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1

Removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions by dimethyl terephthalate distillation residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions by residue acid mixture (RAM) obtained from dimethyl terephthalate distillation residue was investigated. Adsorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature. A fixed amount of sample was immersed in 50mL basic dye (500mg\\/L) solutions. The amount of residual dye concentrations was determined using UV\\/Vis Spectrophotometer at wavelength 530nm Safranine-T

G. Güçlü

2010-01-01

2

High performance biosorbent (Caulerpa lentillifera) for basic dye removal.  

PubMed

The sorptions of three basic dyes, Astrazon((R)) Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon((R)) Red GTLN (AR), and methylene blue (MB) onto green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera were investigated. The results were compared to the sorption performance of a commercial activated carbon (CARBON). The results revealed that the alga exhibited greater sorption capacities than activated carbon for the three basic dyes investigated in this work. The sorption process for all mixture systems (ALGA/AB, ALGA/AR, ALGA/MB, CARBON/AB, CARBON/AR, and CARBON/MB) obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. C. lentillifera could more rapidly sequester AR when compared with activated carbon, but was more slowly in the sorption of AB. For the sorption of MB, both ALGA and CARBON seemed to have the same sorption rate. The sorption processes were initially controlled by both film and pore-diffusion, and only were limited by pore diffusion in the later stage. The isotherms followed Langmuir model which suggested that the sorption was monolayer coverage. PMID:16920355

Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

2006-08-22

3

Removal of a hazardous azo dye (Basic Red 46) from aqueous solution by princess tree leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch biosorption experiments were carried out for the removal of Basic Red 46 (BR 46) from aqueous solution by using princess tree leaf (PTL) as a potential biosorbent. The effects of solution pH, biosorbent dosage and size, dye concentration, temperature and contact time on the biosorption of BR 46 onto the PTL were investigated. The experimental results showed that maximum

Fatih Deniz; Saadet D. Saygideger

2011-01-01

4

Removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution by low-cost adsorbent: Wood apple shell ( Feronia acidissima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two basic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) on wood apple shell (WAS) were investigated using a batch adsorption technique. A series of experiments were undertaken in an agitated batch adsorber to assess the effect of the system variables such as solution pH, dye concentration and temperature. Removal of dyes was observed to be most

Seema Jain; Radha V. Jayaram

2010-01-01

5

Equilibrium uptake and sorption dynamics for the removal of a basic dye (basic red) using low-cost adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste carbon slurries (generated in fertilizer plants) and blast furnace slag (generated in steel plants) have been converted into low-cost potential adsorbents. The adsorbents have been characterized and tried for the removal of the dye basic red from wastewater. Studies were performed at different pH to find the pH at which maximum adsorption occurs. Equilibrium isotherms were determined to assess

V. K Gupta; I Ali; Suhas; Dinesh Mohan

2003-01-01

6

Removal of Basic Blue 41 dye from aqueous solution by linseed cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of linseed oil cake as an adsorbent for selected dyes was examined. The cake did not adsorb Acid Blue 158 or Reactive Red 184. However, it was an effective sorbent for Basic Blue 41. The Langmuir equation described the adsorption well. The enthalpy of adsorption was found to be endothermic and the capacity of the linseed cake for

R. M. Liversidge; G. J. Lloyd; D. A. J. Wase; C. F. Forster

1997-01-01

7

Characterisation and environmental application of an Australian natural zeolite for basic dye removal from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Australian natural zeolite was collected, characterised and employed for basic dye adsorption in aqueous solution. The natural zeolite is mainly composed of clinoptiloite, quartz and mordenite and has cation-exchange capacity of 120meq\\/100g. The natural zeolite presents higher adsorption capacity for methylene blue than rhodamine B with the maximal adsorption capacity of 2.8×10?5 and 7.9×10?5mol\\/g at 50°C for rhodamine B

Shaobin Wang; Z. H. Zhu

2006-01-01

8

Removal of basic yellow dye from aqueous solution by sorption on green alga Caulerpa scalpelliformis.  

PubMed

Dynamic batch experiments were carried out for the biosorption of basic yellow dye on to the green macroalgae Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The factors affecting the sorption process such as the initial concentration of the dye and pH of the solution, the adsorbent dosage and the time of contact were studied. The sorption kinetics followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. The Caulerpa species exhibited a maximum uptake of 27 mg of dye per gram of seaweed. The Boyd's plot confirmed the external mass transfer as the rate-limiting step. The average effective diffusion coefficient was found to be 2.47 x 10(-4)cm(2)/s. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated that the biosorption followed Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of sorption DeltaH degrees , free energy change DeltaG degrees and entropy DeltaS degrees were estimated. The negative value of DeltaH degrees and negative values of DeltaG degrees show the sorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The negative value of entropy DeltaS degrees shows the decreased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the sorption of dyes onto green seaweed. PMID:16938392

Aravindhan, Rathinam; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

2006-07-31

9

Electrochemically enhanced removal of polycyclic aromatic basic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon cloth electrodes.  

PubMed

Open-circuit (OC) adsorption and electrosorption behaviors of three polycyclic aromatic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon cloth (ACC) were investigated. The selected dyes were crystal violet (BB-3), basic blue7 (BB-7), and basic blue11 (BB-11). OC adsorption and electrosorption processes were monitored by in situ UV-visible spectrophotometry. Electrosorption was carried out by polarization of an ACC electrode, galvanostatically. Considerable enhancements in removal capacity and duration of the dyes were achieved upon polarization of ACC. Kinetic data for OC adsorption and electrosorption were successfully treated according to pseudo-first-order law, and rate constants were determined. Adsorption isotherms were derived, and the data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Both the rate and extent of adsorption and electrosorption of dyes were found to increase in the order of BB-7 < BB-11 < BB-3. This order was discussed in terms of correlation between sizes of dye species and of ACC pores. Electrodesorption experiments were carried out to explore possibilities of regeneration of ACC. PMID:20704233

Bayram, Edip; Ayranci, Erol

2010-08-15

10

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent-iron humate.  

PubMed

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent-iron humate-was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in most cases) dramatically the sorption of basic (cationic) dyes. Typically, the dye sorption was enhanced in the presence of low concentrations of anionic surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations, a steep decrease in the dye sorption was observed in some systems, probably due to the formation of micelles that solubilize the dye molecules and prevent their sorption. A model describing these experimental dependencies was proposed. The sorption of basic dyes onto iron humate may be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Diffusion processes were identified as the main mechanisms controlling the rate of the dye sorption. PMID:16162351

Janos, Pavel; Smídová, Veronika

2005-11-01

11

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent—iron humate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent—iron humate—was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in

Pavel Janoš; Veronika Šmídová

2005-01-01

12

Removal of basic dye from aqueous medium using a novel agricultural waste material: Pumpkin seed hull  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, pumpkin seed hull (PSH), an agricultural solid waste, is proposed as a novel material for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial concentration, agitation time and solution pH were studied in batch experiments at 30°C. The equilibrium process was described well by the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The adsorption kinetics can

B. H. Hameed; M. I. El-Khaiary

2008-01-01

13

A natural sorbent, Luffa cylindrica for the removal of a model basic dye.  

PubMed

In this work, application of Luffa cylindrica in malachite green (MG) removal from aqueous solution was studied in a batch system. The effect of contact time, pH and temperature on removal of malachite green was also investigated. By the time pH was increased from 3 to 5, the amount of sorbed malachite green also increased. Beyond the pH value of 5, the amount of sorbed malachite green remains constant. The fits of equilibrium sorption data to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations were investigated. Langmuir isotherm exhibited best fit with the experimental data. Monolayer sorption capacity increased with the increasing of temperature. Sorption kinetic was evaluated by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich rate equations and intraparticle diffusion models. It was inferred that sorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters for sorption process were also found out. Spontaneous and endothermic nature of sorption was obtained due to negative value of free energy (DeltaG(o)) and positive value of enthalpy (DeltaH(o)) changes. FTIR analyses were also conducted to confirm the sorption of malachite green onto L. cylindrica. PMID:20378245

Altini?ik, Aylin; Gür, Emel; Seki, Yolda?

2010-03-19

14

A simplified method for synthesis of Fe3O4@PAA nanoparticles and its application for the removal of basic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified method for synthesis of polyacrylic acid-bound iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PAA NPs) was reported. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, VSM and XRD. Characterization results indicated that PAA was successfully introduced onto the surface of Fe3O4 and did not cause any changes in magnetic property. The Fe3O4@PAA NPs were used to adsorb rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a model basic dye pollutant from aqueous solution. Kinetics data and adsorption isotherms were better fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium could be reached at about 20 min, showing that the as-prepared adsorbent exhibited extremely rapid adsorption rate. The aqueous solution of the Yellow River was chosen as the test sample, and the results showed that the magnetic adsorbent was efficient for the removal of the basic dye in the real sample.

Xu, Yin-Yin; Zhou, Min; Geng, Hui-Juan; Hao, Jun-Jie; Ou, Qian-Qian; Qi, Sheng-Da; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

2012-02-01

15

Use of slag for dye removal  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption techniques employing activated carbon have been found to be reasonably effective in the removal of some of the ionic impurities in water. However, economic considerations may require the use of inexpensive sorbents which are either naturally available or available as waste products from manufacturing processes. Slag is one such waste product obtained during the manufacture of steel, and the present study investigates dye removal characteristics of slag from colored waters. Aqueous solutions prepared from commercial grade acid, basic, and disperse dyes were used in this study, and batch pH, kinetic, and isotherm studies were undertaken on a laboratory scale. The data were evaluated for applicability to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and BET isotherm models, and the removal capacity of slag was compared with that of granular activated carbon. Results indicated approximately 94% removal of the disperse dye by slag, compared with a removal of approximately 49% achieved by activated carbon. Removal of acid dyes (dyes containing anionic groups) was reasonably good (approximately 47 and 74%), though not as good as obtained using activated carbon (approximately 100%). Column studies were conducted with a disperse dye (nonionic, slightly soluble in water), and analysis of data showed a sorption capacity of 1.3 mg of disperse dye per gram of slag. However, effluent dye concentrations were found to be higher than the permissible levels for discharge to receiving waters.

Ramakrishna, K.R.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

1998-09-01

16

Dye Removal from Textile Dye Wastewater Using Recycled Alum Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh

W Chu

2001-01-01

17

Adsorption of basic dyes onto montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-Mont) was exchanged with titanium cations and the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10) on these montmorillonites were measured to examine the ion-exchange effects on the basic dyes adsorption. The relationship between the dye adsorption and the alteration of pore structures of montmorillonite induced by ion-exchange processes was discussed. Moreover, the

Cheng-Cai Wang; Lain-Chuen Juang; Ting-Chu Hsu; Chung-Kung Lee; Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Fu-Chuang Huang

2004-01-01

18

Textile Dye Removal by Membrane Technology and Biological Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of two methods for dyestuff removal from a textile waste stream. In the first step, different types of dyes used in textile industries were studied in order to determine the types with highest usage rates. In this regard, basic, reactive, disperse and acidic dyes were selected. In the second step,

MITRA GHOLAMI; SIMMIN NASSERI; MOHAMMAD-REZA ALIZADEHFARD; ALIREZA MESDAGHINIA

19

A novel biosorbent for dye removal: Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact

Zhiqiang Zhang; Siqing Xia; Xuejiang Wang; Aming Yang; Bin Xu; Ling Chen; Zhiliang Zhu; Jianfu Zhao; Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault; Didier Leonard

2009-01-01

20

Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride, as compared to alum and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is a less commonly used coagulant in the field of wastewater treatment, with a cost in between alum and PAC. It has been used in this study as a coagulant to investigate the effectiveness in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of colouring matters. The colour concentration of dye

Boon Hai Tan; Tjoon Tow Teng; A. K. Mohd Omar

2000-01-01

21

Decolorization of basic dye solutions by electrocoagulation: An investigation of the effect of operational parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoagulation (EC) is one of the most effective techniques to remove color and organic pollutants from wastewater, which reduces the sludge generation. In this paper, electrocoagulation has been used for the removal of color from solutions containing C. I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) and C. I. Basic Blue 3 (BB3). These dyes are used in the wool and blanket factories

N. Daneshvar; A. Oladegaragoze; N. Djafarzadeh

2006-01-01

22

Sorption of basic and acid dyes from aqueous solutions onto oxihumolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring kind of weathered and oxidised young brown coal called oxihumolite was used for an adsorptive removal of basic (Methylene Blue, Malachite Green) as well as acid (Egacid Orange, Midlon Black) dyes from waters. It was shown that both kinds of dyes can be sorbed onto oxihumolite. The maximum sorption capacities determined from the parameters of Langmuir isotherms ranged

Milena Rýznarová; Sylvie Grötschelová

2005-01-01

23

Electrochemical removal of dyes from textile wastewater  

SciTech Connect

There are many technologies available for treating wastewater from the textile industry. Included are (1) biological treatment, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) carbon absorption, (4) ultrafiltration, and (5) oxidation with ozone. The main drawback of these technologies is that they generally lack the broad scope of treatment efficiency required to reduce all types of pollutants present in textile wastewater. However, when one approach does look promising, its capital costs or operating costs often become prohibitive when applied to the large water needs common to this industry. It has recently been shown that an electrochemical technology developed in the 1970s by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. effectively removes many of the contaminants including toxic dye species and heavy metals along with significant BOD and COD reduction across many types of textile wastewater and dye species. The removal of dyes and other pollutants in textile wastewater can be accomplished very efficiently with the electrochemical process. Actual operating data, along with actual water samples, will be presented along with economics and operating characteristics of this type of a system. Additional considerations such as removal of other components such as BOD and COD, theoretical interpretations, and the possibility of water reuse will also be discussed.

Uhrich, K.D. (Andco Environmental Processes, Inc., Amherst, NY (USA))

1988-09-01

24

Kinetics of basic dye (methylene blue) biosorption by giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza).  

PubMed

Wastewater containing pigments and/or dyes can cause serious water pollution problems in the form of reduced light penetration and photosynthesis, and the toxicity from heavy metals associated with pigments and/or dyes. Laboratory investigations, of the potential use of dried Spirodela polyrrhiza biomass as an adsorbent for the removal of the basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solution were conducted. A series of experiments were undertaken in an agitated batch adsorber to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. sorbent dosage, pH, and contact time. The results showed that as the amount of the dried S. polyrrhiza increased, the percentage of dye sorption increased accordingly. At pH 2.0 the sorption of dye was not favorable, while the sorption at other pHs (3.0-11.0) was remarkable. There was no significant difference in the dye concentration remaining when the pH was increased from 3.0 to 11.0. The dye removal time was influenced by the initial dye concentration, and the process followed the first-order rate kinetics. The rate constants for intraparticle diffusion were 1.00 and 3.27 mg/g/min1/2 for 300 and 500 mg/l of dye, respectively. PMID:12826416

Waranusantigul, P; Pokethitiyook, P; Kruatrachue, M; Upatham, E S

2003-01-01

25

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, M.L.

2000-07-25

26

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

27

Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.  

PubMed

In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions. PMID:23852534

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

2013-07-13

28

Kinetic and equilibrium studies on biosorption of basic blue dye by green macro algae Caulerpa scalpelliformis.  

PubMed

Dynamic batch experiments were carried out for the biosorption of basic blue dye on to the green macro algae Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The factors affecting the sorption process such as the initial concentration of the dye, pH of the solution, the adsorbent dosage and the time of contact were studied. It has been observed that the sorption process was significantly affected by the pH of the initial dye solution. The sorption kinetics was found to follow the second-order kinetic model. The Boyd's plot confirmed the external mass transfer as the rate-limiting step. The average effective diffusion coefficient was found to be 1.652 x 10(- 5) cm(2)/s. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated that the biosorption followed Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Optimized parameters were used to treat the commercial effluent containing the dye. Complete color removal was observed in two stages of treatment with the seaweed. PMID:17454369

Aravindhan, Rathinam; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

2007-04-01

29

Highly Efficient Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Simple Chemical Modification of Wood Sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the efficiency of oxidized wood meal for removal of methylene blue (MB) as a typical basic dye from aqueous waste streams. The adsorption process was performed using sawdust treated with KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, and H2O2 oxidants. Among the tested chemical oxidants, KMnO4 was found to be more effective for modification of sawdust for dye uptake. Based on the

Reza Ansari; Mahnaz Saghanejhad Tehrani; Ali Mohammad-Khah

2012-01-01

30

Color removal from dye-containing wastewater by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color removal by MgCl2 when treating synthetic waste containing pure dyes was studied. The color removal efficiency of MgCl2\\/Ca(OH)2 was compared with that of Al2(SO4)3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and FeSO4\\/Ca(OH)2. The mechanism of color removal by MgCl2 was also investigated. The experimental results show that the color removal efficiency of MgCl2 is related to the type of dye and depends

Bao-Yu Gao; Qin-Yan Yue; Yan Wang; Wei-Zhi Zhou

2007-01-01

31

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail ( Typha angustifolia Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of

Duangrat Inthorn; Siritham Singhtho; Paitip Thiravetyan; Eakalak Khan

2004-01-01

32

Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The more recent methods for the removal of synthetic dyes from waters and wastewater are complied. The various methods of removal such as adsorption on various sorbents, chemical decomposition by oxidation, photodegradation, and microbiological decoloration, employing activated sludge, pure cultures and microbe consortiums are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed and their efficacies are compared.

Esther Forgacs; Tibor Cserháti; Gyula Oros

2004-01-01

33

Use of slag for dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption techniques employing activated carbon have been found to be reasonably effective in the removal of some of the ionic impurities in water. However, economic considerations may require the use of inexpensive sorbents which are either naturally available or available as waste products from manufacturing processes. Slag is one such waste product obtained during the manufacture of steel, and the

Konduru R. Ramakrishna; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

34

Removal of dyes from a synthetic textile dye effluent by biosorption on apple pomace and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with two low-cost, locally available, renewable biosorbents; apple pomace and wheat straw for textile dye removal. Experiments at total dye concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150, and 200mg\\/l were carried out with a synthetic effluent consisting of an equal mixture of five textile dyes. The effect of initial dye concentration, biosorbent particle size, quantity

T Robinson; B Chandran; P Nigam

2002-01-01

35

Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.  

PubMed

Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater. PMID:22996821

Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

2012-09-21

36

Low-cost adsorbents from bio-waste for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Activated carbons (ACs) were developed from bio-waste materials like rice husk and peanut shell (PS) by various physicochemical activation methods. PS char digested in nitric acid followed by treatment at 673 K resulted in high surface area up to ?585 m(2)/g. The novelty of the present study is the identification of oxygen functional groups formed on the surface of activated carbons by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quantification by using temperature programmed decomposition (TPD). Typical TPD data indicated that each activation method may lead to varying amounts of acidic and basic functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent, which may be a crucial factor in determining the adsorption capacity. It was shown that ACs developed during the present study are good adsorbents, especially for the removal of a model textile dye methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. As MB is a basic dye, H(2)O(2)-treated rice husk showed the best adsorption capacity, which is in agreement with the acidic groups present on the surface. Removal of the dye followed Langmuir isotherm model, whereas MB adsorption on ACs followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. PMID:23233187

Manoj Kumar Reddy, P; Mahammadunnisa, Sk; Ramaraju, B; Sreedhar, B; Subrahmanyam, Ch

2012-12-12

37

Separation and determination of basic dyes formulated in hair care products by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary electrophoretic (CE) method for analyzing five basic dyes (Basic Red 76, Basic Brown 16, Basic Yellow 57, Basic Brown 17 and Basic Blue 99) sold under the trade name Arianor, which are commonly used in hair care products, has been established. A buffer of 100mM acetic acid–ammonium acetate (50:50) containing 90% (v\\/v) methanol was employed in a fused-silica

Yoshinori Masukawa

2006-01-01

38

Discovery and structural elucidation of the illegal azo dye Basic Red 46 in sumac spice.  

PubMed

An unknown red dye was discovered in a sumac spice sample during routine analysis for Sudan dyes. LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS did not reveal the identity of the red substance. Nevertheless, using LC-high-resolution MS and isotope ratio comparisons the structure was identified as Basic Red 46. The identity of the dye was further confirmed by comparison with a commercial hair-staining product and two textile dye formulations containing Basic Red 46. Analogous to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is an azo dye. However, some of the sample clean-up methodology utilised for the analysis of Sudan dyes in food prevents its successful detection. In contrast to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is a cation. Its cationic properties make it bind strongly to gel permeation columns and silica solid-phase extraction cartridges and prevent elution with standard eluents. This is the first report of Basic Red 46 in food. The structure elucidation of this compound as well as the disadvantages of analytical methods focusing on a narrow group of targeted analytes are discussed. PMID:22455543

Ruf, J; Walter, P; Kandler, H; Kaufmann, A

2012-03-29

39

Biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles for removal of reactive dyes from wastewater.  

PubMed

In this study, biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles with diameters less than 100 nm were developed to remove reactive dyes from simulated post-dyeing wastewater with remarkably high efficiency. Reactive dyes are widely used to color cellulosic materials, such as cotton and rayon. Wastewater from reactive dyeing process contains up to 50% dye and electrolytes with concentrations up to 100 g L(-1). Current methods to remove reactive dyes from wastewater are suffering from low adsorption capacities or low biodegradability of the sorbents. In this research, biodegradable zein nanoparticles showed high adsorption capacities for dyes. Hollow zein nanoparticles showed higher adsorption for Reactive Blue 19 than solid structures, and the adsorption amount increased as temperature decreased, pH decreased or initial dye concentration increased. At pH 6.5 and pH 9.0, increasing electrolyte concentration could improve dye adsorption significantly. Under simulated post-dyeing condition with 50.0 g L(-1) salt and pH 9.0, maximum adsorption of 1016.0 mg dye per gram zein nanoparticles could be obtained. The adsorption capacity was much higher than that of various biodegradable adsorbents developed to remove reactive dye. It is suggested that the hollow zein nanoparticles are good candidates to remove reactive dye immediately after dyeing process. PMID:23643969

Xu, Helan; Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Qiuran; Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

2013-04-30

40

Thermodynamics and kinetic studies of biosorption of a basic dye from aqueous solution using green algae Ulothrix sp.  

PubMed

This study addresses removal of a basic dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solutions by using dried Ulothrix sp. biomass as biosorbent. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature, solution equilibrium pH, biosorbent dosage, and mixing rate on biosorption of the dye have been investigated. It was found that 30min is sufficient in order to reach adsorption equilibrium. The amount of methylene blue adsorbed onto Ulothrix sp. increased with increasing equilibrium pH and mixing rate, in contrary, it decreased with increasing temperature and sorbent dosage. The process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The isosteric enthalpy and entropy values were calculated as -11.8kJ/mol and 37.5J/(molK), respectively. In addition, the results suggest that the physical interactions between sorbent particles and sorbate ions play an important role for the adsorption of methylene blue onto the biosorbent. PMID:19963357

Do?ar, Cetin; Gürses, Ahmet; Açikyildiz, Metin; Ozkan, Esra

2009-11-13

41

Photocatalytic oxidation of the textile dye basic red 18 with irradiated titanium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems of textile wastewater is the presence of dye materials, because colour is visible to the public even if the dye concentration is lower than other pollutants, and needs therefore to be removed from the wastewater before it is discharged. Techniques based on “advanced oxidative processes” such as photocatalysed oxidation seem to be very promising for

I. El Ghazi; M. K. Elamrani; M. Mansour

2003-01-01

42

Removal of Remazol Black B Textile Dye From Aqueous Solution by Adsorption: Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low-cost, easy obtained, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from aqueous solution. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from orange peel for the removal of Remazol Black B (RB) dye from aqueous solution. It was seen that the removal

Yüksel Bayrak; Resmiye Uzgör

2012-01-01

43

Utilization of ground eggshell waste as an adsorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The adsorption of cationic basic blue 9 and anionic acid orange 51 from aqueous solution onto the calcified eggshell (ES) and its ground eggshell powder (ESP) was carried out by varying the process parameters such as agitation speed, initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass and temperature. The adsorption potential for basic blue 9 onto ESP is far lower than that for acid orange 51, mainly due to the ionic interaction between the acid dye with the sulfonate groups and the positively charged sites on the surface of ESP. The adsorption capacity of acid orange 51 onto ES is significantly smaller than that onto ESP, which is in line with their pore properties (i.e., 1 vs. 21 m(2)/g). The experimental results showed that the adsorption process can be well described with a simple model, the pseudo-second-order model. According to the equilibrium adsorption capacity from the fitting of pseudo-second order reaction model, it was further found that the Freundlich model yields a somewhat better fit than the Langmuir model in the adsorption of acid orange 51 onto ESP. In addition, an increase in adsorption temperature from 15 to 45 degrees C significantly enhances the adsorption capacity of acid orange 51 onto ESP, revealing that the adsorption should be an endothermic or chemisorption process. From the results, it is feasible to utilize the ground eggshell waste as an effective adsorbent for removal of anionic dye from aqueous solution. PMID:17543519

Tsai, Wen-Tien; Hsien, Kuo-Jong; Hsu, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Ming; Lin, Keng-Yu; Chiu, Chun-Hsiang

2007-05-31

44

Utilization of powdered peanut hull as biosorbent for removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An untried, low cost, locally available biosorbent was investigated for its anionic dye removal capacity from aqueous solution. Powder prepared from peanut hull was used for biosorption of three anionic dyes, amaranth (Am), sunset yellow (SY) and fast green FCF (FG). The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g. initial pH and dye concentration, sorbent dosage, particle size, ion strength, contact

Renmin Gong; Yi Ding; Mei Li; Chao Yang; Huijun Liu; Yingzhi Sun

2005-01-01

45

Removal of textile dyes from aqueous solution using PEG based aqueous biphasic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous biphasic systems (ABSs) composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and salt have been examined for the removal of textile dyes from textile effluent. The partitioning of four dyes namely Cibacron Scarlet LS 2G, Rhodamine B, Brown ERN and Astacryl Red 3B was investigated. All the dyes studied were found to partition into the upper PEG rich layer. Sodium carbonate was

G. Muthuraman; K. Palanivelu

2005-01-01

46

Packed bed column studies for the removal of Acid blue 92 and Basic red 29 using non-conventional adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorptive removal of Acid blue 92 and Basic red 29 dyes was achieved using a packed column prepared by Euphorbia antiquorum L activated carbon. The effects of various factors like influent concentration, flow rate and bed height were analysed. The column experiments using Euphorbia antiquorum L activated carbon showed that adsorption efficiency increases with increase in the influent concentration

P Sivakumar; P N Palanisamy

47

Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of three basic dyes, named basic violet 10, basic violet 1, and basic green 4, from aqueous solutions onto sugarcane dust was studied. The results revealed the potential of sugarcane dust, a waste material, to be a low-cost sorbent. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the three-parameter Redlich–Peterson isotherms. In order to determine the

Yuh-Shan Ho; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chung-Chi Wang

2005-01-01

48

Removal of Anionic and Cationic Dyes From Water by FeAl Binary Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al was incorporated in iron oxide to enhance dye removal capacity (Fe-Al binary oxide). Oxides with different Fe:Al ratios(10:0, 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 1:9 and 0:10) were synthesized and applied for removal of organic dyes. Increase of incorporated Al expanded effective surface area that could contact with dye. The highest dye removal efficiency was achieved by 5:5 and 3:7 Fe:Al

Hye-Jin Hong; Jungmin Kim; Jung-Seok Yang; Eun Jung Kim; Ji-Won Yang

2012-01-01

49

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption on peanut hull  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential feasibility of peanut hul particle for removal of three cationic dyes (methylene blue, brilliant cresyl blue and neutral red) from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of various experimental parameters were examined and optimal experimental conditions were decided. Above the value of initial pH 4, three dyes studied could be removed effectively. The isothermal data fitted the Langmuir

Renmin Gong; Mei Li; Chao Yang; Yingzhi Sun; Jian Chen

2005-01-01

50

Templated preparation of porous magnetic microspheres and their application in removal of cationic dyes from wastewater.  

PubMed

Porous magnetic microspheres with large particle size (350-450 microm) were prepared with sulfonated macroporous polydivinylbenzene as a template. The preparation process included ferrous ion exchange and following oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the weight fraction of magnetic nanoparticles exceeded 20 wt% in microspheres after the preparation process was repeated three times. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the crystalline phase of as-formed magnetic nanoparticles was magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). TEM images revealed rod-like magnetite crystal after the first oxidation cycle, however, the crystal morphologies were transferred into random shape after more oxidation cycles. The applicability of porous magnetic microspheres for removal of cationic dyes from water was also explored. The results exhibited that basic fuchsin and methyl violet could be quickly removed from water with high efficiency. More importantly, the magnetic microspheres could be easily regenerated and repeatedly employed for wastewater treatment. Therefore, a novel methodology was provided for fast removal cationic dyes from wastewater. PMID:20619794

Liu, Qingquan; Wang, Li; Xiao, Anguo; Gao, Jingming; Ding, Wenbing; Yu, Haojie; Huo, Jia; Ericson, Mårten

2010-05-21

51

Textile dye removal from wastewater effluents using bioflocculants produced by indigenous bacterial isolates.  

PubMed

Bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant located in Durban, South Africa, and identified using standard biochemical tests as well as the analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bioflocculants produced by these organisms were ethanol precipitated, purified using 2% (w/v) cetylpyridinium chloride solution and evaluated for removal of wastewater dyes under different pH, temperature and nutritional conditions. Bioflocculants from these indigenous bacteria were very effective for decolourizing the different dyes tested in this study, with a removal rate of up to 97.04%. The decolourization efficiency was largely influenced by the type of dye, pH, temperature, and flocculant concentration. A pH of 7 was found to be optimum for the removal of both whale and mediblue dyes, while the optimum pH for fawn and mixed dye removal was found to be between 9 and 10. Optimum temperature for whale and mediblue dye removal was 35 °C, and that for fawn and mixed dye varied between 40–45 °C and 35–40 °C, respectively. These bacterial bioflocculants may provide an economical and cleaner alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes for the removal of dyes from wastewater effluents, since they are biodegradable and easily sustainable. PMID:23201644

Buthelezi, Simphiwe P; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

2012-11-30

52

Quaternized magnetic microspheres for the efficient removal of reactive dyes.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel quaternized magnetic resin, NDMP, was prepared and characterized. Two reactive dyes (RDs), Orange G (OG) and red RWO, were used as a small-molecular RD and large-molecular RD, respectively, to investigate their adsorption on NDMP. A common quaternized magnetic resin, MIEX, was selected for comparison. The adsorption kinetics of OG onto both resins and the adsorption kinetics of RWO onto NDMP followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, whereas the adsorption of RWO onto MIEX was better fitted by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The experimental data illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of both RDs onto NDMP (1.9 mmol OG/g, 0.70 mmol RWO/g) was twice as large as that on MIEX (1.0 mmol OG/g, 0.35 mmol RWO/g). The Langmuir equation and the Freundlich model fit the isotherm data for OG and RWO adsorption, respectively. The adsorption of OG on the NDMP and MIEX resins declined in the presence of NaCl or Na?SO?. The effects of the salts on the adsorption of RWO were different. The recyclability of NDMP and MIEX were also evaluated. This work provides a reusable efficient adsorbent for the removal of RDs. PMID:22726352

Shuang, Chendong; Li, Penghui; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Yang

2012-06-07

53

Construction of an integrated enzyme system consisting azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase for dye removal.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are toxic and carcinogenic and are often present in industrial effluents. In this research, azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase were coupled for both continuous generation of the cofactor NADH and azo dye removal. The results show that 85% maximum relative activity of azoreductase in an integrated enzyme system was obtained at the conditions: 1U azoreductase:10U glucose 1-dehydrogenase, 250mM glucose, 1.0mM NAD(+) and 150?M methyl red. Sensitivity analysis of the factors in the enzyme system affecting dye removal examined by an artificial neural network model shows that the relative importance of enzyme ratio between azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase was 22%, followed by dye concentration (27%), NAD(+) concentration (23%) and glucose concentration (22%), indicating none of the variables could be ignored in the enzyme system. Batch results show that the enzyme system has application potential for dye removal. PMID:23321587

Yang, Yuyi; Wei, Buqing; Zhao, Yuhua; Wang, Jun

2012-12-22

54

Textile dye removal by natural clay – case study of Fouchana Tunisian clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant amount of unused dyes remain in textile industry wastewater, the treatment of which presents a great challenge, particularly in semi?arid countries where water resources are of great concern. Liquid?phase adsorption is highly efficient for the removal of dyes and adsorbents, for example, activated carbons are used to treat wastewater, but are expensive. Clays are cheaper and several works

E. Errais; J. Duplay; F. Darragi

2010-01-01

55

Competitive Adsorption of Basic Dyes onto Calcite in Single and Binary Component Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium and kinetic behavior of two basic dyes, Methylene Blue (MB) and Safranine T (ST), onto calcite in single and binary component systems have been studied. Experimental equilibrium results have been well predicted by the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. The model parameters obtained for single solute systems at 298 K have been used for the calculation of adsorption isotherms

Gülten Atun; Elif Türker Acar

2010-01-01

56

Study of Color Fastness Properties onto Bleached Sulfonated Jute -cotton Blended Fabrics with Basic Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw jute fiber has been sulfonated with sodium sulfite in presence of ethylinediamine (EDA) and blended with 40% cotton for production of fine yarn and fabric. Bleached raw jute fiber, bleached sulfonated jute fiber, bleached sulfonated jute -cotton blended fabric and bleached cotton fabric has been dyed with basic dyes (e.g. Crystal Violet, Chrysodine Y, Auramine O and Magenta). The

M. A. Salam

57

Removal of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution by ozone for water reuse in textile dyeing processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of textile dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution by ozone until total decolorization using a semi-batch bubbling reactor was studied. This compound was selected because of its extended industrial application for cotton dyeing. Decomposition of that textile dye was observed by adding some chemical auxiliaries commonly used in textile dyeing processes such as sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate

P. Colindres; H. Yee-Madeira; E. Reguera

2010-01-01

58

Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous medium by nano poly acrylonitrile particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concerns the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) dye using nano-poly Acrylonitrile (PAN) and hydroximated nano-poly Acrylonitrile (HPAN) particles prepared by precipitation polymerization technique. The effect of the process variables including contact time, pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the adsorption characters for PAN and HPAN was studied. The removal percentage varied from 100% to 60% with MB

Mohamed Samir Mohy Eldin; S. A. El-Sakka; M. M. El-Masry; I. I. Abdel-Gawad; S. S. Garybe

2012-01-01

59

Gemini polymeric nanoarchitecture as a novel adsorbent: synthesis and dye removal from multicomponent system.  

PubMed

In this paper, gemini polymeric nanoarchitecture (GPN) as a novel adsorbent was synthesized, and its dye removal ability from single and multicomponent (ternary) systems was investigated. The physical characteristics of GPN were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Acid Blue 92 (AB92), Direct Green 6 (DG6), and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption from single and multicomponent (ternary) systems were studied. The effect of operational parameter such as adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q0) of GPN was 1000 mg/g, 1428 mg/g, and 1250 mg/g for AB92, DG6, and DR31, respectively. It was found that adsorption of AB92, DG6, and DR31 onto GPN followed with Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms, respectively. Adsorption kinetic of dyes followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results showed that the GPN as an insoluble polymeric adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored wastewater. PMID:23582906

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Abdi, Jafar; Najafi, Farhood

2013-03-21

60

Towards advanced aqueous dye removal processes: a short review on the versatile role of activated carbon.  

