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1

Reactive and basic dyes removal by sorption onto chitosan derivatives.  

PubMed

In this study, the removal of a reactive (Remazol Yellow Gelb 3RS) and a basic (Basic Yellow 37) dye from aqueous solutions was investigated using cross-linked chitosan derivatives as sorbents (either powder or beads), which have been grafted with carboxyl and amide groups. The sorption behavior of the materials was examined through equilibrium, kinetic and pH-edges experiments. The reuse of sorbents was affirmed by sequential sorption-desorption cycles. Three isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich) were used to fit the equilibrium data, while the pseudo-second order equation for the kinetic data. Chitosan powder presented higher sorption capacity than beads. Chitosan grafted with amide groups was found superior sorbent for reactive dye at pH 2 (Q(max)=1211 mg/g), while chitosan grafted with carboxyl groups for basic dye at pH 10 (Q(max)=595 mg/g). For both cases the optimum contact time was 4 h using 1 g/L sorbent. The characterization of sorbents was achieved by scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:19026426

Kyzas, George Z; Lazaridis, Nikolaos K

2009-03-01

2

Removal of Basic Dyes (Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) from Aqueous Solutions Using Bagasse Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into an inexpensive adsorbent material and utilized for the removal of two basic dyes, rhodamine B and methylene blue. Results include the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and presence of surfactant on the removal of rhodamine B and methylene blue. The adsorption data have

VINOD K. GUPTA; DINESH MOHAN; SAURABH SHARMA; MONICA SHARMA

2000-01-01

3

Removal of Basic Blue 41 dye from aqueous solution by linseed cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of linseed oil cake as an adsorbent for selected dyes was examined. The cake did not adsorb Acid Blue 158 or Reactive Red 184. However, it was an effective sorbent for Basic Blue 41. The Langmuir equation described the adsorption well. The enthalpy of adsorption was found to be endothermic and the capacity of the linseed cake for

R. M. Liversidge; G. J. Lloyd; D. A. J. Wase; C. F. Forster

1997-01-01

4

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent-iron humate.  

PubMed

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent-iron humate-was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in most cases) dramatically the sorption of basic (cationic) dyes. Typically, the dye sorption was enhanced in the presence of low concentrations of anionic surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations, a steep decrease in the dye sorption was observed in some systems, probably due to the formation of micelles that solubilize the dye molecules and prevent their sorption. A model describing these experimental dependencies was proposed. The sorption of basic dyes onto iron humate may be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Diffusion processes were identified as the main mechanisms controlling the rate of the dye sorption. PMID:16162351

Janos, Pavel; Smídová, Veronika

2005-11-01

5

Use of slag for dye removal  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption techniques employing activated carbon have been found to be reasonably effective in the removal of some of the ionic impurities in water. However, economic considerations may require the use of inexpensive sorbents which are either naturally available or available as waste products from manufacturing processes. Slag is one such waste product obtained during the manufacture of steel, and the present study investigates dye removal characteristics of slag from colored waters. Aqueous solutions prepared from commercial grade acid, basic, and disperse dyes were used in this study, and batch pH, kinetic, and isotherm studies were undertaken on a laboratory scale. The data were evaluated for applicability to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and BET isotherm models, and the removal capacity of slag was compared with that of granular activated carbon. Results indicated approximately 94% removal of the disperse dye by slag, compared with a removal of approximately 49% achieved by activated carbon. Removal of acid dyes (dyes containing anionic groups) was reasonably good (approximately 47 and 74%), though not as good as obtained using activated carbon (approximately 100%). Column studies were conducted with a disperse dye (nonionic, slightly soluble in water), and analysis of data showed a sorption capacity of 1.3 mg of disperse dye per gram of slag. However, effluent dye concentrations were found to be higher than the permissible levels for discharge to receiving waters.

Ramakrishna, K.R.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

1998-09-01

6

Dye removal by immobilised fungi.  

PubMed

Dyes are widely used within the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, textile and leather industries. This has resulted in the discharge of highly coloured effluents that affect water transparency and gas solubility in water bodies. Furthermore, they pose a problem because of their carcinogenicity and toxicity. Therefore, removal of such dyes before discharging them into natural water streams is essential. For this, appropriate treatment technologies are required. The treatment of recalcitrant and toxic dyes with traditional technologies is not always effective or may not be environmentally friendly. This has impelled the search for alternative technologies such as biodegradation with fungi. In particular, ligninolytic fungi and their non-specific oxidative enzymes have been reported to be responsible for the decolouration of different synthetic dyes. Thus, the use of such fungi is becoming a promising alternative to replace or complement the current technologies for dye removal. Processes using immobilised growing cells seem to be more promising than those with free cells, since the immobilisation allows using the microbial cells repeatedly and continuously. This paper reviews the application of fungal immobilisation to dye removal. PMID:19211032

Rodríguez Couto, Susana

2009-01-01

7

Biosorption of basic dyes by water hyacinth roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory investigations of the potential of the biomass of non-living, dried, roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to remove two basic dyes, methylene blue and Victoria blue, from aqueous solutions were conducted. Parameters studied included pH, sorbent dosage, contact time and initial concentrations. The Langmuir isotherm was found to represent the measured sorption data well. Maximum sorption capacities of water

K. S. Low; C. K. Lee; K. K. Tan

1995-01-01

8

Chitosan derivatives as biosorbents for basic dyes.  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to prepare and evaluate chitosan derivatives as biosorbents for basic dyes. This was achieved by grafting poly (acrylic acid) and poly (acrylamide) through persulfate induced free radical initiated polymerization processes and covalent cross-linking of the prepared materials. Remacryl Red TGL was used as the cationic dye. Equilibrium sorption experiments were carried out at different pH and initial dye concentration values. The experimental equilibrium data for each adsorbent-dye system were successfully fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and pH-dependent Langmuir-Freundlich sorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process such as DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees, and DeltaS degrees were calculated. The negative values of free energy reflected the spontaneous nature of adsorption. The typical dependence of dye uptake on temperature and the kinetics of adsorption indicated the process to be chemisorption. The grafting modifications greatly enhanced the adsorption performance of the biosorbents, especially in the case of powdered cross-linked chitosan grafted with acrylic acid, which exhibited a maximum adsorption capacity equal to 1.068 mmol/g. Kinetic studies also revealed a significant improvement of sorption rates by the modifications. Diffusion coefficients of the dye molecule were determined to be of the order 10(-13) - 10(-12) m2/s. Furthermore, desorption experiments affirmed the regenerative capability of the loaded material. PMID:17530870

Lazaridis, Nikolaos K; Kyzas, George Z; Vassiliou, Alexandros A; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

2007-07-01

9

Adsorption of basic dyes onto activated carbon using microcolumns  

SciTech Connect

Column studies for the adsorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, basic red, and basic yellow) onto PAC2 (activated carbon produced from bituminous coal using steam activation) and F400 were undertaken in fixed-bed microcolumns. Experimental data were correlated using the bed depth service time (BDST) model. The effect of bisolute interactions on the performance of microcolumn fixed beds was studied. The BDST model was successful in describing the breakthrough curves for the adsorption of MB onto PAC2 and predicts the experimental data with a good degree of accuracy. The results emphasized that the interactions and competition for the available binding sites have considerable influence on the efficiency of adsorbents to remove dyes from the solution.

El Qada, E.N.; Allen, S.J.; Walker, G.M. [Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom)

2006-08-16

10

Decolorization of basic dye solutions by electrocoagulation: An investigation of the effect of operational parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoagulation (EC) is one of the most effective techniques to remove color and organic pollutants from wastewater, which reduces the sludge generation. In this paper, electrocoagulation has been used for the removal of color from solutions containing C. I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) and C. I. Basic Blue 3 (BB3). These dyes are used in the wool and blanket factories

N. Daneshvar; A. Oladegaragoze; N. Djafarzadeh

2006-01-01

11

Sorption of basic and acid dyes from aqueous solutions onto oxihumolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring kind of weathered and oxidised young brown coal called oxihumolite was used for an adsorptive removal of basic (Methylene Blue, Malachite Green) as well as acid (Egacid Orange, Midlon Black) dyes from waters. It was shown that both kinds of dyes can be sorbed onto oxihumolite. The maximum sorption capacities determined from the parameters of Langmuir isotherms ranged

Milena Rýznarová; Sylvie Grötschelová

2005-01-01

12

Adsorption behaviors of acid and basic dyes on crosslinked amphoteric starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosslinked amphoteric starch with carboxymethyl and quaternary ammonium groups is investigated as an adsorbent for removal of both acid and basic dyes in solution. Acid Light Yellow 2G, Acid Red G, Methyl Green and Methyl Violet were used to study the adsorption behaviors under various parameters such as pH, dose of amphoteric starches, initial dye concentration, adsorption time and adsorption

Shimei Xu; Jingli Wang; Ronglan Wu; Jide Wang; Hong Li

2006-01-01

13

Comparison of optimised isotherm models for basic dye adsorption by kudzu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the use of dried (5% w\\/w moisture) kudzu (Peuraria lobata ohwi) as an adsorbent medium for the removal of two basic dyes, Basic Yellow 21 and Basic Red 22, from aqueous solutions. The extent of adsorption was measured through equilibrium sorption isotherms for the single component systems. Equilibrium was achieved after 21 days. The experimental isotherm data

Stephen J. Allen; Quan Gan; Ronan Matthews; Pauline A. Johnson

2003-01-01

14

Adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto pumice powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of methylene blue and crystal violet on pumice powder samples of varying compositions was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, and contact time, were also investigated. The extent of dye removal increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with increased contact

Feryal Akbal

2005-01-01

15

Removal of triphenylmethane dyes by bacterial consortium.  

PubMed

A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50?mg/L) and malachite green (50?mg/L) dyes within 24?h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2?h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24?h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes. PMID:22623907

Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

2012-01-01

16

Removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by natural phosphate as a new adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of natural phosphate (NP) to remove textile dyes from aqueous solutions. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) as a reference molecule for the adsorption studies of organic molecules, basic yellow 28 (BY 28) and reactive yellow 125 (RY 125) representatives of two families of textile dyes was studied in a

Noureddine Barka; Ali Assabbane; Abederrahman Nounah; Larbi Laanab; Yhya Aît Ichou

2009-01-01

17

AZO DYE REMOVAL BY ADSORPTION USING WASTE BIOMASS: SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are usually present in trace quantities in the treated effluents of many industries. The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. This study investigates the potential use of sugarcane bagasse, pretreated with formaldehyde and sulphuric acid, for the removal of methyl red, an azo dye from simulated

A. G. Liew Abdullah; Mohd Salleh; Siti Mazlina; M. J. Megat; Mohd Noor; M. R. Osman

18

The removal of dyes from textile wastewater: a study of the physical characteristics and adsorption mechanisms of diatomaceous earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using diatomite for the removal of the problematic reactive dyes as well as basic dyes from textile wastewater was investigated. Methylene blue, Cibacron reactive black and reactive yellow dyes were considered. Physical characteristics of diatomite such as pHsolution, pHZPC, surface area, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy were investigated. The surface area of diatomite was found

M. A. Al-Ghouti; M. A. M. Khraisheh; S. J. Allen; M. N. Ahmad

2003-01-01

19

Isotherm, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic of Cationic Dye Removal from Binary System by Feldspar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic of cationic dye removal onto inorganic adsorbent (Feldspar) were investigated in single and binary systems. Basic Red 18 (BR18) and Basic Blue 41 (BB41) were used as cationic dyes. The characterization of the Feldspar was carried out using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron

Maryam Yazdani; Niyaz Mohammad Mahmoodi; Mokhtar Arami; Hajir Bahrami

2012-01-01

20

Removal of chrome dye from aqueous solutions by fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of fly ash to remove Omega Chrome Red ME (a chrome dye, mostly used in textile industries) from water has been studied. It has been found that low adsorbate concentration, small particle size of adsorbent, low temperature, and acidic pH of the medium favor the removal of chrome dye from aqueous solutions. The dynamics of adsorbate transport from

G. S. Gupta; G. Prasad; K. K. Panday; V. N. Singh

1988-01-01

21

Removal of dyes from an artificial textile dye effluent by two agricultural waste residues, corncob and barley husk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a previously untried biosorbent, barley husk, for dye removal is compared to corncob. The effectiveness of adsorption as a means of dye removal has made it an ideal alternative to other more costly treatments. This paper deals with two low-cost, renewable biosorbents, which are agroindustrial by-products, for textile dye removal. Experiments at total dye concentrations of 10,

T. Robinson; B. Chandran; P. Nigam

2002-01-01

22

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

23

Adsorption of Cationic (Basic) Dyes by Fixed Yeast Cells1  

PubMed Central

Giles, Charles H. (The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland), and Robert B. McKay. Adsorption of cationic (basic) dyes by fixed yeast cells. J. Bacteriol. 89:390–397. 1965.—The adsorption of 10 typical cationic dyes on formalin-fixed yeast cells has been studied by determining isotherms, and the results are consistent with an ion-exchange mechanism. The adsorption on this complex substrate is similar to that on the simpler substrate, alumina. The dyes are probably aggregated when adsorbed, and the size of the aggregates increases with increase in the molecular weight of the dye ion. After considering the possible adsorption sites, and comparing the data with adsorption on simpler substrates, we suggest that the most important adsorption sites may be phosphate or other strongly acidic groups.

Giles, Charles H.; McKay, Robert B.

1965-01-01

24

Colour Removal from Synthetic Dye Wastewater Using a Bioadsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of dyes (Crystal Violet, Methylene Blue, Malachite Greenand Rhodamine B) from aqueous solutions at differentconcentrations, pH and temperatures by Neem sawdust has beencarried out successfully. The percentage of the dye adsorbed byNeem sawdust decreased from 91.56 to 78.94 and 84.93 to 71.25 for Crystal Violet and Malachite Green, respectively, when the concentration of the dye was increased from 6

S. D. Khattri; M. K. Singh

2000-01-01

25

Verifying Removal Of Red Penetrant Dye From Inspected Welds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clean surface assured for more sensitive inspection with fluorescent penetrant dye. Simple procedure devised to ensure visible (red) penetrant dye used to identify flaws in welded surface completely removed from surface. Consists in applying reversible penetrant developer to surface to be inspected.

Torkelson, Jan R.

1996-01-01

26

Removal of dyes from aqueous solution using fly ash and red mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash and red mud have been employed as adsorbents for the removal of a typical basic dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Heat treatment and chemical treatment have also been applied to the as-received fly ash and red mud samples. It is found that fly ash generally shows higher adsorption capacity than red mud. The raw fly ash and

Shaobin Wang; Y. Boyjoo; A. Choueib; Z. H. Zhu

2005-01-01

27

Treatment of Basic Red 29 dye solution using iron-aluminum electrode pairs by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the treatment of Basic Red 29 (BR29) dye solution using hybrid iron-aluminum electrodes by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods. The effect of current density, initial pH, supporting electrolyte, H2O2, and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency was investigated, and the best experimental conditions were obtained. Time-coarse variation of UV-Vis spectra and toxicity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were also examined at the best experimental conditions. Both systems were found very successful for the removal of BR29 dye. The removal efficiency of >95 % for BR29 dye solution was reached easily in a short time. At the best experimental conditions, for the initial BR29 concentration of 100 mg/L, >95 % BR29 dye and 71.43 % COD removal were obtained after 20 and 40 min of electrolysis, respectively. Additionally, toxicity results for electro-Fenton treatment of 100 mg/L BR29 were also very promising. According to the results obtained, although electro-Fenton is more effective, both systems can be used successfully to treat textile wastewater including dyes. PMID:24687790

Yavuz, Yusuf; Shahbazi, Reza; Koparal, A Sava?; O?ütveren, Ulker Bak?r

2014-07-01

28

Color removal from dye-containing wastewater by magnesium chloride.  

PubMed

Color removal by MgCl(2) when treating synthetic waste containing pure dyes was studied. The color removal efficiency of MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) was compared with that of Al(2)(SO(4))(3), polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and FeSO(4)/Ca(OH)(2). The mechanism of color removal by MgCl(2) was also investigated. The experimental results show that the color removal efficiency of MgCl(2) is related to the type of dye and depends on the pH of the waste and the dosage of the coagulants used. Treatment of waste containing reactive dye or dispersed dye with MgCl(2) yielded an optimum color removal ratio when the pH of the solution was equal to or above 12.0. For both the reactive and dispersed dye waste, MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) was shown to be superior to MgCl(2)/NaOH, Al(2)(SO(4))(3), PAC and FeSO(4)/Ca(OH)(2) for color removal. A magnesium hydroxide precipitate formed at pH values greater than 12.0, which provided a large adsorptive surface area and a positive electrostatic surface charge, enabling it to remove the dyes through charge neutralization and an adsorptive coagulating mechanism. So, the MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) system is a viable alternative to some of the more conventional forms of chemical treatment, especially for treating actual textile waste with high natural pH. PMID:16618529

Gao, Bao-Yu; Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Wei-Zhi

2007-01-01

29

Adsorption isotherm models for basic dye adsorption by peat in single and binary component systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colored effluents from textile industries are a problem in many rivers and waterways. Prediction of dye adsorption capacities is important in design considerations. The sorption of three basic dyes, namely Basic blue 3, Basic yellow 21, and Basic red 22, onto peat is reported. Equilibrium sorption isotherms have been measured for the three single-component systems. Equilibrium was achieved after 21

S. J. Allen; G. Mckay; J. F. Porter

2004-01-01

30

Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle  

PubMed Central

The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics.

2014-01-01

31

Removal of an anionic dye by adsorption/precipitation processes using alkaline white mud.  

PubMed

Alkaline white mud (AWM) has been investigated as a low-cost material for removal of an anionic dye, acid blue 80. The effects of contact time, initial pH of dye solution, AWM dosage, and the presence of inorganic anion sulphate or phosphate ion on removal of the dye were evaluated. The results show that AWM could be used as an effective material for removal of acid blue 80 in a pre or main process, particularly at high dye concentration (>300 mgL(-1)), reaching maximum removal efficiency of 95%. At low dye concentration, surface adsorption is mainly responsible for the dye removal, while chemical precipitation of the dye anions with soluble Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) may play a dominant role for the dye removal at high concentration, producing much less sludge than conventional adsorption method. Solution pH has only a limited effect on the dye removal due to high alkalinity and large pH buffer capacity of AWM suspension and thereby pH is not a limiting factor in pursuing high dye removal. The presence of SO(4)(2-) could reduce the dye removal by AWM only when SO(4)(2-) concentration is beyond 0.7 mmolL(-1). The dye removal may be significantly suppressed by the presence of phosphate with increasing concentration, and the reduction in the dye removal is much larger at high dye concentrations than at low ones. PMID:17532132

Zhu, Mao-Xu; Lee, Li; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wang, Zheng

2007-11-19

32

Effect of viscosity, basicity and organic content of composite flocculant on the decolorization performance and mechanism for reactive dyeing wastewater.  

PubMed

A coagulation/flocculation process using the composite flocculant polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin dimethylamine (PAC-EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of an anionic azo dye (Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP dye). The effect of viscosity (eta), basicity (B = [OH]/[Al]) and organic content (W(P)) on the flocculation performance as well as the mechanism of PAC-EPI-DMA flocculant were investigated. The eta was the key factor affecting the dye removal efficiency of PAC-EPI-DMA. PAC-EPI-DMA with an intermediate eta (2400 mPa x sec) gave higher decolorization efficiency by adsorption bridging and charge neutralization due to the co-effect of PAC and EPI-DMA polymers. The W(P) of the composite flocculant was a minor important factor for the flocculation. The adsorption bridging of PAC-EPI-DMA with eta of 300 or 4300 mPa x sec played an important role with the increase of W(P), whereas the charge neutralization of them was weaker with the increase of W(P). There was interaction between W(P) and B on the removal of reactive dye. The composite flocculant with intermediate viscosity and organic content was effective for the treatment of reactive dyeing wastewater, which could achieve high reactive dye removal efficiency with low organic dosage. PMID:22432257

Wang, Yuanfang; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan

2011-01-01

33

Removal of dyes from a synthetic textile dye effluent by biosorption on apple pomace and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with two low-cost, locally available, renewable biosorbents; apple pomace and wheat straw for textile dye removal. Experiments at total dye concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150, and 200mg\\/l were carried out with a synthetic effluent consisting of an equal mixture of five textile dyes. The effect of initial dye concentration, biosorbent particle size, quantity

T Robinson; B Chandran; P Nigam

2002-01-01

34

Kinetic modeling of the adsorption of basic dyes onto steam-activated bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

The principal aim of this work is to investigate the mechanism of basic dye (methylene blue (MB) and basic red (BR)) adsorption onto activated carbons produced from steam-activated bituminous coal. The rate of adsorption onto various activated carbons, produced in small laboratory-scale and pilot-industrial-scale processes, was investigated under a variety of conditions. The kinetic data from these investigations were correlated to a number of adsorption models in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of the adsorption processes. The adsorption mechanism was found to follow pseudo-second-order and intraparticle-diffusion models, with external mass transfer predominating in the first 5 min of the experiment. Filtrasorb 400 (Chemviron Carbon) exhibited the highest adsorption rate for the removal of basic dyes followed by activated carbons produced by our research group: PAC1 (activated carbon produced from Venezuelan bituminous coal in small laboratory scale using physical activation technique) and PAC2 (activated carbon produced by the steam activation of New Zealand bituminous coal on a pilot-industrial scale).

El Qada, E.N.; Allen, S.J.; Walker, G.M. [Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15

35

Adsorptive removal of reactive azo dye from an aqueous phase onto charfines and activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents results pertaining to the adsorptive removal of reactive azo dye onto a low cost coal-based adsorbent (charfines) and its efficiency in dye colour sorption was compared with activated carbon (F400). Batch sorption studies were performed and the results revealed that charfines demonstrated an ability to adsorb the reactive azo dye. The sorption interaction of reactive dye on

S. Venkata Mohan; J. Karthikeyan

2004-01-01

36

Effect of carbon surface chemistry on the removal of reactive dyes from textile effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal efficiency of activated carbon Filtrasorb 400 (F-400) towards three highly used reactive dyes in the textile industry was investigated. In this work, the adsorption capacities for the anionic reactive dyes, namely; Remazol Reactive Yellow, Remazol Reactive Black and Remazol Reactive Red were determined. The adsorption capacity data showed a high removal ability for the three reactive dyes and

Y. Al-Degs; M. A. M. Khraisheh; S. J. Allen; M. N. Ahmad

2000-01-01

37

Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.  

