higher than APS technique. This technique is potentially useful to probe the material characterization at high temperature environment in a remote and non-destructive way.

  7. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  8. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  9. Optical Characterization of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injector for Gas Turbine Combustors: Velocity and Fuel Drop Size Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of a multipoint, lean direct injection (MP-LDI) strategy for low emission aero-propulsion systems has been tested in a Jet-A fueled, lean flame tube combustion rig. Operating conditions for the series of tests included inlet air temperatures between 672 and 828 K, pressures between 1034 and 1379 kPa and total equivalence ratios between 0.41 and 0.45, resulting in equilibrium flame temperatures approaching 1800 K. Ranges of operation were selected to represent the spectrum of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions projected for the next-generation of commercial aircraft. This document reports laser-based measurements of in situ fuel velocities and fuel drop sizes for the NASA 9-point LDI hardware arranged in a 3 3 square grid configuration. Data obtained represent a region of the flame tube combustor with optical access that extends 38.1-mm downstream of the fuel injection site. All data were obtained within reacting flows, without particle seeding. Two diagnostic methods were employed to evaluate the resulting flow path. Three-component velocity fields have been captured using phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), and two-component velocity distributions using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). Data from these techniques have also offered insight into fuel drop size and distribution, fuel injector spray angle and pattern, turbulence intensity, degree of vaporization and extent of reaction. This research serves to characterize operation of the baseline NASA 9- point LDI strategy for potential use in future gas-turbine combustor applications. An additional motive is the compilation of a comprehensive database to facilitate understanding of combustor fuel injector aerodynamics and fuel vaporization processes, which in turn may be used to validate computational fluid dynamics codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC), among others.

  10. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.

    2012-01-01

    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  11. In situ attosecond pulse characterization techniques to measure the electromagnetic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, M.; Bertrand, J. B.; Villeneuve, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    A number of techniques have been developed to characterize the attosecond emission from high-order-harmonic sources. These techniques are broadly classified as ex situ, where the attosecond pulse train photoionizes a target gas in the presence of an infrared field, and in situ, where the measurement takes place in the medium in which the attosecond pulses are generated. It is accepted that ex situ techniques measure the characteristics of the electromagnetic field, including the phase of the recombination transition moment of the emitting atom or molecule, when the phase of the second medium is known. However, there is debate about whether in situ techniques measure the electromagnetic field, or only the characteristics of the recolliding electron before recombination occurs. We show numerically that in situ measurements are not sensitive to the recombination phase, when implemented in the perturbative regime as originally envisioned, and that they do not measure the electromagnetic phase of the emission.

  12. Non-invasive characterization of fluid foodstuffs based on ultrasonic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2004-07-01

    The food industry can benefit from a highly sensitive, non-invasive, self-calibrating, on-line sensor for characterizing liquid or slurry in process vessels during mixing, settling, stationary, or flowing conditions by measuring the density, sound speed, and attenuation of ultrasound. The sensor system was developed by staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The sensor transducers are mounted directly on the stainless steel wall and the pipeline wall becomes part of the measurement system. Multiple reflections within the stainless steel wall are used to determine the acoustic impedance of the liquid, where the acoustic impedance is defined as the product of the density and the speed of sound. The probe becomes self-calibrating because variations in the pulser voltage do not affect the measurements. By basing the measurement upon multiple reflections, the sensitivity of the measurement is significantly increased

  13. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  14. The First SLR Double-Difference Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svehla, Drazen; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Sierk, Bernd; Kirchner, Georg; Rodriguez, Jose; Wilkinson, Matthew; Sherwood, Rob; Appleby, Graham

    2013-04-01

    We introduce the SLR double-difference approach of space geodesy. With real and simulated SLR measurements it is shown how common SLR biases are removed by forming SLR double-differences, i.e. station range biases, common retro-reflector effects and orbit errors (GNSS) for baselines up to e.g. 5000 km. In this way we obtain SLR observables of utmost precision and accuracy. We show how remaining noise in the SLR measurements nicely averages out, leading to orbit-free and bias-free estimation of station coordinates, local ties between different space geodesy techniques and precise comparison of optical/microwave tropospheric effects. It shall be noted that SLR scale is preserved by double-differencing. When ETALON and LAGEOS satellites are observed by SLR, any orbit error propagates directly into estimated station coordinates. However, by forming differences between two satellites and two ground stations this orbit error can be eliminated. Both satellites need to be observed quasi-simultaneously in the same tracking sessions in order that station range bias and common retro-reflector effects are removed by differencing. When SLR measurements from GRZL and HERL SLR stations are taken to GLONASS and LAGEOS satellites and processed in double-difference mode, clear common orbit errors are visible in the SLR residuals from both stations. The same stands for small range biases that are visible between the consecutive observing sessions and are removed by forming SLR baselines. Longer SLR passes reveal other interesting systematic effects common to both stations at mm-level. An error in the order of 4-6 cm RMS was introduced to GNSS orbits, however the effect on station coordinates in negligible over such a short SLR baseline. We show how with just one-two SLR double-difference passes one can estimate station coordinates at mm-level. When in parallel, both GNSS satellites are observed with microwave measurements, one can estimate very accurate local ties by comparing (or

  15. Characterization of Solid Liquid Suspensions Utilizing Non-Invasive Ultrasonic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Panetta, P.D.; Tucker, B.; Ahmed, S.; Pappas, R.A.

    2004-03-31

    Rapid, on-line characterization of the particle size and concentration of moderate to highly concentrated slurries is required for efficient waste remediation at the DOE complexes. This paper discusses the advancements achieved under the Environmental Management Science Program to accurately characterize high-level waste at the high concentrations expected at the DOE complexes. In addition, the results are applicable to efficient process measurement and control in many chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Existing methods for determining the particle size and concentration of non-dilute slurries based on ultrasonic attenuation can become inaccurate due to the complex interactions of ultrasonic waves with the constituents of the slurries and the necessity for very careful transducer alignment. Two measurements that help to overcome these difficulties are the ultrasonic backscattering and diffuse field. The backscattering measurement is attractive because viscous, thermal and inertial effects have small contributions to the backscattering. In addition, the backscattering theories are simpler than attenuation theories and lend themselves to more stable inversion processes. Furthermore, the measurements of backscattering measurement do not require long travel distances and can be made with a single transducer thus eliminating alignment problems. We will present ultrasonic measurements and theoretical comparisons on solid liquid suspensions designed to elucidate the particle size and concentration at high concentration relevant to the high level waste at the DOE complexes.

  16. Long Term Baseline Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Mark A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a program designed to measure the normal concentrations of certain chemical and physical parameters of the atmosphere so that quantitative estimates can be made of local, regional, and global pollution. (GS)

  17. Measurement and evaluation methods for beam characterization of commercial excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Hans Stephen; Rebhan, Ulrich; Mann, Klaus R.; Ohlenbusch, J.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the specific requirements for measurement of excimer laser beam profiles for standardized characterization 'of commercial excimer lasers. A corresponding measurement system is presented which allows a simultaneous characterization of energy density distribution in the near field as well as in the focal plane of a lens (far field). Specially adapted UV-cameras make possible sings pulse diagnostic. Beam widths are calculated from the digitized camera data by different methods corresponding to the proposals of ISO 11146 (second moment, moving knife edge, and moving slit) and the results are compared. In particular, the influence of background signals as well as the typical shape of energy density distribution in the near field to the determined beam widths are analyzed.

  18. Experimental method of optical coherence characterization in phase-space measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie-En; Fu, Jhih-Syuan; Hsiao, Ming-Shu; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A novel approach of phase-space measurement made its debut with the experimental result. We first designed an experiment based on the Young's interferometer to characterization the optical coherence property of light source. A well-known algorithm called Hough transformation was applied to deal with the misalignment of micro-lens array by post-processing. The phase-space image of plane wave was then reconstructed from the realigned raw image. Finally, the properties of this system were discussed.

  19. Characterization of ZnSe(Te) scintillators by frequency domain luminescence lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickevičius, J.; Tamulaitis, G.; Vitta, P.; Žukauskas, A.; Starzhinskiy, N.; Ryzhikov, V.

    2009-10-01

    Dynamics of photoluminescence (PL) decay in Te-doped ZnSe scintillator crystal is studied using frequency domain luminescence lifetime measurement technique, which enables simultaneous characterization of components in multicomponent PL decay in a wide time window ranging from millisecond to nanosecond domain. Evolution of decay times and relative contributions of the decay components corresponding to different PL decay mechanisms was revealed as a function of temperature.

  20. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  1. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics. PMID:27441991

  2. Wavelength encoded polarization measurements for simultaneous spectral and polarimetric characterization in near field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H. S.; Swami, M. K.; Kushwaha, P. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We report a scheme for polarization sensitive near field imaging of nanostructured samples by making use of broadband polarized near field illumination and detection of polarization states of scattered light by a spectrally encoded analyzer. The analyzer comprising a combination of polarizer, a multi-order waveplate and a broadband quarter waveplate allows analysis of the spectrally encoded polarization states of scattered light for characterization of the polarization properties of nano structures from a single image scan. The scheme was validated by measuring the near field polarization parameters of silver nanowires. The approach allows simultaneous measurement of polarization characteristics as well as spectral features of the nano materials.

  3. Characterization of thermoelectric devices by laser induced Seebeck electromotive force (LIS-EMF) measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño Lopez, Luis-David; Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stéphane; Amine Salhi, M.; Ezzahri, Younès; Claeys, Wilfrid; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2005-05-01

    An in-depth study related to a new method of characterizing properties in thermoelectrics is proposed in this paper. This technique is appropriate for single or multi-layered thermoelectric devices. A modulated laser beam is used as a heater in order to generate a Seebeck electromotive force (EMF). The laser beam, line shaped, can be focused at any location along the sample surface, allowing spatially resolved measurements. Seebeck EMF measurements, associated with a versatile model based on the thermal quadrupoles method, allow determination of the sample Seebeck EMF profile and identifying of the sample thermal contact resistances, and should be useful for identification of devices and material thermoelectric properties.

  4. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dionigi, F.; Hansen, O.; Nielsen, M. G.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.; Pedersen, T.

    2013-10-15

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ∼0.4 and ∼4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented.

  5. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionigi, F.; Nielsen, M. G.; Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.

    2013-10-01

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ˜0.4 and ˜4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented.

  6. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields: A combined measurement and modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Canney, Michael S.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields is important both for the accurate prediction of ultrasound induced bioeffects in tissues and for the development of regulatory standards for clinical HIFU devices. In this paper, a method to determine HIFU field parameters at and around the focus is proposed. Nonlinear pressure waveforms were measured and modeled in water and in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom for a 2 MHz transducer with an aperture and focal length of 4.4 cm. Measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe hydrophone at intensity levels up to 24 000 W∕cm2. The inputs to a Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov-type numerical model were determined based on experimental low amplitude beam plots. Strongly asymmetric waveforms with peak positive pressures up to 80 MPa and peak negative pressures up to 15 MPa were obtained both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agreed well; however, when steep shocks were present in the waveform at focal intensity levels higher than 6000 W∕cm2, lower values of the peak positive pressure were observed in the measured waveforms. This underrepresentation was attributed mainly to the limited hydrophone bandwidth of 100 MHz. It is shown that a combination of measurements and modeling is necessary to enable accurate characterization of HIFU fields. PMID:19062878

  8. Characterization of Alpha Contamination in Lanthanum Trichloride Scintillators Using Coincidence Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Runkle, Robert C.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kaye, William R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

    2005-08-01

    The commercial availability of LaCl3:Ce scintillators has been much anticipated due to their significantly lower resolution relative to NaI(Tl). Our investigation of these scintillators in regards to the effect of their improved resolution for coincidence gamma-ray measurement applications revealed that the scintillators had a large, internal alpha contamination affecting the gamma-ray energy range from 1700-3000 keV. One passive method of identifying contaminants relies on exploiting coincident signatures. Aided by a coincidence lookup library developed at PNNL, we determined that the parent contaminant is Ac-227 via an alpha-gamma coincidence measurement. In this paper, we characterize the level of contamination and describe our coincidence measurement technique. The Ac-227 concentration was approximately 0.13 ppt. We demonstrate that this coincidence technique measures minimum detectable activities much lower than singles gamma-ray spectroscopy. We also discuss gamma- and beta-contamination in these scintillators.

  9. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  10. Characterizing and Filling Data Gaps in ARM Measurements for Carbon Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, R. A.; Hargrove, W. W.; Jager, H. I.; Brandt, C. C.; Hanan, N.

    2003-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data archive includes many of the measurements needed by carbon modelers to predict carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, but data gaps limit the use of ARM data as input for simulation models. Because the DOE ARM Program records actual measurements, circumstances unavoidably arise when instrument and storage failures create gaps in the temporal stream of measurements. Most temporal gaps are short in duration and affect only one or a few related parameters. However, some rare failures, such as wide-area power outages or ice storms, occasionally affect many measurement streams at one or more ARM facilities simultaneously. We have statistically characterized the frequency of univariate temporal gap lengths in various ARM measurements, and have devised approaches for filling such data gaps in space and time. To make ARM measurements suitable as model input, we identified and eliminated outliers, removed values with known QA problems, aggregated the measurements to an appropriate temporal scale (hours), and filled gaps in the data record using univariate imputation methods across time and space. We have prepared a set of hourly aggregated, gap-filled products from ARM SIRS and SMOS data collected at the SGP site from 1996 through 2001. These products were designed to facilitate the use of ARM measurements as climate drivers for carbon simulations. In cases where no raw data were available, we imputed a replacement value from adjacent hours or sites. ARM measurements differed widely in predictability. Temperature and vapor pressure were easiest to impute, but precipitation was a challenge. Shortwave radiation was more difficult to impute than longwave radiation. Successful imputation created reasonable values and patterns that were indistinguishable from the surrounding measurements. The difficulty of imputation for each measurement could help prioritize instrument repair and operational triage during data collection.

  11. Baseline Geography Competency Test Administered in Indiana Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.

    A baseline geography skills test was administered during 1987 to over 3,000 students who were enrolled in freshmen geography courses at 18 Indiana universities. Known as the National Council for Geographic Education Competency-Based Geography Test, Secondary Level, Form D, this test was used to measure the students' level of geographic ability in:…

  12. Wide baseline optical interferometry with Laser Guide Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D. T., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Laser guide stars have been used successfully as a reference source for adaptive optics systems. We present a possible method for utilizing laser beacons as sources for interferometric phasing. The technique would extend the sky coverage for wide baseline interferometers and allow interferometric measurement and imaging of dim objects.

  13. The Very-Long-Baseline Array.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Thompson, A. Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the very-long-baseline array (VLBA) system of radio telescopes that will be completed in the early 1990s. Explains how the VLBA system works and the advantages over present technology. Compares associated international telescopes and very-long-baseline interferometers (VLBI). Illustrates applications for the VLBA and VLBI. (CW)

  14. Baseline ozone results from 1923 to 1955

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angione, R. J.; Roosen, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Baseline total atmospheric ozone values from the year 1923 to 1955 are reported which have been derived from observations of the solar constant made by Smithsonian Institution sites in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Ozone was determined from absorption by the broad, weak Chappuis band near 0.6 microns as measured on 1194 days at Mt. Montezuma, Chile and 970 days at Table Mountain, California. Results show systematic changes on the order of 25 percent in the ozone level at Montezuma with a time scale of 10-20 years, although the previously reported 30 percent decrease between 1920-1930 and 1940-1950 is found to have been erroneous. Comparisons of ozone data with geomagnetic indices and sunspot number show a suggestive correlation of ozone with sunspot number, although the relation is not borne out by comparison of ozone and sunspot cycles, or by Fourier analysis. Comparison of ozone data in the Chappuis band obtained by a modern filter-wheel radiometer with that obtained from a Dobson spectrometer at Mauna Loa Observatory shows Chappuis band measurements to be 14 percent lower.

  15. Summary of long-baseline systematics session at CETUP*2014

    SciTech Connect

    Cherdack, Daniel; Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-10-15

    A session studying systematics in long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics was held July 14-18, 2014 as part of CETUP* 2014. Systematic effects from flux normalization and modeling, modeling of cross sections and nuclear interactions, and far detector effects were addressed. Experts presented the capabilities of existing and planned tools. A program of study to determine estimates of and requirements for the size of these effects was designed. This document summarizes the results of the CETUP* systematics workshop and the current status of systematic uncertainty studies in long-baseline neutrino oscillation measurements.

  16. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Based on the research, the area of precise ephemerides for GPS satellites, the following observations can be made pertaining to the status and future work needed regarding orbit accuracy. There are several aspects which need to be addressed in discussing determination of precise orbits, such as force models, kinematic models, measurement models, data reduction/estimation methods, etc. Although each one of these aspects was studied at CSR in research efforts, only points pertaining to the force modeling aspect are addressed.

  17. Experimental and Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Characterizing Slurry Mixing Performance of Pulsating Jets at Multiple Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2015-09-10

    Understanding how uncertainty manifests itself in complex experiments is important for developing the testing protocol and interpreting the experimental results. This paper describes experimental and measurement uncertainties, and how they can depend on the order of performing experimental tests. Experiments with pulse-jet mixers in tanks at three scales were conducted to characterize the performance of transient-developing periodic flows in Newtonian slurries. Other test parameters included the simulant, solids concentration, and nozzle exit velocity. Critical suspension velocity and cloud height were the metrics used to characterize Newtonian slurry flow associated with mobilization and mixing. During testing, near-replicate and near-repeat tests were conducted. The experimental results were used to quantify the combined experimental and measurement uncertainties using standard deviations and percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) The uncertainties in critical suspension velocity and cloud height tend to increase with the values of these responses. Hence, the %RSD values are the more appropriate summary measure of near-replicate testing and measurement uncertainty.

  18. Characterizing neural activities evoked by manual acupuncture through spiking irregularity measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Yu, Hai-Tao; Chen, Ying-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    The neural system characterizes information in external stimulations by different spiking patterns. In order to examine how neural spiking patterns are related to acupuncture manipulations, experiments are designed in such a way that different types of manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations are taken at the ‘Zusanli’ point of experimental rats, and the induced electrical signals in the spinal dorsal root ganglion are detected and recorded. The interspike interval (ISI) statistical histogram is fitted by the gamma distribution, which has two parameters: one is the time-dependent firing rate and the other is a shape parameter characterizing the spiking irregularities. The shape parameter is the measure of spiking irregularities and can be used to identify the type of MA manipulations. The coefficient of variation is mostly used to measure the spike time irregularity, but it overestimates the irregularity in the case of pronounced firing rate changes. However, experiments show that each acupuncture manipulation will lead to changes in the firing rate. So we combine four relatively rate-independent measures to study the irregularity of spike trains evoked by different types of MA manipulations. Results suggest that the MA manipulations possess unique spiking statistics and characteristics and can be distinguished according to the spiking irregularity measures. These studies have offered new insights into the coding processes and information transfer of acupuncture.