PubMed

During the last decade, several physico-chemical and biological techniques have been developed to remove colour from textile wastewaters. Some of these techniques rely on and many will profit from activated carbon (AC). The role of AC is versatile: (1) it acts as a dye adsorbent, not only in straightforward adsorption processes but also in AC-enhanced coagulation and membrane filtration processes; (2) it generates strong oxidising agents (mostly, hydroxyl (OH) radicals) in electrochemical dye oxidation; (3) it catalyses OH production in advanced oxidation processes; (4) it catalyses anaerobic (azo) dye reduction and supports biofilm growth in microbial dye removal. This paper reviews the role of AC in dye decolourisation, evaluates the feasibility of each AC-amended decolourisation technique and discusses perspectives on future research. PMID:22459012

Mezohegyi, Gergo; van der Zee, Frank P; Font, Josep; Fortuny, Agustí; Fabregat, Azael

2012-03-28

61

Dye removal by almond shell residues: studies on biosorption performance and process design.  

PubMed

The objective of this research paper is to assess the biosorption potential of almond shell residues for methyl orange dye. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the dye biosorption process with a good fitting. The relationship between the pseudo-second-order model constants and the biosorption performance was also evaluated. The equilibrium data fit well with the Langmuir isotherm model presenting that the biosorption was the monolayer coverage of dye on the biosorbent and the homogeneity of active sites for dye binding on the biosorbent surface. Based on the Langmuir model, a single-stage batch biosorber was also designed to predict the biosorbent mass for certain percentage dye removal. Besides, the standard Gibbs free energy change was also calculated to define the nature of biosorption process. These results revealed that the utilization of almond shell residues as dye biosorbent could be an interesting option from both environmental and economic point of view. PMID:23623102

Deniz, Fatih

2013-03-14

62

Removal of Azo Dyes by the Activated Sludge Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research & Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research designed to develop techniques for predicting the fate of azo dyes in typical wastewater treatment systems which...

G. M. Shaul C. R. Dempsey K. A. Dostal

1985-01-01

63

REMOVAL OF AZO DYES BY THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research & Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research designed to develop techniques for predicting the fate of azo dyes in typical wastewater treatment systems which are treating wastewater ...

64

Adsorption of basic dyes on granular activated carbon and natural zeolite.  

PubMed

The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon and natural zeolite has been studied using an agitated batch adsorber. The influence of agitation, initial dye concentration and adsorbent mass has been studied. The parameters of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms have been determined using the adsorption data. Homogeneous diffusion model (solid diffusion) combined with external mass transfer resistance is proposed for the kinetic investigation. The dependence of solid diffusion coefficient on initial concentration and mass adsorbent is represented by the simple empirical equations. PMID:11547856

Meshko, V; Markovska, L; Mincheva, M; Rodrigues, A E

2001-10-01

65

Tungstate ion resonance Rayleigh scattering method for determination of basic triphenylmethane dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pH 4.2–6.0 HAc-NaAc buffer medium, the resonance Rayleigh scattering intensities of separate basic triphenylmethane dyes,\\u000a such as methyl violet (MV), ethyl violet (EV), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG), iodine green (IG), malachite green\\u000a (MG), light green (LG), and tungstate ion solution, are very weak, but when these cationic dyes react with the tungstate ion\\u000a (WO4\\u000a 2?) to

LiHong Yu; ZhongFang Liu; XiaoLi Hu; Ling Kong; ShaoPu Liu

2010-01-01

66

Removal of C.I. Basic Green 4 (Malachite Green) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using cyclodextrin-based adsorbent: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch sorption experiments were carried out for the removal of C.I. Basic Green 4 (Malachite Green), a cationic dye from its aqueous solution using cyclodextrin-based material (CD\\/CMC material) as adsorbent. The operating variables studied were adsorbent mass, particle size, agitation speed, solution pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. Adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity was dependent of operating

Grégorio Crini; Harmel Ndongo Peindy; Frédéric Gimbert; Capucine Robert

2007-01-01

67

Analysis of basic hair dyes by HPLC with on-line post-column photochemical derivatisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method is proposed for the analysis of basic hair dyes (raw materials and colourant formulations). The performance of the method was enhanced by introducing post-column on-line photochemical derivatisation in combination with a Diode Array Detector. On-line photoderivatisation provided an effective way of selectively transforming the analytes to compounds with different spectral properties. For each analyte

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. DiPietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

68

REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF DYESTUFFS FROM DYEING WASTEWATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic nature of some dyestuffs (DSs) has long been recognized. Accordingly, dyeing wastewaters represent a source of water contamination, and should be treated in some way so as to reduce the concentration of the polluting DSs to permissible limits, prior to dumping its wastewater. In addition, some DSs can be recovered for reuse, a point which should represent saving

Mona M. Naim; Yehia M. El Abd

2002-01-01

69

Dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde treated and sulphuric acid treated saw dusts were used to adsorb malachite green at varying dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and agitation time. Similar experiments were conducted with laboratory grade activated carbon to compare the results. The adsorption efficiency of sulphuric acid treated sawdust (SD) was higher than formaldehyde treated SD. The adsorption followed first order rate expression and

V. K Garg; Renuka Gupta; Anu Bala Yadav; Rakesh Kumar

2003-01-01

70

Removal of Reactive Dye Using UV\\/TiO2 in Circular Type Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye, Red 120, was carried out on TiO2 particles as photocatalyst under UV irradiation. In this experiment, comparison on the removal of reactive dye by photolysis using UV light alone, photocatalyst adsorption using TiO2 alone and photocatalysis using UV light with photocatalysts as well as the effect of experimental parameters such as the number of column

Jae-Hong Park; Euiso Choi; Kyung-Ik Gil

2003-01-01

71

Assessment on the Removal of Methylene Blue Dye using Tamarind Fruit Shell as Biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarind fruit shell was used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The various\\u000a factors affecting adsorption, such as agitation, pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature, were investigated.\\u000a The dye adsorption capacity was strongly dependent on solution pH as well as temperature. The Langmuir isotherm model showed\\u000a good fit to the equilibrium

Papita Saha

2010-01-01

72

Removal of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions using Chemically Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyes (Acid Yellow 17 and Acid Orange 7) were removed from its aqueous solution in batch and continuous packed bed adsorption systems by using thermally activated Euphorbia macroclada carbon with respect to contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The activated carbon was prepared using a cheap plant-based material called Euphorbia macroclada, which was chemically modified with K2CO3. Lagergren-first-order

Özgül Gerçel; H. Ferdi Gerçel

2009-01-01

73

Removal of reactive dye using UV/TiO2 in circular type reactor.  

PubMed

Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye, Red 120, was carried out on TiO2 particles as photocatalyst under UV irradiation. In this experiment, comparison on the removal of reactive dye by photolysis using UV light alone, photocatalyst adsorption using TiO2 alone and photocatalysis using UV light with photocatalysts as well as the effect of experimental parameters such as the number of column employed, intensity of the light, pH and TiO2 dosage affecting the reaction efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye in circular type reactor was examined. The results of this indicate that with both UV light illumination and TiO2 present, reactive dye was more effectively eliminated than with either UV or TiO2 alone. Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye increased linearly with increasing UV light intensity. However, over 18 mW cm(-2) of UV light intensity, the efficiency reached a plateau. The photocatalytic degradation rate was greater in acid media than in alkaline media. Photocatalytic removal efficiency of reactive dye increased with increasing TiO2 dosage. However, over 1.5 g L(-1) of TiO2 dosage, the efficiency reached a plateau. PMID:12916859

Park, Jae-Hong; Choi, Euiso; Gil, Kyung-Ik

2003-07-01

74

Three-dimensional graphene oxide nanostructure for fast and efficient water-soluble dye removal.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated the potential of graphene nanomaterials as environmental pollutant adsorbents by utilizing the characteristics of ultralarge surface area and strong ?-? interaction on the surface. We generated a three-dimensional (3D) graphene oxide sponge (GO sponge) from a GO suspension through a simple centrifugal vacuum evaporation method, and used them to remove both the methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) dyes which are main contaminants from the dye manufacturing and textile finishing. The efficiency and speed of dye adsorption on a GO sponge was investigated under various parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, temperature, and pH. The adsorption process shows that 99.1% of MB and 98.8% of MV have been removed and the equilibrium status has been reached in 2 min. The 3D GO sponge displays adsorption capacity as high as 397 and 467 mg g(-1) for MB and MV dye, respectively, and the kinetic data reveal that the adsorption process of MB and MV dyes is well-matched with the pseudo second-order model. The MB and MV adsorption on the 3D GO sponge involved in endothermic chemical adsorption through the strong ?-? stacking and anion-cation interaction with the activation energy of 50.3 and 70.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The 3D GO sponge has demonstrated its high capability as an organic dye scavenger with high speed and efficiency. PMID:22206476

Liu, Fei; Chung, Soyi; Oh, Gahee; Seo, Tae Seok

2012-01-19

75

Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-08-01

76

Removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using combined coagulation\\/flocculation and adsorption on activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of two reactive dyes (Black 5 and Orange 16) was investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of reactive dyes through a combined treatment process with coagulation\\/adsorption on activated carbon. Activated carbon derived from coconut shells was used as the adsorbent and aluminum chloride was used as the coagulant. In order to obtain the

Franciele Regina Furlan; Laís Graziela de Melo da Silva; Ayres Ferreira Morgado; Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza; Selene Maria Arruda Guelli Ulson de Souza

2010-01-01

77

Adsorption kinetics of removal of a toxic dye, Malachite Green, from wastewater by using hen feathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper includes meticulous utilization of hen feather as potential adsorbent to remove a hazardous triphenylmethane dye, Malachite Green from wastewater. The adsorption studies were carried out at 30, 40 and 50°C and effects of pH, temperature, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, etc. on the adsorption were measured. On the basis of adsorption data Langmuir and Freundlich

Alok Mittal

2006-01-01

78

Removal of Anionic Dyes from Water using Citrus limonum (Lemon) Peel: Equilibrium Studies and Kinetic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Citrus limonum (lemon) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of two anionic dyes, Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration, and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacities of lemon peel adsorbent for

Amit Bhatnagar; Eva Kumar; A. K. Minocha; Byong-Hun Jeon; Hocheol Song; Yong-Chan Seo

2009-01-01

79

Removal of organic compounds during treating printing and dyeing wastewater of different process units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater in Shaoxing wastewater treatment plant (SWWTP) is composed of more than 90% dyeing and printing wastewater with high pH and sulfate. Through a combination process of anaerobic acidogenic [hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15h], aerobic (HRT of 20h) and flocculation–precipitation, the total COD removal efficiency was up to 91%. But COD removal efficiency in anaerobic acidogenic unit was only

J. Wang; M. C. Long; Z. J. Zhang; L. N. Chi; X. L. Qiao; H. X. Zhu; Z. F. Zhang

2008-01-01

80

Kinetics of adsorption of sulphonated azo dyes on strong basic anion exchangers.  

PubMed

The macroporous polystyrene anion exchangers Amberlite IRA-900 and Amberlite IRA-910 were used in order to remove sulphonated azo dyes (Allura Red and Sunset Yellow) from aqueous solutions of 100-500 mg/L concentrations. The experimental data obtained at 100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/L initial concentrations at 20 degrees C were applied to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Weber-Morris kinetic models. The calculated sorption capacities (qe,cal) and the rate constant of the first-order adsorption (k1) were determined. The pseudo-second-order kinetic constants (k2) and capacities were calculated from the plots of t/qt vs t, 1/qt vs 1/t, 1/t vs 1/qt, qt/t vs qt and 1/qe-qt vs t for type 1, type 2, type 3, type 4 and type 5 of the pseudo-second-order expression, respectively. The influence of phase contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on Allura Red and Sunset Yellow removal was also discussed. PMID:19886431

Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Hubicki, Zbigniew

2009-09-01

81

Loofa egyptiaca as a novel adsorbent for removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this paper, Loofa egyptiaca (LE), an agricultural plant cultivated in Egypt, was used to prepare low-cost activated carbon (LE(C1) and LE(C2)) adsorbents. The adsorbents (LE, LE(C1) and LE(C2)) were evaluated for their ability to remove direct blue 106 dye from aqueous solutions. Batch mode experiments were conducted using various parameters such as pH, contact time, dye concentration and adsorbent concentration. The surface chemistry of LE, LE(C1) and LE(C2) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental data were examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Harkins-Jura isotherms. The results showed that the adsorption of direct blue 106 was maximal at the lowest value of pH (pH=2). Removal efficiency was increased with an increase in dye concentration and a decrease in amount of adsorbent. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 57.14, 63.3 and 73.53 mg/g for LE, LE(C1) and LE(C2) respectively. Kinetics were also investigated using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The experimental data fitted very well with the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results indicate that LE, LE(C1) and LE(C2) could be employed as adsorbents for the removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solutions. PMID:19346057

El Ashtoukhy, El Sayed Z

2009-04-05

82

Organofunctionalized kenyaite for dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Crystalline layered sodium kenyaite was exchanged to proton kenyaite when reacted with hydrochloric acid solution, providing a new surface with available silanol groups that are able to couple with N-3-trimethoxysilylpropylethylenediamine silylating agent, after prior expansion of the basal distance with the polar organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. The resulting organofunctionalized nanomaterial (2N-Ken) was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, carbon and silicon nuclear magnetic resonances in the solid state, surface analysis, porosity, thermogravimetry, and electron scanning microscopy. The quantity of silylating agent incorporated into the nanospace, calculated from the nitrogen elemental analysis, was determined as 0.48 mmol g(-1), after expanding of the acidic precursor basal distance from 1.62 to 1.99 nm. The presence of a covalent silicon-carbon bond of the organosilyl moiety on the inorganic layered structure was confirmed through nuclear magnetic resonance. This new nanomaterial has the ability to extract the Sumifix Brilliant Orange 3R textile dye from aqueous solution, using a batchwise process. The effects of stirring time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the adsorption capacity demonstrated that 4 h is enough to reach equilibrium at 298+/-1 K under pH 4.0. Based on error function values (F(error)) the data were best fitted to fractional-order and chemisorption kinetic models when compared to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were better fitted to the Sips isotherm model. PMID:19447406

Royer, Betina; Cardoso, Natali F; Lima, Eder C; Ruiz, Vanusa S O; Macedo, Thaís R; Airoldi, Claudio

2009-04-14

83

Adsorption of basic dyes by dried waste sludge: Kinetic, equilibrium and desorption studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried waste sludge was used as adsorbent to remove methylene blue, crystal violet and basic fuchsine using batch systems. Rate experiments were performed at various initial adsorbate concentrations, adsorbent concentration and reaction temperature. The experimental data were analyzed using several kinetic equations to determine the best-fit equation and related parameters were calculated. It was shown that the adsorption of respective

Xue Song Wang; Hai Qing Lin

2011-01-01

84

Hazardous dyes removal from aqueous solution over mesoporous aluminophosphate with textural porosity by adsorption.  

PubMed

Dye pollution in aquatic nature produce serious environmental effects. In this investigation, mesoporous aluminophosphate molecular sieve synthesized and applied for the removal of hazardous dyes Malachite green (MG) and Methylene blue (MB). In the synthesis of mesoporous aluminophosphate (AlPO(4)) molecular sieve, the structure-directing agent, long-chain alkylbenzene has been used as a template. The template used for the synthesis of mesoporous material is environmentally biodegradable. The mesoporous AlPO(4) was synthesized by the absence of an organic base, tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) which is necessary to maintain the pH for the conventional AlPO(4) synthesis methods. The synthesized mesoporous AlPO(4) has high thermal stability up to 1173K and large porosity nature (40 nm). It was confirmed by the characterization techniques such as low-angle XRD, FT-IR, TGA and BET surface area analysis. The morphology of the material was explained by using SEM and TEM. The hazardous dyes MG and MB removal studied under the various conditions like contact time, dye concentration, temperature, pH and adsorbent dosage to examine the adsorption characteristics of the newly synthesized mesoporous AlPO(4) molecular sieves. PMID:23246936

Kannan, Chellapandian; Muthuraja, Kumarasamy; Devi, Murugan R

2012-11-19

85

Effect of the interaction between dye and acetic acid on the decomposition of Basic Green 4 with additive by ozone.  

PubMed

This research investigated the ozonation of Basic Green 4 (BG4) under the presence of acetic acid (AA). This acid is used as a textile additive for many industrial dyes derived from triphenylmethane. Determining the effect of this additive on discoloration, degradation dynamics, and final by-product distribution is the main objective of this study. The reaction system was the ozonation of a dye solution in co-solvents. This solution (dye and AA) was considered a simplified version of real BG4 dyeing wastewaters supplied with additives. The dye concentration was set to 50, 150, and 250 mg/L without pH adjustment (pH = 3). This low value was forced by the AA. Ozonation reaction with dye was mainly done by a direct molecular mechanism. The discoloration dynamics of BG4 without and with the additive were determined by ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectroscopy. The dye decomposition and the intermediate and final product formation-decomposition dynamics were followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of AA in the ozonation results were significant in the following ways: 1) a possible complex, formed between AA and the dye, changed ozone consumption; 2) the presence of additive decelerated the dye discoloration and decomposition; and 3) the number of by-products was dissimilar in both systems, with and without the additive the ozonation. The accumulation of organic acids with low molecular weight was determined in both systems, with and without the additive. Only one by-product was obtained in ozonation when AA participated in the reactor. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the system dye-AA-ozone. PMID:24117080

Pérez, Arizbeth A; Poznyak, Tatiana I; Chairez, Jorge I

2014-01-01

86

Environmental assessment of different photo-Fenton approaches for commercial reactive dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental study using life cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to three bench-scale wastewater treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R hetero-bireactive dye removal: artificial light photo-Fenton process, solar driven photo-Fenton process and artificial light photo-Fenton process coupled to a biological treatment. The study is focused on electricity and chemicals consumption, transports and atmosphere and water emissions generated by the different

Julia García-Montaño; Nilbia Ruiz; Iván Muñoz; Xavier Domènech; José A. García-Hortal; Francesc Torrades; José Peral

2006-01-01

87

Biological and Physical-Chemical Treatment of Textile Dyeing Wastewater for Color and COD Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment, ozonation and chemical precipitation were studied at bench scale to investigate color and COD removal efficiencies in three dye waste effluents of cotton, synthetic and woven fabric processing. The aerobic biodegradability of ozonated and unozonated samples was investigated in fill-and-draw activated sludge systems. An ozone dosage of 0.8 g\\/L was applied for 30 minutes in a semi-batch reactor

Tuba Turan-Ertas

2001-01-01

88

Removal of a cationic dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto bentonite clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of bentonite to remove malachite green from aqueous solutions has been studied for different adsorbate concentrations by varying the amount of adsorbent, temperature, pH and shaking time. Maximum adsorption of the dye, i.e. >90% has been achieved in aqueous solutions using 0.05g of bentonite at a pH of 9. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?H°, ?S° and ?G° were

S. S. Tahir; Naseem Rauf

2006-01-01

89

Application of potato ( Solanum tuberosum) plant wastes for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye pollutants from the textile, paper, and leather industries are important sources of environmental contamination. In the present study an agricultural waste from potato plant (potato stem powder, PSP and potato leaves powder, PLP) was used as an adsorbent for removal of the methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorbent materials were characterized by

Neha Gupta; Atul K. Kushwaha; M. C. Chattopadhyaya

90

Biotechnological Potential of Soil Isolate, Flavobacterium mizutaii for Removal of Azo Dyes: Kinetics, Isotherm, and Microscopic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavobacterium mizutaii has been isolated from soil samples for efficient removal of two azo dyes that is, napthol blue black (Color Index 20470) and direct red 80 (Color Index 35780). The adsorption behaviors of these azo dyes have been investigated in detail to explore the potentiality of F. mizutaii in pollution control management. Effects of various conditions such as pH,

Sujoy K. Das; Ishita Shome; Arun K. Guha

2012-01-01

91

Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

1985-01-01

92

Response surface optimization for efficient dye removal by isolated strain Pseudomonas sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response surface methodology (RSM) involving the central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize three important process variables for the decolourization of synthetic dye solutions containing Remazol Turquoise Blue (RTB) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. The interaction between three variables i.e. Initial concentration of dye, carbon source and nitrogen source were studied and modeled. According to the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results the predicted results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results ( R 2: 0.9726; Adj R 2: 0.9480 for RTB and R 2: 0.9789; Adj R 2: 0.9750 for RB5) which indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data from the second order polynomial regression model. Mathematical models were developed by the proposed system, for each process variable showed the effect of each factor and their interactions on biodecolourization process. The optimum concentrations of Dye, Carbon source, and Nitrogen source were found to be 20 mgL-1, 1.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L, respectively for RTB and RB5 to obtain maximum dye removing capacity. Predicted values were validated with experimental results, which indicated appropriateness of the employed model and the success of RSM.

Senthilkumar, Shanmugam; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Prabhuy, Harinarayan Janardhana; AhmedBasha, Chiya; Anantharaman, Narayan

2012-09-01

93

A biosorption isotherm model for the removal of reactive azo dyes by inactivated mycelia of Cunninghamella elegans UCP542.  

PubMed

The biosorption of three reactive azo dyes (red, black and orange II) found in textile effluents by inactive mycelium of Cunninghamella elegans has been investigated. It was found that after 120 hours of contact the adsorption led to 70%, 85%, 93% and 88% removal of reactive orange II, reactive black, reactive red and a mixture of them, respectively. The mycelium surface was found to be selective towards the azo dyes in the following order: reactive red > reactive black > orange II. Dye removal from a mixture solution resulted in 48.4 mg/g retention by mycelium and indicated a competition amongst the dyes for the cellular surface. A Freundlich adsorption isotherm model exhibited a better fit, thus suggesting the presence of heterogeneous binding sites. Electrondense deposits observed on the mycelium ultrastructure suggest that the dyes are mainly retained under the cellular surface of the inactive biomass of C. elegans. PMID:22217557

Ambrósio, Sandra T; Vilar, José C; Silva, Carlos A Alves da; Okada, Kaoru; Nascimento, Aline E; Longo, Ricardo L; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

2012-01-04

94

Effective removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using modified xanthan gum/silica hybrid nanocomposite as adsorbent.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of XG-g-PAM/SiO2 nanocomposite towards its potential application as high performance adsorbent for removal of Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The surface area, average pore size and total pore volume of the developed nanocomposite has been determined. The efficiency of CR dye adsorption depends on various factors like pH, temperature of the solution, equilibrium time of adsorption, agitation speed, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage. It has been observed that the nanocomposite is having excellent CR dye adsorption capacity (Q0=209.205mgg(-1)), which is considerably high. The dye adsorption process is controlled by pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The adsorption equilibrium data correlates well with Langmuir isotherm. Desorption study indicates the efficient regeneration ability of the dye loaded nanocomposite. PMID:23896441

Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Panda, A B; Pal, Sagar

2013-07-04

95

Removal of Dyes from the Effluent of Textile and Dyestuff Manufacturing Industry: A Review of Emerging Techniques With Reference to Biological Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological removal of dyes from effluents of textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry offers some distinct advantages over the commonly used chemicals and physicochemical methods. These include possible mineralization of the dyes to harmless inorganic compounds like carbon dioxide and water, and formation of a lesser quantity of relatively harmless sludge. Removal of dyes from these wastewaters has been reviewed with

HARPREET SINGH RAI; MANI SHANKAR BHATTACHARYYA; JAGDEEP SINGH; T. K. BANSAL; PURVA VATS; U. C. BANERJEE

2005-01-01

96

Adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution onto carbon nanotubes: a review.  

PubMed

Adsorption is a widely used technique for the separation and removal of pollutants from wastewaters. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as potential adsorbents because of its well defined cylindrical hollow structure, large surface area, high aspect ratios, hydrophobic wall and easily modified surfaces. In this review, dye adsorption capability of CNTs and CNT based composites from aqueous system has been compiled. This article provides the information about the defect, adsorption sites on CNTs and batch adsorption studies under the influence of various operational parameters such as contact time, solution pH, temperatures etc. and deals with mechanisms involved in adsorption of dyes onto CNTs. From the literature reviewed, it is observed that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show higher adsorption capacity than multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and functionalized and CNT composite have better sorption capacity than as grown CNTs. It is evident from the literature that CNT based nanosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. However, still more research work should be focused on the development of cost effective, higher efficient and environmental friendly CNT based nanosorbents for their commercial applications. PMID:23579224

Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Rajeev; Nayak, Arunima; Saleh, Tawfik A; Barakat, M A

2013-03-25

97

Removal of Disperse Red dye by bamboo-based activated carbon: optimisation, kinetics and equilibrium.  

PubMed

This research involved the use of response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the adsorption of Disperse Red 167 dye onto the bamboo-based activated carbon activated with H3PO4 (PBAC) in a batch process. F400, a commercially available activated carbon, was used in parallel for comparison. Analysis of variance showed that input variables such as the contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the interaction between the temperature and the contact time had a significant effect on the dye removal for both adsorbents. RSM results show that the optimal contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage for both adsorbents were found to be 15.4 h, 50 °C, 50.0 mg L(-1) and 12.0 g L(-1), respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies reached 90.23% and 92.13% for PBAC and F400, respectively, with a desirability of 0.937. The validation of the experimental results confirmed the prediction of the models derived from RSM. The adsorption followed a nonlinear pseudo-first-order model and agreed well with the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm as judged by the levels of the AICc and the Akaike weight. Furthermore, the thermodynamics analysis indicated that, for both adsorbents, the adsorption was a physical process that was spontaneous, entropy-increasing and endothermic. PMID:23288676

Wang, Lianggui

2013-01-04

98

Dye coupling in the corneal endothelium: effects of ouabain and extracellular calcium removal.  

PubMed

The effects of ouabain and extracellular calcium removal on gap junctional coupling of isolated rabbit corneal endothelium was examined using a modified dye-spread technique. This technique is a modification of a microelectrode procedure that now utilizes patch electrodes connected to a current-clamp circuit for dye iontophoresis and a shuttering system in the excitation light path to reduce phototoxic effects in the monolayer. It was found that a significant degree of junctional uncoupling occurred after 45 min of exposure to ouabain, quantified as a reduction in the effective diffusion coefficient of injected Lucifer yellow CH: 1.74 x 10(-7) cm2/s (control) versus 0.43 x 10(-7) cm2/s (ouabain-treated). It was also determined that no gap junctional uncoupling occurs after extended exposure (up to 3.5 h) to a calcium-free extracellular environment. PMID:1423485

Watsky, M A; Rae, J L

1992-07-01

99

Sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment of dye-containing wastewaters: colour and COD removals, and ecotoxicity tests.  

PubMed

Colour and COD removals of the azo dyes Congo Red (CR) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) were individually evaluated in a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment system. Additionally, dye toxicity was assessed by using acute ecotoxicity tests with Daphnia magna as the indicator-organism. The anaerobic reactor was operated at approximately 27 °C and with hydraulic retention times of 12 and 24 h. The aerobic reactor was operated in batch mode with a total cycle of 24 h. During anaerobic step, high colour removals were obtained, 96.3% for CR (400 mg/L) and 75% for RB5 (200 mg/L). During the aerobic phase, COD effluent was considerably reduced, with an average removal efficiency of 52% for CR and 85% for RB5, which resulted in an overall COD removal of 88% for both dyes. Ecotoxicity tests with CR revealed that the anaerobic effluent presented a higher toxicity compared with the influent, and an aerobic post-treatment was not efficient in reducing toxicity. However, the results with RB5 showed that both anaerobic and aerobic steps could decrease dye toxicity, especially the aerobic phase, which removed completely the toxicity in D. magna. Therefore, the anaerobic/aerobic treatment is not always effective in detoxifying dye-containing wastewaters, sometimes even increasing dye toxicity. PMID:22238010

Silva, Marcos Erick Rodrigues da; Firmino, Paulo Igor Milen; Sousa, Márcia Rodrigues de; Santos, André Bezerra Dos

2012-01-12

100

A comparison of basic dye adsorption onto zeolitic materials synthesized from fly ash.  

PubMed

This investigation reveals the adsorption characteristics of two basic dyes, thionine (TH) and safranine T (ST), onto fly ash (FA) and its three zeolitized products prepared at different hydrothermal conditions. Typical two-step isotherms were observed for TH adsorption onto four adsorbents, whereas the isotherms of the larger ST molecules were S-shaped. The adsorption capacities of the zeolitized fly ash (ZFA) estimated from the first plateau region of the TH isotherms was nearly twice the FA capacity. The capacities increased by up to five times in the second plateau region. The adsorption capacity of FA for ST is equivalent that of TH, whereas the capacities of ZFA are lower than those found for TH. The equilibrium results were well-described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The kinetic data obtained in the temperature range of 298-318 K was analyzed using Paterson's and Nernst Plank's approximations based on the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). The thermodynamic functions for the transition state were evaluated from the temperature-dependence of the surface diffusion coefficients by applying the Eyring model. PMID:21300434

Atun, Gülten; Hisarl?, Gül; Kurto?lu, Ay?e Engin; Ayar, Nihat

2011-01-26

101

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions with poly ( N -isopropylacrylamide- co -itaconic acid) hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, N-isopropylacrylamide-based temperature and pH-sensitive hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization for removal\\u000a of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, N-isopropylacrylamide was copolymerized with various amounts of sodium salt of itaconic acid in the presence of crosslinking\\u000a agent (N,N-methylene bisacrylamide). The chemical structures of hydrogels were characterized by FT-IR analysis. In order to investigate\\u000a swelling

Bengi Özkahraman; I??l Acar; Serkan Emik

2011-01-01

102

Colour removal from aqueous solutions of metal-complex azo dyes using bacterial cells of Shewanella strain J18 143.  

PubMed

The decoloration treatment of textile dye effluents through biodegradation, using bacterial cells, has been studied as a possible means of solving some of the problems that are associated with the pollution of water sources by colorants. In this paper, the use of whole bacterial cells of Shewanella J18 143 for the reduction of aqueous solutions of selected mono-azo, metal-complex dyes, namely Irgalan Grey GLN, Irgalan Black RBLN and Irgalan Blue 3GL, was investigated. The effects of temperature, pH and dye concentration on colour removal were also investigated and shown to be important. The operative conditions for the removal of colour were 30 degrees C, at pH 6.8, with a final dye concentration of 0.12 g/L in the colour reduction system. This study provides an extension to the application of Shewanella strain J18 143 bacterial cells in the decoloration of textile wastewaters. PMID:20167478

Li, Tie; Guthrie, James Thomas

2010-02-18

103

Preparation and characterization of titania-entrapped silica hollow particles: effective dye removal and evidence of selectivity.  

PubMed

A titania-entrapped silica hollow nanostructure was prepared using two consecutive coating processes, followed by calcination. The hydrothermal treatment of D-glucose assisted by polyethylene glycol was used to form a carbon layer over the titania surface. The resulting composite was used to fabricate a silica layer on top by hydrolyzing tetraethyl orthosilicate in strong base. The titania nanoparticles were then released but still trapped inside the silica hollow after calcination. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques were employed to determine the morphology of the obtained product; nitrogen gas adsorption and X-ray diffraction methods were also used. Photocatalytic studies on five organic dyes showed that efficient dye-removal due to photocatalysis and adsorption with selectivity based on the charge-charge interaction between the dye and silica surface was possible. Other factors including the structures of the dyes and their molecular interaction also influenced the observed removal efficiency. PMID:23673686

Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas; Viboonratanasri, Duangkamon

2013-05-14

104

Basic and applied aspects in the microbial degradation of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes are the most important group of synthetic colorants. They are generally considered as xenobiotic compounds that are very recalcitrant against biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several microorganisms are able, under certain environmental conditions, to transform azo dyes to non-colored products or even to completely mineralize them. Thus, various lignolytic fungi

A. Stolz

2001-01-01

105

Removal of various dyes from aqueous media onto polymeric gels by adsorption process: Their kinetics and thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorptive removal of industrially important dyes namely, bromophenol blue, methylene blue and malachite green from aqueous media onto three novel adsorbents (C0, C2 and C4) has been studied. The effect of different experimental parameters like contact time, concentration of cross-linking agent in the polymeric gel and temperature on adsorption of these dyes was investigated. Adsorption isotherms were found to be

Muhammad Aslam Malana; Sana Ijaz; Muhammad Naeem Ashiq

2010-01-01

106

Adsorptive removal of direct azo dye from aqueous phase onto coal based sorbents: a kinetic and mechanistic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents the results pertaining to the investigation conducted on color removal of trisazo direct dye, C.I.Direct Brown 1:1 by adsorption onto coal based sorbents viz. charfines, lignite coal, bituminous coal and comparing results with activated carbon (Filtrasorb-400). The kinetic sorption data indicated the sorption capacity of the different coal based sorbents. The sorption interaction of direct dye on

S. Venkata Mohan; N. Chandrasekhar Rao; J. Karthikeyan

2002-01-01

107

The testing of several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R azo dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R reactive azo dye degradation have been evaluated. Initially, a two-stage anaerobic–aerobic biotreatment has been assessed for different dye concentrations (250, 1250 and 3135mgl?1). 92–97% decolourisation was attained during the anaerobic digestion operating in batch mode. However, no dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal neither biogas production was observed during the process,

Julia García-Montaño; Xavier Domènech; José A. García-Hortal; Francesc Torrades; José Peral

2008-01-01

108

Adsorptive removal of Erythrosine dye onto activated low cost de-oiled mustard.  

PubMed

The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for colour removal from wastewater using waste material de-oiled mustard as adsorbent. De-oiled mustard, a biosorbent, was successfully utilized for removing a water-soluble xanthene dye, Erythrosine from wastewater. Kinetic studies of adsorption of Erythrosine at de-oiled mustard were carried out at 30 degrees C, using aqueous solutions with 5 x 10(-5)M concentration of Erythrosine. The adsorption process followed a pseudo-first order model. The equilibrium process can be well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models, at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C. Free energy of adsorption (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) changes were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption. The estimated values for DeltaG degrees were -12.81 x 10(3) and -12.57 x 10(3) over activated carbon and activated de-oiled mustard at 203 K (30 degrees C), indicate toward a spontaneous process. The positive value for DeltaH degrees indicates that the adsorption of Erythrosine dye to de-oiled mustard is an endothermic process. PMID:18818014

Jain, Rajeev; Sikarwar, Shalini

2008-08-22

109

Glow discharge plasma in water: a green approach to enhancing ability of chitosan for dye removal.  

PubMed

There is a need to explore effective and green approaches to enhancing the ability to use chitosan for contaminant removal for practical implementation of this technology. In the present study, glow discharge plasma (GDP), which has thus far been studied for degradation of contaminants, was used for the first time to pre-treat chitosan for dye removal in aqueous solution. The results show that the GDP treatment changed the morphology and crystallinity of chitosan particles, and the number of -CH(2) and -CH(3) groups in the chitosan samples increased. Various pretreatment parameters, including discharge current and time, played significant roles in the chitosan modification. It is observed that dye uptake in GDP-modified chitosan was faster than adsorption in untreated chitosan. The maximum adsorption by chitosan followed the order of untreated chitosan

Wen, Yuezhong; Shen, Chensi; Ni, Yanyan; Tong, Shaoping; Yu, Feng

2011-11-25

110

Adsorption of basic dyes from single and binary component systems onto bentonite: simultaneous analysis of Basic Red 46 and Basic Yellow 28 by first order derivative spectrophotometric analysis method.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the simultaneous analysis and adsorption of Basic Yellow 28 and Basic Red 46 dyes in binary mixture onto bentonite. First order derivative spectrophotometric method was used for simultaneous analysis of BY28 and BR46 in binary mixtures. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system. The mono- and multi-component Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for BY28 and BR46 dyes. The monolayer coverage capacities of bentonite for BY28 and BR46 dyes in single solution system were found as 256.4 mg/g and 333.3mg/g, respectively. It was observed that the equilibrium uptake amounts of BY28 and BR46 dyes in binary mixture onto bentonite decreased considerably with increasing concentrations of the other dye resulting in their antagonistic effect. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted more adequately to mono-component Langmuir isotherm model than mono-component Freundlich isotherm model, while the extended Freundlich isotherm model adequately predicted the multi-component adsorption equilibrium data at moderate ranges of concentration. Thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of BR46 and BY28 was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. PMID:18289779

Turabik, Meral

2008-01-19

111

Photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of Crystal Violet (Basic Violet 3) and Methyl Red dye in aqueous suspensions using Ag + doped TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of two dyes: Crystal Violet (CV), also known as C.I. Basic Violet 3, which is a cationic triphenylmethane dye and Methyl Red (MR), which is an anionic azo dye was studied using untreated TiO2 and silver ion doped TiO2 under UV irradiation. To increase the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 and to make its separation

A. K. Gupta; Anjali Pal; C. Sahoo

2006-01-01

112

Influence of particle size and salinity on adsorption of basic dyes by agricultural waste: dried seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera).  

