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Sample records for basic concepts underlying

  1. Unders and Overs: Using a Dice Game to Illustrate Basic Probability Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sandra Hanson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the dice game "Unders and Overs" is described and presented as an active learning exercise to introduce basic probability concepts. The implementation of the exercise is outlined and the resulting presentation of various probability concepts are described.

  2. Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Bardos, Achilles N.

    1990-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale, for use with preschool and primary-aged children, determines a child's school readiness and knowledge of English-language verbal concepts. The instrument measures 258 basic concepts in such categories as comparisons, time, quantity, and letter identification. This paper describes test administration, scoring and…

  3. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  4. Basic Concepts of Positional Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    This article describes and defines a number of basic concepts that are commonly used in archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, sometimes in particular ways, and attempts to clarify some of the issues of confusion that frequently arise. It is aimed primarily at archaeologists and ethnographers entering or exploring the field and emphasizes the broad principles that are generally of importance to them, while trying to avoid unnecessary complications as well as technical details. It is not aimed at those studying historical sources from antiquity onward, who need a more sophisticated knowledge of positional astronomy, mathematically formulated. Further detail can be found in a variety of sources, including a number aimed specifically at archaeoastronomers.

  5. Basic concepts in plasma accelerators.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Robert

    2006-03-15

    In this article, we present the underlying physics and the present status of high gradient and high-energy plasma accelerators. With the development of compact short pulse high-brightness lasers and electron and positron beams, new areas of studies for laser/particle beam-matter interactions is opening up. A number of methods are being pursued vigorously to achieve ultra-high-acceleration gradients. These include the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) mechanism which uses conventional long pulse ( approximately 100 ps) modest intensity lasers (I approximately 10(14)-10(16) W cm(-2)), the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) which uses the new breed of compact high-brightness lasers (<1 ps) and intensities >10(18) W cm(-2), self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SMLWFA) concept which combines elements of stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS) and electron acceleration by nonlinear plasma waves excited by relativistic electron and positron bunches the plasma wakefield accelerator. In the ultra-high intensity regime, laser/particle beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear and relativistic, leading to new phenomenon such as the plasma wakefield excitation for particle acceleration, relativistic self-focusing and guiding of laser beams, high-harmonic generation, acceleration of electrons, positrons, protons and photons. Fields greater than 1 GV cm(-1) have been generated with monoenergetic particle beams accelerated to about 100 MeV in millimetre distances recorded. Plasma wakefields driven by both electron and positron beams at the Stanford linear accelerator centre (SLAC) facility have accelerated the tail of the beams. PMID:16483948

  6. Basic Concept Acquisition in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNapoli, Nicholas Paul; And Others

    The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) (Boehm, 1971) was administered to 99 children (ages 7-10) who had been diagnosed as learning disabled and attended special schools in the New York area. It was hypothesized that the learning disabled children would exhibit a delay in the acquisition of the basic concepts, but would display a similar order of…

  7. Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small-group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing…

  8. Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication: Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Milton J., Ed.

    This collection of articles, with a developmental learning focus, explores the core building blocks of intercultural communication. The articles in the collection represent the theory-into-practice school of intercultural communication. The collection's goal is to present basic concepts from a variety of perspectives which, when taken together,…

  9. The Basic Concepts in Thomas Pynchon's "Gravity's Rainbow".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokhadze, Lali

    This paper uses passages from Thomas Pynchon's novel, "Gravity's Rainbow," to examine basic concepts, explaining that the process of identifying the basic word-concepts in literary texts is to some extent a tension between anticipation and unexpected frustration. The paper focuses on an interpretation of the basic concept "paranoia" from Pynchon's…

  10. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  11. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  12. The Basic Concepts of Contemporary Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydov, V. V.

    1988-01-01

    Presents chapter one of V. V. Davydov's 1986 monograph, "Problems of Developmental Teaching." Examines the dialectical-materialist sources of the psychological concept of activity; and activity, the mind, and consciousness. Building from Lev S. Vygotsky's work and within a Marxist-Leninist framework, explores relationships among education,…

  13. Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised. Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    1988-01-01

    The manual for the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (1986) is reviewed. The test measures a child's knowledge of relational concepts. The revised version, eliminating some imperfections of the original, will continue to be a useful test of verbal concept acquisition. Cautions necessary while using the test are discussed. (SLD)

  14. Measuring Knowledge of Basic Concepts By Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Gerald R.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A modification of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts for use with pre-kindergarten children is presented. Guidelines for administration, age norms and information on reliability and validity are provided. (Author)

  15. Basic concepts of kinematic-wave models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The kinematic-wave model is one of a number of approximations of the dynamic-wave model. The dynamic-wave model describes one-dimensional shallow-water waves (unsteady, gradually varied, open-channel flow). The report provides a basic reference on the theory and application of kinematic-wave models and describes the limitations of the model in relation to the other approximations of the dynamic-wave model. In the kinematic-wave approximation, a number of the terms in the equation of motion are assumed to be insignificant. The equation of motion is replaced by an equation describing uniform flow. Thus, the kinematic-wave model is described by the continuity equation and a uniform flow equation such as the well-known Chezy or Manning formulas. Kinematic-wave models are applicable to overland flow where lateral inflow is continuously added and is a large part of the total flow. For channel-routing applications, the kinematic-wave model always predicts a steeper wave with less dispersion and attenuation than actually occurs. The effect of the accumulation of errors in the kinematic-wave model shows that the approximations made in the development of the kinematic-wave equations are not generally justified for most channel-routing applications. Modified flow-routing models can be used which help to stop the accumulation of error that occurs when the kinematic-wave model is applied. (USGS)

  16. American and Chinese Children's Knowledge of Basic Relational Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    2001-01-01

    Three hundred Beijing students in kindergarten through second grade were given the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts Revised (BTBC-R) to determine whether lexical diversity and morphological complexity affect the rate of acquisition of languages and whether conceptual factors interact with linguistic differences in development of relational concepts.…

  17. Instruction in Basic Concepts and First-Grade Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moers, Fran; Harris, Jerry

    1978-01-01

    First-grade students were administered the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC), then given 15 weeks of instruction relevant to concepts for which corresponding BTBC items were most frequently missed. Improvements in mid-year and end-of-year BTBC performance did not occur, but a significant treatment effect did occur on the Stanford Achievement…

  18. Boehm Test of Basic Concepts--Preschool Version (Test Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radencich, Marguerite C.

    1989-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts--Preschool Version, a screening test which indicates school readiness and guides planning for language instruction. Concludes that the test can be useful in identifying children whose development of relational concepts may place them at risk for understanding teacher directions. (MM)

  19. Imploding plasma radiation sources: basic concepts. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Guillory, J.; Davis, J.

    1984-07-31

    This document is prepared as a briefing aid and technical primer for persons unfamiliar and uninitiated with the theory of imploding plasma radiation sources. It is hoped that it will prove helpful in introducing the basic physics concepts of these sources and in presenting these concepts to newcomers and potential users.

  20. Comparing Understanding of Programming Design Concepts Using Visual Basic and Traditional Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    A study of 89 computer programming students in two instructional groups found that those using Visual Basic (VB) mastered programming design concepts as well as those using traditional BASIC. Concludes that VB is an excellent choice for a first programming course (high school or university) emphasizing sequence, selection, iteration, variables,…

  1. Basic Concept Attainment of Educable Mentally Handicapped Children: Implications for Teaching Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. Brett; Cummings, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    The study investigated the basic concept attainment of 45 primary-level educable mentally handicapped (EMH) children who had been exposed to two to three years of classroom instruction. The study documented that primary-level EMH children have significant deficits in their understanding of the Boehm basic concepts. (SB)

  2. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

  3. Chinese and American Children's Knowledge of Basic Relational Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    This study compared the performance of 300 Chinese children on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBC-R) with that of American children from the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Subjects were in kindergarten, first, and second grade, and completed the test at the end of the 1996-97 school year. The focus of the comparison was to…

  4. In times of budget strain, look to basic staffing concepts.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, R D

    1991-09-01

    As healthcare providers tighten budgets, financial managers are seeking creative ways to run their patient accounting departments with fewer personnel. Implementing basic concepts that use limited assets--such as management and staff--can help a patient accounts manager do more with less. PMID:10114239

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  6. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya

    1987-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  7. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  8. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  9. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  10. Basic concepts in the processing of SARSAT signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T.; Carter, C. R.

    1987-03-01

    Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) involves the use of satellites in low-polar orbits which relay the emergency signals of distressed vehicles to an earth station for signal analysis. In this paper, some basic concepts and a theoretical analysis of the spectra produced by coherent and noncoherent emergency locator transmitter signals are presented. It is shown that coherent signals can be easily processed using linear spectral analysis. Noncoherent signals, however, require more advanced methods.

  11. Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Erin K; Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S

    2011-05-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing difficulties. Findings from studies have indicated that teachers lack essential knowledge needed to teach struggling readers, particularly children with dyslexia. However, few studies have sought to assess teachers' knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia in conjunction with knowledge of basic language concepts related to reading instruction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine elementary school teachers' knowledge of basic language concepts and their knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia. Findings from the present study indicated that teachers, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language concepts (i.e. syllable counting), but failed to demonstrate explicit knowledge of others (i.e. phonics principles). Also, teachers seemed to hold the common misconception that dyslexia is a visual processing deficit rather than phonological processing deficit. PMID:21290479

  12. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors. PMID:27322277

  13. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors. PMID:27322277

  14. A tutorial on information retrieval: basic terms and concepts

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Smalheiser, Neil R; Yu, Clement

    2006-01-01

    This informal tutorial is intended for investigators and students who would like to understand the workings of information retrieval systems, including the most frequently used search engines: PubMed and Google. Having a basic knowledge of the terms and concepts of information retrieval should improve the efficiency and productivity of searches. As well, this knowledge is needed in order to follow current research efforts in biomedical information retrieval and text mining that are developing new systems not only for finding documents on a given topic, but extracting and integrating knowledge across documents. PMID:16722601

  15. Basic Concepts in Early Childhood Educational Standards: A 50-State Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Crawford, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of basic concepts in early childhood educational standards is explored across all 50 US states. Concept inclusion in state standards is described in terms of the representation of the universe of basic concepts, representation of concept categories, the depth and breadth of individual concept inclusion, and unique examples.…

  16. Asymptotic analysis, Working Note No. 1: Basic concepts and definitions

    SciTech Connect

    Garbey, M.; Kaper, H.G.

    1993-07-01

    In this note we introduce the basic concepts of asymptotic analysis. After some comments of historical interest we begin by defining the order relations O, o, and O{sup {number_sign}}, which enable us to compare the asymptotic behavior of functions of a small positive parameter {epsilon} as {epsilon} {down_arrow} 0. Next, we introduce order functions, asymptotic sequences of order functions and more general gauge sets of order functions and define the concepts of an asymptotic approximation and an asymptotic expansion with respect to a given gauge set. This string of definitions culminates in the introduction of the concept of a regular asymptotic expansion, also known as a Poincare expansion, of a function f : (0, {epsilon}{sub o}) {yields} X, where X is a normed vector space of functions defined on a domain D {epsilon} R{sup N}. We conclude the note with the asymptotic analysis of an initial value problem whose solution is obtained in the form of a regular asymptotic expansion.

  17. Basic requirements in experiments under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yadunath; Shekhawat, M. S.; Suthar, Bhuvneshwer

    2016-05-01

    The basic requirement for the high pressure and temperature dependent measurements is reviewed in this article, mainly from an experimental aspect. After a brief description of the different types of high pressure cells, techniques for low and high-temperature measurements are presented.

  18. Initiating Young Children into Basic Astronomical Concepts and Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we developed and implemented three units of activities aiming at acquainting very young children with basic astronomical concepts and phenomena such as the sphericity of the earth, the earth’s movements and the day/night cycle. The activities were developed by a group composed of a researcher/facilitator and six early-years teachers. In the activities children were presented with appropriate for their age scientific information along with conceptual tools such as a globe and an instructional video. Action research processes were used to optimize classroom practices and to gather useful information for the final shaping of the activities and the instruction materials. In these activities the adopted approach to learning can be characterized as socially constructed. The results indicated awareness of concepts and phenomena that the activities dealt with in high percentages of children, storage of the new knowledge in the long term memory and easy retrieval of it, and children’s enthusiasm for the subject.

  19. A guided enquiry approach to introduce basic concepts concerning magnetic hysteresis to minimize student misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yajun; Zhai, Zhaohui; Gunnarsson, Klas; Svedlindh, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Basic concepts concerning magnetic hysteresis are of vital importance in understanding magnetic materials. However, these concepts are often misinterpreted by many students and even textbooks. We summarize the most common misconceptions and present a new approach to help clarify these misconceptions and enhance students’ understanding of the hysteresis loop. In this approach, students are required to perform an experiment and plot the measured magnetization values and thereby calculated demagnetizing field, internal field, and magnetic induction as functions of the applied field point by point on the same graph. The concepts of the various coercivity, remanence, saturation magnetization, and saturation induction will not be introduced until this stage. By plotting this graph, students are able to interlink all the preceding concepts and intuitively visualize the underlying physical relations between them.

  20. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed. PMID:24595212

  1. Artificial Intelligence: Underlying Assumptions and Basic Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Nick; McCalla, Gordon

    1984-01-01

    Presents perspectives on methodological assumptions underlying research efforts in artificial intelligence (AI) and charts activities, motivations, methods, and current status of research in each of the major AI subareas: natural language understanding; computer vision; expert systems; search, problem solving, planning; theorem proving and logic…

  2. Rate and Sequence of Positive and Negative Poles in Basic Concept Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-eight concepts from the Bracken Basic Concept Scale were paired, polarity (positive or negative) was assigned, and concept pairs were contrasted with 1,109 children ages three through seven to determine rate and sequence of polar concept acquisition. For 70 percent of the pairs the positive-pole concept was acquired before the negative-pole…

  3. Examining the Knowledge of Basic Concepts of Children Starting Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balat, Gulden Uyanik

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine the knowledge of basic concepts of children starting primary education. The sampling for the study is constituted by total 183 children, 89 girls and 94 boys. The knowledge about the concepts of the children making up the sampling was evaluated using Boehm's Test of Basic Concepts (Boehm-3). Moreover, the Family…

  4. Basic concepts for sample size calculation: Critical step for any clinical trials!

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, KK; Attri, JP; Singh, A; Kaur, H; Kaur, G

    2016-01-01

    Quality of clinical trials has improved steadily over last two decades, but certain areas in trial methodology still require special attention like in sample size calculation. The sample size is one of the basic steps in planning any clinical trial and any negligence in its calculation may lead to rejection of true findings and false results may get approval. Although statisticians play a major role in sample size estimation basic knowledge regarding sample size calculation is very sparse among most of the anesthesiologists related to research including under trainee doctors. In this review, we will discuss how important sample size calculation is for research studies and the effects of underestimation or overestimation of sample size on project's results. We have highlighted the basic concepts regarding various parameters needed to calculate the sample size along with examples. PMID:27375390

  5. [Basic concept for the inspection of imported foods].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    According to Article 4 of the Food Safety Basic Law (Law No. 48 of 2003), food safety must be ensured by taking necessary measures appropriately at each step of the food supply process both in Japan and overseas. From this viewpoint, for ensuring safety of imported foods further, the quarantine stations have obligations such as confirmation of the import-notification documents submitted under Article 27 of the Law, issue of inspection orders in accordance with Article 26 of the Law for imported foods suspected with high probability of violating the Act (in order to prevent harm to public health from the perspective of food sanitation), and implement of monitoring inspection under Article 28 of the Law to enforce checking of the food-sanitation conditions of various imported foods. If a quarantine station or local organization (including prefectures, cities and specially designated wards that operate public health centers) identify any violation of the Law, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (hereinafter referred to as "the MHLW"), the quarantine station and the related prefecture shall cooperate to take appropriate measures to help the corresponded importer recall the food as soon as possible. In addition, taking measures to prevent recurrence of such violations by demonstration of examples of violations and guidance to importers. Under the recent situation of accidents such as addition of toxic substances to the food, it is important to make continuous efforts for achieving food safety in exporting countries. With recognition that assurance of the safety of the consumer from foodborn illness, it is necessary for the MHLW, the Agency of Consumer Affaires, local governments and related offices to make active efforts together through risk evaluation, risk management and the risk communication for 1 while measuring the communication. PMID:21720129

  6. Visualization: a tool for enhancing students' concept images of basic object-oriented concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey including open-ended questions, which was administered to the participants. Follow-up interviews with 12 randomly selected students were conducted to explore their answers to the survey in depth. The results of the first part of the research were utilized to construct visualization scenarios. The students used these scenarios to develop animations using Flash software. The study found that most of the students experienced difficulties in learning object-oriented notions. Overdependence on code-writing practice and examples and incorrectly learned analogies were determined to be the sources of their difficulties. Moreover, visualization was found to be a promising approach in facilitating students' concept images of basic object-oriented notions. The results of this study have implications for researchers and practitioners when designing programming instruction.

  7. The Analysis of the Understanding Levels of Teacher Candidates in Different Departments about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durukan, Ümmü Gülsüm; Saglam-Arslan, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    Learners face a variety of concepts during the instructional process they experience. These concepts are mostly introduced by teachers; thus, the competences of teachers in terms of teaching concepts are vitally important. The aim of this study is to detect the understanding levels of teacher candidates about basic astronomy concepts. The method…

  8. Assessing Response to Basic Concept Instruction: Preliminary Evidence with Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Lisa M.; Schwarz, Ilsa

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that academic success is significantly related to word knowledge. Basic concept words are important because of their use in classroom directions and assessment instructions. It is important that educators assess a child's understanding of basic concept vocabulary at school entry. For children who demonstrate basic…

  9. Treatment Effectiveness of Large Group Basic Concept Instruction with Head Start Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Holly; Schwarz, Ilsa

    1991-01-01

    The study, with 57 children (ages 3-6) enrolled in 3 Head Start classes, demonstrated that short-term, large-group basic concept instruction combining direct instruction with interactive and incidental teaching techniques resulted in significantly improved scores on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised. (Author/DB)

  10. American and Chinese Children's Understanding of Basic Relational Concepts in Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred first- and second-grade Chinese children's knowledge of basic relational concepts in following directions was assessed on the "Applications Booklet" of the "Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised" (BTBC-R, 1986). Chinese children's performance was then compared with that of the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Results indicated that…

  11. Analyzing the Relationship between Learning Styles and Basic Concept Knowledge Level of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balat, Gülden Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…

  12. Conducting polymer actuators: From basic concepts to proprioceptive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades of motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. Here bilayer full polymeric artificial muscles were checked up to very high cathodic potential limits (-2.5 V) in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical driven exchange of ions from the conducting polymer film, and the concomitant Faradaic bending movement of the muscle, takes place in the full studied potential range. The presence of trapped counterion after deep reduction was corroborated by EDX determinations giving quite high electronic conductivity to the device. The large bending movement was used as a tool to quantify the amount of water exchanged per reaction unit (exchanged electron or ion). The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers, during its oxidation/reduction senses working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables. The evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials such as intrinsically conducting polymers and driven by constant currents senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the

  13. Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale and Bracken Concept Development Program in the Assessment and Remediation of Young Children's Concept Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Panter, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a historical description of and research related to the development, validation, and combined use of the multiple editions of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale and its companion curriculum, the Bracken Concept Development Program. In tandem, the scale and curriculum were designed to assess and teach more than 300 basic language…

  14. Acquisition of Basic Computer Programming Concepts by Children. Technical Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachmias, Rafi; And Others

    The process through which the basic principles and concepts of computer programming language are acquired by children was investigated via the development and testing of a teaching unit for fourth and sixth grade students. This unit had three components: (1) basic programming without variables; (2) basic programming with variables; and (3)…

  15. [Significance of basic concepts in depth psychology for psychosomatics].

    PubMed

    Barz, H

    1984-12-01

    The concept of "the unconscious" is considered the central concept of depth psychology. While the unconscious in Freud's conception consists essentially of repressed material and through conversion can result in psychosomatic illnesses, C. G. Jung saw in the "collective unconscious", which he discovered, the source of all psychic and spiritual development. Mediation between the collective unconscious and the conscious is effected by means of the "archetypes", whose function can be compared with the instincts. Archetypes are manifested through symbols, whose assimilation by consciousness is a prerequisite for psychic and physical health. Consideration of the archetype of the physician suggests that the grounding of medical science in depth psychology would modify not only our understanding of illnesses, but also the physician's understanding of himself. PMID:6515375

  16. Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education: Basic Concepts and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat; Kertil, Mahmut; Çetinkaya, Bülent; Çakiroglu, Erdinç; Alacaci, Cengiz; Bas, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and its role in mathematics education have been receiving increasing attention in Turkey, as in many other countries. The growing body of literature on this topic reveals a variety of approaches to mathematical modeling and related concepts, along with differing perspectives on the use of mathematical modeling in teaching and…

  17. Notes from National Assessment: Basic Concepts of Area and Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Thomas P.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Results of National Assessment problems on area are used to highlight the difficulties elementary students have with area and volume concepts. Recommendations for instruction include the provision for substantial practice with coverings before the introduction of computational short-cuts. (SD) Aspect of National Assessment (NAEP) dealt with in…

  18. The Relationship between Lexicon Rankings and Item Difficulty on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) indicated that all subtests except two (Quantity and Time) showed statistically significant correlations between item difficulty and frequency of concept words. Administration of the BBCS to 36 first graders revealed that most concept words showed expected item discrimination indices. (Author/JDD)

  19. Auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Weltcurriculum? Zum Grundbildungskonzept von PISA und der Aufgabenzuweisung an die Schule (Towards a World Curriculum? -- The Concept of Basic Education (Literacy) underlying PISA and the tasks allocated to Schooling).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Hans-Werner

    2003-01-01

    Recognizes that the debate on the Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) has been dominated by comparisons of the ranks achieved and by the question of the consequences to be drawn from the results. Discusses the educational concept forming the basis for the investigation and aims of PISA. (CAJ)

  20. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  1. Concept Systems and Ontologies: Recommendations for Basic Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gunnar O.; Smith, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Summary This essay concerns the problems surrounding the use of the term “concept” in current ontology and terminology research. It is based on the constructive dialogue between realist ontology on the one hand and the world of formal standardization of health informatics on the other, but its conclusions are not restricted to the domain of medicine. The term “concept” is one of the most misused even in literature and technical standards which attempt to bring clarity. In this paper we propose to use the term “concept” in the context of producing defined professional terminologies with one specific and consistent meaning which we propose for adoption as the agreed meaning of the term in future terminological research, and specifically in the development of formal terminologies to be used in computer systems. We also discuss and propose new definitions of a set of cognate terms. We describe the relations governing the realm of concepts, and compare these to the richer and more complex set of relations obtaining between entities in the real world. On this basis we also summarize an associated terminology for ontologies as representations of the real world and a partial mapping between the world of concepts and the world of reality. PMID:21308002

  2. Basic concept of a holonically object-oriented system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    1999-08-01

    Here introduces a concept of Holonically Object Oriented System. Nowadays there are many much more complicated things than before in this world, waited to be controlled intelligently for getting a goods' production rate better at a factory or getting things clearer in a complex system or getting a help in a sense of analyzing a system, etc. For having these things accomplished, we have tried to understand the target system to be controlled clearly, accurately, and precisely. After having got these information, it is ready to control for many purposes. But usually this method gives us further complexed problems, more time consuming because of the size of a system, gives us comparatively lower robustness. These can be caused by a lack of a flexibility against a sudden change of a system's behavior, giving too much redundant attention to a system, and lack of intelligence. So in order to overcome these problems, here introduces the concept of Holonically Object Oriented System which consists of a holarchy which behaves as a whole as well as a subordinate. And this behavior helps to interpret a huge organization into a system which is flexible, raising a production rate, and high adaptability to changes.

  3. [On the basic concepts and contents of ecological security].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Duning; Chen, Wenbo

    2002-03-01

    Security is the inverse function of risk, generally regarded as safeguard degree expectation state of assessment object or reliability of prevent imperfect and uncertainty event to happen. Ecological security can defined as mankind's ensure degree un-effected by ecological destroy and environmental pollution in yield, living and health, including basic element of water and food security, air quality and green environment. The mostly content of ecological security consists of ecological health diagnosis, regional ecological risk analysis, landscape security pattern, ecological security monitoring and prediction, and ecological security management and guarantee etc. Study on regional ecological security has characteristics of macro-scope and pertinence, assessment criterion of relativity and expansibility. Ecological security prediction and design should embody the capability of human activity. At last, authors discuss the measures of the ecological security ensure of inland watershed and ecological security analysis of oasis landscape. PMID:12132171

  4. Drug Management of Visceral Pain: Concepts from Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar P.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral pain is experienced by 40% of the population, and 28% of cancer patients suffer from pain arising from intra- abdominal metastasis or from treatment. Neuroanatomy of visceral nociception and neurotransmitters, receptors, and ion channels that modulate visceral pain are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those that modulate somatic and neuropathic pain. Visceral pain should be recognized as distinct pain phenotype. TRPV1, Na 1.8, and ASIC3 ion channels and peripheral kappa opioid receptors are important mediators of visceral pain. Mu agonists, gabapentinoids, and GABAB agonists reduce pain by binding to central receptors and channels. Combinations of analgesics and adjuvants in animal models have supra-additive antinociception and should be considered in clinical trials. This paper will discuss the neuroanatomy, receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitters important to visceral pain and provide a basic science rationale for analgesic trials and management. PMID:22619712

  5. Basic concepts of inflammation and its role in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maher, Stephen G; Reynolds, John V

    2011-01-01

    While the normal inflammatory cascade is self-limiting and crucial for host protection against invading pathogens and in the repair of damaged tissue, a wealth of evidence suggests that chronic inflammation is the engine driving carcinogenesis. Over a period of almost 150 years the link between inflammation and cancer development has been well established. In this chapter we discuss the fundamental concepts and mechanisms behind normal inflammation as it pertains to wound healing. We further discuss the association of inflammation and its role in carcinogenesis, highlighting the different stages of cancer development, namely tumour initiation, promotion and progression. With both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system being central to the inflammatory process, we examine the role of a number of immune effectors in contributing to the carcinogenic process. In addition, we highlight the influences of host genetics in altering cancer risk. PMID:21822817

  6. The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Exploring the Test Results for Cognitive Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Cecile C.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of errors by more than 300 kindergarten children on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts suggested seven cognitive factors that appear to be involved, including complexity of directions, deficits in spatial perception, and inadequate auditory memory for sentences. (CL)

  7. Relationship of the Gesell Developmental Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale to Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)

  8. Spinal fusion-hardware construct: Basic concepts and imaging review

    PubMed Central

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of spinal images fixed with metallic hardware forms an increasing bulk of daily practice in a busy imaging department. Radiologists are required to be familiar with the instrumentation and operative options used in spinal fixation and fusion procedures, especially in his or her institute. This is critical in evaluating the position of implants and potential complications associated with the operative approaches and spinal fixation devices used. Thus, the radiologist can play an important role in patient care and outcome. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used imaging methods and reports on the best yield for each modality and how to overcome the problematic issues associated with the presence of metallic hardware during imaging. Baseline radiographs are essential as they are the baseline point for evaluation of future studies should patients develop symptoms suggesting possible complications. They may justify further imaging workup with computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or nuclear medicine studies as the evaluation of a patient with a spinal implant involves a multi-modality approach. This review describes imaging features of potential complications associated with spinal fusion surgery as well as the instrumentation used. This basic knowledge aims to help radiologists approach everyday practice in clinical imaging. PMID:22761979

  9. Introduction to Flexoelectricity:. Its Discovery and Basic Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Robert B.