  19. Characterization of compounds by time-of-flight measurement utilizing random fast ions

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for characterizing the mass of sample and daughter particles, comprising a source for providing sample ions; a fragmentation region wherein a fraction of the sample ions may fragment to produce daughter ion particles; an electrostatic field region held at a voltage level sufficient to effect ion-neutral separation and ion-ion separation of fragments from the same sample ion and to separate ions of different kinetic energy; a detector system for measuring the relative arrival times of particles; and processing means operatively connected to the detector system to receive and store the relative arrival times and operable to compare the arrival times with times detected at the detector when the electrostatic field region is held at a different voltage level and to thereafter characterize the particles. Sample and daughter particles are characterized with respect to mass and other characteristics by detecting at a particle detector the relative time of arrival for fragments of a sample ion at two different electrostatic voltage levels. The two sets of particle arrival times are used in conjunction with the known altered voltage levels to mathematically characterize the sample and daughter fragments. In an alternative embodiment the present invention may be used as a detector for a conventional mass spectrometer. In this embodiment, conventional mass spectrometry analysis is enhanced due to further mass resolving of the detected ions.

  20. Characterization of compounds by time-of-flight measurement utilizing random fast ions

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, R.J.

    1989-04-04

    An apparatus is described for characterizing the mass of sample and daughter particles, comprising a source for providing sample ions; a fragmentation region wherein a fraction of the sample ions may fragment to produce daughter ion particles; an electrostatic field region held at a voltage level sufficient to effect ion-neutral separation and ion-ion separation of fragments from the same sample ion and to separate ions of different kinetic energy; a detector system for measuring the relative arrival times of particles; and processing means operatively connected to the detector system to receive and store the relative arrival times and operable to compare the arrival times with times detected at the detector when the electrostatic field region is held at a different voltage level and to thereafter characterize the particles. Sample and daughter particles are characterized with respect to mass and other characteristics by detecting at a particle detector the relative time of arrival for fragments of a sample ion at two different electrostatic voltage levels. The two sets of particle arrival times are used in conjunction with the known altered voltage levels to mathematically characterize the sample and daughter fragments. In an alternative embodiment the present invention may be used as a detector for a conventional mass spectrometer. In this embodiment, conventional mass spectrometry analysis is enhanced due to further mass resolving of the detected ions. 8 figs.

  1. 2D X-ray scanner and its uses in laboratory reservoir characterization measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.

    1997-08-01

    X-ray techniques are used in petroleum laboratories for a variety of reservoir characterization measurements. This paper describes the configuration of a 2D X-ray scanner and many of the ways in which it simplifies and improves accuracy`s of laboratory measurements. Linear X-ray scanners are most often used to provide descriptions of fluid saturations within core plugs during flow tests. We configured our linear scanner for both horizontal and vertical movement. Samples can be scanned horizontally, vertically, or according to horizontal and vertical grids. X-ray measurements are fast, allowing measurements of two- and three-phase fluid saturations during both steady- and unsteady-state flow processes. Rock samples can be scanned while they are subjected to stress, pore pressure, and temperature conditions simulating those of a petroleum reservoir. Many types of measurements are possible by selecting appropriate X-ray power settings, dopes, filters, and collimator configurations. The scanner has been used for a variety of applications besides fluid saturation measurements. It is useful for measuring porosity distributions in rocks, concentrations of X-ray dopes within flow streams during tracer tests, gap widths in fracture flow cells, fluid interface levels in PVT cells and fluid separators, and other features and phenomena.

  2. Determination of intercontinental baselines and Earth orientation using VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Fanselow, J. L.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Rogstad, D. H.; Thomas, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted during the last decade to explore the capability of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to measure the crustal and rotational motions of the Earth with accuracies at the centimeter level. The observing stations are those of NASA's Deep Space Network in California, Spain and Australia. A multiparameter fit to the observed values of delay and delay rate yields radio source positions, polar motion, universal time, the precession constant, baseline vectors, and solid Earth tides. Source positions are obtained with formal errors of the order of 0''.01. UT1-UTC and polar motion are determined at 49 epochs, with formal error estimates for the more recent data of 0.5 msec for UT1-UTC and 2 to 6 mas for polar motion. Intercontinental baseline lengths are determined with formal errors of 5 to 10 cm. The Love numbers and Earth tide phase lag agree with the commonly accepted values.

  3. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, Fabien; Mella, Guillaume; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-07-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  4. Characterization of pixel crosstalk and impact of Bayer patterning by quantum efficiency measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillant, Jérôme; Mornet, Clémence; Decroux, Thomas; Hérault, Didier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Development of small pixels for high resolution image sensors implies a lot of challenges. A high level of performance should be guaranteed whereas the overall size must be reduced and so the degree of freedom in design and process. One key parameter of this constant improvement is the knowledge and the control of the crosstalk between pixels. In this paper, we present an advance in crosstalk characterization method based on the design of specific color patterns and the measurement of quantum efficiency. In a first part, we describe the color patterns designed to isolate one pixel or to simulate un-patterned colored pixels. These patterns have been implemented on test-chip and characterized. The second part deals with the characterization setup for quantum efficiency. Indeed, the use of spectral measurements allows us to discriminate pixels based on the color filter placed on top of them and to probe the crosstalk as a function of the depth in silicon, thanks to the photon absorption length variation with the wavelength. In the last part, results are presented showing the impact of color filters patterning, i.e. pixels in a Bayer pattern versus un-patterned pixels. The crosstalk directions and amplitudes are also analyzed in relation to pixel layout.

  5. Karyotype characterization and nuclear DNA content measurement in Bromeliaceae: state of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Andrei C P; Clarindo, Wellington R

    2014-12-01

    In Bromeliaceae, cytogenetic and flow cytometry analyses have been performed to clarify systematic and evolutionary aspects. Karyotyping approaches have shown the relatively high chromosome number, similar morphology and small size of the chromosomes. These facts have prevented a correct chromosome counting and characterization. Authors have established a basic chromosome number of x = 25 for Bromeliaceae. Recently, one karyomorphological analysis revealed that x = 25 is no longer the basic chromosome number, whose genome may have a polyploid origin. Besides cytogenetic characterization, the 2C DNA content of bromeliads has been measured. Nuclear DNA content has varied from 2C = 0.60 to 2C = 3.34 picograms. Thus, in relation to most angiosperms, the 2C DNA content of Bromeliaceae species as well as their chromosome size can be considered relatively small. In spite of some advances, cytogenetic and flow cytometry data are extremely scarce in this group. In this context, this review reports the state of the art in karyotype characterization and nuclear DNA content measurement in Bromeliaceae, emphasizing the main problems and suggesting prospective solutions and ideas for future research. PMID:25590721

  6. Precise regional baseline estimation using a priori orbital information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-01-01

    A solution using GPS measurements acquired during the CASA Uno campaign has resulted in 3-4 mm horizontal daily baseline repeatability and 13 mm vertical repeatability for a 729 km baseline, located in North America. The agreement with VLBI is at the level of 10-20 mm for all components. The results were obtained with the GIPSY orbit determination and baseline estimation software and are based on five single-day data arcs spanning the 20, 21, 25, 26, and 27 of January, 1988. The estimation strategy included resolving the carrier phase integer ambiguities, utilizing an optial set of fixed reference stations, and constraining GPS orbit parameters by applying a priori information. A multiday GPS orbit and baseline solution has yielded similar 2-4 mm horizontal daily repeatabilities for the same baseline, consistent with the constrained single-day arc solutions. The application of weak constraints to the orbital state for single-day data arcs produces solutions which approach the precise orbits obtained with unconstrained multiday arc solutions.

  7. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  8. Characterizing Methods of Measuring Flow-Mediated Dilation in the Brachial Artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, Ariane R.

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of vascular tone is one of the many important functions of the vascular endothelium. Endothelial dysfunction is a critical early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and occurs in the absence of angiographic disease. Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive technique commonly used to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans and gauge the health of the cardiovascular system. Reductions in brachial artery FMD have been strongly correlated with disease progression and are predictive of future cardiac events. The flow stimulus for brachial artery FMD occurs as a result of the increased shear stress following deflation of an occlusion cuff around the upper arm. Using 2-dimensional ultrasound, changes in arterial diameter up to 5-minutes following cuff deflation are calculated from baseline image measurements. Along with pulsed Doppler measures of flow velocity through the artery, flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation can be assessed. There is debate among investigators, however, about the proper positioning of the occlusion cuff during FMD testing. It is thought that placement of the cuff around the upper arm may not accurately reflect the impact of nitric oxide, a critically important molecule released as a result of the increased shear stress created by the FMD technique. Data suggest that the production of other endogenous metabolites may also contribute to FMD-related changes when positioning the cuff around the upper arm. To overcome the potential influence of such molecules, researchers now suggest that the occlusion cuff be placed below the elbow allowing a more precise estimate of nitric oxide mediated dilation. The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in FMD between the two methodologies of occlusion cuff placement. In addition, this study will determine the method that is easier for ultrasound technicians to perform and will produce a low coefficient of variance between technicians. Ultimately

  9. Characterization and application of an externally mounted catalytic converter for aircraft measurements of NOy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, L.; Fischer, H.; Parchatka, U.; Gurk, C.; Zenker, T.; Harris, G. W.

    2002-08-01

    A novel design for an airborne NOy converter was implemented, characterized in the laboratory, and used extensively for in situ tropospheric and stratospheric measurements of total reactive nitrogen (NOy). During field deployments, the converter is mounted outside the aircraft fuselage, avoiding the need for an inlet line. In flight, the converter can be calibrated by the addition of standard gases close to the sample inlet, compensating for any changes in the instrument sensitivity caused by changing operating conditions. The system has been used successfully during several Stratosphere Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements campaigns in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere for the measurement of total reactive nitrogen. The detection limit of the system is approximately 100 pptv for 10 s integrated data (2σ). The precision, deduced from the reproducibility of the in-flight calibrations, is 7% and the accuracy is about 30%. Laboratory studies demonstrate that interference from HCN, NH3, and CH3CN is negligible for background conditions.

  10. DNA binding sites characterization by means of Rényi entropy measures on nucleotide transitions.

    PubMed

    Perera, Alexandre; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Claria, Francesc; Soria, José Manuel; Caminal, Pere

    2006-01-01

    In this work, parametric information-theory measures for the characterization of binding sites in DNA are extended with the use of transitional probabilities on the sequence. We propose the use of parametric uncertainty measure such as Renyi entropies obtained from the transition probabilities for the study of the binding sites, in addition to nucleotide frequency based Renyi measures. Results are reported in this manuscript comparing transition frequencies (i.e. dinucelotides) and base frequencies for Shannon and parametric Renyi for a number of binding sites found in E. Coli, lambda and T7 organisms. We observe that, for the evaluated datasets, the information provided by both approaches is not redundant, as they evolve differently under increasing Renyi orders. PMID:17946719

  11. DNA binding site characterization by means of Rényi entropy measures on nucleotide transitions.

    PubMed

    Perera, A; Vallverdu, M; Claria, F; Soria, J M; Caminal, P

    2008-06-01

    In this work, parametric information-theory measures for the characterization of binding sites in DNA are extended with the use of transitional probabilities on the sequence. We propose the use of parametric uncertainty measures such as Rényi entropies obtained from the transition probabilities for the study of the binding sites, in addition to nucleotide frequency-based Rényi measures. Results are reported in this work comparing transition frequencies (i.e., dinucleotides) and base frequencies for Shannon and parametric Rényi entropies for a number of binding sites found in E. Coli, lambda and T7 organisms. We observe that the information provided by both approaches is not redundant. Furthermore, under the presence of noise in the binding site matrix we observe overall improved robustness of nucleotide transition-based algorithms when compared with nucleotide frequency-based method. PMID:18556261

  12. Measurement and characterization of cylindrical surfaces by deflectometry applied to ballistic identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin, A. V.; Veiga, C.; Albertazzi, A.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes an optical device that uses a new configuration of a technique known as deflectometry applied to ballistic identification. The main novelty is characterized by the use of a 45° conical mirror to measure the near cylindrical surface of the bullet. deflectometry is an optical technique sensitive to variations in topography and unevenness of a surface. This technique allows to identify and to measure the geometry of objects based on the distortions observed in a sequence of image patterns reflected on the surface of interest. The measurement by deflectometry is very sensitive to the surface local gradients and curvatures. In this paper it is applied to forensic ballistic in order to verify if a given bullet could be fired by a suspect weapon. Comparisons between images of bullets fired by the same weapon were made.

  13. Characterization of a 10-MHz quadrant APD for measuring frequency oscillations and tip displacements of microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Brian G.; LaVan, David A.

    2012-10-01

    The room-temperature response of a 10-MHz quadrant avalanche photodiode (APD) is investigated for detection of high frequency oscillations and tip displacements of fabricated microcantilevers. Currently, no quadrant detectors with a response bandwidth in the megahertz range are available, and oscillations on the order of a few microseconds cannot be resolved. A comparison is made between optical and opto-mechanical measurements to characterize this detector by investigating the frequency response and signal-to-noise (SNR) of pulsed laser signals up to 10 MHz and reflected laser signals from freely vibrating microcantilevers up to 1.64 MHz. The power level of the minimum detectable signal incident on the APD is found to be 28.2 ± 5.0 nW for optical measurements and 1.0 μW ± 5.0 nW for opto-mechanical measurements.

  14. Sound of shallow and deep water lobsters: Measurements, analysis, and characterization (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, G.; Senthilvadivu, S.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajendran, V.

    2005-05-01

    Study of sound made by marine species aid in ambient noise studies and characterization. This letter presents the work carried out on measurement of sound made by lobsters in a controlled environment and the data processing and the spectral analysis to identify the frequency contents. Lobsters collected in the shallow waters as well as deep waters in the ocean have been used for the sound measurement. The Panulirus Homarus and Palinustur Waguersis species were kept in a tank in a laboratory and measurements were made. Their fundamental frequencies, harmonics, and peaks are analyzed in the band 3 to 100 kHz under different conditions such as molting and nonmolting states. Analysis with respect to diurnal variations is also carried out. The results show that lobsters produce sound like musical instruments, which agree with the observations of Patek [Nature (London) 411, 153-154 (2001)]. .

  15. Characterization of Space Shuttle Reusable Rocket Motor Static Test Stand Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Mart L.; Gruet, Laurent; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) are static tested at two ATK Thiokol Propulsion facilities in Utah, T-24 and T-97. The newer T-97 static test facility was recently upgraded to allow thrust measurement capability. All previous static test motor thrust measurements have been taken at T-24; data from these tests were used to characterize thrust parameters and requirement limits for flight motors. Validation of the new T-97 thrust measurement system is required prior to use for official RSRM performance assessments. Since thrust cannot be measured on RSRM flight motors, flight motor measured chamber pressure and a nominal thrust-to-pressure relationship (based on static test motor thrust and pressure measurements) are used to reconstruct flight motor performance. Historical static test and flight motor performance data are used in conjunction with production subscale test data to predict RSRM performance. The predicted motor performance is provided to support Space Shuttle trajectory and system loads analyses. Therefore, an accurate nominal thrust-to-pressure (F/P) relationship is critical for accurate RSRM flight motor performance and Space Shuttle analyses. Flight Support Motors (FSM) 7, 8, and 9 provided thrust data for the validation of the T-97 thrust measurement system. The T-97 thrust data were analyzed and compared to thrust previously measured at T-24 to verify measured thrust data and identify any test-stand bias. The T-97 FIP data were consistent and within the T-24 static test statistical family expectation. The FSMs 7-9 thrust data met all NASA contract requirements, and the test stand is now verified for future thrust measurements.

  16. Ultrasonic tissue characterization via 2-D spectrum analysis: theory and in vitro measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Lizzi, Frederic L.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model is described for application in ultrasonic tissue characterization using a calibrated 2-D spectrum analysis method. This model relates 2-D spectra computed from ultrasonic backscatter signals to intrinsic physical properties of tissue microstructures, e.g., size, shape, and acoustic impedance. The model is applicable to most clinical diagnostic ultrasound systems. Two experiments employing two types of tissue architectures, spherical and cylindrical scatterers, are conducted using ultrasound with center frequencies of 10 and 40 MHz, respectively. Measurements of a tissue-mimicking phantom with an internal suspension of microscopic glass beads are used to validate the theoretical model. Results from in vitro muscle fibers are presented to further elucidate the utility of 2-D spectrum analysis in ultrasonic tissue characterization. PMID:17441250

  17. A Novel Method for Characterization of Superconductors: Physical Measurements and Modeling of Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, B. F.; Moorjani, K.; Phillips, T. E.; Adrian, F. J.; Bohandy, J.; Dolecek, Q. E.

    1993-01-01

    A method for characterization of granular superconducting thin films has been developed which encompasses both the morphological state of the sample and its fabrication process parameters. The broad scope of this technique is due to the synergism between experimental measurements and their interpretation using numerical simulation. Two novel technologies form the substance of this system: the magnetically modulated resistance method for characterizing superconductors; and a powerful new computer peripheral, the Parallel Information Processor card, which provides enhanced computing capability for PC computers. This enhancement allows PC computers to operate at speeds approaching that of supercomputers. This makes atomic scale simulations possible on low cost machines. The present development of this system involves the integration of these two technologies using mesoscale simulations of thin film growth. A future stage of development will incorporate atomic scale modeling.

  18. A METHODOLOGY TO INTEGRATE MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge O. Parra; Chris L. Hackert; Lorna L. Wilson

    2002-09-20

    The work reported herein represents the third year of development efforts on a methodology to interpret magnetic resonance and acoustic measurements for reservoir characterization. In this last phase of the project we characterize a vuggy carbonate aquifer in the Hillsboro Basin, Palm Beach County, South Florida, using two data sets--the first generated by velocity tomography and the second generated by reflection tomography. First, we integrate optical macroscopic (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, as well as petrography, as a first step in characterizing the aquifer pore system. This pore scale integration provides information with which to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well log signatures for NMR well log calibration, interpret ultrasonic data, and characterize flow units at the field scale between two wells in the aquifer. Saturated and desaturated NMR core measurements estimate the irreducible water in the rock and the variable T{sub 2} cut-offs for the NMR well log calibration. These measurements establish empirical equations to extract permeability from NMR well logs. Velocity and NMR-derived permeability and porosity relationships integrated with velocity tomography (based on crosswell seismic measurements recorded between two wells 100 m apart) capture two flow units that are supported with pore scale integration results. Next, we establish a more detailed picture of the complex aquifer pore structures and the critical role they play in water movement, which aids in our ability to characterize not only carbonate aquifers, but reservoirs in general. We analyze petrography and cores to reveal relationships between the rock physical properties that control the compressional and shear wave velocities of the formation. A digital thin section analysis provides the pore size distributions of the rock matrix, which allows us to relate pore structure to permeability and to characterize flow units at the

  19. Characterization of guided wave velocity and attenuation in anisotropic materials from wavefield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Westin B.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2016-02-01

    The behavior of guided waves propagating in anisotropic composite panels can be substantially more complicated than for isotropic, metallic plates. The angular dependency of wave propagation characteristics need to be understood and quantified before applying methods for damage detection and characterization. This study experimentally investigates the anisotropy of wave speed and attenuation for the fundamental A0-like guided wave mode propagating in a solid laminate composite panel. A piezoelectric transducer is the wave source and a laser Doppler vibrometer is used to measure the outward propagating waves along radial lines originating at the source transducer. Group velocity, phase velocity and attenuation are characterized as a function of angle for a single center frequency. The methods shown in this paper serve as a framework for future adaptation to damage imaging methods using guided waves for structural health monitoring.