PubMed

Green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have reasonable adsorption capacity for basic dyes, Astrazon Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon Red GTLN (AR), and Astrazon Golden Yellow GL-E (AY). The initial dye concentration was in the range of 100-1,800 mg/L. The dried algal sorbent was ground and sieved into 3 sizes: S (0.1-0.84 mm), M (0.84-2.0 mm), and L sizes (larger than 2.0 mm). For all conditions examined in this work (at 25 degrees C in batch systems), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second order kinetic model where the rate constant, k2, decreased as the sorbent size increased for all dyes. The adsorption isotherms followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Among three sorbent sizes, S size gave the highest adsorption capacity followed by M and L sizes. A reduction of sorbent size increased the specific surface area for mass transfer, and also increased the total pore volume, thus providing more active sites for adsorption. The adsorption of AB was adversely influenced by the protonation of algal surface at low pH. On the other hand, the adsorption of AR and AY could be due to weak electrostatic interaction, which was not significantly affected by pH. Increasing salinity of the system caused a decrease in adsorption capacity possibly due to the competition between Na+ and the dye cations for the binding sites on algal surface. Moreover, an increase in salinity generated a compressed electrical double layer on the algal surface which exerted repulsive force, retarding the adsorption of positive charged molecules such as the basic dyes. PMID:18763573

Punjongharn, Pimol; Meevasana, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

2008-01-01

113

Removal of arsenite and arsenate ions from aqueous solution by basic yttrium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method has been developed to remove arsenite and arsenate ions from aquatic systems by using basic yttrium carbonate (BYC). Various parameters such as pH, anion concentration and reaction time were studied to establish optimum conditions. The removal by adsorption of arsenite and arsenate ions was found to be > 99% depending on initial concentration in the pH range

Syed A. Wasay; Akira Uchiumi; Shuzo Tokunaga

1996-01-01

114

Linear dichroism studies of binding site structures in solution. Complexes between DNA and basic arylmethane dyes.  

PubMed

The interaction between B-form DNA and twelve cationic triaryl-methane dyes was studied with respect to optical properties and stabilities, using linear dichroism (LD) and aqueous two-phase partition techniques. Monovalent dyes derived from crystal violet as a rule form a single strong complex (K1 ca 10(5) M-1; site density per nucleotide base n1 ca 0.1 at 0.1M ionic strength) in which the plane of the dye is at an angle of less than 50 degrees to the local DNA helix axis. The complex with fuchsin is weaker (10(4) M-1) but can be explained by a similar orientation. For some of the dyes (those with pseudo-C2v symmetry) the angular orientations of two molecule-fixed axes can be obtained. For the divalent methyl green a second complex appears to be formed at low ionic strength. Methyl green (and to some extent 2-thiophene green and malachite green) show exciton splitting in the LD spectrum and circular dichroism assignable to exciton coupling between transition dipoles roughly parallel to the helical strands, indicating a dye-dye interaction. The optical data, supported by fitting experiments with space-filling models, suggests a general structure for the binding site. The dye is not intercalated but is bound to exposed hydrophobic regions in the major groove. The ligand is in part (the charged amino groups) in contact with the phosphoribose chain but its main surface lies against the hydrophobic base-pair stack. For a diphenylmethane dye, Michler's hydro blue, a perpendicular orientation was observed, possibly due to intercalation. PMID:647099

Nordén, B; Tjerneld, F; Palm, E

1978-03-01

115

Electrochemical studies of adsorption and inhibitive performance of basic yellow 28 dye on mild steel corrosion in Acid solutions.  

PubMed

Organic corrosion inhibitors are widely used to control the corrosion of different metals in various corrosive solutions. The inhibition performance of Basic yellow 28 (BY28) dye for mild steel corrosion was investigated in 0.1 M HCl solution and in a solution of 0.1 M HCl and 1% NaCl. Two electrochemical methods including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used. The corrosion parameters as well as inhibition efficiencies were obtained for different concentrations of inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies showed that the BY28 dye acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in both solutions. The studies on adsorption isotherm of the dye on mild steel proved that the adsorption of BY28 obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The average value of -?Gads in both solutions was more than 20 and a little less than 40 kJ mol-1. Therefore, both chemisorption and physisorption phenomena were involved in the adsorption of the studied dye on mild steel surface. PMID:24062037

Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Asghari, Elnaz; Ejbari, Parisa

2011-06-01

116

Dye removal, catalytic activity and 2D crystallization of chloroplast H(+)-ATP synthase purified by blue native electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The proton-ATP synthase of thylakoid membranes from spinach chloroplasts (CF(O)F(1)) and its subcomplexes CF(O) and CF(1) were isolated by blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) [Neff, D. and Dencher, N.A. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 259, 569-575] and subsequently electroeluted from the gel. A method was developed to remove most of the dye Coomassie G-250 (CBG) using gel filtration, a prerequisite for many biophysical investigations. The dye was removed from the electroeluted CF(O)F(1), CF(O) or CF(1) and exchanged with the detergent CHAPS. ATP hydrolysis activity of CF(1) and ATP synthesis activity of reconstituted CF(O)F(1) were determined before and after dye removal. The secondary structure of CF(O) was studied by CD spectroscopy in the presence and the absence of the dye. CBG neither abolishes the catalytic activity of the isolated CF(O)F(1) and CF(1) nor affects the subunit composition and the high alpha-helical content of CF(O). In crystallization attempts, 2D arrays of CF(O)F(1) and of CF(O) before and after dye removal were obtained. In the aggregates of CF(O), circular structures with a mean diameter of 6.7 nm were observed. Our results indicate that the combination of BN-PAGE and dye removal by gel filtration is a suitable approach to obtain catalytically active protein complexes for further functional and structural characterization. PMID:10825454

Poetsch, A; Neff, D; Seelert, H; Schägger, H; Dencher, N A

2000-06-01

117

Compression of the DNA substrate by a viral packaging motor is supported by removal of intercalating dye during translocation.  

PubMed

Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of packaging, the purified T4 packaging ATPase alone can only remove up to ?1/3 of DNA-bound intercalating YOYO-1 dye molecules in the presence of ATP or ATP-?-S. In sufficient concentration, intercalating dyes arrest packaging, but rare terminase mutations confer resistance. These distant mutations are highly interdependent in acquiring function and resistance and likely mark motor contact points with the translocating DNA. In stalled Y-DNAs, FRET has shown a decrease in distance from the phage T4 terminase C terminus to portal consistent with a linear motor, and in the Y-stem DNA compression between closely positioned dye pairs. Taken together with prior FRET studies of conformational changes in stalled Y-DNAs, removal of intercalating compounds by the packaging motor demonstrates conformational change in DNA during normal translocation at low packaging resistance and supports a proposed linear "DNA crunching" or torsional compression motor mechanism involving a transient grip-and-release structural change in B form DNA. PMID:23185020

Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Black, Lindsay W

2012-11-26

118

Compression of the DNA substrate by a viral packaging motor is supported by removal of intercalating dye during translocation  

PubMed Central

Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of packaging, the purified T4 packaging ATPase alone can only remove up to ?1/3 of DNA-bound intercalating YOYO-1 dye molecules in the presence of ATP or ATP-?-S. In sufficient concentration, intercalating dyes arrest packaging, but rare terminase mutations confer resistance. These distant mutations are highly interdependent in acquiring function and resistance and likely mark motor contact points with the translocating DNA. In stalled Y-DNAs, FRET has shown a decrease in distance from the phage T4 terminase C terminus to portal consistent with a linear motor, and in the Y-stem DNA compression between closely positioned dye pairs. Taken together with prior FRET studies of conformational changes in stalled Y-DNAs, removal of intercalating compounds by the packaging motor demonstrates conformational change in DNA during normal translocation at low packaging resistance and supports a proposed linear “DNA crunching” or torsional compression motor mechanism involving a transient grip-and-release structural change in B form DNA.

Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Black, Lindsay W.

2012-01-01

119

Removal of cationic methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution by waste materials of Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study adsorption capacity of waste materials of Daucus carota plant (carrot stem powder: CSP and carrot leaves powder: CLP) was explored for the removal of methylene blue (MB) malachite green (MG) dye from water. The morphology and functional groups present were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The operating variables studied were

Atul Kumar Kushwaha; Neha Gupta; M. C. Chattopadhyaya

120

Low-cost and effective phenol and basic dyes trapper derived from the porous silica coated with hydrotalcite gel.  

PubMed

Novel low-cost and effective adsorbents of phenol and basic dyes were made by coating amorphous silica with hydrotalcite (HT) gel followed by soaking in alkaline solution, and the surface basic-acidic properties of resulting composites were evaluated by CO(2)-TPD, Hammett indicator method and NH(3)-TPD, respectively. Both BET surface area and microporous surface area of the composites were increased after they were soaked with alkaline solution; meanwhile the center of pore size distribution was changed from 9 to 3-4 nm. These composites efficiently captured phenol in gaseous and liquid phases, superior to mesoporous silica such as MCM-48 or SBA-15 and zeolite NaY, and the equilibrium data of gaseous adsorption could be well fitted to Freundlich model. These modified silicas also exhibited high adsorption capacity forward basic dyes such as crystal violet (CV) and leuco-crystal violet (LCV), reaching the adsorption equilibrium within 1 h and offering a new material for environment protection. PMID:21458822

Tao, Yu Fei; Lin, Wei Gang; Gao, Ling; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jia Yuan; Wei, Feng; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jian Hua

2011-03-06

121

Adsorption of basic dye from wastewater using raw and activated red mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud, an industrial by?product generated during the processing of bauxite ore, was investigated as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Chemical and heat treatments were applied to the raw red mud. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics

Semra Çoruh; Feza Geyikçi; Osman Nuri Ergun

2011-01-01

122

Phenol?mediated decolorization and removal of disperse dyes by bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt?fractionated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) proteins were employed for the decolorization of disperse dyes in the presence of H2O2. The effect of various experimental conditions such as concentration of enzyme, H2O2, phenol, reaction time, pH and temperature on the decolorization of dyes was investigated. Dyes were recalcitrant to the decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidase. However, these dyes were decolorized

Rukhsana Satar; Qayyum Husain

2009-01-01

123

Batch and bulk removal of a triarylmethane dye, Fast Green FCF, from wastewater by adsorption over waste materials.  

PubMed

De-Oiled Soya, an agricultural waste material and Bottom Ash a waste of power plants, have been used as adsorbents for the removal and recovery of a triarylmethane dye Fast Green FCF from wastewater. Batch studies have been carried by observing the effects of pH, temperature, concentration of the dye, amount of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbent, contact time, etc. Graphical correlation of various adsorption isotherm models like, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich have been carried out for both the adsorbents. The adsorption over both the materials has been found endothermic and feasible in nature. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process have been calculated. The kinetic studies suggest the process following pseudo first order kinetics and involvement of particle diffusion mechanism. The bulk removal of the dye has been carried out by passing the dye solution through columns of Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya and saturation factor of each column has been calculated. Attempts have also been made to recover the dye by eluting dilute NaOH through the columns. PMID:18692961

Mittal, Alok; Kaur, Dipika; Mittal, Jyoti

2008-07-09

124

Effectiveness of photochemical and sonochemical processes in degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) dye from aqueous solutions  

PubMed Central

In this study, degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) by ultraviolet radiation (UV), ultrasonic irradiation (US), UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with a 55W immersed-type low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and a sonoreactor with high frequency (130kHz) plate type transducer at 100W of acoustic power. The effects of initial dye concentration, concentration of H2O2 and solution pH and presence of Na2SO4 was studied on the sonochemical and photochemical destruction of BV16 in aqueous phase. The results indicated that in the UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 systems, a sufficient amount of H2O2 was necessary, but a very high H2O2 concentration would inhibit the reaction rate. The optimum H2O2 concentration was achieved in the range of 17 mmol/L at dye concentration of 30 mg/L. A degradation of 99% was obtained with UV/H2O2 within 8 minutes while decolorization efficiency by using UV (23%), US (<6%) and US/H2O2(<15%) processes were negligible for this kind of dye. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dyestuffs concentrations was found to fit all the experimental data.

2012-01-01

125

An All-or-None Response in the Release of Potassium by Yeast Cells Treated with Methylene Blue and Other Basic Redox Dyes  

PubMed Central

Basic redox dyes, such as methylene blue, induce a loss of K+ from yeast cells. The maximal loss, rather than the rate of loss, is related to the dye concentration, the response following a normal distribution on a plot of log-dose, versus percentage loss of K+. This fact taken together with the observed correlation between K+ loss and frequency of staining (as measured by microscopic observation), indicates that the response is all-or-none for individual cells. The response is produced by all the basic redox dyes tested (9), but by none of the acidic dyes (4). However, only the oxidized form of the dye is effective. Cations protect the cells from the basic dyes in a competitive manner, the bivalent cations (especially UO2++) being more effective than monovalent cations. It is suggested that the action of the dyes involves two steps, the first a binding to ribonucleic acid in the cell membrane (with competition from cations) and the second, an oxidation of neighboring sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. At a threshold level, unique for each cell, a generalized membrane breakdown occurs, resulting in the release of potassium and of other cytoplasmic constituents.

Passow, Hermann; Rothstein, Aser; Loewenstein, Barbara

1959-01-01

126

[Microbiological validation of the choice of basic plastic for removable dentures].  

PubMed

Adhesion of obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria, favoring the development of oral inflammatory diseases, including the cariesogenic and periodontogenic bacteria and Candida albicans fungi, isolated from patients with periodontitis, to 13 basic materials used in removable denture making, was studied. The adhesion of all bacteria (Streptococcus sanguis, Prevotella melangogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Corynebacterium xerosis) and fungi to hot polymerization basic materials was the maximum. The most perspective basic plastic for clinical use (preserving intact oral microbiocenosis and preventing stomatitis induced by denture wearing) are cold polymerization materials, such as Redont-03, Dentoplast Breden, Leocryl, and UHF polymerization materials Acron GC, AKR-MV, and Etakril-02. PMID:12224327

Aputiunov, S D; Ibragimov, T I; Tsarev, V N; Lebedenko, I Iu; Savkina, N I; Trefilov, A G; Arutiunov, A S; Klimashin, Iu I

2002-01-01

127

Environmental assessment of different photo-Fenton approaches for commercial reactive dye removal.  

PubMed

An environmental study using life cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to three bench-scale wastewater treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R hetero-bireactive dye removal: artificial light photo-Fenton process, solar driven photo-Fenton process and artificial light photo-Fenton process coupled to a biological treatment. The study is focused on electricity and chemicals consumption, transports and atmosphere and water emissions generated by the different processes involved. Results show that the artificial light photo-Fenton process is the worst treatment in terms of environmental impact. On the other hand, both solar driven and coupled to biological photo-Fenton processes reduce significantly the environmental damage, although none can be identified as the best in all impact categories. The major environmental impact is attributed to the H2O2 consumption and to the electrical energy consumption to run the UVA lamp. An economic analysis of the different photo-Fenton processes has also been performed and the results are discussed together with those obtained from the environmental assessment. PMID:16806686

García-Montaño, Julia; Ruiz, Nilbia; Muñoz, Iván; Domènech, Xavier; García-Hortal, José A; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José

2006-05-26

128

Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.  

PubMed

In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes. PMID:21752544

Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

2011-06-25

129

Processing fly ash stabilized hydrogen titanate nano-sheets for industrial dye-removal application.  

PubMed

We report a new method for the processing of fly ash (FA) stabilized hydrogen titanate nano-sheets in the form of aggregated microspheres. The industrial silica-based FA has been utilized for this purpose which has been surface-modified by coating with the anatase-titania (TiO(2)) via sol-gel. The anatase-TiO(2) coated FA particles are subjected to the hydrothermal treatment in an autoclave under high temperature and pressure conditions in a highly alkaline solution. The hydrothermal conditions cause dissolution of silica resulting in the disintegration of other constituents of FA which are adsorbed in ionic and/or oxidized form on the surface of intermediate product of the hydrothermal treatment of anatase-TiO(2), specifically the hydrogen titanate. The adsorption of FA constituents has resulted in the stabilization of hydrogen titanate in the nano-sheet morphology instead of nanotubes. The FA stabilized hydrogen titanate nano-sheets exhibit higher specific surface-area than that of the hydrogen titanate nanotubes and have been successfully utilized for the removal of an organic synthetic-dye from an aqueous solution via surface-adsorption, involving the electrostatic-attraction and ion-exchange mechanisms operating, in the dark-condition. PMID:22717069

Hareesh, P; Babitha, K B; Shukla, S

2012-06-02

130

Performance of dye-affinity beads for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed  

PubMed Central

Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) beads in the size range of 80–120 ?m were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal complexing ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA beads. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 ?mol/g. These beads were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the beads decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these beads without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity beads. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium.

Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andac, Muge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil

2004-01-01

131

Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions by cellulosic waste orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of dyes such as congo red, procion orange and rhodamine-B by waste orange peel was examined at different concentrations of dyes, adsorbent dosage, agitation time and pH. The adsorption obeyed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the process of uptake followed first-order rate kinetics. Acidic pH was favourable for adsorption for all three dyes. Desorption studies showed

C. Namasivayam; N. Muniasamy; K. Gayatri; M. Rani; K. Ranganathan

1996-01-01

132

Removal of Synthetic Textile Dyes From Wastewaters: A Critical Review on Present Treatment Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of industrial colorants. These are no longer used only for the coloration of textiles, plastics, paints, inks, and lacquers, but rather serve as key components in high-tech applications such as optical data storage, reprographics, display devices, dye-sensitized solar cells, energy transfer cascades, light-emitting diodes, laser welding processes, or heat management systems. Azo dyes are

Kamaljit Singh; Sucharita Arora

2011-01-01

133

Selective TDDFT with automatic removal of ghost transitions: application to a perylene-dye-sensitized solar cell model.  

PubMed

We present an application of a selective time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) scheme to a model for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a perylene sensitizer dye on a TiO(2) nanoparticle model. In an earlier study on this system [De Angelis, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2010, 493, 323], it was reported that a large number of conduction-band excitations severely complicate the identification of the bright ? ? ?* excitations of the perylene dye. Here, we show that this problem can be overcome by applying a selective TDDFT solver based on a guess for the relevant orbital transition in combination with a suitable root-homing scheme. In order to enhance the efficiency of this algorithm we implement an automatic removal scheme for artificially low-lying long-range charge-transfer transitions from the TDDFT eigenvalue problem. A large number of such transitions appear in explicitly solvated systems in the form of inter-solvent or solvent-solute transitions. We study the characteristics of this removal scheme for a small water cluster and then apply it in a TDDFT calculation to a perylene-TiO(2) nanoparticle model system and to perylene explicitly solvated in methanol. It is demonstrated that this scheme leads to a large reduction in the computational cost with essentially no loss in accuracy. Large differences in the effect of adsorption on the excited states of perylene dyes with two different anchor groups found in earlier work are confirmed. PMID:22617938

Kovyrshin, Arseny; Angelis, Filippo De; Neugebauer, Johannes

2012-05-23

134

Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.  

PubMed

Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. PMID:23597681

Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

2013-03-28

135

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite as adsorbent.  

PubMed

A magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube (MMWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized and was used as an adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The MMWCNT nanocomposite was composed of commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes and iron oxide nanoparticles. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and BET surface area measurements. Adsorption characteristics of the MMWCNT nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using methylene blue, neutral red and brilliant cresyl blue as adsorbates. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent and the effect of adsorption dosage and solution pH values on the removal of cationic dyes. Kinetic data were well fitted by a pseudo second-order model. Freundlich model was used to study the adsorption isotherms. The prepared MMWCNT adsorbent displayed the main advantage of separation convenience compared to the present adsorption treatment. PMID:18977077

Gong, Ji-Lai; Wang, Bin; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yang, Chun-Ping; Niu, Cheng-Gang; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Zhou, Wen-Jin; Liang, Yi

2008-09-26

136

Cationic and anionic modifications of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers were employed to remove dyes from aqueous solutions via adsorption approaches. The EFB fibers were modified using citric acid (CA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) to produce anionic and cationic adsorbents, respectively. The CA modified EFB fibers (CA-EFB) and PEI-modified EFB fibers (PEI-EFB) were used to study the efficiency in removing cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic phenol red (PR) from aqueous solutions, respectively, at different pHs, temperatures and initial dye concentrations. The adsorption data for MB on the CA-EFB fitted the Langmuir isotherm, while the adsorption of PR on the PEI-EFB fitted the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting a monolayer and heterogeneous adsorption behavior of the adsorption processes, respectively. Both modified fibers can be regenerated up to seven adsorption/desorption cycles while still providing as least 70% of the initial adsorption capacity. PMID:23211482

Sajab, Mohd Shaiful; Chia, Chin Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Khiew, Poi Sim

2012-11-10

137

A basic study on removal of nutrient salts in wastewater using plants (removal by mung beans; Phaseolus radiatus L).  

PubMed

Many studies have reported on the removal of pollutants from wastewater using aquatic plants. The water hyacinth has been the most widely used and its system is the most well established. This system however, has a few problems in practical use. The purpose of this study is to obtain basic information on a new system that can substitute for a conventional system or be used as a secondary system to assist the conventional one. We first envisioned a model of this new system and then conducted a preliminary experiment using a small experimental unit to simulate the new system. The experiment showed that mung beans were a suitable plant for our study. Their removal rate of pollutants was the highest before they developed leaves and started photosynthesis. We found that nutrients were expelled outside the plant root when nutrient concentration inside the plant tissue became too high. PMID:1472912

Azuma, T; Niiro, M; Motobu, H

1992-01-01

138

Dye removal, catalytic activity and 2D crystallization of chloroplast H +ATP synthase purified by blue native electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton-ATP synthase of thylakoid membranes from spinach chloroplasts (CFOF1) and its subcomplexes CFO and CF1 were isolated by blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) [Neff, D. and Dencher, N.A. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 259, 569–575] and subsequently electroeluted from the gel. A method was developed to remove most of the dye Coomassie G-250 (CBG) using gel filtration, a prerequisite for

Ansgar Poetsch; Dirk Neff; Holger Seelert; Hermann Schägger; Norbert A. Dencher

2000-01-01

139

Azo dye removal from aqueous solution by organic-inorganic hybrid dodecanoic acid modified layered Mg-Al hydrotalcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrotalcite (HTC), a typical layered compound, is a promising adsorbent for removal of organic pollutants. To partition azo\\u000a dye from aqueous solution, Mg-Al HTCs intercalated with dodecanoic acid (DA) modifier, DAHTCs, were prepared by ion exchange\\u000a and calcination-rehydration methods. The structures of HTCs and DAHTCs were characterized by powder XRD and FT-IR techniques.\\u000a The introduction of DA broadened the spacing

Lanping Nong; Chengliang Xiao; Wei Jiang

2011-01-01

140

Packed-bed columns with dye-affinity microbeads for removal of heavy metal ions from aquatic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dye ligand Cibacron Blue F3GA, was covalently coupled with polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (PHEMA) microbeads in the 150–200 ?m particle size range. The sorbent carrying 22.3 ?mol Cibacron Blue F3GA per gram of polymer was then used to remove Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions in a packed-bed column system. Heavy metal ion adsorption capacity of the column was investigated

Özgen Saatçilar; Nuray ?atiro?lu; Sema Bekta?; Ömer Genç; Adil Denizli

2002-01-01

141

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite as adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube (MMWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized and was used as an adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The MMWCNT nanocomposite was composed of commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes and iron oxide nanoparticles. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and BET surface area measurements. Adsorption characteristics of the

Ji-Lai Gong; Bin Wang; Guang-Ming Zeng; Chun-Ping Yang; Cheng-Gang Niu; Qiu-Ya Niu; Wen-Jin Zhou; Yi Liang

2009-01-01

142

Preparation and characterization of imino diacetic acid functionalized alginate beads for removal of contaminants from waste water: I. methylene blue cationic dye model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the development of a clean and safe process for water pollution remediation. We studied the potential use of Imino Diacetic Acid (IDA) activated calcium alginate beads for removal of cationic dyes from colored effluents in dynamic batch mode. Methylene blue (MB) has been chosen as a dye model for the study. The parameters that affect the

Mohamed Samir Mohy Eldin; Emad Ali Soliman; Ahmed Abdel Fattah Elzatahry; Mohamed Ramadan Elaassar; Marwa Farouk Elkady; Aref Mohamed Abdel Rahman; Mohamed Elsayed Yossef; Bassant Yossri Eweida

2012-01-01

143

Comparison of disperse and reactive dye removals by chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of wastewater from the dyeing and textile processes is highly variable depending on the dyestuff type and typically has high COD and color. This study examined the decolorization of some of the most commonly used disperse and reactive dyestuffs by combination of chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation. In addition, performances between Fe3+ coagulation and Fenton oxidation of dye

Tak-Hyun Kim; Jeongmok Yang; Sangyong Kim

2004-01-01

144

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by kaolin: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations were carried out using commercially available kaolin to adsorb two different toxic cationic dyes namely crystal violet and brilliant green from aqueous medium. Kaolin was characterized by performing particle size distribution, BET surface area measurement and XRD analysis. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, stirring speed, pH, salt concentration and temperature were studied in

B. K. Nandi; A. Goswami; M. K Purkait

2009-01-01

145

Preparation of cationic waste paper and its application in poisonous dye removal.  

PubMed

Cationic paper was prepared by reaction of paper with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous suspension, and tested as low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment. The experimental results revealed that anionic dyes (Acid Orange 7, Acid Red 18, and Acid Blue 92) were adsorbed on the cationic paper nicely. The maximum amount of dye Acid Orange 7 adsorbed on cationic paper was 337.2 mg/g in experimental conditions. The effects of initial dye concentration, temperature, and initial pH of dye solution on adsorption capacity of cationic paper were studied. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied to describe the kinetic data. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. The thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption process of dye on cationic paper occurred spontaneously. PMID:23752389

Yang, Fan; Song, Xiaojie; Yan, Lifeng

2013-01-01

146

Resonant Rayleigh scattering for the determination of trace amounts of mercury (II) with thiocyanate and basic triphenylmethane dyes  

SciTech Connect

Intense resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) appears when mercury (II) reacts with thiocyanate and a basic triphenylmethane dye (BTPMD), such as crystal violet (CV), ethyl violet (EV), brilliant green (BG), malachite green (MG) or indine green (IG), to form an ion-association complex of the type (BTPMD){sub 2}[Hg(SCN){sub 4}]. The characteristics of RRS spectra of the ion-association complexes and suitable conditions for the reactions were investigated. The intensity of RRS is directly proportional to the concentration of mercury (II) in the range of 0--2.0 {micro}g/25 ml. The RRS methods have very high sensitivities for determination of mercury (II); their detection limits are between 1.68 ng/ml and 6.00 ng/ml on different dye systems. The effects of foreign ions and ways to improve the selectivity were studied. The new highly sensitive methods for the determination of trace amounts of mercury based on the RRS of the ion-association complexes have been developed.

Liu, S.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, G. [Southwest Normal Univ., Chongqing (China). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry

1998-05-01

147

Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using agro-industry waste: a case study of Prosopis cineraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbents prepared from Prosopis Cineraria sawdust—an agro-industry waste—were successfully used to remove the malachite green from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. The adsorbents included formaldehyde-treated sawdust (PCSD) and sulphuric acid-treated sawdust (PCSDC). The effects of adsorbent surface change, initial pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass and contact time on dye removal have been determined. Similar experiments were carried

V. K Garg; Rakesh Kumar; Renuka Gupta

2004-01-01

148

Sunflower seed shells: A novel and effective low-cost adsorbent for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the potential of two low-cost adsorbents such as sunflower seed shells (SS) and mandarin peelings (MP) in the removal of the synthetic anionic dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solutions was investigated. SS led to a percentage of dye removal higher than MP (85% and 71% after 210min, respectively, for an initial RB5 concentration of 50mgL?1

Johann F. Osma; Verónica Saravia; José L. Toca-Herrera; Susana Rodríguez Couto

2007-01-01

149

Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

Sun, G.; Xu, X. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Textiles and Clothing

1997-03-01

150

Synthesis of magnetic ?-cyclodextrin-chitosan/graphene oxide as nanoadsorbent and its application in dye adsorption and removal.  

PubMed

Magnetic ?-cyclodextrin-chitosan/graphene oxide materials (MCCG) were fabricated through a facile chemical route and their application as excellent adsorbents for dye removal were also demonstrated. The characteristics results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD showed that MCCG was successfully prepared. The results showed that, benefiting from the surface property of graphene oxide, hydrophobicity of ?-cyclodextrin, the abundant amino and hydroxyl functional groups of chitosan, and from the magnetic property of Fe(3)O(4), the adsorbent possesses quite a good and versatile adsorption capacity to the dye under investigation, and can be easily and rapidly extracted from water by magnetic attraction. Most importantly, the adsorbent can be easily and efficiently regenerated for reuse with hardly any compromise of the adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics were investigated to indicate that the kinetics and equilibrium adsorptions were well-described by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The inherent advantages of the nano-structured adsorbent, such as adsorption capacity, easy, handy operation, rapid extraction, and regeneration, may pave a new, efficient and sustainable way towards highly-efficient dye pollutant removal in water and wastewater treatment. PMID:23261586

Fan, Lulu; Luo, Chuannan; Sun, Min; Qiu, Huamin; Li, Xiangjun

2012-12-03

151

Color Removal and Improvement of Biodegradability of Wastewater from Dyes Production Using Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewaters from production of four dyes representing disperse (DS), direct (D) and acid (A) groups were investigated. Under investigation were Disperse Orange 30 (Color Index) CI 11119, Direct Black 22 CI 35435, Acid Green 16 CI 44025 and Acid Black 1 CI 20470 containing wastewaters from a dye factory.Coagulation and oxidation by ozone and Fenton reagent (H2O2\\/Fe) were used for

R. Tosik; S. Wiktorowski

2001-01-01

152

Removal of textile dyes from water by the electro-Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmentally friendly electrochemical treatment, electro-Fenton process, was applied to the depollution of a synthetic\\u000a dismissal composed of three dyes, yellow drimaren, congo red and methylene blue, frequently used in textile and dyehouses.\\u000a Here, we show that those dyes and their mixture are quickly degraded under current controlled electrolysis conditions, leading\\u000a to an almost complete mineralization. The results show the

Amal Lahkimi; Mehmet A. Oturan; Nihal Oturan; Mehdi Chaouch

2007-01-01

153

Phenol-mediated decolorization and removal of disperse dyes by bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase.  

PubMed

Salt-fractionated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) proteins were employed for the decolorization of disperse dyes in the presence of H2O2. The effect of various experimental conditions such as concentration of enzyme, H2O2, phenol, reaction time, pH and temperature on the decolorization of dyes was investigated. Dyes were recalcitrant to the decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidase. However, these dyes were decolorized significantly in the presence of a redox mediator, phenol. Bitter gourd peroxidase (0.215 U/mL) could decolorize about 60% of Disperse Red 17 in the presence of 0.2 mM phenol, whereas Disperse Brown 1 was decolorized by only 40% even in the presence of 0.4 mM phenol. Maximum decolorization of dyes was achieved in the presence of 0.75 mM H2O2 in a buffer ofpH 3.0 and 40 degrees C within 30 min. The K(m) values obtained were 0.625 mg/(L x h) and 2.5 mg/(L x h) for Disperse Red 17 and Disperse Brown 1, respectively. In all the experiments, Disperse Brown 1 was found to be more recalcitrant to decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidise, as compared to Disperse Red 17. PMID:20183996

Satar, Rukhsana; Husain, Qayyum

2009-12-14

154

Combined biodegradation and ozonation for removal of tannins and dyes for the reduction of pollution loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Tannins and dyes pose major threat to the environment by generating huge pollution problem. Biodegradation of wattle extract,\\u000a chrome tannin and dye compounds using suitable fungal culture namely Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. were carried out. In addition to these, ozone treatment was carried out to get higher degradation rate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The results were monitored by carrying out chemical oxygen demand (COD),

James Kanagaraj; Asit Baran Mandal

155

Bilirubin removal from human plasma in a packed-bed column system with dye-affinity microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dye-ligand, Cibacron Blue F3GA, was covalently coupled with the poly(EGDMA-HEMA) microbeads. The affinity sorbent carrying 16.5 ?mol Cibacron Blue F3GA per gram polymer was then used to remove bilirubin from human plasma in a packed-bed column system. Bilirubin adsorption from human plasma on the unmodified poly(EGDMA-HEMA) microbeads was 0.32 mg\\/g, while much higher adsorption values, up to 24.2 mg\\/g,

Adil Denizli; Mustafa Kocakulak; Erhan Pi?kin

1998-01-01

156

Removal of Acid Orange 7 in simulated wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor: removal mechanisms and dye degradation pathway.  

PubMed

The removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in simulated wastewater was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor with granular activated carbon as the particle electrode, ACF (activated carbon fiber)/Fe as the anode, and ACF/Ti as the cathode. Particular attention was paid to the reaction mechanisms and the dye degradation pathway in the system. The removal of AO7 in the system was mainly dependent on the oxidation by the produced active substances (()OH, etc.) and the coagulation by Fe(II) or Fe(III) dissolved from the anode. The former mechanism was predominant. A possible pathway for AO7 degradation was proposed by monitoring the temporal evolution of intermediates in the solution, with the use of some techniques including GC/MS, FTIR and HPLC. The AO7 molecule was observed to be firstly decomposed to aromatic intermediates, further degraded to ring opening products and finally mineralized to CO(2), H(2)O and inorganic salts. The intermediates increased the biodegradability of the wastewater, which was proved by the increase of the BOD/COD value after electrolysis treatment. The three-dimensional electrode method can be considered an effective alternative to dye wastewater pretreatment prior to the biological process. PMID:19897229

Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Sun, Yan; Xu, Li-Na; Ni, Jin-Ren

2009-11-07

157

Reactive dyes removal from wastewaters by adsorption on eucalyptus bark: variables that define the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt to help solving the pollution problem caused by the presence of reactive dyes in textile effluents, was undertaken. Owing to the fact that eucalyptus bark is a very abundant, inexpensive, forest residue in the authors' country, Portugal, it was decided to experiment with it as a potential adsorbent for a certain type of the supracited pollutants used in

L. C Morais; O. M Freitas; E. P Gonçalves; L. T Vasconcelos; C. G González Beça

1999-01-01

158

Integration of photocatalysis and biological treatment for azo dye removal – application to AR183  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of coupling photocatalysis with biological treatment to treat effluents containing azo dyes was examined in this work. With this aim, the degradation of Acid Red 183 was investigated. The very low biodegradability of AR183 was confirmed beforehand by measuring the biological oxygen demand (BOD5). Photocatalysis experiments were carried out in a closed?loop step photoreactor. The reactor walls were

Derradji Chebli; Florence Fourcade; Stephan Brosillon; Saci Nacef; Abdeltif Amrane

2011-01-01

159

Tyre char preparation from waste tyre rubber for dye removal from effluents.  