PubMed

Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater. PMID:22996821

Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

2013-05-01

38

Low-cost adsorbents from bio-waste for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Activated carbons (ACs) were developed from bio-waste materials like rice husk and peanut shell (PS) by various physicochemical activation methods. PS char digested in nitric acid followed by treatment at 673 K resulted in high surface area up to ?585 m(2)/g. The novelty of the present study is the identification of oxygen functional groups formed on the surface of activated carbons by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quantification by using temperature programmed decomposition (TPD). Typical TPD data indicated that each activation method may lead to varying amounts of acidic and basic functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent, which may be a crucial factor in determining the adsorption capacity. It was shown that ACs developed during the present study are good adsorbents, especially for the removal of a model textile dye methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. As MB is a basic dye, H(2)O(2)-treated rice husk showed the best adsorption capacity, which is in agreement with the acidic groups present on the surface. Removal of the dye followed Langmuir isotherm model, whereas MB adsorption on ACs followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. PMID:23233187

Manoj Kumar Reddy, P; Mahammadunnisa, Sk; Ramaraju, B; Sreedhar, B; Subrahmanyam, Ch

2013-06-01

39

Discovery and structural elucidation of the illegal azo dye Basic Red 46 in sumac spice.  

PubMed

An unknown red dye was discovered in a sumac spice sample during routine analysis for Sudan dyes. LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS did not reveal the identity of the red substance. Nevertheless, using LC-high-resolution MS and isotope ratio comparisons the structure was identified as Basic Red 46. The identity of the dye was further confirmed by comparison with a commercial hair-staining product and two textile dye formulations containing Basic Red 46. Analogous to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is an azo dye. However, some of the sample clean-up methodology utilised for the analysis of Sudan dyes in food prevents its successful detection. In contrast to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is a cation. Its cationic properties make it bind strongly to gel permeation columns and silica solid-phase extraction cartridges and prevent elution with standard eluents. This is the first report of Basic Red 46 in food. The structure elucidation of this compound as well as the disadvantages of analytical methods focusing on a narrow group of targeted analytes are discussed. PMID:22455543

Ruf, J; Walter, P; Kandler, H; Kaufmann, A

2012-01-01

40

Discovery and structural elucidation of the illegal azo dye Basic Red 46 in sumac spice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unknown red dye was discovered in a sumac spice sample during routine analysis for Sudan dyes. LC-DAD and LC-MS\\/MS did not reveal the identity of the red substance. Nevertheless, using LC-high-resolution MS and isotope ratio comparisons the structure was identified as Basic Red 46. The identity of the dye was further confirmed by comparison with a commercial hair-staining product

J. Ruf; P. Walter; H. Kandler; A. Kaufmann

2012-01-01

41

Alkali, thermo and halo tolerant fungal isolate for the removal of textile dyes.  

PubMed

In the present study potential of a fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulusFJ172995, was investigated for the removal of textile dyes. The removal percentages of dyes such as Acid Navy Blue, Orange-HF, Fast Red A, Acid Sulphone Blue and Acid Magenta were determined as 99.43, 98.82, 98.75, 97.67 and 69.98, respectively. None of the dyes inhibited the growth of A. lentulus. Detailed studies on growth kinetics, mechanism of dye removal and effect of different parameters on dye removal were conducted using Acid Navy Blue dye. It was observed that A. lentulus could completely remove Acid Navy Blue even at high initial dye concentrations, up to 900 mg/L. Highest uptake capacity of 212.92 mg/g was observed at an initial dye concentration of 900 mg/L. Dye removing efficiency was not altered with the variation of pH; and biomass production as well as dye removal was favored at higher temperatures. Dye removal was also efficient even at high salt concentration. Through growth kinetics studies it was observed that the initial exponential growth phase coincided with the phase of maximal dye removal. Microscopic studies suggest that bioaccumulation along with biosorption is the principle mechanism involved in dye removal by A. lentulus. Thus, it is concluded that being alkali, thermo and halo tolerant, A. lentulus isolate has a great potential to be utilized for the treatment of dye bearing effluents which are usually alkaline, hot and saline. PMID:20708386

Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

2010-11-01

42

Further Studies on the Use of Basic Dyes for Measuring the Hydrolysis of Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper (1), the author has shown that hydrolysis of fat can be detected by means of a number of common basic dyes, provided that the base of the dye, which is usually fat soluble, has a different color from its salts. Hydrolysis is then indicated by the appearance of the color charac- teristic of the soap formed

Georges Knaysi

1942-01-01

43

MODIFICATION OF MUTAGENESIS INITIATED BY ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT THROUGH POSTTREATMENT OF BACTERIA WITH BASIC DYES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttreatment with basic dyes, in concentrations that retard cell ; division, was found to influence the tnduction of mutations to prototrophy by UV ; light in a tyrosine-requirtng strain of E. Coli. Pyronin, which is unique among ; the dyes in tts selective affinity for RNA, was found to duplicate the effects of ; chloramphenicol or amino acfd deprtvatfon in

Evelyn M. Witkin

1961-01-01

44

Biosorption of Astrazone Blue basic dye from an aqueous solution using dried biomass of Baker's yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study dried biomass of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used as a sorbent for Astrazone Blue basic dye aqueous solution.Factors affecting the adsorption process: dye concentration, contact time, temperature and pH were investigated. The equilibrium concentration and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium were determined using three different sorption models namely: Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. It was found

Joseph Y. Farah; Nour Sh. El-Gendy; Laila A. Farahat

2007-01-01

45

AUTOMATIC EXCHANGE RESIN PILOT PLANT FOR REMOVAL OF TEXTILE DYE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of the use of adsorption resins to remove colored dyes from textile dyeing wastewaters, using an automated benchscale pilot unit. This could make possible the reuse of the treated wastewaters in subsequent dyeing operations. The scale ...

46

Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of three basic dyes, named basic violet 10, basic violet 1, and basic green 4, from aqueous solutions onto sugarcane dust was studied. The results revealed the potential of sugarcane dust, a waste material, to be a low-cost sorbent. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the three-parameter Redlich–Peterson isotherms. In order to determine the

Yuh-Shan Ho; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chung-Chi Wang

2005-01-01

47

Removal of dye stuffs from waste water: Electrocoagulation of Acilan Blau using soluble anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to remove a dye such as Acilan Blau using an electrochemical method. In the process a bipolar packed bed electrochemical reactor consisting of soluble electrodes was used and operated in the batch mode. Effects of several factors on the removal rate have been examined such as pH, presence of supporting electrolyte, duration of electrolysis, initial dye

Ülker Bakir Ögütveren; Nuray Gönen; Sava? Koparal

1992-01-01

48

The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution on modified peat–resin particle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified peat was prepared by mixing thoroughly raw peat with sulfuric acid, and modified peat–resin particle was obtained, by mixing modified peat with solutions of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and formaldehyde. In this paper, the adsorption of Basic Magenta and Basic Brilliant Green onto modified peat–resin particle is examined. The adsorption isotherm showed that the adsorption of basic dyes on modified peat–resin

Qingye Sun; Linzhang Yang

2003-01-01

49

Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing applications of hazardous azo dyes as industrialized coloring agents have led to serious remediation challenges. In this study, proteinaceous nanofibrils were examined as coagulants for decolorization of azo dyes in aqueous solutions. The results provided some insight regarding the mechanism of dye removal. The strength of nanofibrils to remove dyes from solution was evaluated by remediation of acid red 88, Bismarck brown R, direct violet 51, reactive black 5, and Congo red. However, the efficiency of nanofibrils to coagulate with different dyes was variable (60-98%) and dependent on the structures of dyes and the physicochemical conditions of the solutions. Increasing the temperature or ionic strength declined the coagulation time and induced the rate of dye removal. Changing pH had contradictory effects on the dye removal efficiency which was more affected by the chemical structure of the dye rather than the change in stability of the coagulant. The efficiency of nanofibrils to remove dyes was more than that of charcoal, which is considered as one of the most common substances used for azo dye remediation which may be due to its well dispersion in the aqueous solutions, and slower rates of the coagulation than that of the adsorption process. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was not detected after treating cell cultures with the decolorized solutions. Accordingly, by integrating biological and biophysicochemical processes, proteinaceous nanofibrils can be promising candidates for treatment of colored wastewaters. Ease of production, proper and quick dispersion in water, without the production of dangerous dye by-products and derivatives, are some of the main advantages of nanofibrils. PMID:23999142

Morshedi, Dina; Mohammadi, Zeinab; Akbar Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi; Aliakbari, Farhang

2013-12-01

50

The flocculation performance of Tamarindus mucilage in relation to removal of vat and direct dyes.  

PubMed

A food grade natural mucilage, extracted from the seeds of Tamarindus indica pods, is used as a flocculant for removal of solubilised vat (golden yellow) and direct dye (direct fast scarlet) in aqueous solutions. The maximum removal obtained was 60% for golden yellow after 2 h and was 25% for direct fast scarlet after 1 h. The optimum mucilage dose was 10 mg/l and 15 mg/l for golden yellow and direct fast scarlet, respectively. The pH values also seem to affect the percent removal of both the dyes significantly. In case of vat dye, the pH value of the test samples affected the percent removal significantly. The change was highly significant between neutral and alkaline pH. In case of direct dye, there was no significant change in percent removal at pH 7 and pH 4 whereas a significant change in percent removal was observed between pH 7 and pH 9.2. The plausible mucilage-dye interaction and flocculation mechanism has been discussed. This new flocculant works better in the case of vat dye removal compared with the direct dye. PMID:16219461

Mishra, Anuradha; Bajpai, Malvika

2006-05-01

51

Hydrothermal conversion of urban food waste to chars for removal of textile dyes from contaminated waters.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal carbonization of urban food waste was carried out to prepare hydrochars for removal of Acridine Orange and Rhodamine 6G dyes from contaminated water. The chemical composition and microstructure properties of the synthesized hydrochars were investigated in details. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that hydrochars with lower degree of carbonization were more efficient in adsorption of dyes. Operational parameters such as pH and temperature had a strong influence on the dye uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations suggested that dye adsorption onto hydrochars was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of dye removal appears to be associated with physisorption. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling was further carried out to predict the dye adsorption capacity of the hydrochars. PMID:24727353

Parshetti, Ganesh K; Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2014-06-01

52

Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

2013-12-01

53

Removal of Ionic Dyes from Water by Solvent Extraction Using Reverse Micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods (e.g., UV\\/H2O2 oxidation, adsorption, flocculation-precipitation) are normally employed to remove dye from water. A new technique based on liquid\\/liquid extraction using reverse micelles is proposed whereby recovery of solvent and reuse of dye is possible. Experiments were conducted by mixing a known quantity of dye in aqueous phase and solvent-containing surfactants in a simple mixer. The separation of

P. P ANDIT; S. B ASU; Hauz Khas

54

Starch/polyaniline nanocomposite for enhanced removal of reactive dyes from synthetic effluent.  

PubMed

Starch/polyaniline nanocomposite was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and was subsequently analyzed for dye removal from aqueous solution. Batch experiment results showed that nanocomposite removed 99% of Reactive Black 5, 98% of Reactive Violet 4, and decolorized 87% of dye bath effluent. The Toth isotherm model better described single component equilibrium adsorption, whereas the modified Freundlich model showed satisfactory fit for dye bath. In kinetic modeling, single system followed pseudo-second-order and dye bath followed the modified pseudo-first-order model. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy pattern of the nanocomposite showed the participation of aromatic, amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups. The results indicate that starch/polyaniline nanocomposite can be used as an effective adsorbent for removal of dyes from textile effluents. PMID:22944400

Janaki, V; Vijayaraghavan, K; Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Kui-Jae; Muthuchelian, K; Ramasamy, A K; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

2012-11-01

55

Removal of an anionic dye (Acid Blue 92) by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan.  