  20. Analytic characterization of measurement uncertainty and initial orbit determination on orbital element representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisman, R. M.; Majji, M.; Alfriend, K. T.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to characterize the uncertainty associated with the state vector obtained from the Herrick-Gibbs orbit determination approach using transformation of variables. The approach is applied to estimate the state vector and its probability density function for objects in low Earth orbit using sparse observations. The state vector and associated uncertainty estimates are computed in Cartesian coordinates and Keplerian elements. The approach is then extended to accommodate the J_2 perturbation where the state vector is written in terms of mean orbital elements. The results obtained from the analytical approach presented in this paper are validated using Monte Carlo simulations and compared with the often utilized similarity transformation for Kepler, mean, and nonsingular elements. The measurement uncertainty characterization obtained is used to initialize conventional nonlinear filters as well as operate a Bayesian approach for orbit determination and object tracking.

  1. Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Kesaano, Maureen; Moll, Karen; Smith, Terence; Gerlach, Robin; Carlson, Ross; Miller, Charles D.; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith; Gardner, Robert D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: Microalgal biofilm based technologies are of keen interest due to their high biomass concentrations and ability to utilize renewable resources, such as light and CO2. While photoautotrophic biofilms have long been used for wastewater remediation applications, biofuel production represents a relatively new and under-represented focus area. However, the direct measurement and characterization of fundamental parameters required for physiological analyses are challenging due to biofilm heterogeneity. This study evaluated oxygenic photosynthesis and biofuel precursor molecule production using a novel rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) operated at field- and laboratory-scales for wastewater remediation and biofuel production, respectively. Clear differences in oxygenic-photosynthesis, respiration and biofuel-precursor capacities were observed between the two systems and different conditions based on light and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen depletion was not found to have the same effect on lipid accumulation compared to prior planktonic studies. Physiological characterizations of these microalgal biofilms identify potential areas for future process optimization.

  2. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  3. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: Measurements and energy prediction improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Arnesano, A.; Vergallo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m2. About 37 000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m2 and from -1 to 40 W/m2 from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  4. Positional irradiance measurement: characterization of spectrum-splitting and concentrating optics for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Cristofer A.; Darbe, Sunita; Eisler, Carissa N.; He, Junwen; Atwater, Harry A.

    2014-10-01

    Multijunction photovoltaics enable significantly improved efficiency over their single junction analogues by mitigating unabsorbed sub-bandgap photons and voltage loss to carrier thermalization. Lateral spectrum-splitting configurations promise further increased efficiency through relaxation of the lattice- and current-matching requirements of monolithic stacks, albeit at the cost of increased optical and electrical complexity. Consequently, in order to achieve an effective spectrum-splitting photovoltaic configuration it is essential that all optical losses and photon misallocation be characterized and subsequently minimized. We have developed a characterization system that enables us to map the spatial, spectral, and angular distribution of illumination incident on the subcell reception plane or emerging from any subset of the concentrating and splitting optics. This positional irradiance measurement system (PIMS) comprises four motorized stages assembled in an X-Z-RY configuration with three linear degrees of freedom and one rotational degree of freedom, on which we mount an optical fiber connected to a set of spectrometers covering the solar spectrum from 280-1700 nm. In combination with a xenon arc lamp solar simulator with a divergence half angle of 1.3 degrees, we are able to characterize our optics across the full spectrum of our photovoltaic subcells with close agreement to outdoor conditions. We have used this tool to spectrally characterize holographic diffraction efficiency versus diffraction angle; multilayer dielectric filter transmission and reflection efficiency versus filter incidence angle; and aspheric lens chromatic aberration versus optic-to-receiver separation distance. These examples illustrate the versatility of the PIMS in characterizing optical performance relevant to both spectrum-splitting and traditional multijunction photovoltaics.

  5. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  6. Measuring predictability in ultrasonic signals: an application to scattering material characterization.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Alicia; Miralles, Ramón; Lara, Guillermo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel and completely different approach to the problem of scattering material characterization: measuring the degree of predictability of the time series. Measuring predictability can provide information of the signal strength of the deterministic component of the time series in relation to the whole time series acquired. This relationship can provide information about coherent reflections in material grains with respect to the rest of incoherent noises that typically appear in non-destructive testing using ultrasonics. This is a non-parametric technique commonly used in chaos theory that does not require making any kind of assumptions about attenuation profiles. In highly scattering media (low SNR), it has been shown theoretically that the degree of predictability allows material characterization. The experimental results obtained in this work with 32 cement probes of 4 different porosities demonstrate the ability of this technique to do classification. It has also been shown that, in this particular application, the measurement of predictability can be used as an indicator of the percentages of porosity of the test samples with great accuracy. PMID:24952468

  7. Introducing phase analysis light scattering for dielectric characterization: measurement of traveling-wave pumping.

    PubMed Central

    Gimsa, J; Eppmann, P; Prüger, B

    1997-01-01

    Phase analysis light scattering (PALS) was applied to characterize a high-frequency traveling-wave (TW) micropump. Field strength and frequency characteristics were measured for aqueous solutions up to 40 MHz and conductivities of 16 mS/m. The TW field was generated by an ultramicroelectrode array of intercastellated electrodes, which were driven by square-topped signals. Pumping exhibited one major relaxation peak, which strongly increased for conductivities above 4 mS/m. The conductivity dependence of the peak frequency showed an unexpected nonlinear behavior. Around 20 MHz an additional peak caused by electronic resonance was found. Additional coils or capacitors shifted the resonance peak and allowed us to determine the electronic properties of the array. Analysis of distortions in the pump spectra caused by the harmonic content of the driving signals showed that the pump direction is determined by the traveling direction of the field. For measurement of AC-field-induced particle translations, the advantage of PALS over the commonly used microscopic analysis is that it offers an objective method for statistically significant, computerized registration of extremely slow motions. Thus, for dielectric characterization, low field strengths can be used, which is advantageous not only for analyzing liquid pumping, but also for measuring particle translations induced by dielectrophoresis or TW dielectrophoresis. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:9414241

  8. Use of random process-based fractal measure for characterization nodules and suspicious regions in lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, Mausumi; Chakravarty, Sumit; Stoeckel, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Chest X-ray (CXR) data is a projection image where each pixel of it represents a volumetric integration. Consequently identification of nodules and their characteristics is a difficult task in such images. Using a novel application of random process-based fractal image processing technique we extract features for nodule characterization. The uniqueness of the proposed technique lies in the fact that instead of relying on apriori information from user as in other random process inspired measures, we translate the random walk process into a feature which is based on its realization values. The Normalized Fractional Brownian Motion (NFBM) Model is derived from the random walk process. Using neighborhood region information in an incremental manner we can characterize the smoothness or roughness of a surface. The NFBM system gives a measure of roughness of a surface which in our case is a suspicious region (probable nodule). A classification procedure uses this measure to categorize nodule and non-nodule structures in the lung. The NFBM feature set is integrated in a prototype CAD system for nodule detection in CXR. Our algorithm provided a sensitivity of 75.9% with 3.1 FP/image on an independent test set of 50 CXR studies.

  9. Spatially telescoping measurements for improved characterization of groundwater-surface water interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kikuchi, Colin; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2012-01-01

    The suite of measurement methods available to characterize fluxes between groundwater and surface water is rapidly growing. However, there are few studies that examine approaches to design of field investigations that include multiple methods. We propose that performing field measurements in a spatially telescoping sequence improves measurement flexibility and accounts for nested heterogeneities while still allowing for parsimonious experimental design. We applied this spatially telescoping approach in a study of ground water-surface water (GW-SW) interaction during baseflow conditions along Lucile Creek, located near Wasilla, Alaska. Catchment-scale data, including channel geomorphic indices and hydrogeologic transects, were used to screen areas of potentially significant GW-SW exchange. Specifically, these data indicated increasing groundwater contribution from a deeper regional aquifer along the middle to lower reaches of the stream. This initial assessment was tested using reach-scale estimates of groundwater contribution during baseflow conditions, including differential discharge measurements and the use of chemical tracers analyzed in a three-component mixing model. The reach-scale measurements indicated a large increase in discharge along the middle reaches of the stream accompanied by a shift in chemical composition towards a regional groundwater end member. Finally, point measurements of vertical water fluxes -- obtained using seepage meters as well as temperature-based methods -- were used to evaluate spatial and temporal variability of GW-SW exchange within representative reaches. The spatial variability of upward fluxes, estimated using streambed temperature mapping at the sub-reach scale, was observed to vary in relation to both streambed composition and the magnitude of groundwater contribution from differential discharge measurements. The spatially telescoping approach improved the efficiency of this field investigation. Beginning our assessment

  10. Characterization of organic contaminants in porous media using nuclear magnetic resonance and spectral induced polarization measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupert, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    The remediation and monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. This laboratory research focuses on combining two innovative geophysical methods: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spectral induced polarization (SIP) to assess their suitability to characterize and quantify organic contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL), and ethoxy-nonafluorobutane, an engineered dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), have been selected as representative organic contaminants. Low-field NMR relaxation time (T2) measurements and diffusion-relaxation (D-T2) correlation measurements, as well as low frequency SIP measurements (<10 kHz) are performed to quantify the amount of these two organic compounds in the presence of water in three types of porous media (sands, clay, and various sand-clay mixtures). The T2, D-T2, and SIP measurements are made on water, toluene, and the synthetic DNAPL in each porous media to understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR and SIP responses in each fluid. We then plan to make measurements on water-organic mixtures with varied concentrations of organic compounds in each porous medium to resolve the NMR and SIP response of the organic contaminants from that of water and to quantify the amount of organic contaminants. Building a relationship between SIP and NMR signatures from organic contaminants not only provides a fundamental yet important petrophysical relationship, but also builds a framework for continued investigation into how these two methods synergize. This will also provide spatially dense information about organic contaminated natural sediments at scales that will improve the quantitative characterization and remediation of contaminated sites.The remediation and monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts

  11. Characterization of a MOSkin detector for in vivo skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, M. J.; Wong, J. H. D.; Ng, K. H.; Jong, W. L.; Cutajar, D. L.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The MOSkin is a MOSFET detector designed especially for skin dose measurements. This detector has been characterized for various factors affecting its response for megavoltage photon beams and has been used for patient dose measurements during radiotherapy procedures. However, the characteristics of this detector in kilovoltage photon beams and low dose ranges have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to characterize the MOSkin detector to determine its suitability for in vivo entrance skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures. Methods: The calibration and reproducibility of the MOSkin detector and its dependency on different radiation beam qualities were carried out using RQR standard radiation qualities in free-in-air geometry. Studies of the other characterization parameters, such as the dose linearity and dependency on exposure angle, field size, frame rate, depth-dose, and source-to-surface distance (SSD), were carried out using a solid water phantom under a clinical x-ray unit. Results: The MOSkin detector showed good reproducibility (94%) and dose linearity (99%) for the dose range of 2 to 213 cGy. The sensitivity did not significantly change with the variation of SSD (±1%), field size (±1%), frame rate (±3%), or beam energy (±5%). The detector angular dependence was within ±5% over 360° and the dose recorded by the MOSkin detector in different depths of a solid water phantom was in good agreement with the Markus parallel plate ionization chamber to within ±3%. Conclusions: The MOSkin detector proved to be reliable when exposed to different field sizes, SSDs, depths in solid water, dose rates, frame rates, and radiation incident angles within a clinical x-ray beam. The MOSkin detector with water equivalent depth equal to 0.07 mm is a suitable detector for in vivo skin dosimetry during interventional radiology procedures.

  12. Hydraulic characterization of rocky subsurface using field infiltrometer measurements coupled with hydrogeophysical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, M. C.; de Carlo, L.; de Benedictis, F.; Vurro, M.

    2009-04-01

    The shallow and/or karstic and fractured aquifers are among the most important water resources. At the same time, they are particularly vulnerable to contamination. A detailed scientific knowledge of the behavior of these aquifers is essential for the development of sustainable groundwater management. Different investigation methods have been developed with the aim to characterize the subsurface and to monitor the flow and solute transport in these hydrogeology systems. This study presents the results of an investigation method, that combine large infiltrometer measurements with elettrical resistivity profiles, carried out in two different experimental sites characterized by different hydrogeology systems. One site, close to Altamura a city in the South of Italy, is represented from karstic and fractured limestone that overlays the deep aquifer. This area has been affected by sludge waste deposits derived from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. The second site, close to San Pancrazio Salentino town in Southern Italy also, is represented from a quarry of calcarenite that has been used as a dump of sludge of mycelium producted from pharmaceutical industry. In both these cases the waste disposal have caused soil-subsoil contamination. Knowledge of the flow rate of the unsaturated zone percolation is needed to investigate the vertical migration of pollutants and the vulnerability of the aquifers. In this study, subsurface electrical resistivity measurements were used to visualize the infiltration of water in the subsoil due to unsaturated water flow. Simultaneously, the vertical flow was investigated by measuring water levels during infiltrometer tests carried out using a large adjustable ring infiltrometer, designed to be installed in the field directly on the outcrop of rock. In addition electrical resistivity azimuthal surveys have been conducted to detect principal fractures strike directions that cause preferential flow. The results obtained

  13. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  14. Fully automated measurement setup for non-destructive characterization of thermoelectric materials near room temperature.

    PubMed

    Schwyter, E S; Helbling, T; Glatz, W; Hierold, C

    2012-07-01

    A measurement setup is presented that allows for a complete and non-destructive material characterization of electrochemically deposited thermoelectric material. All electrical (Seebeck coefficient α, electrical conductivity σ), thermal (thermal conductivity λ), and thermoelectric (figure of merit ZT) material parameters are determined within a single measurement run. The setup is capable of characterizing individual electrochemically deposited Bi(2+x)Te(3-x) pillars of various size and thickness down to a few 10 μm, embedded in a polymer matrix with a maximum measurement area of 1 × 1 cm(2). The temperature range is limited to an application specific window near room temperature of 10 °C to 70 °C. A maximum thermal flux of 1 W/cm(2) can be applied to the device under test (DUT) by the Peltier element driven heat source and sink. The setup has a highly symmetric design and DUTs can be mounted and dismounted within few seconds. A novel in situ recalibration method for a simple, quick and more accurate calibration of all sensors has been developed. Thermal losses within the setup are analysed and are mathematically considered for each measurement. All random and systematic errors are encountered for by a MATLAB routine, calculating all the target parameters and their uncertainties. The setup provides a measurement accuracy of ±2.34 μV/K for α, ±810.16 S/m for σ, ±0.13 W/mK for λ, and ±0.0075 for ZT at a mean temperature of 42.5 °C for the specifically designed test samples with a pillar diameter of 696 μm and thickness of 134 μm, embedded in a polyethylene terephthalate polymer matrix. PMID:22852715

  15. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The required knowledge of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite position accuracy can vary depending on a particular application. Application to relative positioning of receiver locations on the ground to infer Earth's tectonic plate motion requires the most accurate knowledge of the GPS satellite orbits. Research directed towards improving and evaluating the accuracy of GPS satellite orbits was conducted at the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR). Understanding and modeling the forces acting on the satellites was a major focus of the research. Other aspects of orbit determination, such as the reference frame, time system, measurement modeling, and parameterization, were also investigated. Gravitational forces were modeled by truncated versions of extant gravity fields such as, Goddard Earth Model (GEM-L2), GEM-T1, TEG-2, and third body perturbations due to the Sun and Moon. Nongravitational forces considered were the solar radiation pressure, and perturbations due to thermal venting and thermal imbalance. At the GPS satellite orbit accuracy level required for crustal dynamic applications, models for the nongravitational perturbation play a critical role, since the gravitational forces are well understood and are modeled adequately for GPS satellite orbits.

  16. Characterization, Exposure Measurement and Control for Nanoscale Particles in Workplaces and on the Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y. H.

    2011-07-01

    The amount of engineered nanoparticles is increasing at a rapid rate and more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace, and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems. At the same time, diesel engine emissions are one of the serious air pollution sources in urban area. Ultrafine particles on the road can result in harmful effects on the health of drivers and passengers. Research on characterization, exposure measurement and control is needed to address the environmental, health and safety issues of nanoscale particles. We present results of our studies on airborne particles in workplaces and on the road.

  17. Applications of PFNA-based measurements to mixed-waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.; Pentaleri, E.

    1995-12-31

    Pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) is a non-intrusive characterization technique that has developed to a high level of technical maturity. PFNA is capable of providing detailed maps of key elemental spatial distributions throughout waste packages of various shapes. These spatial distributions can be combined to detect and assess the waste package content of specific materials of interest and to measure other important features such as the distribution of neutron moderating materials and the thermal energy that will be released upon combustion of the waste in a thermal treatment process.

  18. Eleventh symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Solid mechanics and processing: Analysis, measurement and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Eleventh Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences was held on May 3--5, 1993, at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. These proceedings include the program, list of participants, and the papers that were presented during the eight technical sessions held at this meeting. This symposium was organized into eight technical sessions: Surfaces and interfaces; thermophysical properties and processes; inelastic behavior; nondestructive characterization; multiphase flow and thermal processes; optical and other measurement systems; stochastic processes; and large systems and control. Individual projects were processed separately for the databases.

  19. Performance Characterization of a Landmark Measurement System for ARRM Terrain Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Michael A.; Wright, Cinnamon; Liounis, Andrew J.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Van Eepoel, John M.; DeWeese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the landmark measurement system being developed for terrain relative navigation on NASAs Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM),and the results of a performance characterization study given realistic navigational and model errors. The system is called Retina, and is derived from the stereo-photoclinometry methods widely used on other small-body missions. The system is simulated using synthetic imagery of the asteroid surface and discussion is given on various algorithmic design choices. Unlike other missions, ARRMs Retina is the first planned autonomous use of these methods during the close-proximity and descent phase of the mission.

  20. Performance Characterization of a Landmark Measurement System for ARRM Terrain Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Michael; Wright, Cinnamon; Liounis, Andrew; Getzandanner, Kenneth; Van Eepoel, John; Deweese, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the landmark measurement system being developed for terrain relative navigation on NASAs Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM),and the results of a performance characterization study given realistic navigational and model errors. The system is called Retina, and is derived from the stereophotoclinometry methods widely used on other small-body missions. The system is simulated using synthetic imagery of the asteroid surface and discussion is given on various algorithmic design choices. Unlike other missions, ARRMs Retina is the first planned autonomous use of these methods during the close-proximity and descent phase of the mission.