    2013-09-01

    Flexoelectricity - what is it? How does it arise in liquid crystals? What are its consequences? What role does it play in liquid crystal phases, structures, and textures? How is it measured? What is its role, both realized and potential, in applications of liquid crystals? How was it discovered and what is its history in the context of the development of liquid crystal science and technology in the last 50 years? The name flexoelectricity clearly indicates the dual role of curvature distortions and electrical effects in liquid crystals, but just how are these two fundamental sets of concepts related by this phenomenon? This book attempts to lay out the answers to these questions, with a combination of broad reviews and focused insights into the role of flexoelectricity in the science and technology of liquid crystals. In this introduction there is first a little informal review of history along with some general comments on the fundamentals and the special challenges presented by this phenomenon, and then there is a brief sketch of the chapters of this book...

  10. EEG Monitoring in Cerebral Ischemia: Basic Concepts and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Michel J A M; Hofmeijer, Jeannette

    2016-06-01

    EEG is very sensitive to changes in neuronal function resulting from ischemia. The authors briefly review essentials of EEG generation and the effects of ischemia on the underlying neuronal processes. They discuss the differential sensitivity of various neuronal processes to energy limitations, including synaptic disturbances. The clinical applications reviewed include continuous EEG monitoring during carotid surgery and acute ischemic stroke, and EEG monitoring for prognostication after cardiac arrest. PMID:27258443

  11. The Validity of the "Boehm Test of Basic Concepts" in Predicting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinger, Clarice K.

    To determine the validity of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts in predicting reading achievement as measured by the reading scores of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, the Boehm test was given to 55 kindergarten children and the Iowa test was given to 42 of the same children in second grade. The results indiciated that the Boehm test appeared to be of…

  12. A Comparison Of Urban And Rural Reliability Estimates For The Boehm Basic Concept Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houch, Cherry K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This study determined reliability of the Boehm Basic Concept Test (designed to assist the primary teacher assess basic conceptual knowledge) for rural kindergarten and first grade children. They found the rural reliability to be less than that reported for urban samples especially for middle and upper class children. The reduced reliability was…

  13. Predictive Validity of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts for Achievement in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Gary D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The relation between performance on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) and achievement in first grade was examined. The correlation between the BTBC and the Stanford Achievement Test was significant. The findings support Boehm's assertation that mastery of the concepts is related to achievement in the primary grades. (Author/JKS)

  14. Look Around You. A Primary Student Activity Book Introducing Basic Environmental Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Sharon

    This activity book, designed for student use, introduces environmental concepts to the primary student. The basic concept around which the guide is developed is the idea that the environment contains many interdependent things. Water, wind, clouds, non-living objects, plants, animals, and pollution are dealt with as part of the primary student's…

  15. Adiabatic invariants in stellar dynamics. 1: Basic concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    The adiabatic criterion, widely used in astronomical dynamics, is based on the harmonic oscillator. It asserts that the change in action under a slowly varying perturbation is exponentially small. Recent mathematical results that precisely define the conditions for invariance show that this model does not apply in general. In particular, a slowly varying perturbation may cause significant evolution stellar dynamical systems even if its time scale is longer than any internal orbital time scale. This additional 'heating' may have serious implications for the evolution of star clusters and dwarf galaxies which are subject to long-term environmental forces. The mathematical developments leading to these results are reviewed, and the conditions for applicability to and further implications for stellar systems are discussed. Companion papers present a computational method for a general time-dependent disturbance and detailed example.

  16. Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts Basic Plasma Science

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton D. Schnack

    2002-12-09

    This is the final report for contract DE-FG03-99ER54528, ''Computational Support for Alternative Confinement Concepts''. Progress was made in the following areas of investigation: (1) Extensive studies of the confinement properties of conventional Reversed-field Pinch (RFP) configurations (i.e., without current profile control) were performed in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. These studies were carried out using the full 3-dimensional, finite-{beta}, resistive MHD model in the DEBS code, including ohmic heating and anisotropic heat conduction, and thus for the first time included the self-consistent effects of the dynamo magnetic fluctuations on the confinement properties of the RFP. By using multi-variant regression analysis of these results, scaling laws for various properties characterizing the conventional RFP were obtained. In particular, it was found that the, for constant ratio of I/N (where I is the current and N = na{sup 2} is the line density), and over a range of Lundquist numbers S that approaches 10{sup 6}, the fluctuations scale as {delta}B/B {approx} S{sup -0.14}, the temperature scales as T {approx} I{sup 0.56}, the poloidal beta scales as {beta}{sub {theta}} {approx} I{sup -0.4}, and the energy confinement time scales as {tau}{sub E} {approx} I{sup 0.34}. The degradation of poloidal beta with current is a result of the weak scaling of the fluctuation level with the Lundquist number, and leads to the unfavorable scaling laws for temperature and energy confinement time. These results compare reasonably well with experimental data, and emphasize the need for external control of the dynamo fluctuations in the RFP. (2) Studies of feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes in the RFP were performed with the DEBS code in collaboration with the CNR/RFX group in Padua, Italy. The ideal growth rates are ''passively'' reduced by the presence of a resistive wall within the radius for perfectly conducting

  17. Chemie im Kontext: Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Gräsel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-09-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical concepts from issues relevant to the learners, starting with the learners' ideas and questions. The teaching methodology of the course builds strongly on self-directed and cooperative forms of learning activities in the classroom. Currently, a large implementation program is under way with working groups of teachers in 14 of the 16 federal states (Bundesländer) in Germany. This program combines the development of teaching units, their implementation in schools, and the professional development of teachers. Now in its third year, the project has yielded positive results and funds for continuation have been granted.

  18. Visualization: A Tool for Enhancing Students' Concept Images of Basic Object-Oriented Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey…

  19. A Cross-Age Study of Junior High School Students' Conceptions of Basic Astronomy Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes junior high school students' astronomy conceptions by means of a written questionnaire and delineates the main findings. Focuses on the effect on climate of the relative positions of the earth, moon and sun. (Contains 41 references.) (DDR)

  20. Examination of the Film "My Father and My Son" According to the Basic Concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin; Voltan-Acar, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic concepts of multigenerational Family Therapy and to evaluate the scenes of the film ''My Father and My Son'' according to these concepts. For these purposes firstly basic concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy such as differentiation of self, triangles/triangulation, nuclear…

  1. Social Class Differences on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Are They Due to Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Applied an internal criteria for the detection of bias to standardization data for the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts. Despite sizable social class differences in mean scores, differences in rank orders of item difficulties were negligible. There was little evidence of test bias. (Author)

  2. Sex Differences and Sex Bias on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: Do They Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered form A of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) to kindergartners (N=180). Neither mean scores nor standard deviations differed significantly, and boys and girls had identical score distributions. Internal criteria for bias yielded totally negative results, showing no evidence of sex differences or sex bias. (Author/WAS)

  3. Reliability of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts for Hispanic and Nonhispanic Kindergarten Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The internal consistency reliability of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) was examined for 40 Hispanic and 40 non-Hispanic kindergarten pupils in the Southwest. Subscale and total scale reliabilities appeared to be comparable. This evidence support the reliability of the BTBC for Hispanic and non-Hispanic kindergarten pupils. (Author)

  4. Stability and Predictive Validity of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised among Black Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glutting, Joseph J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined stability and predictive validity of Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (Boehm-R). Administered Boehm-R to 58 Black urban kindergartners in fall. In spring, children were reevaluated on Boehm-R, 2 criteria of academic achievement and 2 criteria of learning-related classroom behavior. Results showed appreciable test-retest reliability…

  5. PBCB: A Norming of the Spanish Translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Prueba Boehm de Conceptos Basicos (PBCB), a Spanish translation of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, was administered to 1,292 children in Puerto Rico. Normative information, reported by type of school, by grade, and by time of year tested is presented. The reliability of PBCB was established. (BH)

  6. The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts: A Three-Dimensional Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Ruth L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) test, comparable to twenty-five items from the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, constructed to determine whether 3-D stimuli would facilitate responses when compared to two dimensional (2-D) stimuli, revealed no significant effects for the version of the test (2-D or 3-D) or the order of administration. (MB)

  7. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Martha C.

    The concurrent validity of the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) was investigated by comparing it to two tests of linguistic abilities (Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language--TACL--and the Carrow Elicited Language Inventory--CELI) and five Piagetian tests of cognitive abilities (space, numeration, seriation, time, and classification) with…

  8. Introduction to Probability, Part 1 - Basic Concepts. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeslee, David W.; And Others

    This book is designed to introduce the reader to some fundamental ideas about probability. The mathematical theory of probability plays an increasingly important role in science, government, industry, business, and economics. An understanding of the basic concepts of probability is essential for the study of statistical methods that are widely…

  9. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  10. Teaching Two Basic Nanotechnology Concepts in Secondary School by Using a Variety of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2012-01-01

    A nanotechnology module was developed for ninth grade students in the context of teaching chemistry. Two basic concepts in nanotechnology were chosen: (1) size and scale and (2) surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). A wide spectrum of instructional methods (e.g., game-based learning, learning with multimedia, learning with models, project based…

  11. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  12. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  13. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  14. The Effectiveness of Programed Instruction Versus the Lecture-Discussion Method of Teaching Basic Metallurgical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockman, David Carl

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional lecture-discussion method and an illustrated programed textbook method when teaching a unit of instruction on the basic concepts of metallurgy. The control group used a portion of a conventional textbook accompanied by lecture, chalkboard illustration, and class discussion. The experimental…

  15. After Almost Half-Century Landing on the Moon and Still Countering Basic Astronomy Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the fifth graders' understandings of the basic astronomy concept and, if they have, to define their misconceptions and then to determine what reason/s behind them. For this purpose, two hundred seventy fifth grade students from 6 different schools participated. Randomly selected 45 students performing under…

  16. Performance of Black and White Children on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Administered Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to 114 matched pairs of Black and White children. Scores of White children were nearly identical with national average while Black children scored approximately one-half standard deviation below their White counterparts. Blacks and Whites showed similar performance patterns on BBCS subtests,…

  17. Multinational Validation of the Spanish Bracken Basic Concept Scale for Cross-Cultural Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Spanish translation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) in Latino children (n=293) including monolingual Spanish-speaking children from Puerto Rico and Venezuela and Spanish-dominant bilingual Latino children from Texas. Results provided support for construct validity of the Spanish version of the…

  18. Concurrent Validity of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale with Language and Intelligence Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyner, Paula M. Pecyna; Bracken, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of results obtained for 62 normally developing preschool children on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, the Preschool Language Scale, and the Slosson Intelligence Test revealed low to moderate correlations between the three tests. Results suggest the tests do not measure the same abilities and thus cannot be used interchangeably. (DB)

  19. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    PubMed

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline. PMID:22765213

  20. Three Short Films about Water: Presenting Basic Concepts to Students and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Michel, A.; Wilde, P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2011-12-01

    Three short form (3 - 5 minute) movies were produced for CUAHSI, to convey basic concepts such as a hydrologic budget, stores and fluxes of water, and the flowpaths and residence time of water. The films were originally intended to be used by scientists to explain the concepts behind potential environmental observatories, but evolved into serving a broader purpose. The films combine still photos, satellite images, animation and video clips, and interviews with CUAHSI members explaining hydrologic concepts in simple, accessible terms. In producing these films, we have found the importance of engaging scientists in conversation first, to develop a script around key accessible concepts and relevant information. Film and communication professionals play a critical role in distilling the scientific explanation and concepts into accessible, engaging film material. The films have been widely distributed through CD and online to educators for use in courses. Additionally, they provide a way to engage stakeholders, particularly land owners, by conveying basic concepts that are necessary to understand the hydrologic and earth science foundation of many of today's political and environmental issues. The films can be viewed online at the CUAHSI website, which also contains links to other film related resources and programs.

  1. The Development of Three Spatial Concepts: In, On, Under.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Roberta; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two cognitive tasks (construction of space and recognition of space) were developed to test the emergence of three spatial concepts ("in", "on", and "under"). Subjects were 60 Israeli children between 18 and 30 months of age. Scalogram analysis and analysis of variance confirmed that "in" concepts developed earlier than "on" concepts; "on"…

  2. Atmospheric transport modelling in support of CTBT verification—overview and basic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; De Geer, Lars-Erik; Denier, Philippe; Kalinowski, Martin; Toivonen, Harri; D'Amours, Real; Desiato, Franco; Issartel, Jean-Pierre; Langer, Matthias; Seibert, Petra; Frank, Andreas; Sloan, Craig; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    Under the provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a global monitoring system comprising different verification technologies is currently being set up. The network will include 80 radionuclide (RN) stations distributed all over the globe that measure treaty-relevant radioactive species. While the seismic subsystem cannot distinguish between chemical and nuclear explosions, RN monitoring would provide the "smoking gun" of a possible treaty violation. Atmospheric transport modelling (ATM) will be an integral part of CTBT verification, since it provides a geo-temporal location capability for the RN technology. In this paper, the basic concept for the future ATM software system to be installed at the International Data Centre is laid out. The system is based on the operational computation of multi-dimensional source-receptor sensitivity fields for all RN samples by means of adjoint tracer transport modelling. While the source-receptor matrix methodology has already been applied in the past, the system that we suggest will be unique and unprecedented, since it is global, real-time and aims at uncovering source scenarios that are compatible with measurements. Furthermore, it has to deal with source dilution ratios that are by orders of magnitude larger than in typical transport model applications. This new verification software will need continuous scientific attention, and may well provide a prototype system for future applications in areas of environmental monitoring, emergency response and verification of other international agreements and treaties.

  3. Revisiting the Basic Symptom Concept: Toward Translating Risk Symptoms for Psychosis into Neurobiological Targets

    PubMed Central

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Debbané, Martin; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Wood, Stephen J.; Raballo, Andrea; Michel, Chantal; Schmidt, Stefanie J.; Kindler, Jochen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In its initial formulation, the concept of basic symptoms (BSs) integrated findings on the early symptomatic course of schizophrenia and first in vivo evidence of accompanying brain aberrations. It argued that the subtle subclinical disturbances in mental processes described as BSs were the most direct self-experienced expression of the underlying neurobiological aberrations of the disease. Other characteristic symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions and hallucinations) were conceptualized as secondary phenomena, resulting from dysfunctional beliefs and suboptimal coping styles with emerging BSs and/or concomitant stressors. While BSs can occur in many mental disorders, in particular affective disorders, a subset of perceptive and cognitive BSs appear to be specific to psychosis and are currently employed in two alternative risk criteria. However, despite their clinical recognition in the early detection of psychosis, neurobiological research on the aetiopathology of psychosis with neuroimaging methods has only just begun to consider the neural correlate of BSs. This perspective paper reviews the emerging evidence of an association between BSs and aberrant brain activation, connectivity patterns, and metabolism, and outlines promising routes for the use of BSs in aetiopathological research on psychosis. PMID:26858660

  4. Basic Concepts in the Methodology of the Social Sciences. HSRC Studies in Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Johann, Ed.; Marais, H. C.

    Considerations of validity that are central to all disciplines in the social sciences are discussed, and concepts that are an essential part of the intellectual equipment of the social sciences researcher are systematically analyzed. Fundamental methodological concepts underlying decisions made in the research process are highlighted to encourage…

  5. The etymology of basic concepts in the experimental analysis of behavior.

    PubMed

    Dinsmoor, James A

    2004-11-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his data on the rate of lever pressing in the rat (e.g., operant conditioning, conditioned reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and response induction and differentiation) and key pecking in the pigeon (shaping). The concept of drive, however, has largely disappeared from the current literature. PMID:15693525

  6. On basic conditions to generate multi-adjoint concept lattices via Galois connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Moreno, J. C.; Medina, J.; Ojeda-Aciego, M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces sufficient and necessary conditions with respect to the fuzzy operators considered in a multi-adjoint frame under which the standard combinations of multi-adjoint sufficiency, possibility, and necessity operators form (antitone or isotone) Galois connections. The underlying idea is to study the minimal algebraic requirements so that the concept-forming operators (defined using the same syntactical form than the extension and intension operators of multi-adjoint concept lattices) form a Galois connection. As a consequence, given a relational database, we have much more possibilities to construct concept lattices associated with it, so that we can choose the specific version which better suits the situation.

  7. Crystallo-optic diagnostics of biological fluids: basic concepts and information potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintz, Rafail I.; Berg, Dmitri B.

    1997-05-01

    The basic concepts of biofluids crystallooptic diagnostics (COD) are described: crystallization texture reflects the complex of biofluid physical and chemical properties. The informational potential of COD is discussed. Combining of COD with the modern computer technologies transfer this technique into the category of intellectual prompts which supply the standardization of analysis and understanding of images and are able to complete the modern tomography techniques in future.

  8. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part I, A Framework for Teaching Economics: Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, W. Lee; And Others

    A concise framework of basic concepts and generalizations for teaching economics for K-12 students is presented. The guide summarizes the basic structure and substance of economics and lists and describes economic concepts. Standard guidelines are provided to help school systems integrate economics into their on-going courses of study. Designed to…

  9. Factorial Validity of Item Classification on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC), Forms A and B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersel, Wayne C.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    1981-01-01

    Boehm's classification of test items on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC) was examined from a factor analytic perspective. A single, general factor related to the acquisition of basic verbal concepts best described the instrument. This factor was constant across the two forms of the BTBC. (Author/GK)

  10. The Development and Evaluation of a Tactile Analog to the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Form A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Hilda

    1977-01-01

    The Tactile Test of Basic Concepts (TTBC), a tactile analog to the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts (BTBC), was field tested with 75 blind students (kindergarten to grade 2) and the scores compared with those of sighted Ss used in the standardization sample for the BTBC. (Author/IM)

  11. Multidimensional Generalized Functions in Aeroacoustics and Fluid Mechanics. Part 1; Basic Concepts and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.

  12. 34 CFR 403.61 - What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the basic programs? 403.61 Section 403.61 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... the Basic Programs? General § 403.61 What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs? Projects, services, and activities described in §§ 403.70, 403.71, 403.81, 403.91,...

  13. Using the Correlation Dimension for Vibration Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Element BEARINGS—I. Basic Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, David; Mathew, Joseph

    1996-05-01

    There is a wide variety of condition monitoring techniques currently in use for the diagnosis and prediction of machinery faults, but little attention has been paid to the occurrence and detection of chaotic behaviour in time series vibration signals. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of chaos theory, then details a method for quantifying a fractal dimension from a time series, the correlation dimension. Some of the practical difficulties encountered in measuring the correlation dimension from the correlation integral algorithm are also outlined. Finally, some experimental results from a rolling element bearing test rig are presented.

  14. Reflections on the concept of basic needs and primary health care.

    PubMed

    Quenum, C A

    1981-01-01

    The notion or concept of need has different meanings according to the individual groups or ages to which it is applied. A need is something which man subjectively feels an urge to satisfy. Basic or primary needs are the minimum vital requirements which must be met to ensure dignified human existence. Basic needs relate both to individuals and communities. Although the needs of individuals and communities are contingent, they are not necessarily in harmony. One of the principal goals of socioeconomic development in general and health care development in particular is the satisfaction of the basic needs of the greatest number of people. Growth-oriented strategies have so far failed to reduce inequalities and physical, mental, and social destitution. Development strategies focusing on basic needs must: 1) eliminate social inequalities; 2) include coherent programs of activities relating to basic needs; and 3) undergo radical structural changes (a social revolution in community health). Promotion of health care for the most underprivileged segments of society necessitate: 1) production of goods necessary for the satisfaction of basic needs such as building materials or essential medicines; 2) construction of country roads; and 3) development of programs of rural health, water supply, literacy, and housing. Primary health care is essential care which is fundamental to basic needs. Policies, strategies, and plans of action should be formulated in order to develop primary health care. An excellent means of implementing primary health care is the choice of appropriate technology for health care. Choosing the appropriate technology for development entails finding the right balance between labor-intensive and capital-intensive technology; it should be the result of combining knowledge and practices which help improve the physical, mental, and social well-being of individuals, families, and communities. In most rural populations of the world, infections and epidemic and

  15. Basic Demography of Caenorhabditis remanei Cultured under Standard Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Jan; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    Species of the Caenorhabditis genus have been used as model systems in genetics and molecular research for more than 30 years. Despite this, basic information about their demography, in the wild and in the lab, has remained unknown until very recently. Here, we provide for the first time a closely quantified life-cycle of the gonochoristic nematode C. remanei. Using C. elegans protocols, modified for an outcrossing nematode, we estimated the basic demography for individuals of two strains (JU724 and MY12-G) which were recently isolated from the wild. We used a half-sib breeding design to estimate the phenotypic variance of traits of related (within line) and unrelated individuals (between lines) of the two strains cultured in a common environment in the lab. Comparisons between these strains showed that JU724 was characterized by significantly lower overall lifetime fecundity and by differences in age-specific fecundity relative to MY12-G, but there were no differences in their life expectancy and reproductive lifespan. We found high phenotypic variance among all traits. The variance within lines was relatively high compared to the low variation between lines. We suggest this could be the result of high gene flow in these wild-type strains. Finally, comparisons between species suggest that, despite the differences in reproductive strategies (i.e., sex ratios, lifetime fecundity), C. remanei has developmental time similar to the hermaphroditic N2 strain of C. elegans. PMID:19440256

  16. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  17. Nonparametric statistical tests for the continuous data: the basic concept and the practical use.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2016-02-01

    Conventional statistical tests are usually called parametric tests. Parametric tests are used more frequently than nonparametric tests in many medical articles, because most of the medical researchers are familiar with and the statistical software packages strongly support parametric tests. Parametric tests require important assumption; assumption of normality which means that distribution of sample means is normally distributed. However, parametric test can be misleading when this assumption is not satisfied. In this circumstance, nonparametric tests are the alternative methods available, because they do not required the normality assumption. Nonparametric tests are the statistical methods based on signs and ranks. In this article, we will discuss about the basic concepts and practical use of nonparametric tests for the guide to the proper use. PMID:26885295

  18. Basic concepts of quantum interference and electron transport in single-molecule electronics.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C J

    2015-02-21

    This tutorial outlines the basic theoretical concepts and tools which underpin the fundamentals of phase-coherent electron transport through single molecules. The key quantity of interest is the transmission coefficient T(E), which yields the electrical conductance, current-voltage relations, the thermopower S and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of single-molecule devices. Since T(E) is strongly affected by quantum interference (QI), three manifestations of QI in single-molecules are discussed, namely Mach-Zehnder interferometry, Breit-Wigner resonances and Fano resonances. A simple MATLAB code is provided, which allows the novice reader to explore QI in multi-branched structures described by a tight-binding (Hückel) Hamiltonian. More generally, the strengths and limitations of materials-specific transport modelling based on density functional theory are discussed. PMID:25255961

  19. Nonparametric statistical tests for the continuous data: the basic concept and the practical use

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conventional statistical tests are usually called parametric tests. Parametric tests are used more frequently than nonparametric tests in many medical articles, because most of the medical researchers are familiar with and the statistical software packages strongly support parametric tests. Parametric tests require important assumption; assumption of normality which means that distribution of sample means is normally distributed. However, parametric test can be misleading when this assumption is not satisfied. In this circumstance, nonparametric tests are the alternative methods available, because they do not required the normality assumption. Nonparametric tests are the statistical methods based on signs and ranks. In this article, we will discuss about the basic concepts and practical use of nonparametric tests for the guide to the proper use. PMID:26885295

  20. Diagnostic questionnaire of astronomy's basic concepts per integrated high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Barbosa, J. I.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Related themes to the study of astronomy permeates almost for all levels of education adopted in Brazil, however, this subject is not a specific discipline part of basic education curriculum, in other words, its contents are distributed in the subjects of Natural Sciences, Geography and Physics. This work presents a questionnaire diagnosis comprises a total of thirteen questions, which was applied to integrated high school students from four campuses of the Federal Institute of Alagoas - IFAL, and its purpose is to investigate the knowledge of these students astronomical basic concepts. The method used was survey and a total of 653 questionnaires were answered, 267 in the 1st year, 219 in 2nd year, and 167 in the 3rd year. This research is ongoing, however it can be initially noted that in ten questions the students of 1st year were below average (ie 50%), students of 2nd year fall short of this note in eight questions, and the students of the 3rd year, have not reached this note in five questions.

  1. 48 CFR 53.216-1 - Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). 53.216-1 Section 53.216-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). OF 347, Order for Supplies or Services. OF 347, prescribed in 53.213(f), (or an approved agency form) may be used to place orders...

  2. 5 CFR 536.206 - Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention. 536.206 Section 536.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.206 Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention....

  3. Basic concepts for the linear model of ground water level recession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Basic concepts are illustrated for the display of ground water level recession as a linear plot on a semilog graph, as first described by Rorabaugh. This exponential decay function can be achieved if there is a definable outflow boundary such as a lake or river and if water levels are expressed relative to the altitude of the boundary. The model can be used to estimate aquifer hydraulic diffusivity. Concepts are illustrated using three finite-difference simulations. One represents the ideal case as described by Rorabaugh, in which the altitude of the outflow boundary is uniform along its length. Another simulation includes a sloping boundary with simple geometry and demonstrates that the model can be used accurately. Based on this simulation, it appears that the ground water level must be expressed relative to the closest point on the outflow boundary. The third simulation includes a sloping boundary and complex boundary shape, and demonstrates departures from the linear model of recession and errors in the estimate of hydraulic diffusivity. Another cause of nonlinearity is the instability of the ground water head profile soon after a recharge event. The nature of these early-time departures will vary depending on the location of the water level observation site relative to the outflow boundary and the hydrologic divide of the ground water flow system. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  4. Assessing Understanding of Social Awareness Concepts in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubnik, Cynthia; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Reed, Colby B.; Warner-Metzger, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Authors contrasted Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Receptive, Third Edition (BBCS: R-3) test performance between 57 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 76 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ID. BBCS: R-3 School Readiness Composite (SRC) and Self-/Social Awareness subtests were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of covariance…

  5. The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in Grades 2 and 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbauer, Erika; Heller, Marc S.