PubMed

A number of chars from waste tyre rubber were prepared by carbonisation at 673-1173 K. The effects of holding time, heating rate and particle size on the textural characteristics and elemental composition of the resultant chars were investigated. It was demonstrated that temperatures over 773 K did not have a significant improvement on the total surface area but resulted in lower char yields following increased aromatisation. Modelling of dye adsorption isotherms showed that the Redlich-Peterson expression yields the best-fit between experimental and predicted data. Furthermore, for a larger sized dye like Acid Yellow 117 (MW=848 g/mol), the amount adsorbed by the tyre char is not directly proportional to the total surface area when compared with a commercial carbon, revealing that factors other than total surface area are involved in the adsorption potential of the tyre chars. PMID:19854570

Mui, Edward L K; Cheung, W H; McKay, Gordon

2009-10-02

160

High adsorption capacity NaOH-activated carbon for dye removal from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the surface coverage ratio (Sc\\/Sp) and monolayer cover adsorption amount per unit surface area (qmon\\/Sp) were employed to investigate the adsorption isotherm equilibrium of the adsorption of dyes (AB74, BB1 and MB) on NaOH-activated carbons (FWNa2, FWNa3 and FWNa4); the adsorption rate of the Elovich equation (1\\/b) and the ratio of 1min adsorption amount of adsorbate to

Feng-Chin Wu; Ru-Ling Tseng

2008-01-01

161

Removal of sudan dyes from water with C18-functional ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this study, the new C(18)-functionalized ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles (C(18)-UMS NPs) were successfully synthesized and applied for extraction of sudan dyes in water samples based on the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The extraction and concentration were carried out in one step by blending C(18)-UMS NPs and water samples. The sudan dyes adsorbed C(18)-UMS NPs were isolated from the matrix easily with an external magnetic field. After desorption the quantitation of sudan dyes was done by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC). Satisfactory extraction recovery can be obtained with only 50 mg C(18)-UMS NPs. The effects of experimental parameters, including the amount of the nanoparticles, extraction time, pH value, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. The limits of detection for sudan I, II, III and IV were 0.066, 0.070, 0.12 and 0.12 ng mL(-1), respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the six spiked water samples were between 68% and 103%. PMID:22284457

Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Yu, Xi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xiumin; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

2011-11-25

162

Sunflower seed shells: a novel and effective low-cost adsorbent for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

In this paper, the potential of two low-cost adsorbents such as sunflower seed shells (SS) and mandarin peelings (MP) in the removal of the synthetic anionic dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solutions was investigated. SS led to a percentage of dye removal higher than MP (85% and 71% after 210min, respectively, for an initial RB5 concentration of 50mgL(-1) and an initial pH of 2.0). The rate of adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling stage. In addition, the equilibrium data fitted well both the Freundlich and multilayer adsorption isotherm equations indicating the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface. This was also corroborated by the SEM photographs. On the whole, the results in this study indicated that SS were very attractive materials for removing anionic dyes from dyed effluents. PMID:17321679

Osma, Johann F; Saravia, Verónica; Toca-Herrera, José L; Couto, Susana Rodríguez

2007-01-30

163

A facile one-pot solvothermal method to produce superparamagnetic graphene-Fe3O4 nanocomposite and its application in the removal of dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

A superparamagnetic graphene-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite (G/Fe(3)O(4)) was synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The nanocomposite G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the new method was firstly used as an adsorbent to remove dye for water pollution remediation. In comparison with G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the in situ chemical coprecipitation, the newly prepared G/Fe(3)O(4) had a higher adsorption efficiency for the dye. The adsorption characteristics of the nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using the organic dye pararosaniline as the adsorbate. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and the effect of the adsorbent dosage and solution pH on the removal efficiency of pararosaniline were investigated. The adsorption capacity of G/Fe(3)O(4) for pararosaniline was evaluated using the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite can be easily manipulated in magnetic field for desired separation, leading to an easy removal of the dye from polluted water. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite would have a great potential in removing organic dyes from polluted water. PMID:23010021

Wu, Qiuhua; Feng, Cheng; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

2012-06-07

164

Potential of immobilized bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia) peroxidases in the decolorization and removal of textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilized peroxidases from Momordica charantia were highly effective in decolorizing reactive textile dyes compared to its soluble counterpart. Dye solutions, 50–200mg\\/l, were treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidases (specific activity of 99.0 EU per mg protein). The decolorization of dyes with soluble and immobilized enzyme was maximum in the range of pH 3.0–4.0. The effect of different temperatures

Suhail Akhtar; Amjad Ali Khan; Qayyum Husain

2005-01-01

165

Nano-silica fabricated with silver nanoparticles: antifouling adsorbent for efficient dye removal, effective water disinfection and biofouling control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through protein mediated reduction of silver ions at ambient temperature for development of sustainable nanotechnology. The coated proteins on AgNPs led to the formation of stable NSAgNP and protected the AgNPs from oxidation and other ions commonly present in water. The NSAgNP exhibited excellent dye adsorption capacity both in single and multicomponent systems, and demonstrated satisfactory tolerance against variations in pH and dye concentration. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction, though ?-? interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. Moreover, the NSAgNP showed long-term antibacterial activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs retarded the initial attachment of bacteria on NSAgNP and thus significantly improved the antifouling properties of the nanomaterial, which further inhibited biofilm formation. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopic studies revealed that cell death occurred due to irreversible damage of the cell membrane upon electrostatic interaction of positively charged NSAgNP with the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. The high adsorption capacity, reusability, good tolerance, removal of multicomponent dyes and E. coli from the simulated contaminated water and antifouling properties of NSAgNP will provide new opportunities to develop cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification processes.A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through protein mediated reduction of silver ions at ambient temperature for development of sustainable nanotechnology. The coated proteins on AgNPs led to the formation of stable NSAgNP and protected the AgNPs from oxidation and other ions commonly present in water. The NSAgNP exhibited excellent dye adsorption capacity both in single and multicomponent systems, and demonstrated satisfactory tolerance against variations in pH and dye concentration. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction, though ?-? interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. Moreover, the NSAgNP showed long-term antibacterial activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs retarded the initial attachment of bacteria on NSAgNP and thus significantly improved the antifouling properties of the nanomaterial, which further inhibited biofilm formation. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopic studies revealed that cell death occurred due to irreversible damage of the cell membrane upon electrostatic interaction of positively charged NSAgNP with the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. The high adsorption capacity, reusability, good tolerance, removal of multicomponent dyes and E. coli from the simulated contaminated water and antifouling properties of NSAgNP will provide new opportunities to develop cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification processes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Other experimental details and additional results. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00856h

Das, Sujoy K.; Khan, Md. Motiar R.; Parandhaman, T.; Laffir, Fathima; Guha, Arun K.; Sekaran, G.; Mandal, Asit Baran

2013-05-01

166

Removal of a dye from simulated wastewater by adsorption using treated parthenium biomass.  

PubMed

In the present study adsorption of rhodamine-B from aqueous solution on formaldehyde treated parthenium biomass (WC) and phosphoric acid treated parthenium carbon (PWC) was studied. Aqueous solutions of various concentrations (50-500 mg/l) were shaken with certain amount of adsorbent to determine the adsorption capacity of rhodamine-B on WC and PWC. The effectiveness of formaldehyde treated parthenium biomass (WC) and phosphoric acid treated parthenium carbon (PWC) in adsorbing rhodamine-B from aqueous solution has been studied as a function of agitation time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and pH. The adsorption capacities of the studied adsorbents were in the order PWC>WC. Initial pH had negligible effect on the adsorption capacity. Maximum dye was sequestered from the solution within 60min after the start of every experiment. After that, the concentration of rhodamine-B in the liquid-phase remained constant. The adsorption of rhodamine-B onto PWC and WC followed second-order kinetic model. Adsorption data were modeled using both Langmuir and Freundlich classical adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity Q(0) was 59.17 mg/g at initial pH 7.0 for the particle size 0.3-1.0mm for phosphoric acid treated parthenium carbon (PWC). The FT-IR spectra of the adsorbents were recorded to explore number and position of functional groups available for the binding of dye cation onto studied adsorbents. SEMs of the adsorbents were recorded to explore the morphology of the studied adsorbents. PMID:17884283

Lata, Hem; Mor, Suman; Garg, V K; Gupta, R K

2007-08-19

167

Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer.  

PubMed

A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25°C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1-8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent. PMID:23912074

Gao, Hejun; Kan, Taotao; Zhao, Siyuan; Qian, Yixia; Cheng, Xiyuan; Wu, Wenli; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Liqiang

2013-07-10

168

Efficient removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous medium by in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent at carbon-felt cathode.  

PubMed

Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ +H2O2) has been electrogenerated in situ in an undivided electrolytic cell from the effective reduction of Fe3+ and O2 at carbon-felt cathode for the treatment of aqueous solutions of four triphenylmethane dyes (TPMs), namely malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG) and fast green FCF (FCF), at pH 3.0 and room temperature. MG has been used as a model among them to study the influence of some experimental parameters on the decay kinetics, COD removal and current efficiency. The results in such electro-Fenton system are explained in terms of the many parasitic reactions involving .OH. Higher efficiency values are obtained with rising organic content and decreasing applied current. The first stage of the mineralization process, involving aromatic by-products, leads to fast decoloration as well as quick initial COD removal that fit well to a pseudo-first-order kinetics. At prolonged electrolysis time, the mineralization rate and efficiency decrease due to the formation of hardly oxidizable compounds and the enhancement of wasting reactions. Solutions of all four TPMs are quickly degraded following a pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The absolute rate constant (kTPM) for their reaction with .OH increases in the order MeGdyes with initial COD ca. 1000 mg l(-1) is totally depolluted with efficiency near 100% at the beginning of the treatment. A general scheme for the mineralization of TPMs is proposed. PMID:18486964

Sirés, Ignasi; Guivarch, Elodie; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet A

2008-05-19

169

Removal of plant poisoning dyes by adsorption on Tomato Plant Root and green carbon from aqueous solution and its recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic dyes directly pollute the soil, water, plants and all living systems in the environment. The dyes like cationic Methylene blue (MB) and Crystal violet (CV) adsorption has been studied on Tomato Plant Root powder (TPR) and green carbon from aqueous solution for identifying the plant poisoning nature of cationic dyes. TPR powder is a cellulose material and green

Chellapandian Kannan; Natesan Buvaneswari; Thayumanavan Palvannan

2009-01-01

170

Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory  

PubMed Central

The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29) by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min). The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs) as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8) was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

2013-01-01

171

Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory.  

PubMed

The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29) by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min). The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs) as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8) was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs. PMID:23369540

Jahangiri-Rad, Mahsa; Nadafi, Kazem; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Younesian, Masood; Rafiee, Mohammad

2013-01-05

172

Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.  

PubMed

The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. PMID:23321372

Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

2013-01-12

173

Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from water.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption potential of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature by batch method. Equilibrium sorption isotherms showed that the lychee peel adsorbent possessed a high affinity and sorption capacity for Acid Blue 25, with a monolayer sorption capacity of ca. 200 mg g(-1). The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies revealed that the present system of dye adsorption on lychee peel adsorbent could be described more favourably by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, namely free energy (deltaG degrees), enthalpy (deltaH degrees) and entropy (deltaS degrees) changes, were determined for the process. The results of the present study suggest that lychee peel waste can be used beneficially as an adsorbent in treating industrial effluents containing dyes. PMID:20232683

Bhatnagar, Amit; Minocha, A K

2010-01-01

174

Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor.  

PubMed

Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8±1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 gm(-3) d(-1)) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 gm(-3) d(-1) (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China. PMID:23009797

Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

2012-09-04

175

Synthesis of porous chitosan-polyaniline/ZnO hybrid composite and application for removal of reactive orange 16 dye.  

PubMed

For the first time, chitosan-polyaniline/ZnO hybrids were prepared through a polymerization of aniline hydrochloride in the presence of ZnCl2 and chitosan. The hybrid materials were characterized by FT-IR, BET, SEM, UV-vis spectra and XRD analysis. From the BET and SEM micrographs, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles into chitosan-polyaniline hybrid could obviously increase the porosity due to good possibility for dye adsorption. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage and pH using reactive orange 16 as a model pollutant. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm equation, with maximum adsorption capacity value was found to be 476.2mgg(-1). Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model agreed well with the experimental data and good correlation (R(2)>0.999). Photocatalytic degradation of dye under UV irradiation at pH 5.8 has also been examined. FT-IR spectrum clearly indicates that before adsorption of hybrid showed the functional groups of chitosan and polyaniline, whereas the dye adsorbed hybrid only present the dye molecules and ZnO. Based on the results of present investigation, the introduction of ZnCl2 into chitosan-polyaniline hybrid will enhance the adsorption of reactive dyes and photocatalytic degradation. PMID:23563288

Kannusamy, Pandiselvi; Sivalingam, Thambidurai

2013-03-19

176

Colour and COD removal of disperse dye solution by a novel coagulant: application of statistical design for the optimization and regression analysis.  

PubMed

The investigation presented here focussed on the steel industrial wastewater (SIWW) FeCl(3) rich as an original coagulant to remove the synthetic textile wastewater. Response surface methodology was used to study the cumulative effect of the various parameters namely, coagulant dosage, initial pH of dye solution, dye concentration and to optimize the process conditions for the decolourization and COD reduction of disperse blue 79 solution. For obtaining the mutual interaction between the variables and optimizing these variables, a 2(3) full factorial central composite rotatable design using response surface methodology was employed. The efficiencies of decolourization and COD reduction for disperse blue 79 solution were accomplished at optimum conditions as 99% and 94%, respectively. PMID:19168285

Anouzla, Abdelkader; Abrouki, Younes; Souabi, Salah; Safi, Mohammed; Rhbal, Hicham

2008-12-11

177

Adsorption, kinetic and equilibrium studies on removal of basic dye from aqueous solutions using hydrolyzed Oak sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak sawdust (SD), which is the main waste from furniture industry in Egypt, has been used as an adsorbent without treatment or it was treated with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (SD1) and 0.1 N sulphuric acid (SD2). Different adsorbents were characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR to clarify the effect of treatment on the adsorption process. Oak sawdust and different

M. M. Abd El-Latif; Amal. M. Ibrahim

2009-01-01

178

Study of the basic properties of low-p/sub T/ multiparticle systems produced in pp collisions removing leading protons  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study of the basic properties of multiparticle systems produced in pp collisions are presented. The experiment was performed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings at root-bar = 62 GeV, using the Split-Field Magnet facility. The key point of the analysis is to remove the leading proton and thus redefine the correct available energy for particle production. Our results show that, taking into account the correct hadronic energy, the multiparticle system produced in pp collisions, at low p/sub T/, have similar properties with respect to the multihadron jets observed in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilations.

Basile, M.; Romeo, G.C.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Di Cesare, P.; Esposito, B.; Giusti, P.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Valenti, G.; Zichichi, A.

1981-02-01

179

Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes and chemical treatment methods for COD and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a comparison of various advanced oxidation processes (O3, O3\\/UV, H2O2\\/UV, O3\\/H2O2\\/UV, Fe2+\\/H2O2) and chemical treatment methods using Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, FeCl3 and FeSO4 for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent is undertaken. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) showed a superior performance compared to conventional chemical treatment, which maximum achievable color

N. Azbar; T. Yonar; K. Kestioglu

2004-01-01

180

Use of 1,6-diaminohexane-functionalized glycidyl methacrylate-g-poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber for removal of acidic dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, removal of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solution by 1,6-diaminohexane-functionalized glycidyl methacrylate-g-poly(ethylene\\u000a terephthalate) (HMDA-GMA-g-PET) fiber was investigated. A new aminated fibrous adsorbent was prepared by a reaction between amine and epoxy group in\\u000a GMA-g-PET fiber prepared by grafting GMA monomer onto poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber. Effects of various parameters\\u000a such as pH, treatment time, initial, dye

Metin Arslan

2010-01-01

181

Removing structural disorder from oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays: reducing the dimensionality of transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

We report on the influence of morphological disorder, arising from bundling of nanotubes (NTs) and microcracks in films of oriented TiO2 NT arrays, on charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Capillary stress created during evaporation of liquids from the mesopores of dense TiO2 NT arrays was of sufficient magnitude to induce bundling and microcrack formation. The average lateral deflection of the NTs in the bundles increased with the surface tension of the liquids and with the film thicknesses. The supercritical CO2 drying technique was used to produce bundle-free and crack-free NT films. Charge transport and recombination properties of sensitized films were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. Transport became significantly faster with decreased clustering of the NTs, indicating that bundling creates additional pathways via intertube contacts. Removing such contacts alters the transport mechanism from a combination of one and three dimensions to the expected one dimension and shortens the electron-transport pathway. Reducing intertube contacts also resulted in a lower density of surface recombination centers by minimizing distortion-induced surface defects in bundled NTs. A causal connection between transport and recombination is observed. The dye coverage was greater in the more aligned NT arrays, suggesting that reducing intertube contacts increases the internal surface area of the films accessible to dye molecules. The solar conversion efficiency and photocurrent density were highest for DSSCs incorporating films with more aligned NT arrays owing to an enhanced light-harvesting efficiency. Removing structural disorder from other materials and devices consisting of nominally one-dimensional architectures (e.g., nanowire arrays) should produce similar effects. PMID:17983250

Zhu, Kai; Vinzant, Todd B; Neale, Nathan R; Frank, Arthur J

2007-11-06

182

Orange peel as an adsorbent in the removal of Acid violet 17 (acid dye) from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of orange peel in adsorbing Acid violet 17 from aqueous solutions has been studied as a function of agitation time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and pH. The adsorption follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity Q0 was 19.88 mg\\/g at initial pH 6.3. The equilibrium time was found to be 80 min for 10, 20,

Rajeshwari Sivaraj; C Namasivayam; K Kadirvelu

2001-01-01

183

Characterization and utilization of mesoporous fertilizer plant waste carbon for adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the physico-chemical characteristics of low-cost fertilizer plant waste carbon (WC) for the adsorption of different dyes. The particle size analysis showed an average particle size of 167.35?m. Proximate and CHN analysis showed the presence of high amount of carbon in WC. Bulk density and heating value of WC were found to be 308.03kg\\/m3 and 22.3MJ\\/kg, respectively. The

I. D. Mall; V. C. Srivastava; G. V. A. Kumar; I. M. Mishra

2006-01-01

184

Combining photo-Fenton process with aerobic sequencing batch reactor for commercial hetero-bireactive dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic textile effluent containing an hetero-bireactive dye (Cibacron Red FN-R, 250mgl?1) was treated by coupling photo-Fenton process with an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The study is focused on the selection of suitable mild photo-Fenton conditions (Fe(II)\\/H2O2 reagents and irradiation time) that performs as a pre-treatment of a secondary biological treatment. Decolourisation (Abs542.5), biodegradability enhancement (determined by BOD5\\/COD index

Julia García-Montaño; Francesc Torrades; José A. García-Hortal; Xavier Domènech; José Peral

2006-01-01

185

Packed bed column studies for the removal of synthetic dyes from textile wastewater using immobilised dead C. tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient dye biosorbent was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater by entrapping dead cells of C. tropicalis, within sodium alginate matrix. The biosorbent performance was evaluated in packed bed column with different pH (3 to 6), wastewater strength (25%, 50% 75%), bed height (5cm–15cm) and flow rate (0.5mLmin?1 to 1mLmin?1). pH 5, undiluted wastewater, bed height 15cm and

D. Charumathi; Nilanjana Das

186

Bioaccumulation of the synthetic dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals in single and binary systems by Candida tropicalis grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium: modelling optimal conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and inhibition kinetics.  

PubMed

Single and binary effects of dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals, 'namely', Pb(II) and Cd(II), were investigated for their role in dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation by Candida tropicalis that was grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium containing 8 g/L, 16 g/L or 24 g/L of sugar. The optimum pH was found to be 4.0 in the single system and 5.0 in the binary system. A central composite design was successfully used to analyse the experimental results. Four numerical correlations that were fitted to a second order quadratic equation were used to estimate optimum combinations predicted by response surface methodology. In the dye-Pb(II) binary system, C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating 49.5% of the dye and 49.6% of the Pb(II), in comparison to 15.9% of the dye and 55.5% of the Cd(II) in the dye-Cd(II) binary system. In these two systems, the pollutants were dispersed at minimum working concentration levels. Competitive inhibition was observed in both the single and binary systems, which was suggested by an increase in the saturation constant, K(s), and a simultaneous decrease in the specific growth rate that was calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated changes in yeast cell morphology by exposure to these contaminants in the dye-Pb(II) binary system grown in a bioaccumulation medium. PMID:21215516

Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D; Das, Nilanjana

2010-12-15

187

Removal of acidic dye from aqueous solutions using poly(DMAEMA–AMPS–HEMA) terpolymer\\/MMT nanocomposite hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, poly(DMAEMA–AMPS–HEMA) terpolymer\\/montmorillonite nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by in situ polymerization\\u000a technique using 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), 2-acrylamido-2-methlypropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate\\u000a (HEMA) monomers in clay suspension media. N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) was used as crosslinker and potassium persulfate\\/potassium bisulfide were used as initiator\\u000a and accelerator pair. The water absorption capacities and acidic dye (indigo carmine) adsorption properties of the

Mert Dalaran; Serkan Emik; Gamze Güçlü; Tülin Banu ?yim; Saadet Özgümü?

2009-01-01

188

The uptake of dyes by extracted phospholipids and cerebrosides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It was found that basic dyes were without exception taken up by lecithin, cephalin, and sphingomyelin, while the typical acid dyes were not taken up by any of the phospho- lipids. However, the weakly acidic dyes aurantia, eosin Y, eosin SS, and erythrosin were taken up by all phospholipids, although to a smaller extent than the basic dyes. Basic

JENNIFER M. BYRNE

1962-01-01

189

Parametric study on the effect of the ratios [H2O2]\\/[Fe] and [H2O2]\\/[substrate] on the photo-Fenton degradation of cationic azo dye Basic Blue 41  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental parametric study was carried out to investigate the effects of [H2O2], [Fe] and [H2O2]\\/[Fe] ratio on the photo-Fenton degradation of a azo dye Basic Blue 41 (BB41) in aqueous solution. This method consists of coupling between Fenton's reagent and UV irradiation in order to catalyze the in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals, a powerful oxidizing agent which leads

Souâd Bouafia-Chergui; Nihal Oturan; Hussein Khalaf; Mehmet A. Oturan

2010-01-01

190

Characterization and application of Ti-containing mesoporous silica for dye removal with synergistic effect of coupled adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation.  

PubMed

Highly ordered mesoporous silica, Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15), and titanium-substituted mesoporous silica (TiSBA-15) materials were successfully synthesized, characterized, and evaluated. The textual and structural properties of the prepared materials with various titanium contents were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, nitrogen physisorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A limited content of titanium could be effectively substituted into the framework of SBA-15 without provoking structure change. The adsorptive performance was examined by methylene blue (MB) adsorbed on prepared materials. The isotherm models were analyzed to describe the adsorption behavior of prepared materials. The adsorption isotherms were well-fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models in the simulation of the adsorption behavior of dyes. The SBA-15 and TiSBA-15 materials were found to be effective adsorbents for MB from aqueous solutions. The photodegradation of MB and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis on solid composites were used to evaluate the catalytical performance of Ti-containing mesoporous silica. The synergistic effect of adsorptive and photocatalytical ability of prepared TiSBA-15 was identified. The regeneration and cyclic performance were also proved. These results revealed that TiSBA-15 could be one effective alternative material for dye removal. PMID:21176861

Huang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Kai-Ping; Ou, Hong-De; Chiang, Yu-Chun; Chang, E-E; Wang, Chu-Fang

2010-12-04

191

Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters.

Suzana Modesto de Oliveira Brito; Heloysa Martins Carvalho Andrade; Luciana Frota Soares; Rafael Pires de Azevedo

2010-01-01

192

Synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) coated-Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nano-composites and their fast removal of dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coated-Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nano-composites were synthesized through a solvothermal technique by using cheap and environmental friendly iron salts and PAA. Each nano-composite was composed of many small primary nanocrystals. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. These nano-composites showed rapid adsorption rate and super removal capacity of cation organic dye methylene blue (MB). Moreover, the MB desorption could be easily performed using methanol and acetic acid mixed solution. The reused performance of the nano-composites was also studied. PMID:23901484

Zhou, Chunjiao; Zhang, Wenjie; Xia, Mingxia; Zhou, Weichang; Wan, Qiang; Peng, Kun; Zou, Bingsuo

2013-07-01

193

Silica coated magnetic particles using microwave synthesis for removal of dyes from natural water samples: Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium, isotherm and kinetics studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring pollutants in water samples is a challenge to analysts. So, the removal of Napthol blue black (NBB) and Erichrome blue black R (EBBR) from aqueous solutions was investigated using magnetic chelated silica particles. Magnetic solids are widely used in detection and analytical systems because of the performance advantages they offer compared to similar solids that lack magnetic properties. In this context, a fast, simple and clean method for modification of magnetic particles (Fe3O4) with silica gel was developed using microwave technique to introduce silica gel coated magnetic particles (SG-MPs) sorbent. The magnetic sorbent was characterized by the FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scan electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The effects of pH, time, weight of sorbent and initial concentration of dye were evaluated. It was interesting to find from results that SG-MPs exhibits high percentage extraction of the studied dyes (100% for NBB and 98.75% for EBBR) from aqueous solutions. The Freundlich isotherm with r2 = 0.973 and 0.962 and Langmuir isotherms with r2 = 0.993 and 0.988 for NBB and EBBR, respectively were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. Also, adsorption kinetic experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation r2 = 1.0 for NBB and 0.999 for EBBR. The prepared sorbent with rapid adsorption rate and separation convenience was applied for removal of NBB and EBBR pollutants from natural water samples with good precision (RSD% = 0.05-0.3%).

Ahmed, Salwa A.; Soliman, Ezzat M.

2013-11-01

194

Photoelectrocatalysis based on Ti/TiO2 nanotubes removes toxic properties of the azo dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 1 from aqueous chloride samples.  

PubMed

This work describes the efficiency of photoelectrocatalysis based on Ti/TiO2 nanotubes in the degradation of the azo dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 1 and to remove their toxic properties, as an alternative method for the treatment of effluents and water. For this purpose, the discoloration rate, total organic carbon (TOC) removal, and genotoxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic responses were determined, using the comet, micronucleus and cytotoxicity assays in HepG2 cells and the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. In a previous study it was found that the surfactant Emulsogen could contribute to the low mineralization of the dyes (60% after 4 h of treatment), which, in turn, seems to account for the mutagenicity of the products generated. Thus this surfactant was not added to the chloride medium in order to avoid this interference. The photoelectrocatalytic method presented rapid discoloration and the TOC reduction was ?87% after 240 min of treatment, showing that photoelectrocatalysis is able to mineralize the dyes tested. The method was also efficient in removing the mutagenic activity and cytotoxic effects of these three dyes. Thus it was concluded that photoelectrocatalysis was a promising method for the treatment of aqueous samples. PMID:23624428

Ferraz, E R A; Oliveira, G A R; Grando, M D; Lizier, T M; Zanoni, M V B; Oliveira, D P

2013-05-01

195

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 3, and Basic Violet 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic Violet 3, Basic Violet 1, and Basic Violet 4 are triphenylmethane dyes that function as direct (nonoxidative) hair colorants. No current uses or use concentrations in cosmetics are reported. The term Gentian Violet is used synonymously with Basic Violet 1 and Basic Violet 3, although the chemical structures of these 2 dyes are not the same. The Cosmetic Ingredient

Catherine Diamante; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Curtis D. Klaassen; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder; F. Alan Andersen

2009-01-01

196

Treatment of Azo Dye-Containing Wastewater Using Integrated Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Azo dyes are the most widely used dyes in textile industry. During the dyeing process, the degree of exhaustion of dyes is\\u000a never complete, resulting in azo dye-containing effluents. The biodegradation of azo dyes is difficult due to their complex\\u000a structure and synthetic nature. The removal of azo dyes from industry effluents is desirable not only for aesthetic reasons\\u000a but

Xujie Lu; Rongrong Liu

197

Silkworm exuviae—A new non-conventional and low-cost adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, silkworm exuviae (SE) waste, an agricultural waste available in large quantity in China, was utilized as low-cost adsorbent to remove basic dye (methylene blue, MB) from aqueous solution by adsorption. Kinetic data and sorption equilibrium isotherms were carried out in batch process. The adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that MB adsorption onto SE for different initial dye concentrations

Hao Chen; Jie Zhao; Guoliang Dai

2011-01-01

198

Assessment of Potential Toxic Releases from Leather Industry Dyeing Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number ...

S. B. Radding J. L. Jones W. R. Mabey D. H. Liu N. Bohonos

1978-01-01

199

Rule of Fe0 nano-particles and biopolymer structures in kinds of the connected pairs to remove Acid Yellow 17 from aqueous solution: simultaneous removal of dye in two paths and by four mechanisms.  

PubMed

In this study, cyclohexane 1,3,5-tericarboxylic acid (CHA) and ?-isopropylglutaric acid (IPA) were used to obtain the cross-linked forms of the extracted pectin from orange skin (PO), viz. PO-CHA and PO-IPA. These agents were used to stabilize the synthesized Fe(0) nano-particles (Fe(0) NPs) viz. the preparation of Fe(0)-PO, Fe(0)-PO-CHA and Fe(0)-PO-IPA, to compare their ability for the removal of Acid yellow 17 (AY 17) from aqueous solution. FT-IR spectra specified that bidentate bridging and monodentate interaction were the primary mechanisms for binding PO-CHA and PO-IPA molecules to Fe(0) NPs, respectively. The removal percent of AY 17 was determined 97.8, 92.8, 84.1, 79.6, 72.8, 61.5 and 45.6 by Fe(0)-PO-CHA, Fe(0)-PO-IPA, Fe(0)-PO, PO-CHA, PO-IPA, PO and Fe(0) NPs, respectively, for the dye initial concentration of 200 ppm, at the optimized conditions. In these agents, Fe(0) nano-particles performed the reduction process of AY 17, while the organic polymers performed its adsorption process. PMID:22019054

Rakhshaee, Roohan

2011-10-01

200

Surfactant-modified alumina: An efficient adsorbent for malachite green removal from water environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface of alumina was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant. The surfactant-modified alumina (SMA) was characterized by FTIR and thermal analysis. The SMA was then used for the removal of malachite green (MG; Basic Green 4), a well-known toxic cationic dye from aqueous environment. The removal of MG takes place in the micellar structure formed on alumina

Asit K. Das; Sandip Saha; Anjali Pal; Sanjoy K. Maji

2009-01-01

201

Blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in aswan governorate, Upper Egypt, as an adsorbent for the removal of merocyanine dye from its aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The adsorption potential of the blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in Aswan Governorate, Egypt, to decolorize aqueous solutions of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one 4[2] merocyanine dye (1) was investigated at room temperature. The influence of the solution pH, the quantity of adsorbent, the initial concentration of 1, and the applied contact time were studied with the batch technique. The maximum percentage of removal of 1 was observed at pH 4. The adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, confirming the formation of monolayers of 1 on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic rate constants and the transient behavior at different initial concentrations of 1 were determined with both the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and the Ho and McKay pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of 1 on blast furnace slag followed a second-order chemisorption process. PMID:20397223

Taha, Gharib Mahmoud; Mosaed, Taghreed Mahmoud

2010-04-01

202

Kinetic catalytic determination of trace levels of iodide based on the oxidation of basic dyes with hydrogen peroxide monitored potentiometrically using simple PVC electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four sensitive catalytic potentiometric methods have been developed for trace levels determination of iodide based on its catalytic effects on the oxidation of four dyes: viz. variamine blue (VB), rhodamine B (RB), methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG), with H2O2 in H3PO4 medium at 25±0.5°C. The catalyzed reaction rates were estimated potentiometrically by monitoring the potential of the corresponding

Elmorsy Khaled; M. A. El-Ries; F. I. Zidane; S. A. Ibrahim; M. S. Abd-Elmonem

2011-01-01

203

Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism modeling and simulation of basic and acid dyes sorption onto jute fiber carbon: Eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet single component systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto jute fiber carbon (JFC). The operating variables studied are the initial dye concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson isotherm by non-linear regression method. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the

K. Porkodi; K. Vasanth Kumar

2007-01-01

204

Kinetic catalytic determination of trace levels of iodide based on the oxidation of basic dyes with hydrogen peroxide monitored potentiometrically using simple PVC electrodes.  

PubMed

Four sensitive catalytic potentiometric methods have been developed for trace levels determination of iodide based on its catalytic effects on the oxidation of four dyes: viz. variamine blue (VB), rhodamine B (RB), methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG), with H(2)O(2) in H(3)PO(4) medium at 25±0.5°C. The catalyzed reaction rates were estimated potentiometrically by monitoring the potential of the corresponding dye-PVC ion selective electrodes. To select the optimized reaction conditions offering the highest sensitivity of the method, parallel studies were carried out on each dye catalyzed reaction including: the effect of reactant concentration, reaction medium and temperature. The working calibration curves were linear over the concentration range from 0.32 to 2.54 mg L(-1) iodide for VB method and from 3.2 to 12.7 mg L(-1) for other ones. The tolerance limits of more than 20 interfering species were listed indicating the high selectivity of the method. Trace iodide in edible salt and pharmaceutical samples was determined without the need for separation or preconcentration procedures. PMID:21238749

Khaled, Elmorsy; El-Ries, M A; Zidane, F I; Ibrahim, S A; Abd-Elmonem, M S

2010-11-30

205

Environmentally stable adsorbent of tetrahedral silica and non-tetrahedral alumina for removal and recovery of malachite green dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional adsorbents like activated carbon, agricultural wastes, molecular sieves, etc., used for dye adsorption are unstable in the environment for long time, and hence the adsorbed dyes again gets liberated and pollute the environment. To avoid this problem, environmentally stable adsorbent of silica and alumina should be employed for malachite green adsorption. The adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transformed

Chellapandian Kannan; Thiravium Sundaram; Thayumanavan Palvannan

2008-01-01

206

Sono-sorption as a new method for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The sorption of methylene blue as a basic dye onto cellulosic materials such as waste newspaper was examined kinetically in the presence of ultrasound (sono-sorption) and in its absence (conventional method). The effects of various experimental parameters such as the amount of sorbent, type of cellulosic sorbents, initial dye concentration, temperature, and contact time have been investigated using a batch sorption technique. The information obtained can be used for treating effluents from the dye industry which deals with this kind of dye. The results show that as the amount of sorbent is increased, the dye removal in conventional method increases accordingly. In case of sono-sorption, it was stopped at specific amount of sorbent. More than 98% removal of the dye could be achieved in a very short period of time of sonication with respect to the conventional method. This behavior is related to the cavitation process which facilitates the removal of dye from aqueous solution. The method mentioned could be employed as a low cost alternative to the commercial activated carbon currently used in wastewater treatment for the removal of dyes. PMID:17150404

Entezari, M H; Sharif Al-Hoseini, Z

2006-12-05

207

Removing user fees for basic health services: a pilot study and national roll-out in Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Background User fees for primary care tend to suppress utilization, and many countries are experimenting with fee removal. Studies show that additional inputs are needed after removing fees, although well-documented experiences are lacking. This study presents data on the effects of fee removal on facility quality and utilization in Afghanistan, based on a pilot experiment and subsequent nationwide ban on fees. Methods Data on utilization and observed structural and perceived overall quality of health care were compared from before-and-after facility assessments, patient exit interviews and catchment area household surveys from eight facilities where fees were removed and 14 facilities where fee levels remained constant, as part of a larger health financing pilot study from 2005 to 2007. After a national user fee ban was instituted in 2008, health facility administrative data were analysed to assess subsequent changes in utilization and quality. Results The pilot study analysis indicated that observed and perceived quality increased across facilities but did not differ by fee removal status. Difference-in-difference analysis showed that utilization at facilities previously charging both service and drug fees increased by 400% more after fee removal, prompting additional inputs from service providers, compared with facilities that previously only charged service fees or had no change in fees (P = 0.001). Following the national fee ban, visits for curative care increased significantly (P < 0.001), but institutional deliveries did not. Services typically free before the ban—immunization and antenatal care—had immediate increases in utilization but these were not sustained. Conclusion Both pilot and nationwide data indicated that curative care utilization increased following fee removal, without differential changes in quality. Concerns raised by non-governmental organizations, health workers and community leaders over the effects of lost revenue and increased utilization require continued effort to raise revenues, monitor health worker and patient perceptions, and carefully manage health facility performance.