  1. Mechanical characterization device for in situ measurement of nanomechanical properties of micro/nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Utkarsha; Prakash, Vikas; Abramson, Alexis R.; Chen, Wei; Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming

    2006-08-01

    A characterization device was developed for nanomechanical testing on one-dimensional micro/nanostructures. The tool consists of a nanomanipulator, a three-plate capacitive transducer, and associated probes, and is operated inside a scanning electron microscope. The transducer independently measures force and displacement with micronewton and nanometer sale resolutions, respectively. Tensile testing of a polyaniline microfiber (diameter ˜1μm) demonstrated the capabilities of the system. Engineering stress versus strain curves exhibited two distinct regions with different Young's moduli. Failure at the probe-sample weld occurred at ˜67MPa, suggesting that polyaniline microfibers exhibit a yield stress that is higher than most comparable bulk polymers.

  2. Apparatus for characterizing conductivity of materials by measuring the effect of induced shielding currents therein

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for noncontact, radio-frequency shielding current characterization of materials. Self- or mutual inductance changes in one or more inductive elements, respectively, occur when materials capable of supporting shielding currents are placed in proximity thereto, or undergo change in resistivity while in place. Such changes can be observed by incorporating the inductor(s) in a resonant circuit and determining the frequency of oscillation or by measuring the voltage induced on a coupled inductive element. The present invention is useful for determining the critical temperature and superconducting transition width for superconducting samples.

  3. Apparatus for characterizing conductivity of materials by measuring the effect of induced shielding currents therein

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1991-05-14

    Apparatus and method for noncontact, radio-frequency shielding current characterization of materials is disclosed. Self- or mutual inductance changes in one or more inductive elements, respectively, occur when materials capable of supporting shielding currents are placed in proximity thereto, or undergo change in resistivity while in place. Such changes can be observed by incorporating the inductor(s) in a resonant circuit and determining the frequency of oscillation or by measuring the voltage induced on a coupled inductive element. The present invention is useful for determining the critical temperature and superconducting transition width for superconducting samples. 10 figures.

  4. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K. ); Sargent, K.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  5. Sequential nonideal measurements of quantum oscillators: Statistical characterization with and without environmental coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Vincenzo; Pierro, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    A one-dimensional quantum oscillator is monitored by taking repeated position measurements. As a first contribution, it is shown that, under a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme applied to a system initially at the ground state, (i) the observed sequence of measurements (quantum tracks) corresponding to a single experiment converges to a limit point, and that (ii) the limit point is random over the ensemble of the experiments, being distributed as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable with a variance at most equal to the ground-state variance. As a second contribution, the richer scenario where the oscillator is coupled with a frozen (i.e., at the ground state) ensemble of independent quantum oscillators is considered. A sharply different behavior emerges: under the same measurement scheme, here we observe that the measurement sequences are essentially divergent. Such a rigorous statistical analysis of the sequential measurement process might be useful for characterizing the main quantities that are currently used for inference, manipulation, and monitoring of many quantum systems. Several interesting properties of the quantum tracks evolution, as well as of the associated (quantum) threshold crossing times, are discussed and the dependence upon the main system parameters (e.g., the choice of the measurement sampling time, the degree of interaction with the environment, the measurement device accuracy) is elucidated. At a more fundamental level, it is seen that, as an application of basic quantum mechanics principles, a sharp difference exists between the intrinsic randomness unavoidably present in any quantum system, and the extrinsic randomness arising from the environmental coupling, i.e., the randomness induced by an external source of disturbance.

  6. An Evaluation of Fractal Surface Measurement Methods for Characterizing Landscape Complexity from Remote-Sensing Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Qiu, Hong-Lie; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Emerson, Charles W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rapid increase in digital data volumes from new and existing sensors necessitates the need for efficient analytical tools for extracting information. We developed an integrated software package called ICAMS (Image Characterization and Modeling System) to provide specialized spatial analytical functions for interpreting remote sensing data. This paper evaluates the three fractal dimension measurement methods: isarithm, variogram, and triangular prism, along with the spatial autocorrelation measurement methods Moran's I and Geary's C, that have been implemented in ICAMS. A modified triangular prism method was proposed and implemented. Results from analyzing 25 simulated surfaces having known fractal dimensions show that both the isarithm and triangular prism methods can accurately measure a range of fractal surfaces. The triangular prism method is most accurate at estimating the fractal dimension of higher spatial complexity, but it is sensitive to contrast stretching. The variogram method is a comparatively poor estimator for all of the surfaces, particularly those with higher fractal dimensions. Similar to the fractal techniques, the spatial autocorrelation techniques are found to be useful to measure complex images but not images with low dimensionality. These fractal measurement methods can be applied directly to unclassified images and could serve as a tool for change detection and data mining.

  7. WIDE-ANGLE, NARROW-ANGLE, AND IMAGING BASELINES OF OPTICAL LONG-BASELINE INTERFEROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Woillez, J.; Lacour, S. E-mail: sylvestre.lacour@obspm.fr

    2013-02-10

    For optical interferometers, the baseline is typically defined as the vector joining two perfectly identical telescopes. However, when the telescopes are naturally different or when the requirements on the baseline vector challenge the telescope perfection, the baseline definition depends on how the interferometer is used. This is where the notions of wide-angle, narrow-angle, and imaging baselines come into play. This article explores this variety of baselines, with the purpose of presenting a coherent set of definitions, describing how they relate to each other, and suggesting baseline metrology requirements. Ultimately, this work aims at supporting upcoming long-baseline optical interferometers with narrow-angle astrometry and phase-referenced imaging capabilities at the microarcsecond level.

  8. Three-dimensional tracking of a lunar satellite with differential very-long-baseline-interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Floberghagen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar gravimetry mission in the Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) is characterized by inter-satellite tracking by means of a relay satellite in a high eccentric orbit, combined with differential Very-Long-Baseline-Interferometry (ΔVLBI) and conventional 2-way Doppler tracking. ΔVLBI provides information on the satellite position and velocity complementary to conventional range and range rate measurement, and allows us to measure lunar gravitational accelerations in all the three components. In this article, ΔVLBI and 2-way Doppler numerical simulation results are compared to those obtained from 2-way Doppler observations only, so that we can evaluate the contribution of ΔVLBI to the SELENE lunar gravimetry mission.

  9. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as concentration and memory) assessments. Computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological tests may be included as a ... ideally a neuropsychologist should interpret the computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological test components of a baseline exam. ...

  10. Ultrasonic and magnetic Barkhausen emission measurements for characterization of pipeline steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2016-02-01

    To ensure that the aging pipeline infrastructure in the USA can be safely operated, the mechanical properties of the pipe materials must be verified. It is hypothesized that characterization of the pipeline steels and their microstructures through nondestructive methods will allow for the estimation of the mechanical properties of interest, namely yield strength, tensile strength, toughness, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. This work will discuss how material properties, such as microstructure and chemical composition, affect the mechanical properties as well as strategies for measuring the material properties nondestructively using magnetic Barkhausen emission and ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Preliminary results on a limited sample set will be shown and challenges encountered will be discussed.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of 3C-silicon carbide micro sensor for wireless blood pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Nupur

    A potentially implantable single crystal 3C-SiC pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement was designed, simulated, fabricated, characterized and optimized. This research uses a single crystal 3C-SiC, for the first time, to demonstrate its application as a blood pressure measurement sensor. The sensor, which uses the epitaxial grown 3C-SiC membrane to measure changes in pressure, is designed to be wireless, biocompatible and linear. The SiC material was chosen for its superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties; the capacitive sensor uses a 3C-SiC membrane as one of the electrodes; and, the sensor system is wireless for comfort and to allow for convenient reading of real-time pressure data (wireless communication is enabled by connecting the sensor parallel to a planar inductor). Together, the variable capacitive sensor and planar inductor create a pressure sensitive resonant circuit. The sensor system described above allows for implantation into a human patient's body, after which the planar inductor can be coupled with an external inductor to receive data for real-time blood pressure measurement. Electroplating, thick photo-resist characterization, RIE etching, oxidation, CVD, chemical mechanical polishing and wafer bonding were optimized during the process of fabricating the sensor system and, in addition to detailing the sensor system simulation and characterization; the optimized processes are detailed in the dissertation. This absolute pressure sensor is designed to function optimally within the human blood pressure range of 50-350mmHg. The layout and modeling of the sensor uses finite element analysis (FEA) software. The simulations for membrane deflection, stress analysis and electro-mechanical analysis are performed for 100 μm2 and 400μm2sensors. The membrane deflection-pressure, capacitance-pressure and resonant frequency-pressure graphs were obtained, and detailed in the dissertation, along with the planar inductor simulation for

  12. Characterization of a complex near-surface structure using well logging and passive seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjumea, Beatriz; Macau, Albert; Gabàs, Anna; Figueras, Sara

    2016-04-01

    We combine geophysical well logging and passive seismic measurements to characterize the near-surface geology of an area located in Hontomin, Burgos (Spain). This area has some near-surface challenges for a geophysical study. The irregular topography is characterized by limestone outcrops and unconsolidated sediments areas. Additionally, the near-surface geology includes an upper layer of pure limestones overlying marly limestones and marls (Upper Cretaceous). These materials lie on top of Low Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments (sandstones, clays, gravels). In any case, a layer with reduced velocity is expected. The geophysical data sets used in this study include sonic and gamma-ray logs at two boreholes and passive seismic measurements: three arrays and 224 seismic stations for applying the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V). Well-logging data define two significant changes in the P-wave-velocity log within the Upper Cretaceous layer and one more at the Upper to Lower Cretaceous contact. This technique has also been used for refining the geological interpretation. The passive seismic measurements provide a map of sediment thickness with a maximum of around 40 m and shear-wave velocity profiles from the array technique. A comparison between seismic velocity coming from well logging and array measurements defines the resolution limits of the passive seismic techniques and helps it to be interpreted. This study shows how these low-cost techniques can provide useful information about near-surface complexity that could be used for designing a geophysical field survey or for seismic processing steps such as statics or imaging.

  13. Measuring and characterizing the nonflatness of EUVL reticles and electrostatic chucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelstad, Roxann L.; Turner, Kevin T.; Nataraju, Madhura; Sohn, Jaewoong; Mikkelson, Andrew R.; Battula, Venkata Siva; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Zeuske, Jacob R.; Van Peski, Chris K.

    2007-10-01

    According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, meeting the strict requirements on image placement errors in the sub-45-nm regime may be one of the most difficult challenges for the industry. For Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL), the nonflatness of both the mask and chuck is critical as well, due to the nontelecentric illumination during exposure. To address this issue, SEMI Standards P37 and P40 have established the specifications on flatness for the EUVL mask substrate and electrostatic chuck. This study investigates the procedures for implementing the Standards when measuring and characterizing the shapes of these surfaces. Finite element simulations are used to demonstrate the difficulties in supporting the mask substrate, while ensuring that the measured flatness is accurate. Additional modeling is performed to illustrate the most appropriate methods of characterizing the nonflatness of the electrostatic chuck. The results presented will aid in identifying modifications and clarifications that are needed in the Standards to facilitate the timely development of EUV lithography.

  14. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment. PMID:22701497

  15. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J. Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment. PMID:22701497

  16. Characterization of prerusted steels in some Ibero-American atmospheres by electrochemical potential noise measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, E.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the MICAT project (Ibero-American Map of Atmospheric Corrosiveness) was to foster collaborative ventures between groups conducting research on atmospheric corrosion. Overall, 14 Ibero-American countries, including Spain and Portugal, are involved with a network of 71 test stations distributed throughout the region and on 4 continents. These test stations represent a broad spectrum of climatological and atmospheric pollution conditions. The objective of the MICAT electrochemical studies was to characterize the protective properties of the corrosion products formed during atmospheric exposure at the different test sites. Prerusted carbon steel specimens at different locations were immersed in a sodium sulfate solution. Some specimens were rust pretreated in phosphoric acid solution with additions of aluminum hydroxide (rust converters) electrochemically evaluated. Electrochemical noise measurements (ENM) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements were performed for different times of immersion. Corrosion rates were related to the presence of the oxides that were initially formed. For specimens rusted in marine atmospheres, the presence of chlorides in the corrosion products promotes localized attack. As to the different rust-converted specimens, ENM revealed the pretreatment evolution and corrosion performance over time. ENM was able to characterize and evaluate the protective properties of oxides and pretreatments according to the nature and environmental conditions to which specimens were exposed.

  17. Microstructure Characterization by Means of X-ray Micro-CT and Nanoindentation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajczakowska, Magdalena; Stefaniuk, Damian; Łydżba, Dariusz

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an example of the material microstructure characterization with the use of X-ray micro-CT and nanoindentation measurements. Firstly, the current scope of application of the aforementioned techniques is provided within different fields of science. Then, background of each of the methods is presented. The methodology of X-ray micro-CT is described with the emphasis on the Beer's law formulation. In addition, the basics of the nanoindentation technique are outlined and major formulas for the hardness and Young's modulus calculation are given. Finally, example results for a concrete sample are presented. The microstructure of the selected material is firstly characterized in terms of geometry using the results from the microtomograhy measurements, e.g., porosity and attenuation profiles, pore and aggregate size distribution, shape factor of pores, etc. Next, the results of the nanoindentation tests are provided, namely the hardness and Young's modulus versus the height of the sample. The influence of the number of tests and statistical analysis on the final results is underlined.

  18. Implementation and characterization of phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography method for flow velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongchalee, Pornthep; Palawong, Kunakorn; Meemon, Panomsak

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the system implementation and characterization of a Phase-Resolved Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (PR-DOCT) is presented. The phase-resolved Doppler technique was implemented on a custom built Frequency Domain OCT (FD-OCT) that was recently developed at Suranaree University of Technology. Utilizing Doppler phase changed relation in a complex interference signal caused by moving samples, PR-DOCT can produce visualization and characterization of flow activity such as blood flow in biological samples. Here we report the performance of the implemented PR-DOCT system in term of the Velocity Dynamic Range (VDR), which is defined by the range from the minimum to the maximum detectable axial velocity. The minimum detectable velocity was quantified from a histogram distribution of phase difference between consecutive depth-scan signals when performing Doppler imaging of a stationary mirror. By applying a Gaussian curve fitting to the histogram, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the fitted curve was measured to represent the detectable minimum flow velocity of the system. The maximum detectable velocity was limited by the phase wrapping of the Doppler signal, which is governed by the acquisition speed of the system. We demonstrate the 3D Doppler imaging and velocity measurement of feed flow phantom using 100% milk pumped through a microfluidic chip by using a syringe pump system.

  19. Carrier Lifetime Measurement for Characterization of Ultraclean Thin p/p+ Silicon Epitaxial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhami Khorasani, Arash

    Carrier lifetime is one of the few parameters which can give information about the low defect densities in today's semiconductors. In principle there is no lower limit to the defect density determined by lifetime measurements. No other technique can easily detect defect densities as low as 10 -9 - 10-10 cm-3 in a simple, contactless room temperature measurement. However in practice, recombination lifetime τ r measurements such as photoconductance decay (PCD) and surface photovoltage (SPV) that are widely used for characterization of bulk wafers face serious limitations when applied to thin epitaxial layers, where the layer thickness is smaller than the minority carrier diffusion length Ln. Other methods such as microwave photoconductance decay (µ-PCD), photoluminescence (PL), and frequency-dependent SPV, where the generated excess carriers are confined to the epitaxial layer width by using short excitation wavelengths, require complicated configuration and extensive surface passivation processes that make them time-consuming and not suitable for process screening purposes. Generation lifetime τg, typically measured with pulsed MOS capacitors (MOS-C) as test structures, has been shown to be an eminently suitable technique for characterization of thin epitaxial layers. It is for these reasons that the IC community, largely concerned with unipolar MOS devices, uses lifetime measurements as a "process cleanliness monitor." However when dealing with ultraclean epitaxial wafers, the classic MOS-C technique measures an effective generation lifetime τgeff which is dominated by the surface generation and hence cannot be used for screening impurity densities. I have developed a modified pulsed MOS technique for measuring generation lifetime in ultraclean thin p/p+ epitaxial layers which can be used to detect metallic impurities with densities as low as 10-10 cm-3. The widely used classic version has been shown to be unable to effectively detect such low impurity

  20. Chlorofluorocarbon-11, -12, and nitrous oxide measurements at the NOAA/GMCC (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change) baseline stations (16 September 1973 to 31 December 1979)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.M.; Komhyr, W.D.; Dutton, E.G.

    1985-06-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory (NOAA/ARL) began measuring chlorofluorocarbon-11 in 1973 because of the interest in this anthropogenic pollutant as a tracer for the study of mass transfer processes in the atmosphere and the oceans. Interest in chlorofluorocarbon-11, and in chlorofluorocarbon-12 and nitrous oxide, was heightened during the mid-1970's with the realization that these compounds can be decomposed by photolysis in the stratosphere to cause stratospheric ozone destruction by released chlorine atoms. Measurements of chlorofluorocarbon-12 and nitrous oxide were begun by NOAA/ARL in 1977. The report describes the evolution of the chlorofluorocarbon and N/sub 2/O measurement programs through 1979. By that time, the sample collection and analysis techniques became standardized, and have remained the same to the present.

  1. Improved chemically amplified photoresist characterization using interdigitated electrode sensors: photoacid diffusivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Cody M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2004-05-01

    The ability of interdigitated electrodes to serve as novel chemically amplified resist characterization tools has recently been demonstrated through their ability to measure the Dill C kinetic rate constant for photoacid generation. The work presented in this paper attempts to further extend the capabilities of the interdigitated electrode (IDE) sensors by investigating their potential use as a measurement tool for photoacid diffusion coefficients. Impedance spectroscopy of chemically amplified photoresist coated interdigitated electrodes is used to calculate the bulk ionic conductivity of the resist film. The ionic conductivity is subsequently utilized in the Nernst-Einstein equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the photoacid, assuming that it is the major charge carrying species in the film. A detailed description of the measurement and data analysis processes required to calculate the diffusion coefficient of triphenylsulfonium triflate in poly(p-hydroxystyrene) is provided. In addition, the effect of varying the relative humidity of the measurement environment upon the impedance data collected has been examined. It has been observed that the presence of water within the resist film, typically as a result of absorption of water from the humid ambient environment, dramatically changes the conductivity of the resist coated IDE. This change is apparently the result of changes in the proton conduction mechanism within the resist as a function of film water content. A discussion of several possible causes of this phenomena and its impact on the interpretation of the electrical data and the calculation and meaning of an acid diffusion coefficient are presented.