    1978-01-01

    Second- and third-graders (N=94) from a suburban New Jersey school who had taken the Boehm test of Basic Concepts as kindergartners were given the Stanford Achievement Test, Form W. The obtained grade scores in each subject area were then correlated with the Boehm Test scores. (Author)

  6. High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

  7. Representational Competence in Chemistry: A Comparison between Students with Different Levels of Understanding of Basic Chemical Concepts and Chemical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    Representational competence is defined as "skills in interpreting and using representations". This study attempted to compare students' of high, medium, and low levels of understanding of (1) basic chemical concepts, and (2) chemical representations, in their representational competence. A total of 411 Form 4 science students (mean age =…

  8. Concept for a Predeployment Assessment of Basic Military Fitness in the German Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Ulrich; Sievert, Alexander; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Leyk, Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Military fitness is defined as a hierarchical 4-level construct in the German armed forces: (a) "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness," (b) "Basic Military Fitness," (c) "Task Fitness," and (d) "Mission Fitness." "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness" is assessed with the "Basic Fitness Test." However, this test alone is not sufficient to assess readiness for the physical demands of deployments. The first part of the article describes the development of a tool mirroring the specific physiological requirements of military operations on a joint forces level. The "Basic Military Fitness Tool" (BMFT) combines 4 crucial military demands into one single timed test run performed with field uniform (5 kg), body armor (13.4 kg), and helmet (1.6 kg): (a) maneuver under fire: 130 m run with changes in direction, velocity, and body position, (b) casualty rescue: 40 m of dragging a 50 kg load, (c) load carrying: 100 m carrying of two 18 kg loads, and (d) load lifting: lifting a 24 kg load on to a 1.25 m high rack 5 times. The second part covers the first assessment of BMFT selectivity between high- and low-performing groups. Muscle mass and strength are important factors for working with loads. Thus, female soldiers are expected to need more time to complete BMFT because of their on average lower muscle mass. Eighteen female (age = 28.5 ± 6.6 years, lean body mass [LBM] = 45.0 ± 4.5 kg; mean ± SD) and 104 male soldiers (age = 30.0 ± 8.4, LBM = 64.3 ± 7.1) completed isometric strength testing (hand grip = 344.3 ± 51.4 N and 547.3 ± 79.1 N, elbow flexors = 118.9 ± 16.9 and 235.1 ± 42.0, knee extensors = 433.2 ± 87.4 and 631.4 ± 111.4) and BMFT (259.2 ± 44.0 and 150.0 ± 21.1 s). Except age, all variables differed significantly (p < 0.01) between groups. PMID:26506190

  9. 48 CFR 53.216-1 - Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). 53.216-1 Section 53.216-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.216-1 Delivery orders and orders under...

  10. Basic concepts for the design of high-efficiency single-junction and multibandgap solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts for obtaining practical solar-cell modules with one-sun efficiencies up to 30 percent at air mass 1 are now well understood. Such high-efficiency modules utilize multibandgap structures. To achieve module efficiencies significantly above 30 percent, it is necessary to employ different concepts such as spectral compression and broad-band detection. A detailed description of concepts for the design of high-efficiency multibandgap solar cells is given.

  11. Development and Evaluation of Computerized Problem-based Learning Cases Emphasizing Basic Sciences Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Marie A.; Meyer-Stout, Paula J.; Stamatakis, Mary K.; Gannett, Peter M.; Dunsworth, Teresa S.; Nardi, Anne H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and evaluation of eight computerized problem-based learning (PBL) cases in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics concepts. Case versions either incorporated concept maps emphasizing key ideas or did not. Student performance on quizzes did not differ between the different case versions and was similar to that of students who…

  12. Some Basic Concepts of Wave-Particle Interactions in Collisionless Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1997-01-01

    The physical concepts of wave-particle interactions in a collisionless plasma are developed from first principles. Using the Lorentz force, starting with the concepts of gyromotion, particle mirroring and the loss-cone, normal and anomalous cyclotron resonant interactions, pitch-angle scattering, and cross-field diffusion are developed.

  13. Reconstructing the Basic Concepts of General Relativity from an Educational and Cultural Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levrini, Olivia

    2002-01-01

    Presents an example of a reconstruction of the debate concerning the foundations of general relativity on the basis of cultural and educational criteria. In particular, the debate is shown as guided by the concept of space and the different perspectives from which such a concept can be viewed. (Author/MM)

  14. The Efficacy of Multimedia Modules for Teaching Basic Literacy-Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Kennedy, Michael J.; de Irala, Sandra; Clinton, Elias; Hamel, Melissa; Thomas, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have found that teacher preparation programs are not universally preparing teacher candidates in concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. Yet, the majority of students with reading disabilities or who struggle with beginning reading have difficulty with phonology and concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. The…

  15. Analysis concepts for large telescope structures under earthquake load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Franz

    1997-03-01

    The very large telescope (VLT) of ESO will be placed on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama desert in northern Chile. This site provides excellent conditions for astronomical observations. However, it is likely that important seismic activities occur. The telescope structure and its components have to resist the largest earthquakes expected during their lifetime. Therefore, design specifications and structural analyses have to take into account loads caused by such earthquakes. The present contribution shows some concepts and techniques in the assessment of earthquake resistant telescope design by the finite element method (FEM). After establishing the general design criteria and the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the site location, the seismic action can be defined. A description of various representations of the seismic action and the procedure to define the commonly used response spectrum are presented in more detail. A brief description of the response spectrum analysis method and of the result evaluation procedure follows. Additionally, some calculation concepts for parts of the entire telescope structure under seismic loads are provided. Finally, a response spectrum analysis of the entire VLT structure performed at ESO is presented to show a practical application of the analysis method and evaluation procedure mentioned above.

  16. The Effect of Using an Educational Website in Achievement of Bachelor Students in the Course of Basic Concepts in Mathematics at Al al-Bayt University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qudah, Ahmad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to detect the effect of using an educational site on the Internet in the collection of bachelor's students in the course of basic concepts in mathematics at Al al-Bayt University, and the study sample consisted of all students in the course basic concepts in mathematics in the first semester of the academic year 2014/2015 and the…

  17. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the maximum basic support payment that a local... Act § 222.38 What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? The maximum basic support payment that an LEA may receive under section...

  18. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  19. "Chemie im Kontext": Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical…

  20. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  1. Embedded Information Literacy in the Basic Oral Communication Course: From Conception through Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kari D.; Pier, Penni M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of embedding information literacy into a basic oral communication course. Discussion includes student performance as an impetus for change, collaborative course design between the oral communication teaching team and instructional librarians, and assessment initiatives. Suggestions for future collaborative work…

  2. Subjective Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Research and the Clinic: The Basic Symptom Concept

    PubMed Central

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    Recent focus on early detection and intervention in psychosis has renewed interest in subtle psychopathology beyond positive and negative symptoms. These are self-experienced subclinical disturbances termed basic symptoms (BS). The phenomenologies of BS and their development in the course of psychotic disorders will be described. PMID:19074497

  3. Teachers' Conceptions of Standards in South African Basic Education and Training: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosibo, Lungi; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, the Department of Basic Education and Training (DBE) is responsible for primary and secondary education (Grades R-12). In an effort to improve educational standards in literacy, numeracy and mathematics, especially in the Foundation Phase (FP) levels of education, the DBE has developed several initiatives and campaigns. To monitor…

  4. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  5. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  6. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  7. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  8. Basic Concepts and Techniques in Accounting for Spanish Speaking Students (Student's Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Constanza

    Intended for limited-English Spanish-speaking adult students, this manual contains an eight-chapter course in accounting. It is written in Spanish with key terms/concepts (and occupation-related vocabulary) translated into English appearing immediately following the Spanish in parentheses. Examples are provided in English only. The information…

  9. Computer Graphics for Use in the Classroom to Illustrate Basic Concepts and Spatial Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.

    The computer packages of PLOTALL, SYMAP, SURFACE II, QUSMO, QUSMO2, QUCRS, and QUTAB are commercially available plotting programs that provide aids for visualizing spatial distributed data and concepts. The incremental drum and line printer plots communicate often vast and difficult-to-interpret tabular data with or without geographic coordinates.…

  10. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  11. Students' Conceptions of Basic Ideas of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duit, Reinders; Kesidou, Sofia

    The focus of this study was to portray the ideas that students with four years experience in learning physics developed in regard to the second law of thermodynamics. Data were obtained through 34 clinical interviews with grade 10 students. An analysis of student arguments revealed deeply rooted difficulties in using concepts that were learned in…

  12. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes. PMID:25316204

  13. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  14. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  15. MoH 101: Basic Concepts in the Mechanics of Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Epp, Bastian; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2011-11-01

    We provide a synopsis of selected questions and answers from the second triennial Mechanics of Hearing 101 session held at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The MoH 101 session offers a non-intimidating forum for students, postdocs, and others new to the field to explore issues and ideas relevant to the Workshop. We have augmented the discussion content by giving some basic background and references.

  16. Relation of student characteristics to learning of basic biochemistry concepts from a multimedia goal-based scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of several cognitive and demographic variables to learning outcomes from a multimedia Goal-Based Scenario lesson on DNA. The demographic variables under investigation were: gender, ethnicity, prior science coursework in college and high school, final score in current chemistry course and prior experience with computers. The cognitive variables under study were logical thinking ability, spatial ability and disembedding ability. The subjects for this study were a total of 525 college students enrolled in introductory chemistry classes for non-majors at one of four participating institutions in the U.S. and Canada. Of these participants, 488 formed the experimental group and 37 formed a control group. All subjects completed content pre- and post-tests, a demographic questionnaire and three cognitive tests: Test of Logical Thinking, Hidden Figures Test and Purdue Visualization of Rotations Test. Students in the experimental group used "Whodunnit?," a multimedia Goal-Based Scenario to teach basic biochemistry concepts pertaining to DNA, while students in the control group completed a similar paper-based activity. A combination of general linear models and linear regression analysis was used to examine the data obtained. Post-hoc analyses were conducted for categorical variables when they were found to be significant contributors to the model tested. The results showed that there was no relationship between gender or ethnicity and academic Outcomes. Prior science coursework completed in college did not show a relationship with post-test scores, although number of science courses completed in high school was a significant predictor of academic outcomes. A relationship was observed between course rank and learning outcomes, as students with final course grades in the upper quartile of the sample scored significantly higher on the post-test than all others. The amount of variance in outcomes explained by prior

  17. [Oncologic after-care--a patient-oriented concept. Basic diagnostic plan for pediatric oncology patients].

    PubMed

    Duffner, U; Sauter, S; Bergsträsser, E; Brandis, M; Niemeyer, C

    1995-01-01

    With intensive treatment many children and young adults with cancer can be cured of their disease. Therefore, the recognition of late effects of therapy will become increasingly important. Future concepts of follow-up care in pediatric oncology will have to serve two purposes: First, to determine the status of the malignant disease with early diagnosis of relapse and second, to recognize relevant side effects of treatment. We present a comprehensive approach of follow-up care which is primarily based on the definition of risk criteria for the development of relevant organ toxicity after different treatment modalities. For each patient a standardized summary of therapy delivered is documented. According to the definition of the risk criteria an individualized schedule for follow-up is decided upon. We hope that this structured concept will result in appropriate patient care while keeping the diagnostic efforts and costs limited. PMID:7564151

  18. Basic concepts of computerized student-oriented system on language teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivleva, N. V.

    2015-10-01

    This article covers the main concepts of a computerized student- oriented system on language teaching which implies more thorough lesson plan design for students who need a strong language command in their professional area. The system analyses all input characteristics and screens lesson plans tailored to individual students which can be integrated into a language course. The designed course is going to be aimed at meeting students’ needs as soon as practicable.

  19. Understanding E2 versus SN2 Competition under Acidic and Basic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Lando P; Ren, Yi; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose is to understand the mechanism through which pH affects the competition between base-induced elimination and substitution. To this end, we have quantum chemically investigated the competition between elimination and substitution pathways in H2O+C2H5OH2+ and OH−+C2H5OH, that is, two related model systems that represent, in a generic manner, the same reaction under acidic and basic conditions, respectively. We find that substitution is favored in the acidic case while elimination prevails under basic conditions. Activation-strain analyses of the reaction profiles reveal that the switch in preferred reactivity from substitution to elimination, if one goes from acidic to basic catalysis, is related to (1) the higher basicity of the deprotonated base, and (2) the change in character of the substrates LUMO from Cβ−H bonding in C2H5OH2+ to Cβ−H antibonding in C2H5OH. PMID:24688892

  20. AOPA Survey Summary of AGATE Concepts Demonstration October 17-19, 1996. Volume 1; Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An AGATE Concepts Demonstration was conducted at the Annual Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) Convention in 1996. The demonstration consisted of an interactive simulation of a single-pilot, single-engine aircraft in which the participant took off, flew a brief enroute segment and then flew a Global Positioning System (GPS) approach and landing. The participant was provided an advanced 'pathway-in-the-sky' presentation on both a head-up display and a head-down display to follow throughout the flight. A single lever power control and display concept was also provided for control of the engine throughout the flight. A second head-down, multifunction display in the instrument panel provided a moving map display for navigation purposes and monitoring of the status of the aircraft's systems. An estimated 352 people observed or participated in the demonstration, and 144 surveys were collected. The pilot ratings of the participants ranged from student to Air Transport Rating with an average of 1850 hours total flight time. The performance of the participants was surprisingly good, considering the minimal training in a completely new system concept. The overwhelming response was that technologies that simplify piloting tasks are enthusiastically welcomed by pilots of all experience levels. The increase in situation awareness and reduction in pilot workload were universally accepted and lauded as steps in the right direction.

  1. Biochemical alteration in cells following phagocytosis of M. leprae--the consequence--a basic concept.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, P R; Antia, N H

    1980-06-01

    When macrophages from lepromatous leprosy patients are exposed to M. leprae, the macrophages show reduced protein synthesis. Such a phenomenon is not seen with macrophages from tuberculoid patients or normal individuals. M. leprae phagocytized by Schwann cells affect the incorporation of DNA precursor in the cells, leading to failure of Schwann cell association with axons in in vitro cultures. These 2 observations form a basis of proposing that basic biochemical events take place when M. leprae are associated with host cells, which in turn can be amplified to physiologically functional defects. PMID:6995358

  2. Back stress in dislocation creep. Part 1: Basic concepts and measuring techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadek, J.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is proposed whereby the plastic deformation of metal materials is determined by the difference between the applied stress and the back stress which characterizes the resistance of the material to plastic deformation. The back stress is usually equivalent to the internal stress or the friction stress and depends on the magnitude of the applied stress and temperature. The concept of back stress is applied to the case of the dislocation creep of precipitation-hardened or dispersion-strengthened metal materials. An additivity rule is formulated which can be useful in interpreting the creep behavior of such materials.

  3. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B

    2016-01-15

    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent. PMID:26410416

  4. Report of the joint ESOT and TTS basic science meeting 2013: current concepts and discoveries in translational transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Susanne; Fabritius, Cornelia; Ritschl, Paul; Oberhuber, Rupert; Günther, Julia; Kotsch, Katja

    2014-10-01

    A joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and The Transplantation (TTS) Societies for basic science research was organized in Paris, France, on November 7-9, 2013. Focused on new ideas and concepts in translational transplantation, the meeting served as a venue for state-of-the-art developments in basic transplantation immunology, such as the potential for tolerance induction through regulation of T-cell signaling. This meeting report summarizes important insights which were presented in Paris. It not only offers an overview of established aspects, such as the role of Tregs in transplantation, presented by Nobel laureate Rolf Zinkernagel, but also highlights novel facets in the field of transplantation, that is cell-therapy-based immunosuppression or composite tissue transplantation as presented by the emotional story given by Vasyly Rohovyy, who received two hand transplants. The ESOT/TTS joint meeting was an overall productive and enjoyable platform for basic science research in translational transplantation and fulfilled all expectations by giving a promising outlook for the future of research in the field of immunological transplantation research. PMID:24890468

  5. Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

  6. From Purines to Basic Biochemical Concepts: Experiments for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Isabella; Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Many high school biology courses address mainly the molecular and cellular basis of life. The complexity that underlies the most essential processes is often difficult for the students to understand; possibly, in part, because of the inability to see and explore them. Six simple practical experiments on purine catabolism as a part of a…

  7. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  8. Basic Concepts in Population Modeling, Simulation, and Model-Based Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Mould, D R; Upton, R N

    2012-01-01

    Modeling is an important tool in drug development; population modeling is a complex process requiring robust underlying procedures for ensuring clean data, appropriate computing platforms, adequate resources, and effective communication. Although requiring an investment in resources, it can save time and money by providing a platform for integrating all information gathered on new therapeutic agents. This article provides a brief overview of aspects of modeling and simulation as applied to many areas in drug development. PMID:23835886

  9. Basic Principles and Emerging Concepts in the Redox Control of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Flohé, Leopold

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork of poorly connected findings. The article, therefore, reviews principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-κB), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms. Major conclusions are that (i) direct signaling by free radicals is restricted to O2•− and •NO and can be excluded for fast reacting radicals such as •OH, •OR, or Cl•; (ii) oxidant signals are H2O2, enzymatically generated lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite; (iii) free radical damage is sensed via generation of Michael acceptors; (iv) protein thiol oxidation/alkylation is the prominent mechanism to modulate function; (v) redox sensors must be thiol peroxidases by themselves or proteins with similarly reactive cysteine or selenocysteine (Sec) residues to kinetically compete with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)- and peroxiredoxin (Prx)-type peroxidases or glutathione-S-transferases, respectively, a postulate that still has to be verified for putative mammalian sensors. S-transferases and Prxs are considered for system complementation. The impact of NF-κB and Nrf2 on hormesis, management of inflammatory diseases, and cancer prevention is critically discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2335–2381. PMID:21194351

  10. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    SciTech Connect

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian

    2015-06-08

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now.

  11. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian

    2015-06-01

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now.

  12. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  13. Convergent Cross Mapping: Basic concept, influence of estimation parameters and practical application.

    PubMed

    Schiecke, Karin; Pester, Britta; Feucht, Martha; Leistritz, Lutz; Witte, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    In neuroscience, data are typically generated from neural network activity. Complex interactions between measured time series are involved, and nothing or only little is known about the underlying dynamic system. Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) provides the possibility to investigate nonlinear causal interactions between time series by using nonlinear state space reconstruction. Aim of this study is to investigate the general applicability, and to show potentials and limitation of CCM. Influence of estimation parameters could be demonstrated by means of simulated data, whereas interval-based application of CCM on real data could be adapted for the investigation of interactions between heart rate and specific EEG components of children with temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26738006

  14. Investigating Student Understanding of Physics Concepts and the Underlying Calculus Concepts in Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John; Christensen, Warren; Mountcastle, Donald

    2010-03-01

    In work on student understanding of concepts in advanced thermal physics, we are exploring student understanding of the mathematics required for productive reasoning about the physics. By analysis of student use of mathematics in responses to conceptual physics questions, as well as analogous math questions stripped of physical meaning, we find evidence that students often enter upper-level physics courses lacking the assumed prerequisite mathematics knowledge and/or the ability to apply it productively in a physics context. Our focus is in two main areas: interpretation of P-V diagrams, requiring an understanding of integration, and material properties and the Maxwell relations, involving partial differentiation. We have also assessed these mathematical concepts among students in multivariable calculus. Calculus results support the findings among physics students: some observed difficulties are not just with transfer of math knowledge to physics contexts, but seem to have origins in the understanding of the math concepts themselves.

  15. Basic Concepts in Understanding Recovery of Function in Vestibular Reflex Networks during Vestibular Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Peusner, Kenna D.; Shao, Mei; Reddaway, Rebecca; Hirsch, June C.

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input–output connections of the recorded neurons is essential to link the responses to animal behavior. We further propose that the cellular mechanisms underlying vestibular compensation can be sorted out by characterizing the synaptic responses and time course for change in morphologically defined subsets of vestibular reflex projection neurons. Accordingly, this review focuses on the perspective gained by performing electrophysiological and immunolabeling studies on a specific subset of morphologically defined, glutamatergic vestibular reflex projection neurons, the principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus. Reference is made to pertinent findings from other studies on vestibular nuclei neurons, but no comprehensive review of the literature is intended since broad reviews already exist. From recording excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in principal cells, we find that the rebalancing of excitatory synaptic drive bilaterally is essential for vestibular compensation to proceed. This work is important for it defines for the first time the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the changing synaptic inputs and the time course for changes in a morphologically defined subset of vestibular reflex projection neurons during early stages of vestibular compensation. PMID:22363316

  16. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part I: basic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.

  17. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses. PMID:19639918

  18. [Basic concept for the judgement of the results of dustfall measuring in the Alps (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kofler, W; Benger, J

    1976-02-01

    At the time extensive measurements are made in the Austrian part of the Alps to find out the elevation of the fundamental load of dustfall according to the methode of BERGERHOFF. Thereby the authors had to solve the fundamental question to find a system for estimation. In Austria the results of measurements of dustfall were classified usually according to the "Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft 1964." It appeared that the introduction did not achieve the problem because of the special geografical, meteorological and economical data of the researched part of the Alps which at that time has about 30 000 km2. Similar applies to the new standards of the TAL 1974 and that recommendations of the "Deutscher Bäderverband" to estimate health resorts, recreation areas and mineral springs. Therefore a special model for estimating was developed which differentiate among the average of a year and the maximum of the average of a month, the general housing-areas, recreation areas and standards for industrial areas. The suggested limits are under the limits which are used today in Germany. The results of measurements of dustfall are discussed. PMID:1274505

  19. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career. PMID:24687369

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the "Bracken Concept Development Program" and the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" with Head Start Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patti

    2004-01-01

    This research study evaluated the efficacy of the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" (BBCS-R; Bracken, 1998) and the "Bracken Concept Development Program" (BCDP; Bracken, 1986a) in a test-teach-test paradigm with students from a Head Start program. Prior to the intervention, 54 children were administered the BBCS-R and were divided into three…

  1. Psychodermatology: Basics Concepts.

    PubMed

    Jafferany, Mohammad; Franca, Katlein

    2016-08-23

    Psychodermatology is a relatively new field of medicine. It encompasses the interaction of mind and skin. The role of psychoneuroimmunology in the causation of psychocutaneous disorders and psychosocial aspects of skin disease have gained momentum lately. The treatment of psychodermatological disorders focus on improving function, reducing physical distress, diagnosing and treating depression and anxiety associated with skin disease, managing social isolation and improving self esteem of the patient. Both pharmacological and psychological interventions are used in treating psychocutaneous disorders. The interest in Psychodermatology around the world is increasing and there are several organizations holding their regular meetings. PMID:27282585

  2. Water oxidation catalysis with nonheme iron complexes under acidic and basic conditions: homogeneous or heterogeneous?

    PubMed

    Hong, Dachao; Mandal, Sukanta; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Llobet, Antoni; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-08-19

    Thermal water oxidation by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) was catalyzed by nonheme iron complexes, such as Fe(BQEN)(OTf)2 (1) and Fe(BQCN)(OTf)2 (2) (BQEN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, BQCN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)cyclohexanediamine, OTf = CF3SO3(-)) in a nonbuffered aqueous solution; turnover numbers of 80 ± 10 and 20 ± 5 were obtained in the O2 evolution reaction by 1 and 2, respectively. The ligand dissociation of the iron complexes was observed under acidic conditions, and the dissociated ligands were oxidized by CAN to yield CO2. We also observed that 1 was converted to an iron(IV)-oxo complex during the water oxidation in competition with the ligand oxidation. In addition, oxygen exchange between the iron(IV)-oxo complex and H2(18)O was found to occur at a much faster rate than the oxygen evolution. These results indicate that the iron complexes act as the true homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation by CAN at low pHs. In contrast, light-driven water oxidation using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) as a photosensitizer and S2O8(2-) as a sacrificial electron acceptor was catalyzed by iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from the iron complexes under basic conditions as the result of the ligand dissociation. In a buffer solution (initial pH 9.0) formation of the iron hydroxide nanoparticles with a size of around 100 nm at the end of the reaction was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in situ and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. We thus conclude that the water oxidation by CAN was catalyzed by short-lived homogeneous iron complexes under acidic conditions, whereas iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from iron complexes act as a heterogeneous catalyst in the light-driven water oxidation reaction under basic conditions. PMID:23895380

  3. Proposal of Comprehensive Model of Teaching Basic Nursing Skills Under Goal-Based Scenario Theory.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Yuri; Muranaka, Yoko; Teraoka, Misako; Suzuki, Sayuri; Saito, Yukie; Yamato, Hiromi; Ishii, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design and develop a comprehensive model of teaching basic nursing skills on GBS theory and Four-Stage Performance Cycle. We designed a basic nursing skill program that consists of three courses: basic, application and multi-tasking. The program will be offered as blended study, utilizing e-learning. PMID:27332480

  4. Turbulent boundary layers under irregular waves and currents: Experiments and the equivalent-wave concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jing

    2016-04-01

    A full-scale experimental study of turbulent boundary layer flows under irregular waves and currents is conducted with the primary objective to investigate the equivalent-wave concept by Madsen (1994). Irregular oscillatory flows following the bottom-velocity spectrum under realistic surface irregular waves are produced over two fixed rough bottoms in an oscillatory water tunnel, and flow velocities are measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry. The root-mean-square (RMS) value and representative phase lead of wave velocities have vertical variations very similar to those of the first-harmonic velocity of periodic wave boundary layers, e.g., the RMS wave velocity follows a logarithmic distribution controlled by the physical bottom roughness in the very near-bottom region. The RMS wave bottom shear stress and the associated representative phase lead can be accurately predicted using the equivalent-wave approach. The spectra of wave bottom shear stress and boundary layer velocity are found to be proportional to the spectrum of free-stream velocity. Currents in the presence of irregular waves exhibit the classic two-log-profile structure with the lower log-profile controlled by the physical bottom roughness and the upper log-profile controlled by a much larger apparent roughness. Replacing the irregular waves by their equivalent sinusoidal waves virtually makes no difference for the coexisting currents. These observations, together with the excellent agreement between measurements and model predictions, suggest that the equivalent-wave representation adequately characterizes the basic wave-current interaction under irregular waves.