Steinhardt, Laura C; Aman, Iqbal; Pakzad, Iqbalshah; Kumar, Binay; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Peters, David H

2011-01-01

208

Nickel removal from nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine using supercritical water in absence of catalyst: a basic study.  

PubMed

Reactions of nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine (Ni-TPP) were studied in supercritical water in the presence of toluene without the addition of any catalyst, H(2) or H(2)S that is called a green process. The objective of this study was to remove nickel from Ni-TPP, the most common metal compound present in heavy crude, in high extent at low reaction time. All experiments were carried out in an 8.8 mL batch reactor fabricated from hastelloy C-276. The ability of supercritical water (SCW) to remove nickel from Ni-TPP was studied at temperatures of 450-490 °C and water partial pressures of 25-35 MPa. Water partial pressure had no effect on overall conversion at temperatures of 450 °C and a reaction time of 60 min. The overall Ni-TPP conversion was 89.80%, a figure above that of previous catalytic studies. The percentage of nickel removal was estimated as a function of reaction time and temperature. It were temperature 490 °C and pressure 25 MPa at reaction time 90 min where 65.68% nickel were removed by the action of SCW and toluene, as a co-solvent. It was determined that Ni-TPP undergoes a series of reactions, ending in demetallation and ring fragmentation. The obtained results suggest that supercritical water has a capability to remove nickel from Ni-TPP. PMID:21300437

Mandal, Pradip Chandra; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

2011-01-19

209

Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

2012-12-01

210

Degradation of dyes in aqueous solutions by the Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of 20 different dyes in aqueous solutions by the Fenton process was performed. These dyes include 6 types: acidic, reactive, direct, cationic, disperse and vat dyes. The former four types of dyes were decolorized and their TOC values were decreased greatly, while the color and TOC removals of the latter two types were lower. The catalytic activities of four

Xiang-Rong Xu; Hua-Bin Li; Wen-Hua Wang; Ji-Dong Gu

2004-01-01

211

Dyeing KDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the growth and spectroscopy of well-defined mixed crystals of KH2PO4 (KDP) containing both natural and synthetic organic dyes in the {010} and {101} growth sectors. Our summary reevaluates historical dye inclusions, reveals others discovered in a directed screening, and ultimately describes dyes rationally synthesized for the recognition of KDP surfaces. Absorption and emission spectroscopies with polarized light are

J. Anand Subramony; Sei-Hum Jang; Bart Kahr

1997-01-01

212

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

213

Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

2011-01-01

214

Enzymatic biobleaching of two recalcitrant paper dyes with horseradish and soybean peroxidase.  

PubMed

A stilbene dye (Direct Yellow 11) and a methine dye, Basazol 46L, recalcitrant to common chemical bleaches, were treated with horseradish and soybean peroxidases. Both enzymes were effective at chromophore removal. When compared to laccase in combination with a mediator (ABTS), soybean peroxidase was more effective at oxidative dye removal, especially for the methine dye. PMID:16086255

Knutson, Kristina; Kirzan, Sylva; Ragauskas, Arthur

2005-06-01

215

Removal of dyes from water using chitosan hydrogel/SiO2 and chitin hydrogel/SiO2 hybrid materials obtained by the sol-gel method.  

PubMed

This work describes the synthesis of chitosan hydrogel/SiO(2) and chitin hydrogel/SiO(2) hybrid mesoporous materials obtained by the sol-gel method for their use as biosorbents. Their adsorption capabilities against four dyes (Remazol Black B, Erythrosine B, Neutral Red and Gentian Violet) were compared in order to evaluate chitin as a plausible replacement for chitosan considering its efficiency and lower cost. Both chitin and chitosan were used in the form of hydrogels. This allowed full compatibility with the ethanol release from tetraethoxysilane. The hybrid materials were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Nitrogen Adsorption Isotherms and (13)C solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Adsorption experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models along with the evaluation of adsorption energy and standard free energy (?G(0)). The adsorption was observed to be pH dependent. The main mechanism of dye adsorption was found to be a spontaneous charge associated interaction, except for EB adsorption on chitin/SiO(2) matrix, which showed to involve a lower energy physical adsorption interaction. Aside from highly charged dyes the chitin containing matrix has similar or higher adsorption capacity than the chitosan one. PMID:21163576

Copello, Guillermo J; Mebert, Andrea M; Raineri, M; Pesenti, Mariela P; Diaz, Luis E

2010-11-30

216

Evaluation of the efficacy of a bacterial consortium for the removal of color, reduction of heavy metals, and toxicity from textile dye effluent.  

PubMed

A microbial consortium DAS consisting three bacterial sp. originally obtained from dye contaminated sites of Solapur, India was selected because it was capable of decolorizing textile effluent and dye faster than the individual bacteria under static conditions. Identification of the isolates by 16S rRNA techniques revealed the isolates to be Pseudomonas species. The concerted metabolic activity of these isolates led to complete decolorization of textile effluent as well as Reactive Orange 16 (100 mg l(-1)) within 48-h at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. Studies involving Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye were carried with the bacterial consortium DAS to elucidate the mechanism of biodegradation. Induction of the laccase and reductase enzyme during RO16 decolorization indicated their role in biodegradation. The biodegradation of RO16 was monitored by using IR spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity studies carried out before and after decolorization of the textile effluent revealed the nontoxic nature of the biotreated sample. PMID:19720521

Jadhav, J P; Kalyani, D C; Telke, A A; Phugare, S S; Govindwar, S P

2009-08-31

217

Adsorption of Dye from Wastewater by Zeolites Synthesized from Fly Ash: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal performance of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB), in aqueous solution was investigated by adsorption process on single-phase and high-crystalline zeolite A (FA-ZA) and X (FA-ZX). Both adsorbents FA-ZA and FA-ZX were synthesized from fly ash prepared aluminosilicate gel followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 100°C with the control of Si\\/Al molar ratio, respectively. The properties of the

Chunfeng WANG; Jiansheng LI; Lianjun WANG; Xiuyun SUN; Jiajia HUANG

2009-01-01

218

Dye adsorption by calcium chloride treated beech sawdust in batch and fixed-bed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and column kinetics of methylene blue and red basic 22 adsorption on CaCl2 treated beech sawdust was investigated, using untreated beech sawdust as control, in order to explore its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater dye removal. The adsorption capacity, estimated according to Freundlich's model, and the adsorption capacity coefficient values, determined using the Bohart and Adams’

F. A. Batzias; D. K. Sidiras

2004-01-01

219

Dye adsorption on mesoporous activated carbon fiber obtained from pitch containing yttrium complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of acid dyes (Acid Blue 9, Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Orange 51), direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Yellow 11, and Direct Yellow 50), and basic dyes (Basic Brown 1 and Basic Violet 3) on a highly mesoporous activated carbon fiber (Y-ACF) obtained from pitch containing yttrium acetylacetonate was investigated in terms of size

Hisashi Tamai; Takeshi Yoshida; Masahiko Sasaki

1999-01-01

220

Glycan analysis via derivatization with a fluorogenic pyrylium dye.  

PubMed

The expansion of glycomics analysis is reliant upon the development of robust, routine methods for carbohydrate characterization. Simple protocols to derivatize sugars with functionality that facilitate analysis-chromophores, fluorophores, charges, ionizable groups-are therefore necessary. Here we describe a method for the labeling of oligosaccharide mixtures with a fluorogenic pyrylium dye to enable analysis by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS). The unreacted free dye, Py-1, is effectively non-fluorescent but when conjugated to the analyte it displays strong fluorescence at 600-640 nm. Removal of excess dye following labeling is not required prior to analysis unlike for many traditional oligosaccharide labels. Labeling is achieved in two steps; the oligosaccharide mixtures are first functionalized with an ethylenediamine moiety via reductive amination at the reducing-end sugar, then the remaining free primary amine is reacted with the pyrylium dye (Py-1) under basic conditions to form a pyridinium ion. We have labeled mixtures of maltooligosaccharides and observed good peak separation in CE analysis using a SDS/borate pH 9.3 running buffer. Excellent sensitivity in MALDI-ToF-MS analysis enabled detection of oligosaccharides with up to 58 glucose units. PMID:22425443

Johannesen, Sine A; Beeren, Sophie R; Blank, Dennis; Yang, Byung Y; Geyer, Rudolf; Hindsgaul, Ole

2012-02-24

221

Kinetics of a reactive dye adsorption onto dolomitic sorbents.  

PubMed

A novel wastewater treatment technique has been investigated, for reactive dye removal, in batch kinetic systems. These experimental studies have indicated that charred dolomite has the potential to act as an adsorbent for the removal of Brilliant Red reactive dye from aqueous solution. The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass:liquid volume ratio, and agitation speed on dye removal have been determined with the experimental data mathematically described using empirical external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion models. The experimental data show conformity with an adsorption process, with the removal rate heavily dependent on both external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion. PMID:12691893

Walker, G M; Hansen, L; Hanna, J-A; Allen, S J

2003-05-01

222

Facile fabrication of mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticles pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite: a smart photo-Fenton catalyst for quick removal of organic dyes.  

PubMed

A mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticle pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite (mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite) was synthesized by using sodium exchanged montmorillonite by cation-exchange, gallery-templated synthesis and impregnation method. Formation of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) having average particle size 5.20-6.50 nm within montmorillonite, formation of mesoporous Al2O3 NPs pillared montmorillonite (mesoporous APM) from montmorillonite and formation of a mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite signifies the present investigation. The roles of ammonia, CTAB, octyl amine and calcination temperature for fabrication of mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite were highly significant. Ammonia was used for post-synthesis treatment, which helped in the formation of micellar assemblies in the interlayer space. The materials were characterized by different techniques such as N2 adsorption-desorption study, which demonstrated the mesoporosity of the material. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image proves the morphology and size of the Al2O3 NPs and mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) describes the formation of the pillaring of the Al2O3 NPs within montmorillonite (APM). It has been noted that pure montmorillonite is a micro/mesoporous material. But after pillaring of Al2O3 NPs within the montmorillonite, mesoporosity developed, which is the vital aspect of present investigation. It was observed that the mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite has high photo-Fenton activity towards degradation of organic dyes such as acid blue (AB) and reactive blue (RB). Nearly 100% degradation took place within 30 minutes with high concentration of dye (500 mg L(-1)) by mesoporous 5 Fe/APM nanocomposite under ambient conditions. Small particle sizes of nanocomposite, quick reduction of Fe(iii) and mesoporosity are the key points for proficient degradation of AB and RB. PMID:24002045

Pradhan, Amaresh C; Varadwaj, G Bishwa Bidita; Parida, K M

2013-09-04

223

Photosensitization of diazo disperse dye in aqueous acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most disperse dyes that are usually used by the textile dyeing industry are resistant to UV degradation. The photodegradation of dyeing wastewater in the presence of acetone, which performs as a solvent and\\/or a photo-sensitizer, was investigated in this study. The results demonstrated that photochemical reaction in the presence of acetone could rapidly and effectively enhance color removal at a

Wei Chu; Sui-Mei Tsui

1999-01-01

224

Photocatalytic degradation of Basic Red 46 and Basic Yellow 28 in single and binary mixture by UV/TiO2/periodate system.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the investigation of photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of C.I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) and C.I. Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) dyes in single and binary solutions as a function of periodate ion concentration (IO(4)(-)), irradiation time, initial pH and initial dye concentrations. First order derivative spectrophotometric method was used for to simultaneous analysis of BY28 and BR46 in binary mixtures. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model was applied to experimental data and apparent reaction rate constant values were calculated. The apparent degradation rate constant values of BR46 were higher than those of BY28 for all experiments in single dye solutions. On the other hand, the significant reductions were observed for the apparent degradation rate constant values of the BR46 in the presence of BY28 in binary solutions whereas TOC removal efficiency slightly enhanced in binary system. The highest TOC removal efficiency was obtained at pH 3.0 by adding 5mM periodate ion in to the solution in the presence of 1g/L TiO(2) for both dye solutions. After 3h illumination, 68, 76 and 75% mineralization were found for 100mg/L BY28, 100mg/L BR46 and 50+50mg/L mixed solutions, respectively. PMID:18995958

Gözmen, Belgin; Turabik, Meral; Hesenov, Arif

2008-09-26

225

Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of malachite green (MG) was studied using three adsorbents namely, bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, and activated carbons commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial MG concentration on the removal of MG. The initial pH

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

226

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

227

Enzymatic Biobleaching of Two Recalcitrant Paper Dyes with Horseradish and Soybean Peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stilbene dye (Direct Yellow 11) and a methine dye, Basazol 46L, recalcitrant to common chemical \\u000ableaches, were treated with horseradish and soybean peroxidases. Both enzymes were effective at chromophore \\u000aremoval. When compared to laccase in combination with a mediator (ABTS), soybean peroxidase was more \\u000aeffective at oxidative dye removal, especially for the methine dye.

Kristina Knutson; Sylva Kirzan; Arthur Ragauskas

2005-01-01

228

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

229

Retinal tolerance to dyes  

PubMed Central

Background: Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. In the present study the authors investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function. Methods: Bovine retina preparations were perfused with a standard solution and the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded repeatedly. After recording of stable ERG amplitudes the nutrient solution was substituted by one of the dye solutions. The duration of retinal exposure to a dye solution was varied between 10 seconds and 2 minutes. Thereupon, the preparation was reperfused with standard solution for at least 115 minutes. The percentage of b-wave reduction after exposition was calculated. Results: Reductions of the b-wave amplitude were found for each dye solution tested. The effects after application of patent blue and indocyanine green were completely reversible within the recovery time for an exposure period of 60 and 30 seconds, respectively. The application of trypan blue lead to a loss of the b-wave when the retina was exposed for 15 seconds or longer. This effect was only partly reversible within the recovery time. Conclusion: The ERG showed toxic effects of trypan blue after a short period of retinal exposure. The intraocular application of trypan blue should be limited to selected cases. However, intraocular application of indocyanine green and patent blue in a sufficient concentration and taking account of a short period of retinal exposure seems possible.

Luke, C; Luke, M; Dietlein, T S; Hueber, A; Jordan, J; Sickel, W; Kirchhof, B

2005-01-01

230

Novel fluorescent dyes based on oligopropylamines for the in vivo staining of eukaryotic unicellular algae.  

PubMed

Weakly basic fluorescent dyes are used to visualize organelles within live cells due to their affinity to acidic subcellular organelles. In particular, they are used to stain the silica deposited in the silica deposition vesicles (SDVs) of diatoms during the course of their frustule synthesis. This study involved the synthesis of fluorescent dyes derived from oligopropylamines, compounds similar to those found in diatoms. The dyes were obtained by reacting oligopropylamines with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole. The reaction was realized using methylated oligopropylamines with two or three nitrogen atoms and yielded two novel fluorescent dyes: NBD-N2 and NBD-N3. The dyes appeared to be highly efficient in the in vivo staining of growing siliceous frustules of diatoms at concentrations at least 10 times lower than those required for staining with HCK-123. NBD-N3 also efficiently stained other subcellular vesicles of eukaryotic unicellular algae. NBD-N2 stained only growing diatom frustules, whereas NBD-N3 also stained various subcellular organelles of different eukaryotic unicellular algae. NBD-N2 and NBD-N3 were not removed from stained diatom frustules by drastic treatments with H(2)SO(4) and H(2)O(2). Fluorescent silica can also be obtained by its chemical precipitation in the presence of NBD-N2 and NBD-N3. PMID:20691656

Annenkov, V V; Danilovtseva, E N; Zelinskiy, S N; Basharina, T N; Safonova, T A; Korneva, E S; Likhoshway, Y V; Grachev, M A

2010-08-05

231

Photodegradation of dye pollutants catalyzed by porous K3PW12O40 under visible irradiation.  

PubMed

Microporous solid K3PW12O40 is prepared by precipitation of phosphotungstic acid and potassium ion, followed by calcination. Using this material as photocatalyst, a series of dye pollutants, such as rhodamine B, malachite green, rhodamine 6G, fuchsin basic, and methyl violet, were efficiently degraded in the presence of H202 under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). The photocatalyst was characterized via SEM, BET surface area, FT-IR, and XRD. The photocatalyst has relative large surface area, and the Keggin structure of phosphotungstic ions is intact during the precipitation and calcination. The degradation kinetics, TOC changes, degradation products, ESR detection of active oxygen species, and the effect of radical scavengers are also investigated to clarify the degradation process and the reaction pathway. The dyes can be facilely bleached and mineralized (ca. 40% of TOC removal for RhB), and the main degradation products of RhB detected, besides CO2, are the small organic acids. They are released from the surface of the catalyst to the bulk solution during the degradation of the dye, which avoids the poisoning of photocatalyst by the intermediates. The formation of active oxygen species such as the O2-*/ HO2* and *OH are detected during the degradation of dye, and they are proposed to be responsible for the degradation of dyes. The K3PW12040 catalyst is very stable and very easily separated from the reaction system for reuse. PMID:16830569

Chen, Chuncheng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Pengxiang; Song, Wenjing; Ma, Wanhong; Zhao, Jincai

2006-06-15

232

Anaerobic degradation of monoazo dyes  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic degradation of two monoazo dyes, acid red 88 (AR88) and acid orange 7, was studied utilizing serum bottle assays. When either dye was present between .05 and 50 mg/L as the sole substrate, inhibition was demonstrated, with no mineralization occurring. However, when a supplemental carbon and energy source was available no inhibition was evidence with mineralization occurring at intermediate concentrations. The degradation of AR88 and metabolite formation was examined utilizing laboratory-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Addition of 50 mg/L of dye resulted in >98% removal, although mineralization was not achieved. Metabolites identified were naphthionic acid, 2-naphthol, 1,2-naphthoquinone, isoquinoline, and quinacridone. The presence of the metabolites, some of which were products of complexation and polymerization, exerted a slight inhibitory effect on the non-methanogens. The availability of a supplemental carbon source demonstrated an effect on the metabolites that are evolved and the rate at which they are formed.

Kremer, F.V.

1989-01-01

233

Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA–bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100?mol\\/L, the dosage of PDADMA–bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68

Dazhong Shen; Jianxin Fan; Weizhi Zhou; Baoyu Gao; Qinyan Yue; Qi Kang

2009-01-01

234

Predicting azo dye toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature regrading azo dye carcinogenicity was examined to establish, if possible, guidelines to predict the human health risks of new azo dyes. Three different mechanisms for azo dye carcinogenicity were identified, all involving metabolic activation to reactive electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind DNA. In the order of decreasing number of published references, these mechanisms are 1. Azo dyes that are

Mark A. Brown; Stephen C. De Vito

1993-01-01

235

Ultrasound for wool dyeing and finishing.  

PubMed

The effects of ultrasound at 35-39 kHz on several wool dyeing and finishing processes have been investigated as a way of reducing environmental impact. Ultrasound improved the effectiveness of cleaning scoured wool in water and to a lesser extent in water-nonionic surfactant. Scanning electron microscopy did not indicate any surface damage. Fluorescence microscopy revealed increased levels of sulphydryl groups on the wool surface suggesting ultrasound caused the removal of thioester-bound lipids. Ultrasound pre-treatment increased the effectiveness of subsequent oxidative-reductive bleaching, but had no effect on the uptake of acid levelling and acid milling dyes. The pre-treatment retarded the uptake of reactive dye, possibly by increasing the crystallinity of the fibre or removing surface bound lipids. Ultrasound did not improve dyeing under conditions that are currently used in industry, but did show potential to reduce the chemical and energy requirements of dyeing wool with reactive and acid milling dyes, but not acid levelling dyes. PMID:20675174

McNeil, S J; McCall, R A

2010-07-15

236

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

237

Development and field testing of an alternative latrine design utilizing basic oxygen furnace slag as a treatment media for pathogen removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In densely-populated communities in developing countries, appropriate setback distances for pit latrines often cannot be met. An alternative latrine was designed that incorporates two permeable reactive media to treat pathogens and nitrate from effluent. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag in contact with wastewater effluent elevates pH to levels (> 11) that inactivate pathogens. Saturated woodchip creates reducing conditions that encourage

J. Stimson; A. V. Suhogusoff; D. W. Blowes; R. A. Hirata; C. J. Ptacek; W. D. Robertson; M. B. Emelko

2009-01-01

238

Chloride Removal Implementation Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment and procedures for the electrochemical removal of chloride from reinforced concrete structures are described. The guide provides basic information needed to implement the chloride removal process of field structures. Pretreatment and posttreatme...

J. Bennett T. J. Schue

1993-01-01

239

Basic Stamp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Parallax, Inc. gives some information about basic stamp microcontrollers. A Basic-Stamp microcontroller is a single-board computer. Parallax makes a variety of controllers; the BASIC Stamp II uses a PIC16C57microchip.

2012-10-12

240

A Study of the Photodegradation of Commercial Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stability of thirty-six different commercial dyes in water to visible and ultraviolet light from a carbon arc has been studied. The dyes were selected on the basis of their importance in the textile industry from six major classes: basic, acid, direct...

J. J. Porter

1973-01-01

241

Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo...

S. Allinikov

1979-01-01

242

Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

NONE

1996-09-01

243

Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2008-01-01

244

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building on work done in Phase I of this study (See AD-748 863), research on near-infrared dye lasers continued along several lines. Eighteen more Kodak organic dyes were screened for laser action using a linear flash lamp for excitation. Six dyes lased b...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1973-01-01

245

Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and fungi are discussed in detail. The disadvantages of physical and chemical treatment processes of dye wastewater are also discussed. Biological treatment processes have many advantages over the chemical and physical treatment processes such as possibility of degradation of dye molecules to carbon dioxide and water and formation of less sludge in

Wamik Azmi; Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1998-01-01

246

The Basic Properties of the Electronic Structure of the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosystem II Are Not Perturbed by Ca2+ Removal*  

PubMed Central

Ca2+ is an integral component of the Mn4O5Ca cluster of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II (PS II). Its removal leads to the loss of the water oxidizing functionality. The S2? state of the Ca2+-depleted cluster from spinach is examined by X- and Q-band EPR and 55Mn electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. Spectral simulations demonstrate that upon Ca2+ removal, its electronic structure remains essentially unaltered, i.e. that of a manganese tetramer. No redistribution of the manganese valence states and only minor perturbation of the exchange interactions between the manganese ions were found. Interestingly, the S2? state in spinach PS II is very similar to the native S2 state of Thermosynechococcus elongatus in terms of spin state energies and insensitivity to methanol addition. These results assign the Ca2+ a functional as opposed to a structural role in water splitting catalysis, such as (i) being essential for efficient proton-coupled electron transfer between YZ and the manganese cluster and/or (ii) providing an initial binding site for substrate water. Additionally, a novel 55Mn2+ signal, detected by Q-band pulse EPR and ENDOR, was observed in Ca2+-depleted PS II. Mn2+ titration, monitored by 55Mn ENDOR, revealed a specific Mn2+ binding site with a submicromolar KD. Ca2+ titration of Mn2+-loaded, Ca2+-depleted PS II demonstrated that the site is reversibly made accessible to Mn2+ by Ca2+ depletion and reconstitution. Mn2+ is proposed to bind at one of the extrinsic subunits. This process is possibly relevant for the formation of the Mn4O5Ca cluster during photoassembly and/or D1 repair.

Lohmiller, Thomas; Cox, Nicholas; Su, Ji-Hu; Messinger, Johannes; Lubitz, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

247

Biological decolorization of dye solution containing Malachite Green by microalgae Cosmarium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of Cosmarium species, belonging to green algae, was investigated as a viable biomaterial for biological treatment of triphenylmethane dye, Malachite Green (MG). The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of algal species in removing dye. The effects of operational parameters (temperature, pH, dye concentration and algal concentration) on decolorization were examined. Optimal initial pH was

N. Daneshvar; M. Ayazloo; A. R. Khataee; M. Pourhassan

2007-01-01

248

Uptake of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by biosorption onto granular kohlrabi peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low cost, locally available biomaterial was tested for its ability to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution. Granules prepared from kohlrabi peel had been utilized as a sorbent for uptake of three cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and acridine orange (AO). The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g., dye concentration, particle size, initial pH, contact

Renmin Gong; Xiaoping Zhang; Huijun Liu; Yingzhi Sun; Birong Liu

2007-01-01

249

Combined anaerobic–aerobic treatment of azo dyes—A short review of bioreactor studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most logical concept for the removal of azo dyes in biological wastewater treatment systems is based on anaerobic treatment, for the reductive cleavage of the dyes’ azo linkages, in combination with aerobic treatment, for the degradation of the products from azo dye cleavage, aromatic amines. Since the 1990s, several research papers have been published on combined, sequential or integrated,

Frank P. van der Zee; Santiago Villaverde

2005-01-01

250

Assessment on thermodynamics and kinetics parameters on reduction of methylene blue dye using flyash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flyash has been explored in the laboratory scale experiment as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. The influence of dye concentration, weight of adsorbent, stirring rates, influence of temperature, pH on adsorption capacity was studied in batch experimental method. From experimental results it was observed that almost 95–99% of dye colour could

Papita Saha; S. Datta

2009-01-01

251

Polishing of pretreated dye wastewater using novel sequencing batch reactors.  

PubMed

Novel, aerobic sequencing batch reactor technology was tested as a polishing step for anaerobically treated textile wastewater containing dye. Operation cycle times of 6, 8 and 12 hours were studied using discrete phase periods. The SBRs were able to further remove influent dye concentration of as little as 5 mg/L, and remove highly variable loadings of COD and SS to effluent levels of 100 and 20 mg/L respectively. PMID:18701793

Singh, K S; LeBlanc, M M; Bhattacharyya, D

2008-01-01

252

Menopause Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Complimentary Materials Media Award Recipients Media Policy NAMS Advertisements NAMS in the News Press Releases Press Room Assistance Society Overview FAQs: Menopause Basics Home > For Women > Expert Answers > FAQs: Menopause Basics Do you have ...

253

Application of Brazilian kaolinite clay as adsorbent to removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution: Kinetic and thermodynamic of cation-basic interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compound N1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface by heterogeneous route. The modified and natural kaolinite samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of 29Si and 13C. The well-defined peaks obtained in the 13C NMR spectrum in the 5.0-62.1 ppm region confirmed the attachment of organic functional groups as pendant chains bonded into the porous clay. The ability of these materials to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to a Sips equation at room temperature and pH 4.0. The kinetic parameters analyzed by the Lagergren and Elovich models gave a good fit for a pseudo-second order reaction with k2 values 16.0 and 25.1 mmol g-1 min-1 ranges for natural and modified kaolinite clays, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metal ion adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations.

Guerra, Denis L.; Leidens, Victor L.; Viana, Rúbia R.; Airoldi, Claudio

2010-05-01

254

Application of Brazilian kaolinite clay as adsorbent to removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution: Kinetic and thermodynamic of cation-basic interactions  

SciTech Connect

The compound N{sup 1}-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface by heterogeneous route. The modified and natural kaolinite samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C. The well-defined peaks obtained in the {sup 13}C NMR spectrum in the 5.0-62.1 ppm region confirmed the attachment of organic functional groups as pendant chains bonded into the porous clay. The ability of these materials to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to a Sips equation at room temperature and pH 4.0. The kinetic parameters analyzed by the Lagergren and Elovich models gave a good fit for a pseudo-second order reaction with k{sub 2} values 16.0 and 25.1 mmol g{sup -1} min{sup -1} ranges for natural and modified kaolinite clays, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metal ion adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. - Graphical abstract: This investigation reports the use of original and modified kaolinites as alternative absorbents. The compound N-[3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface by heterogeneous route.

Guerra, Denis L., E-mail: denis@cpd.ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, UFMT, Centro de Recursos Minerais, Cuiaba 78060 900, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Leidens, Victor L.; Viana, Rubia R. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, UFMT, Centro de Recursos Minerais, Cuiaba 78060 900, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio [Chemistry Institute, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-05-15

255

Body Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccine: How Many Doses? Connect With Us: Social Media Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth About Body Basics KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Body Basics > About Body Basics Print A A A Text Size Remember the biology class you had in high school? Well, even if you do, lots of new ...

256

A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing–thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10?5 mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia

2013-11-01

257

Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection. PMID:23500427

Prato-Garcia, Dorian; Cervantes, Francisco J; Buitrón, Germán

2013-02-20

258

Decolorization of textile indigo dye by ligninolytic fungi.  

PubMed

The indigo dye is extensively used by textile industries and is considered a recalcitrant substance, which causes environmental concern. Chemical products used on textile processing, which affect the environment through effluents, can be voluminous, colored and varied. Vat textile dyes, like indigo, are often used and dye mainly cellulosic fibers of cotton. Decolorization of this dye in liquid medium was tested with ligninolytic basidiomycete fungi from Brazil. Decolorization started in a few hours and after 4 days the removal of dye by Phellinus gilvus culture was in 100%, by Pleurotus sajor-caju 94%, by Pycnoporus sanguineus 91% and by Phanerochaete chrysosporium 75%. No color decrease was observed in a sterile control. Thin layer chromatography of fungi culture extracts revealed only one unknown metabolite of Rf=0.60, as a result of dye degradation. PMID:11500207

Balan, D S; Monteiro, R T

2001-08-23

259

Dye stabilization and enhanced photoelectrode wettability in water-based dye-sensitized solar cells through post-assembly atomic layer deposition of TiO2.  

PubMed

Detachment (desorption) of molecular dyes from photoelectrodes is one of the major limitations for the long-term operation of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here we demonstrate a method to greatly inhibit this loss by growing a transparent metal oxide (TiO2) on the dye-coated photoelectrode via atomic layer deposition (ALD). TiO2-enshrouded sensitizers largely resist detachment, even in pH 10.7 ethanol, a standard solution for intentional removal of molecular dyes from photoelectrodes. Additionally, the ALD post-treatment renders the otherwise hydrophobic dye-coated surface hydrophilic, thereby enhancing photoelectrode pore-filling with aqueous solution. PMID:23876134

Son, Ho-Jin; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Mondloch, Joseph E; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Kim, Dong Wook; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

2013-07-26

260

Adsorption of acid dyes in aqueous solutions by shells of bittim ( Pistacia khinjuk Stocks)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment options. The removal of acid red 183 (AR) and acid green 25 (AG) onto shells of bittim (Pistacia khinjuk Stocks) (BTS) from aqueous solutions was investigated using parameters such as contact time, pH, temperature, adsorbent doses, and initial dye concentration. Adsorption

Haluk Ayd?n; Gülay Baysal

2006-01-01

261

Dyes and biomimetic systems: detergency and food industry Colorantes y sistemas biomiméticos: detergencia e industria alimentaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are widely used as additives in the food industry. As some dyes may pose health risks when being in contact with food, their removal in industrial processes is an important issue. Since the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) covers a wide range of variety of task to remove oily materials, and it is often used in detergency processes, the

G. Astray; A. Cid; J. A. Manso; O. Moldes; J. Morales; J. Quintás

2011-01-01

262

Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye on Pure and Carbonized Water Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of process variables in batch adsorption has been used to assess the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using pure and carbonized biomasses of water hyacinth and water spinach. Dried leaves of the water weeds were carbonized at temperature up to 750°C. The optimum removal of dye was achieved at pH 10, 30°C, and 55 min

Timi Tarawou; Michael Horsfall Jr

2007-01-01

263

Dye adsorption behavior of Luffa cylindrica fibers.  

PubMed

Using natural Luffa cylindrica fibers as adsorbent removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions at different temperatures and dye concentrations was investigated in this study. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption were also investigated. The adsorption isotherms could be well defined with Langmuir model instead of Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters of methylene blue (MB) adsorption indicated that the adsorption is exothermic and spontaneous. The average MB adsorption capacity was found out as 49 mg/g and average BET surface area of fibers was calculated as 123 m(2)/g. PMID:17919814

Demir, H; Top, A; Balköse, D; Ulkü, S

2007-08-31

264

Basic flow structure in saccular aneurysms: A flow visualization study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Basic flow patterns were investigated in a set of glass aneurysm models by means of flow visualization methods. Dye injection and streaming double refraction were used to visualize flow. The circulation inside lateral aneurysms arising at a 90° angle from a straight parent conduit could not be visualized by the dye-injection technique but could be demonstrated by streaming double

Hans J. Steiger; Axel Poll; Dieter Liepsch; Hans-J. Reulen

1987-01-01

265

Reusable nanomaterial and plant biomass composites for the removal of Methylene Blue from water.  

PubMed

A novel composite has been prepared from nanomaterials and powdered orange peel. The composite is adhered to a plastic strip and may be employed for the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solutions, for example from dyehouse effluents. Using Methylene Blue (CI Basic Blue 9) as the reference dye, the characteristics of the adsorbent have been studied. The effect of pH, type of nanomaterial (e.g. carbon nanotubes, activated carbon nanotubes, or titanium dioxide nanoparticles), contact time, and reusability have each been investigated. The results show that the adsorption capacity of suspended orange peel powder, an orange peel strip, and an activated carbon nanotube/orange peel strip were 46%, 67% and 78%, respectively. The uptake of dye was greatly affected by the pH of the solution, maximum absorption being obtained at pH 10, and none at all at pH 2. The improved performance was probably the result of the increased area available for adsorption compared with orange peel powder alone. The system was found to be reusable for up to six cycles without appreciable loss of adsorption and desorption efficiency. The nanomaterial in the composite enhanced performance, not only by increasing adsorption efficiency but also by inhibiting biodegradation of the orange peel powder, thereby increasing the life of the strips. The system offers an economical, user-friendly, efficient and reusable adsorption treatment for the removal of dyes from wastewater. PMID:20586237

Jain, Nidhi; Basniwal, Rupesh Kumar; Suman; Srivastava, Ashwani Kumar; Jain, Vinod Kumar

2010-06-01

266

BASIC Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

Jennings, Carol Ann

267

Partially purified bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of textile and other industrially important dyes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic action of partially purified bitter gourd peroxidase for the degradation/decolorization of complex aromatic structures. Twenty-one dyes, with a wide spectrum of chemical groups, currently being used by the textile and other important industries have been selected for the study. Here, for the first time we have shown peroxidases from Momordica charantia (300 EU/gm of vegetable) to be highly effective in decolorizing industrially important dyes. Dye solutions, containing 50-200 mg dye/l, were used for the treatment with bitter gourd peroxidase (specific activity of 99.0 EU/mg protein). M. charantia peroxidases were able to decolorize most of the textile dyes by forming insoluble precipitate. When the textile dyes were treated with increasing concentration of enzyme, it was observed that greater fraction of the color was removed but four out of eight reactive dyes were recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase. Step-wise addition of enzyme to the decolorizing reaction mixture at the interval of 1h further enhanced the dye decolorization. The rate of decolorization was enhanced when the dyes were incubated with fixed quantity of enzyme for increasing times. Decolorization of non-textile dyes resulted in the degradation and removal of dyes from the solution without any precipitate formation. Decolorization rate was drastically increased when the textile and other industrially important non-textile dyes were treated with bitter gourd peroxidase in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Complex mixtures of dyes were prepared by taking three to four reactive textile and non-textile dyes in equal proportions. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with the enzyme in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Our data suggest that the peroxidase/mediator system is an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of effluents containing recalcitrant dyes from textile, dye manufacturing, dyeing and printing industries. PMID:16051087

Akhtar, Suhail; Ali Khan, Amjad; Husain, Qayyum

2005-02-25

268

Solar light induced degradation of reactive dye using photocatalysis.  