  2. Preparation of microporous films with sub nanometer pores and their characterization using stress and FTIR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, J.; Hurd, A.J.; Swoll, F. van; Frink, L.J.D.; Contakes, S.C.; Brinker, C.J. |

    1996-06-01

    The authors have used a novel technique, measurement of stress isotherms in microporous thin films, as a means of characterizing porosity. The stress measurement was carried out by applying sol-gel thin films on a thin silicon substrate and monitoring the curvature of the substrate under a controlled atmosphere of various vapors. The magnitude of macroscopic bending stress developed in microporous films depends on the relative pressure and molar volume of the adsorbate and reaches a value of 180 MPa for a relative vapor pressure, P/Po = 0.001, of methanol. By using a series of molecules, and observing both the magnitude and the kinetics of stress development while changing the relative pressure, they have determined the pore size of microporous thin films. FTIR measurements were used to acquire adsorption isotherms and to compare pore emptying to stress development, about 80% of the change in stress takes place with no measurable change in the amount adsorbed. The authors show that for sol-gel films, pore diameters can be controlled in the range of 5--8 {angstrom} by ``solvent templating``.

  3. Spatial resolution characterization of differential phase contrast CT systems via modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Zambelli, Joseph; Bevins, Nicholas; Ge, Yongshuai; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-06-01

    By adding a Talbot-Lau interferometer to a conventional x-ray absorption computed tomography (CT) imaging system, both differential phase contrast (DPC) signal and absorption contrast signal can be simultaneously measured from the same set of CT measurements. The imaging performance of such multi-contrast x-ray CT imaging systems can be characterized with standard metrics such as noise variance, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio, modulation transfer function (MTF), and task-based detectability index. Among these metrics, the measurement of the MTF can be challenging in DPC-CT systems due to several confounding factors such as phase wrapping and the difficulty of using fine wires as probes. To address these technical challenges, this paper discusses a viable and reliable method to experimentally measure the MTF of DPC-CT. It has been found that the spatial resolution of DPC-CT is degraded, when compared to that of the corresponding absorption CT, due to the presence of a source grating G0 in the Talbot-Lau interferometer. An effective MTF was introduced and experimentally estimated to describe the impact of the Talbot-Lau interferometer on the system MTF.

  4. Spatial resolution characterization of differential phase contrast CT systems via modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zambelli, Joseph; Bevins, Nicholas; Ge, Yongshuai; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-06-21

    By adding a Talbot-Lau interferometer to a conventional x-ray absorption computed tomography (CT) imaging system, both differential phase contrast (DPC) signal and absorption contrast signal can be simultaneously measured from the same set of CT measurements. The imaging performance of such multi-contrast x-ray CT imaging systems can be characterized with standard metrics such as noise variance, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio, modulation transfer function (MTF), and task-based detectability index. Among these metrics, the measurement of the MTF can be challenging in DPC-CT systems due to several confounding factors such as phase wrapping and the difficulty of using fine wires as probes. To address these technical challenges, this paper discusses a viable and reliable method to experimentally measure the MTF of DPC-CT. It has been found that the spatial resolution of DPC-CT is degraded, when compared to that of the corresponding absorption CT, due to the presence of a source grating G0 in the Talbot-Lau interferometer. An effective MTF was introduced and experimentally estimated to describe the impact of the Talbot-Lau interferometer on the system MTF. PMID:23685949

  5. Measurement and Characterization of Terahertz Radiation Propagating Through a Parallel Plate Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachsmuth, Matthew George

    As the amount of study into the terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum steadily increases, the parallel plate waveguide has emerged as a simple and effective fixture to perform many experiments. The ability to concentrate THz radiation into a small area or volume enables us to analyze smaller samples and perform more repeatable measurements, which is essential for future research. While the fundamental physics of PPW transmission are understood mathematically, the practical knowledge of building such a fixture for the THz domain and taking measurements on it with a real system needs to be built up through experience. In this thesis, multiple PPW configurations are built and tested. These include waveguides of different lengths and opening heights, using lenses and antennas to focus and collect radiation from the input and output, and different amounts of polish on the waveguide surface. A basic resonator structure is also built and measured as a proof of concept for future research. The two most useful propagation modes through the waveguide, the lowest order transverse magnetic (TEM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, were characterized on all of the setups. Additionally, a flexible fixture was designed and measured which will allow future work in the THz field to be much more reliable and repeatable.

  6. Spatial resolution characterization of differential phase contrast CT systems via modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Zambelli, Joseph; Bevins, Nicholas; Ge, Yongshuai; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    By adding a Talbot–Lau interferometer to a conventional x-ray absorption computed tomography (CT) imaging system, both differential phase contrast (DPC) signal and absorption contrast signal can be simultaneously measured from the same set of CT measurements. The imaging performance of such multi-contrast x-ray CT imaging systems can be characterized with standard metrics such as noise variance, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio, modulation transfer function (MTF), and task-based detectability index. Among these metrics, the measurement of the MTF can be challenging in DPC-CT systems due to several confounding factors such as phase wrapping and the difficulty of using fine wires as probes. To address these technical challenges, this paper discusses a viable and reliable method to experimentally measure the MTF of DPC-CT. It has been found that the spatial resolution of DPC-CT is degraded, when compared to that of the corresponding absorption CT, due to the presence of a source grating G0 in the Talbot-Lau interferometer. An effective MTF was introduced and experimentally estimated to describe the impact of the Talbot–Lau interferometer on the system MTF. PMID:23685949

  7. Characterization of a flow-through microcalorimeter for measuring the heat production of cardiac trabeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taberner, A. J.; Hunter, I. W.; Kirton, R. S.; Nielsen, P. M. F.; Loiselle, D. S.

    2005-10-01

    The energy consumption of isolated cardiac trabeculae can be inferred from measurements of their heat production. Once excised from the heart, to remain viable, trabeculae require continuous superfusion with an oxygen- and nutrient-rich solution. Flow-through calorimeters enable trabeculae to be maintained in a stable and controlled environment for many hours at a time. In this paper we describe and characterize a flow-through microcalorimeter, with sensitivity in the 1μW range, for measuring the heat output of 10μg cardiac trabeculae. The device uses infrared-sensitive, thin-film thermopile sensors to provide a noncontact method for measuring temperature differences. The sensors are capable of resolving 5μK temperature differences within the superfusing fluid. The microcalorimeter has a sensitivity of 2.56V/W at a flow rate of 1μl/s, with a time constant of approximately 3.5 s. The sensitivity and time constant are strongly dependent upon the flow rate. Predictions of a finite-element model of the calorimeter's characteristics compare favorably with measured data over a wide range of flow rates.

  8. BASELINE MEMBRANE SELECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FOR AN SDE

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D

    2007-04-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05 and FY06, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and have a low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate commercial and experimental membranes for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity. The use of Nafion{reg_sign} with EW 1100 is recommended for the present SDE testing due to the limited data regarding chemical and mechanical stability of experimental membranes. Development of new composite membranes by incorporating metal particles or by forming multilayers between PFSA membranes and hydrocarbon membranes will provide methods that will meet the SDE targets (SO{sub 2} transport reduction by a factor of 100) while decreasing catalyst layer delamination and membrane resistivity.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION PROCESSES UNDER THE NEW EPA DRAFT RISK BURN GUIDANCE: MEASUREMENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses measurement issues relating to the characterization of organic emissions from hazardous waste incineration processes under EPA's new risk burn guidance. The recently published draft quidance recommends that hazardous waste combustion facilities complete a mass...

  10. Field Measurements to Characterize Turbulent Inflow for Marine Hydrokinetic Devices - Marrowstone Island, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, M. C.; Thomson, J. M.; Durgesh, V.; Polagye, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Field measurements are essential for developing an improved understanding of turbulent inflow conditions that affect the design and operation of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The Marrowstone Island site in Puget Sound, Washington State is a potential location for installing MHK devices, as it experiences strong tides and associated currents. Here, field measurements from Nodule Point on the eastern side of Marrowstone Island are used to characterize the turbulence in terms of velocity variance as a function of length and time scales. The field measurements were performed using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instruments. Both were deployed on a bottom-mounted tripod at the site by the Applied Physics Lab at the University of Washington (APL-UW). The ADV acquired single point, temporally resolved velocity data from 17-21 Feb 2011, at a height of 4.6 m above the seabed at a sampling frequency of 32 Hz. The ADCP measured the velocity profile over the water column from a height of 2.6 m above the seabed up to the sea-surface in 36 bins, with each bin of 0.5 m size. The ADCP acquired data from 11-27 Feb 2011 at a sampling frequency of 2 Hz. Analysis of the ADV measurements shows distinct dynamic regions by scale: anisotropic eddies at large scales, an isotropic turbulent cascade (-5/3 slope in frequency spectra) at mesoscales, and contamination by Doppler noise at small scales. While Doppler noise is an order of magnitude greater for the ADCP measurements, the turbulence bulk statistics are consistent between the two instruments. There are significant variations in turbulence statistics with stage of the tidal currents (i.e., from slack to non-slack tidal conditions), however an average turbulent intensity of 10% is a robust, canonical value for this site. The ADCP velocity profiles are useful in quantifying the variability in velocity along the water column, and the ensemble averaged velocity profiles may be

  11. Characterization of radiation regimes in nonrandom forest canopies: theory, measurements, and a simplified modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Kucharik, Christopher J.; Norman, John M.; Gower, Stith T.

    1999-09-01

    We used field measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of canopy gap-size distribution and gap fraction to examine how beam radiation interacts with clumped boreal forest canopies of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). We demonstrate that the Beer-Lambert law can be modified to accommodate transmission of radiation through a clumped forest canopy as a function of path length or sun zenith angle. Multiband Vegetation Imager (MVI) measurements and Monte Carlo simulations showed that values of the zenith element clumping index (Omega(e)(0)) are typically between 0.4 and 0.5 in jack pine and black spruce and 0.65 in aspen. Estimates of LAI obtained from MVI measurements of the canopy gap fraction and adjusted for canopy clumping and branch architecture yielded LAI values of 3.0 in jack pine, 3.3 in aspen, and about 6.0 in black spruce. These LAI estimates were within 10-25% of direct measurements made at the same sites. Data obtained with the MVI, along with numerical simulations, demonstrated that assumptions of random foliage distributions in boreal forests are invalid and could yield erroneous values of LAI measured by indirect techniques and false characterizations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions. Monte Carlo simulations were used to develop a general equation for beam radiation penetration as a function of zenith angle in clumped canopies. The essential measurements included stem spacing, crown diameter, crown depth, and within-crown gap fraction. PMID:12651308

  12. Validation and characterization of optical redox ratio measurements with a microplate reader in breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Taylor M.; Shah, Amy T.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2015-02-01

    There is a need for accurate, high-throughput measures to gauge the efficacy of potential drugs in living cells. Metabolism is an early marker of drug response in cells, and NADH and FAD are autofluorescent cellular metabolic coenzymes that can be non-invasively monitored using optical techniques. Relative rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in a cell are quantified by the redox ratio, defined as the autofluorescence intensity of NADH divided by that of FAD. Microplate readers are high-throughput instruments that can rapidly measure NADH and FAD autofluorescence intensities for hundreds of wells, and are capable of identifying receptor status and resolving drug response in breast cancer cell lines. This study tests the accuracy and repeatability of plate reader experiments measuring the redox ratio in breast cancer cell lines. NADH and FAD fluorescence levels remained constant over the course of multiple measurements (p<0.1), ruling out the incidence of photobleaching. The contribution of media to background fluorescence signal was also investigated. Media fluorescence levels for both coenzymes were significantly lower (p<0.0001) than those from wells containing cells, and replacing the media with saline resulted in the same redox ratio trends among cell lines as initial measurements with media. Following treatment with carbonyl cyanide p-fluorodeoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, the redox ratio decreased (p<0.05), validating NADH and FAD as the primary fluorescence sources. These findings verify that autofluorescence measurements taken by microplate readers accurately and reliably characterize NADH and FAD fluorescence, validating their promise in the areas of metabolic monitoring and drug development.

  13. The advanced characterization of aerosol properties from measurements of spectral optical thickness of the atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Benjamin; Toledano, Carlos; Dubovik, Oleg; Litvinov, Pavel; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Fuertes, David; Tanre, Didier; Goloub, Phillipe

    The main purpose of the work is to assess the potential of using spectral optical thickness measurement for characterizing aerosol properties. While the use of these measurements is limited to the characterization of aerosol loading in the atmosphere, several studies demonstrated that these observations could be used for deriving more detailed information about aerosol, such as size distribution (King et al. 1978) and for discriminating between the extinction of fine and coarse modes of aerosol (O’Neill 2003). In this study, we test the possibilities of using AERONET inversion (Dubovik and King 2000) for improving the interpretation of measurements of optical thickness. In addition, we study the potential of synergetic scenarios for inverting optical thickness using GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) algorithm (Dubovik et al., 2011). This algorithm uses new multi-pixel retrieval approach. According to this approach, the accuracy of aerosol retrieval can be improved if several sets of observations (e.g. observations of satellite over several pixels) are inverted together under additional a priori constraints on time and spatial variability of the retrieved parameters. The application of this approach appears to be promising for the present study. First, the retrieval stability can be improved by inverting more than a single set of spectral aerosol optical depth at once. Second, the set of spectral aerosol optical depth can be inverted together with the radiances observed in the same day. The preliminary results of using simulated data (for different scenarios and aerosol models), as well as, the applications to real data from several AERONET sites will be presented.

  14. Characterization of the horizontal optical turbulence (C{/n 2}) data measured at Kongju and Cheonan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeong Kim, Bo; Lee, Jun Ho; Soo Choi, Young

    2015-06-01

    When light from an object or an astronomical star propagates in the earth's atmosphere, atmospheric turbulence can distort and move the image in various ways. A quantitative measure of the intensity of optical turbulence with a refractive index structure parameter, C {/n 2}, is widely used in the statistical characterization of the random refractive index fluctuations generally referred to as optical turbulence. I this study, we investigated the horizontal optical turbulence in the near infrared region (850nm) at two sites in South Korea (Kongju and Cheonan) by using a scintillometer. The scintillometer measured the refractive index structure parameter C {/n 2} over 2.1- and 0.4-km paths, respectively, in Kongju and Cheonan. The first path was over an urban area characterized by a complicated land-use mix (residential houses, a river, bare ground, etc.) whereas the second path was a building-to-building path at a 15-m height on a university campus. In addition to the scintillometer, an independent weather station recorded meteorological conditions such as wind speed, relative humidity, and temperature. Study results indicate the general patterns of the optical turbulence at both sites agree with previous-reported diurnal patterns; they have two dips in C2n, one at around sunrise and the other at sunset, but the night profiles varied strongly depending on the atmospheric conditions. The average values of C {/n 2} for the measurement period were × 10-15 and 2.90 × 10-14 m-2/3 in Kongju and Cheonan, espectively, thus confirming that the optical field is clearer in the former. In addition, the average values of the Fried parameter, r0, were accordingly estimated to be 8.0 and 2.5 cm over a 2-km optical distance at Kongju and Cheonan, respectively.

  15. Characterization of Orbital Debris Photometric Properties Derived from Laboratory-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Seitzer, P.; Schildknecht, T.

    2010-01-01

    To better characterize and model optical data acquired from ground-based telescopes, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC attempts to emulate illumination conditions seen in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. The OMC uses a 75 Watt Xenon arc lamp as a solar simulator, an SBIG CCD camera with standard Johnson/Bessel filters, and a robotic arm to simulate an object's position and rotation. The laboratory uses known shapes, materials suspected to be consistent with the orbital debris population, and three phase angles to best match the lighting conditions of the telescope based data. The fourteen objects studied in the laboratory are fragments or materials acquired through ground-tests of scaled-model satellites/rocket bodies as well as material samples in more/less "flight-ready" condition. All fragments were measured at 10 increments in a full 360 rotation at 6 , 36 , and 60 phase angles. This paper will investigate published color photometric data for a series of orbital debris targets and compare it to the empirical photometric measurements generated in the OMC. Using the data acquired over specific rotational angles through different filters (B, V, R, I), a color index is acquired (B-R, R-I). Using these values and their associated lightcurves, this laboratory data is compared to observational data obtained on the 1 m telescope of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AUIB), the 0.9 m operated by the Small- and Medium-Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) Consortium and the Curtis-Schmidt 0.6 m Michigan Orbital Debris Space Debris Telescope both located at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). An empirical based optical characterization model will be presented to provide preliminary correlations between laboratory based and telescope-based data in the context of classification of GEO debris objects.

  16. A measurement-based X-ray source model characterization for CT dosimetry computations.

    PubMed

    Sommerville, Mitchell; Poirier, Yannick; Tambasco, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show that the nominal peak tube voltage potential (kVp) and measured half-value layer (HVL) can be used to generate energy spectra and fluence profiles for characterizing a computed tomography (CT) X-ray source, and to validate the source model and an in-house kV X-ray dose computation algorithm (kVDoseCalc) for computing machine- and patient-specific CT dose. Spatial variation of the X-ray source spectra of a Philips Brilliance and a GE Optima Big Bore CT scanner were found by measuring the HVL along the direction of the internal bow-tie filter axes. Third-party software, Spektr, and the nominal kVp settings were used to generate the energy spectra. Beam fluence was calculated by dividing the integral product of the spectra and the in-air NIST mass-energy attenuation coefficients by in-air dose measurements along the filter axis. The authors found the optimal number of photons to seed in kVDoseCalc to achieve dose convergence. The Philips Brilliance beams were modeled for 90, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. The GE Optima beams were modeled for 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. Relative doses measured using a Capintec Farmer-type ionization chamber (0.65 cc) placed in a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and irradiated by the Philips Brilliance, were compared to those computed with kVDoseCalc. Relative doses in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (E2E SBRT Phantom) irradiated by the GE Optima were measured using a (0.015 cc) PTW Freiburg ionization chamber and compared to computations from kVDoseCalc. The number of photons required to reduce the average statistical uncertainty in dose to < 0.3% was 2 × 105. The average percent difference between calculation and measurement over all 12 PMMA phantom positions was found to be 1.44%, 1.47%, and 1.41% for 90, 120, and 140 kVp, respectively. The maximum percent difference between calculation and measurement for all energies, measurement positions, and phantoms was

  17. C-018H Pre-Operational Baseline Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guzek, S.J.

    1993-08-20

    The objective of this task is to field characterize and sample the soil at selected locations along the proposed effluent line routes for Project C-018H. The overall purpose of this effort is to meet the proposed plan to discontinue the disposal of contaminated liquids into the Hanford soil column as described by DOE (1987). Detailed information describing proposed transport pipeline route and associated Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company (KEH) preliminary drawings (H288746...755) all inclusive, have been prepared by KEH (1992). The information developed from field monitoring and sampling will be utilized to characterize surface and subsurface soil along the proposed C-018H effluent pipeline and it`s associated facilities. Potentially existing contaminant levels may be encountered therefore, soil characterization will provide a construction preoperational baseline reference, develop personnel safety requirements, and determine the need for any changes in the proposed routes prior to construction of the pipeline.