PubMed

Chitosan (a biopolymer) is an aminopolysaccharide that can be used for the treatment of colored solutions by coagulation-flocculation (as an alternative to more conventional processes such as sorption). Acid Blue 92 (a sulfonic dye) was selected as a model dye for verifying chitosan's ability to treat textile wastewater. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that chitosan was more efficient at color removal in tap water than in demineralized water, and that a substantially lower concentration of chitosan could be used with tap water. Dye removal reached up to 99% under optimum concentration; i.e., in terms of the acidic solutions and the stoichiometric ratio between the amine groups of the biopolymer and the sulfonic groups in the dye. The flocs were recovered and the dye was efficiently removed using alkaline solutions (0.001-1 M NaOH solutions) and the biopolymer, re-dissolved in acetic acid solution, was reused in a further treatment cycle. PMID:19467769

Szygu?a, Agata; Guibal, Eric; Arińo Palacín, María; Ruiz, Montserrat; Sastre, Ana Maria

2009-07-01

56

Adsorptive features of banana (Musa paradisiaca) stalk-based activated carbon for malachite green dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically prepared activated carbon derived from banana stalk (BSAC) was used as an adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. BSAC was characterised using thermogravimetric analyser, Brunauer Emmett Teller, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, pHpzc, elemental analysis and Boehm titration. The effectiveness of BSAC in adsorbing MG dye was studied as a function of pH,

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Mohd Azmier Ahmad; Norhidayah Ahmad

2012-01-01

57

Adsorptive features of banana (Musa paradisiaca) stalk-based activated carbon for malachite green dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically prepared activated carbon derived from banana stalk (BSAC) was used as an adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. BSAC was characterised using thermogravimetric analyser, Brunauer Emmett Teller, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, pHpzc, elemental analysis and Boehm titration. The effectiveness of BSAC in adsorbing MG dye was studied as a function of pH,

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Mohd Azmier Ahmad; Norhidayah Ahmad

2011-01-01

58

Dye removal from wastewater using activated carbon developed from sawdust: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mahogany sawdust was used to develop an effective carbon adsorbent. This adsorbent was employed for the removal of direct dyes from spent textile dyeing wastewater. The experimental data were analysed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetics with good

P. K. Malik

2004-01-01

59

Textile dye removal by natural clay – case study of Fouchana Tunisian clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant amount of unused dyes remain in textile industry wastewater, the treatment of which presents a great challenge, particularly in semi?arid countries where water resources are of great concern. Liquid?phase adsorption is highly efficient for the removal of dyes and adsorbents, for example, activated carbons are used to treat wastewater, but are expensive. Clays are cheaper and several works

E. Errais; J. Duplay; F. Darragi

2010-01-01

60

Competitive Adsorption of Basic Dyes onto Calcite in Single and Binary Component Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium and kinetic behavior of two basic dyes, Methylene Blue (MB) and Safranine T (ST), onto calcite in single and binary component systems have been studied. Experimental equilibrium results have been well predicted by the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. The model parameters obtained for single solute systems at 298 K have been used for the calculation of adsorption isotherms

Gülten Atun; Elif Türker Acar

2010-01-01

61

Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) Shell Based Activated Carbon for the Removal of Malachite Green Dye From Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of malachite green (MG) dye using coconut shell based activated carbon (CSAC) was investigated. Operational factors such as effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and solution temperature on the adsorption process were studied. Solution pH strongly affected the chemistry of both the dye molecule and CSAC in solution. Optimum dye removal was obtained at

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

2012-01-01

62

Optimisation of reactive dye removal by sequential electrocoagulation-flocculation method: comparing ANN and RSM prediction.  

PubMed

The removal of Reactive Black 5 dye in an aqueous solution by electrocoagulation (EC) as well as addition of flocculant was investigated. The effect of operational parameters, i.e. current density, treatment time, solution conductivity and polymer dosage, was investigated. Two models, namely the artificial neural network (ANN) and the response surface method (RSM), were used to model the effect of independent variables on percentage of dye removal. The findings of this work showed that current density, treatment time and dosage of polymer had the most significant effect on percentage of dye removal (p<0.001). In addition, interaction between time and current density, time and dosage of polymer, current density and dosage of polymer also significantly affected the percentage of dye removal (p=0.034, 0.003 and 0.024, respectively). It was shown that both the ANN and RSM models were able to predict well the experimental results (R(2)>0.8). PMID:21411950

Nourouzi, M Mohsen; Chuah, T G; Choong, Thomas S Y

2011-01-01

63

Photocatalytic removal of C.I. Basic Red 46 on immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles: Artificial neural network modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

C.I. Basic Red 46, commonly used as a textile dye, was photocatalytically removed using supported TiO2 nanoparticles irradiated by a 30 W UV?C lamp in a batch reactor. The investigated photocatalyst was industrial Degussa P25 (crystallite mean size 21 nm) immobilized on glass beads by a heat attachment method. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques.

A. R. Khataee

2009-01-01

64

Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous medium by nano poly acrylonitrile particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concerns the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) dye using nano-poly Acrylonitrile (PAN) and hydroximated nano-poly Acrylonitrile (HPAN) particles prepared by precipitation polymerization technique. The effect of the process variables including contact time, pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the adsorption characters for PAN and HPAN was studied. The removal percentage varied from 100% to 60% with MB

Mohamed Samir Mohy Eldin; S. A. El-Sakka; M. M. El-Masry; I. I. Abdel-Gawad; S. S. Garybe

2012-01-01

65

Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

Tsui, L. S.; Roy, W. R.; Cole, M. A.

2003-01-01

66

Agricultural based activated carbons for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions: a review.  

PubMed

This review evaluates a number of different agricultural waste adsorbents and types of dyes. Certain wastewater containing different dye contaminants causes serious environmental problems. Recently, growing research interest in the production of carbon based has been focused on agricultural by-products. Low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural wastes have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Therefore, low cost agricultural waste adsorbents can be viable alternatives to activated carbon for the treatment of contaminated wastewater. The use of cheap and eco-friendly adsorbents have been studied as an alternative substitution of activated carbon for the removal dyes from wastewater. The dye adsorption capacities of agricultural waste adsorbents vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of surface modification and the initial concentration of adsorbate. PMID:19181447

Demirbas, Ayhan

2009-08-15

67

Utilization of carbon nanotubes for the removal of rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attracting increasing research interest as promising adsorbents for harmful cations, anions, and other organic and inorganic impurities present in natural sources of water. This study examined the feasibility of removing Rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions using multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The effects of dye concentration, pH and contact time on adsorption of direct dye by CNTs were also evaluated. The study used the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms to describe equilibrium adsorption. Additionally, pseudo second-order model was adopted to evaluate experimental data and thereby elucidate the kinetic adsorption process. The adsorption percentage of dye increased as contact time increased. Conversely, the adsorption percentage of dye decreased as dye concentration increased. The pseudo second-order model best represented adsorption kinetics. The capacity of CNTs to adsorb Rhodamine B was 65-90% at different pH values. PMID:24738392

Kumar, Sandeep; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Jangra, Kavita; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Umar, Ahmad

2014-06-01

68

Continuous gamma irradiation effects on acrylic staining treated with basic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma photons were used as a tool to enhance colours producing of the acrylic fibres used in the manufacture of textile in Iraq. Acrylic fibres and basic dyes were irradiated at doses up to 5 Mrad. Different fascinating colours were obtained after the dyeing process. Colours were found to depend on the total dose absorbed. Developed colours are stable against decolorization and their staining are comparable to that of the normal non-irradiated material. Computer Nova 3 fortran was used to differentiate between the obtained colours. Further physical and chemical studies are still under investigation in order to view the nature of changes that took place during radiolysis.

Al-Rawi, Anis M.; Al-Harithy, Rafila S.; Muslih, Raad M.

69

REMOVAL OF AZO DYES BY THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research & Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research designed to develop techniques for predicting the fate of azo dyes in typical wastewater treatment systems which are treating wastewater ...

70

Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: a review.  

PubMed

In this review article the authors presented up to-date development on the application of adsorption in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. This review article provides extensive literature information about dyes, its classification and toxicity, various treatment methods, and dye adsorption characteristics by various adsorbents. One of the objectives of this review article is to organise the scattered available information on various aspects on a wide range of potentially effective adsorbents in the removal of dyes. Therefore, an extensive list of various adsorbents such as natural materials, waste materials from industry, agricultural by-products, and biomass based activated carbon in the removal of various dyes has been compiled here. Dye bearing waste treatment by adsorption using low cost alternative adsorbent is a demanding area as it has double benefits i.e. water treatment and waste management. Further, activated carbon from biomass has the advantage of offering an effected low cost replacement for non-renewable coal based granular activated carbon provided that they have similar or better adsorption on efficiency. The effectiveness of various adsorbents under different physico-chemical process parameters and their comparative adsorption capacity towards dye adsorption has also been presented. This review paper also includes the affective adsorption factors of dye such as solution pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The applicability of various adsorption kinetic models and isotherm models for dye removal by wide range of adsorbents is also reported here. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed and few suggestions for future research are proposed. PMID:24780401

Yagub, Mustafa T; Sen, Tushar Kanti; Afroze, Sharmeen; Ang, H M

2014-07-01

71

Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-Loaded Alginate Composite Beads for Removing Dye from Aqueous Solutions.  

PubMed

Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate beads were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate gels to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite beads could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite beads was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite beads effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly. PMID:24945580

Yang, Chih-Hui; Shih, Ming-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Chen; Huang, Keng-Shiang

2014-01-01

72

Removal of direct dyes by coagulation: the performance of preformed polymeric aluminum species.  