PubMed

Outdoors experiment with natural solar light instead of using artificial UV light was also conducted to investigate alternative energy source applicability on organics degradation. The results of this study were as follows. Degradation of the reactive dye, Red 120, with TiO2/solar light was enhanced by augmentation in TiO2 loading, and UV light intensity but was inhibited by increase in initial dye concentration. With both solar light illumination and TiO2 present, reactive dye was more effectively eliminated than with either solar light or TiO, alone. Photocatalytic removal efficiency of reactive dye increased with increasing TiO2 dosage. However, over 1.5 gL(-1) of TiO2 dosage, the efficiency reached a plateau. The degradation rate of reactive dye, Red 120, was strongly dependent on initial dye concentration, and all the experimental data were fit to the first-order rate equation. Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye increased linearly with increasing UV light intensity. It is found that the presence of thick clouds in the sky markedly increased the time required for degradation of reactive dye. On the basis of these experimental observations, the photo-oxidation degradation of reactive dye using TiO2 under solar light irradiation can be feasible application of the advanced oxidation process. PMID:15030149

Park, Jae-Hong; Cho, Il-Hyoung; Kim, Young-Gyu

2004-01-01

269

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near infrared laser action has been demonstrated for 9 Kodak organic dyes, using a linear flash lamp for excitation. The spectral region covered by these 9 dyes extends from 850 nm to at least 960 nm, with no tuning attempted so far. Output is in the kilo...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1972-01-01

270

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

271

Fluorescent Dyes for Luminescent Solar Concentrators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dyes were developed, for application in luminescent solar concentrators. Most suitable are perylen dyes and perylimid dyes, boron complexes of naphtholactam dyes and polycarbocyclic dyes. These compounds cover the whole color range from yellow to blue. In...

R. Iden G. Seybold A. Stange H. Eilingsfeld

1984-01-01

272

Fluoridation Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Fluoridation Basics On this Page Fluoridation Beginnings Benefits of ... surfaces and prevents cavities from continuing to form. Fluoridation Beginnings In the 1930s, dental scientists documented that ...

273

Photodegradation of methylene blue dye using bentonite as a catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involves removal of methylene blue (MB) dye using the photodegradation process. Raw and activated bentonite has been considered as a photo-catalyst. Generally, complete removal of MB by bentonite alone or UV-radiation alone could not be achieved, as demonstrated in this study. However, MB could be successfully decolorized and degraded when using the UV and bentonite combination. Use of

Fawzi Banat; Sameer Al-Asheh; Rwaida Zomaout; Belal Qtaishat; Taghreed Alateat; Salam Almayta

2009-01-01

274

Dispersion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Webcast, Dr. Timothy Spangler (Director of the COMET Program and a former air quality consultant) provides a brief overview of the basics of atmospheric dispersion and how dispersion is modeled, particularly for accidental releases of hazardous materials. The lecture is presented in six sections and covers the effects of stability, turbulence, plume rise, and wind. Basic dispersion models are discussed, along with a brief summary of models used in special situations and factors that complicate their use.

Spangler, Tim

2002-11-01

275

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

276

Dye system for dye laser applications  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dye of the DCM family, (2-methyl-6-(2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, P.R.

1991-05-21

277

Dye system for dye laser applications  

DOEpatents

A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

278

Molecular interaction of oxazine dyes in aqueous solution: Temperature dependent molecular disposition of the aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature dependent molecular interaction of oxazine dyes, viz., brilliant cresyl blue (C.I. Basic dye), cresyl violet (C.I. Basic violet 3) and nile blue (C.I. Basic blue 12) are studied in aqueous media within a concentration range of 5.0×10?6M to 8.0×10?4M by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The effect of temperature on the geometrical structure of the dimer in solution along with the

Amitabha Chakraborty; Ratan Adhikari; Swapan K. Saha

2011-01-01

279

Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach

1985-01-01

280

Decolourization of dye-containing solutions by electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the electrocoagulation of Drimarene Discharge X-3LG® (R12S) and Samaron Yellow 4® (D05H), the effects of sacrificial anodes, initial pH, rate of stirring and concentrations of dyes on the fraction of decolourization were tested. The experimental results revealed that the colour of dyes in the aqueous phase was effectively removed when iron and aluminium were used as sacrificial anodes and

J.-S. Do; M.-L. Chen

1994-01-01

281

Electrocoagulation of reactive textile dyes and textile wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-coagulation of a blue reactive dye (Drimarene K2LR CDG Blue) solution has been optimised by experimental design and surface response analysis in terms of colour removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease. The optimal conditions (pH, current density, reaction time) have then been applied to other reactive dyes solutions as well as synthetic and real textile wastewater samples. The biodegradability

A. Alinsafi; M. Khemis; M. N. Ponsa; J. P. Leclerc; A. Yaacoubi; A. Benhammou; A. Nejmeddine

2005-01-01

282

Photodegradation of an azo dye of the textile industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced oxidation treatment, UV\\/H2O2, was applied to an azo dye, Hispamin Black CA, widely used in the Peruvian textile industry. Rates of color removal and degradation of the dye have been evaluated. A strongly absorbing solution was completely decolorized after 35 min of treatment, and after 60 min an 82% reduction of the total organic carbon (TOC) was obtained.

Rosario López Cisneros; Abel Gutarra Espinoza; Marta I. Litter

2002-01-01

283

Accumulation of Methylene Blue Dye by Growing Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation bioaccumulation studies were performed for the removal of Methylene Blue dye from an aqueous solution using live Lemna minor. The effect of various parameters such as the biosorbent dosage (1–3 g), pH (3-8) and initial dye concentration (2–10 mg L) were studied. The maximum uptake capacity of the Methylene Blue using L. minor was observed as 10.93 mg g

R. M. Reema; P. Saravanan; M. Dharmendira Kumar; S. Renganathan

2011-01-01

284

Anodic oxidation of a direct dye in an electrochemical reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, anodic oxidation of C.I. direct blue 21 was carried out in an electrochemical reactor at a constant temperature of 20°C. The technique was found successful in removing the color of the dye from aqueous solutions containing 0.5 M sodium sulfate. Variables studied were: initial dye concentration, solution flow rate to the reactor, anode area, current density and

M. S. E. Abdo

1987-01-01

285

Decoloration of a Carpet Dye Effluent Using Trametes Versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a non-sterile, undiluted carpet dye effluent (containing two anthraquinone dyes) did not support growth of Trametes versicolor, the pre-grown fungus removed 95% of its color in shake-flasks after 10 h of incubation. After decoloration, the COD of the cell-free supernatant increased and the toxicity was unchanged as determined by the Microtox assay using Vibrio fischeri. Decoloration rates decreased when

Juliana A. Ramsay; Chris Goode

2004-01-01

286

DOS basics  

SciTech Connect

DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

O`Connor, P.

1994-09-01

287

Adsorption studies of cationic, anionic and azo-dyes via monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The present paper reports the applicability of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles as an adsorbent for the removal of three dyes viz. Acridine orange (cationic dye), Comassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (anionic dye) and Congo red (azo dye) from their aqueous solution. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via simple chemical precipitation method using CTAB, as surfactant. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties by using transmission electron microscopy X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements. The dye removal efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs have been determined by investigating several factors such as effect of pH, amount of adsorbent dose and effect of contact time on different dye concentrations. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms have also been studied to explain the interaction of dyes. The experimental data indicate that the adsorption rate follows pseudo- second-order kinetics for the removal of all the three dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles and the adsorbed dyes were desorbed. The identities of recovered nanoparticles as well as the three dyes have been found, as same and were reused. PMID:23858837

Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Saharan, Priya; Kumar, Arun; Mehta, S K; Mor, Suman; Umar, Ahmad

2013-05-01

288

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent.  

PubMed

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-07-25

289

Decolorization of Azo Dyes by Immobilized Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Decolorization has recently become an area of major scientific interest as indicated by the large quantity of related research\\u000a reports. During the past two decades, several color removal techniques have been reported, few of which have been accepted\\u000a by some industries. There is a need to find alternative technologies that are effective in decolorizing dyes from large volume\\u000a of effluents.

Mehmet Ali Mazmanci

290

Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

1981-01-01

291

Basic hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic hydrodynamic studies in turbomachinery and hydrodynamic drag reduction have been conducted. In the turbomachinery thrust area, the overall objective is to develop an improved understanding of the complex three-dimensional flows typical of incompressible rotor and stator flows; this effort has been primarily computational in nature. The second thrust area is axisymmetric turbulent flow drag reduction through microbubble injections. The

G. C. Lauchle

1991-01-01

292

Kinetics of UV, Fenton and Photo Fenton Processes for Decolorization of Various Red CL-5B Dye Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decolorization of Red CL-5B azo dye was studied using UV, Fenton and Photo Fenton processes. The effect of initial dye concentration, FeSO4 dose, pH and variation in UV time on decolorization was investigated. UV radiation was carried out with a 108 W low-pressure mercury lamp. Increase in the ferrous dose beyond the optimal dose resulted in significant decrease in color removal efficiency. The optimal doses were found to be 20, 30 and 50 mg L-1 for 100, 300 and 500 mg L-1 dye concentrations, respectively. The highest decolorization was observed at pH 2. However, in acidic range (2-6) removal efficiency for particular dye concentration was almost same at particular settling time. For photo Fenton process UV irradiation time was doubled as the dye concentration was increased to furnish more than 90% removal efficiency. Color removal curves obeyed first order kinetics irrespective of dye concentration.

Yasar, Abdullah; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Aamir Amanat Ali; Khan, Hajira; Khalid, Mehwish

293

Degradation of dyes from aqueous solution by Fenton processes: a review.  

PubMed

Several industries are using dyes as coloring agents. The effluents from these industries are increasingly becoming an environmental problem. The removal of dyes from aqueous solution has a great potential in the field of environmental engineering. This paper reviews the classification, characteristics, and problems of dyes in detail. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods used for dye removal are also analyzed. Among these methods, Fenton process-based advanced oxidation processes are an emerging prospect in the field of dye removal. Fenton processes have been classified and represented as "Fenton circle". This paper analyzes the recent studies on Fenton processes. The studies include analyzing different configurations of reactors used for dye removal, its efficiency, and the effects of various operating parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, H2O2 concentration, initial dye concentration, and temperature of Fenton processes. From the present study, it can be conclude that Fenton processes are very effective and environmentally friendly methods for dye removal. PMID:23338990

Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Gandhimathi, Rajan; Ramesh, Srikrishnaperumal Thanga

2013-01-22

294

Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

295

Antimicrobial effect of C.I. Basic Red 18:1 and C.I. Basic Yellow 51 on some pathogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of C.I. Basic Red 18:1 (D1) and C.I. Basic Yellow 51 (D2)\\u000a cationic dyes and dyed acrylic fabrics against the common pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. C.I. Basic Red 18:1 dye was most effective against the test bacteria E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa in

Mustafa Tutak; Fatih Gün

2011-01-01

296

Contour Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contour Basics is an exercise designed to introduce students to contour plots. The Contour Activity is a great on-line resource that starts slowly and increases in difficulty. It teaches students basic techniques for generating contours, introduces students to the subtleties of generating contour plots with sparse data, provides many opportunities for students to assess their own progress and understanding and has complete on-line drawing capabilities. The exercise is geared toward atmospheric and oceanic sciences but is beneficial for all geoscience students. In addition to the exercise, this site includes information on teaching materials, teaching notes and tips, assessment suggestions and additional references. This activity is part of the Starting Point Collection: http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/

Whittaker, Tom; Ackerman, Steve; Mackay, R. M.

2011-04-27

297

Basic Immunology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some individuals might blanch at the idea of a "basic" immunology overview, but Professor Vladimir V. Klimov provides just such a resource on this site. As the homepage notes, the site is designed to assist undergraduate students learning about the basics of immunology through essays, images, animations, quizzes, case histories, and external links. Visitors can begin by looking over the "Table of Contents" area, which includes seven complete chapters of information. These chapters include "The Immune Responses", "Effector Activity", and "Functional Organization of the Immune System". While some of the materials on the site require a paid subscription, there's enough free material here to get students on their way to learning more about this field of study.

Klimov, Vladimir V.

298

Relative performance of biofilm configuration over suspended growth operation on azo dye based wastewater treatment in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation.  

PubMed

Functional role of biofilm and suspended growth bioreactor configurations in response to the treatment of azo-dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) bearing wastewater was evaluated in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation at varying dye concentrations. The biofilm system depicted higher dye removal efficiency (93.14%) compared to suspended mode (84.29%) at 350mg dye/l operation. Both the reactor configurations did not show much process inhibition at higher dye loads studied. Azo reductase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities showed significant variation indicating the different metabolic capabilities of the native-microflora, stable proton shuttling between metabolic intermediates and differences in the delivery of reducing powers from the substrate metabolism towards dye removal. Voltammograms visualized marked variations in electron discharge properties with the function of reactor configuration, time intervals and dye load. Higher redox catalytic currents, lower Tafel slopes and polarization resistance showed good correlation with enzyme activities and dye removal. PMID:24012732

Venkata Mohan, S; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Naresh Kumar, A; Annie Modestra, J

2013-07-31

299

Kinetics of reactive azo-dye decolorization by Pseudomonas luteola in a biological activated carbon process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale biological activated carbon (BAC) process was conducted to treat a reactive azo-dye (reactive red 22) by Pseudomonas luteola and the kinetics of azo-dye decolorization was investigated. The BAC-reactor removed 89% of reactive red 22 while P. luteola biofilm and suspended P. luteola reached a maximum growth rate at a steady-state condition. The azo-dye effluent from BAC-reactor met a

Yen-Hui Lin; Jyh-Yih Leu

2008-01-01

300

Adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes on activated carbon from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium and kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon was utilized as adsorbent to remove anionic dye, Orange II (OII), and cationic dye, Methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions by adsorption. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of temperature (30–65°C), initial concentration of adsorbate (300–500mgL?1) and pH (3.0–9.0) on dyes adsorption. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The equilibrium experimental data were analyzed by

Araceli Rodríguez; Juan García; Gabriel Ovejero; María Mestanza

2009-01-01

301

Photooxidation: A Decolorization Procedure and a PreTreatment Step for Biodegradation of Reactive Azo Dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, by using a different variety of TiO2 catalyst, photocatalytic oxidation of reactive azo dye used in textile industry and an improvement in the biodegradability of the dye by photocatalytic oxidation are investigated. It was found that the addition of TiO2 in the photooxidation of dye increased color removal by 30.84 %, the addition of H2O2 in the

N. Genç; E. Can-Do?an

302

Biodegradation of Azo Dyes in Anaerobic–Aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Effluent discharge from textile and dyestuff industries to neighboring water bodies is currently causing significant health\\u000a concerns to environmental regulatory agencies due to the toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of the dyes and their\\u000a breakdown products. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to evaluate the removal of dyes during wastewater treatment\\u000a and in the natural environment. The most widely used dyes

Özer Çinar; Kevser Demiröz

303

Decolorization and decomposition of organic pollutants for reactive and disperse dyes using electron beam technology: Effect of the concentrations of pollutants and irradiation dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyeing wastewater was known to have strong color and refractory organic pollutants. In this study irradiation alone was used for dyes wastewater treatment. This paper studies the effect of the concentrations of pollutants to its removal at various dosages using electron beam technology. Irradiation was effective in removing the highly colored and refractory organic compounds. The color removal for initial

Teo-Ming Ting; Nur’aishikin Jamaludin

2008-01-01

304

Studies on the aggregation reactions and basic dye binding of tobacco mosaic virus. I. Variation of pH, particle asymmetry, acid and base titration results, irreversible binding of methylene blue, ultraviolet absorption, and extent of heat denaturation in tobacco mosaic virus solutions with time of standing.  

PubMed

1. Aqueous solutions of tobacco mosaic virus were found to undergo a number of spontaneous changes on standing in the cold. The results of pH measurements, acid and base titrations, intrinsic viscosity determinations, studies on the irreversible binding of methylene blue with the virus, ultraviolet absorption, and the extent of nucleic acid splitting by heat denaturation indicated the occurrence of two successive reactions, the first one causing the release of hydrogen ions and a greater lability of the nucleic acid, and the second one, which involved end-to-end dimerization and which took place after 8 days of standing, requiring hydrogen ions. 2. The first over-all reaction was found to be a mixture of various types of reversible disaggregation and aggregation reactions, the nature of which depended on the pretreatment, the TMV concentration, the time of standing, and the phosphate concentration. For longer times of standing at high protein concentration a sudden drop in ultraviolet absorption is noted after dilution; also the drops in viscosity and pH are largest with a steep rise following, indicating the greatest breakup of end-to-end aggregates with formation of the side-to-side type. For concentrated solutions of TMV in water which have not stood long no drop in ultraviolet absorption is noted on dilution; the decrease in the other quantities is less, indicating that only a less extensive breakdown of end-to-end aggregates occurs. Addition of phosphate to concentrated solutions of TMV causes formation of side-to-side aggregates which break up on dilution. 3. Using the results for the pH increase and the viscosity increase in a given time interval for a given TMV preparation and also the slope of the corresponding titration curve at the pH mean, a value for the number of hydrogen ions taken up per TMV monomer in the formation of the end-to-end dimer was finally calculated. The average result obtained for two preparations was 3300. 4. Methylene blue, in the polymeric form, was demonstrated to cause complete irreversible conversion of TMV monomers to end-to-end dimers. At dye concentrations above 10(-4)M, higher TMV polymers are formed, but these are broken down to dimers on removal of free dye by dialysis. The irreversible binding ratios were shown to be decreased in accordance with the extent of the end-to-end aggregation of the preparation at the time of the experiment, which is in agreement with the concept that the irreversibly bound dye polymers go into the junction formed between two interacting TMV monomers. On the basis that only the monomers initially present in solution can react, maximum binding ratios corresponding to complete conversion of monomers to dimers were calculated from the observed irreversible binding ratios and from the fraction of dimers initially present which was obtained from viscosity data. The average result for three preparations in different states of aggregation was calculated to be 6565 for tetrameric binding or 3230 for dimeric binding, which agrees closely with the result obtained for the uptake of hydrogen ions per TMV monomer in the spontaneous dimerization. PMID:13286459

WELSH, R S

1956-01-20

305

Elution of Labile Fluorescent Dye from Nanoparticles during Biological Use  

PubMed Central

Cells act as extremely efficient filters for elution of unbound fluorescent tags or impurities associated with nanoparticles, including those that cannot be removed by extensive cleaning. This has consequences for quantification of nanoparticle uptake and sub-cellular localization in vitro and in vivo as a result of the presence of significant amount of labile dye even following extensive cleaning by dialysis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) can be used to monitor the elution of unbound fluorescent probes from nanoparticles, either commercially available or synthesized in-house, and to ensure their complete purification for biological studies, including cellular uptake and sub-cellular localisation. Very different fluorescence distribution within cells is observed after short dialysis times versus following extensive dialysis against a solvent in which the free dye is more soluble, due to the contribution from free dye. In the absence of an understanding of the presence of residual free dye in (most) labeled nanoparticle solutions, the total fluorescence intensity in cells following exposure to nanoparticle solutions could be mis-ascribed to the presence of nanoparticles through the cell, rather than correctly assigned to either a combination of free-dye and nanoparticle-bound dye, or even entirely to free dye depending on the exposure conditions (i.e. aggregation of the particles etc). Where all of the dye is nanoparticle-bound, the particles are highly localized in sub-cellular organelles, likely lysosomes, whereas in a system containing significant amounts of free dye, the fluorescence is distributed through the cell due to the free diffusion of the molecule dye across all cellular barriers and into the cytoplasm.

Tenuta, Tiziana; Monopoli, Marco P.; Kim, JongAh; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Sandin, Peter; Lynch, Iseult

2011-01-01

306

Groundwater Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basic information and terms covered on this site are associated with groundwater, including aquifers (confined and unconfined), saturation zones, the water table, impermeable layers, the water cycle (hydrologic cycle), discharge, and recharge. There is a list of groundwater facts and diagrams of two types of aquifers along with a typical groundwater system. Information on contamination includes how groundwater is contaminated, what the effects are, how it can be prevented, and how it can be restored. There is also a list of things one can do about contamination.

307

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University Of Houston

308

GPS Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Aviation Administration maintains the graphically impressive Global Positioning System (GPS) Basics Web site. From the history of the global positioning system and how it works to governmental policy that controls its use, this site does a good job of explaining all facets of what GPS is about without being overly technical. Interested visitors can explore some of the other links that cover satellite navigation topics as well, such as GPS programs; a library of documents, fact sheets, press releases, and news; frequently asked questions; links; and more. Anyone interested in mapping, navigation, or similar subjects will enjoy exploring the interesting information provided on this well designed site.

309

Plasma surface functionalization and dyeing kinetics of Pan-Pmma copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber surface modification with air corona plasma has been studied through dyeing kinetics under isothermal conditions at 30 °C on an acrylic-fiber fabric with a cationic dye (CI Basic Blue 3) analyzing the absorption, desorption and fixing on the surface of molecules having defined cationic character.

Labay, C.; Canal, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Caballero, G.; Canal, J. M.

2013-10-01

310

Sorption characterization of a cationic dye retained by clays and perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of C.I. Basic Blue 41 onto raw perlite, expanded perlite, bentonite and montmorillonite was characterized. Sorption experiments demonstrated that the clays are more efficient adsorbents compared with the perlites but their dye retention is less increased with pH and temperature. Higher dye aggregates are formed in all aluminosilicates due to the existence of adsorption locations that promote the

Maria Roulia; Alexandros A. Vassiliadis

2008-01-01

311

Electrochemical degradation of the dye indigo carmine at boron-doped diamond anode for wastewaters remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we demonstrate that anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode can be applied to the remediation of wastewaters containing indigo carmine. This environmentally friendly method decontaminates completely acid and alkaline aqueous solutions of this dye. The degradation rate increases with increasing current and dye concentration. Indigo carmine is more rapidly removed in alkaline than in acid medium, but

Salah Ammar; Ridha Abdelhedi; Cristina Flox; Conchita Arias; Enric Brillas

2006-01-01

312

Distribution of dye into KDP crystals in a continuous MSMPR crystallizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colored potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals from a dye (sky blue) solution were produced in a mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. The crystal size distribution (CSD) of the KDP crystals was correlated by a size-dependent growth rate model. The growth rate increased with crystal size, but it decreased as the residence time increased. Two different concentrations of dye

Hideo Miki; Ryohei Fukunaga; Yusuke Asakuma; Kouji Maeda; Keisuke Fukui

2005-01-01

313

Kinetic characteristics of bacterial azo-dye decolorization by Pseudomonas luteola  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Pseudomonas luteola strain expressing azoreductase activity was utilized to remove the color of an azo dye (reactive red 22) from contaminated solutions. The effects of substrate concentrations, medium compositions, and operation parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, etc.) on decolorization of the azo dye by a P. luteola strain were systematically investigated to reveal the key factors that dominate

Jo-Shu Chang; Chien Chou; Yu-Chih Lin; Ping-Jei Lin; Jin-Yen Ho; Tai Lee Hu

2001-01-01

314

Adsorption of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Calcined Alunite and Granular Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyestuff production units and dyeing units have always had a pressing need for techniques that allow economical pretreatment for color in the effluent. The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters had made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment options. This paper deals with an investigation on alunite, existing wide reserves in Türkiye and in the world,

Mahmut Özacar; ?. Ayhan ?engil

2002-01-01

315

Laser dye technology  

SciTech Connect

The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

Hammond, P R

1999-09-01

316

Understanding the degradation of Congo red and bacterial diversity in an air-cathode microbial fuel cell being evaluated for simultaneous azo dye removal from wastewater and bioelectricity generation.  

PubMed

We investigated the mechanism of Congo red degradation and bacterial diversity in a single-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) incorporating a microfiltration membrane and air-cathode. The MFC was operated continuously for more than 4 months using a mixture of Congo red and glucose as fuel. We demonstrated that the Congo red azo bonds were reduced at the anode to form aromatic amines. This is consistent with the known mechanism of anaerobic biodegradation of azo dyes. The MFC developed a less dense biofilm at the anode in the presence of Congo red compared to its absence indicating that Congo red degradation negatively affected biofilm formation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and direct 16S ribosomal DNA gene nucleotide sequencing revealed that the microbial communities differed depending on whether Congo red was present in the MFC. Geobacter-like species known to generate electricity were detected in the presence or absence of Congo red. In contrast, Azospirillum, Methylobacterium, Rhodobacter, Desulfovibrio, Trichococcus, and Bacteroides species were only detected in its presence. These species were most likely responsible for degrading Congo red. PMID:22678023

Sun, Jian; Li, Youming; Hu, Yongyou; Hou, Bin; Zhang, Yaping; Li, Sizhe

2012-06-08

317

A facile one-pot hydrothermal method to produce SnS2/reduced graphene oxide with flake-on-sheet structures and their application in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this article, we report a novel one-pot synthesis of SnS2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) flake-on-sheet nanocomposites via in situ reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by Sn(2+) under hydrothermal conditions. The morphology and structure of the obtained product were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction instrument (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption characteristics of the SnS2/rGO nanocomposites were examined using an organic dye Rhodamine B (RhB) as adsorbate. SnS2/rGO exhibited superior adsorption behavior for RhB. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm were investigated. The adsorption of RhB by SnS2/rGO was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the resultant kinetic data were well described by pseudo-second-order model. PMID:23810543

Bian, Xiujie; Lu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yanpeng; Zhang, Chengcheng; Kong, Lirong; Wang, Ce

2013-06-10

318

Sediment Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When properly conducted, sediment removal is an effective lake management technique. This chapter describes: (1) purposes of sediment removal, (2) environmental concerns, (3) appropriate depth of sediment removal, (4) sediment removal techniques, (5) suit...

S. A. Peterson

1984-01-01

319

Contact dermatitis from textile dyes.  

PubMed

6 female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are described. Lesions were confined to areas in direct contact with the offending garment, mainly where friction and/or pressure occurred. Patch tests were positive to 2 or more disperse dyes. Thin-layer chromatography was carried out on the dyes extracted from fabrics of 3 patients, for the identification of textile dyes. PMID:7924308

Lisboa, C; Barros, M A; Azenha, A

1994-07-01

320

Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

2012-03-01

321

Tye Dye Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, make a colorful "tye dye" animal like a butterfly using markers, water, and a coffee filter. Use this activity to explore how liquids behave and how molecules in the marker ink spread when covered with water. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-02-25

322

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a flash lamp pumped, near infrared dye laser operating at a moderate repetition rate was shown. The laser produced output pulses of 17 kw peak power at a rate of 4 pulses per minute. The flow system that is essential for multiflash oper...

1973-01-01

323

Improved Lasing Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a dye comprising a 7-amino coumarin compound having a trifluoromethyl group in the 4-position which is dissolved in a liquid solvent for use as a lasing material. The compound may take the form of 7-diethylamino-4-trifluoro...

E. J. Schimitschek

1974-01-01

324

Cardiac Dye Injector Synchronizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radiographic diagnosis of heart disease, it is necessary to synchronize accurately the injection of radio-opaque dye into the circulation with the diastolic portion of the cardiac cycle. Because of the high-energy electrostatic and electromagnetic fields associated with radiographic apparatus, it was decided to make a photosensitive transducer to be clamped on the ear lobe to give an electric signal

L. David Pengelly

1961-01-01

325

Alzheimer's Dye Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

326

Quaternized wood as sorbent for reactive dyes.  

PubMed

Various species of local wood modified with N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride showed sorption enhancement for hydrolyzed Reactive Blue 2 (HRB) compared to the untreated samples. The enthalpy of sorption of HRB on Simpoh (Dillenia suffruticosa) was found to be endothermic. Maximum sorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 250.0 mg/g. Under continuous flow conditions HRB could be successfully removed. Dye removal was a function of bed depth and flow rate. However, the bed depth service time model of Bohart and Adams was not applicable in the HRB-quaternized wood system. The modified wood was applied to a sample of industrial textile effluent, and it was found to be able to remove the color successfully under batch conditions. PMID:10982232

Low, K S; Lee, C K; Tan, B F

2000-06-01

327

Dye for dye-sensitized solar cell and dye-sensitized solar cell including the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell according to embodiments of the present invention includes a compound having a silane group. The dye according to embodiments of the present invention may be used in a light absorption layer to improve photovoltaic efficiency and increase open-circuit voltage.

2011-08-02

328

Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes  

SciTech Connect

Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

von Trebra, R.J.

1984-01-01

329

Decoloration and degradation of Reactive Red-120 dye by electron beam irradiation in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The decoloration and degradation of aqueous solution of the reactive azo dye viz. Reactive Red-120 (RR-120) was carried out by electron beam irradiation. The change in decoloration percentage, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), solution pH and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) were investigated with respect to the applied dose. However, the concentration of the dye in the solution showed a great influence on all these observables. During the radiolysis process, it was found that the decoloration of dye was caused by the destruction of the chromophore group of the dye molecule, whereas COD and TOC removal were depended on the extent of mineralization of the dye. The decrease in pH during the radiolysis process indicated the fragmentation of the large dye molecule into smaller organic components mostly like smaller organic acids. The BOD(5)/COD ratio of the unirradiated dye solution was in the range of 0.1-0.2, which could be classified as non-biodegradable wastewater. However, the BOD(5)/COD ratio increased upon irradiation and it indicated the transformation of non-biodegradable dye solution into biodegradable solution. This study showed that electron beam irradiation could be a promising method for treatment of textile wastewater containing RR-120 dye. PMID:21463947

Paul, Jhimli; Rawat, K P; Sarma, K S S; Sabharwal, S

2011-03-17

330

Role of brown-rot fungi in the bioremoval of azo dyes under different conditions  

PubMed Central

The present study is vital to the understanding of bioremediation of structurally different azo dyes by some unusual Brown-rot fungi. Bioremoval of each dye (20 mg l-1) was tested in two different culture media under static and shaking conditions by taking inocula from different fungi. Fungal strains showed varying dyes removal abilities, though considerable high in case of Acid Red (AR) 151(di-azo) as compared to Orange (Or) II (mono-azo). With an exception of Aspergillus tereus SA3, all the fungal isolates showed higher removal of dyes in SDB. Under static condition, the maximum decolorizing fungal strains were; Aspergillus flavus SA2 (67%) and Alternaria spp. SA4 (57%) in AR 151, while Penicillium spp. (34 and 33 %) in Orange II, in SDB and STE, respectively. Bioremoval of dyes was considerably increased when experiments were shifted from static to shaking mode. It was specifically increased (%) in; AR 151 (255) with Penicillium spp., Or II with A. flavus SA2 (112) and Alternaria spp. (111). The primary mechanism of dyes removal proved to be fungal biosorption. However, reduction of dyes (onto fungal) with formation of their products (?. naphthol, sulphalinic acid and aniline) furthermore revealed that dyes (specifically azo) were actually biodegraded.

Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

2010-01-01

331

Adsorption of dyes onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment.  

PubMed

Organic wastes have been burned for reclamation. However, they have to be recycled and reused for industrial sustainable development. Carbonaceous materials were produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment. There are many phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of carbonaceous materials. The base consumption of the carbonaceous materials was larger than that of the commercially activated carbon. The carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were applied to the adsorbates for the removal of basic dyes (methylene blue and gentian violet) in wastewater. This result indicated that the adsorption of dyes depended upon the surface polar groups on the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the Freundlich constants of isotherms for the adsorption of methylene blue and gentian violet onto the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were greater than those for adsorption onto activated carbon or ceramic activated carbon. The interaction was greatest between the surface or porosity of the carbonaceous materials and methylene blue and gentian violet. The microwave treatment would be useful for the carbonization of organic wastes to save energy. PMID:12702420

Hirata, Mizuho; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Kazuoki; Kabayama, Mineaki; Tamura, Takamichi; Tanada, Seiki

2002-10-01

332

Oxidation of Levafix CA reactive azo-dyes in industrial wastewater of textile dyeing by electro-generated Fenton's reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect electrochemical removal of pollutants from effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. Removal (decolorization and mineralization) of Levafix Blue CA and Levafix Red CA reactive azo-dyes from aqueous media by electro-generated Fenton's reagent (Fe2+\\/H2O2) using a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and a platinum gauze anode was optimized. Progress of oxidation (decolorization and mineralization) of the investigated

Hanaa S. El-Desoky; Mohamed M. Ghoneim; Ragaa El-Sheikh; Naglaa M. Zidan

2010-01-01

333

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

334

Microwave assisted dyeing of polyester fabrics with disperse dyes.  

PubMed

Dyeing of polyester fabrics with thienobenzochromene disperse dyes under conventional and microwave heating conditions was studied in order to determine whether microwave heating could be used to enhance the dyeability of polyester fabrics. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. All samples dyed with or without microwave heating displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness. The biological activities of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungus were also evaluated. PMID:24022764

Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed Hilmy

2013-09-09

335

Decolorization of Basic Red 46 and Methylene Blue by anaerobic sludge: Biotic and abiotic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decolorization of Basic Red 46 (Maxilon Red GRL) (BR46; azo dye) and Methylene Blue (MB.; cationic dye) was studied by using anaerobic sludge taken from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bed (UASB) reactor treating wastewaters of Pakmaya Yeast Factory in Izmit, Turkey. Experiments were carried out under abiotic and biotic conditions. Abiotic tests were carried out without living biomass in order

Meltem Sarioglu; Turgay Bisgin

2010-01-01

336

Percutaneous penetration/dermal absorption of hair dyes in vitro.  

PubMed

This paper presents an in vitro technique to analyse percutaneous penetration and dermal absorption of hair dyes, topically applied to excised pig skin. Representative examples are given by the radio-labelled hair dyes p-phenylenediamine and bis-(5-amino-1-hydroxyphenyl)-methane. Both compounds were assessed under simulated use conditions and were analysed in representative formulations including the specific conditions for oxidation hair dyes. To be able to differentiate between topically adsorbed and systemically available amounts, the bioavailability of the hair dyes is defined as the amount penetrated and/or remaining in the exposed skin after removing the stratum corneum. Less than 1% of the assessed topically applied dyes was found to be bioavailable in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, typically added to oxidation hair dyes prior to applications. Compared with published results and unpublished in-house in vivo data, the level of confidence was high. Owing to in-house experience over about 5 years in using excised pig skin for measurements of percutaneous penetration and dermal absorption of hair dyes, the technique was found to be successful and appropriate to reduce the number of test animals normally used for toxicological assessments. The essentials of this technique are actually recommended by the SCCNFP (The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non Food Products intended for Consumers) for the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients, particularly for hair dyes. The corresponding OECD guideline as well as the guidance document has been drafted and is currently in discussion on the level of the national coordinators. PMID:11566592

Steiling, W; Kreutz, J; Hofer, H

337

Ozonation of textile effluents and dye solutions under continuous operation: Influence of operating parameters.  