  18. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  19. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    PubMed

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available. PMID:26111145

  20. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    This research presents ultrasonic techniques for baseline-free damage detection in structures in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Conventional SHM methods compare signals obtained from the pristine condition of a structure (baseline signals) with those from the current state, and relate certain changes in the signal characteristics to damage. While this approach has been successful in the laboratory, there are certain drawbacks of depending on baseline signals in real field applications. Data from the pristine condition are not available for most existing structures. Even if they are available, operational and environmental variations tend to mask the effect of damage on the signal characteristics. Most important, baseline measurements may become meaningless while assessing the condition of a structure after an extreme event such as an earthquake or a hurricane. Such events may destroy the sensors themselves and require installation of new sensors at different locations on the structure. Baseline-free structural damage detection can broaden the scope of SHM in the scenarios described above. A detailed discussion on the philosophy of baseline-free damage detection is provided in Chapter 1. Following this discussion, the research questions are formulated. The organization of this document and the major contributions of this research are also listed in this chapter. Chapter 2 describes a fully automated baseline-free technique for notch and crack detection in plates using a collocated pair of piezoelectric wafer transducers for measuring ultrasonic signals. Signal component corresponding to the damage induced mode-converted Lamb waves is extracted by processing the originally measured ultrasonic signals. The damage index is computed as a function of this mode-converted Lamb wave signal component. An over-determined system of Lamb wave measurements is used to find a least-square estimate of the measurement errors. This error estimate serves as the

  1. Baseline estimation from simultaneous satellite laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedes, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous Range Differences (SRDs) to Lageos are obtained by dividing the observing stations into pairs with quasi-simultaneous observations. For each of those pairs the station with the least number of observations is identified, and at its observing epochs interpolated ranges for the alternate station are generated. The SRD observables are obtained by subtracting the actually observed laser range of the station having the least number of observations from the interpolated ranges of the alternate station. On the basis of these observables semidynamic single baseline solutions were performed. The aim of these solutions is to further develop and implement the SRD method in the real data environment, to assess its accuracy, its advantages and disadvantages as related to the range dynamic mode methods, when the baselines are the only parameters of interest. Baselines, using simultaneous laser range observations to Lageos, were also estimated through the purely geometric method. These baselines formed the standards the standards of comparison in the accuracy assessment of the SRD method when compared to that of the range dynamic mode methods. On the basis of this comparison it was concluded that for baselines of regional extent the SRD method is very effective, efficient, and at least as accurate as the range dynamic mode methods, and that on the basis of a simple orbital modeling and a limited orbit adjustment. The SRD method is insensitive to the inconsistencies affecting the terrestrial reference frame and simultaneous adjustment of the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) is not necessary.

  2. Automated video quality measurement based on manmade object characterization and motion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalukin, Andrew; Harguess, Josh; Maltenfort, A. J.; Irvine, John; Algire, C.

    2016-05-01

    Automated video quality assessment methods have generally been based on measurements of engineering parameters such as ground sampling distance, level of blur, and noise. However, humans rate video quality using specific criteria that measure the interpretability of the video by determining the kinds of objects and activities that might be detected in the video. Given the improvements in tracking, automatic target detection, and activity characterization that have occurred in video science, it is worth considering whether new automated video assessment methods might be developed by imitating the logical steps taken by humans in evaluating scene content. This article will outline a new procedure for automatically evaluating video quality based on automated object and activity recognition, and demonstrate the method for several ground-based and maritime examples. The detection and measurement of in-scene targets makes it possible to assess video quality without relying on source metadata. A methodology is given for comparing automated assessment with human assessment. For the human assessment, objective video quality ratings can be obtained through a menu-driven, crowd-sourced scheme of video tagging, in which human participants tag objects such as vehicles and people on film clips. The size, clarity, and level of detail of features present on the tagged targets are compared directly with the Video National Image Interpretability Rating Scale (VNIIRS).

  3. Characterization of leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis and association analysis with body measurement traits.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Catillo, Gennaro; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; Grandoni, Francesco; Napolitano, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Leptin has a pleiotropic effect on regulating appetite, energy metabolism, growth, reproduction, body composition and immunity. This property supports leptin and its receptor as candidate genes for evaluating genetic polymorphisms to associate with growth, milk yield and other economic traits. The aim of this study is to characterize the leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis, to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in different coding and non-coding regions and to analyse potential associations between SNPs identified and the body measurements traits of growing buffalo heifers. A group of 64 animals were genotyped by direct sequencing and twenty-eight SNPs were detected. A sequence analysis revealed the presence of nine interesting SNPs in gene sequence. The association analysis of polymorphisms with the body measurements traits of growing buffalo heifers shows significant statistical effects on chest depth and sacrum height. Therefore according to the results obtained from this study, the leptin receptor gene appears to have potential effects on the body measurement traits of Bubalus bubalis. PMID:25431006

  4. Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Wallenburg, Marika A.; Li, Shu-Hong; Weisel, Richard D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Ren-Ke; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to structural remodeling of the myocardium, in particular to the loss of cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and an increase in collagen with scar formation. Stem cell regenerative treatments have been shown to alter this remodeling process, resulting in improved cardiac function. As healthy myocardial tissue is highly fibrous and anisotropic, it exhibits optical linear birefringence due to the different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. Polarization-based linear birefringence is measured on the myocardium of adult rat hearts after myocardial infarction and compared with hearts that had received mesenchymal stem cell treatment. Both point measurement and imaging data show a decrease in birefringence in the region of infarction, with a partial rebound back toward the healthy values following regenerative treatment with stem cells. These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction.

  5. Aerosol load characterization over South East Italy for one year of AERONET sun-photometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, M. R.; Santese, M.; Tafuro, A. M.; Holben, B.; Smirnov, A.

    2005-04-01

    Daily averaged retrievals of AERONET sun photometer measurements from March 2003 to March 2004 are used to provide preliminary results on the characterization of aerosol properties and changes over south-east Italy (40°20'N, 18°6'E). It is shown that aerosol optical and microphysical properties and the dominating aerosol types depend on seasons. Aerosol-parameter frequency distributions reveal the presence of individual modes that lead to the assumption that moderately absorbing urban-industrial and marine-polluted aerosols dominate in spring-summer and autumn-winter, respectively. It is shown that aerosol optical depths (AODs), single scattering albedos (SSAs), and Angstrom coefficients (Å) of urban-industrial (spring-summer) aerosols are characterized by lognormal distributions with peak values of 0.20±0.03, 0.94±0.01, and 1.58±0.03, respectively. On the contrary AOD, SSA and Å values of maritime-polluted (autumn-winter) aerosols are characterized by lognormal distributions with peak values of 0.049±0.008, 0.974±0.003, and 0.7±0.1, respectively. It is also shown that the frequency distribution of real n and imaginary k refractive indices permits inference of the dominant aerosol constituents: sea-salt, water soluble, soot, and mineral particles. Finally, it is shown that dust outbreaks do not significantly affect the seasonal evolution of aerosol parameters, and that sunphotometry retrievals along dust events are in satisfactory accord with experimental findings indicating that moderately-absorbing (0.005≤ k≤0.05) dust particles with a high content of illite are mainly advected over the Mediterranean basin during Sahara dust storms.

  6. Design-Comparable Effect Sizes in Multiple Baseline Designs: A General Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustejovsky, James E.; Hedges, Larry V.; Shadish, William R.

    2014-01-01

    In single-case research, the multiple baseline design is a widely used approach for evaluating the effects of interventions on individuals. Multiple baseline designs involve repeated measurement of outcomes over time and the controlled introduction of a treatment at different times for different individuals. This article outlines a general…

  7. Atmospheric aerosol characterization combining multi-wavelength Raman lidar and MAX-DOAS measurements in Gwanjgu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jihyo; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Kwang Chul; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Shin, Sungkyun; Noh, Young M.; Müller, Detlef; Kim, Young J.

    2011-11-01

    Integrated approach has been adopted at the ADvanced Environmental Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosol. Various active and passive optical remote sensing techniques such as multi-wavelength (3β+2α+1δ) Raman LIDAR, sun-photometry, MAX-DOAS, and satellite retrieval have been utilized. This integrated monitoring system approach combined with in-situ surface measurement is to allow better characterization of physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol. Information on the vertical distribution and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol is important for understanding its transport characteristics as well as radiative effect. The GIST multi-wavelength (3β + 2α+1δ) Raman lidar system can measure vertical profiles of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols such as extinction coefficients at 355 and 532nm, particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and depolarization ratio at 532nm. The incomplete overlap between the telescope field-of-view and beam divergence of the transmitting laser significantly affects lidar measurement, resulting in higher uncertainty near the surface where atmospheric aerosols of interest are concentrated. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique is applied as a complementary tool for the detection of atmospheric aerosols near the surface. The passive Multi-Axis DOAS (MAX-DOAS) technique uses scattered sunlight as a light source from several viewing directions. Recently developed aerosol retrieval algorithm based on O4 slant column densities (SCDs) measured at UV and visible wavelengths has been utilized to derive aerosol information (e.g., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol extinction coefficients (AECs)) in the lower troposphere. The aerosol extinction coefficient at 356 nm was retrieved for the 0-1 and 1-2 km layers based on the MAX-DOAS measurements using the retrieval algorithm

  8. Linking solar and long baseline terrestrial neutrino experiments.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, E K; Branco, G C; Rebelo, M N

    2000-04-17

    We show that, in the framework of three light neutrino species with hierarchical masses and assuming no fine tuning between the entries of the neutrino mass matrix, one can use the solar neutrino data to obtain information on the element U(e3) of the lepton mixing matrix. Conversely, a measurement of U(e3) in atmospheric or long baseline accelerator or reactor neutrino experiments would help discriminate between possible oscillation solutions of the solar neutrino problem. PMID:11019139

  9. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  10. Proposal for a Universal Test Mirror for Characterization of SlopeMeasuring Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony; Noll,Tino; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas; Geckeler, Ralf D.

    2007-07-31

    The development of third generation light sources like theAdvanced Light Source (ALS) or BESSY II brought to a focus the need forhigh performance synchrotron optics with unprecedented tolerances forslope error and micro roughness. Proposed beam lines at Free ElectronLasers (FEL) require optical elements up to a length of one meter,characterized by a residual slope error in the range of 0.1murad (rms),and rms values of 0.1 nm for micro roughness. These optical elements mustbe inspected by highly accurate measuring instruments, providing ameasurement uncertainty lower than the specified accuracy of the surfaceunder test. It is essential that metrology devices in use at synchrotronlaboratories be precisely characterized and calibrated to achieve thistarget. In this paper we discuss a proposal for a Universal Test Mirror(UTM) as a realization of a high performance calibration instrument. Theinstrument would provide an ideal calibration surface to replicate aredundant surface under test of redundant figure. The application of asophisticated calibration instrument will allow the elimination of themajority of the systematic error from the error budget of an individualmeasurement of a particular optical element. We present the limitationsof existing methods, initial UTM design considerations, possiblecalibration algorithms, and an estimation of the expectedaccuracy.

  11. Measurement system for systematic hydrological characterization of unsaturated fractured welded tuff in a mined underground tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cook, P J; Salve, R; Freifeld, B M; Tsang, Y T

    2003-01-01

    A field investigation of unsaturated flow through a lithophysal unit of fractured welded tuff containing lithophysal cavities has been initiated. To characterize flow in this spatially heterogeneous medium, a systematic approach has been developed to perform tests in boreholes drilled at regular intervals in an underground tunnel (drift). The purpose of the testing is to quantify the amounts of water seeping into the drift versus the amount of water moving around the drift when released into boreholes at many equidistant locations along the drift. In this paper, we describe the test equipment system that has been built for this purpose. Because the field-scale measurements--of liquid flow in the unsaturated, fractured rocks--require continuous testing for periods of days to weeks, the control of test equipment has been fully automated, allowing operation with no human presence at the field site. Preliminary results from the first set of tests indicate that, while the effects of evaporation on characterization of hydrological properties of the rock can be significant, these effects can be controlled and quantified. These tests give insight into the role of the cavities as potential storage during the initial transient flow prior to the breakthrough of water at the drift crown, as well as the role of connected fractures that provide the subsequent quasi-steady flow. In addition to the stated purpose of realizing the flow partitioning, the results yield values for the effective porosity in the pathways for liquid flow in the regions tested thus far. PMID:12873008

  12. Measurement system for an in-vitro characterization of the biomechanics and hemodynamics of arterial bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Bagnasco, D.; Balay, G.; Cymberknop, L.; Armentano, R. L.; Negreira, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    Arterial behaviour in-vivo is influenced, amongst other factors, by the interaction between blood flow and the arterial wall endothelium, and the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall. This interaction plays an important role in pathogenic mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. To quantify these interactions both from biomechanical and hemodynamical standpoints, a complete characterization and modelling of the arterial wall, blood flow, shear wall and circumferential wall stresses are needed. The development of a new multi-parameter measurement system (distances, pressures, flows, velocity profiles, temperature, viscosity) for an in-vitro characterization of the biomechanics and hemodynamics in arterial bifurcations (specially in carotid bifurcations) is described. This set-up represents an improvement relative to previous set-ups developed by the group FCIEN-FMED and is presently under development. Main subsystems interactions and environment-system interactions were identified and compensated to improve system's performance. Several interesting problems related with signal acquisition using a variety of sensors and some experimental results are shown and briefly discussed. Experimental data allow construction of meshes and parameter estimation of the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall, as well as boundary conditions, all suitable to be employed in CFD and FSI numerical simulation.

  13. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state.

  14. Fabrication, characterization and measurement of thermal conductivity of Fe 3O 4 nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abareshi, Maryam; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed; Khandan Fadafan, Hassan; Youssefi, Abbas

    2010-12-01

    Magnetite Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a co-precipitation method at different pH values. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electronic microscopy. Their magnetic properties were evaluated on a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that the shape of the particles is cubic and they are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Magnetic nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles in water as a base fluid in the presence of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide as a dispersant. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was measured as a function of volume fraction and temperature. The results show that the thermal conductivity ratio of the nanofluids increases with increase in temperature and volume fraction. The highest enhancement of thermal conductivity was 11.5% in the nanofluid of 3 vol% of nanoparticles at 40 °C. The experimental results were also compared with the theoretical models.

  15. Thermal stability characterization of magnetic tunnel junctions using hard-axis magnetoresistance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Rowlands, Graham; Zeng, Zhongming; Krivorotov, Ilya; Jiang, Hongwen; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-04-01

    The use of hard-axis magnetoresistance (MR) measurements for characterization of the device-level anisotropy field and thermal stability in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions is proposed and evaluated. We develop functional forms describing the hard-axis MR curves using a Stoner-Wohlfarth particle model, which are then used for fitting to the experimental curves to extract the free layer magnetic anisotropy field. The model accounts for nonidealities observed in the experimental MR curves in the form of asymmetry (with respect to applied fields), and linear drop in resistance at high fields. Micromagnetic simulations are used to identify the cause for these deviations and verify the presented model.

  16. Characterization of drying paint coatings by dynamic speckle and holographic interferometry measurements.

    PubMed

    Budini, N; Mulone, C; Balducci, N; Vincitorio, F M; López, A J; Ramil, A

    2016-06-10

    In this work we implemented dynamic speckle and holographic interferometry techniques to characterize the drying process of solvent-based paint coatings. We propose a simple way to estimate drying time by measuring speckle activity and incrementally fitting experimental data through standard regression algorithms. This allowed us to predict drying time after about 20-30 min of paint application, which is fast compared to usual times required to reach the so-called tack-free state (≈2  h). In turn, we used holographic interferometry to map small thickness variations in the coating surface during drying. We also demonstrate that results obtained from both techniques correlate with each other, which allows us to improve the accuracy of the drying time estimation. PMID:27409029

  17. Characterization of high-level nuclear waste glass using magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.; Grant, J.R.; Barkatt, A.

    1994-12-31

    Magnetic measurements constitute a promising method for the characterization of nuclear waste glasses in view of their simplicity and small sample weight requirements. Initial studies of simulated high-level waste glasses show that the Curie constant is generally a useful indicator of the Fe{sup 2+}:Fe{sup 3+} ratio. Glasses produced by air-cooling in large vessels show systematic deviations between experimental and calcined values, which are indicative of the presence of small amounts of crystalline iron-containing phases. Most of the iron in these phases becomes dissolved in the glass upon re-heating and more rapid quenching. The studies further show that upon leaching the glass in water some of the iron in the surface regions of the glass is converted to a form which has high temperature-independent magnetic susceptibility.

  18. Generation and Measurement of Relativistic Electron Bunches Characterized by a Linearly Ramped Current Profile

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.

    2008-05-30

    We report the first successful attempt to generate ultrashort (1-10 ps) relativistic electron bunches characterized by a ramped longitudinal current profile that rises linearly from head to tail and then falls sharply to zero. Bunches with this type of longitudinal shape may be applied to plasma-based accelerator schemes as an optimized drive beam, and to free-electron lasers as a means of reducing asymmetry in microbunching due to slippage. The scheme used to generate the ramped bunches employs an anisochronous dogleg beam line with nonlinear correction elements to compress a beam having an initial positive time-energy chirp. The beam current profile is measured using a deflecting mode cavity, and a pseudoreconstruction of the beam's longitudinal phase space distribution is obtained by using this diagnostic with a residual horizontal dispersion after the dogleg.

  19. Characterization of the conglomerate form of acetyl-DL-leucine by thermal analysis and solubility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estime, N.; Pena, R.; Teychené, S.; Autret, J. M.; Biscans, B.

    2012-03-01

    Starting from a mixture of enantiomers in solution, crystallization can generate different types of crystals. In order to determine which type of crystal is obtained in the case of acetyl leucine, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), analytical methods have been used to partially elucidate the binary and ternary phase diagrams of the system composed of the two enantiomers and water. The melting temperature phase diagram of this compound has been obtained by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyzes. The results show that it is characteristic of a conglomerate. This mode of crystallization has also been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Solubility measurements of enantiomerical mixtures in water enabled the determination of the ternary diagram of solubility. The empiric Meyerhoffer double solubility rule has been modified, due to the characterization of interactions between enantiomers.

  20. Characterizing eigenstate thermalization via measures in the Fock space of operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hosur, Pavan

    The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) attempts to bridge the gap between quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical descriptions of isolated quantum systems. Here, we define unbiased measures for how well the ETH works in various regimes, by mapping general interacting quantum systems on regular lattices onto a single particle living on a high-dimensional graph. By numerically analyzing deviations from ETH behavior in the non-integrable Ising model, we propose quantities that we call the ''n-weight'' and the ''n-distinguishability'' to democratically characterize the average and the maximum deviations, respectively, for all operators residing on n sites. Along the way, we discover that complicated operators on average are worse than simple ones at distinguishing between neighboring eigenstates, contrary to the naive intuition created by the usual statements of the ETH that few-body (many-body) operators acquire the same (different) expectation values in nearby eigenstates at finite energy density.

  1. The use of non-destructive passive neutron measurement methods in dismantling and radioactive waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jallu, F.; Allinei, P. G.; Bernard, P.; Loridon, J.; Soyer, P.; Pouyat, D.; Torreblanca, L.; Reneleau, A.