PubMed

Removal of three direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Red 28, and Direct Blue 86) by coagulation with three different Al based coagulants was investigated. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the coagulation features of polymeric aluminum coagulants in treatment of dye-polluted waters and the emphasis was placed on the roles of preformed Al species, particularly Al(13). The performance of Al(13) in coagulation of dyes was observed through jar tests by comparing traditional Al salt, polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and purified Al(13). The results showed that under most cases Al(13) had significantly higher efficiency in removal of direct dyes than traditional Al salt and commercial PACl with the exception of Direct Red 28 removal under high pH range. The coagulation of direct dyes could be greatly affected by pH. Reducing pH was favorable for preformed Al species in a broad pH range. For traditional Al coagulant, efficient dye removal only occurred in a relatively narrow pH range of near 6.0. The outstanding coagulation behavior of Al(13) could be ascribed to its high charge neutralization ability, relative stability and potential self-assembly tendency. PMID:17070993

Shi, Baoyou; Li, Guohong; Wang, Dongsheng; Feng, Chenghong; Tang, Hongxiao

2007-05-01

73

Removal of Basic Green 4 from Wastewater by Adsorption on Biomass Ash and Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are usually present in trace quantities in the treated effluents of many industries. The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. The present study investigates the potential use of ash prepared from cow dung cakes, mango stones and parthenium leaves along with a sample of commercially available

Abhiti Purai; V. K. Rattan

2010-01-01

74

Analysis of basic hair dyes by HPLC with on-line post-column photochemical derivatisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method is proposed for the analysis of basic hair dyes (raw materials and colourant formulations). The performance of the method was enhanced by introducing post-column on-line photochemical derivatisation in combination with a Diode Array Detector. On-line photoderivatisation provided an effective way of selectively transforming the analytes to compounds with different spectral properties. For each analyte

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. DiPietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

75

Surface modification of the Corynebacterium glutamicum biomass to increase carboxyl binding site for basic dye molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop a surface-modified biosorbent with enhanced sorption capacity of cationic dye Basic Blue 3 (BB 3). The biomass of Corynebacterium glutamicum was modified using citric acid (CA). The optimal modification conditions were the mixing of the biomass with 0.8M citric acid solution at a 1:10 ratio, and heating at 120°C for 3.5h. Hydroxyl

Juan Mao; Sung Wook Won; Sun Beom Choi; Min Woo Lee; Yeoung-Sang Yun

2009-01-01

76

REMOVAL OF METHYL ORANGE AND METHYLENE BLUE DYE FROM WATER USING COLLOIDAL GAS APHRON—EFFECT OF PROCESSES PARAMETERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloidal gas aphron (CGA) was used in a flotation column to remove methyl orange and methylene blue dye from water. The effect of process parameters, i.e., surfactant type and concentration, CGA flow rate, CGA diameter and gas holdup, pH, residence time, and salt concentration, were studied through measurements of percent dye removal. The overall percent removal of methyl orange and

S. Basu; P. R. Malpani

2001-01-01

77

Assessment on the Removal of Methylene Blue Dye using Tamarind Fruit Shell as Biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarind fruit shell was used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The various\\u000a factors affecting adsorption, such as agitation, pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature, were investigated.\\u000a The dye adsorption capacity was strongly dependent on solution pH as well as temperature. The Langmuir isotherm model showed\\u000a good fit to the equilibrium

Papita Saha

2010-01-01

78

Use of immobilised Chlorella vulgaris for the removal of colour from textile dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge of textile wastewater containing toxic dyes can adversely affect the aquatic ecosystems and human health. The objective\\u000a of the present study was to investigate the potential use of immobilised Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 in removing colour from textile dyes (Supranol Red 3BW, Lanaset Red 2GA and Levafix Navy Blue EBNA) and textile\\u000a wastewater (TW). Two immobilisation matrices were used,

Wan-Loy Chu; Yike-Chu See; Siew-Moi Phang

2009-01-01

79

Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H3PO4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

Peláez-Cid, A. A.; Tlalpa-Galán, M. A.; Herrera-González, A. M.

2013-06-01

80

Removal of acid and direct dye by epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine: flocculation performance and floc aggregation properties.  

PubMed

A cationic organic flocculant epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of acid and direct dye. The study aims at investigating the flocculation performance of EPI-DMA for the model dye, and corresponding floc aggregation properties, which were determined by jar test and photometric dispersion analysis, respectively. The interactions between cationic flocculant and anionic dye were investigated through spectra analysis. The results showed that EPI-DMA effectively decolorized the tested acid and direct dye. The viscosity and cationicity of EPI-DMA had different influence on the removal of different dye. Chemical interaction was observed between quaternary ammonium of EPI-DMA and sulfonic group of dye. The flocculation dynamic process showed that flocs with better aggregation and sedimentation properties were produced by EPI-DMA with higher viscosity and cationicity for acid dye. Contrarily, flocs with the best aggregation and sedimentation properties were produced by EPI-DMA with the lowest viscosity and cationicity for direct dye. PMID:22209132

Wang, Yuan-Fang; Gao, Bao-Yu; Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhong-Lian

2012-06-01

81

Biosorption of Astrazone Blue basic dye from an aqueous solution using dried biomass of Baker's yeast.  

PubMed

In this study dried biomass of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used as a sorbent for Astrazone Blue basic dye aqueous solution. Factors affecting the adsorption process: dye concentration, contact time, temperature and pH were investigated. The equilibrium concentration and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium were determined using three different sorption models namely: Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. It was found that increasing temperature and pH result in higher dye loadings per unit weight of the sorbent. The results gained from this study were described by Langmuir isotherm model better than Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The calculated heat of adsorption of the dye-yeast system indicates that the bio-sorption process is taking place by chemical adsorption and has an endothermic nature. The maximum adsorption capacity at 30 degrees C and pH 7 was calculated as 70 mg/g for dried biomass of Baker's yeast compared to 18.5mg/g for commercial granular activated carbon, indicating that dried biomass of Baker's yeast can be considered as a good sorbent material for Astrazone Blue solution. PMID:17400371

Farah, Joseph Y; El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Farahat, Laila A

2007-09-01

82

Removal of organic polycyclic compounds from water solutions with a magnetic chitosan based sorbent bearing copper phthalocyanine dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic chitosan gel particles, bearing covalently immobilized copper phthalocyanine dye (“magnetic blue citosan”), were prepared and used for the isolation and\\/or removal of polycyclic dyes from water solutions and suspensions. Binding of these polycyclic dyes occures by a chemical equilibrated and saturatable mechanism, following the Langmuir adsorption model. The values of maximum uptake (maximum adsorption capacity) were calculated. The bound

Ivo Šafa?ík

1995-01-01

83

Removal mechanism of cationic dye (Safranin O) from the aqueous phase by dead macro fungus biosorbent.  

PubMed

Batch biosorption parametric experiments were carried out to delineate the removal mechanism of cationic dye, namely, Safranin O, from the aqueous phase using biosorbent prepared from wood rotting dead macro fungus 'Fomitopsis carnea'. Experimental data of the kinetic experiments at various temperatures (19, 27 and 35 °C) were well described using pseudo-second order kinetic models. Raising temperature from 19 to 35 °C enhanced the dye uptake potential of the biosorbent from 1,000 to 1,250 mg/g. The other variables studied were the effect of common salt (NaCl) and pH on the dye removal potential of the biosorbent. Decreased dye removal (%) efficiency at higher salt concentration suggests involvement of an ion-exchange type sorption mechanism. The pH study revealed that dye removal may occur due to the existence of an electrostatic attraction force between negatively charged biosorbent particles and dye cation. However desorption using mineral acid (H2SO4 and HCl) exhibited the highest desorption up to 76%, followed by organic acid (52%) and distilled water (not more than 2%) indicating the possibility of ion-exchange as the dominating dye sorption mechanism. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of the biosorbent, Safranin O and Safranin O loaded biosorbent also supported the possibility of ion-exchange as the dominating mechanism due to the presence of major peaks of Safranin O on the IR spectra of Safranin O loaded biosorbent, indicating that the Safranin O was present in its unaltered form on the surface of the biosorbent. PMID:24037155

Maurya, N S; Mittal, A K

2013-01-01

84

Three-dimensional graphene oxide nanostructure for fast and efficient water-soluble dye removal.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated the potential of graphene nanomaterials as environmental pollutant adsorbents by utilizing the characteristics of ultralarge surface area and strong ?-? interaction on the surface. We generated a three-dimensional (3D) graphene oxide sponge (GO sponge) from a GO suspension through a simple centrifugal vacuum evaporation method, and used them to remove both the methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) dyes which are main contaminants from the dye manufacturing and textile finishing. The efficiency and speed of dye adsorption on a GO sponge was investigated under various parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, temperature, and pH. The adsorption process shows that 99.1% of MB and 98.8% of MV have been removed and the equilibrium status has been reached in 2 min. The 3D GO sponge displays adsorption capacity as high as 397 and 467 mg g(-1) for MB and MV dye, respectively, and the kinetic data reveal that the adsorption process of MB and MV dyes is well-matched with the pseudo second-order model. The MB and MV adsorption on the 3D GO sponge involved in endothermic chemical adsorption through the strong ?-? stacking and anion-cation interaction with the activation energy of 50.3 and 70.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The 3D GO sponge has demonstrated its high capability as an organic dye scavenger with high speed and efficiency. PMID:22206476

Liu, Fei; Chung, Soyi; Oh, Gahee; Seo, Tae Seok

2012-02-01

85

Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ? Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ? Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ? Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ? AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: nm_mahmoodi@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farhood [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15

86

Organofunctionalized Amazon smectite for dye removal from aqueous medium--kinetic and thermodynamic adsorption investigations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to examine the adsorption behavior of Sumifix Brilliant Orange 3R textile dye from aqueous solution on smectite sample, an abundant Amazon clay. The original smectite clay mineral has been collected from Amazon region, Brazil. The compound 2-aminomethylpyridine was anchored onto smectite surface by heterogeneous route. The ability of these materials to remove the Sumifix Brilliant Orange 3R textile dye from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms, using a batchwise process. The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 1.26 and 2.07 mmol g(-1) for natural and modified clay samples, respectively. The energetic effects caused by dye cations adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. Thermodynamics indicated the existence of favorable conditions for such dye-nitrogen interactions. PMID:21146923

Guerra, Denis L; Silva, Weber L L; Oliveira, Helen C P; Viana, Rúbia R; Airoldi, Claudio

2011-02-15

87

Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].  

PubMed

Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (?) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. PMID:24491599

Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

2014-11-01

88

Stimulation of reactive dye removal by cyanobacteria in media containing triacontanol hormone.  

PubMed

In this study, Reactive Red, Remazol Blue, and Reactive Black B removal capacities of Synechocystis sp. and Phormidium sp. were investigated. The microorganisms were cultivated in 100ml BG 11 medium and incubated at 30 degrees C under continuous illumination (12.5 wm(-2) (2400 lx)) for 20 days in plant growth chamber. Trials were carried out at pH 9.5 for Reactive Red, pH 8.5 for Remazol Blue and Reactive Black B removal in media without and with triacontanol (TRIA). Removal capacities of Synechocystis sp. and Phormidium sp. were found higher in media containing TRIA. So that, Synechocystis sp. and Phormidium sp. removed Reactive Red with 25.7% and 35.4%, Remazol Blue with 37.5% and 25.5%, and Reactive Black B with 29.2% and 28.3% yield at 25 mg l(-1) dye concentrations, respectively. There is no report investigating dye removal by Synechocystis sp. and removal of pollutants in media including TRIA hormone. Our data indicated the cyanobacteria tested in this study were suitable for effective treatment processes of such wastewaters including reactive dyes, and their removal capacity could be increased by TRIA, through stimulation of the biomass production. PMID:19740608

Karacakaya, Pinar; Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Duygu, Ergin; Dönmez, Gönül

2009-12-30

89

Enhancing removal efficiency of anionic dye by combination and calcination of clay materials and calcium hydroxide.  

PubMed

We explored a feasible approach to enhance removal capacity of three natural clays for removing anionic dye from aqueous solution. Optimal mixing proportions of the clay materials and temperature range for the calcination were investigated. We found that the removal efficiency can be improved significantly when the clay materials were mixed at certain ratio with the addition of lime and the mixed clay materials were calcined 100-300 degrees C. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of initial concentration, material dosage, contact time and pH on dye elimination. Kinetic study showed that more than 80% dye removal took place in 5 min. A high removal capacity (>575 mg g(-1)) of the mixed clay materials can be achieved at a low adsorbent dose. The mixed clay materials can be easily recovered by thermal treatment. The recovered mixtures demonstrated an enhanced removal capability after a few cycles of removal and regeneration. The results revealed that use of these clay materials could develop a low-cost treatment process for industrial wastewater. PMID:19604637

Vimonses, Vipasiri; Jin, Bo; Chow, Christopher W K; Saint, Chris

2009-11-15

90

Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-08-01

91

Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350 degrees C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model producing the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics. PMID:16626729

Li, Lin; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua

2006-08-01

92

Some properties of a sequencing batch reactor system for removal of vat dyes.  