  5. Beyond Passive Learning: Problem-Based Learning and Concept Maps to Promote Basic and Higher-Order Thinking in Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the best practices for basic skills education, national bridge programs, the new GED® assessment, and accelerated developmental education indicated that contextualized instruction was most effective when preparing adult literacy students for college and work. Nevertheless, "remedial pedagogy" with a sole focus on the…

  6. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

  7. The Effect of 3D Computer Modeling and Observation-Based Instruction on the Conceptual Change regarding Basic Concepts of Astronomy in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukozer, Huseyin; Korkusuz, M. Emin; Kucukozer, H. Asuman; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2009-01-01

    This study has examined the impact of teaching certain basic concepts of astronomy through a predict-observe-explain strategy, which includes three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and observations on conceptual changes seen in sixth-grade elementary school children (aged 11-13; number of students: 131). A pre- and postastronomy instruction…

  8. Ipsative Subtest Pattern Stability of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children in a Preschool Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ipsative subtest pattern stability was examined for 60 preschool children (31 males and 29 females) on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children over a 4-6 week test-retest interval. The moderate level of profile stability found warrants cautious use of the ipsative interpretation approach. (SLD)

  9. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  10. The Aqueous Complexation of Thorium with Citrate under Neutral to Basic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R; Cho, Herman M; Dixon, David A; Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J; Wang, Zheming

    2006-04-20

    The aqueous complexation of thorium with citrate was investigated under neutral to basic conditions and over a broad range of ionic strengths. The solubility data for ThO2(am) as a function of citrate concentration indicate the presence of stable species with citrate-to-metal ratios of between two to three. The dependence of the ThO2(am) solubilities on hydrogen ion concentration can also be readily explained by the classical assumption of hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) ion to form mixed thorium-hydroxide-citrate complexes. 13C NMR spectra of the species in solution confirm that the citrate-to-metal ratio of the species in solution is between two and three and show that the citrate attaches to the metal in a bidentate fashion through oxygens on the -carboxylate and -alkoxyl groups, rather than through the carboxylate groups. The 13C NMR spectra, as well as a density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure study of the presumptive complexes, suggests that the associated α-hydroxyl proton can be displaced during complex formation. These findings indicate an alternative explanation for the observed changes in solubility as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, the displacement of protons from the citrate alkoxyl groups via metal binding. Removal of protons from the alkoxyl groups or hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) cannot be distinguished by thermodynamic measurements, however the species with the α-hydroxyl proton removed (i.e., ThOH(Cit)25- and Th(Cit)38-) would appear to better represent the microscopic binding. Apparent equilibrium constants for the solution phase reactions of these species and the hydrous thorium oxide have been calculated as a function of ionic strength.

  11. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  12. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  13. Investigation of acyl migration in mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids under aqueous basic, aqueous acidic, and dry roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sagar; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Matei, Marius Febi; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-09-17

    Acyl migration in chlorogenic acids describes the process of migration of cinnamoyl moieties from one quinic acid alcohol group to another, thus interconverting chlorogenic acid regioisomers. It therefore constitutes a special case of transesterification reaction. Acyl migration constitutes an important reaction pathway in both coffee roasting and brewing, altering the structure of chlorogenic acid initially present in the green coffee bean. In this contribution we describe detailed and comprehensive mechanistic studies comparing inter- and intramolecular acyl migration involving the seven most common chlorogenic acids in coffee. We employe aqueous acidic and basic conditions mimicking the brewing of coffee along with dry roasting conditions. We show that under aqueous basic conditions intramolecular acyl migration is fully reversible with basic hydrolysis competing with acyl migration. 3-Caffeoylquinic acid was shown to be most labile to basic hydrolysis. We additionally show that the acyl migration process is strongly pH dependent with increased transesterification taking place at basic pH. Under dry roasting conditions acyl migration competes with dehydration to form lactones. We argue that acyl migration precedes lactonization, with 3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone being the predominant product. PMID:25116442

  14. Basic Psychological Skills Usage and Competitive Anxiety Responses: Perceived Underlying Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between basic psychological skills usage (i.e., goal-setting, imagery, self-talk, and relaxation) and the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety. Semistructured interviews were used on a sample of 15 elite athletes (M age = 24.3 years, SD = 4.2) from a variety of team and individual sports.…

  15. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  16. Students' Understanding and Application of the Area under the Curve Concept in Physics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving…

  17. Basic substances: an opportunity for approval of low-concern substances under EU pesticide regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Patrice A

    2015-09-01

    Plant extracts and byproducts furnish various alternative products for crop protection and are traditionally used by farmers. However, the cost and timeframe for their registration as active substances are prohibitive for small companies and farmers' associations with the new Plant Protection Products (PPP) Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. However, there is now a possibility of registering light compounds as 'basic substances', a new category described in Article 23 and in 'Whereas/Recital 18'. We developed a regulatory expertise on the approval of such products within the framework of the PPP regulation. A Draft Assessment Report in one volume was established, later transformed by EC Directorate into a Basic Substance Application Template, and subsequently used by the EC as a matrix for the corresponding Guidelines for applicants (SANCO 10363/2012 rev. 9). Here we provide further tools, consisting of methodological, linguistic and strategic recommendations in order to constitute a Basic Substance Application (BSA) and proceed to its registration. While the use of alternative agents for crop protection is increasing both in organic and conventional agriculture, these usages are still considered as 'minor uses'. Our approach and tools are valuable to non-PPP specialised applicants for simplifying and facilitating their submission of the BSA. PMID:25727699

  18. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  19. Chemistry for Health-Science Students: What Is an Appropriate Balance between Basic Chemical Concepts and Health-Related Applications?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genyea, Julien; Callewaert, Denis M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry content for a two-semester, health-related, chemistry course sequence. Indicates that basic principles should be emphasized and that (when appropriate) these principles should be discussed with applications to health care. Other issues related to chemistry for health-related programs…

  20. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

  1. Basic Conceptual Systems (BCSs)--Tools for Analytic Coding, Thinking and Learning: A Concept Teaching Curriculum in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The role of basic conceptual systems (for example, colour, shape, size, position, direction, number, pattern, etc.) as psychological tools for analytic coding, thinking, learning is emphasised, and a proposal for a teaching order of BCSs in kindergarten and primary school is introduced. The first part of this article explains briefly main aspects…

  2. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  3. Practical Nursing Education. A Guide for Teaching Basic Concepts and Skills in the Use of Drugs. Pamphlet Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    Intended to assist teachers in either basic or continuing education programs to convey knowledge, techniques, and attitudes pertaining to drugs, the pamphlet outlines instruction which is estimated to require 70 to 100 hours of which 50 to 80 should be scheduled for classroom work and 20 hours for clinical work. Three units containing concepts…

  4. Evidence-based neurosurgery. Basic concepts for the appraisal and application of scientific information to patient care (Part II).

    PubMed

    Esene, Ignatius N; Baeesa, Saleh S; Ammar, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Medical evidence is obtainable from approaches, which might be descriptive, analytic and integrative and ranked into levels of evidence, graded according to quality and summarized into strengths of recommendation. Sources of evidence range from expert opinions through well-randomized control trials to meta-analyses. The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions related to the care of individual patients defines the concept of evidence-based neurosurgery (EBN). We reviewed reference books of clinical epidemiology, evidence-based practice and other previously related articles addressing principles of evidence-based practice in neurosurgery. Based on existing theories and models and our cumulative years of experience and expertise conducting research and promoting EBN, we have synthesized and presented a holistic overview of the concept of EBN. We have also underscored the importance of clinical research and its relationship to EBN. Useful electronic resources are provided. The concept of critical appraisal is introduced. PMID:27356649

  5. The Behaviour of Laboratory Soil Electrical Resistivity Value under Basic Soil Properties Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Rosli, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical resistivity method (ERM) was a popular indirect geophysical tools adopted in engineering, environmental and archaeological studies. In the past, results of the electrical resistivity value (ERV) were always subjected to a long discussion and debate among the related parties such as an engineers, geophysicists and geologists due to its lack of clarification and evidences in quantitative point of view. Most of the results produced in the past was always been justified using qualitative ways which difficult to be accept by certain parties. In order to reduce the knowledge gap between those parties, this study has performed a laboratory experiment of soil box resistivity test which supported by an additional basic geotechnical test as referred to particle size distribution test (d), moisture content test (w), density test (ρbulk) and Atterberg limit test (LL, PL and PI). The test was performed to establish a series of electrical resistivity value with different quantity of water content for Clayey SILT and Silty SAND soil. It was found that the ERV of Silty SAND (600 - 7300 Ωm) was higher than Clayey SILT (13 - 7700 Ωm) due to the different quantity of basic soil properties value obtained from the basic geotechnical test. This study was successfully demonstrated that the fluctuation of ERV has greatly influenced by the variations of the soil physical properties (d, w, ρbulk, LL, PL and PI). Hence, the confidence level of ERV interpretation will be increasingly meaningful since it able to be proved by others parameter generated by laboratory direct test.

  6. Production of aluminum orthophosphate and basic aluminum polyphosphate under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkhamov, A. A.; Iaroslavskii, I. M.; Popolitov, V. I.; Umarov, B. S.; Iliaev, A. B.

    Berlinite (AlPO4) crystals, which are used in piezoelectronic devices, have been produced by hydrothermal synthesis using the methods proposed by Stanley (1954) and Kolb and Laudise (1978). Also, the possibility of AlPO4 crystallization from metastable aluminophosphate glass has been investigated. It is found that berlinite can be crystallized by slowly raising the temperature in the retrograde solubility region; the crystal growth temperature can be reduced by using metastable aluminophosphate glass. Basic aluminum polyphosphate crystals, which decompose with the formation of Al(PO3)3, have been produced and investigated.

  7. A Research Project on Higher Education. Investigations into the Learning and Teaching of Basic Concepts in Economics. No. 54. (1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Marton, Ference

    A progress report on a research project directed toward facilitating deeper understanding of economic concepts at the university level is presented. The purposes of the project are to explore phenomena conceptualization and to investigate why some students are more successful at a learning task than other students. In the analysis of a…

  8. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Academic Music: Music Instruction to Engage Third-Grade Students in Learning Basic Fraction Concepts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to teach mathematical concepts through music. Specifically, it investigated the effect of the intervention on third-grade students' understanding of fractions. Sixty-seven students from one northern California elementary school participated in the study over a period of six weeks; of…

  9. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  10. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  11. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  12. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  13. Teaching the basic concepts of the Special Relativity in the secondary school in the framework of the Theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita Otero, Marıa; Arlego, Marcelo; Prodanoff, Fabiana

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the conceptualization of the basic aspects of Special Relativity (SR) at secondary school level. We have conducted our research along the lines of the Theory of Conceptual Fields (TCF) proposed by Vergnaud (Vergnaud G., Infancia y Aprendizaje, 36 (2013) 131). The investigation consisted in the design, implementation and evaluation of a didactic sequence specially elaborated to conceptualize the basic aspects of SR. The proposal is composed by eight situations, complemented with a set of exercises. It was carried out in two classrooms with students of the last year of secondary level (17years old, N = 43 . The conceptualization was analyzed in a classroom context, where the selected situations are essential to promote the emergence of the relevant concepts.

  14. Investigation of the phosphorus removal capacities of basic oxygen furnace slag under variable conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Wangjin; Wu, Qianqian; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2016-05-01

    Effects of reaction time, initial phosphorus concentration, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF-slag) dosage and size, and temperature on the phosphorus removal capacities (PRCs) of BOF-slag have been investigated in detail through batch tests. Weakly bound phosphorus, Fe- and Al-associated phosphorus, and Ca-associated phosphorus from fresh and reacted BOF-slag were analysed using sequential chemical extraction processes. It was determined that the PRCs of BOF-slag increased with the increase of initial phosphorus concentration and temperature while it decreased with the increase of BOF-slag dosage and size. The phosphorus removed by BOF-slag was primarily assigned to weakly bound phosphorus and Ca-associated phosphorus. Weakly bound phosphorus showed a significant decrease with the increase in all experimental parameter values. However, Ca-associated phosphorus exhibited a prominent increase with increasing reaction time, initial phosphorus concentration, and temperature. These demonstrate that experimental parameters can simultaneously affect the PRCs of BOF-slag and the ways of phosphorus removal by BOF-slag. PMID:26507932

  15. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents. Topics in US: B-mode US: basic concepts and new technology.

    PubMed

    Hangiandreou, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) has been used in medical imaging for over half a century. Current US scanners are based largely on the same basic principles used in the initial devices for human imaging. Modern equipment uses a pulse-echo approach with a brightness-mode (B-mode) display. Fundamental aspects of the B-mode imaging process include basic ultrasound physics, interactions of ultrasound with tissue, ultrasound pulse formation, scanning the ultrasound beam, and echo detection and signal processing. Recent technical innovations that have been developed to improve the performance of modern US equipment include the following: tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, extended field of view imaging, coded pulse excitation, electronic section focusing, three-dimensional and four-dimensional imaging, and the general trend toward equipment miniaturization. US is a relatively inexpensive, portable, safe, and real-time modality, all of which make it one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medicine. Although B-mode US is sometimes referred to as a mature technology, this modality continues to experience a significant evolution in capability with even more exciting developments on the horizon. PMID:12853678

  16. [On theory of sensory conflict under exposure to physical factors: main principles and concepts of formation].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Pankov, V A; Kuleshova, M V; Katamanova, E V; Kartapol'tseva, N V; Rusanova, D V; Bodienkova, G M; Titov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of longstanding studies on influence of occupational physical factors on workers health. Experimental and nature studies helped to justify basic concepts of sensory conflict theory, a trigger of occupational disease formation. Patients having occupational disease present disorders of cortex-subcortex relationships on diencephal level, central and peripheral regulatory mechanisms, central sensory mechanisms participation in pathologic processes development, changes in vegetative regulation on cerebral level, demyelination and axon demyelination changes in peripheral nerves of upper and lower limbs. Findings are also changes in central nervous, peripheral nervous systems, endocrine, immune systems, severe emotional negative strain and high level of nervous system excitation, perivascular edema in brain cortex of experimental animals. Based on key principles of the theory, the authors specified and tested new methods of treatment and prevention of occupational diseases caused by physical factors, aimed to unblock the sensory conflict. PMID:26065237

  17. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 18 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and…

  18. 5 CFR 536.206 - Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... entitled to a saved rate under 5 CFR 359.705, the agency must determine the employee's payable rate of... prescribed in the rules governing the covered pay system of the employee's position of record (e.g., 5 CFR 531.206 for GS positions and 5 CFR 532.413 for Federal Wage System positions)....

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce...

  1. Survey Summary of AGATE Concepts Demonstration at Annual NATA Convention, March 24-26, 1997. Volume 1; Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An AGATE Concepts Demonstration was conducted at the annual National Air Transportation Association (NATA) Convention in 1997. Following a 5-minute introductory briefing, an interactive simulation of a single-pilot, single-engine aircraft was conducted. The participant was able to take off, fly a brief enroute segment, fly a Global Positioning System (GPS) approach and landing, and repeat the approach and landing segment. The participant was provided an advanced "highway-in-the-sky" presentation on both a simulated head-up display and on a large LCD head-down display to follow throughout the flight. A single-lever power control and display concept was also provided for control of the engine throughout the flight. A second head-down, multifunction display in the instrument panel provided a moving map display for navigation purposes and monitoring of the status of the aircraft's systems. An estimated 100 people observed or participated in the demonstration, and 68 surveys were collected. The pilot ratings of the participants ranged from student to Air Transport Rating with an average of 6089 hours total flight time. The overwhelming response was that technologies that simplify piloting tasks are enthusiastically welcomed by pilots of all experience levels. The increase in situation awareness and use of the head-up display were universally accepted and lauded as steps in the right direction.

  2. Conceptualizing the aesthetic experience: using the influence matrix to show causal relationships between basic concepts in aesthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that using tools from systems science for teaching and learning in the Humanities offers innovative insights that can prove helpful for both students and lecturers. Our contention here is that a method used in systems science, namely the influence matrix, can be a suitable tool to facilitate the understanding of elementary notions in Aesthetics by means of systematizing this process. As we will demonstrate in the upcoming sections, the influence matrix can help us to understand the nature and function of the basic elements that take part in the aesthetic experience and their evolving relevance in the history of Aesthetics. The implementation of these elements to an influence matrix will contribute to a more detailed understanding of (i) the nature of each element, (ii) the interrelation between them and (iii) the influence each element has on all the others.

  3. Influence of surface diffusion on the formation of hollow nanostructures induced by the Kirkendall effect: the basic concept.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong Jin; Knez, Mato; Scholz, Roland; Hesse, Dietrich; Nielsch, Kornelius; Zacharias, Margit; Gösele, Ulrich

    2007-04-01

    The Kirkendall effect has been widely applied for fabrication of nanoscale hollow structures, which involves an unbalanced counterdiffusion through a reaction interface. Conventional treatment of this process only considers the bulk diffusion of growth species and vacancies. In this letter, a conceptual extension is proposed: the development of the hollow interior undergoes two main stages. The initial stage is the generation of small Kirkendall voids intersecting the compound interface via a bulk diffusion process; the second stage is dominated by surface diffusion of the core material (viz., the fast-diffusing species) along the pore surface. This concept applies to spherical as well as cylindrical nanometer and microscale structures, and even to macroscopic bilayers. As supporting evidence, we show the results of a spinel-forming solid-state reaction of core-shell nanowires, as well as of a planar bilayer of ZnO-Al2O3 to illustrate the influence of surface diffusion on the morphology evolution. PMID:17381161

  4. Cells, scaffolds and bioreactors for tissue-engineered heart valves: a journey from basic concepts to contemporary developmental innovations.

    PubMed

    Gandaglia, Alessandro; Bagno, Andrea; Naso, Filippo; Spina, Michele; Gerosa, Gino

    2011-04-01

    The development of viable and functional tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) is a challenge that, for almost two decades, the scientific community has been committed to face to create life-lasting prosthetic devices for treating heart valve diseases. One of the main drawbacks of tissue-based commercial substitutes, xenografts and homografts, is their lack of viability, and hence failure to grow, repair, and remodel. In adults, the average bioprostheses life span is around 13 years, followed by structural valve degeneration, such as calcification; in pediatric, mechanical valves are commonly used instead of biological substitutes, as in young patients, the mobilization of calcium, due to bone remodeling, accelerates the calcification process. Moreover, neither mechanical nor bioprostheses are able to follow children's body growth. Cell seeding and repopulation of acellular heart valve scaffolds, biological and polymeric, appears as a promising way to create a living valve. Biomechanical stimuli have significant impact on cell behavior including in vitro differentiation, and physiological hemodynamic conditioning has been found to promote new tissue development. These concepts have led scientists to design bioreactors to mimic the in vivo environment of heart valves. Many different types of somatic and stem cells have been tested for colonizing both the surface and the core of the valve matrix but controversial results have been achieved so far. PMID:21163670

  5. Subversive Complicity and Basic Writing across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor

    2013-01-01

    What follows is a simple assertion: time for basic writing to get out from under, a call for us to inculcate a Basic Writing Across the Curriculum. It is time yet again to move away from the concept that basic writers are in need of remedies, in part because all composition courses are in some sense remedial, and to a greater degree because the…

  6. Hypersonic airbreathing missile concepts under study at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Johnston, P. J.; Cubbage, J. M.; Dillon, J. L.; Richie, C. B.; Marcum, D. C., Jr.; Carlson, C. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design and performance of several tactical and strategic hypersonic airbreathing missile concepts under study at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed from an evolutionary perspective. A mid- and chin inlet missile design, constrained to the Navy's vertical box launcher, was investigated; a performance comparison is presented that is favorable to the mid-inlet approach. Parasol wing, confined flow field, and spatula-like cruise missile configurations were examined with strategic applications in mind. The preliminary results are encouraging with respect to aerodynamic and volumetric efficiency and choice of engine integration schemes.

  7. Adrenomedullin promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes under pathological conditions in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Takakuni; Takahashi, Yoko; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Liang, Anna C.; Ihara, Masafumi; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes, which are the main cell type in cerebral white matter, are generated from their precursor cells (oligodendrocyte precursor cells: OPCs). However, the differentiation from OPCs to oligodendrocytes is disturbed under stressed conditions. Therefore, drugs that can improve oligodendrocyte regeneration may be effective for white matter-related diseases. Here we show that a vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM) promotes the in vitro differentiation of OPCs under pathological conditions. Primary OPCs were prepared from neonatal rat brains, and differentiated into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes over time. This in vitro OPC differentiation was inhibited by prolonged chemical hypoxic stress induced by non-lethal CoCl2 treatment. However, AM promoted the OPC differentiation under the hypoxic stress conditions, and the AM receptor antagonist AM22–52 cancelled the AM-induced OPC differentiation. In addition, AM treatment increased the phosphorylation level of Akt in OPC cultures, and correspondingly, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 blocked the AM-induced OPC differentiation. Taken together, AM treatment rescued OPC maturation under pathological conditions via an AM-receptor-PI3K/Akt pathway. Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in white matter by forming myelin sheath. Therefore, AM signaling may be a promising therapeutic target to boost oligodendrocyte regeneration in CNS disorders. PMID:26002630

  8. Adrenomedullin promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes under pathological conditions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maki, Takakuni; Takahashi, Yoko; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Liang, Anna C; Ihara, Masafumi; Lo, Eng H; Arai, Ken

    2015-07-01

    Oligodendrocytes, which are the main cell type in cerebral white matter, are generated from their precursor cells (oligodendrocyte precursor cells: OPCs). However, the differentiation from OPCs to oligodendrocytes is disturbed under stressed conditions. Therefore, drugs that can improve oligodendrocyte regeneration may be effective for white matter-related diseases. Here we show that a vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM) promotes the in vitro differentiation of OPCs under pathological conditions. Primary OPCs were prepared from neonatal rat brains, and differentiated into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes over time. This in vitro OPC differentiation was inhibited by prolonged chemical hypoxic stress induced by non-lethal CoCl(2) treatment. However, AM promoted the OPC differentiation under the hypoxic stress conditions, and the AM receptor antagonist AM(22-52) canceled the AM-induced OPC differentiation. In addition, AM treatment increased the phosphorylation level of Akt in OPC cultures, and correspondingly, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 blocked the AM-induced OPC differentiation. Taken together, AM treatment rescued OPC maturation under pathological conditions via an AM-receptor-PI3K/Akt pathway. Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in white matter by forming myelin sheath. Therefore, AM signaling may be a promising therapeutic target to boost oligodendrocyte regeneration in CNS disorders. PMID:26002630

  9. Contemporary concepts of the medical therapy of portal hypertension under liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Garbuzenko, Dmitry Victorovich

    2015-01-01

    Severe complications of liver cirrhosis are mostly related to portal hypertension. At the base of the pathogenesis of portal hypertension is the increase in hepatic vascular resistance to portal blood flow with subsequent development of hyperdynamic circulation, which, despite of the formation of collateral circulation, promotes progression of portal hypertension. An important role in its pathogenesis is played by the rearrangement of vascular bed and angiogenesis. As a result, strategic directions of the therapy of portal hypertension under liver cirrhosis include selectively decreasing hepatic vascular resistance with preserving or increasing portal blood flow, and correcting hyperdynamic circulation and pathological angiogenesis, while striving to reduce the hepatic venous pressure gradient to less than 12 mmHg or 20% of the baseline. Over the last years, substantial progress in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of hemodynamic disorders under liver cirrhosis has resulted in the development of new drugs for their correction. Although the majority of them have so far been investigated only in animal experiments, as well as at the molecular and cellular level, it might be expected that the introduction of the new methods in clinical practice will increase the efficacy of the conservative approach to the prophylaxis and treatment of portal hypertension complications. The purpose of the review is to describe the known methods of portal hypertension pharmacotherapy and discuss the drugs that may affect the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of its development. PMID:26034348

  10. Contemporary concepts of the medical therapy of portal hypertension under liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Garbuzenko, Dmitry Victorovich

    2015-05-28

    Severe complications of liver cirrhosis are mostly related to portal hypertension. At the base of the pathogenesis of portal hypertension is the increase in hepatic vascular resistance to portal blood flow with subsequent development of hyperdynamic circulation, which, despite of the formation of collateral circulation, promotes progression of portal hypertension. An important role in its pathogenesis is played by the rearrangement of vascular bed and angiogenesis. As a result, strategic directions of the therapy of portal hypertension under liver cirrhosis include selectively decreasing hepatic vascular resistance with preserving or increasing portal blood flow, and correcting hyperdynamic circulation and pathological angiogenesis, while striving to reduce the hepatic venous pressure gradient to less than 12 mmHg or 20% of the baseline. Over the last years, substantial progress in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of hemodynamic disorders under liver cirrhosis has resulted in the development of new drugs for their correction. Although the majority of them have so far been investigated only in animal experiments, as well as at the molecular and cellular level, it might be expected that the introduction of the new methods in clinical practice will increase the efficacy of the conservative approach to the prophylaxis and treatment of portal hypertension complications. The purpose of the review is to describe the known methods of portal hypertension pharmacotherapy and discuss the drugs that may affect the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of its development. PMID:26034348

  11. Concept dictionary creation and maintenance under resource constraints: lessons from the AMPATH Medical Record System.

    PubMed

    Were, Martin C; Mamlin, Burke W; Tierney, William M; Wolfe, Ben; Biondich, Paul G

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of creating and maintaining concept dictionaries are compounded in resource-limited settings. Approaches to alleviate this burden need to be based on information derived in these settings. We created a concept dictionary and evaluated new concept proposals for an open source EMR in a resource-limited setting. Overall, 87% of the concepts in the initial dictionary were used. There were 5137 new concepts proposed, with 77% of these proposed only once. Further characterization of new concept proposals revealed that 41% were due to deficiency in the existing dictionary, and 19% were synonyms to existing concepts. 25% of the requests contained misspellings, 41% were complex terms, and 17% were ambiguous. Given the resource-intensive nature of dictionary creation and maintenance, there should be considerations for centralizing the concept dictionary service, using standards, prioritizing concept proposals, and redesigning the user-interface to reduce this burden in settings with limited resources. PMID:18693945

  12. Interactive evolution concept for analyzing a rock salt cavern under cyclic thermo-mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Diethard; Mahmoudi, Elham; Khaledi, Kavan; von Blumenthal, Achim; Schanz, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The excess electricity produced by renewable energy sources available during off-peak periods of consumption can be used e.g. to produce and compress hydrogen or to compress air. Afterwards the pressurized gas is stored in the rock salt cavities. During this process, thermo-mechanical cyclic loading is applied to the rock salt surrounding the cavern. Compared to the operation of conventional storage caverns in rock salt the frequencies of filling and discharging cycles and therefore the thermo-mechanical loading cycles are much higher, e.g. daily or weekly compared to seasonally or yearly. The stress strain behavior of rock salt as well as the deformation behavior and the stability of caverns in rock salt under such loading conditions are unknown. To overcome this, existing experimental studies have to be supplemented by exploring the behavior of rock salt under combined thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. Existing constitutive relations have to be extended to cover degradation of rock salt under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. At least the complex system of a cavern in rock salt under these loading conditions has to be analyzed by numerical modeling taking into account the uncertainties due to limited access in large depth to investigate material composition and properties. An interactive evolution concept is presented to link the different components of such a study - experimental modeling, constitutive modeling and numerical modeling. A triaxial experimental setup is designed to characterize the cyclic thermo-mechanical behavior of rock salt. The imposed boundary conditions in the experimental setup are assumed to be similar to the stress state obtained from a full-scale numerical simulation. The computational model relies primarily on the governing constitutive model for predicting the behavior of rock salt cavity. Hence, a sophisticated elasto-viscoplastic creep constitutive model is developed to take into account the dilatancy and damage progress, as well as

  13. BASIC CONCEPTS OF CONTAMINANT SORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of ISSUE PAPERS and BRIEFING DOCUMENTS which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  14. Safeguarding Databases Basic Concepts Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinali, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)

  15. Basic concepts in freezing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    Freezing involves the lowering of temperature and the formation of ice. Most cells have not been found to be sensitive to the former; rather injury is a consequence of the removal of water from the system in the form of ice. Some cells such as boar sperm and those of many tropical crops are susceptible to even short-term lowering of temperature to near O/sup 0/C. This susceptiblity, which is independent of the rate of temperature drop, is defined as chilling injury. Other cells are injured by chilling only if the rate of cooling is high, a phenomenon referred to as thermal shock. This paper discusses the physical-chemical events during freezing and on freezing injury will assume that lowered temperature per se is not injurious.