    2011-07-01

    The cleaning up and dismantling of nuclear facilities lead to a great volume of technological radioactive wastes which need to be characterized in order to be sent to the adequate final disposal or interim storage. The control and characterization can be performed with non-destructive nuclear measurements such as gamma-ray spectrometry. Passive neutron counting is an alternative when the alpha-gamma emitters cannot be detected due to the presence of a high gamma emission resulting from fission or activation products, or when the waste matrix is too absorbing for the gamma rays of interest (too dense and/or made of high atomic number elements). It can also be a complement to gamma-ray spectrometry when two measurement results must be confronted to improve the confidence in the activity assessment. Passive neutron assays involve the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons emitted by even nuclides ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Cm, {sup 244}Cm...) and neutrons resulting from ({alpha}, n) reactions with light nuclides (O, F, Be...). The latter is conditioned by the presence of high {alpha}-activity radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am...) and low-Z elements, which depends on the chemical form (metallic, oxide or fluorine) of the plutonium or uranium contaminant. This paper presents the recent application of passive neutron methods to the cleaning up of a nuclear facility located at CEA Cadarache (France), which concerns the Pu mass assessment of 2714 historic, 100 litre radioactive waste drums produced between 1980 and 1997. Another application is the dismantling and decommissioning of an uranium enrichment facility for military purposes, which involves the {sup 235}U and total uranium quantifications in about a thousand, large compressors employed in the gaseous diffusion enrichment process. (authors)

  2. Characterization of geolocation accuracy of Suomi NPP Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yang; Weng, Fuzhong; Zou, Xiaolei; Yang, Hu; Scott, Deron

    2016-05-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite has 22 channels at frequencies ranging from 23 to 183 GHz for probing the atmospheric temperature and moisture under all weather conditions. As part of the ATMS calibration and validation activities, the geolocation accuracy of ATMS data must be well characterized and documented. In this study, the coastline crossing method (CCM) and the land-sea fraction method (LFM) are utilized to characterize and quantify the ATMS geolocation accuracy. The CCM is based on the inflection points of the ATMS window channel measurements across the coastlines, whereas the LFM collocates the ATMS window channel data with high-resolution land-sea mask data sets. Since the ATMS measurements provide five pairs of latitude and longitude data for K, Ka, V, W, and G bands, respectively, the window channels 1, 2, 3, 16, and 17 from each of these five bands are chosen for assessing the overall geolocation accuracy. ATMS geolocation errors estimated from both methods are generally consistent from 40 cases in June 2014. The ATMS along-track (cross-track) errors at nadir are within ±4.2 km (±1.2 km) for K/Ka, ±2.6 km (±2.7 km) for V bands, and ±1.2 km (±0.6 km) at W and G bands, respectively. At the W band, the geolocation errors derived from both algorithms are probably less reliable due to a reduced contrast of brightness temperatures in coastal areas. These estimated ATMS along-track and cross-track geolocation errors are well within the uncertainty requirements for all bands.

  3. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  4. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  5. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  6. Atmospheric media effects on ARIES baseline determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Different types of media effects on ARIES baseline determination are compared. The effectiveness of simple ionospheric calibration models are studied. To perform the covariance analysis, an ARIES observation sequence needs to be assumed. For the current purposes, the observation sequence is selected to be that of experiment 80D over the JPL/Goldstone baseline (approximately 180 km). This experiment consisted of 96 observations over a period of approximately 25 hours on March 25 to 26, 1980. It is found through covariance analyses that the component most sensitive to media depends heavily upon the correlation, between the two stations, of the media effects. It is also found that relying on the cancellation of ionospheric delays between the two ray paths of VLBI observations at S band results in a large error in baseline length determination. High degree removal of ionospheric effects is possible with a crude model, providing correct diurnal peak and minimum ionospheric levels are input.

  7. Use of sap flow measurement to characterize Terroir effect on vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, V.; Payen, S.; Scholasch, T.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have shown the critical role played by vine water deficit variations in fruit and wine composition shaping the "terroir" effect. Our approach aims at characterizing terroir effect through real time sap flow measurements combined with climatic analysis. The goal is to better understand vine water needs to optimize vineyard management operations. Comparing 2 years and 2 pedological units, this study shows how vine water use can reveal the "terroir" effect during a season. MATERIAL AND METHOD Measurements were performed in 2009 and 2010 on 2 Napa vineyards, California. Climatic demand was calculated using on-site weather stations for ETref (Allen et al, 1998). In each location, 4 vines were selected. Sap flow measurements were performed using Sap IP system (Dynamax Inc, USA). We computed maximal transpiration (Tmax) as: Tmax = Kc * ETref (1) where Kc= crop coefficient Vine water deficit (S) is defined as the ratio: S= T/Tmax (2) where T is measured transpiration RESULTS Climatic comparison, Fig.1 2009 was a warm/dry season and 2010 was a cold/wet season. As of Oct. 1st, 1650 and 1400 oC.d were cumulated respectively in 2009 and 2010. Total rains (Nov. 1st to Oct 31st) were 767 mm and 904 mm respectively. Figure 1 shows that S values are lower in 2009 (around 60% from mid July) reflecting drier and hotter conditions compared to 2010 (around 80%). Soil comparison, Fig.2 Soil 1 (clay loam) and soil 2 (gravelly sandy loam) are two different soil units within the same vineyard. Water holding capacity is lower in soil 2, which induces a more limited vine water use and lower S values. On July 23rd, a heat wave caused an increase in transpiration proportionally greater than the rise in ETref. Consequently S values rise and the rise is greater in soil 1, consistent with soil moisture supply being less limiting. CONCLUSION The monitoring of sap flow is a new approach to characterize terroir effect on vine water use. It is currently being used to improve vineyard

  8. Multi-project baselines for potential clean development mechanism projects in the electricity sector in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, H.; Spalding-Fecher, R.; Sathaye, J.; Price, L.

    2002-06-26

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in order to ''prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'' and promote sustainable development. The Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in 1997 and appears likely to be ratified by 2002 despite the US withdrawing, aims to provide means to achieve this objective. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of three ''flexibility mechanisms'' in the Protocol, the other two being Joint Implementation (JI) and Emissions Trading (ET). These mechanisms allow flexibility for Annex I Parties (industrialized countries) to achieve reductions by extra-territorial as well as domestic activities. The underlying concept is that trade and transfer of credits will allow emissions reductions at least cost. Since the atmosphere is a global, well-mixed system, it does not matter where greenhouse gas emissions are reduced. The CDM allows Annex I Parties to meet part of their emissions reductions targets by investing in developing countries. CDM projects must also meet the sustainable development objectives of the developing country. Further criteria are that Parties must participate voluntarily, that emissions reductions are ''real, measurable and long-term'', and that they are additional to those that would have occurred anyway. The last requirement makes it essential to define an accurate baseline. The remaining parts of section 1 outline the theory of baselines, emphasizing the balance needed between environmental integrity and reducing transaction costs. Section 2 develops an approach to multi-project baseline for the South African electricity sector, comparing primarily to near future capacity, but also considering recent plants. Five potential CDM projects are briefly characterized in section 3, and compared to the baseline in section 4. Section 5 concludes with a discussion of options and choices for South Africa regarding electricity

  9. High Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements For Characterization, Monitoring And Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2000-12-31

    Electromagnetic methods in exploration geophysics include many technologies capable of imaging the subsurface. The electromagnetic geophysical spectrum for shallow subsurface imaging is roughly 1 Hz to 500 MHz, with electrical resistivity and other geometric sounding methods located at the low frequency end and the familiar GPR method at the high end of the spectrum. Baseline studies (Pellerin et al., 1997) show that electromagnetic instrumentation in the mid- and low-frequencies (< 300 kHz) and GPR systems (> 30 MHz) are well developed in the commercial sector. In the high-frequency range of 300 kHz to 100 MHz developments have been quite recent and reside within the research community. Accurate theoretical numerical modeling algorithms are available for simulations and interpretation across the entire spectrum (Mackie and Madden, 1993; Pellerin et al., 1995; Pellerin et al., 1997; Alumbaugh and Newman, 1995; Lee et al., 1995, Newmann and Alumbaugh, 1997; Newmann, 1999; Sasaki, 1999, etc.), but instrumentation suitable for collecting calibrated field data in the important high-frequency range is critically lacking. Several attempts to develop reliable, accurate and calibrated instruments (Sternberg and Poulton, 1996; Stewart et al., 1994; Wright et el., 1996) have produced mixed results. We proposed to exploit the concept of electromagnetic impedance, the ratio of orthogonal horizontal electric to horizontal magnetic fields, to provide the necessary technology in the high-frequency band described above. The effective depth of investigation for surface impedance measurements depends on the frequency, and is commonly expressed in terms of the skin depth, the distance into the conductive half space at which the amplitude of the incoming wave has decreased to e-1 of its surface value. In order to achieve skin depths between 0.5 and 10 meters in material of resistivity between 1 and 100 ohm-m and relative permittivity between 1 and 30, frequencies bet ween about 300 k

  10. Development and application of a statistical methodology to evaluate the predictive accuracy of building energy baseline models

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-03-01

    This paper documents the development and application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-­building energy savings. The methodology complements the principles addressed in resources such as ASHRAE Guideline 14 and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. It requires fitting a baseline model to data from a ``training period’’ and using the model to predict total electricity consumption during a subsequent ``prediction period.’’ We illustrate the methodology by evaluating five baseline models using data from 29 buildings. The training period and prediction period were varied, and model predictions of daily, weekly, and monthly energy consumption were compared to meter data to determine model accuracy. Several metrics were used to characterize the accuracy of the predictions, and in some cases the best-­performing model as judged by one metric was not the best performer when judged by another metric.

  11. Robust and precise baseline determination of distributed spacecraft in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende-Alba, Gerardo; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Recent experience with prominent formation flying missions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), such as GRACE and TanDEM-X, has shown the feasibility of precise relative navigation at millimeter and sub-millimeter levels using GPS carrier phase measurements with fixed integer ambiguities. However, the robustness and availability of the solutions provided by current algorithms may be highly dependent on the mission profile. The main challenges faced in the LEO scenario are the resulting short continuous carrier phase tracking arcs along with the observed rapidly changing ionospheric conditions, which in the particular situation of long baselines increase the difficulty of correct integer ambiguity resolution. To reduce the impact of these factors, the present study proposes a strategy based on a reduced-dynamics filtering of dual-frequency GPS measurements for precise baseline determination along with a dedicated scheme for integer ambiguity resolution, consisting of a hybrid sequential/batch algorithm based on the maximum a posteriori and integer aperture estimators. The algorithms have been tested using flight data from the GRACE, TanDEM-X and Swarm missions in order to assess their robustness to different formation and baseline configurations. Results with the GRACE mission show an average 0.7 mm consistency with the K/Ka-band ranging measurements over a period of more than two years in a baseline configuration of 220 km. Results with TanDEM-X data show an average of 3.8 mm consistency of kinematic and reduced-dynamic solutions in the along-track component over a period of 40 days in baseline configurations of 500 m and 75 km. Data from Swarm A and Swarm C spacecraft are largely affected by atmospheric scintillation and contain half cycle ambiguities. The results obtained under such conditions show an overall consistency between kinematic and reduced-dynamic solutions of 1.7 cm in the along-track component over a period of 30 days in a variable baseline of approximately 60

  12. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  13. Characterization of laser induced breakdown plasmas used for measurements of arsenic, antimony and selenium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonsson, J. B.; Williamson, L. J.

    2011-09-01

    Studies have been performed to characterize laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasmas formed in Ar/H 2 gas mixtures that are used for hydride generation (HG) LIBS measurements of arsenic (As), antimony (Sb) and selenium (Se) hydrides. The plasma electron density and plasma excitation temperature have been determined through hydrogen, argon and arsenic emission measurements. The electron density ranges from 4.5 × 10 17 to 8.3 × 10 15 cm -3 over time delays of 0.2 to 15 μs. The plasma temperatures range from 8800 to 7700 K for Ar and from 8800 to 6500 K for As in the HG LIBS plasmas. Evaluation of the plasma properties leads to the conclusion that partial local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are present in the HG LIBS plasmas. Comparison measurements in LIBS plasmas formed in Ar gas only indicate that the temperatures are similar in both plasmas. However it is also observed that the electron density is higher in the Ar only plasmas and that the emission intensities of Ar are higher and decay more slowly in the Ar only plasmas. These differences are attributed to the presence of H 2 which has a higher thermal conductivity and provides additional dissociation, excitation and ionization processes in the HG LIBS plasma environment. Based on the observed results, it is anticipated that changes to the HG conditions that change the amount of H 2 in the plasma will have a significant effect on analyte emission in the HG LIBS plasmas that is independent of changes in the HG efficiency. The HG LIBS plasmas have been evaluated for measurements of elements hydrides using a constant set of HG LIBS plasma conditions. Linear responses are observed and limits of detection of 0.7, 0.2 and 0.6 mg/L are reported for As, Sb and Se, respectively.

  14. Characterization of Cirrus Cloud Properties by Airborne Differential Absorption and High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, G.; Gross, S.; Schäfler, A.; Wirth, M.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the large impact of cirrus clouds on the Earth's climate system, their effects are still only poorly understood. Our knowledge of the climate effect of cirrus clouds is mainly based on theoretical simulations using idealized cloud structure and microphysics, as well as radiative transfer approximations. To improve the representation of cirrus clouds in idealized simulations and circulation models, we need a better understanding of the micro- and macrophysical properties of cirrus clouds. Airborne lidar measurements provide two-dimensional information of the atmospheric structure, and are thus a suitable tool to study the fine-structure of cirrus clouds, as well as their macrophysical properties. Aerosol and water vapor was measured with the airborne high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system WALES of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen. The system was operated onboard the German high altitude and long range research aircraft HALO during the Next-generation remote sensing for validation studies campaign (NARVAL) in December 2013 over the tropical North-Atlantic and in January 2014 out of Iceland, and during the ML-Cirrus campaign in March/April 2014 over Central and Southern Europe. During NARVAL 18 flights with more than 110 flight hours were performed providing a large number of cirrus cloud overpasses with combined lidar and radar instrumentation. In the framework of the ML-Cirrus campaign 17 flights with more than 80 flight hours were performed to characterize cirrus cloud properties in different environmental conditions using a combination of remote sensing (e.g. lidar) and in-situ observations. In our presentation we will give a general overview of the campaigns and of the WALES measurements. We will show first results from the aerosol and water vapor lidar measurements with focus on the structure of cirrus clouds, the humidity distribution within and outside the cloud and on the impact of the

  15. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  16. Measurement of Wheat Hardness by Seed Scarifier and Barley Pearler And Comparison with Single-Kernel Characterization System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new procedure based on a seed scarifier (SS) for measuring wheat hardness was described and investigated along with methods of barley pearler (BP) and single kernel characterization system (SKCS). Hardness measured by SS and BP was expressed as percentage of kernel weight remained after abrading ...

  17. Comparative analysis of different measurement techniques for characterizing soil surface roughness in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Agirre, Alex; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Valle, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Giménez, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface roughness can be defined as the variation in soil surface elevations, and as such, it is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes. In agricultural soils, roughness is mainly an anthropic factor determined by the type of tillage and management. Roughness is also a property with a high spatial variability, since the same type of tillage can result in surfaces with different roughness depending on the physical characteristics of the soil and atmospheric conditions. In order to quantify roughness and to parameterize its role in different processes, different measurement techniques have been used and several parameters have been proposed in the literature. The objective of this work is to evaluate different measurement techniques and assess their accuracy and suitability for quantifying surface roughness in agricultural soils. With this aim, a comparative analysis of three roughness measurement techniques has been carried out; (1) laser profilometer, (2) convergent photogrammetry and (3) terrestrial laser scanner. Roughness measurements were done in 3 experimental plots (5x5 meters) with different tillage treatments (representing different roughness conditions) obtained with typical agricultural tools. The laser profilometer registered vertically the distance from a reference bar down to the surface. It had a vertical accuracy of 1.25 mm, a sampling interval of 5 mm and a total length profile of 5 m. Eight profiles were taken per plot, four in parallel to tillage direction and four in perpendicular. Convergent photogrammetry consisted of 20-30 images taken per plot from a height of 5-10 m above ground (using an elevation platform), leading to point clouds of ~25 million points per plot. Terrestrial laser scanner measurements were taken from the four sides of each plot at a measurement height of ~1.75 m above ground. After orientating and corregistering the four scans, point clouds of ~60 million points were obtained per plot. The comparative

  18. Characterizing eigenstate thermalization via measures in the Fock space of operators.

    PubMed

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) attempts to bridge the gap between quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical descriptions of isolated quantum systems. Here, we define unbiased measures for how well the ETH works in various regimes, by mapping general interacting quantum systems on regular lattices onto a single particle living on a high-dimensional graph. By numerically analyzing deviations from ETH behavior in the nonintegrable Ising model, we propose a quantity that we call the n-weight to democratically characterize the average deviations for all operators residing on a given number of sites, irrespective of their spatial structure. It appears to have a simple scaling form, which we conjecture to hold true for all nonintegrable systems. A closely related quantity, which we term the n-distinguishability, tells us how well two states can be distinguished if only n-site operators are measured. Along the way, we discover that complicated operators on average are worse than simple ones at distinguishing between neighboring eigenstates, contrary to the naive intuition created by the usual statements of the ETH that few-body (many-body) operators acquire the same (different) expectation values in nearby eigenstates at finite energy density. Finally, we sketch heuristic arguments that the ETH originates from the limited ability of simple operators to distinguish between quantum states of a system, especially when the states are subject to constraints such as roughly fixed energy with respect to a local Hamiltonian. PMID:27176285

  19. Characterizing eigenstate thermalization via measures in the Fock space of operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) attempts to bridge the gap between quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical descriptions of isolated quantum systems. Here, we define unbiased measures for how well the ETH works in various regimes, by mapping general interacting quantum systems on regular lattices onto a single particle living on a high-dimensional graph. By numerically analyzing deviations from ETH behavior in the nonintegrable Ising model, we propose a quantity that we call the n -weight to democratically characterize the average deviations for all operators residing on a given number of sites, irrespective of their spatial structure. It appears to have a simple scaling form, which we conjecture to hold true for all nonintegrable systems. A closely related quantity, which we term the n -distinguishability, tells us how well two states can be distinguished if only n -site operators are measured. Along the way, we discover that complicated operators on average are worse than simple ones at distinguishing between neighboring eigenstates, contrary to the naive intuition created by the usual statements of the ETH that few-body (many-body) operators acquire the same (different) expectation values in nearby eigenstates at finite energy density. Finally, we sketch heuristic arguments that the ETH originates from the limited ability of simple operators to distinguish between quantum states of a system, especially when the states are subject to constraints such as roughly fixed energy with respect to a local Hamiltonian.