PubMed

Bio-sludge from a wastewater treatment plant could be used as an adsorbent of vat dye from textile wastewater. Resting bio-sludge gave a higher adsorption capacity than dead bio-sludge. The resting bio-sludge from a textile wastewater treatment plant gave relatively high COD, BOD5 and dye adsorption capacity of 364.4 +/- 4.3, 178.0 +/- 9.0 and 50.5 +/- 1.3 mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively, in synthetic textile wastewater containing 40 mg/l Vat Yellow 1. Another advantage of the bio-sludge was that, after washing with 0.1 N NaOH solution, it was reusable without any activity loss. Through treatment with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system, both organic and dye in STIWW could be removed. The maximum dye (Vat Yellow 1), COD, BOD5 and TKN removal efficiencies of the SBR system under an MLSS of 2000 mg/l and an HRT of three days were 98.5 +/- 1.0%, 96.9 +/- 0.7%, 98.6 +/- 0.1% and 93.4 +/- 1.3%, respectively. Although, the dye and organic removal efficiencies of the SBR system with real textile wastewater were quite low, they could be increased by adding organic matters, especially glucose. The dye, COD, BOD5 and TKN removal efficiencies of the SBR system with glucose (0.89 g/l) supplemented textile industrial wastewater were 75.12 +/- 1.2%, 70.61 +/- 3.4%, 96.7 +/- 0.0%, and 63.2 +/- 1.1%, respectively. PMID:16023339

Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Chairattanawan, Kanidta; Jungphungsukpanich, Sawanya

2006-07-01

93

Adsorptive Removal of Congo Red Dye Using Ultrasonically Pretreated Strychnos potatorum Seed Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study highlights the removal of Congo red from its aqueous solution using Strychnos potatorum seed powder (SPSP), an Indian seed, used from ancient times for the treatment of turbid water. Surface activation of the adsorbent was carried out using ultra sonication techniques. Comparative studies on the uptake of the dye by both unsonicated and sonicated adsorbents were carried out.

Athinthra Krishnaswamy Sethurajan; Ashwin Ravichandran; Saravana Rajakumar Thangamani; Karuppan Muthukumar

2011-01-01

94

Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from oak sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons prepared from oak sawdust, a timber industry waste, have been examined for the removal of remazol brilliant blue (RB) dye from aqueous solutions through batch adsorption technique. Activated carbons were prepared from oak sawdust by chemical activation with 10% HNO3 (AC1) followed by pyrolysis at 500°C in the absence of air and by physical activation at 500°C in

Mona Mahmoud Abd El-Latifa; Amal Mozarei Ibrahim

2010-01-01

95

Removal of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 anionic dyes from aqueous solutions by sepiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 anionic dyes onto sepiolite from aqueous solutions has been investigated using parameters such as calcination temperature, pH, ionic strength and temperature. After 200°C calcination temperature, the specific surface area of sepiolite decreased with increasing calcination temperature. The amount adsorbed of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 on sepiolite increased

Mahir Alkan; Sermet Çelikçapa; Özkan Demirba?; Mehmet Do?an

2005-01-01

96

Low cost removal of disperse dyes from aqueous solution using palm ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil and textile industries are important contributors to Malaysia's economic growth. However, these industries also generate various pollutants of the environment. This research explores the possibility of using a low cost adsorbent i.e. ash produced from palm oil factory, for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. For the treatment to be truly low cost, not only should the

M. Hasnain Isa; Lee Siew Lang; Faridah A. H. Asaari; Hamidi A. Aziz; N. Azam Ramli; Jaya Paul A. Dhas

2007-01-01

97

Removal of chlorophenols from aquatic systems with dye-affinity microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cibacron Blue F3GA carrying pHEMA microbeads were investigated as dye-affinity sorbents for removal of chlorophenols (i.e. phenol, m-chlorophenol, p-chlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). PHEMA microbeads were prepared by modified suspension polymerization of HEMA in the presence of an initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile). These microbeads, with a swelling ratio of 55% and carrying 16.5 ?mol Cibacron Blue F3GA\\/g polymer, were then used in the removal

Adil Denizli; Güleren Özkan; Mustafa Uçar

2001-01-01

98

Adsorptive removal of anionic dyes by modified nanoporous silica SBA3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch sorption experiments were carried out to remove dyes, methyl orange (MO), orange G (OG) and brilliant red X-3B (X-3B), from their aqueous solutions using a mesoporous silica SBA-3 as an adsorbent. The effect of surfactant template in SBA-3 on the removal of OG, MO and X-3B was investigated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of contact time,

Mansoor Anbia; Saba Asl Hariri; S. N. Ashrafizadeh

2010-01-01

99

ADSORPTION KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIA OF BASIC DYES ONTO ZEOLITE IN SINGLE AND BINARY COMPONENT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorptive removal of Basic Blue 3 (BB 3) and Basic Red 18 (BR 18) by a clinoptilolite-type natural zeolite from their single-component solutions has been studied in the temperature range of 298–328 K. Experimental equilibrium results are well described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. The model parameters obtained for single-solute systems at 298 K have been used for the

Gül Hisarli; Canan Tezcan; Gülten Atun

2012-01-01

100

Removal of Acid Orange 7 and Remazol Black 5 reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using a novel biosorbent.  

PubMed

This study utilizes canola stalks (CS), an agro-residue, as a biosorbent to remove two different dyes, namely Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and Remozol Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solutions. The effects of operational parameters on the efficiency of dye removal including pH, adsorbent mass, initial dye concentration and contact time have been investigated. For both tested dyes, the maximum absorption capacity was reached at initial pH 2.5 and 120 min contact time. The results showed that the absorption of both dyes depended on the pH of milieu, temperature, dye and CS concentrations. Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to analyze the obtained experimental data. The isotherms are found to be linear over the entire concentration range for both dyes. The highest value of linear correlation coefficients for AO7 (0.9926) and RB5 (0.9882) showed that the Langmuir is the best model to fit the experimental data. Kinetic study of absorption was done applying the pseudo first-order and the pseudo second-order equations. Absorption of both dyes could be well predicted by the pseudo second-order equation. The obtained results are very promising since: (i) high levels of dye removal (>90%) were achieved with low contact times biosorbent/dye (less than 20 min contact); and (ii) the whole CS can be successfully used as biosorbent of AO7 and RB5 dyes in aqueous solution without needing any chemical modifications. PMID:24364937

Hamzeh, Yahya; Ashori, Alireza; Azadeh, Elham; Abdulkhani, Ali

2012-08-01

101

Photocatalytic removal of C.I. Basic Red 46 on immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles: artificial neural network modelling.  

PubMed

C.I. Basic Red 46, commonly used as a textile dye, was photocatalytically removed using supported TiO2 nanoparticles irradiated by a 30 W UV-C lamp in a batch reactor. The investigated photocatalyst was industrial Degussa P25 (crystallite mean size 21 nm) immobilized on glass beads by a heat attachment method. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques. The process of the dye decolorization in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles was experimentally studied through changing the initial dye concentration, UV light intensity and initial pH. The influence of inorganic anions such as chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate and phosphate on the photocatalytic decolorization of BR46 was investigated. The decolorization of BR46 follows the pseudo-first-order kinetic according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model (k1 = 0.273 mg L(-1) min(-1), 2 = 0.313 (mg L(-1))(-1)). The efficiency parameters such as apparent quantum yield and electrical energy per order (EEO) were estimated. An artificial neural network model (ANN) was developed to predict the photocatalytic decolorization of BR46 solution. The findings indicated that the ANN provided reasonable predictive performance (R2 = 0.96). The influence of each parameter on the variable studied was assessed: initial concentration of the dye being the most significant factor, followed by the initial pH and reaction time. PMID:19947146

Khataee, A R

2009-10-01

102

A review on applicability of naturally available adsorbents for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste.  

PubMed

The effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing, cosmetics, etc., contains large amount of hazardous dyes. There is huge number of treatment processes as well as adsorbent which are available for the processing of this effluent water-containing dye content. The applicability of naturally available low cast and eco-friendly adsorbents, for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste by adsorption treatment, has been reviewed. In this review paper, we have provided a compiled list of low-cost, easily available, safe to handle, and easy-to-dispose-off adsorbents. These adsorbents have been classified into five different categories on the basis of their state of availability: (1) waste materials from agriculture and industry, (2) fruit waste, (3) plant waste, (4) natural inorganic materials, and (5) bioadsorbents. Some of the treated adsorbents have shown good adsorption capacities for methylene blue, congo red, crystal violet, rhodamine B, basic red, etc., but this adsorption process is highly pH dependent, and the pH of the medium plays an important role in the treatment process. Thus, in this review paper, we have made some efforts to discuss the role of pH in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:21387170

Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen; Sharma, Monika; Sahore, Vishal

2011-12-01

103

REMOVAL OF DYE BY IMMOBILISED PHOTOCATALYST LOADED ACTIVATED CARBON  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of activated carbon to adsorb and titanium dioxide to photodegrade organic impurities from water bodies is well accepted. Combination of the two is expected to enhance the removal efficiency due to the synergistic effect. This has enabled activated carbon to adsorb more and at the same time the lifespan of activated carbon is prolonged as the workload of

Zulkarnain Zainal; Chang Sook Keng; Abdul Halim Abdullah

104

Effect of viscosity, basicity and organic content of composite flocculant on the decolorization performance and mechanism for reactive dyeing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coagulation\\/flocculation process using the composite flocculant polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin dimethylamine (PAC-EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of an anionic azo dye (Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP dye). The effect of viscosity (?), basicity (B = [OH]\\/[Al]) and organic content (Wp) on the flocculation performance as well as the mechanism of PAC-EPI-DMA flocculant were investigated. The ? was the key factor affecting

Yuanfang Wang; Baoyu Gao; Qinyan Yue; Yan Wang

2011-01-01

105

Adsorptive removal of anionic dyes by modified nanoporous silica SBA-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Batch sorption experiments were carried out to remove dyes, methyl orange (MO), orange G (OG) and brilliant red X-3B (X-3B), from their aqueous solutions using a mesoporous silica SBA-3 as an adsorbent. The effect of surfactant template in SBA-3 on the removal of OG, MO and X-3B was investigated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of contact time, initial concentration, pH, and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption performance. The adsorption results of anionic dyes on the uncalcined SBA-3 (noted as SBA-3) were compared with those of the calcined SBA-3 (noted as C-SBA-3). The uncalcined SBA-3 adsorbent has a large adsorption capacity and a strong affinity for the anionic dyes. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were employed to model the experimental results, from which the Freundlich isotherm exhibited the most appropriate to predict the same. Freundlich isotherm exhibited the most appropriate to predict the experimental results. The kinetic data were also analyzed through pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model well depicted the kinetics of dyes adsorption on mesoporous SBA-3.

Anbia, Mansoor; Hariri, Saba Asl; Ashrafizadeh, S. N.

2010-03-01

106

Removal of organic dyes by UV/H2O2 process: modelling and optimization.  