  16. Basic concept of dynamic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2000-03-01

    We have now many kinds of human assisted systems and facilities like computer, AI, robot, Database, new media, the internetworkings, etc. And we rely on these very much. But it is true to say that we cannot put our trust fully in them. That is to say, we still have to have thoughts whether they are alright or reliable or useful or not. So here proves that it can be made by neural networks of today by taking an idea from behavior/mechanisms that our brains have in order to think out.

  17. Conception on the cell mechanisms of bone tissue loss under spase flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Oganov, Victor; Kabitskaya, Olga

    Basing on the analysis of available literature and the results of our own electron microscopic and radioautographic researches the data are presented about the morpho-functional peculiarities and succession of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals (rats, monkeys, mice) to microgravity (SLS-2, Bion-11, BionM-1). The probable cellular mechanisms of the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis are considered. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and surface osteocytes as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and to those lying on bone surfaces. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, some of the osteoblasts undergo apoptosis. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts and bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn’t occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in these remodeling loci. These cell reactions are considered as adaptive-compensatory, but they don’t result

  18. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. PMID:26541886

  19. A basic concept in the clinical ethics of managed care: physicians and institutions as economically disciplined moral co-fiduciaries of populations of patients.

    PubMed

    McCullough, L B

    1999-02-01

    Managed care employs two business tools of managed practice that raise important ethical issues: paying physicians in ways that impose conflicts of interest on them; and regulating physicians' clinical judgment, decision making, and behavior. The literature on the clinical ethics of managed care has begun to develop rapidly in the past several years. Professional organizations of physicians have made important contributions to this literature. The statements on ethical issues in managed care of four such organizations are considered here, the American Medical Association, the American College of Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Three themes common to these statements are identified and critically assessed: the primacy of meeting the medical needs of each individual patient; disclosure of conflicts of interest in how physicians are paid; and opposition to gag orders. The paper concludes with an argument for a basic concept in the clinical ethics of managed care: physicians and institutions as economically disciplined moral co-fiduciaries of populations of patients. PMID:10223444

  20. Functional evaluation of the field capacity concept for water balance analysis under climatic seasonality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceres, Francesca; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Romano, Nunzio

    2010-05-01

    Some types of hydrologic models, such as the bucket model, rely on the concept of field water capacity, θFWC. In this study, the techniques traditionally proposed for determining this parameter have been critically analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in computing soil water budget. Two basic aspects of the problem will be presented: (i) to set up techniques for a suitable parameterization of hydrologic models, (ii) to implement simulation models that describe the various processes with different levels of complexity and compare their results. The following models are considered: the Richards equation based model and the simplified bucket-type model. Soil water content at the condition of field capacity has been determined for both uniform and layered soil profiles by using the numerical model developed by Romano et al. (1998) and verified by Brunone et al. (2003). This model solves the Richards equation with the Crank-Nicolson finite difference technique and uses a numerical algorithm specifically designed in case of layered soils for calculating the hydraulic conductivity at the layer interface. For layered soil profiles, which actually represent the rule rather than an exception, soil layer sequence and the reciprocal differences in the soil hydraulic properties (soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions) strongly influence the attainment of the field capacity condition. Simulations of soil water balance using the Richards-based model or the bucket-type model have been compared. It is shown that climatic seasonality typical of the Mediterranean environments exerts some influence on the dynamics of surficial water contents in soil and this influence can be kept only in part by the bucket model if not parameterized adequately. Rainfall variability during the vegetative season and that one evolving during the quiescent phase is responsible for different transpiration conditions and for evolutions of the water content in the soil characterized

  1. Under-Track CFD-Based Shape Optimization for a Low-Boom Demonstrator Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintzer, Mathias; Ordaz, Irian; Fenbert, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed outer mold line shaping of a Mach 1.6, demonstrator-sized low-boom concept is presented. Cruise trim is incorporated a priori as part of the shaping objective, using an equivalent-area-based approach. Design work is performed using a gradient-driven optimization framework that incorporates a three-dimensional, nonlinear flow solver, a parametric geometry modeler, and sensitivities derived using the adjoint method. The shaping effort is focused on reducing the under-track sonic boom level using an inverse design approach, while simultaneously satisfying the trim requirement. Conceptual-level geometric constraints are incorporated in the optimization process, including the internal layout of fuel tanks, landing gear, engine, and crew station. Details of the model parameterization and design process are documented for both flow-through and powered states, and the performance of these optimized vehicles presented in terms of inviscid L/D, trim state, pressures in the near-field and at the ground, and predicted sonic boom loudness.

  2. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  3. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder as a basic disorder in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy: psychopathological presentation, clinical relevance and therapeutic concepts.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Pick, Marion; Biscaldi, Monica; Fangmeier, Thomas; Riedel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social cognition and competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests and a strong desire for routines. Besides, there are specific abnormalities in perception and language. Typical symptoms are already present in early childhood. Traditionally autism has been regarded as a severe form of neurodevelopmental disorder which goes along with overtly abnormal language, learning difficulties and low IQ in the majority of cases. However, over the last decades, it has become clear that there are also many patients with high-functioning variants of ASD. These are patients with normal language at a superficial level of description and normal and sometimes above average intelligence. In high-functioning variants of the disease, they may run unrecognized until late in adult life. High-functioning ASD is associated with a very high prevalence of comorbid classical psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, tics, psychotic symptoms or emotionally unstable syndromes. In many such cases, there is a causal relationship between ASD and the comorbid psychiatric conditions in that the specific ASD symptoms result in chronic conflicts, misunderstandings and failure in private and vocational relationships. These problems in turn often lead to depression, anxiety and sometimes psychosis-like stress reactions. In this constellation, ASD has to be regarded as a basic disorder with causal relevance for secondary psychiatric syndromes. In this paper, we summarize the classical presentation of high-functioning ASD in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy and suggest a nosological model to classify different ASD conditions instead. To conclude, we outline first treatment concepts in out- and in-patient settings. PMID:24105433

  4. [THE MODERN CONCEPTS OF HEMOSTASIS SYSTEM UNDER CHRONIC DISEASES OF LIVER: THE PUBLICATIONS REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Batirova, A S; Bakanov, M I; Surkov, A N

    2015-08-01

    The disorder of system of hemostasis under chronic diseases of liver results in coagulation imbalance affecting both primary and secondary hemostasis. The shifting of hemostasis balance beyond the limits of physiological standards in such patients can result either in bleeding or thrombosis. For a long time already it is considered that in patients with chronic diseases of liver alterations in hemostasis system and occurrence of bleeding are very often interrelated. However results of such screening coagulation tests as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time poorly correlate with onset and duration of bleeding, for example after liver biopsy and also with occurrence of gastro-intestinal bleeding in patients with terminal stage of diseases of liver The foreign publications of last decade contest concept of cause and effect relationship between changes of indicators of screening coagulation tests and risk of development of bleeding in patients with chronic diseases of liver The publications also dispute both usefulness of the given tests in evaluation of hemorrhages and expediency of therapeutic strategies in the case of correction of anomalous results of mentioned tests. This issue in patients with rare diseases is factually unexplored. For example, there are single publications concerning patients with glycogenous disease type. The bleeding in such patients begin in early childhood They are related to dysfunction of thrombocytes and decreasing of particular oligomers of von Willebrand factor Hence, disorders in various chains of hemostasis system in patients with chronic diseases of liver are characterized by many unresolved issues that hinder furthering of development of diagnostic biomarkers. At that, diagnostic of coagulopathies and correction of pathological conditions in such patients the new tests are to be developed to monitor states of hemostasis system in patients with chronic diseases of liver, rare nosologic forms included. PMID

  5. Partitioning evapotranspiration based on the concept of underlying water use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sha; Yu, Bofu; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-02-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is dominated by transpiration (T) in the terrestrial water cycle. However, continuous measurement of transpiration is still difficult, and the effect of vegetation on ET partitioning is unclear. The concept of underlying water use efficiency (uWUE) was used to develop a new method for ET partitioning by assuming that the maximum, or the potential uWUE is related to T while the averaged or apparent uWUE is related to ET. T/ET was thus estimated as the ratio of the apparent over the potential uWUE using half-hourly flux data from 17 AmeriFlux sites. The estimated potential uWUE was shown to be essentially constant for 14 of the 17 sites, and was broadly consistent with the uWUE evaluated at the leaf scale. The annual T/ET was the highest for croplands, i.e., 0.69 for corn and 0.62 for soybean, followed by grasslands (0.60) and evergreen needle leaf forests (0.56), and was the lowest for deciduous broadleaf forests (0.52). The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was shown to be significantly correlated with T/ET and could explain about 75% of the variation in T/ET among the 71 site-years. The coefficients of determination between EVI and T/ET were 0.84 and 0.82 for corn and soybean, respectively, and 0.77 for deciduous broadleaf forests and grasslands, but only 0.37 for evergreen needle leaf forests. This ET partitioning method is sound in principle and simple to apply in practice, and would enhance the value and role of global FLUXNET in estimating T/ET variations and monitoring ecosystem dynamics.

  6. Effects of Concept and Vee Mappings under Three Learning Modes on Students' Cognitive Achievement in Ecology and Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esiobu, Gladys O.; Soyibo, Kola

    1995-01-01

    Verified the efficacy of concept and Vee mapping heuristics under cooperative, cooperative-competitive, and individualistic whole-class learning conditions in improving (n=808) eighth graders' achievement in ecology and genetics. Experimental groups achieved significantly better than the control groups; students in cooperative-competitive…

  7. Basic-functionalized recyclable ionic liquid catalyst: A solvent-free approach for Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to nitroalkenes under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Narayanaperumal, Senthil; da Silva, Rodrigo César; Feu, Karla Santos; de la Torre, Alexander Fernández; Corrêa, Arlene G; Paixão, Márcio Weber

    2013-05-01

    A task-specific ionic liquid (TSIL) has been introduced as a recyclable catalyst in Michael addition. A series of nitroalkenes and various C-based nucleophiles were reacted in the presence of 30mol% of recyclable basic-functionalized ionic liquid. Good to excellent yields were obtained in 30min under ultrasound irradiation. PMID:23218731

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  10. Assessment of the Provision of Educational Services under the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme in Southern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, Sam E. O.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the adequacy of educational services available for the implementation of the ideals of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Southern Nigeria. Using the multistage sampling technique, 800 primary school teachers were selected from the three geo political zones in Southern Nigeria as participants in the…

  11. Comparison of Teachers' and School Psychologists' Accuracy in Assigning Basic Academic Tasks to Underlying CHC-Model Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruccelli, Meredith Lohr; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities affect the referrals they make and intervention strategies they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into categories on the basis of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad cognitive abilities, such as fluid reasoning and…

  12. The Effective Concepts on Students' Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the basic concepts related to the unit of "Chemical Reactions and Energy" and the sub-concepts underlying for meaningful learning of the unit and to investigate the effectiveness of them on students' learning achievements. For this purpose, the basic concepts of the unit were…

  13. Cooperation between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA Under the State-Level Concept:

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Johnson, Jaclyn M

    2012-01-01

    The role of State and Regional Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs/RSACs) will increase within the framework of the state-level concept that is being implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to effectively implement the concept and further establish a state-level approach, which is sought to tailor safeguards activities in a specific state accordingly, collaboration between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is very important. Nevertheless, the implementation of such concept is not simple. Optimal relationship between operators and national/governmental authorities and between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is an evolving process. Benefits of such an approach as well as roles and responsibilities must be made clear to all parties involved. Acknowledging the uniqueness and diversity of SSACs/RSACs is a first step, followed by the implementation of confidence-building measures that result from an efficient communication process, and culminating with a transparent technical cooperation program. This paper analyses various aspects of the complex relationship among all parties involved in the implementation of the state-level concept: operators, national authorities, government agencies, SSACs/RSACs, and the IAEA. The author analyses the intricate network of possibilities to improve cooperation and discusses issues involving the provision of additional and voluntary information by SSACs/RSACs to the IAEA.

  14. New Light on Old Horizon: Constructing Mathematical Concepts, Underlying Abstraction Processes, and Sense Making Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The initial assumption of this article is that there is an overemphasis on abstraction-from-actions theoretical approaches in research on knowing and learning mathematics. This article uses a critical reflection on research on students' ways of constructing mathematical concepts to distinguish between abstraction-from-actions theoretical…

  15. Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement: Modeling the Relationship under the Language Pressure in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2004-01-01

    Located at a meeting place between the West and the East, Hong Kong has been chosen in this comparative investigation to reconfirm a theoretical model of "reciprocal relationship" between mathematics achievement and self-concept using the 8th grade databases from TIMSS and TIMSS-R. During the time between these two projects, Hong Kong experienced…

  16. Response of the Alliance 1 Proof-of-Concept Airplane Under Gust Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naser, A. S.; Pototzky, A. S.; Spain, C. V.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the work performed by Lockheed Martin's Langley Program Office in support of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The primary purpose of this work was to develop and demonstrate a gust analysis method which accounts for the span-wise variation of gust velocity. This is important because these unmanned aircraft having high aspect ratios and low wing loading are very flexible, and fly at low speeds. The main focus of the work was therefore to perform a two-dimensional Power Spectrum Density (PSD) analysis of the Alliance 1 Proof-of-Concept Unmanned Aircraft, As of this writing, none of the aircraft described in this report have been constructed. They are concepts represented by analytical models. The process first involved the development of suitable structural and aeroelastic Finite Element Models (FEM). This was followed by development of a one-dimensional PSD gust analysis, and then the two-dimensional (PSD) analysis of the Alliance 1. For further validation and comparison, two additional analyses were performed. A two-dimensional PSD gust analysis was performed on a simplet MSC/NASTRAN example problem. Finally a one-dimensional discrete gust analysis was performed on Alliance 1. This report describes this process, shows the relevant comparisons between analytical methods, and discusses the physical meanings of the results.

  17. Concept of relative variability of cardiac action potential duration and its test under various experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Magyar, János; Kistamás, Kornél; Váczi, Krisztina; Hegyi, Bence; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Nánási, Péter P; Szentandrássy, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Beat-to-beat variability of action potential duration (short-term variability, SV) is an intrinsic property of mammalian myocardium. Since the majority of agents and interventions affecting SV may modify also action potential duration (APD), we propose here the concept of relative SV (RSV), where changes in SV are normalized to changes in APD and these data are compared to the control SV-APD relationship obtained by lengthening or shortening of action potentials by inward and outward current injections. Based on this concept the influence of the several experimental conditions like stimulation frequency, temperature, pH, redox-state and osmolarity were examined on RSV in canine ventricular myocytes using sharp microelectrodes. RSV was increased by high stimulation frequency (cycle lengths <0.7 s), high temperature (above 37ºC), oxidative agents (H2O2), while it was decreased by reductive environment. RSV was not affected by changes in pH (within the range of 6.4-8.4) and osmolarity of the solution (between 250-350 mOsm). The results indicate that changes in beat-to-beat variability of APD must be evaluated exclusively in terms of RSV; furthermore, some experimental conditions, including the stimulation frequency, redox-state and temperature have to be controlled strictly when analyzing alterations in the short-term variability of APD. PMID:26492070

  18. 38 CFR 21.7137 - Rates of payment of basic educational assistance for individuals with remaining entitlement under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 21.7137, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... educational assistance for individuals with remaining entitlement under 38 U.S.C. chapter 34. 21.7137 Section... REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active...

  19. What is Basic Research? Insights from Historical Semantics.

    PubMed

    Schauz, Désirée

    2014-01-01

    For some years now, the concept of basic research has been under attack. Yet although the significance of the concept is in doubt, basic research continues to be used as an analytical category in science studies. But what exactly is basic research? What is the difference between basic and applied research? This article seeks to answer these questions by applying historical semantics. I argue that the concept of basic research did not arise out of the tradition of pure science. On the contrary, this new concept emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a time when scientists were being confronted with rising expectations regarding the societal utility of science. Scientists used the concept in order to try to bridge the gap between the promise of utility and the uncertainty of scientific endeavour. Only after 1945, when United States science policy shaped the notion of basic research, did the concept revert to the older ideals of pure science. This revival of the purity discourse was caused by the specific historical situation in the US at that time: the need to reform federal research policy after the Second World War, the new dimension of ethical dilemmas in science and technology during the atomic era, and the tense political climate during the Cold War. PMID:25165404

  20. Evaluation of an Intervention Instructional Program to Facilitate Understanding of Basic Particle Concepts among Students Enrolled in Several Levels of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Zain, Ahmad N. M.; Ong, Eng Tek; Karpudewan, Mageswary; Halim, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of an intervention instructional program was evaluated to facilitate understanding of particle theory concepts among students (N = 190) using a diagnostic instrument consisting of eleven two-tier multiple-choice items in a pre-test--post-test design. The students involved were high school students, undergraduates and postgraduates…

  1. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  2. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results.

    PubMed

    Yang, R S; Hong, H L; Boorman, G A

    1989-12-01

    The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, there is yet no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last 2 years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology. PMID:2690403

  3. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: Experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.S.; Long, H.L.; Boorman, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, as yet there is no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last two years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology.

  4. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential. PMID:26444147

  5. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  6. Transannular cyclization of (4S,5S)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide under basic conditions to yield eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Shirota, Osamu; Sekita, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Transannular cyclizations of germacrone-4,5-epoxide under acidic and thermal conditions have been reported in our previous study. However, this process gave the different and interesting results under basic conditions. (4S,5S)-Germacrone-4,5-epoxide (1) was treated under basic conditions to yield four products (2-5). Compound 2 was an isomer of 1--(4S,5S,9Z)-4,5-epoxygermacra-7(11),9-dien-8-one--and the remaining three compounds (3-5) were eudesmane-type derivatives. Compounds 4 and 5 are new compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined using high resolution (HR)-MS, one dimensional (1D)-NMR, 2D-NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic data. Products 3-5 had the same carbon skeleton as that of eudesmane-type compounds; however, these compounds showed different arrangement of isoprene units to the natural eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes. PMID:24990508

  7. A concept of complex-wavelet modal curvature for detecting multiple cracks in beams under noisy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Mao-Sen; Xu, Wei; Ren, Wei-Xin; Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Sha, Gang-Gang; Pan, Li-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Detection of multiple damage using modal curvature in noisy environments has become a research focus of considerable challenge and great significance over the last few years. However, a noticeable deficiency of modal curvature is its susceptibility to noise, which usually results in a noisy modal curvature with obscured damage signature. To address this deficiency, this study formulates a new concept of complex-wavelet modal curvature. Complex-wavelet modal curvature features the ability to reveal and delineate damage under noisy conditions. The effectiveness of the concept is analytically verified using cracked beams with various types of boundary conditions. The applicability is further experimentally validated by an aluminum beam with a single crack and a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite beam with three cracks in the laboratory with mode shapes measured by a scanning laser vibrometer. Both analytical and experimental results have demonstrated that the complex-wavelet modal curvature is capable of revealing slight damage by eliminating noise interference, with no need for prior knowledge of either material properties or boundary conditions of the beam under inspection.

  8. Root gravitropism: an experimental tool to investigate basic cellular and molecular processes underlying mechanosensing and signal transmission in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Guan, C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of plant organs to use gravity as a guide for growth, named gravitropism, has been recognized for over two centuries. This growth response to the environment contributes significantly to the upward growth of shoots and the downward growth of roots commonly observed throughout the plant kingdom. Root gravitropism has received a great deal of attention because there is a physical separation between the primary site for gravity sensing, located in the root cap, and the site of differential growth response, located in the elongation zones (EZs). Hence, this system allows identification and characterization of different phases of gravitropism, including gravity perception, signal transduction, signal transmission, and curvature response. Recent studies support some aspects of an old model for gravity sensing, which postulates that root-cap columellar amyloplasts constitute the susceptors for gravity perception. Such studies have also allowed the identification of several molecules that appear to function as second messengers in gravity signal transduction and of potential signal transducers. Auxin has been implicated as a probable component of the signal that carries the gravitropic information between the gravity-sensing cap and the gravity-responding EZs. This has allowed the identification and characterization of important molecular processes underlying auxin transport and response in plants. New molecular models can be elaborated to explain how the gravity signal transduction pathway might regulate the polarity of auxin transport in roots. Further studies are required to test these models, as well as to study the molecular mechanisms underlying a poorly characterized phase of gravitropism that is independent of an auxin gradient.

  9. Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the

  10. Effect of basic additives on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for CO and propylene oxidation under oxygen-deficient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Chen, Y.W.

    1997-05-01

    Pt catalysts supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared and characterized with respect to surface area, CO chemisorption, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of H{sub 2}. The effects of basic additives on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for CO and propylene oxidation were investigated. The addition of basic additives slightly decreases the surface area of the catalyst and does not significantly change Pt dispersion. The basicity of the catalyst is in the order Pt-K{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pt-Na{sub 2}O/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pt-CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The promoted Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts are much more active than the unpromoted one for CO and propylene oxidation under the stoichiometric point. Under oxygen-deficient conditions and in the absence of water, propylene conversions on all catalysts studied herein increase with increasing reaction temperature. Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits the highest propylene conversion and the lowest CO conversion among these catalysts, and the addition of CeO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, and K{sub 2}O on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can promote the CO conversion. Under oxygen-deficient conditions and in the presence of water, the water-gas shift and steam re-forming reactions can take place and result in increases of CO and propylene conversions. Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most active catalyst for the steam reforming reaction and the least active catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction among these catalysts. However, the addition of basic additives on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst can significantly enhance the water-gas shift reaction that can reduce CO emission. The promotional effect is in the order K{sub 2}O > Na{sub 2}O > CeO{sub 2}. K{sub 2}O could be a promising additive to a catalytic converter of a two-stroke motorcycle since it can enhance CO conversion.

  11. Dechlorination and destruction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant catalyzed by molybdate ions under basic condition.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao; Jiang, Guibin

    2005-04-01

    The dechlorination and destruction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) under basic condition using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant catalyzed by molybdate ions have been studied. Under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure, more than 95% of millimolar solutions of TCP and PCP can be converted to CO2 and CO, chlorinated and nonchlorinated carboxylic acid in 40 min. Up to 2.4 chloride ions per TCP and 3.5 chloride ions per PCP were released. TOC measurements indicated that 18% and 11% of the carbon was mineralized for TCP and PCP respectively after an hour of reaction. The results of ESR measurements suggested that the reaction possibly proceeded via the pathway with singlet oxygen. PMID:15763084

  12. Basic Media in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, John

    Intended as a guide to the use of different media for use in the classroom, this document demonstrates alternative approaches that may be taken to depicting and communicating images and concepts to others. Some basic tools and materials--including a ruler, matte knife, rubber cement, stapler, felt-tip pens, paint brushes, and lettering pens--are…

  13. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  14. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  15. Basic Warehousing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on basic warehousing is designed to provide Marines with Military Occupation Speciality 3051 in the rank of private through corporal with instruction in those basic principles, methods, and procedures that can be applied to any warehousing or storage…

  16. Teaching first-year medical students in basic clinical and procedural skills − A novel course concept at a medical school in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Mileder, Lukas; Wegscheider, Thomas; Dimai, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Clerkships are still the main source for undergraduate medical students to acquire necessary skills. However, these educational experiences may not be sufficient, as there are significant deficiencies in the clinical experience and practical expertise of medical students. Project description: An innovative course teaching basic clinical and procedural skills to first-year medical students has been implemented at the Medical University of Graz, aiming at preparing students for clerkships and clinical electives. The course is based on several didactic elements: standardized and clinically relevant contents, dual (theoretical and virtual) pre-course preparation, student peer-teaching, small teaching groups, hands-on training, and the use of medical simulation. This is the first course of its kind at a medical school in Austria, and its conceptual design as well as the implementation process into the curriculum shall be described. Evaluation: Between November 2011 and January 2013, 418 students have successfully completed the course. Four online surveys among participating students have been performed, with 132 returned questionnaires. Students’ satisfaction with all four practical course parts was high, as well as the assessment of clinical relevance of contents. Most students (88.6%) strongly agreed/agreed that they had learned a lot throughout the course. Two thirds of the students were motivated by the course to train the acquired skills regularly at our skills laboratory. Narrative feedbacks revealed elements contributing most to course success. Conclusions: First-year medical students highly appreciate practical skills training. Hands-on practice, peer-teaching, clinically relevant contents, and the use of medical simulation are valued most. PMID:24575157

  17. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

  18. French Basic Course: Basic Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume of the French Basic Course contains ten situations from daily life, each divided into five sub-situations. The material for each situation consists of cartoons and lists of selected words. The purpose of the volume is to provide a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of lessons 1-85 of the Basic Course and adding new words…

  19. Schizophrenia Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  20. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  1. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  2. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  3. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  4. Basic concepts and issues: a primer on distribution and sales representative agreements in the medical device and durable medical equipment industries.