  20. Molecular characterization and validation of commercially available methods for haptoglobin measurement in bottlenose dolphin☆

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Takao; Amatsuji, Hazumu; Suzuki, Kento; Suzuki, Miwa; Yanagisawa, Makio; Itou, Takuya; Sakai, Takeo; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is a positive acute-phase protein and a valuable marker of inflammation in both human and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to validate the molecular characterization of Hp in dolphins and to validate commercially available Hp measurement methods such as Hp-ELISA (originally designed for pigs) and Hp–hemoglobin (Hb) binding assay. The dolphin Hp (dHp) amino acid sequence appeared most similar to pig Hp by sequence homology and phylogenetic clustering. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that dHp comprises the Hp1 form of α1 and β chains. The anti-pig Hp antibody cross-reacted with both recombinant dHp, expressed by Escherichia coli, and dHp from serum. The intra- and inter-assay levels of imprecision of pig Hp-ELISA and the Hp–Hb binding assay were found to be tolerable for the determination of Hp in dolphin, and there was no significant discrepancy between the two determination methods. The ability of the assay to differentiate between healthy and inflammation groups was investigated, and a significant increase in Hp concentration was detected in inflammatory conditions. Thus, Hp is a useful inflammation marker for dolphin, and the Hp concentration in dolphin serum samples can be reliably measured using commercially available pig Hp-ELISA and Hp–Hb binding assay. PMID:24600559

  1. Characterization of amorphous thermoluminescence dosimeters for patient dose measurement in X-ray diagnostic procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, N. N. H.; Salleh, H.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Zulkifli, M. I.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; M. Noor, N.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the use of novel Ge-doped amorphous silica flat fibers as thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in verifying patient entrance surface-dose (ESD) in diagnostic examinations. Selected fibers with established dosimetric characteristics (including energy dependence, linearity, reproducibility, and fading) were loaded into plastic capsules in groups of six. The fibers have been calibrated against a parallel plate ionization chamber, use being made of x-rays generated at 70 kVp, accessing a Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) facility. The fiber characterization measurements were made using a Toshiba X-ray machine operating within the nominal energies range 40 kVp to 150 kVp, for doses in the range 0.02 mGy up to 3 mGy. For doses from 2 mGy up to 150 mGy, the flat fibers exhibit linearity between TL yield and dose, reproducible to better than 3% standard deviation following repeat measurements (n=3). A marked energy-dependent response is observed for photons generated at potentials from 40 kVp to 150 kVp. From present results, it is concluded that Ge-doped fibers represent a viable system for use in diagnostic dosimetry, corrections being made for the various factors influencing TL yield.

  2. Design and characterization of novel all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array dedicated to physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Toczyłowska-Mamińska, Renata; Kloch, Monika; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Bala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    A novel construction of all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array designed for physiological measurements has been presented. The planar construction and elimination of liquid phase creates broad opportunities for the modifications in the sensing part of the sensor. The designed construction is based on all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes integrated with the ionic-liquid based reference electrode. Work parameters of the sensor arrays were characterized. It has been shown that presented sensor design indicates high sensitivity (55.2±1mV/dec, 56.3±2mV/dec, 58.4±1mV/dec and 53.5±1mV/pH for sodium-, potassium-, chloride- and pH-selective electrodes, respectively in 10(-5)-10(-1.5)M range of primary ions), low response time (t95 did not exceed 10s), high potential stability (potential drift in 28-h measurement was ca. ±2mV) and potential repeatability ca. ±1mV. The system was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of K(+), Cl(-), Na(+) and pH in the model physiological solution and for the ion flux studies in human colon epithelium Caco-2 cell line as well. PMID:27474272

  3. Nocturnal Boundary Layer Measurements during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tota, J.; Fisch, G.; Santos, R.; Silva Dias, M.

    2009-05-01

    To characterize the Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL) hourly profiles of wind, pressure, temperature, humidity and 5 sizes particles concentration, were made by using tethered balloon at INPA tropical Amazon rainforest Reserve (Cuieiras) 100 km northwest from Manaus city. The measurements were made during the wet season March/2008. The NBL height was 100 to 150m, with a very well mixed layer close to surface associate with temperature inversion. The wind profiles shows a very clear low level in two nights, about 500 to 900 m, and, in general, all nights show an stable and cooler air layer close the surface uncoupled with outer residual boundary layer above. At the site a very clear drainage flow from north quadrant down slope eastward quadrant during very the stable cases. This findings is correlates with particles profiles where was commonly trapped by stable layer presenting high concentrations, for all 5 sizes measured, close to the surface at vegetation level and just above it. All nights presents high humidity with fog formation in three cases, associates with temperature below the 23C. The wind speed were very low about 0.5 to calm, in generally associate with drainage flow down hill. The NBL dynamics is a discussion issue associate to the aerosol nocturnal mixing in complex terrain with tall vegetation, the currently AMAZE site case.

  4. Nocturnal Boundary Layer Measurements during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (amaze)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tota, J.; Santos, R.; Fisch, G.; Querino, C.; Silva Dias, M.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Martin, S.; Manzi, A.

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL) hourly profiles of wind, pressure, temperature, humidity and 5 sizes particles concentration, were made by using tethered balloon at INPA tropical Amazon rainforest Reserve (Cuieiras) 100 km northwest from Manaus city. The measurements were made during the wet season March/2008. The NBL height was 100 to 150m, with a very well mixed layer close to surface associate with temperature inversion. The wind profiles shows a very clear low level in two nights, about 500 to 900 m, and, in general, all nights show an stable and cooler air layer close the surface uncoupled with outer residual boundary layer above. At the site a very clear drainage flow from north quadrant down slope eastward quadrant during very the stable cases. This findings is correlates with particles profiles where was commonly trapped by stable layer presenting high concentrations, for all 5 sizes measured, close to the surface at vegetation level and just above it. All nights presents high humidity with fog formation in three cases, associates with temperature below the 23°C. The wind speed were very low about 0.5 to calm, in generally associate with drainage flow down hill. The NBL dynamics is a discussion issue associate to the aerosol nocturnal mixing in complex terrain with tall vegetation, the currently AMAZE site case.

  5. Characterization of known protein complexes using k-connectivity and other topological measures

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Suzanne R; Goldberg, Debra S

    2015-01-01

    Many protein complexes are densely packed, so proteins within complexes often interact with several other proteins in the complex. Steric constraints prevent most proteins from simultaneously binding more than a handful of other proteins, regardless of the number of proteins in the complex. Because of this, as complex size increases, several measures of the complex decrease within protein-protein interaction networks. However, k-connectivity, the number of vertices or edges that need to be removed in order to disconnect a graph, may be consistently high for protein complexes. The property of k-connectivity has been little used previously in the investigation of protein-protein interactions. To understand the discriminative power of k-connectivity and other topological measures for identifying unknown protein complexes, we characterized these properties in known Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complexes in networks generated both from highly accurate X-ray crystallography experiments which give an accurate model of each complex, and also as the complexes appear in high-throughput yeast 2-hybrid studies in which new complexes may be discovered. We also computed these properties for appropriate random subgraphs.We found that clustering coefficient, mutual clustering coefficient, and k-connectivity are better indicators of known protein complexes than edge density, degree, or betweenness. This suggests new directions for future protein complex-finding algorithms. PMID:26913183

  6. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less

  7. Inflow Characterization and Aerodynamics Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A. R.; Fingersh, L.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Post processing techniques for aerodynamic data acquired from a Siemens SWT-2.3101 turbine have been developed and applied in this paper. The turbine is installed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as part of Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Siemens Wind Power and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The results indicate that the use of these corrections is essential for accurate analysis of the data. An example of local inflow angles, velocities, and inflow velocity over the rotor plane derived from measurements from a 5-hole probe is also presented. Finally, the pressure measurements are used to characterize unsteady phenomenon, namely, rotational augmentation and dynamic stall on an inboard station. The results show that the rotational augmentation can considerably increase the attached flow regime compared to the 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results. The dynamic stall event was seen to significantly delay the stall. Furthermore, the non-dimensionalized vortex convection derived from the dynamic stall event was found to agree well with results from others studies.

  8. Magnetic measurements of the transuranium elements and charge state characterization of actinides in monazite. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Huray, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A micromagnetic susceptometer for the purpose of measuring extremely small sample quantities (on the microgram level) was designed, constructed, and calibrated in previous years. (The 1979 progress report gives details of its operation.) This device has operated without significant downtime in this funding period, and much progress has been made in the magnetic characterization of elements beyond Am in the periodic table. This program has roughly doubled man's knowledge of magnetism in Cm, Bk, and Cf, and includes the only Es magnetic measurements to date. The incorporation of an automatic data collection system in this period has made analysis much more accurate, and has allowed quicker turnaround of compounds and metals for study. Results obtained for the compounds and metals studied this year are summarized. The lanthanide orthophosphates are being investigated as an alternate means of primary containment for high-level actinide wastes. Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are involved in preparation of actinide-doped compounds for all of the lanthanide transition series (La through Lu) for a study of leaching characteristics and E.S.R. classification. To aid this study the charge state of /sup 237/Np or /sup 57/Fe has been identified, either in the as-prepared compounds or following radioactive decay of /sup 241/Am via the Moessbauer Effect. The final charge state will be an influential variable in the immobilization characteristics of the waste products stored in this synthetic monazite form. 10 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  9. Development and characterization of integrating sphere for photometry and radiometry measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibawa, Bambang Mukti; Mujahid, Abdul Al; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made; Siregar, Rustam Efendi

    2013-09-01

    Integrating Sphere (IS) is an instrument formed a cavity sphere with its inner surface act as a Lambertian reflector. IS is needed in many optical measurements which involves a high diffused reflection. In addition, IS very essential in photometry and radiometry measurement system. However, currently, IS is still an imported product which considered very expensive. The material for the sphere and inner surface coating affect the performance of the IS systems. Therefore, the main challenges in designing IS are the material engineering for the sphere and the procedure for the inner surface coating. The inner surface was coated using BaSO4 which has a low absorption and high diffuse reflection. Spectral responses of the IS system was characterized using USB2000+ and calibrated using a standard Spectralon from ocean optic. The obtained IS system used an inner surface coating from a mixed 80% Barium Sulfate (BaSO4) and 20% Nippon Elastex paint which yield a reflection factor ρ = 0.955 and amplification factor M=10.69. The validation was conducted using an emitter with known specification from Luxeon of LXHL-DW01 which produced light flux 40.5 lumen with injection current 350 mA and junction temperature Tj 25°C.

  10. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  11. A robotic indenter for minimally invasive measurement and characterization of soft tissue response.

    PubMed

    Samur, Evren; Sedef, Mert; Basdogan, Cagatay; Avtan, Levent; Duzgun, Oktay

    2007-08-01

    The lack of experimental data in current literature on material properties of soft tissues in living condition has been a significant obstacle in the development of realistic soft tissue models for virtual reality based surgical simulators used in medical training. A robotic indenter was developed for minimally invasive measurement of soft tissue properties in abdominal region during a laparoscopic surgery. Using the robotic indenter, force versus displacement and force versus time responses of pig liver under static and dynamic loading conditions were successfully measured to characterize its material properties in three consecutive steps. First, the effective elastic modulus of pig liver was estimated as 10-15 kPa from the force versus displacement data of static indentations based on the small deformation assumption. Then, the stress relaxation function, relating the variation of stress with respect to time, was determined from the force versus time response data via curve fitting. Finally, an inverse finite element solution was developed using ANSYS finite element package to estimate the optimum values of viscoelastic and nonlinear hyperelastic material properties of pig liver through iterations. The initial estimates of the material properties for the iterations were extracted from the experimental data for faster convergence of the solutions. PMID:17509927

  12. Multifrequency simultaneous bioimpedance measurements using multitone burst signals for dynamic tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, B.; Bragos, R.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present the keypoints to perform multifrequency simultaneous bioimpedance measurements using multitone signals. Concerning the frequency distribution, tones are spread over 1kHz to 1MHz range using a custom frequency distribution which we called Bilateral Quasi Logarithmic (BQL). BQL concentrates a higher number of tones around the impedance relaxation and contains a frequency plan algorithm. It minimizes the intermodulation effects due to non-linearities behaviours of the DUT and electrodes by slightly shifting the original tones in order to guarantee a guard bandwith. Regarding the multitone phase distribution, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been developed to minimize multitone Crest Factor (CF). This allow us to maximize the resultant Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the acquisition system. This paper also presents the relation between parameters such as sampling frequency and ADC bits with the SNR and the effect in the overall amplitude and phase error when using multitone signals as excitation waveforms. Finally, we present characterization results from a measurement system based on a modular PXI architecture.

  13. Inflow Characterization and Aerodynamics Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.; Fingersh, L.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Post processing techniques for aerodynamic data acquired from a Siemens SWT-2.3-101 turbine have been developed and applied in this paper. The turbine is installed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as part of Cooperative Research And Development Agreement between Siemens Wind Power and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The results indicate that the use of these corrections is essential for accurate analysis of the data. An example of local inflow angles, velocities, and inflow velocity over the rotor plane derived from measurements from a 5-hole probe is also presented. Finally the pressure measurements are used to characterize unsteady phenomenon, namely, rotational augmentation and dynamic stall on an inboard station. The results show that the rotational augmentation can considerably increase the attached flow regime compared to the 2D CFD results. The dynamic stall event was seen to significantly delay the stall. Furthermore, the nondimensionalized vortex convection derived from the dynamic stall event was found to agree well with results from others studies.

  14. Characterization of MOSFET dosimeters for low-dose measurements in maxillofacial anthropomorphic phantoms.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Juha H; Wolff, Jan E; Kiljunen, Timo; Schulze, Dirk; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize reinforced metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters to assess the measurement uncertainty, single exposure low-dose limit with acceptable accuracy, and the number of exposures required to attain the corresponding limit of the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The second aim was to characterize MOSFET dosimeter sensitivities for two dental photon energy ranges, dose dependency, dose rate dependency, and accumulated dose dependency. A further aim was to compare the performance of MOSFETs with those of TLDs in an anthropomorphic phantom head using a dentomaxillofacial CBCT device. The uncertainty was assessed by exposing 20 MOSFETs and a Barracuda MPD reference dosimeter. The MOSFET dosimeter sensitivities were evaluated for two photon energy ranges (50-90 kVp) using a constant dose and polymethylmethacrylate backscatter material. MOSFET and TLD comparative point-dose measurements were performed on an anthropomorphic phantom that was exposed with a clinical CBCT protocol. The MOSFET single exposure low dose limit (25% uncertainty, k = 2) was 1.69 mGy. An averaging of eight MOSFET exposures was required to attain the corresponding TLD (0.3 mGy) low-dose limit. The sensitivity was 3.09 ± 0.13 mV/mGy independently of the photon energy used. The MOSFET dosimeters did not present dose or dose rate sensitivity but, however, presented a 1% decrease of sensitivity per 1000 mV for accumulated threshold voltages between 8300 mV and 17500 mV. The point doses in an anthropomorphic phantom ranged for MOSFETs between 0.24 mGy and 2.29 mGy and for TLDs between 0.25 and 2.09 mGy, respectively. The mean difference was -8%. The MOSFET dosimeters presented statistically insignificant energy dependency. By averaging multiple exposures, the MOSFET dosimeters can achieve a TLD-comparable low-dose limit and constitute a feasible method for diagnostic dosimetry using anthropomorphic phantoms. However, for single in

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--BASELINE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baseline Questionnaire data set provides information about the household using the primary resident (IRN 01) and other residents who chose to participate. The information is from 1106 Baseline Questionnaires for 534 households. The Baseline Questionnaire was administered to...

  16. Split-tip scanning capacitance microscopy (SSCM): Special techniques in surface characterization and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Beverly Andrew, III

    Hallen). This work invents and develops a new technique for electrical, electro-optical, and topographical characterization at the nanoscale. Split-tip scanning capacitance microscopy (SSCM) offers advantages over other scanning probe methods. The dependence of the measurements on sample characteristics is reduced, and analysis is simplified by having both electrodes secured to the probe. This feature allows non-conducting, as well as conducting surfaces to be imaged without loss of optical or capacitance resolution. SSCM allows surface measurements without destroying the sample of interest and does not require special surface preparation. To develop this new technique, the project focused on the following: (1) shear-force feedback as an accurate tip-sample distance controller; (2) imaging techniques for irregular sample surfaces; (3) development of computational model for simulating split-tip measurements; (4) split-tip integration into a conventional near-field scanning optical microscope; (5) contrast modeling for surface structures; (6) tip-sample approach capacitance measurements as a stringent test of SSCM. We show that a non-linear tip sample interaction dominates the shear force feedback signal evidenced by a change in the resonance frequency as the tip approaches the sample. Shear force feedback relies on a decrease in the signal amplitude at the operating frequency. We present data and a numerical model describing the time response and how this nonlinear interaction can be used to speed up the response. We demonstrate the imaging of irregular surfaces such as paint samples and show the distribution of pigment quantified by the peak in the histogram of optical signal versus separation at the nano- to micron scale illuminates the length-scale of failure in paint samples. We compare a high quality paint sample with one that fails a standard quality control test based upon visual inspection. Features such as pigment clumping and pigment density fluctuations

  17. Petrophysical Characterization of Stony Meteorites Using Low Field Magnetic Susceptibility: Initial Results From Anisotropy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Ernst, R. E.; Herd, R. K.; Claire, S.

    2004-05-01

    chondrites, with C and LL chondrites having the lowest inferred anisotropies. The magnitudes of the ellipsoid shape varied significantly within meteorite class, and there is variability between classes. The mean ellipsoid shape and standard deviation for each class follows. Prolate ellipsoids: AUB (+17±15), Diogenite (+8), E chondrites (+4±13), and Ureilite (+4). Oblate ellipsoids dominate the remaining classes: Acapulcoite (-31), Brachinite (-15), L chondrites (-7±10), H (-5±12), Eucrite (-6±4), C (4±3) and Rumurutiite (-3). There is consistency of AMS among multiple specimens of the same meteorite. Future work on samples from the National Meteorite Collection of Canada will also include measurements of the intensity of natural remanent magnetization, and of bulk density. These techniques, measuring several physical properties non-destructively, show great promise for characterizing meteorites. References: [1] Kukkonen I.T. & Pesonen L.J. (1983) Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland 55: 157-177. [2] Terho M. et al. (1993) Studia geoph. et geod. 37: 65-82. [3] Rochette P. et al. (2001) Quaderni di Geofisica, 18, 30 p. [4] Rochette P. et al. (2003) Meteor. Planet. Sci. 2002, 38(2). [5] Smith D.L. et al. (2003) Abstract 1939, Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXIV. [6] Smith D.L. (2003). B.Sc. Thesis, Carleton U., Ottawa. [7] Sneed et al. (1988) Meteoritics. 23, 139-149. [8] Morden S.J & Collinson D.W. (1992) Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 109, 185-204. [9] Smith D.L. et al. (2003) Abstract 5275, Met. Soc. 66.

  18. 76 FR 8725 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Docket No. PR10-97-002. Transportation, L.L.C.. EasTrans, LLC Docket No. PR10-30-001. DCP Guadalupe Pipeline, LLC...... Docket No. PR10-31-002. DCP...

  19. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  20. 75 FR 47291 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings July 29, 2010. ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C Docket No. PR10-67-000. Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid-States Division Docket No. PR10-68-000. Magic Valley...