PubMed

Ozonation experiments were carried out under continuous operation in a bubble column. The effect of several parameters (inlet dye concentration, applied ozone dose, pH and conductivity) in colour and TOC removal of an acid dye solution was investigated with the aim to optimize the operation conditions. The ozone consumption was measured in each experiment. Ozonation was found to be effective for decolourisation of an acid dye; however, it only has a slight effect on TOC removal. Increasing the inlet dye concentration leads to a decrease in the decolourisation efficiency and an increase in the ozone consumption. The decolourisation increases with the applied ozone dose. Colour removal efficiencies for different ozone doses were between 76 and 100%. In the pH range 5-9, the decolourisation efficiency decreases with pH only when buffered solutions were used. The presence of salt decreases the decolourisation efficiency. Several dyes of different classes were also studied and ozonation was found to be effective for decolourisation but considerably less efficient for TOC removal. Under the conditions tested, only the disperse and sulphur dyes presented a colour removal lower than 86%. Practical application of this process was validated by treating two industrial textile effluents collected after two different biological treatments. PMID:16766123

Soares, Olívia Salomé G P; Orfão, José J M; Portela, Dionísia; Vieira, António; Pereira, Manule Fernando R

2006-10-11

338

Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ?E (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

2011-04-12

339

Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of methylene blue and of indigo carmine was spontaneous and exothermic occurring with entropy decrease. H(0) values confirmed the physical nature of the adsorption processes. The adsorption followed the Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetics over the entire range of tested concentrations but the process was controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The maximal uptakes were 7.81 mg g(-1), for methylene blue, and 1.09 mg g(-1) for indigo carmine, at room temperature. These results indicate that Brazil nut shells may be useful as adsorbent either for basic or acid dyes. PMID:19781853

de Oliveira Brito, Suzana Modesto; Andrade, Heloysa Martins Carvalho; Soares, Luciana Frota; de Azevedo, Rafael Pires

2009-09-11

340

Extraction of Henna Leaf Dye and its Dyeing Effects on Textile Fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henna plant leaves (Lawsonia inermis) contains dye along with other ingredients. The dye component was extracted and applied on silk fibre in order to investigate the dyeing characteristics, e.g. dyeability, fastness etc. It is found that the dye up take by silk fibre was decreased with the increase of dye concentration. Similarly the absorp- tion of dye was increased with

M. M Alam; M. L. Rahman; M. Z. Haque

2007-01-01

341

Prospects for Organic Dye Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  A review of organic nanoparticles consisting of small functional dye molecules is presented in this chapter. The study of\\u000a organic dye nanoparticles does not have a lengthy history, but there is growing scientific and technological interest owing\\u000a to their special characteristics: physicochemical properties of organic dye nanoparticles considerably differ not only from\\u000a those of individual molecules due to the presence

Hiroshi Yao

342

Photodegradation of an azo dye of the textile industry.  

PubMed

An advanced oxidation treatment, UV/H2O2, was applied to an azo dye, Hispamin Black CA, widely used in the Peruvian textile industry. Rates of color removal and degradation of the dye have been evaluated. A strongly absorbing solution was completely decolorized after 35 min of treatment, and after 60 min an 82% reduction of the total organic carbon (TOC) was obtained. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum value, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. The degradation rate was also function of pH. PMID:12152740

Cisneros, Rosario López; Espinoza, Abel Gutarra; Litter, Marta I

2002-07-01

343

Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes and simulated dyebath wastewater.  

PubMed

The study related to photocatalytic degradation of three reactive dyes, namely, Reactive Red 141 (RR141), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive Violet 13 (RV13) was carried out. Further, two simulated textile dyebath wastewaters were prepared and examined for photocatalytic degradation. Three dyes were subjected to photodegradation in a batch annular immersion well photoreactor equipped with a 400W Medium Pressure Mercury Lamp (MPML). The UV illuminated TiO2 containing aqueous suspensions found to remove colour as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD). The photocatalytic activity was monitored by measuring the rates of decolorization and COD removal as a function of concentration of the dye and treatment time. The photodegradation efficiency of these three reactive dyes was found in the order of RR141 > RO16 > RV13. The first order rate constant (k(app)) for decolorization was 3-9 times higher than the k(app) for COD removal. The rate constants for degradation of simulated wastewater were also of the similar order of magnitude. These results suggest that TiO2/UV photocatalysis may be envisaged as a method for treatment of diluted coloured wastewaters not only for decolourization, but also for polishing of the COD parameter. PMID:18179125

Joshi, Priyanka; Purohit, Jaishree; Neti, Nageswara Rao

2006-10-01

344

Decolorization of azo dye Orange II by ferrate(VI)–hypochlorite liquid mixture, potassium ferrate(VI) and potassium permanganate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferrate(VI)–hypochlorite liquid mixture was prepared using hypochlorite, an industrial by-product, via wet oxidation method. Its oxidizing ability was investigated by decolorizing azo dye Orange II in batch experiments, and compared with potassium ferrate(VI) and potassium permanganate. Effects of the oxidant concentration, dye concentration, initial pH of dye solutions and UV 254nm irradiation were examined. The color removal by potassium permanganate,

Guoting Li; Ninggai Wang; Bingtao Liu; Xiwang Zhang

2009-01-01

345

Preparation of calcium oxalate—bromopyrogallol red inclusion sorbent and application to treatment of cationic dye and heavy metal wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Dye pollutants are a major class of environmental contaminants. Over 100,000 dyes have been synthesized worldwide and more\\u000a than 700,000 tons are produced annually and over 5% are discharged into aquatic environments. The adsorption or sorption is\\u000a one of the most efficient methods to remove dye and heavy metal pollutants from wastewater. However, most of the present

Hong-Yan Wang; Hong-Wen Gao

2009-01-01

346

Laser dye toxicity, hazards and recommended controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated were categorized according to their central chemical structures. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10(+2) to 10(+5) molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

Mosovsky, J. A.

347

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)|

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

348

Solid state dye laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer filled porous glass impregnates with dye molecules is used as an active medium. The most important feature of this medium is that its thermo-optical and mechanical parameters are determined by a matrix of silica which thermo-optical constants are better by two orders of magnitude then those of polymers. The investigation of generation characteristics of solid state dye laser on basis of Rhodamine 6G has shown the feasibility of its application in pulse coherent pumping laser systems. The generation thresholds are practically the same for solid state and ethanol solution. The yield of conversion of pumping energy into generation energy for solid state active element is up to 50%. The advantages of solid state active element based on polymer filled porous glass matrix realize at high temperature operation mode, for instance at frequency mode. The step refraction index temperature dependence for polymers results in increase of optical with increase of pumping energy. In the reported medium this effect does not occur nonuniformity up to pumping energy values exceeding the generation threshold by 40-50 times. Polymer based active media are destructed at the exposition of 50 ns pulses with energy of 1 J/cm2 while porous glass + polymer + Rhodamine 6G composition is not destructed at the exposition of energy up to 7-10 J/cm2. The introduced solid state dye laser is intended to be used in on-board systems, including vacuum under low temperature, where the application of flow systems operation is problematic. It should be emphasized, that using the synthesized compositions, the generation mode with microsecond pulse pumping becomes available. It opens the possibility for application of flashlamp for pumping.

Meshkovskii, Igor K.; Zemskii, Vladimir I.; Kolesnikov, Yuri L.

1995-04-01

349

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

Wei, Di

2010-01-01

350

Treatment of textile dyeing wastewater using two-phase pilot plant UASB reactor with sago wastewater as co-substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing industry is considered as one of the largest generators of toxic chemical wastewater in India. Wastewaters from textile dyeing industries were studied for the decolourization and removal of degradable organics with tapioca sago wastewater as a co-substrate in a pilot scale two-phase Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was inoculated with seed sludge from the

M. Senthilkumar; G. Gnanapragasam; V. Arutchelvan; S. Nagarajan

2011-01-01

351

Chromatography of proteins on columns of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone using adsorbed textile dyes as affinity ligands.  

PubMed

A simple and inexpensive chromatography system for proteins is introduced. When the amino derivatives of chlorotriazine dyes or other azo dyes were added to an aqueous slurry of the crosslinked polymer polyvinylpolypyrrolidone they were adsorbed, thus forming an immobilized dye chromatographic matrix. The association of the textile dyes with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone did not prevent them from acting as affinity ligands for proteins. Parameters such as ionic strength, dye concentration, and column size modulated the affinity effect exerted by the immobilized dyes. Lysozyme present in an egg white protein mixture bound to a column onto which the amino derivative of Procion Brown H-A was adsorbed and was eluted with a linear gradient of KCl. The resulting purification of the enzyme was 37-fold with 80% of the original activity being recovered. Free dye eluting with the lysozyme was removed on a column of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone equilibrated with 0.5 M KCl. After chromatography, the dye column was regenerated with 0.5 M NaOH and recharged with dye. The system presented here allows one to initially screen large numbers of potentially useful protein ligands to optimize a protein separation, followed by scaleup to a system size determined by the user. PMID:1632502

Giuliano, K A

1992-02-01

352

Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry, which damages the mechanical properties of the fibers. PMID:22055328

Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2011-10-20

353

Effect of some operational parameters on textile dye biodegradation in a sequential batch reactor.  

PubMed

The combination of anaerobic and aerobic periods in the operation cycle of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was chosen to study biological color removal from simulated textile effluents containing reactive, sulfonated, monoazo and diazo dyes, respectively, Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R and Remazol Black B. 90% color removal was obtained for the violet dye in a 24-h cycle with a Sludge Retention Time (SRT) of 15 days and an aerated reaction phase of 10 h. For the black dye only 75% color removal was achieved with the same operational conditions and no improvement was observed with the increase of the SRT to 20 days. For the violet dye a reduction of the color removal values from 90 to 75% was observed with the increase of the aerated reaction phase from 10 to 12 h. However, this increase did not promote the aerobic biodegradation of the produced aromatic amines. Abiotic tests were performed with sterilized SBR samples and no color removal was observed in cell-free supernatants. However color removal values of 30 and 12% were observed in the presence of sterilized cells and supernatants with violet and black dye, respectively and could be attributed to the presence of active reducing principles in the sterilized samples. PMID:11500210

Lourenço, N D; Novais, J M; Pinheiro, H M

2001-08-23

354

Organization of butadienyl dyes containing benzodithiacrown-ether or dimethoxybenzene in monolayers at the air/aqueous salt solution interface.  

PubMed

Two amphiphilic butadienyl dyes 1 and 2 form stable monolayers at the air/water interface in the presence of various salts. Dye 1 consists of the basic amphiphilic butadienyl chromophore. In dye 2, the dimethoxybenzene part of dye 1 is substituted by benzodithia-15-crown-5. The monolayers have been characterized by surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as well as Brewster angle microscopy and reflection spectroscopy. In contrast to dye 1, dye 2 interacts specifically with Hg(2+) and Ag(+) cations forming complexes. No complex formation was observed with alkali and earth alkali metal ions. The nature of the anion (Cl(-) or ClO(4)(-)) influences the monolayer behaviour of both dyes. At the air/water interface, besides monomers of the dyes, two types of associates are coexisting in the pure dye monolayers on aqueous salt solutions, attributed to dimers and aggregates, respectively. Their equilibria depend on the nature of both cations and anions in the subphase, as in the case of dye 2, or only anions, as in the case of dye 1. The dimers may be organized as head-to-tail dimers with the intermolecular distances 0.38 and 0.45nm for dye 1 and dye 2, respectively. According to the extended dipole model, we propose formation of aggregates in which the chromophores are parallel to each other with the same intermolecular distances as in the dimers, and the centers of their transition moments shifted by 0.95nm (dye 1) and 1.2nm (dye 2). PMID:19720508

Sergeeva, T I; Gromov, S P; Zaitsev, S Yu; Möbius, D

2009-08-08

355

Powder Dyeing Method for Cosmetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A powder dyeing method for cosmetics is described that is characterized in that dyes or pigments are dispersed in water or alcohol, the solution or dispersion is mixed with porous adsorbant such as silicon dioxide or alumina powder and dried, and the drie...

S. Iwao

1974-01-01

356

Dye-coated europium monosulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye.

Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

2011-05-01

357

Reactive dye bioaccumulation by fungus Aspergillus niger isolated from the effluent of sugar fabric-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The present study dealt with the decolorization of textile dye Reactive Black-5 by actively growing mycelium of Aspergillus niger MT-1 in molasses medium. It was found that the fungus, which was isolated from the effluent of sugar fabric-contaminated soil, was capable of decolorizing the Reactive Black-5 dye in a wide range of temperature, shaking speed and pH values. The experiments also revealed that highest dye decolorization efficiency was achieved with cheap carbon (molasses sucrose) and nitrogen (ammonium chloride) sources. Under the optimized culture conditions, the complete decolorization (100%) of 0.1 g/L dye was achieved in 60 hours. The dominant mechanism of dye removal by the fungus was found to be probably bioaccumulation. Fungal growth in small uniform pellet form was found to be better for dye bioacumulation. Molass as carbon source increased dye bioaccumulation by stimulating the mycelial growth in small uniform pellet form. The maximum bioaccumulation efficiency of fungus for dye was 91% (0.273 g bioaccumulated dye) at an initial dye concentration of 0.3 g/L in 100 hours. It was shown for the first time in the present study that the effluent of sugar fabric-contaminated soil was a good source of microorganisms, being capable of decolorizing snythetic textile dyes. PMID:20237194

Taskin, Mesut; Erdal, Serkan

2010-03-17

358

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E. D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.

1984-01-01

359

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.

1986-01-01

360

Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of cationic methyl violet and methylene blue dyes onto sepiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents was investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Sepiolite was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet (MV) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, ionic strength,

Mehmet Do?an; Yasemin Özdemir; Mahir Alkan

2007-01-01

361

Enhancement of acidic dye biosorption capacity on poly(ethylenimine) grafted anaerobic granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a novel biosorbent with high capacity is crucial to remove dyes from waters in an efficient way. This study demonstrated that porous anaerobic granular sludge could be grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI), which definitely improved the sorption capacity towards Acid Red 18 (AR18) removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed that the PEI modification introduced

Xue-Fei Sun; Shu-Guang Wang; Wen Cheng; Maohong Fan; Bing-Hui Tian; Bao-Yu Gao; Xiao-Ming Li

2011-01-01

362

Comparison of photocatalytic degradation of dyes in relation to their structure.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic degradation of a series of six acid dyes (Direct Red 80, Direct Red 81, Direct Red 23, Direct Violet 51, Direct Yellow 27, and Direct Yellow 50) has been tested compared in terms of color removal, mineralization, and toxicity (Lactuca sativa L. test) after photocatalysis on immobilized titanium dioxide. The dyes were examined at their natural pH and after hydrolysis at pH 12. Results show that hydrolysis decreases strongly the efficiency of color removal, that full mineralization takes much longer reaction time than color removal, and that toxicity is only very partially reduced. Some structural parameters, related to the structure and the topology of the dye molecules, could be correlated with the apparent color removal rates at natural pH. PMID:23423868

Byberg, R; Cobb, J; Martin, L Diez; Thompson, R W; Camesano, T A; Zahraa, O; Pons, M N

2013-02-20

363

Electrochemical Oxidation of Synthetic Dyes in Simulated Wastewaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrochemical oxidation method for the degradation of synthetic reactive azodyes found in textile wastewaters is discussed. Four commercial synthetic dyes (black, blue, red and yellow) commonly used in dying operations were studied in single, binary and ternary mixtures. Low (100 mg/L) and high (500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L) initial dye concentrations were studied. The effect of various sodium chloride concentrations (as supporting electrolyte) on the effectiveness of electrochemical oxidation was examined. The effect of current intensity (1.5, 2.5 and 3.0 A) and pH (vales 3, 5, 7 and 10) was studied as well. The kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation for each dye were studied and compared. The conditions for effective dye degradation even from 2,000 mg/L initial concentration were established. The method was proved very effective even with binary and ternary mixtures of basic synthetic dyes. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) were reduced by 60% and 25% respectively, meaning that the treated solutions were friendlier to the environment.

Gallios, G.; Violintzis, X.; Voinovskii, I.; Voulgaropoulos, A.

364

Dyes for caries detection influence sound dentin bond strength.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of caries-detection dyes on the in vitro tensile bond strength of adhesive materials to sound dentin. Caries-free human molars were ground to expose superficial dentin. Two dyes (a commercial 0.5% basic fuchsin in propylene glycol and Cari-D-Tect) were applied to sound dentin and rinsed. Subsequently, the dentin was etched with phosphoric acid (35%) and rinsed, leaving a moist dentin surface. The adhesive (Prime & Bond 2.0) was applied in two layers and light cured. A composite (TPH Spectrum), a compomer (Dyract), and a hybrid ionomer (Advance) were used to prepare the bond-strength specimens with a 3-mm-in-diameter bonding area. Control groups were made without use of dyes. Six specimens were prepared for each group. After 24 hours in distilled water, tensile bond strength (MPa) was measured using a testing machine. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. Without dyes, bond strengths of TPH Spectrum and Dyract with Prime and Bond 2.0 were similar and both values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of Advance with Prime & Bond 2.0. Dyes for caries detection reduced the bond strength of TPH Spectrum and Dyract but not Advance when used with Prime and Bond 2.0. PMID:9855851

Demarco, F F; Matos, A B; Matson, E; Powers, J M

365

Comprehensive review and compilation of treatment for azo dyes using microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent an emerging technology that focuses on power generation and effluent treatment. This review compiles articles related to MFCs using azo dye as the substrate. The significance of the general components in MFCs and systems of MFCs treating azo dye is depicted in this review. In addition, degradation of azo dyes such as Congo red, methyl orange, active brilliant red X-3B, amaranth, reactive blue 221, and acid orange 7 in MFCs are summarized. Further exploration and operational modification are suggested to address the challenges of complete removal of azo dye with maximum power generation in an MFC. In addition, a sequential treatment system with MFCs is suggested for complete mineralization of azo dye. PMID:23581242

Murali, V; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Hamidin, Nasrul

2013-03-01

366

Equilibrium uptake, sorption dynamics, process optimization, and column operations for the removal and recovery of malachite green from wastewater using activated carbon and activated slag  

SciTech Connect

The waste slurry generated in fertilizer plants and slag (blast furnace waste) have been converted into low-cost adsorbents, activated carbon and activated slag, respectively, and these are utilized for the removal of malachite green (a basic dye) from wastewater. In the batch experiments, parameters studied include the effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentration, temperature, and contact time. Kinetic studies have been performed to have an idea of the mechanistic aspects and to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of the process. The uptake of the dye is greater on carbonaceous material than on activated slag. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The presence of anionic surfactants does not affect the uptake of dye significantly. The mass transfer kinetic approach has been applied for the determination of various parameters necessary for the designing of fixed-bed contactors. Chemical regeneration has been achieved with acetone in order to recover the loaded dye and restore the column to its original capacity without dismantling the same.

Gupta, V.K.; Srivastava, S.K.; Mohan, D. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Chemistry Dept.

1997-06-01

367

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe.

2012-01-01

368

Electroadsorption of acilan blau dye from textile effluents by using activated carbon-perlite mixtures.  

PubMed

The feasibility of the removal of dye stuffs from textile effluents by electroadsorption has been investigated. An activated carbon-perlite mixture with a ratio of 8:1 for bipolarity has been used as the adsorbent. Conventional adsorption experiments have also been conducted for comparison. A bipolar trickle reactor has been used in the electroadsorption experiments. The model wastewater has been prepared by using acilan blau dye. Initial dye concentration, bed height between the electrodes, applied potential, flowrate, and the supporting electrolyte concentration have been examined as the parameters affecting the removal efficiency. A local textile plant effluent has been treated in the optimum values of these parameters obtained from the experimental studies. Adsorption kinetics and the amount of adsorbent required to reach the maximum removal efficiency have also been investigated and mass-transfer coefficients have been calculated for adsorption and electroadsorption. The results showed that a removal efficiency of up to 100% can be achieved with energy consumption values of 1.58 kWh/m3 of wastewater treated. However, energy consumption decreases to 0.09 kWh/m3 if an exit dye concentration of 4.65 mg/L is accepted. It can be concluded from this work that this method combines all of the advantages of the activated-carbon adsorption and electrolytic methods for the removal of dyes from wastewater. PMID:12540091

Koparal, A S; Yavuz, Y; Bakir Ogütveren, U

369

Decolouration of textile dyes in wastewaters by photocatalysis with TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic removal of colour of a synthetic textile effluent, using TiO2 suspensions under solar radiation, has been studied at pilot plant scale. A synthetic dye solution was prepared by a mix of six commercial textile dyes. A photochemical reactor of parallel CPC reflectors with UV-transparent tubular receivers was used. The study of photodegradation was carried out using the Taguchi’s

O. Prieto; J. Fermoso; Y. Nuñez; J. L. del Valle; R. Irusta

2005-01-01

370

The Fenton Chemistry and Its Combination with Coagulation for Treatment of Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Violet 19 were subjected to Fenton\\/Fenton?like oxidation and its combination with lime coagulation. The analysis indicated no dependence of chemical oxidation efficacy on dye concentration in the range of 0.1–1 g L. Complete or nearly complete (higher than 95%) color removal of all treated samples was observed. Dye:H2O2 weight ratio of

Niina Kulik; Yekaterina Panova; Marina Trapido

2007-01-01

371

Experimental design to optimize the degradation of the synthetic dye Orange II using Fenton's reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental design methodology was applied having in mind the optimization of the azo dye Orange II degradation using the Fenton's reagent (mixture of H2O2 and Fe2+). The variables considered were the temperature, H2O2 concentration and Fe2+:H2O2 ratio, for a dye concentration of 0.3mM and pH 3. The multivariate experimental design allowed to develop quadratic models for: (i) color removal

J. Herney Ramirez; Carlos A. Costa; Luis M. Madeira

2005-01-01

372

Photochemical oxidation of reactive azo dye with UV–H 2O 2 process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photooxidation of a chlorotriazine reactive azo dye Reactive Orange 4 has been carried out in the presence of H2O2 using UV-A light. The effects of reaction pH, applied H2O2 dose, UV light power have been studied. These parameters strongly influence the decolourisation and degradation. The increase of initial dye concentration decreases the removal rate. The kinetics of decolourisation and

M. Muruganandham; M. Swaminathan

2004-01-01

373

Aromatic Amine Degradation in a UASB\\/CSTR Sequential System Treating Congo Red Dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor)\\/aerobic (completely stirred tank reactor) sequential system was used to treat a synthetic wastewater with minerals and co-substrate together with 100–4000 mg L of Congo Red dye (Direct red 28) (CR), which is a banned azo dye in Turkey. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the decolorization and the COD removal

Mustafa I?ik; Delia Teresa Sponza

2003-01-01

374

Decolorization and transformation of anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 19 by ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization and transformation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 19 (RB?19), by ozonation with a semi?batch reactor were investigated. The effects of different operating parameters, such as the initial RB?19 concentrations, ozone feed rates and initial pH, on the performance of color, dye and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were also evaluated based on their pseudo?first?order rate constants and

2009-01-01

375

Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.

2012-01-01

376

Production of granular activated carbon from waste Rosa canina sp. seeds and its adsorption characteristics for dye.  

PubMed

An activated carbon was developed from Rosa canina sp. seeds, characterized and used for the removal of methylene blue (basic dye) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption studies were carried out at 20 degrees C and various initial dye concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) for different times (15, 30, 60, and 120 min). The adsorption isotherm was obtained from data. The results indicate that the adsorption isotherm of methylene blue is typically S-shaped. The shape of isotherm is believed to reflect three distinct modes of adsorption. In region 1, the adsorption of methylene blue is carried out mainly by ion exchange. In region 2 by polarizations of pi-electrons established at cyclic parts of the previously adsorbed methylene blue molecules is occurred. However, it is not observed any change at the sign of the surface charge although zeta potential value is decreased with increase of amount adsorbed. In region 3, the slope of the isotherm is reduced, because adsorption now must overcome electrostatic repulsion between oncoming ions and the similarly charged solid. Adsorption in this fashion is usually complete when the surface is covered with a monolayer of methylene blue. To reveal the adsorptive characteristics of the produced active carbon, porosity and BET surface area measurements were made. Structural analysis was performed using SEM-EDS. The produced active carbon has the specific surface area of 799.2 m2 g-1 and the iodine number of 495 mg/g. PMID:16263211

Gürses, A; Do?ar, C; Karaca, S; Açikyildiz, M; Bayrak, R

2005-11-02

377

A new mussel-inspired polydopamine sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells: controlled synthesis and charge transfer.  

PubMed

The efficient electron injection by direct dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer and strong adhesion of mussel-inspired synthetic polydopamine (PDA) dyes with TiO(2) electrode is demonstrated. Spontaneous self-polymerization of dopamine using dip-coating (DC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in basic buffer solution were applied to TiO(2) layers under a nitrogen atmosphere, which offers a facile and reliable synthetic pathway to make the PDA dyes, PDA-DC and PDA-CV, with conformal surface and perform an efficient dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer. Both synthetic methods led to excellent photovoltaic results and the PDA-DC dye exhibited larger current density and efficiency values than those in the PDA-CV dye. Under simulated AM 1.5?G solar light (100 mW cm(-2)), a PDA-DC dye exhibited a short circuit current density of 5.50 mW cm(-2), corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.2 %, which is almost 10 times that of the dopamine dye-sensitized solar cell. The PDA dyes showed strong adhesion with the nanocrystalline TiO(2) electrodes and the interface engineering of a dye-adsorbed TiO(2) surface through the control of the coating methods, reaction times and solution concentration maximized the overall conversion efficiency, resulting in a remarkably high efficiency. PMID:23001762

Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Boeun; Ko, Min Jae; Jin, Mingshi; Kim, Ji Man; Jung, Duk-Young

2012-09-23

378

Efficient entrapment of dye in hollow silica nanoparticles: direct evidence using fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Using hollow silica nanoparticles we demonstrate a simple and highly efficient way of removing hydrophilic dye (Rhodamine B) from water by encapsulation within these hollow spheres. The hollow silica spheres were obtained by using a surfactant templated procedure. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we also show the evidence of the dye being absorbed within the hollow core of the silica shell (which is crucial for many applications) and differentiate from the adsorption of dye on the surface of the silica shell. It was found that that up to 94 % of the hydrophilic dye could be entrapped using these hollow shells within 72 h of exposure. Fluorescence spectroscopy shows a red shift in the dye encapsulated in the hollow silica which is due to aggregation of the dye and enables us to follow quantitatively the uptake of the dye molecules by the silica shells with time. The evidence for the encapsulation of the dye in these hollow spheres was reinforced by carrying out a comparative study, using solid silica particles. PMID:23846303

Baruah, Arabinda; Kumar, Sandeep; Vaidya, Sonalika; Ganguli, Ashok K

2013-07-12

379

Allergic contact dermatitis associated with reactive dyes in a dark garment: a case report.  

PubMed

In this study, we present a case of a patient who has not been occupationally exposed to reactive dyes, but did present with a dermatitis from wearing a dark cotton garment. The patient experienced reactivation of his dermatitis when rewearing a new unwashed dark T-shirt made of 100% cotton (in fact, the patient reported that it had to be washed at least 3 times before the skin reaction disappeared). He presented positive patch tests to 6 reactive dyes from Chemotechnique textile series. The clothing could not be proved as the true cause of the dermatitis, but resolution occurred upon removal of the suspected garment. This suggests that contact allergy to the reactive dyes (he did not react to any other dyes and his garment was a natural fabric) was likely responsible. With this report, we would like to emphasize that reactive dyes, as a class, should be considered as potential allergens, both occupationally and from non-occupational exposure such as garments. If garments containing reactive dyes are not properly rinsed in the manufacturing process, we believe that excess of dye can be retained that may cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). As the reactive dyes and their hydrolysis products are very water-soluble, they can be easily washed off to prevent ACD. PMID:16128754

Moreau, Linda; Goossens, An

2005-09-01

380

Treatment of reactive azo dye from textile wastewater by burhead (Echinodorus cordifolius L.) in constructed wetland: Effect of molecular size.  

PubMed

The potential of burhead (Echinodorus cordifolius L.) for the treatment of textile wastewater has been investigated. Reactive red 2; RR2 [MW=615], reactive red 120; RR120 [MW=1469] and reactive red 141; RR141 [MW=1775] were studied in order to determine the effect of molecular size on the efficiency of dye removal by plants in batch systems of constructed wetlands under soil and soil-free conditions. Dye concentrations, total dissolve solids (TDS), conductivity and pH in the effluents, and the relative growth rates (RGR) of plants were measured. The highest efficiency of dye removal during 7 days under soil-free conditions was RR2 (33.09 ?mol(RR2)kg(-1)(FW)), followed by RR120 (13.35 ?mol(RR120)kg(-1)(FW)) and RR141 (10.57 ?mol(RR141)kg(-1)(FW)), respectively. This suggests that the structure and size of dye molecule strongly affects the efficiency of dye removal by plant. The results from a synthetic wetland experiment found that dye removal was 96 % at 4 days and 6 days under soil and soil-free conditions, respectively. Furthermore, plants were able to decrease TDS (42 %), conductivity (50 %) and pH (from 9.5 to 7.4) within 2 days in the synthetic reactive red(141) dye wastewater (SRRW141) under soil-free conditions, thus demonstrating the potential of burhead for textile wastewater treatment. PMID:21644146

Noonpui, Sirikan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

2011-01-01

381

Spectroscopic studies of dye-surfactant interactions with the co-existence of heavy metal ions for foam fractionation.  

PubMed

The interaction between a cationic dye Methylene Blue (MB) and an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with the presence of Cd2+ was investigated spectrophotometrically in a certain concentration range. The spectrophotometric measurements of dye-metal ion-surfactant system were carried out. The results indicated that the SDS concentration had a significant influence on the dye spectrum, while the addition of Cd2+ hardly caused change of the maximum value of absorbance. According to this observation, we concluded that electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction between dye and surfactant occurred up to a certain level, and the homo-ions Cd2+ almost exerted no effect on the dye-surfactant complexation, establishing a theoretical foundation for simultaneous removal of organic dye and heavy metal using foam fractionation. Meanwhile, the effects of their interaction on foam performance were investigated. The results showed that the addition of Cd2+ favored the tendency to ameliorate foam properties just contrary to MB. The feasibility of foam separation for dye and heavy metal removal from simulated wastewater was also confirmed using a continuous foam fractionator. In the simultaneous removal process, with the initial SDS concentration ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 mmol/L, the maximum removal efficiencies of MB and Cd2+ were obtained as 99.69% and 99.61%, respectively. The enrichment ratios were reduced from 24.34 to 7.65 for MB and from 22.01 to 3.35 for Cd2+. PMID:23534202

Zhang, Dongmei; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Jinhui; Bi, Wenkai; Xie, Gengxin

2012-01-01

382

Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic degradation of commonly used textile dyes, namely, Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), Red (ME4BL), Golden Yellow (MERL), Blue-222, Methylene Blue, and Malachite Green, has been studied, using TiO2 (P25) as a photocatalyst. All the dye solutions could be decolorized. Kinetics of RB-5 oxidation reaction has been studied and was found to be of first order in dye concentration. Effects of different parameters such as catalyst amount, initial concentration of the dyes, and pH of solution along with biological parameters (TOC and COD) on the rate of degradation were studied. Experimental results showed that photocatalytic degradation of commonly used RB-5 was very effective at the optimum catalyst quantity of 2.5 g/L. PMID:21391388

Mahadwad, O K; Jasra, R V; Parikh, P A; Tayade, R J

2010-07-01

383

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye you use, follow directions carefully. Pay attention to all “Caution” or “Warning” statements. What problems ... safely? • Follow the directions in the package. Pay attention to all “Caution” and “Warning” statements. • Do a ...

384

Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1883, paraphenylene diamine (PPD) has traditionally been used for dyeing (dark color) hair in Europe [1-2] as a fresh\\u000a preparation mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) [3]. In Sudan PPD is used by women to color their hair and as a body dye when added to henna ( Lawasonia alba). Henna on it’s own need to be applied two or

Mohamed I. Hamdouk; Mohamed B. Abdelraheem; Ahbab A. Taha; Mohamed Benghanem; Marc E. Broe

385

High power cw dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependance of the output power of cw dye lasers on the pump power and the system-and stream parameters is calculated and\\u000a experimentally tested. It was found that the pump power for a given system is limited to a critical value due to the influence\\u000a of thermal inhomogeneities. This critical pump power is predominantly dependant on the dye solvent, the

B. Wellegehausen; L. Laepple; H. Welling

1975-01-01

386

Removal of Rhodamine-B by biogas waste slurry from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of biogas waste slurry to adsorb a basic dye (Rhodamine-B) has been investigated. The parameters include agitation time, initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage. The rate controlling step is mainly intraparticle diffusion. The adsorption rate constant was found to be 2.9 × 10-2 min-1 at 20 mg L-1 initial dye concentration. The adsorption conforms with Freundlich isotherm.

C. Namasivayam; R. T. Yamuna

1992-01-01

387

Evaluation of an integrated anaerobic/aerobic SBR system for the treatment of wool dyeing effluents. Purification of wool dyeing effluent in a SBR.  

PubMed

This work examined the performance of a sequencing batch reactor treating dyeing effluents from a factory that processes mainly wool and wool/polyester blends. Different operational conditions were evaluated, namely the influence of the anaerobic and the subsequent aerobic phase on the organic load removal, as well as the effect of the length of the aeration period (from 8 to 12 h) on process efficiency. A comparison between a fill stage in fast and slow modes was carried out. Results indicate that the cycle 2 conditions (fast fill and 12 h aeration time) improved the overall efficiency (85+/-6% soluble COD and 95+/-4% BOD5 removal yields) with a predominant COD uptake occurring in the aerobic stage. Slow, linear COD removal was observed in the anaerobic phase, in contrast with an exponential COD decrease in the oxic phase. For SS a level under 100 mg/l was general achieved in the exit of the reactor. With respect to dye degradation, a noticeable decrease of the absorbance measured in the UV-visible range was observed. This could be explained by the reduction of the azo bonds of some of the present dyes in the anaerobic step, in which ORP values lower than -400 mV were attained. Some oxidation of anthraquinone sulphonate dyes and of the aromatic amines resulting from azo bond cleavage could also have been taken place, as well as bioelimination mechanisms such as dye sorption. PMID:15727157

Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; Penha, Susana; Matos, Manuela; Santos, Amélia Rute; Franco, Francisco; Pinheiro, Helena Maria

2005-02-01

388

Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

2013-04-01

389

Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes  

PubMed Central

Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively.

Mogharabi, Mehdi; Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser; Bozorgi-Koushalshahi, Maryam; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Bagherzadeh, Ghodsieh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

390

Basic blue 93. An alternative to the traditional myeloperoxidase stain.  

PubMed

This report describes the selective staining of lysosomes in cells of neutrophilic granulocytic origin by the azo textile dye basic blue 93. Used as a single agent aqueous stain after fixation, the dye stained lysosomes black. Stained in this way, lysosomes were sharply delimited and easily visualized. Large numbers of black-stained lysosomes occurred in immature granulocytes like promyelocytes and myelocytes. In more mature granulocytes like metamyelocytes, bands, and neutrophils, substantially fewer numbers of lysosomes were detected. In leukemic myeloblasts and promyelocytes stained with basic blue 93, variable numbers of black-colored lysosomes could be detected and usually paralleled the reactions for myeloperoxidase and Sudan black B in the same cells. As an alternative to the traditional stains for myeloperoxidase, basic blue 93 has several advantages, including simplicity of use, ability to stain aged specimens, and stability of the reaction product. PMID:2449070

Kass, L

1988-02-01

391

Adsorption of allura red dye by cross-linked chitosan from shrimp waste.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the chitosan, which has been obtained by deacetylation of chitin, as a biosorbent. The chitin was isolated from fermented shrimp waste by an important local industrial food biopolymer. The aim of this work was the characterization of chitosan and preparation of cross-linked chitosan- tripolyphosphate (chitosan-TPP) beads for the removal of allura red food dye from aqueous solutions. Conditions of batch adsorption such as pH, time and adsorbent dose were examined. The effectiveness of cross-linked chitosan beads for dye removal was found to be higher for pH 2 (98%, percentage of dye removal) and tends to decrease at pHs of 3 to 11 (up to 49%). The values of percentage removal show that the adsorption capacity increases with time of contact and dosage of chitosan-TPP, but red dye adsorption is mainly influenced by pH level. The cross-linked chitosan-TPP beads can significantly adsorb allura red monoazo dye from aqueous solutions even at acidic pHs unlike raw chitosan beads that tend to dissolve in acidic solutions. Consequently, this modified chitosan has characteristics that allow minimization of environmental pollution and widening the valorization of shrimp waste. PMID:22277220

Sánchez-Duarte, Reyna G; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Correa-Murrieta, Ma A

2012-01-01

392

Dye laser solutions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition of matter, a cyclodextrin inclusion compound of a fluorescent dye and an {alpha}- or {beta}-chclodextrin having a substituent bonded to an oxygen atom in a glucose unit in the cyclodextrin. The substituent is selected from the class consisting of: alkyl radicals having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, radicals having the formula {bond}CH{bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond}O{sub {ital n}}H wherein R{sup 1} is selected from hydrogen and alkyl radicals having up to about six carbon atoms, and n is equal to a small whole number up to six, and radicals having the formula {bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond}CHOH{bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond} wherein R{sup 1} has the same definition as above, such that the radicals bridge two cyclodextrin rings, and the number of the rings so bridged per molecule is from two to about six; the substituted cyclodextrin having not ore than two substituents per glucose unit.