    PubMed

    Burow, Heiko E; Kolls, Raymond C

    2006-01-01

    Counsel for a manufacturer of medical devices or durable medical equipment must have working knowledge of various legal disciplines to draft contracts with intermediaries (sales representatives and distributors) for the marketing and sale of the manufacturer's products. If the manufacturer wishes to sell its products abroad, counsel must become familiar with the laws and business practices of the target country, and methods of gaining access to the foreign market. This Article gives readers an overview of the applicable legal principles, under U.S. and foreign laws, in the areas of agency, contracts, healthcare regulation, consumer protection, intellectual property protection, and dealer protection. To aid counsel in drafting intermediary agreements, specific contractual terms and issues are explored in depth, including: appointment clauses, performance provisions, provisions concerning pricing and payment, protective clauses (shielding the manufacturer from liability), term and termination provisions, independent contractor clauses, export control clauses, recordkeeping and audit provisions, choice of law clauses, and dispute resolution clauses. PMID:17002232

  5. Reflections on basic science.

    PubMed

    Piatigorsky, Joram

    2010-01-01

    After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research-free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts-and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I never would have considered if I were conducting translational research. My investigations ranged from jellyfish to mice and resulted in the gene-sharing concept, which showed that the same protein can have distinct molecular functions depending upon its expression pattern and, conversely, that different proteins can serve similar functional roles. This essay portrays basic science as a creative narrative, comparable to literary and artistic endeavors. Preserving the autonomy of open-ended basic research and recognizing its artistic, narrative qualities will accelerate the development of innovative concepts, create a rich resource of information feeding translational research, and have a positive impact by attracting creative individuals to science. PMID:21037410

  6. Species delimitation under the general lineage concept: an empirical example using wild North American hops (Cannabaceae: Humulus lupulus).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Patrick A; Richards, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the intent of most species concepts is to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages. However, the criteria used to identify lineages differ among concepts depending on the perceived importance of various attributes of evolving populations. We have examined five different species criteria to ask whether the three taxonomic varieties of Humulus lupulus (hops) native to North America are distinct lineages. Three criteria (monophyly, absence of genetic intermediates, and diagnosability) focus on evolutionary patterns and two (intrinsic reproductive isolation and niche specialization) consider evolutionary processes. Phylogenetic analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data under a relaxed molecular clock, a stochastic Dollo substitution model, and parsimony identified all varieties as monophyletic, thus they satisfy the monophyly criterion for species delimitation. Principal coordinate analysis and a Bayesian assignment procedure revealed deep genetic subdivisions and little admixture between varieties, indicating an absence of genetic intermediates and compliance with the genotypic cluster species criterion. Diagnostic morphological and AFLP characters were found for all varieties, thus they meet the diagnosability criterion. Natural history information suggests that reproductive isolating barriers may have evolved in var. pubescens, potentially qualifying it as a species under a criterion of intrinsic reproductive isolation. Environmental niche modeling showed that the preferred habitat of var. neomexicanus is climatically unique, suggesting niche specialization and thus compliance with an ecological species criterion. Isolation by distance coupled with imperfect sampling can lead to erroneous lineage identification using some species criteria. Compliance with complementary pattern- and process-oriented criteria provides powerful corroboration for a species hypothesis and mitigates the necessity for comprehensive

  7. Concepts and mechanisms underlying chemotherapy induced immunogenic cell death: impact on clinical studies and considerations for combined therapies

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Simon; Johnston, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has historically been thought to induce cancer cell death in an immunogenically silent manner. However, recent studies have demonstrated that therapeutic outcomes with specific chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. anthracyclines) correlate strongly with their ability to induce a process of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in cancer cells. This process generates a series of signals that stimulate the immune system to recognize and clear tumor cells. Extensive studies have revealed that chemotherapy-induced ICD occurs via the exposure/release of calreticulin (CALR), ATP, chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). This review provides an in-depth look into the concepts and mechanisms underlying CALR exposure, activation of the Toll-like receptor 3/IFN/CXCL10 axis, and the release of ATP and HMGB1 from dying cancer cells. Factors that influence the impact of ICD in clinical studies and the design of therapies combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy are also discussed. PMID:26486085

  8. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  9. Are Basic Writers Cognitively Deficient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Joseph G. R.; Martinez, Nancy C.

    Researchers of writing ability have often applied the developmental schemes of William Perry, Lev Vygotsky, and Jean Piaget in describing basic writers. As a result, some researchers have concluded that basic writers think well below the formal-operations or true concept-formation stage of cognitive development. To investigate the theory that…

  10. DOS basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

  11. Multiwall TPS: An emerging concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, J. L.; Kelly, H. N.; Avery, D. E.; Blosser, M. L.; Adelman, H. M.

    1981-01-01

    The transformation of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system from a conceptual design to a working reality is described. The thermal and structural performance of the basic multiwall concept is analyzed. Radiant heat, wind tunnel, vibration, acoustic, and lightning strike tests are used to verify the performance of multiwall tiles under representative operating conditions. Flat, all titanium multiwall configurations limited to temperature below 810 K are discussed. Curved surface, higher temperature versions of the multiwall are considered. Preliminary mass estimates for advanced multiwall concepts are presented.

  12. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  13. Species delimitation under the general lineage concept: An empirical example using wild North American hops (cannabaceae: Humulus lupulus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an emerging consensus that the intent of most species concepts is to identify evolutionarily-distinct lineages. However, the criteria used to identify lineages differ between concepts depending on the perceived importance of various attributes of evolving populations. We have applied tests ...

  14. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

  16. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  17. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  18. Armchair BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Annie; Fox, David

    1983-01-01

    A first lesson in learning the computer programing language BASIC, this article explains how to give instructions to the computer; the commands PRINT, NEW, LIST, and RUN; and how to do simple line editing. There is a short quiz at the end. (EAO)

  19. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson), emphasizes that the study of…

  20. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  1. Self-Supported Cedarlike Semimetallic Cu3P Nanoarrays as a 3D High-Performance Janus Electrode for Both Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution under Basic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chun-Chao; Chen, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Liang, Fei; Lin, Zheshuai; Fu, Wen-Fu; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    There has been strong and growing interest in the development of cost-effective and highly active oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts for alternative fuels utilization and conversion devices. We report herein that semimetallic Cu3P nanoarrays directly grown on 3D copper foam (CF) substrate can function as effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation. Specifically, the surface oxidation-activated Cu3P only required a relatively low overpotential of 412 mV to achieve a current density of 50 mA cm(-2) and displayed a small Tafel slope of 63 mV dec(-1) in 0.1 M KOH solution, on account of the collaborative effect of large roughness factor (RF) and semimetallic character. Following that, investigations into the mechanism revealed the formation of a unique active phase during the water oxidation process in which conductive Cu3P was the core covered with a thin copper oxide/hydroxide layer. Moreover, this Cu3P 3D electrode was also applied to the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and showed good catalytic performance and stability under the same basic conditions. PMID:27559613

  2. BASALT 1: Extravehicular Activity Science Operations Concepts under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints at Craters of the Moon, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara; Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2017-01-01

    An over-arching goal of the multi-year Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human exploration of Mars. Geological and biological scientific fieldwork is being conducted during four total deployments at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. Specific capabilities being evaluated include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, communication and navigation packages, advanced science mission planning tools, and scientifically-relevant instrument packages to achieve the project goals. This paper describes the planning, execution, and results of the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT 1, which consisted of a series of 12 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the lava terrains of Craters of the Moon, Idaho. Scientific objectives of the EVAs related to determination of how microbial communities and habitability correlate with the physical and geochemical characteristics of chemically-altered basalt environments. The concept of operations (ConOps) and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT 1 were based on extensive data from previous NASA trade studies and analog testing, and the primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities would work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under four different communication scenarios. Specifically, communication latencies of 5 and 15 minutes one-way light time (OWLT) were tested; these delays fall within the range of 4 to 22 minute OWLT delays that would be experienced during a Mars mission. Science operations were also conducted under low bandwidth conditions (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink), representing a

  3. [Basic concepts for network meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Tobías, Aurelio; Roqué, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have long been fundamental tools for evidence-based clinical practice. Initially, meta-analyses were proposed as a technique that could improve the accuracy and the statistical power of previous research from individual studies with small sample size. However, one of its main limitations has been the fact of being able to compare no more than two treatments in an analysis, even when the clinical research question necessitates that we compare multiple interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) uses novel statistical methods that incorporate information from both direct and indirect treatment comparisons in a network of studies examining the effects of various competing treatments, estimating comparisons between many treatments in a single analysis. Despite its potential limitations, NMA applications in clinical epidemiology can be of great value in situations where there are several treatments that have been compared against a common comparator. Also, NMA can be relevant to a research or clinical question when many treatments must be considered or when there is a mix of both direct and indirect information in the body of evidence. PMID:24796656

  4. Antioxidants: basic principles, emerging concepts, and problems.

    PubMed

    Niki, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    The radical scavenging antioxidants play an essential role in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases, and a thorough understanding of the action and capacity of antioxidants is critically important. Despite the assumption that antioxidants must exert beneficial effects against oxidative stress, many large-scale randomized controlled trials gave inconsistent and disappointing results on the prevention of chronic diseases. It is now generally accepted that there is no evidence to support the use of non-discriminative antioxidant supplements for prevention of diseases. On the other hand, recent data show that antioxidants may be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of diseases when the right antioxidant is given to the right subject at the right time for the right duration. Now it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as physiologically important signaling messengers as well as deleterious agents. The signaling ROS are produced in a subtly regulated manner, while many deleterious ROS are produced and react randomly. Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation products which, in contrast to enzymatic oxidation products, are produced by non-specific mechanisms cause oxidative damage, but may also induce adaptive response to enhance the expression of antioxidant enzymes and compounds. This has raised a question if removal of too many ROS by supplementation of antioxidants may upset the cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic diseases. However, it is unlikely that antioxidants impair physiologically essential signaling pathways. PMID:24923567

  5. The Prevalence of Area-under-a-Curve and Anti-Derivative Conceptions over Riemann Sum-Based Conceptions in Students' Explanations of Definite Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to broadly examine how commonly various conceptualizations of the definite integral are drawn on by students as they attempt to explain the meaning of integral expressions. Previous studies have shown that certain conceptualizations, such as the area under a curve or the values of an anti-derivative, may be less productive in…

  6. Basic Skills--Basic Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conference Board of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The experience of eight prominent Canadian business organizations was examined in terms of how basic skills deficits are identified in their work force, the impact of those deficiencies on organizational competitiveness, and why corporate programs are developed in response to the issue. Some of the key findings were as follows: (1) employee…

  7. Towards an Integrated Approach to Sexual Health Services: The Contribution of NICE Guidance on One-to-One Interventions to Prevent STIs and under 18 Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Amanda; McCormick, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) evidence-based guidance on one-to-one interventions for prevention of STIs and under 18 conceptions, as a focus for an integrated approach to sexual health services. Method: Documentation of the process for developing NICE guidance that is…

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of the Fracture Spatial Morphology for Water Pressure Blasting in a Drillhole Under True Triaxial Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng

    2015-07-01

    The present literature on the morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not sufficient and does not take triaxial confining stress into account. Because the spatial morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not clear, the operations lack an exact basis. Using a large true triaxial water pressure blasting experimental system and an acoustic emission 3-D positioning system, water pressure blasting experiments on cement mortar test blocks (300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm) were conducted to study the associated basic law of the fracture spatial morphology. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting does not always generate bubble pulsation. After water pressure blasting under true triaxial stress, a crushed compressive zone and a blasting fracture zone are formed from the inside, with the blasting section of the naked drillhole as the center, to the outside. The shape of the outer edges of the two zones is ellipsoidal. The range of the blasting fracture is large in the radial direction of the drillhole, where the surrounding pressure is large, i.e., the range of the blasting fracture in the drillhole radial cross-section is approximately ellipsoidal. The rock near the drillhole wall is affected by a tensile stress wave caused by the test block boundary reflection, resulting in more flake fractures appearing in the fracturing crack surface in the drillhole axial direction and parallel to the boundary surface. The flake fracture is thin, presenting a small-range flake fracture. The spatial morphology of the water pressure blasting fracture in the drillhole along the axial direction is similar to a wide-mouth Chinese bottle: the crack extent is large near the drillhole orifice, gradually narrows inward along the drillhole axial direction, and then increases into an approximate ellipsoid in the internal naked blasting section. Based on the causes of the crack generation, the blasting cracks are divided into three

  9. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

  10. Basic Theatrical Understanding: Considerations for James Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Noel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author considers Hamilton's idea of "basic understanding" of a theatrical performance. The author finds it hard to grasp this conception. He worries, although perhaps only on the basis of misunderstanding, that Hamilton's conception of the basic understanding of theatrical performances will not do the work he wants it to do as…

  11. Basic Measurement and Related Careers: Level B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The teaching guide, part of a series of four, consists of learning experiences for use at the grade 1 level in mathematics. It focuses on the basic concepts of measurement and developing measurement skills in the early grades. It progresses to the concept of measurement by comparison and to developing basic volume measurement skills . Students…

  12. Some basic principles of a "LISA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinet, Jean-Yves

    2013-04-01

    A Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a concept studied and developed since a few decades both by European and American teams. Its aim is to study the gravitational wave signals emitted by astrophysical sources such as supermassive black hole (SMBH) coalescences, captures of compact objects by SMBHs, compact galactic binaries, etc. The LISA mission has been first an ESA/NASA mission (1998-2011), then became an ESA mission under the name of NGO (2012): it could hopefully be proposed for selection in 2013. The very basic principles of such a mission still deserve a presentation, being quite generic: this is the aim of the present article.

  13. Advance the Harmonious Development of Higher Education Institutions under the Guidance of the Scientific Concept of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jiang-qiao

    2006-01-01

    To build up and carry out the scientific concept of development will have a major and directive significance in solving the problems and conflicts of the development of higher education institutions (HEIs). This paper is based on drawing up the development strategy of a university, and brings up the idea of grasping the strategic opportunity,…

  14. Sunspace basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Anyone who lives in a home with a sunspace will tell you that the sunspace is the most enjoyable room in the house. Many times the homeowner`s only regret is that the sunspace is not larger. Although aesthetics often drive the decision to add a sunspace or include one in a new home design, sunspaces can also provide supplemental space heating and a healthy environment for plants and people. In fact, a well-designed sunspace can provide up to 60% of a home`s winter heating requirements. This publication addresses basic elements of sunspace design; design considerations for supplemental space heating, growing plants, and use as a living space; design guidelines including siting, heat distribution, and glazing angles; and major sunspace components including glazing options, thermal mass, insulation, and climate controls. A list of sources for more information is also provided.

  15. Theoretical study of 1,6-anhydrosugar formation from phenyl D-glucosides under basic condition: reasons for higher reactivity of β-anomer.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takashi; Nakao, Yoshihide; Sato, Hirofumi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2010-12-17

    Degradation of anomeric phenyl d-glucosides to levoglucosan under basic condition is theoretically studied. MP4(SDQ)//DFT(B3LYP)-computational results indicate that the degradation of phenyl α-glucoside (R(α)) occurs via the S(N)icB mechanism. In this mechanism, the oxyanion at the C6, which is formed through deprotonation of the OH group, directly attacks the anomeric carbon. On the other hand, the degradation of phenyl β-glucoside (R(β)) occurs via the S(N)icB(2) mechanism. In this mechanism, the oxyanion at the C2 attacks the anomeric carbon in a nucleophilic manner to afford 1,2-anhydride intermediate and then the oxyanion at the C6 attacks the anomeric carbon to afford levoglucosan. The activation barrier is much lower in the reaction of R(β) (ΔG(0++) = 25.6 kcal/mol and E(a) = 26.5 kcal/mol) than in the reaction of R(α) (ΔG(0++) = 38.1 kcal/mol and E(a) = 37.2 kcal/mol), which is consistent with the experimental observation that β-glucoside is generally much more reactive than the corresponding α-glucoside. The lower activation barrier of the reaction of R(β) arises from the stereoelectronic effect, which is induced by the charge transfer from the ring oxygen to the anomeric carbon, and the staggered conformation around the C1-C2 bond. When the stereoelectronic effect is absent, the degradation needs larger activation energy; for instance, the degradation of phenyl 5a-carba-β-d-glucoside (R(Cβ)) occurs with large ΔG(0++) and E(a) values like those of α-glucosides, because the methylene group of R(Cβ) does not contribute to the stereoelectronic effect. Also, the conformation around the C1-C2 bond is staggered in the transition state of the R(β) reaction but eclipsed in that of the R(α) reaction, which also leads to the larger reactivity of R(β). PMID:21082769

  16. A Repeal of the Basic Writing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Vincent D.

    The development of alternative instructional activities for use in the basic writing classroom and a description and analysis of four levels of basic writing are the results of a study of basic writing teaching techniques. The linguistic concepts of immediate and transferred utterances and nominal-verbal pairing, and the work of L. Vygotsky on…

  17. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  18. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  19. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  20. Solar Concepts: Teacher Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This volume of teacher notes describes teaching methods to support the material presented in the background text and to elaborate on basic solar concepts. Included are objectives and quizzes, teacher notes and bibliographies, and selected student projects. (Author/RE)

  1. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos Básicos de Astronomía: Una Propuesta Metodológica.) Conceitos Básicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodológica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    In this report, the development of a methodological proposal which approaches basic concepts of astronomy-grounded pedagogically on Meaningful Learning is described. The proposal, which consists of four meetings, was developed by teachers and academics of the course of Professor in Physics of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF), through an extension course to a group of highschool students of a public school of the town of Passo Fundo, RS. The work was focused into basic concepts of astronomy. The signs of Meaningful Learning have been obtained by means of research and evaluation tools that were applied at the end of each meeting. The evaluation of the proposal has been conducted by means of a final questionnaire which was answered by the participants at the end ofthe development of activities. By means of the results obtained from the different instruments, and the comments made by the participants during the activities and by means of the high rates of approval obtained in the final questionnaire, we think that the proposal reached the established goals and it may be repeated with the certainty of success. En este relato se describe una propuesta de desarrollo metodológico que aborda conceptos básicos de astronomía fundamentada pedagógicamente en el Aprendizaje Significativo. La propuesta que comprende cuatro encuentros, fue desarrollada por profesores y académicos del curso de Licenciatura en Física de la Universidad de Passo Fundo (UPF), a través de un curso de extensión para un grupo de Liceo del 6º año de una Escuela Pública de la ciudad de Passo Fundo/RS. El trabajo tuvo como eje principal los "conceptos básicos de astronomía". Los indicios de Aprendizaje Significativo fueron obtenidos por instrumentos de pesquisa y evaluación, siempre aplicados después de cada encuentro. La evaluación de la propuesta fue hecha a través de un cuestionario final y contestado por los participantes al finalizar el desarrollo de actividades. Por los resultados

  2. Simulation of fatigue crack closure behavior under variable-amplitude loading by a 2D finite element analysis based on the most appropriate mesh size concept

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.J.; Song, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    A two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis is performed for plane stress conditions with 4-node isoparametric elements to investigate the closure behavior under various variable-amplitude loading, i.e., single overloading, Hi-Lo block loading, and narrow- and wide-band random loading. The closure behavior under single overloading and Hi-Lo block loading can be well simulated by applying the concept of the most appropriate mesh size that will provide numerical results consistent with experimental data under constant-amplitude loading. It is found that the crack opening load under random loading may be predicted approximately by replacing the complicated random load history with the appropriate equivalent, simplified variable load history.

  3. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  4. Students' Conceptions of Underlying Principles in Medical Physiology: An Interview Study of Medical Students' Understanding in a PBL Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyrenius, Anna; Silen, Charlotte; Wirell, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Medical physiology is known to be a complex area where students develop significant errors in conceptual understanding. Students' knowledge is often bound to situational descriptions rather than underlying principles. This study explores how medical students discern and process underlying principles in physiology. Indepth interviews, where…

  5. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  6. The effects of concept and vee mappings under three learning modes on Jamaican eighth graders' knowledge of nutrition and plant reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugwu, Okechukwu; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate if the experimental students' post-test knowledge of nutrition and plant reproduction would be improved more significantly than that of their control group counterparts based on their treatment, attitudes to science, self-esteem, gender and socio-economic background. Treatment involved teaching the experimental students under three learning modes--pure cooperative, cooperative-competitive and individualistic whole class interpersonal competitive condition--using concept and vee mappings and the lecture method. The control groups received the same treatment but were not exposed to concept and vee mappings. This study's second objective was to determine which of the three learning modes would produce the highest post-test mean gain in the subjects' knowledge of the two biology concepts. The study's sample comprised 932 eighth graders (12-13-year-olds) in 14 co-educational comprehensive high schools randomly selected from two Jamaican parishes. An integrated science performance test, an attitudes to science questionnaire and a self-esteem questionnaire were used to collect data. The results indicated that the experimental students (a) under the three learning modes, (b) with high, moderate, and low attitudes to science, and (c) with high, moderate, and low self-esteem, performed significantly better than their control group counterparts. The individualist whole class learning mode engendered the highest mean gain on the experimental students' knowledge, while the cooperative-competitive learning mode generated the highest mean gain for the control group students.

  7. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  8. JSC interactive basic accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Design concepts for an interactive basic accounting system (IBAS) are considered in terms of selecting the design option which provides the best response at the lowest cost. Modeling the IBAS workload and applying this workload to a U1108 EXEC 8 based system using both a simulation model and the real system is discussed.

  9. Advanced Sensor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, D. C.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Concepts project was conducted under the Center Director's Discretionary Fund at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Its objective was to advance the technology originally developed for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology project. The objective of this effort was to develop and test several new motion sensors. To date, the investigators have invented seven new technologies during this endeavor and have conceived several others. The innovative basic sensor technology is an absolute position sensor. It employs only two active components, and it is simple, inexpensive, reliable, repeatable, lightweight, and relatively unobtrusive. Two sensors can be utilized in the same physical space to achieve redundancy. The sensor has micrometer positional accuracy and can be configured as a two- or three-dimensional sensor. The sensor technology has the potential to pioneer a new class of linear and rotary sensors. This sensor is the enabling technology for autonomous assembly of modular structures in space and on extraterrestrial locations.

  10. Teaching Population Concepts. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This edition is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of population study are presented. These include populations, growth rates, birth and death rates, doubling time, migration, age…

  11. Master Unit: Adult Basic Education In-Service Program for Teacher Awareness in Guidance and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Teaching and Field Service Bureau.

    A program for adult basic education is presented. The general concepts underlying this program are that the teacher will review material covered in the preceding lessons and will be reminded of the overall purpose of the instructional package. Behavioral objectives of the program are: (1) The teacher will take the second diagnostic self-test for…

  12. The aesthetics of water and land: a promising concept for managing scarce water resources under climate change.

    PubMed

    Tielbörger, Katja; Fleischer, Aliza; Menzel, Lucas; Metz, Johannes; Sternberg, Marcelo

    2010-11-28

    The eastern Mediterranean faces a severe water crisis: water supply decreases due to climate change, while demand increases due to rapid population growth. The GLOWA Jordan River project generates science-based management strategies for maximizing water productivity under global climate change. We use a novel definition of water productivity as the full range of services provided by landscapes per unit blue (surface) and green (in plants and soil) water. Our combined results from climatological, ecological, economic and hydrological studies suggest that, in Israel, certain landscapes provide high returns as ecosystem services for little input of additional blue water. Specifically, cultural services such as recreation may by far exceed that of food production. Interestingly, some highly valued landscapes (e.g. rangeland) appear resistant to climate change, making them an ideal candidate for adaptive land management. Vice versa, expanding irrigated agriculture is unlikely to be sustainable under global climate change. We advocate the inclusion of a large range of ecosystem services into integrated land and water resources management. The focus on cultural services and integration of irrigation demand will lead to entirely different but productive water and land allocation schemes that may be suitable for withstanding the problems caused by climate change. PMID:20956374

  13. Basic Electricity--a Novel Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Uses the analogy of water flow to introduce concepts in basic electricity. Presents a demonstration that uses this analogy to help students grasp the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance. (JRH)

  14. Emerging tools, concepts and ideas to track the modulator genes underlying plant drought adaptive traits: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Parvathi, M S; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2016-01-01

    Crop vulnerability to multiple abiotic stresses is increasing at an alarming rate in the current global climate change scenario, especially drought. Crop improvement for adaptive adjustments to accomplish stress tolerance requires a comprehensive understanding of the key contributory processes. This requires the identification and careful analysis of the critical morpho-physiological plant attributes and their genetic control. In this review we try to discuss the crucial traits underlying drought tolerance and the various modes followed to understand their molecular level regulation. Plant stress biology is progressing into new dimensions and a conscious attempt has been made to traverse through the various approaches and checkpoints that would be relevant to tackle drought stress limitations for sustainable crop production. PMID:26618613

  15. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refugees based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refugees can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refugees. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have

  16. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refuges can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refuges. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have little

  17. Synthesis and solid state structure of a hydrazone-disulfide macrocycle and its dynamic covalent ring-opening under acidic and basic conditions.

    PubMed

    von Delius, Max; Geertsema, Edzard M; Leigh, David A; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2010-10-21

    The synthesis and characterisation, including solid state structure, of a macrocycle containing both a hydrazone and a disulfide linkage is described. Selective ring-opening of the macrocycle under thermodynamic control could be achieved at either the disulfide or the hydrazone linkage by applying mutually exclusive sets of reaction conditions. PMID:20725686

  18. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  19. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  20. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  1. Back to the Basics: Kansas City, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    "Back to the Basics" is an innovation of the WETMAAP Program (Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography) which offers a series of workshops that provide training in basics ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for assessing geography and earth science topics. The precept of the series is to…

  2. Oklahoma Adult Basic Education Teachers' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Adult Education Section.

    Three sections of information are provided in this guide designed for prospective and present adult basic education (ABE) teachers in Oklahoma. The first section provides basic information on ABE programs. Topics include the following: the ABE learning center concept, the origin of ABE, purpose of the ABE program, Oklahoma's adult student body,…

  3. Meeting Basic Needs Is Not beyond Our Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Mahbub ul

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the status of the continuing debate on the concept of "basic needs" in development policy for the world's poorest countries, reprinted from a World Bank report. Discusses "core" basic needs (food and nutrition, drinking water, basic health, shelter, and basic education) and possible operational policies. (MF)

  4. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  5. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations. PMID:26793283

  6. 27 CFR 24.106 - Basic permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this requirement. The issuance of a basic permit under the Act is governed by regulations in 27 CFR... Producer's and Blender's Basic Permit or Wine Blender's Basic Permit is required for a bonded wine...

  7. Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Narendera

    This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

  8. Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

    This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

  9. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  10. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior. PMID:26723699

  11. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a “quantum dot”), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1–014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1–245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals’ behavior.

  12. Representing the "Other": Basic Writers and the Teaching of Basic Writing. Refiguring English Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Lu, Min-Zhan

    Intended for teachers of basic writing, this book contains a collection of new and updated essays addressing issues surrounding underprepared writers. It maps errors and expectations for basic writing and develops teaching approaches that will be effective in a social and political world. The book considers concepts such as the possibility of…

  13. Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    1999-01-01

    Radiation litigation, the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radon exposure, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, stricter regulatory climate--these are some of the reasons health physics and radiation protection professionals are increasingly called upon to upgrade their skills. Designed to prepare candidates for the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive examination (Part I) and other certification examinations, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions introduces professionals in the field to radiation protection principles and their practical application in routine and emergency situations. It features more than 650 worked examples illustrating concepts under discussion along with an in-depth coverage of sources of radiation, standards and regulations, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instrumentation, external and internal dosimetry, counting statistics, monitoring and interpretations, operational health physics, transportation and waste, nuclear emergencies, and more. Reflecting for the first time the true scope of health physics at an introductory level, Basic Health Physics: Problems and Solutions gives readers the tools to properly evaluate challenging situations in all areas of radiation protection, including the medical, university, power reactor, fuel cycle, research reactor, environmental, non-ionizing radiation, and accelerator health physics.