PubMed

The effects of different operational parameters on the decolorization of a dye solution containing C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92) or C.I. Acid Black 1 (AB1) by the UV/H2O2 process were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The reaction time, dye and H2O2 initial concentrations and distance of the UV lamp from the solution were chosen as input variables. The removal process was performed according to a central composite design. Predicted results by the proposed models were in good agreement with experimental values (R2 = 0.942 and 0.957 for AB92 and AB1, respectively). The optimum points were located by graphical response surfaces and contour plots. The removal process of the dyes was compared and the efficiency difference justified by considering the chemical structure of the dyes. Additionally, the electrical energy consumption and the related treatment costs were estimated employing the figure-of-merit electrical energy per order (E(EO)). PMID:22856317

Kasiri, M B; Khataee, A R

2012-06-01

107

Evaluation of the performance of calix[8]arene derivatives as liquid phase extraction material for the removal of azo dyes.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study on the removal of azo dyes (Reactive Black 5, Trapaeolin 000, Methyl Orange and Direct Violet 51) with calix[n]arene derivatives from aqueous solution into the organic phase in order to explore the potential use of calixarenes as low-cost efficient extractants for wastewater dye removal. The carboxylic acid derivative of calix[8]arene shows highest affinity towards the azo dyes. The influence of NaCl (present in the solution) on extraction process was also studied. The extent of the dye removal increased with the addition of NaCl. The proposed extraction mechanism involves several kinds of interactions: electrostatic repulsion between carboxylic acid groups of calix[8]arenes and sulfonate groups of azo dyes, hydrogen bonding and formation of an inclusion complex due to three dimensional cavity type calix[n]arene molecules through host-guest interactions. PMID:18321641

Gungor, Omer; Yilmaz, Aydan; Memon, Shahabuddin; Yilmaz, Mustafa

2008-10-01

108

TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface: Superior adsorption performance for dye removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface were synthesized by a facile template-assisted solvothermal reaction. The adsorption performance of TiO2 hollow microspheres for removing Methylene Blue from aqueous solution has been investigated. The comparative adsorption study indicated that adsorption capacity of TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface is markedly higher than that of solid microsphere. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity reached 196.83 mg/g. The kinetics of dye adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the adsorbed dye could be degraded completely by the subsequent photocatalytic process. These TiO2 hollow microspheres can be considered as a low-cost alternative adsorbent for removal of organic pollutants from wastewater.

Wang, Ran; Cai, Xia; Shen, Fenglei

2014-06-01

109

Environmental assessment of different photo-Fenton approaches for commercial reactive dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental study using life cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to three bench-scale wastewater treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R hetero-bireactive dye removal: artificial light photo-Fenton process, solar driven photo-Fenton process and artificial light photo-Fenton process coupled to a biological treatment. The study is focused on electricity and chemicals consumption, transports and atmosphere and water emissions generated by the different

Julia García-Montańo; Nilbia Ruiz; Iván Muńoz; Xavier Domčnech; José A. García-Hortal; Francesc Torrades; José Peral

2006-01-01

110

Use of Phanerochaete chrysosporium biomass for the removal of textile dyes from a synthetic effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The use of Phanerochaete chrysosporium biomass for the removal of Reactofix Golden Yellow from aqueous solution and eight textile dyes (four azo and four anthraquinone) from a synthetic effluent (0.6 g\\/l) at different pH, temperature and biomass concentrations was studied. Adsorption was maximum at pH 2.0 and 40 C using 2.45 g mycelial biomass. The rate constant of adsorption was 1.9510?1\\/min for Reactofix Golden

D. K. Bakshi; S. Saha; I. Sindhu; P. Sharma

2006-01-01

111

Effective removal of AB24 dye by nano\\/micro-size zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of AB24 dye in aqueous solution by nano\\/micro-size zero-valent iron (ZVI) was investigated. Results indicate that the degradation efficiency increases with increasing ZVI concentration and temperature but decreases with particle size of ZVI. Analysis of the results indicates that the reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics. The rate constant increases linearly with ZVI concentration and decreases with particle size.

Yao-Tung Lin; Chih-Huang Weng; Fang-Ying Chen

2008-01-01

112

Copper Phthalocyanine Dye Immobilized on Magnetite Particles: An Efficient Adsorbent for Rapid Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds from Water Solutions and Suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetite particles bearing covalently immobilized copper phthalocyanine dye (“blue magnetite”) were prepared and used for the isolation and\\/or removal of polycyclic dyes from water solutions and suspensions. Binding of these polycyclic dyes occurs by a chemical, equilibrated, and saturatable mechanism, following the Langmuir adsorption model. Nonspecific adsorption of dyes having nonplanar molecular structure was low. The values of maximum adsorption

Ivo Šafa?ík; Mirka Šafa?íková

1997-01-01

113

Removal of some reactive dyes from synthetic wastewater by combined Al(III) coagulation\\/carbon adsorption process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the removal of reactive dyes, C.I. Reactive Red 45 and C.I. Reactive Green 8, from wastewater using a two-step, Al(III) coagulation\\/activated carbon adsorption method. The effect of pH and coagulant dosage as well as the effects of contact time and a powdered activated carbon dosage on dye removal have been studied. The process was

Sanja Papi?; Natalija Koprivanac; Ana Lon?ari? Boži?; Azra Meteš

2004-01-01

114

Response surface optimization for efficient dye removal by isolated strain Pseudomonas sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response surface methodology (RSM) involving the central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize three important process variables for the decolourization of synthetic dye solutions containing Remazol Turquoise Blue (RTB) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. The interaction between three variables i.e. Initial concentration of dye, carbon source and nitrogen source were studied and modeled. According to the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results the predicted results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results ( R 2: 0.9726; Adj R 2: 0.9480 for RTB and R 2: 0.9789; Adj R 2: 0.9750 for RB5) which indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data from the second order polynomial regression model. Mathematical models were developed by the proposed system, for each process variable showed the effect of each factor and their interactions on biodecolourization process. The optimum concentrations of Dye, Carbon source, and Nitrogen source were found to be 20 mgL-1, 1.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L, respectively for RTB and RB5 to obtain maximum dye removing capacity. Predicted values were validated with experimental results, which indicated appropriateness of the employed model and the success of RSM.

Senthilkumar, Shanmugam; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Prabhuy, Harinarayan Janardhana; AhmedBasha, Chiya; Anantharaman, Narayan

2012-09-01

115

Low-cost and effective phenol and basic dyes trapper derived from the porous silica coated with hydrotalcite gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel low-cost and effective adsorbents of phenol and basic dyes were made by coating amorphous silica with hydrotalcite (HT) gel followed by soaking in alkaline solution, and the surface basic–acidic properties of resulting composites were evaluated by CO2-TPD, Hammett indicator method and NH3-TPD, respectively. Both BET surface area and microporous surface area of the composites were increased after they were

Yu Fei Tao; Wei Gang Lin; Ling Gao; Jin Yang; Yu Zhou; Jia Yuan Yang; Feng Wei; Ying Wang; Jian Hua Zhu

2011-01-01

116

Basic Study of Dyeing on Oshima-Tsumugi-Mushiro by Electrostatically Extracted Ink Jet System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of electro-statically extracted ink-jet technology was studied in dyeing processing of Oshima-tsumugi-mushiro. It is needed to dye about 1mm width on that mushiro. Our results showed that, electrostatically extracted ink-jet technology was effective for application to dyeing processing automatically.

Matsuo, Kazuhisa; Akiyama, Kouhei; Shirakawa, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Hideki

117

Effective removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using modified xanthan gum/silica hybrid nanocomposite as adsorbent.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of XG-g-PAM/SiO2 nanocomposite towards its potential application as high performance adsorbent for removal of Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The surface area, average pore size and total pore volume of the developed nanocomposite has been determined. The efficiency of CR dye adsorption depends on various factors like pH, temperature of the solution, equilibrium time of adsorption, agitation speed, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage. It has been observed that the nanocomposite is having excellent CR dye adsorption capacity (Q0=209.205 mg g(-1)), which is considerably high. The dye adsorption process is controlled by pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The adsorption equilibrium data correlates well with Langmuir isotherm. Desorption study indicates the efficient regeneration ability of the dye loaded nanocomposite. PMID:23896441

Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Panda, A B; Pal, Sagar

2013-09-01

118

Efficient removal of crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions by vitreous tuff mineral.  

PubMed

Textural, structural and morphological characteristics of the vitreous tuff were determined by means of several physicochemical techniques. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was fitted with the Brunnauer-Emmet-Teller model and together with the results of the average pore distribution showed a mesoporous material. Samples of vitreous tuff were used as adsorbent to study the removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The presence of -OH moieties in the material seems to be responsible for the removal of the dye showing that vitreous tuff can be used as an organic dye adsorbent material. The pseudo-second-order model was the best fit model for describing the sorption process of crystal violet; intraparticle diffusion being the controlling step in the process. The experimental adsorption isotherm was fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models, showing better correlation with the second one. The adsorption capacity was 170.01 mg/g, being among the highest compared with other inorganic and organic common sorbent materials. The design of single stage of the adsorber can predict the behaviour to potential scale up. This mineral has a very good potential as an adsorbent material for organic dyes. PMID:24701950

Blanco-Flores, A; Colín-Cruz, A; Gutiérrez-Segura, E; Sánchez-Mendieta, V; Solís-Casados, D A; Garrudo-Guirado, M A; Batista-González, R

2014-01-01

119

Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fly ash resulted from coal burning is a waste that can be used in wastewater treatment for removal of dyes and heavy metals by adsorption. Class “F” fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO2/Al2O3 over 2.4 was used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. A new material was obtained from modified fly ash with NaOH and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) a cationic surfactant. Contact time, optimum amount of substrate and the pH corresponding to 50 mL solution of pollutants were the parameters optimized for obtaining the maximum efficiency in the adsorption process. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The adsorption kinetic mechanisms, and the substrate capacities are further discussed correlated with the surface structure (XRD), composition (EDS, FTIR), and morphology (SEM, AFM). The results indicate that the novel nano-substrate composite with fly ash modified can be used as an efficient and low cost adsorbent for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, the resulted water respects the discharge regulations.

Visa, Maria; Chelaru, Andreea-Maria

2014-06-01

120

Effects of compound bioflocculant on coagulation performance and floc properties for dye removal.  

PubMed

A series of jar tests was conducted to investigate the coagulation performance of using compound bioflocculant (CBF) as a coagulant aid with aluminum sulfate (AS) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) in synthetic dyeing wastewater treatment. Floc size, growth, breakage, re-growth and sedimentation natural were investigated by PDA2000. The results showed that the corresponding dual-coagulants of AS and PAC enhanced the color removal efficiency, especially at low aluminum dosage. Results also indicated that the floc generated by aluminum salts and CBF had larger size and higher growth rate. In addition, for both AS and PAC the floc recoverability was improved by addition of CBF. The adsorption and bridging effect of CBF performed a positive role in dye wastewater treatment. PMID:24656485

Huang, Xin; Bo, Xiaowen; Zhao, Yanxia; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Sun, Shenglei; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

2014-08-01

121

Textile dye removal by natural clay--case study of Fouchana Tunisian clay.  