Herkstroeter, W.G.

1990-06-12

393

Color removal from aqueous solution by biogas residual slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Brilliant Blue on biogas residual slurry has been investigated. The parameters studied include dye concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH. The equilibrium data fit well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption isotherm. Maximum removal of 99% was observed at pH 2.56. Desorption studies indicate that the dye is solubilised in 50%(v\\/v) acetic

R. T. Yamuna; C. Namasivayam

1993-01-01

394

Enhanced decolourization of Direct Red-80 dye by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium employing sequential design of experiments.  

PubMed

Decolourization of Direct Red 80 (DR-80) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium MTCC 787 was investigated employing sequential design of experiments. Media components for growing the white rot fungus were first screened using Plackett-Burman design and then optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), which resulted in enhancement in the efficiency of dye removal by the fungus. For determining the effect of media constituents on the dye removal, both percent dye decolourization and specific dye removal due to maximum enzyme activity were chosen as the responses from the experiments, and the media constituents glucose, veratryl alcohol, KH(2)PO(4), CaCl(2) and MgSO(4) were screened to be the most effective with P values less than 0.05. Central composite design (CCD) followed by RSM in the optimization study revealed the following optimum combinations of the screened media constituents: glucose, 11.9 g l(-1); veratryl alcohol, 12.03 mM; KH(2)PO(4), 23.08 g l(-1); CaCl(2), 2.4 g l(-1); MgSO(4), 10.47 g l(-1). At the optimum settings of the media constituents, complete dye decolourization (100% removal efficiency) and a maximum specific dye removal due to lignin peroxidase enzyme of 0.24 mg U(-1) by the white rot fungus were observed. PMID:19960234

Singh, Sukhwinder; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Daverey, Achlesh

2009-12-04

395

Removal of congo red using activated carbon and its regeneration.  

PubMed

Activated carbon is used for the removal of colored toxic congo red dye. The effects of different operating conditions like, initial dye concentration, contact time, pH and temperature are studied for adsorption of congo red by a known amount of activated carbon (1.0g/L) under stirred batch condition. The zero point of charge of the activated carbon is found about 6.6. About 90% dye is removed for initial concentration of 50 and 100mg/L, it is about 80% at pH 7.0. Maximum adsorption (about 100%) of dye is observed at pH 2.0 for the concentration range studied here. Freundlich isotherm is found to fit the equilibrium data more adequately. Pseudo second order kinetic model explain successfully the kinetic data. The surfactant enhanced carbon regeneration (SECR) technique using both cationic and anionic surfactants is adopted for the regeneration of spent carbon by desorbing the dye. A kinetic model for dye desorption from the commercial activated carbon (CAC) is also proposed. Anionic surfactants show better performance than the cationic ones. Efficiency of dye desorption using surfactants is also compared with the desorption using pH change. PMID:17178190

Purkait, M K; Maiti, A; DasGupta, S; De, S

2006-11-18

396

Sono-sorption as a new method for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of methylene blue as a basic dye onto cellulosic materials such as waste newspaper was examined kinetically in the presence of ultrasound (sono-sorption) and in its absence (conventional method). The effects of various experimental parameters such as the amount of sorbent, type of cellulosic sorbents, initial dye concentration, temperature, and contact time have been investigated using a batch

M. H. Entezari; Z. Sharif Al-Hoseini

2007-01-01

397

A constructed wetland model for synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.).  

PubMed

Textile wastewater is contaminated by reactive dye causing unattractive levels of wastewater color, high pH and high salt content when discharged into public water systems. Decolorization of textile wastewater by plant, phytoremediation, is an alternative, sustainable method which is suitable for long term operation. Narrow-leaved cattails are one species of wetland plant with efficiency for decolorizing and remediating textile wastewater. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be lowered and dye residue can be removed. The plant also showed a good salt tolerance even after being exposed to a salt solution for 15 days. The narrow-leaved cattails were set up in a constructed wetland model with a vertical flow system operating from bottom to top for synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) removal. Narrow-leaved cattails could achieve the removal of SRDW at approximately 0.8 g(SRDW) m(-2) day(-1). Decolorization of SRDW by this plant was approximately 60%. The advantage of this method is that it is suitable for textile wastewater management and improvement of wetland. These plants could lower COD, remove dye, sodium and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas other biological and chemical methods could not remove TDS and dye in the same time. These results suggested that the spongy cell structure of this plant has the ability to absorb large amounts of water and nutrients. Physico-chemical analysis revealed increasing amounts of sulfur, silicon, iron and calcium in the plant leafs and roots after exposure to wastewater. Proteins or amide groups in the plant might help in textile dye removal. Regarding decolorization, this plant accumulates dye in the intercellular space and still grows in this SRDW condition. Hence, it can be noted here that narrow-leaved cattails are efficient for textile dye wastewater treatment. PMID:19759459

Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

2009-01-01

398

The influence of FeCl3 on the photocatalytic degradation of dissolved azo dyes in aqueous TiO2 suspensions.  

PubMed

The study concerned decolouration of solutions of azo, anionic (Acid Orange 7, Reactive Red 45, Acid Yellow 23) and cationic (Basic Blue 41 and Basic Orange 66) dyes during illumination with UV (lambdamax 366 nm) irradiation in the presence of TiO2 and FeCl3. The process of decolouration during illumination of the solutions studied containing FeCl3 underwent significant intensification in the case of anionic dyes and unfavourable inhibition in case of cationic dyes. It was also observed that FeCl3 had a diverse influence on the adsorption of the dyes studied on TiO2. The adsorption of anionic dyes and decolouration of solutions before the illumination was observed only in the presence of FeCl3. In case of cationic dyes the addition of FeCl3 caused elimination of these phenomena. An additional cause of decolouration of anionic dyes solutions before illumination was the precipitation of their poorly soluble compounds from Fe3+. The processes of degradation and mineralization of the dye that accompanied decolouration of Acid Orange 7 solutions were also observed. It was stated that similarly to the case of Acid Orange 7, the decolouration of the studied anionic dyes' solutions can depend on the concentration of FeCl3, the amount of TiO2 and the initial concentration of the dye in its solution. PMID:12892670

Baran, Wojciech; Makowski, Andrzej; Wardas, W?adys?aw

2003-10-01

399

Removal of methylene blue from colored effluents by adsorption on montmorillonite clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, montmorillonite clay (MC) has been utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solution by the batch adsorption technique under different conditions of initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration, contact time, solution pH, and temperature. Attempts were made to fit the isothermal data using Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The experimental

C. A. P. Almeida; N. A. Debacher; A. J. Downs; L. Cottet; C. A. D. Mello

2009-01-01

400

Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and mechanism of methylene blue adsorption on perlite have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as initial dye concentration, temperature and pH on the adsorption rate were investigated. Adsorption measurements show that the process is very fast and physical in nature. The extent of the dye removal increased with increase in the initial concentration of

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan; Ayd?n Türkyilmaz; Yasemin Özdemir

2004-01-01

401

Adenoid removal  

MedlinePLUS

... tissue is used. Some surgeons use electricity to heat the tissue, remove it, and stop bleeding. This is called electrocautery. Another method uses radiofrequency (RF) energy to do the same thing. This is called ...

402

Nevus Removal  

MedlinePLUS

... consult a surgeon experienced in the treatment of giant nevi. There are limits to the skin grafting ... can learn about other treatment options for large/giant congenital melanocytic nevus here . The Informed Patient Removal ...

403

Basics of SCI Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Experts \\ The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy- ...

404

Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

2003-03-01

405

Basicity, Catalytic and Adsorptive Properties of Hydrotalcites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid bases have numerous potential applications, not only as catalyst for the manufacture of fine chemicals, in refining and petrochemistry, but also for adsorption and anion exchange. The present processes use liquid bases, typically alcoholic potash, and require neutralisation of the reaction medium at the end of the reaction, with production of salts. The substitution of these liquid bases by solids would provide cleaner and safer processes, due to the reduction of salts, and facilitate separation of the products and recycling of the catalyst. This chapter reviews the recent ideas on the modification of the basic properties of hydrotalcites by anion exchange and on the catalytic properties of solid bases as catalysts. Many examples of successful applications are given, with emphasis to industrial processes recently presented such as isomerisation of olefins. The basic properties of hydrotalcites can also be used to carry the exchange of toxic anions, humic acids or dyes, and have driven recent developments proposing HDT as drug carriers.

Figueras, Francois

406

Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by sugar extracted spent rice biomass.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at using sugar extracted spent rice biomass (SRB) as a potential adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The SRB was used without any modification. A three factor full factorial experimental design (2(3)) was employed to investigate the effect of factors (adsorbent dose, dye concentration, temperature) and their interaction on the adsorption capacity and color removal. Two levels for each factor were used; adsorbent dose (0.25-0.5g/100mL), dye concentration (25-50mg/L), and temperature (25-45°C). Initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were found as significant factors for the adsorption of MB dye. Langmuir isotherm (R(2)>0.998) best explained the equilibrium of MB adsorption on SRB with monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.13mg/g. The pseudo-second order model (R(2)>0.999) was best fitted to explain the adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic investigation revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and was feasible to treat dyeing wastewater. PMID:22939346

Ur Rehman, Muhammad Saif; Kim, Ilgook; Han, Jong-In

2012-07-04

407

Tattoo removal.  

PubMed

Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal. PMID:21865802

Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

2011-08-16

408

Color removal from textile effluents by electrochemical destruction  

SciTech Connect

In this work, aqueous solutions of three azo dyes and a waste water sample taking from a local textile plant have been studied. Effect of several factors such as color, pH, presence of NaCl, applied potential, initial dye concentration and solution flow rate on the removal rate has been investigated. Energy consumption values have been calculated for different initial dye concentrations and flow rates, and shown as the function of applied potential. Removal rates of 98%, 86% and 85% have been achieved with energy consumption values of 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1], 0.106 kWhg[sup [minus]1] and 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1] for Ostazin Rod H3B, Ostazin Black HN and Ostazin Olive HG respectively. Removal rate of 82% with energy consumption value of 2 kWhm[sup [minus]3] has been observed for textile effluent. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Oeguetveren, U.B.; Koparal, S. (Anadolu Ueniversitesi, Eskisehir (Turkey))

1994-01-01

409

A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye—Acid Blue 113  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH,

V. K. Gupta; Bina Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; Shilpi Agarwal; Arunima Nayak

2011-01-01

410

Integration of nanosized zero-valent iron particles addition with UV\\/H 2O 2 process for purification of azo dye Acid Black 24 solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenging national effluent standards for color and organic concentration enforce the industrial concern most the techniques providing fast and efficient solution for the strenuous dye wastewater treatment before outflow. The best remediation technique pursuit is urgently demand for the industrial, government, academia and community. In this study, a di-azo dye, C.I. Acid Black 24, synthesized wastewater was successfully removed

Hung-Yee Shu; Ming-Chin Chang; Chi-Chen Chang

2009-01-01

411

Basic Chemistry Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment reviews basic of chemistry for students who should have had 2 introductory semesters of basic chemistry prior to enrolling in the Fundamental of Water Quality course for which the assignment is used. Assignment reviews basic equation balancing and questions about valence and concentration conversion that students will confront regularly in any geochemistry course.

Meixner, Thomas

412

Basic Construction Course Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course syllabus provides an outline of a basic construction course. Students in this course learned "basic residential construction techniques with an emphasis on framing." The syllabus includes a basic course description and information on some class projects. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Dickover, Jon

2011-12-07

413

Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

Bogdany, Mel

414

Mondo Grass Berry Pigment for Visible to Near Infrared Absorption in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Synthesis of artificial dyes with broad response is important in developing an efficient DSSC. Artificial dyes can add up to the cost of the device; therefore, it is important to identify natural dyes with broad abortion and required energy levels. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 degree C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm^2 were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination and have a broad spectral response extending from 400 nm to 750 nm.

Desilva, L. A. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.; Perera, A. G. U.

2013-03-01

415

Degradation of dye solution by an activated carbon fiber electrode electrolysis system.  

PubMed

Degradation of 29 dyes by means of an activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode electrolysis system was performed successfully. Almost all dye solutions tested were decolorized effectively in this ACF electrolysis process. Internal relationships between treatment mechanisms and chemical composition of the dye have been discussed in this paper. Generally, it is shown that higher solubility leads to greater degradation in the process. Dyes with many -SO3-, COO-, -SO2NH2, -OH, hydrophilic groups, and azo linkages are susceptible to reduction. However, dyes with many -C=O, -NH-and aromatic groups, and hydrophobic groups, tend to be adsorbed. For dyes with -SO3-, COOH and -OH groups, if their molecules linearly spread in solution and have a significant tendency to form colloids by hydrogenous bonding, they also tend to be adsorbed and flocculated. Typical dynamic electrolysis of dye Acid Red B, Vat Blue BO and Disperse Red E-4B shows how the two major mechanisms, degradation and adsorption, act differently during treatment. Reduction occurs evenly during treatment. During the dominant adsorption process, after certain amount of iron is generated, colloid precipitation occurs and TOC and color are rapidly removed. PMID:11376888

Shen, Z; Wang, W; Jia, J; Ye, J; Feng, X; Peng, A

2001-06-01

416

Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. In the early 1970s, research conducted by Dr. Benjamin Feingold found that when hyperactive children were given a diet free of artificial food additives and dyes, symptoms of hyperactivity were reduced. While some clinical studies supported these findings, more rigorous empirical studies conducted over the next 20 years were less positive. As a result, research on the role of food additives in contributing to ADHD waned. In recent years, however, interest in this area has revived. In response to more recent research and public petitions, in December 2009 the British government requested that food manufacturers remove most artificial food dyes from their products. While these strictures could have positive effects on behavior, the removal of food dyes is not a panacea for ADHD, which is a multifaceted disorder with both biological and environmental underpinnings. PMID:21729092

Kanarek, Robin B

2011-06-30

417

FATE OF COMMERCIAL DISPERSE DYES IN SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. he commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely used. eaction rates were fo...

418

Fate of Commercial Disperse Dyes in Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. The commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely u...

C. P. C. Yen T. A. Perenich G. L. Baughman

1991-01-01

419

Degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an i...

S. C. Goheen M. McCulloch D. E. Durham W. O. Heath

1992-01-01

420

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

Hackel, R.P.

1992-11-24

421

Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

2010-02-01

422

Preventing rapid decomposition of rhodamine dyes in excimer-pumped pulsed dye lasers  

SciTech Connect

A simple and effective method of preventing rapid decomposition of rhodamine dyes in Lambda-Physik excimer-pumped pulsed dye lasers is presented. Teflon coating the internal metal surfaces of the dye cell greatly increases the useful lifetime of the dye solution.

Arias, P.D.; Dai, H. (Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (US))

1990-01-01

423

Effectiveness of Dye Setting Treatments on Cotton Fabrics Dyed with Direct, Reactive, and Vat Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight treatments were evaluated for their effectiveness in the setting of dyes in new cotton fabrics. Dyes representing three application classes (direct, reactive, and vat) widely used on cotton fabrics were selected. Because of the perceived problems of red dyes bleeding during laundering, five of the eight dyes selected for evaluation were red. Color and staining evaluations were made after

Patricia Cox Crews

1989-01-01

424

BIOSORPTION OF BASIC BLUE NINE FROM WATER SOLUTION BY MARINE ALGAE ULVA LACTUCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of colors is an important technology for treatment of different types of industrial wastewaters containing dyes. The objective of this study was to convert green algae Ulva lactuca to dye adsorbents for wastewater treatment. The important of commonly available green algae U. lactuca was investigated as viable biomaterials for biological treatment of synthetic basic blue 9 (5-Ch1oro-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-5?4-phenothiazine- 3,7-diamine) effluents.

AZZA KHALED; AMANY EL SIKAILY; OLA ABDELWAHAB; AHMED EL NEMR

425

The light stability of azo dyes and azo dyeings II. Perspiration–Light stability of dyeings with reactive and non-Reactive derivatives, respectively, of two selected azochromophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perspiration–light stability of RC-dyed (conventional reactive dyeing) and N-dyed (substantive dyed without subsequent rinsing) cotton fabric dyeings produced with the members of ‘A’-dye and ‘B’-dye groups, respectively, have been studied. Three main factors influence the perspiration-light stability of the studied dyeings: the nature of the dye–fibre bond, the light stability of the released hydrolysed dye molecules and the action

Zs Csepregi; P Aranyosi; I Rusznák; L Töke; A V??g

1998-01-01

426

Anaerobic\\/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass

S. Seshadri; P. L. Bishop; A. M. Agha

1994-01-01

427

Energy transfer in flashlamp pumped organic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pumping characteristics of dye lasers using multiple dyes are discussed. It turns out that varying the dye concentration may change considerably the portion of the pump light spectrum which is effective in creating population inversion. Thus the effect of an energy transfer dye depends strongly on the concentration of the lasing dye. Multiple dye systems are shown to have

P. Burlamacchi; D. Cutter

1977-01-01

428

Enhanced photocatalytic and adsorptive degradation of organic dyes by mesoporous Cu/Al2O3-MCM-41: intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and OH radical generation under visible light.  

PubMed

Mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite was synthesized by two step processes; in situ incorporation of high surface area mesoporous Al(2)O(3) (MA) into the framework of MCM-41 (in situ method) followed by impregnation of Cu(II) by incipient wetness method. The interesting thing is that starch was used for the first time as template for the preparation of high surface area MA. To evaluate the structural and electronic properties, these catalysts were characterized by low angle X-ray diffraction (LXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis DRS, FTIR and photoluminescent (PL) spectra. The various cationic dye such as methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV), malachite green (MG) and rhodamine 6G (Rd 6G) of high concentration 500 mg L(-1) were degraded and adsorbed very efficiently (100%) using the 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite within 30 and 60 min, respectively. The high and quick removal of such concerted cationic organic dyes and also mixed dyes (MB+MV+MG+Rd 6G) by means of photocatalysis/adsorption is basically due to the combined effect three characteristics of synthesized mesoporous 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite. These characteristics are intra-particle mesoporosity, electron transfer and ?OH radical generation under solar light. PMID:21681290

Pradhan, Amaresh C; Parida, K M; Nanda, Binita

2011-06-16

429

Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

2011-06-01

430

Chaos in a good-cavity single-mode dye laser due to turbulent dye flow  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that the light intensity of a good-cavity single-mode standing-wave dye laser can exhibit chaotic behavior. The governing attractor is of dimensionality 6.5 and entropy 50 kbits/sec. An examination of the pump-laser beam before and after its interaction with the dye indicates that the chaos is probably due to the turbulent flow of dye within the dye cell. This interpretation is confirmed by the absence of chaos in two similar dye lasers that use a dye jet rather than a dye cell.

Chyba, T.H.; Gage, E.C.; Ghosh, R.; Lett, P.; Mandel, L.; McMackin, I.

1987-06-01

431

Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

2010-01-01

432

Decolorization of dye solution containing Acid Red 14 by electrocoagulation with a comparative investigation of different electrode connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate the variables that influence the efficiency of decolorization of a solution containing an azo dye (Acid Red 14) by electrocoagulation (EC) in order to compare the efficiency of different electrode connections for color removal. Current density, time of electrolysis, interelectrode distance, and pH of the solution were the variables that most influenced color removal.

N. Daneshvar; H. Ashassi Sorkhabi; M. B. Kasiri

2004-01-01

433

Electrochemical treatment of dye-bath effluent by stainless steel electrodes: Multiple response optimization and residue analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal, and simultaneously minimize the energy consumed per unit mass of COD removed for the treatment of dye-bath effluent (DBE) by electrochemical (EC) method using stainless steel (SS) electrode in a batch EC reactor. Response surface methodology involving central composite design was employed to optimize

Bhaskar Mondal; Vimal C. Srivastava; Indra D. Mall

2012-01-01

434

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

435

FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten commercially available rhodamine dyes have been examined for their stability in dye lasers. Except for rhodamine 101 and sulforhodamine 101, the output of the dye laser showed a time dependence in addition to the dependence upon total input energy per...

A. N. Fletcher

1981-01-01

436

PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

437

Environmentally Friendly Natural Dyeing of Organic Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, organic cotton fabrics were dyed with different natural dye sources (madder root, walnut shell, henna, horse chestnut, pomegranate peel, berberis vulgaris root, thyme, and sage tea). The dyeing was carried out with different mordants (copper sulphate, potassium aluminum sulphate, potassium tartrate, and citric acid), using pre-mordanting dyeing methods. The color of the fabrics was investigated in terms

Mustafa Tutak; N. Ebru Korkmaz

2012-01-01

438

Flashlamp-Pumped, Organic Dye Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes an experimental program directed at investigating the potential of visible, organic dye lasers. The dye Rhodamine 6G was chosen for the most intense study, and solutions to a mathematical model of a dye laser were compared to the expe...

B. G. Huth M. R. Kagan G. I. Farmer

1970-01-01

439

Kinetics of anaerobic biodecolourisation of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of anaerobic biodecolourisation (methanogenic environment) of four azo dyes (Acid Orange 6, Acid Orange 7, Methyl Orange and Methyl Red) was investigated with regard to their electrochemical properties as well as under variation of dye and sludge concentrations, pH and temperature. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a correlation between the potential of irreversible reduction peak of the dye and its first-order

S. Kalyuzhnyi; N. Yemashova; V. Fedorovich

2006-01-01

440

Deciphering simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization using Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This first-attempt study disclosed how and why electron-shuttling mediators were capable to stimulate bioelectricity-generating capabilities of dye-bearing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Proteus hauseri. Due to significant biotoxicity of 4-aminophenol (4AP) and the absence of electron-mediating potential of 3AP, only 2AP among all isomers could work as an exogenous mediator to stimulate bioelectricity generation of P. hauseri. Dye toxicity to cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs apparently affected the performance of simultaneous bioelectricity production and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Plus, dose-response analysis upon toxicity potency of reactive blue 160 revealed that cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs had a higher tolerance to reactive blue 160 than suspended cells. Apparently, augmentation of electron mediator(s) with low toxicity was a feasible means to facilitate bioelectricity-generating capability of SBP&CR. PMID:22178022

Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son; Liu, Shi-Qi; Hung, Jhao-Yin

2011-12-16

441

Comparison of dye wastewater treatment by normal and anoxic + anaerobic/aerobic SBR activated sludge processes.  

PubMed

In this research, the effects of different color intensities, anoxic + anaerobic times and types of substrate on color removal effectiveness were studied using 16-litre bench scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anoxic + anaerobic/aerobic models. The systems were fed with a synthetic wastewater containing 500 mg/l of COD, 50 mg/l of N, 15 mg/l of P along with 10, 40 and 80 mg/l of reactive diazo Remazol Black B dye. The anoxic + anaerobic/aerobic periods were 0/11 (normal aerobic SBR), 2/9, 4/7 and 8/3 hours, respectively. The color removal occurred mainly under the anaerobic environment, while a slight attenuation was noticed under the aerobic condition. A better decolorization could be achieved with a longer anoxic + anaerobic period. The sodium acetate was a slightly better co-substrate for the color removal than glucose. The decolorization efficiency dwindled as the fed dye concentration increased, but the overall color removal leaned in the opposite direction. The phosphorus removal of the anoxic + anaerobic/aerobic systems was outstanding, whereas only 50% removal was achieved for the aerobic process. A dye concentration of up to 80 mg/l did not have any significant impact on the performance of the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). The removal of organic carbon and TKN was comparable among all experiments regardless of system configurations, color intensities and types of substrate. PMID:11380203

Panswad, T; Techovanich, A; Anotai, J

2001-01-01

442

A study of the dyeing of cotton with commerical dichlorotriazinyl reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of fixation of six dichlorotriazinyl dyes on cotton, achieved using four commercially recommended dyeing methods, was determined. The extent of dye fixation was enhanced by modifying one of the four recommended dyeing methods, this being achieved using either pH 8 or pH 9 buffer, instead of NaHCO3 used in the particular (all-in bicarbonate) recommended dyeing method.

Z. Bahrini; S. M. Burkinshaw

1995-01-01

443

Remove One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners are given 15 chips and a number line labeled from 2-12. They are instructed to place their 15 chips on the numbers which they think will represent the sums when two dice are rolled. The object of the game is to be the first person to remove all of the chips. A chip is removed if it is on a number that corresponds to the sum rolled. The game is analyzed and the concepts of probability, sample space and game winning strategies are discussed. Learners place chips on their number lines and play the game again to implement winning strategies.

Pbs

2012-01-01

444

pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Dyes: Are They Really pH-Sensitive in Cells?  

PubMed Central

Chemically synthesized near-infrared (NIR) aza-BODIPY dyes displayed OFF/ON fluorescence at acidic pH (pKa = 6.2-6.6) through the suppression of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and/or internal charge transfer (ICT) process. The apparent pKas of the dyes were shifted well above physiological pH in hydrophobic microenvironment, which led to “turned-on” fluorescence in micelles and liposomes at neutral and basic pH. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) also activated the fluorescence, though to a much less extent. When these small molecular dyes entered cells, instead of being fluorescent only in acidic organelles, the whole cytoplasm exhibited fluorescence, with signal/background ratio as high as ?10 in no-wash live cell imaging. The dye 1 labeled cells remained highly fluorescent even after 3 days. Moreover, slight variations of the dye structure resulted in significantly different intracellular fluorescence behaviors, possibly due to their different cellular uptake and intracellular activation capabilities. After separation of cellular components, the fraction of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed the highest fluorescence, further confirming the fluorescence activation by membrane structures. The fluorescence intensity of these dyes at different intracellular pH (6.80 and 8.00) did not differ significantly, indicating that intracellular pH did not play a critical role. Altogether, we showed here for the first time that the fluorescence of pH-sensitive aza-BODIPY dyes were switched intracellularly not by acidic pH, but by intracellular membranes (and proteins as well). The excellent membrane permeability, ultra high fluorescence contrast ratio, persistent fluorescent signal, and minimum biological interference of dye 1 make it an ideal choice for live cell imaging and in vivo cell tracking. These findings also imply that the intracellular fluorescent properties of pH-sensitive dyes should be carefully examined before used as pH indicators.

Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; Wang, Zhe; Yue, Xuyi; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2013-01-01

445

Reactive dyes decolouration by TiO2 photo-assisted catalysis.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic degradation of three reactive azo dyes (yellow-2, orange-16 and red-2) and one anthraquinone reactive dye (blue-19) was studied. The reactions were carried out in a reactor with recirculation using TiO2 immobilised on glass Raschig rings (system A) and compared with a batch system using the catalyst in aqueous suspension (system B). Both reaction systems were irradiated with a 125 W, lambda > 254 nm lamp. The suspended TiO2 system was also studied using a 125 W 360 nm lamp (system C). Kinetic studies indicated a rapid colour removal, following the order B > A > C. The same trend was observed in COD and TOC removal profiles. The energy consumption per order of magnitude of catalytic degradation of the dyes was lower in the batch reactor (system B) than in the reactor with recirculation and immobilised TiO2 (system A). PMID:11695459

Lizama, C; Yeber, M C; Freer, J; Baeza, J; Mansilla, H D

2001-01-01

446

Dye film leaky waveguide laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a dye-doped polymer film with a refractive index less than that of the glass substrate, a leaky waveguide laser device has been investigated. The film is made from a polyurethane based commercial epoxy which is doped with a newly synthesized dye material: trans-4-[P-(N-ethyl-N-hydroxylethylamino) styryl]-N-methylpyridinium tetraphenylborate. The key element of the laser device is a flint-glass made equilateral prism on one surface of which the dye doped film forms a leaky waveguide structure. By combining this prism with a lateral linear pump source and two cavity mirrors, the quasiwaveguide lasing can be obtained. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the new dye doped film, and the spatial, spectral and temporal behavior of the lasing output from the device are presented. Under pump conditions of 532 nm wavelength, 10 ns pulsewidth and 5 Hz repetition rate, this device provides the peak lasing wavelength at ~ 590nm, a lasing efficiency of ~ 12%, and a lasing lifetime >= 3 X 104 pulses.

He, Guang S.; Zhao, Chan F.; Park, Chi-Kyun; Prasad, Paras N.; Burzynski, Ryszard

1994-09-01

447

Aggregation Equilibria of Zanthene Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adsorption spectra of the laser-active dyes rhodamine B, rhodamine 6G and acridine red in aqueous, ethanolic and EPA solutions were studied as a function of concentration and temperature. The observed absorbance of the aqueous solutions of rhodamine B...

J. E. Selwyn J. I. Steinfeld

1971-01-01

448

Electrochemical degradation and toxicity reduction of C.I. Basic Red 29 solution and textile wastewater by using diamond anode.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation of Basic Red 29 (BR29) was studied in a bipolar trickle tower (BTT) reactor by using Raschig ring shaped boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes, which were originally employed by the present researchers, in a recirculated batch mode. The model solution was prepared with BR29 using distilled water. The effects of initial dye concentration, Na(2)SO(4) concentration as supporting electrolyte, current density, flow rate and initial pH on the removal efficiency were investigated, and practically, complete BR29 removal (over 99%) was obtained in all the studies. After optimum experimental conditions were determined, textile wastewater has also studied by monitoring the destruction of color and COD. With the textile wastewater, 97.2% of color and 91% of COD removal were, respectively, achieved at the current density of 1mA/cm(2). Microtox toxicity tests were performed in both BR29 solution and textile wastewater under optimum experimental conditions, and relatively good toxicity reductions were obtained with respect to the initial values. According to the results, BDD anode was seen to be a unique material for the degradation of BR29 and COD and also the reduction of toxicity simultaneously. PMID:17140728

Koparal, A Sava?; Yavuz, Yusuf; Gürel, Canan; O?ütveren, Ulker Bakir

2006-11-07

449

Wet oxidation of acid brown dye by hydrogen peroxide using heterogeneous catalyst Mn-salen-Y zeolite: a potential catalyst.  

PubMed

Catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of acid dye has been explored in this study. Manganese(III) complex of N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylidene-aminato) (salenH(2)) has been encapsulated in super cages of zeolite-Y by flexible ligand method. The catalyst has been characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TG/DTA and nitrogen adsorption studies. The effects of various parameters such as pH, catalyst and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the oxidation of dye were studied. The results indicate that after 20 min at 30 degrees C, 0.175 M H(2)O(2) and 3g/L catalyst, about 90% dye removal was obtained. These studies indicate that manganese-salen complex immobilized on zeolite framework can act as a good heterogeneous catalyst for removal of dye from wastewaters. PMID:16814465

Aravindhan, Rathinam; Fathima, Nishtar Nishad; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

2006-05-26

450

Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer. Electron transfer is the

Greg P. Smestad; Michael Gratzel

1998-01-01

451

Tattoo removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tattoos have been a part of costume, expression, and identification in various cultures for centuries. Although tattoos have become more popular in western culture, many people regret their tattoos in later years. In this situation, it is important to be aware of the mechanisms of tattoo removal methods available, as well as their potential short- and long-term effects. Among the

Katy Burris; Karen Kim

2007-01-01

452

ARSENIC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

453

Platform removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 1958 Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, Article Five was approved and it read in part, [open quotes]Any installations which are abandoned or disused must be entirely removed.[close quotes] At that time, the US was the only nation producing hydrocarbons from the offshore. The production at this time was totally from platforms in less than 100 ft of

Jay B. Weidler

1993-01-01

454

REMOVING INORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

When EPA sets a regulation ( a maxim contaminant level) for a contaminant, it must also specify the "best available technology" (BAT) that can be used to remove the contaminant. ecause the regulations apply to community water systems, the technologies selected are ones that are c...

455

Heat removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on heat-removal technology in fusion reactors are being made at laboratories of universities and at JAERI. Activities at universities involve fundamental studies related to fluid flow and heat transfer in the MCF as well as in the ICF blanket. Activities at the JAERI involve experimental heat technology developments in the JT-60 program and fusion reactor development program. A figure

A. Inove; H. Madarame; T. Tone

1983-01-01

456

Flow visualization using photochromic dyes: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

class="author" This paper reviews the evolution of a flow visualization technique called the photochromic dye method. This technique uses a photochromic dye in solution. The dye is activated along narrow lines by passing sharply focused UV light through the solution. The movement of the dye traces are recorded, and velocities are determined from the resulting pictures. The use of various dyes in fluid flow experiments is discussed, and a tabulated summary of the application of the technique to various flows is presented.

Kurada, S.; Rankin, G. W.; Sridhar, K.

457

Terpyridine-based smart organic–inorganic hybrid gel as potential dye-adsorbing agent for water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A terpyridine-based organic–inorganic hybrid gelator possessing triethoxylsilane moiety was synthesized and its adsorption capacity for aromatic dyes in the absence and the presence of metal ions such as Zn2+ and Cu2+ was measured by UV–vis spectroscopy. From aqueous solutions of dyes, the hybrid gel, in the absence of metal ions, adsorbed 97.4% for basic blue 41, 94.2% for crystal violet,

Eun Jin Cho; Il Yun Jeong; Soo Jin Lee; Won Seok Han; Jeong Ku Kang; Jong Hwa Jung

2008-01-01

458

Removal - An alternative to clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or

J. Feinhals; A. Kelch; V. Kunze

2007-01-01

459

Hair removal.  

PubMed

Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. PMID:21865803

Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

2011-08-16

460

Short communication Inhibition of multidrug resistance transporters in the diatom Thalassiosira rotula facilitates dye staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells are protected by multidrug resistance transporters, which remove potentially harmful chemicals entering the cells from the environment or originating endogenously from the cellular metabolism. Multidrug resistance transporters have not been investigated so far in marine eukary- otic algae like diatoms. We investigated the uptake of a calcium-sensitive dye, Fura 2 acetoxymethylester (AM), by the marine diatom Thalas- siosira rotula

Cordula Scherer; Karen Wiltshire; Ulf Bickmeyer

461

Biosorption of malachite green, a cationic dye onto Pithophora sp., a fresh water algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch sorption experiments were carried out for the removal of malachite green from its aqueous solution using Pithophora sp., a fresh water algae as biosorbent. Dye uptake was found to increase with contact time and initial malachite green concentration. Equilibrium uptake was found to be pH dependent and maximum uptake was observed at a pH of 6. The effect of

K. Vasanth Kumar; V. Ramamurthi; S. Sivanesan

2006-01-01

462

16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (c) The term bleaching means the process for producing a lighter shade of a fur, or removing off-color spots and stains by a bleaching agent. (d) The term dyeing (which includes the processes known in the trade of tipping the hair or...

2013-01-01

463