  14. Basic BASIC; An Introduction to Computer Programming in BASIC Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, James S.

    With the increasing availability of computer access through remote terminals and time sharing, more and more schools and colleges are able to introduce programing to substantial numbers of students. This book is an attempt to incorporate computer programming, using BASIC language, and the teaching of mathematics. The general approach of the book…

  15. PASCAL vs BASIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundie, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

  16. Health Insurance Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  17. Basic Science Living Skills for Today's World. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers (Robert W.) Educational Services, Johnstown, PA.

    This document is a teacher's edition of a basic skills curriculum in science for adult basic education (ABE) students. The course consists of 25 lessons on basic science concepts, designed to give students a good understanding of the biological and physical sciences. Suggested activities and experiments that the student can do are also included.…

  18. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  19. CSF myelin basic protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF myelin basic protein is a test to measure the level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF ... less than 4 ng/mL of myelin basic protein in the CSF. Normal value ranges may vary ...

  20. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  1. Transition: Terms and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Ed

    This paper provides explanations and case examples of some terms and concepts related to transition of students with disabilities under 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Explanations and examples focus on the concepts of "statement of transition service needs" and "statement of needed transition services". The…

  2. The Basic and Semi-Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitler, Gail

    1978-01-01

    Presented is a paradigm for teaching basic and semibasic arithmetic facts to children with arithmetic difficulties, in which the student progresses from the use of concrete materials such as blocks, to the use of diagrams such as tally marks, to a reasoning process, to responding in an automatic manner. (DLS)

  3. "Back to Basics" or "Forward to Basics"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perso, Thelma

    2007-01-01

    Politicians have used the promise of "back to basics in our schools" as an educational platform for some time now, possibly in recognition that this is something the general population perceives as an issue they might just vote for. In the various positions the author has held, both professional and in community service, she has been required to…

  4. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All...

  5. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All...

  6. Basic Business and Economics: Economics for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frandino, Millie; Duffy, Eileen

    1978-01-01

    To give students the necessary basic economic concepts in the general business course, Monroe-Woodbury High School, Central Valley, New York, expanded the curriculum to offer seven quarter-courses in economics, the court system, principles of banking and insurance, consumer education, the working citizen, and business management. (MF)

  7. The Learning Laboratory in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James

    A review is provided of the learning laboratory concept as it is being implemented in the Ohio Adult Basic Education Program. Seating, scheduling, budgeting, and related details are considered first, followed by laboratory coordinators and supportive staff members, the use of programed instruction, selection of programed materials, student…

  8. Lunar interferometric astronomy: Some basic questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville

    1992-01-01

    The author examines some basic questions as to why there should be astronomical facilities on the far side of the moon. The questions are ones of appropriateness, i.e., is this a proper use for human resources, what the real goals are, and are the present concepts the best match for the goals.

  9. An Industrially Developed Basic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, L. W.; Haws, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a practical, job-related, 3 1/2 month long, basic chemistry course developed by Monsanto Research Corporation to train laboratory technicians and service employees. The course, centered around 31 chemistry topics, is designed to supplement university courses and stresses application of concepts. (BT)

  10. College Financial Management: Basics for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, E. Eugene

    Basic economic concepts applicable for college financial management are considered, along with the characteristics of financial instruments available to universities that have money to invest for short-term or long-term purposes. A discussion of various financial securities provides information for the endowment manager who has to select among…

  11. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Written for use in play therapy and child counseling courses, this extraordinarily practical text provides a detailed examination of basic and advanced play therapy concepts and skills and guidance on when and how to use them. Kottman's multitheoretical approach and wealth of explicit techniques are also helpful for clinicians who want to gain…

  12. Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  13. Basic Lighting Worktext for Film and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferncase, Richard K.

    This worktext guides film and video students through a series of practical exercises, quizzes, and projects designed to help reinforce skills learned through applied lighting situations. The book is organized in three parts. The first part contains four chapters devoted to basic concepts: (1) "The Visible Spectrum"; (2) "Film and Exposure"; (3)…

  14. Teach NC Basics Step by Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Roger

    1978-01-01

    Rapid expansion of numerical control (NC) machining in industry has created the need for inclusion of NC basic concepts in the industrial education curriculum. The author describes an NC unit in an industrial technology class and the program sheet and NC worksheet that he developed for machining a product. (MF)

  15. [Systemic biopsychological perspective of basic emotions].

    PubMed

    Poisson, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    The systemic biopsychological perspective of basic emotions is a heuristic model that allows a better understanding of how people learn to adapt to their environment through different emotions that developed gradually along neurohormonal circuit myelination from birth until about the age of twenty-one. These same emotions, acting in complementarity, will allow the individual to maintain a balance throughout his life.Five basic emotions were retained in line with the five emotions related to neuronal circuits, which are defined in the literature, and these are the five circuits described by Panksepp as follows: aggressiveness (Rage, angry), stress (Fear- surprise), developed by LeDoux, reward (Seeking-joy), developed by Tassin, empathy (Panic-sadness), developed by Decety, and consciousness (consciousness-happiness), developed by Damasio.Several studies on myelination (Kinney, 1988, Parazzini, 2002, Deoni, 2012), Miller, 2012, and Welker, 2012) provide us with a scientific platform to determine the order of development of the neurohormonal circuits underlying basic emotions.Neurohormonal circuits development begins at conception and will continue up until the age of 20-30 years. This article specifically addresses the first three years of life. It offers a systemic biopsychological perspective of basic emotions developed from the latest data in neuroscience. These informations have been integrated into a coherent whole that allows understanding the origin, the development and the functioning of basic emotions.In addition to the information output from the thalamus to the midbrain that set in motion the somatic nervous system there exist, according to Roberge (1998), two other brain information sources that are managed by the hypothalamus (the limbic system). These two information sources allow the refining of the behavioural responses and they favour the homeostasis of the organism. The first information source goes from the midbrain to the hypothalamus to activate

  16. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  17. HEBREW BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVINSON, HANNA; REIF, JOSEPH A.

    THIS HEBREW BASIC COURSE IS INTENDED AS A TRAINING MANUAL TO TEACH STUDENTS THE INFORMAL SPEECH OF EDUCATED NATIVE ISRAELIS AND IS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH A NATIVE INSTRUCTOR AND TAPE RECORDINGS PREPARED FOR THIS COURSE. THE UNITS CONSIST OF BASIC CONVERSATION, ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY, GRAMMAR NOTES, REVIEW CONVERSATIONS, AND DRILLS ON VOCABULARY,…

  18. BASIC Beats PASCAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ever, Jacob

    1981-01-01

    Features of two versions of the BASIC programing language are compared with the features of the PASCAL programing language. The application chosen for comparison was a word processor. The conclusion was that PASCAL had the best language features, but BASIC had better systems capabilities. (MP)

  19. Exponentiation: A New Basic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the basic operations of school mathematics have been identified as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Notably, these operations are "basic," not because they are foundational to mathematics knowledge, but because they were vital to a newly industrialized and market-driven economy several hundred years…

  20. TOOLS AND BASIC MACHINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.

    THIS BASIC READER IS A PART OF AN EXPERIMENTAL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT DESCRIBED IN VT 004 454, TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE SPECIAL NEW TRAINING MATERIALS TO TEACH BASIC VOCATIONAL TALENT SKILLS TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WHICH WERE TESTED ON APPROXIMATELY 2,500 EIGHTH AND NINTH GRADERS IN EIGHT SCHOOL SYSTEMS ACROSS THE NATION. THIS READER WAS…

  1. Romanian Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The "Romanian Basic Course," consisting of 89 lesson units in eight volumes, is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing Romanian (based on a 1-5 scale in which Level 5 is native speaker proficiency). Volume 1, which introduces basic sentences in dialog form with…

  2. Construction & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Basic skills education has become a pressing need in the construction industry as jobs become more complex and fewer workers have needed skills. However, the construction industry lags in spending on training for entry-level workers. The Home Builders Institute (HBI) is testing a pilot basic skills program that it hopes will prove useful to the…

  3. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  4. Basic Electronics I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  5. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.

  6. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-05-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

  7. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  8. Equipment concepts for dry intercask transfer of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    This report documents the results of a study of preconceptual design and analysis of four intercask transfer concepts. The four concepts are: a large shielded cylindrical turntable that contains an integral fuel handling machine (turntable concept); a shielded fuel handling machine under which shipping and storage casks are moved horizontally (shuttle concept); a small hot cell containing equipment for transferring fuel between shipping and storage casks (that enter and leave the cell on carts) in a bifurcated trench (trench concept); and a large hot cell, shielded by an earthen berm, that houses equipment for handling fuel between casks that enter and leave the cell on a single cart (igloo concept). The casks considered in this study are most of the transport casks currently operable in the USA, and the storage casks designated REA-2023 and GNS Castor-V. Exclusive of basic services assumed to be provided at the host site, the design and capital costs are estimated to range from $9 to $13 million. The portion of capital costs for portable equipment (for potential later use at another site) was estimated to range from 70% to 98%, depending on the concept. Increasing portability from a range of 70 to 90% to 98% adds $2 to 4 million to the capital costs. Operating costs are estimated at about $2 million/year for all concepts. Implementation times range from about 18 months for the more conventional systems to 40 months for the more unique systems. Times and costs for relocation to another site are 10 to 14 months and about $1 million, plus shipping costs and costs of new construction at the new site. All concepts have estimated capacities for fuel transfer at least equal to the criterion set for this study. Only the hot cell concepts have capability for recanning or repair of canisters. Some development is believed to be required for the turntable and shuttle concepts, but none for the other two concepts.

  9. Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Student Learning in Introductory Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, April L.; Gilmore, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how insights from the broader education literature on threshold concepts and conceptions can be applied to improve the teaching of undergraduate introductory management courses. The authors propose that these courses are underpinned by the threshold conception, or "underlying game," that management is a practice informed by…

  10. Telepresence work system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Telepresence has been used in the context of the ultimate in remote manipulation where the operator is provided with the sensory feedback and control to perform highly dexterous tasks. The concept of a Telepresence Work Station (TWS) for operation in space is described. System requirements, concepts, and a development approach are discussed. The TWS has the potential for application on the Space Shuttle, on the Orbit Maneuver Vehicle, on an Orbit Transfer Vehicle, and on the Space Station. The TWS function is to perform satellite servicing tasks and construction and assembly operations in the buildup of large spacecraft. The basic concept is a pair of dexterous arms controlled from a remote station by an operation with feedback. It may be evolved through levels of supervisory control to a smart adaptive robotic system.

  11. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  12. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  13. Kidney Disease Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra water ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys over ...

  14. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  15. E-Mail Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sacha

    1996-01-01

    Offers electronic mail basics, mail etiquette and tips, interesting World Wide Web sites, and how to do a Web search. Includes Web sites that offer beginner tutorials and a glossary of Internet terms. (JOW)

  16. Imidazoline receptors: from basic concepts to recent developments.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, P

    1995-01-01

    The existence is now fully demonstrated of binding sites specifically recognizing the imidazoline structure or similar chemical structures, both in the brain and in certain peripheral tissues, including the kidney, some of which participate in the control of blood pressure. These binding sites are different from alpha 2-adrenoceptors, both functionally and biochemically. The fact that at least medullary binding sites are associated with a precise function, i.e., modulation of sympathetic activity of central origin and therefore the regulation of vasomotor tone, indicates that they are true receptors. These imidazoline receptors of the ventrolateral region of the medulla play an important role in the mechanism of the hypotensive action of substances such as clonidine or rilmenidinc. Confirmation of dual pharmacological mechanisms involved in the hypotensive and sedative effects, respectively, of these drugs has justified attribution of the hypotensive effect to involvement of imidazoline receptors in the region of the medulla mentioned and the sedative effect to activation of classic alpha 2-adrenoceptors of the locus ceruleus. This distinction between to mechanisms opens up a novel approach to the development of new centrally acting antihypertensive substances free of the troublesome adverse effects of the first generation. Many questions remain unanswered, including the precise nature of the endogenous ligand(s) of imidazoline receptors, the structure of the receptor and its mechanisms of coupling to second messenger, the possible existence of variants of these receptors, their mode of interaction with alpha-adrenoceptors, and identification of true subtypes of these imidazoline receptors. PMID:8642798

  17. Human neuronal cells in culture: from concepts to basic methodology.

    PubMed

    Silani, V; Pizzuti, A; Donato, M F; Falini, A; Bassani, R; Strada, O; Causarano, R I; Mariani, D; Villani, R M; Scarlato, G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews some conceptual and methodological aspects of the tissue culture models which, during the past three decades, demonstrated a remarkable mimicry of many important structures and functions of the mammalian Central Nervous System (CNS) and related peripheral sensory and motor elements. Emphasis is placed on an original human neuronal tissue culture model obtained from selective CNS areas. The different cell types were identified and the neurotrophic interactions preliminary characterized. Neuropathological findings suggest hypothesis that can be fully tested using in vitro human models of affected cerebral specific areas. PMID:2102114

  18. Basic Concepts of Microarrays and Potential Applications in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa B.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The introduction of in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, led by real-time PCR, into the clinical microbiology laboratory has transformed the laboratory detection of viruses and select bacterial pathogens. However, the progression of the molecular diagnostic revolution currently relies on the ability to efficiently and accurately offer multiplex detection and characterization for a variety of infectious disease pathogens. Microarray analysis has the capability to offer robust multiplex detection but has just started to enter the diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Multiple microarray platforms exist, including printed double-stranded DNA and oligonucleotide arrays, in situ-synthesized arrays, high-density bead arrays, electronic microarrays, and suspension bead arrays. One aim of this paper is to review microarray technology, highlighting technical differences between them and each platform's advantages and disadvantages. Although the use of microarrays to generate gene expression data has become routine, applications pertinent to clinical microbiology continue to rapidly expand. This review highlights uses of microarray technology that impact diagnostic microbiology, including the detection and identification of pathogens, determination of antimicrobial resistance, epidemiological strain typing, and analysis of microbial infections using host genomic expression and polymorphism profiles. PMID:19822891

  19. Primary prevention: a new look at basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Wallack, L; Winkleby, M

    1987-01-01

    Personal health and well-being are gaining priority on the American agenda. A renewed interest in health promotion has been facilitated by the need to contain health care costs, realization of the limits of medicine in preventing illness, and a deeply rooted societal ethic of personal responsibility for individual health. Although the health status of Americans has changed significantly for the better during this century, further improvements are necessary, especially among high risk subgroups within the population who have not been effectively reached by traditional health promotion strategies. Past efforts, aimed at individuals modifying their risk factors, have neglected to address environmental factors that contribute to disease risk. This points to the need for an integrated approach where problems are addressed as properties of the systems in which individuals behave. This paper reviews selected health trends in the United States, discusses limitations of the current approach to health promotion, presents a comprehensive definition of prevention, and provides principles for planning that may facilitate improved health status in this country. PMID:3317892

  20. Basic concepts and practical equations on osmolality: Biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    The terms osmotic pressure, osmotic coefficient, osmole, osmolarity, osmolality, effective osmolality and delta osmolality are formally defined. Osmole is unit of the amount of substance, one mole of nonionized impermeant solute is one osmole. Assuming an ideal solution, osmotic pressure (π) in mmHg is 19.3 times the osmolarity. Osmolarity is defined as the number of milliosmoles of the solutes per liter of solution. Suitable equations are presented for the rapid calculation of the osmolarity of different solutions. The concentrations of electrolytes are expressed by mEq/L that is, equal to their osmolarity as mOsm/L. If the solute concentration (C) is expressed as mg/L, mg/dL and g%, osmolarity is calculated as: C.n' /MW, C.n' (10)/MW and C.n' (10(4))/MW respectively. Osmolality is milliosmoles of solutes per one kilogram (or liter) of water of solution (plasma) and is calculated by osmolarity divided to plasma water. The osmolal concentration is corrected to osmolal activity by using the osmotic coefficient, φ. The salts of sodium (choloride and bicarbonate) and nonelectrolyte glucose and urea are the major five osmoles of plasma. The equation: Posm =2 [Na(+)]+glucose (mg/dL)/18+BUN (mg/dL)//2.8 is also the simplest and best formula to calculate plasma osmolality. The concentration of only effective osmoles evaluates effective osmolality or tonicity as: Eosm =2 [Na(+)]+glucose/18. The normal range of plasma tonicity is 275-295mOsm/kg of water. The difference between the measured and calculated osmolality is called osmolal gap. It is recommended to withdraw the formula of Dorwart-Chalmers from the textbooks and autoanalyzers and to use the simplest equation of Worthley et al. as the best equation for calculating serum osmolality. Furthermore the normal ranges of osmolal gap also must be corrected to 0±2mOsm/L. PMID:27343561

  1. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement. Basic Concepts in Educational Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    This study is designed to determine the social and cultural factors influencing an individual and the ways which these factors mold achievement patterns. The book is intended for those who have a broad and general interest in education--teacher candidates, administrators, teachers, and certain lay persons. An objective is to make educators aware…

  2. "Teaching"Survey Introduces Class to Basic Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Warren

    1980-01-01

    Recommends having beginning journalism students conduct brief surveys to help them learn about data gathering and statistical analysis and to sensitize them to certain faults in surveys by the media. (TJ)

  3. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally. Concept: Plants Reproduce Their Own Kind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Offers suggestions for spring activities focusing on plant reproduction both indoors and outdoors. Suggests planting seeds to observe, measure, and record effects of temperature, moisture, fertilizer. Recommends outdoor study of the horsetail plant. (NEC)

  4. Basic Statistical Concepts and Methods for Earth Scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Statistics is the science of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, modeling, and displaying masses of numerical data primarily for the characterization and understanding of incompletely known systems. Over the years, these objectives have lead to a fair amount of analytical work to achieve, substantiate, and guide descriptions and inferences.

  5. Basic concepts and architectural details of the Delphi trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Bocci, V.; Booth, P.S.L.; Bozzo, M. |

    1995-08-01

    Delphi (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is one of the four experiments of the LEP (Large Electron Positron) collider at CERN. The detector is laid out to provide a nearly 4 {pi} coverage for charged particle tracking, electromagnetic, hadronic calorimetry and extended particle identification. The trigger system consists of four levels. The first two are synchronous with the BCO (Beam Cross Over) and rely on hardwired control units, while the last two are performed asynchronously with respect to the BCO and are driven by the Delphi host computers. The aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive global view of the trigger system architecture, presenting in detail the first two levels, their various hardware components and the latest modifications introduced in order to improve their performance and make more user friendly the whole software user interface.

  6. Teacher Knowledge of Basic Language Concepts and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Erin K.; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S.

    2011-01-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing…

  7. Basic and modern concepts on cholinergic receptor: A review

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Prashant; Dwivedi, Shubhangi; Singh, Mukesh Pratap; Mishra, Rahul; Chandy, Anish

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic system is an important system and a branch of the autonomic nervous system which plays an important role in memory, digestion, control of heart beat, blood pressure, movement and many other functions. This article serves as both structural and functional sources of information regarding cholinergic receptors and provides a detailed understanding of the determinants governing specificity of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor to researchers. The study helps to give overall information about the fundamentals of the cholinergic system, its receptors and ongoing research in this field.

  8. The ABCs of Challenging Behavior: Understanding Basic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Ayvazo, Shiri; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2016-01-01

    Many young children engage in challenging behaviors that could have short- and long-term negative effects for both the children and their families. Challenging behaviors refer to "any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial…

  9. Linear-array ultrasonic waveguide transducer for under sodium viewing.

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S. H.; Chien, H. T.; Wang, K.; Lawrence, W. P.; Engel, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-01

    In this report, we first present the basic design of a low-noise waveguide and its performance followed by a review of the array transducer technology. The report then presents the concept and basic designs of arrayed waveguide transducers that can apply to under-sodium viewing for in-service inspection of fast reactors. Depending on applications, the basic waveguide arrays consist of designs for sideway and downward viewing. For each viewing application, two array geometries, linear and circular, are included in design analysis. Methods to scan a 2-D target using a linear array waveguide transducer are discussed. Future plan to develop a laboratory array waveguide prototype is also presented.

  10. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  11. Slices of Silence: A Resource for Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blay, Avril, Ed.

    This document, which was developed as a resource for adult basic education teachers in Victoria, Australia, contains six units of science activities to help students develop literacy and numeracy skills while learning basic scientific concepts. Presented in the introduction are guidelines for using the material and a table detailing those basic…

  12. What Basic Needs Are Met Through Outdoor Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Elizabeth; Hammerman, Donald

    1985-01-01

    Outlines current criticism of education and argues in favor of outdoor education as a creative and successful means to meet basic educational needs. Discusses specifically the role of outdoor education with regard to effective learning, developing basic concepts, developing essential learning skills, appreciation of the natural environment, and…

  13. Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Kevin

    2005-05-01

    Ernst Mayr played a central role in the establishment of the general concept of species as metapopulation lineages, and he is the author of one of the most popular of the numerous alternative definitions of the species category. Reconciliation of incompatible species definitions and the development of a unified species concept require rejecting the interpretation of various contingent properties of metapopulation lineages, including intrinsic reproductive isolation in Mayr's definition, as necessary properties of species. On the other hand, the general concept of species as metapopulation lineages advocated by Mayr forms the foundation of this reconciliation, which follows from a corollary of that concept also advocated by Mayr: the proposition that the species is a fundamental category of biological organization. Although the general metapopulation lineage species concept and Mayr's popular species definition are commonly confused under the name "the biological species concept," they are more or less clearly distinguished in Mayr's early writings on the subject. Virtually all modern concepts and definitions of the species category, not only those that require intrinsic reproductive isolation, are to be considered biological according to the criterion proposed by Mayr. Definitions of the species category that identify a particular contingent property of metapopulation lineages (including intrinsic reproductive isolation) as a necessary property of species reduce the number of metapopulation lineages that are to be recognized taxonomically as species, but they cause conflicts among alternative species definitions and compromise the status of the species as a basic category of biological organization. PMID:15851674

  14. Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Ernst Mayr played a central role in the establishment of the general concept of species as metapopulation lineages, and he is the author of one of the most popular of the numerous alternative definitions of the species category. Reconciliation of incompatible species definitions and the development of a unified species concept require rejecting the interpretation of various contingent properties of metapopulation lineages, including intrinsic reproductive isolation in Mayr's definition, as necessary properties of species. On the other hand, the general concept of species as metapopulation lineages advocated by Mayr forms the foundation of this reconciliation, which follows from a corollary of that concept also advocated by Mayr: the proposition that the species is a fundamental category of biological organization. Although the general metapopulation lineage species concept and Mayr's popular species definition are commonly confused under the name “the biological species concept,” they are more or less clearly distinguished in Mayr's early writings on the subject. Virtually all modern concepts and definitions of the species category, not only those that require intrinsic reproductive isolation, are to be considered biological according to the criterion proposed by Mayr. Definitions of the species category that identify a particular contingent property of metapopulation lineages (including intrinsic reproductive isolation) as a necessary property of species reduce the number of metapopulation lineages that are to be recognized taxonomically as species, but they cause conflicts among alternative species definitions and compromise the status of the species as a basic category of biological organization. PMID:15851674

  15. Basic science highlights.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections generated a lot of excitement with the announcement of clinical studies employing the use of 2 new classes of antiretroviral drugs that target the viral integrase enzyme and the viral coreceptor CCR5. In addition, a number of presentations on cellular restriction factors provided surprises regarding the mechanism by which cellular restrictions antagonize viral infection. There was also much interest in studies presenting novel cellular cofactors of HIV-1 infection. The conference illustrated how basic science research is paying off. Essential steps in the viral life cycle, uncovered through basic research, are now being targeted by new classes of antiviral agents. In addition, basic science is unveiling potential new targets of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:17485783

  16. Decontamination: back to basics.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true. PMID:18710126

  17. The Effect of the Superordinate Concept and Presentation Form of Examples on Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranzijn, Frederick J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes research with Dutch secondary school students that studied the effects of the presentation of more general (superordinate) concepts on the attainment of basic concepts, and the effects of two different forms of example presentation on concept learning. Computer based instruction and interactive video used in the study are described. (18…

  18. 38 CFR 21.9520 - Basic eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Eligibility § 21.9520 Basic eligibility. An... section (e.g., “I elect to receive benefits under the Post-9/11-GI Bill in lieu of benefits under...

  19. 38 CFR 21.9520 - Basic eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Eligibility § 21.9520 Basic eligibility. An... section (e.g., “I elect to receive benefits under the Post-9/11-GI Bill in lieu of benefits under...

  20. 38 CFR 21.9520 - Basic eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Eligibility § 21.9520 Basic eligibility. An... section (e.g., “I elect to receive benefits under the Post-9/11-GI Bill in lieu of benefits under...

  1. 38 CFR 21.9520 - Basic eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Eligibility § 21.9520 Basic eligibility. An... section (e.g., “I elect to receive benefits under the Post-9/11-GI Bill in lieu of benefits under...

  2. Teaching Individuals with Developmental Delays: Basic Intervention Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovaas, O. Ivar

    This teaching manual for treatment of children with developmental disabilities is divided into seven sections that address: (1) basic concepts; (2) transition into treatment; (3) early learning concepts; (4) expressive language; (5) strategies for visual learners; (6) programmatic considerations; and (7) organizational and legal issues. Among…

  3. Discoursing Tacitly or Back to the Wrong Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sam, Jr.

    One response to the call to go back-to-basics is to teach conventions of writing and usage which seem to echo the objectivity and rigor of scientific knowledge. Yet Michael Polanyi gives reason to believe that the "objectivist" concept of science itself is misleading. Polanyi offers a subtly, but fundamentally, different conception which…

  4. Geostationary earth science platform concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herardian, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    The new concepts are presented for the Geostationary Earth Science Platform. Bus and payload arrangements, with instrument locations on the payload module and basic payload dimensions, are depicted and compared for each concept. The Titan 4 SRMU (with solid rocket motor upgrage) launch vehicle is described and compared to the standard Titan 4. The upgraded Titan 4 is capable of launching a 13,500 lb payload to GEO. The launch configuration showing each concept packaged within the 16 ft diameter payload envelope is presented. This presentation is represented by viewgraph only.

  5. Luganda Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamoga, Frederick Katabazi; Stevick, Earl W.

    This "Luganda Basic Course" is not a course in the usual sense. Rather, it is a collection of materials which can be useful in the interaction between teachers and learners. It follows the method by which foreigners interact when they do not speak a common language: personal names and names of respective countries and cities are exchanged.…

  6. Czech Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This introductory Czech text is based on principles emphasizing development of basic communication skills. Speech samples reflect practical language spoken in everyday situations. The text is designed to be used by American foreign service professionals in foreign countries and to be accompanied by videotapes (unavailable to the public). The text…

  7. MORE BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEHR, MARIANNE; AND OTHERS

    THIS BASIC COURSE IN MORE, AN AFRICAN TONE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY THE MOSSI PEOPLE OF UPPER VOLTA, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH DIALOGS THAT RELATE TO SOME OF THE FIRST SITUATIONS IN WHICH HE IS LIKELY TO USE THE LANGUAGE, AS WELL AS WITH SYSTEMATIC PRACTICE IN ALL MAJOR POINTS OF GRAMMAR. THE COURSE COMPRISES 48 UNITS DIVIDED INTO THREE…

  8. Twi Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, J.E.; And Others

    This course is designed to provide basic structures and vocabulary in Twi in the context of situations commonly encountered by foreigners in Ghana. The dialect presented is Ashanti Twi and the transcription system used is the standard orthography of the Bureau of Ghana Languages with discritic marks added to indicate tone levels. After an…

  9. SHONA BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVICK, EARL W.

    THIS BASIC COURSE IN SHONA, ONE OF THE TWO PRINCIPAL LANGUAGES OF RHODESIA AND PARTS OF ADJACENT MOZAMBIQUE, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH DIALOG THAT RELATE TO SOME OF THE SITUATIONS IN WHICH HE IS LIKELY TO USE THE LANGUAGE, AS WELL AS PROVIDE HIM WITH SYSTEMATIC PRACTICE ON ALL MAJOR POINTS OF GRAMMAR. THE TEXT CONSISTS OF 49 UNITS OF…

  10. Microeconomic Analysis with BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, C. F. Joseph

    Computer programs written in BASIC for the study of microeconomic analysis with special emphasis in economic decisions on price, output, and profit of a business firm are described. A very brief overview of the content of each of the 28 computer programs comprising the course is provided; four of the programs are then discussed in greater detail.…

  11. Basics of Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: • Eat and drink fewer calories • Increase physical activity • Combine the two for the best results The foods you eat and the beverages you drink provide energy and nutrients. The basic required nutrients are: water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  12. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  13. Basic Drafting: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The first of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 13 topics in the following units: introduction to drafting, general safety, basic tools and lines, major equipment, applying for a job, media, lettering, reproduction, drawing sheet layout, architect's scale usage, civil engineer's scale usage, mechanical engineer's scale usage,…

  14. Basic Drafting: Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The second of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 12 topics in the following units: sketching techniques, geometric constructions, orthographic views, dimensioning procedures, basic tolerancing, auxiliary views, sectional views, inking tools and techniques, axonometrics, oblique, perspective, and computer-aided drafting.…

  15. Czech Basic Course: Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed for use in the advanced phase of the Defense Language Institute's "Basic Course" in Czech. It is used in the advanced phase as a part of cultural background information. Reading selections, with vocabulary lists, include: (1) ethnography; (2) incantations and spells; (3) proverbs, sayings, and weather lore; (4) fairy tales…

  16. Adult Basic Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

  17. Focus on Basics, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the four 1998 quarterly issues of this newsletter that present best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and information on how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policy makers. The following are among the major articles included: "Power, Literacy,…

  18. Hindi Basic Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, J. Martin; And Others

    This reader is intended to accompany the Basic Course in Spoken Hindi. Following an outline of the Devanagari script, 20 lessons are presented. Each consists of a reading selection, several illustrative sentences in English and Hindi, and a series of questions. Most of the reading selections were adapted from the magazine "Bal-Bharati." (RM)

  19. Internet Training: The Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This paper outlines the basic information teachers need to know to use the World Wide Web for research and communication, using Netscape 3.04. Topics covered include the following: what is the World Wide Web?; what is a browser?; accessing the Web; moving around a web document; the Uniform Resource Locator (URL); Bookmarks; saving and printing a…

  20. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  1. Reading for Basic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document offers materials for a year-long course on general basic reading skills that was part of a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey), and its partners. The document contains the following: (1) outlines (each of which contains objectives, a topical outline, and list of textbooks) for two…

  2. Navajo Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ.

    The objectives of this Special Experimental Demonstration Project in Adult Basic Education for the Navajo were: (1) to raise the educational and social level of Navajo adult students who are unable to read, write, and speak English; (2) to assist the Navajo adult students to take advantage of occupational and vocational training programs; (3) to…

  3. Basic Skills Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Alexander C.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    After surveying 1,827 students in their final year at eighty randomly selected two-year and four-year public and private institutions, American Institutes for Research (2006) reported that approximately 30 percent of students in two-year institutions and nearly 20 percent of students in four-year institutions have only basic quantitative…

  4. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  5. IGBO, BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    A BASIC COURSE WAS PREPARED ON THE SPEECH OF TWO MEMBERS OF THE EZINEHITE GROUP OF IGBOS IN EASTERN NIGERIA. THE ESSENTIAL PHONOLOGICAL AND GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES OF IGBO ARE PRESENTED WITHIN A SMALL VOCABULARY OF APPROXIMATELY 600 ITEMS. THE COURSE MATERIALS CONSIST OF (1) TONE DRILLS, (2) 24 UNITS OF DIALOGS, NOTES, AND DRILLS, (3) SIX UNITS OF…

  6. Swahili Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic audiolingual course in standard Swahili appears in six volumes, Lesson Units 1-56. Units consist of a "blueprint" prefatory page outlining the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structures and new vocabulary to be presented; perception drills; Swahili dialog with cartoon guides and English translation; pattern and recombination…

  7. Turkish Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 14 volumes of the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Turkish consist of 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing Turkish. (Native-speaker fluency is Level 5.) An introduction to the sound system, vowel harmony, and syllable division…

  8. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  9. Portuguese Basic Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic course in Brazilian Portuguese consists of 75 lessons in six volumes. Volume I is in two parts, with the dialogs, questions and exercises presented in Portuguese in the first part, and the intonation patterns and English translations presented in the second. The general format follows the Defense Language Institute format, employing…

  10. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  11. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  12. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  13. Basic Skills Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lenore; And Others

    This handbook for kindergarten through grade eight provides instructional objectives for student mastery in the basic skills of reading, mathematics, written communication, and oral communication. The section on reading is divided into the following strands: word identification skills; vocabulary skills; comprehension (literal, inferential, and…

  14. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  15. Basic Electronics II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willison, Neal A.; Shelton, James K.

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of 15 units of instruction. Unit titles are Review of the Nature of Matter and the P-N Junction, Rectifiers, Filters, Special Semiconductor Diodes, Bipolar-Junction Diodes, Bipolar Transistor Circuits, Transistor Amplifiers, Operational Amplifiers, Logic Devices,…

  16. Basic Internet Software Toolkit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Once schools are connected to the Internet, the next step is getting network workstations configured for Internet access. This article describes a basic toolkit comprising software currently available on the Internet for free or modest cost. Lists URLs for Web browser, Telnet, FTP, file decompression, portable document format (PDF) reader,…

  17. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  18. Networks: The Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomarcan, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the information superhighway (the Internet), and presents a guide to navigating it. Offers basic instruction on obtaining and learning to use network accounts; locating addresses using Archie and Wide Area Information Server; retrieving information using file transfer protocol; utilizing Gopher to find and retrieve; browsing the World…

  19. Projectable Basic Electronics Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H'ng, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages derived from constructing and using a Projectable Basic Electronics Kit and provides: (1) list of components; (2) diagrams of 10 finished components (resistor; capacitor; diode; switch; bulb; transistor; meter; variable capacitor; coil; connecting terminal); and (3) diode and transistor activities. (JN)

  20. Computer Programming: BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Patience; And Others

    This guide was prepared to help teachers of the Lincoln Public School's introductory computer programming course in BASIC to make the necessary adjustments for changes made in the course since the purchase of microcomputers and such peripheral devices as television monitors and disk drives, and the addition of graphics. Intended to teach a…

  1. Burmese Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These five volumes, comprising 65 lesson units, follow the Defense Language Institute audiolingual approach and general format. New materials, introduced in "basic dialogs," are followed by colloquial and literal translations, word lists, and in later lessons, by a variety of drills and reading exercises. A consonant chart and a transcribed list…

  2. Czech Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These eight volumes of the Defense Language Institute's audiolingual course in basic Czech are comprised of an introductory volume presenting the phonology with pronunciation dialogs, followed by seven volumes of Lesson Units 1-150. The Course is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in understanding, speaking,…

  3. Basic Soils. Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  4. Basic Skills Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Geoffrey

    The document describes the basic skills programs in reading and mathematics of the High School in the Community (HSC) in New Haven, Connecticut. HSC, designed to provide a choice of learning environments within the public school system, serves students dissatisfied with their previous school experience. Each student, on entering HSC, is screened…

  5. Basic Skills: Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    A curriculum guide for the visual arts is presented. The goal of elementary and middle school education in the four arts disciplines is the development of basic understanding and skills by every student. In secondary education the aim is to continue a sequential curriculum for those students who study the arts. This document is intended as a guide…

  6. Basic Publication Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savedge, Charles E., Ed.

    Designed for students who produce newspapers and newsmagazines in junior high, middle, and elementary schools, this booklet is both a scorebook and a fundamentals text. The scorebook provides realistic criteria for judging publication excellence at these educational levels. All the basics for good publications are included in the text of the…

  7. Logistic Regression: Concept and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokluk, Omay

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of logistic regression analysis is classification of individuals in different groups. The aim of the present study is to explain basic concepts and processes of binary logistic regression analysis intended to determine the combination of independent variables which best explain the membership in certain groups called dichotomous…

  8. Solar Concepts: A Background Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

  9. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    Although astronomy is considered one of the older sciences of humanity and that the understanding of its concepts has brought tremendous advances to Science and therefore, to society, it is observed that a significant portion of people live outside of this kind of knowledge. According to the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais for basic education, it is the school responsibility the dissemination of scientifically correct concepts, including those related to astronomy. Concerning this issue, we present a survey of 140 students of ninth grade of elementary school and 120 third-grade high-school students from four schools in the region of Passo Fundo/RS. We sought to determine, through a questionnaire consisting of open and multiple choice questions, the knowledge of this group of students about the basic terms and astronomical phenomena, and also verify that the hit rate increases as they advance through the different and progressive grades of primary and secondary education. Overall, the results show that the teaching of astronomy in basic education is facing problems. Of the 20 issues investigated, in 17 the indicators are similar in the correct answers given by students for elementary and middle school, revealing that many misconceptions still remain along basic education. This demonstrates that such issues are not - or are rarely - covered during these two school levels. Thus, we conclude that the discussion of concepts related to astronomy should receive greater emphasis on approaching different subjects, requiring a national action in support of their teaching. It is believed that a national action should be supported by a triple pillar of collective actors: the scientific community, semi-professional astronomy community and the school community. Finally, this pillar would be the basis for future discussions related to the performance of these protagonists as a means to promote active changes in the curricular structure, providing, in more effective ways, the

  10. Self-organization: the basic principle of neural functions.

    PubMed

    Szentágothai, J

    1993-06-01

    Recent neurophysiological observations are giving rise to the expectation that in the near future genuine biological experiments may contribute more than will premature speculations to the understanding of global and cognitive functions. The classical reflex principle--as the basis of neural functions--has to yield to new ideas, like autopoiesis and/or self-organization, as the basic paradigm in the framework of which the essence of the neural can be better understood. Neural activity starts in the very earliest stages of development well before receptors and afferent input become functional. Under suitable conditions, both in nervous tissue cultures and in embryonic tissue recombination experiments, the conditions of such initial autopoietic activity can be studied. This paper tries to generalize this elementary concept for various neural centers, notably for the spinal segmental apparatus and the cerebral cortex. PMID:8236059

  11. 5 CFR 534.304 - Basic pay for staff positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic pay for staff positions. 534.304 Section 534.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.304 Basic pay for...

  12. 5 CFR 534.304 - Basic pay for staff positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic pay for staff positions. 534.304 Section 534.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.304 Basic pay for...

  13. 38 CFR 21.142 - Adult basic education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.142 Adult basic education. (a) Definition. The term adult basic... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adult basic education....

  14. A Unit Concept for GST: "Change in Relationships."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawski, Carl

    A change in focus of much of the work of the Society for General Systems Research for greater impact, relevance, and productivity is suggested. Tentative unit concepts for 23 areas of study or disciplines are explored. A unit concept is defined as the central, pivotal concept around which virtually all other basic concepts in a field revolve. The…

  15. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1984-01-01

    Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

  16. The Basics of Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Pittman, Bridget; Slavens, Julie; Balch, Bradley V.

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is not simply the same act of misbehavior taking place electronically. While the two phenomena share common characteristics (use of power, harmful intent), distinct and important differences exist. The first is the concept of power. Power in cyberspace is not measured by physical size or family income. Instead, power lies in the anonymity…

  17. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  18. An Evaluation of Controller and Pilot Performance, Workload and Acceptability under a NextGen Concept for Dynamic Weather Adapted Arrival Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Battiste, Vernol

    2012-01-01

    In todays terminal operations, controller workload increases and throughput decreases when fixed standard terminal arrival routes (STARs) are impacted by storms. To circumvent this operational constraint, Prete, Krozel, Mitchell, Kim and Zou (2008) proposed to use automation to dynamically adapt arrival and departure routing based on weather predictions. The present study examined this proposal in the context of a NextGen trajectory-based operation concept, focusing on the acceptability and its effect on the controllers ability to manage traffic flows. Six controllers and twelve transport pilots participated in a human-in-the-loop simulation of arrival operations into Louisville International Airport with interval management requirements. Three types of routing structures were used: Static STARs (similar to current routing, which require the trajectories of individual aircraft to be modified to avoid the weather), Dynamic routing (automated adaptive routing around weather), and Dynamic Adjusted routing (automated adaptive routing around weather with aircraft entry time adjusted to account for differences in route length). Spacing Responsibility, whether responsibility for interval management resided with the controllers (as today), or resided with the pilot (who used a flight deck based automated spacing algorithm), was also manipulated. Dynamic routing as a whole was rated superior to static routing, especially by pilots, both in terms of workload reduction and flight path safety. A downside of using dynamic routing was that the paths flown in the dynamic conditions tended to be somewhat longer than the paths flown in the static condition.

  19. Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Explains concept mapping as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a map; brainstorming; map applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind mapping to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)

  20. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  1. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  2. Basics of Biosafety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Willy

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the basics of biosafety and the importance of assuring proper biosafety practices. The objectives of the presentation are to review regulations about biosafety, and the different biosafety levels; the biosafety facilities at Johnson Space Center; the usage and maintenance of the biosafety cabinet, the proper methods to handle biologically hazardous materials upon exposure, and the methods of cleanup in the event of a spill, and the training requirements that are mandated for personnel handling biologically hazardous materials.

  3. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  4. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  5. Good Health and Moral Responsibility: Key Concepts Underlying the Interpretation of Treatment as Prevention in South Africa and Zambia Before Rolling Out Universal HIV Testing and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme; Viljoen, Lario; Simuyaba, Melvin; Musheke, Maurice; Seeley, Janet

    2016-09-01

    Gauging community responses to the WHO 2015 recommendation to provide antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical. There is limited qualitative evidence on the acceptability of this Universal Test and Treat (UTT) strategy or community understanding of the impact of ART on reducing HIV transmission, promoted as Treatment as Prevention (TasP). This article explores early understanding of UTT and TasP in 21 urban communities in South Africa and Zambia in 2013 before a community randomized trial of combination prevention-HPTN 071 (PopART). It draws on participatory research conducted in each community, which carried out group discussions and interviews with 1202 respondents and 203 structured observations. Participants were largely unfamiliar with the concepts of UTT and TasP. They were concerned about an accompanying de-emphasis on sexual behavior change. Treatment and prevention seemed, at first glance, to be experienced separately. With the exception of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, prevention seldom came into discussions about ART. This was partly because this science had not yet been explained to many and also because it was not an easy fit. Contemplating the link between treatment and prevention, participants emphasized both PLHIV taking care of themselves through good health and preventing disease progression and the moral responsibility of PLHIV to prevent HIV transmission. To avoid igniting moralizing and blaming when introducing UTT and TasP, we should capitalize on the "taking care of yourself" legacy while boosting public responsibility through broad antistigma education and patient empowerment efforts. PMID:27610464

  6. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    methods, even if published in the scientific literature, are little standardised and reproducible. The suggestion is put forward that publicly accessible databases should make available more detailed descriptions of methodologies. Due to limitations in space, many scientific journals cannot publish detailed methodological descriptions. However, nowadays a supplementary central deposit of methods could easily be linked to the respective article. In numerous cases though, there is simply a lack of will to change procedures to methods without animal tests or to pose questions differently in order to avoid the use of animals or to reduce their number or, at least, to reduce stress. In other cases, researchers are simply not aware of the limitations of the animal experiment as such. A thorough review of the validity of critical animal experiments should be carried out and made available publicly. For example, many animal experiments are dramatically "under-powered", i.e. carried out with groups that are too small to allow conclusions to be drawn from the outcome. This stands in marked contrast to in vitro experiments where replicate experiments usually represent no major problem. Since in vitro models are generally more prone to artefacts due to the numerous variables, e.g. of cell culture, the key requirement for their application is their validation and quality control. Guided by the experience from validation studies for alternative methods in toxicology, concepts of a Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) are currently being developed which aim to define minimum quality standards for in vitro techniques. This initiative aiming to increase quality must be complemented by a concept to systematically assess the relevance of the tests in order to finally achieve an evidence-based biomedical research. A change in this direction is only possible if those public funds, which were previously assigned predominantly to alternatives to the animal tests required by law, are now channelled

  7. THE THEME-CONCEPT UNIT IN LITERATURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLOCKS, GEORGE, JR.

    A SUGGESTED UNIT FRAMEWORK WAS DEVELOPED AS A METHOD OF TEACHING SEVENTH-GRADE LITERATURE AT EUCLID CENTRAL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN EUCLID, OHIO. THE UNIT WAS DIVIDED INTO SIX MAJOR SECTIONS--(1) DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT, (2) APPLICATION OF THE CONCEPT UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF A TEACHER, (3) REVISION OF THE CONCEPT, (4) APPLICATION OF THE CONCEPT BY…

  8. A common structure for concepts of individuals, stuffs, and real kinds: more Mama, more milk, and more mouse.

    PubMed

    Millikan, R G

    1998-02-01

    Concepts are highly theoretical entities. One cannot study them empirically without committing oneself to substantial preliminary assumptions. Among the competing theories of concepts and categorization developed by psychologists in the last thirty years, the implicit theoretical assumption that what falls under a concept is determined by description ("descriptionism") has never been seriously challenged. I present a nondescriptionist theory of our most basic concepts, "substances," which include (1) stuffs (gold, milk), (2) real kinds (cat, chair), and (3) individuals (Mama, Bill Clinton, the Empire State Building). On the basis of something important that all three have in common, our earliest and most basic concepts of substances are identical in structure. The membership of the category "cat," like that of "Mama," is a natural unit in nature, to which the concept "cat" does something like pointing, and continues to point despite large changes in the properties the thinker represents the unit as having. For example, large changes can occur in the way a child identifies cats and the things it is willing to call "cat" without affecting the extension of its word "cat." The difficulty is to cash in the metaphor of "pointing" in this context. Having substance concepts need not depend on knowing words, but language interacts with substance concepts, completely transforming the conceptual repertoire. I will discuss how public language plays a crucial role in both the acquisition of substance concepts and their completed structure. PMID:10097011

  9. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the second of two volumes, consists of 45 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force…

  10. Advanced sunflower antenna concept development. [stowable reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of stowing large solid antenna reflectors in the shuttle was demonstrated for applications with 40 foot apertures at frequencies of 100 GHz. Concepts allowing extension of the basic concept to 80-foot apertures operable at 60 GHz were identified.

  11. Chemistry Students' Erroneous Conceptions of Limiting Reagent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of 32 University of Transkei (South Africa) freshmen's conceptualization of "limiting reagent," a basic concept in chemistry, based on student responses to two written test questions and clinical interviews. Results indicated that a high percentage of students had misconceptions and could not apply the concept successfully. Makes…

  12. Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox & Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmorduc, Vinca; Benveniste, Jerome; Breebaart, Leo; Bronner, Emilie; Dinardo, Salvatore; Earith, Didier; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Niejmeier, Sander; Picot, Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is an "all-altimeter" collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data, including the last mission launched, CryoSat. It has been available from April 2007, and had been demonstrated during training courses and scientific meetings. Nearly 1200 people downloaded it (as of end of June 2010), with many "newcomers" to altimetry among them. Users' feedbacks, developments in altimetry, and practice, showed that new interesting features could be added. Some have been added and/or improved in version 2. Others are ongoing, some are in discussion. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is able: - to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 & 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason- 1, Envisat, Jason- 2, CryoSat and also the future Saral and Sentinel 3 missions, - to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, - and to visualize the results. It can be used at several levels/several ways: - as a data reading tool, with APIs for C, Fortran, Matlab and IDL - as processing/extraction routines, through the on-line command mode - as an educational and a quick-look tool both, with the graphical user interface As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data, additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data. BRAT is developed under contract with ESA and CNES. It is available at http://www.altimetry.info and http://earth.esa.int/brat/

  13. Basic facts about Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, L.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the disturbing influence of the earth's atmosphere on terrestrial and airborne telescopy, radiometry, thermal mapping, spectroscopy, polarimetry and radar astronomy of Venus, major improvements in the body of theory concerning that planet, began with the Mariner 2 planetary exploration program in 1962. The effect of spacecraft exploration culminated with the influx of data yielded by the Pioneer Venus and Venera 11 and 12 missions of 1978. Attention is presently given to the quantitative enhancement of widely accepted, basic facts about Venus that has resulted from the analysis of space probe data, together with an overview of the major features of past and planned planetary missions.

  14. Basic Hitchhiker Payload Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    This document lists the requirements for the NMSU Hitchhiker experiment payload that were developed as part of the EE 498/499 Capstone Design class during the 1999-2000 academic year. This document is used to describe the system needs as described in the mission document. The requirements listed here are those primarily used to generate the basic electronic and data processing requirements developed in the class design document. The needs of the experiment components are more fully described in the draft NASA hitchhiker customer requirements document. Many of the details for the overall payload are given in full detail in the NASA hitchhiker documentation.

  15. Basic plasma physics II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, A. A.; Sudan, R. N.

    The basic physics of classical ideal plasmas is presented in reviews of recent theoretical and experimental investigations, with an emphasis on nonlinear interactions violating the assumptions of weak turbulence. Topics examined include Kolmogorov spectra, parametric instabilities in magnetoactive plasmas, collapse and self-focusing of Langmuir waves, collective dissipation and transport, spontaneous reconnection of magnetic-field lines in a collisionless plasma, collective-beam/plasma interaction, numerical particle simulations, diagnostic techniques based on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a plasma, diagnostics for magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas, and relativistic electron-beam/plasma interaction with self-fields. Diagrams, graphs, spectra, and drawings of experimental apparatus are provided.

  16. Basic space payload fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, J. M.; Gorevan, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    A new basic space fastener has been developed and tested by the GSFC. The purposes of this fastener are to permit assembly and servicing in space by astronauts and/or robots and to facilitate qualification of payloads on Earth prior to launch by saving time and money during the systems integration and component testing and qualification processes. The space fastener is a rework of the basic machine screw such that crossthreading is impossible; it is self-locking and will not work its way out during launch (vibration proof); it will not wear out despite repeated use; it occupies a small foot print which is comparable to its machine screw equivalent, and it provides force and exhibits strength comparable to its machine screw equivalent. Construction is ultra-simple and cost effective and the principle is applicable across the full range of screw sizes ranging from a #10 screw to 2.5 cm (1 in) or more. In this paper, the fastener principles of operation will be discussed along with test results and construction details. The new fastener also has considerable potential in the commercial sector. A few promising applications will be presented.

  17. Basic space payload fastener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, J. M.; Gorevan, Stephen

    1995-05-01

    A new basic space fastener has been developed and tested by the GSFC. The purposes of this fastener are to permit assembly and servicing in space by astronauts and/or robots and to facilitate qualification of payloads on Earth prior to launch by saving time and money during the systems integration and component testing and qualification processes. The space fastener is a rework of the basic machine screw such that crossthreading is impossible; it is self-locking and will not work its way out during launch (vibration proof); it will not wear out despite repeated use; it occupies a small foot print which is comparable to its machine screw equivalent, and it provides force and exhibits strength comparable to its machine screw equivalent. Construction is ultra-simple and cost effective and the principle is applicable across the full range of screw sizes ranging from a #10 screw to 2.5 cm (1 in) or more. In this paper, the fastener principles of operation will be discussed along with test results and construction details. The new fastener also has considerable potential in the commercial sector. A few promising applications will be presented.

  18. The Basics of Cheesemaking.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, Paul S

    2013-10-01

    All cheeses have a common set of principles that involve a complex web of chemical, biochemical, and microbiological changes. These changes first transform milk into fresh or unripened cheese. Although some cheeses are consumed immediately after manufacture, most are subsequently aged or ripened for weeks to years depending on the variety. During aging or ripening, a cheese's sensory characteristics undergo multifaceted and often dramatic changes. The steps performed during the earliest days of the cheesemaking process are especially critical because they establish the chemical characteristics of the cheese at the start of ripening, and these characteristics in turn affect the ripening process. For most cheeses, the key process on the first day of cheesemaking is the fermentation of lactose to lactic acid by bacteria. The rate at which lactic acid is produced profoundly affects the initial chemical characteristics of the cheese, which selectively influence the complex microbial populations that find their way from the milk and surrounding environment into the cheese. This article discusses the basics of cheesemaking by integrating the practical steps that all cheesemakers use with the scientific principles on which those practices are based. The aim is to paint a conceptual picture in which the microbiology of cheese "fits together" with the basic practices of cheesemaking and the scientific principles that underlie them. PMID:26184823

  19. Basic and clinical immunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  20. Current Concepts in Conception Control

    PubMed Central

    Ringrose, C. A. Douglas

    1963-01-01

    The progressive increase in world population has become a most urgent global problem in recent years. Man has, however, been interested in controlling his reproductivity at the family level for many centuries. Historical aspects of this saga are reviewed. The modern era of conception control was ushered in by Makepeace et al. in 1937 when ovulation inhibition by progesterone was demonstrated. Confirmation of this by Pincus and associates, and development of the potent oral progestational agents, the 19-norsteroids, have made efficient reliable contraception a reality. Experience with one of these agents (Ortho-Novum, 2 mg.) in 115 patients through 805 cycles is presented. Conception control was 100% effective at this dosage. Side effects were minimal. Only three of the women discontinued the tablets because of these effects. All but five in this group of 115 preferred the oral contraceptives to methods previously employed. PMID:13973987