PubMed

A significant amount of unused dyes remain in textile industry wastewater, the treatment of which presents a great challenge, particularly in semi-arid countries where water resources are of great concern. Liquid-phase adsorption is highly efficient for the removal of dyes and adsorbents, for example, activated carbons are used to treat wastewater, but are expensive. Clays are cheaper and several works have showed their high pollutant adsorption capacity in cases of environmental problems. The aim of this work is to present the use of clay as a means of textile wastewater treatment and colour adsorption. The adsorbent used in this study is natural clay from the Fouchana region (Tunisia), which contains 60% smectites, 30% kaolinite and 10% illite, in which the cation-exchange capacity is about 50 meq/ 100 g of clay. Two types of waters were treated: one from a leaching textile industry and another from a dyeing industry. Moreover the treatment by clay was compared to the treatment by a coagulation flocculation standard method. The experimental results show that the treatment by natural clay is more efficient than the conventional treatment by coagulation flocculation. It allowed decolorization of the dye effluent and a decrease down to 97% for biochemical demand for oxygen, 93% for suspended matter, 95% for chemical demand for oxygen and 76% for the spectral absorption coefficient. Thus, the quality of dye wastewater has reached the Tunisian standards of releases (NT 106.02 and 106.03, 1989), and as such it makes it possible to test wastewater at the industrial scale. PMID:20450111

Errais, E; Duplay, J; Darragi, F

2010-04-01

122

Sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment of dye-containing wastewaters: colour and COD removals, and ecotoxicity tests.  

PubMed

Colour and COD removals of the azo dyes Congo Red (CR) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) were individually evaluated in a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment system. Additionally, dye toxicity was assessed by using acute ecotoxicity tests with Daphnia magna as the indicator-organism. The anaerobic reactor was operated at approximately 27 °C and with hydraulic retention times of 12 and 24 h. The aerobic reactor was operated in batch mode with a total cycle of 24 h. During anaerobic step, high colour removals were obtained, 96.3% for CR (400 mg/L) and 75% for RB5 (200 mg/L). During the aerobic phase, COD effluent was considerably reduced, with an average removal efficiency of 52% for CR and 85% for RB5, which resulted in an overall COD removal of 88% for both dyes. Ecotoxicity tests with CR revealed that the anaerobic effluent presented a higher toxicity compared with the influent, and an aerobic post-treatment was not efficient in reducing toxicity. However, the results with RB5 showed that both anaerobic and aerobic steps could decrease dye toxicity, especially the aerobic phase, which removed completely the toxicity in D. magna. Therefore, the anaerobic/aerobic treatment is not always effective in detoxifying dye-containing wastewaters, sometimes even increasing dye toxicity. PMID:22238010

Silva, Marcos Erick Rodrigues da; Firmino, Paulo Igor Milen; Sousa, Márcia Rodrigues de; Santos, André Bezerra Dos

2012-02-01

123

Accelerated removal of Sudan dye by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the presence of quinones and humic acids.  

PubMed

Although there have been many studies on bacterial removal of soluble azo dyes, much less information is available for biological treatment of water-insoluble azo dyes. The few bacterial species capable of removing Sudan dye generally require a long time to remove low concentrations of insoluble dye particles. The present work examined the efficient removal of Sudan I by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the presence of redox mediator. It was found that the microbially reduced anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) could abiotically reduce Sudan I, indicating the feasibility of microbially-mediated reduction. The addition of 100 ?M AQDS and other different quinone compounds led to 4.3-54.7 % increase in removal efficiencies in 22 h. However, adding 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone into the system inhibited Sudan I removal. The presence of 10, 50 and 100 ?M AQDS stimulated the removal efficiency in 10 h from 26.4 to 42.8, 54.9 and 64.0 %, respectively. The presence of 300 ?M AQDS resulted in an eightfold increase in initial removal rate from 0.19 to 1.52 mg h?ą g?ą cell biomass. A linear relationship was observed between the initial removal rates and AQDS concentrations (0-100 ?M). Comparison of Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants revealed the advantage of AQDS-mediated removal over direct reduction. Different species of humic acid could also stimulate the removal of Sudan I. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis confirmed the accelerated removal performance in the presence of AQDS. These results provide a potential method for the efficient removal of insoluble Sudan dye. PMID:23539152

Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Ji, Qiuyan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

2013-09-01

124

Removal of organic compounds during treating printing and dyeing wastewater of different process units.  

PubMed

Wastewater in Shaoxing wastewater treatment plant (SWWTP) is composed of more than 90% dyeing and printing wastewater with high pH and sulfate. Through a combination process of anaerobic acidogenic [hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15h], aerobic (HRT of 20h) and flocculation-precipitation, the total COD removal efficiency was up to 91%. But COD removal efficiency in anaerobic acidogenic unit was only 4%. As a comparison, the COD removal efficiency was up to 35% in the pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor (HRT of 15h). GC-MS analysis showed that the response abundance of these wastewater samples decreased with their removal of COD. A main component of the raw influent was long-chain n-alkanes. The final effluent of SWWTP had only four types of alkanes. After anaerobic unit at SWWTP, the mass percentage of total alkanes to total organic compounds was slightly decreased while its categories increased. But in the UASB, alkanes categories could be removed by 75%. Caffeine as a chemical marker could be detected only in the effluent of the aerobic process. Quantitative analysis was given. These results demonstrated that GC-MS analysis could provide an insight to the measurement of organic compounds removal. PMID:17997469

Wang, J; Long, M C; Zhang, Z J; Chi, L N; Qiao, X L; Zhu, H X; Zhang, Z F

2008-03-01

125

Application of cupuassu shell as biosorbent for the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The cupuassu shell (Theobroma grandiflorum) which is a food residue was used in its natural form as biosorbent for the removal of C.I. Reactive Red 194 and C.I. Direct Blue 53 dyes from aqueous solutions. This biosorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption curves. The effects of pH, biosorbent dosage and shaking time on biosorption capacities were studied. In acidic pH region (pH 2.0) the biosorption of the dyes were favorable. The contact time required to obtain the equilibrium was 8 and 18 h at 298 K, for Reactive Red 194 and Direct Blue 53, respectively. The Avrami fractionary-order kinetic model provided the best fit to experimental data compared with pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and chemisorption kinetic adsorption models. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Radke-Prausnitz isotherm models. For both dyes the equilibrium data were best fitted to the Sips isotherm model. PMID:21195535

Cardoso, Natali F; Lima, Eder C; Pinto, Isis S; Amavisca, Camila V; Royer, Betina; Pinto, Rodrigo B; Alencar, Wagner S; Pereira, Simone F P

2011-04-01

126

Ultrafiltration technology with a ceramic membrane for reactive dye removal: optimization of membrane performance.  

PubMed

An ultrafiltration (UF) ceramic membrane was used to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5) solutions at different dye concentrations (50 and 500 mg/L). Transmembrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV) were modified to study their influence on initial and steady-state permeate flux (J(p)) and dye rejection (R). Generally, J(p) increased with higher TMP and CFV and lower feed concentration, up to a maximum steady-state J(p) of 266.81 L/(m(2)h), obtained at 3 bar, 3m/s and 50mg/L. However, there was a TMP value (which changed depending on operating CFV and concentration) beyond which slight or no further increase in steady-state J(p) was observed. Similarly, the higher the CFV was, the more slightly the steady-state J(p) increased. Furthermore, the effectiveness of ultrafiltration treatment was evaluated through dye rejection coefficient. The results showed significant dye removals, regardless of the tested conditions, with steady-state R higher than 79.8% for the 50mg/L runs and around 73.2% for the 500 mg/L runs. Finally response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize membrane performance. At 50mg/L, a TMP of 4 bar and a CFV of 2.53 m/s were found to be the conditions giving the highest steady-state J(p), 255.86 L/(m(2)h), and the highest R, 95.2% simultaneously. PMID:22326247

Alventosa-deLara, E; Barredo-Damas, S; Alcaina-Miranda, M I; Iborra-Clar, M I

2012-03-30

127

Basic and applied aspects in the microbial degradation of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes are the most important group of synthetic colorants. They are generally considered as xenobiotic compounds that are very recalcitrant against biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several microorganisms are able, under certain environmental conditions, to transform azo dyes to non-colored products or even to completely mineralize them. Thus, various lignolytic fungi

A. Stolz

2001-01-01

128

Optimization of C.I. Acid Red 14 azo dye removal by electrocoagulation batch process with response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization of C.I. Acid Red 14 (AR14) azo dye by electrocoagulation (EC) process was studied in a batch reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the simple and combined effects of the three main independent parameters, current density, time of electrolysis and initial pH of the dye solution on the color removal efficiency and optimising the operating

A. Aleboyeh; N. Daneshvar; M. B. Kasiri

2008-01-01

129

Removal of Rhodamine B Dye Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Palm Kernel Shell and Coated with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of activated carbon prepared from Palm Kernel Shell (PKSAC) from agriculture biomass and coated with magnetic nanoparticle (Fe3O4) in the removal of Rhodamine B dye was investigated. Adsorption experiments were carried out at various initial pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, particle size and temperature. Kinetic analyses were conducted using pseudo first order, pseudo second order and intra

P. Panneerselvam; Norhashimah Morad; Kah Aik Tan; R. Mathiyarasi

2012-01-01

130

Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water  

PubMed Central

The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond) shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34?mg g?1 at 293?K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media.

Deniz, Fatih

2013-01-01

131

Adsorption properties of low-cost biomaterial derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for dye removal from water.  

PubMed

The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond) shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g(-1) at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media. PMID:23935442

Deniz, Fatih

2013-01-01

132

USE OF PALM OIL FIBER, AN AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR REMOVAL OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of dye is an alternative technology to remove colour from wastewater. Activated carbon prepared from low cost palm oil fiber has been utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. A basic dye, Methylene Blue has been used as the adsorbate. Experiments were conducted at different pH, different adsorbent dose, different initial concentration of

Fairus Muhamad Darus; Harnie Jamilah Hashim; Rusdin Laiman; Mohd Nizam Yusoff

133

Influence of particle size and salinity on adsorption of basic dyes by agricultural waste: dried seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera).  

PubMed

Green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have reasonable adsorption capacity for basic dyes, Astrazon Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon Red GTLN (AR), and Astrazon Golden Yellow GL-E (AY). The initial dye concentration was in the range of 100-1,800 mg/L. The dried algal sorbent was ground and sieved into 3 sizes: S (0.1-0.84 mm), M (0.84-2.0 mm), and L sizes (larger than 2.0 mm). For all conditions examined in this work (at 25 degrees C in batch systems), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second order kinetic model where the rate constant, k2, decreased as the sorbent size increased for all dyes. The adsorption isotherms followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Among three sorbent sizes, S size gave the highest adsorption capacity followed by M and L sizes. A reduction of sorbent size increased the specific surface area for mass transfer, and also increased the total pore volume, thus providing more active sites for adsorption. The adsorption of AB was adversely influenced by the protonation of algal surface at low pH. On the other hand, the adsorption of AR and AY could be due to weak electrostatic interaction, which was not significantly affected by pH. Increasing salinity of the system caused a decrease in adsorption capacity possibly due to the competition between Na+ and the dye cations for the binding sites on algal surface. Moreover, an increase in salinity generated a compressed electrical double layer on the algal surface which exerted repulsive force, retarding the adsorption of positive charged molecules such as the basic dyes. PMID:18763573

Punjongharn, Pimol; Meevasana, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

2008-01-01

134

Adsorption-Coagulation for the Decolorisation of Textile Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken for the removal of colour from different types of syn- thetic dye solutions by using powdered activated carbon (PAC) and bentonite clay (BC) as adsorbents. The different types of dyes (direct, mordant and basic) studied were Direct Orange, Eriochrome Black T and Malachite Green. The synthetic dye solutions behaved differently with the two adsorbents. The effect of

RASHMI SANGHI; BANI BHATTACHARYA

135

Linear dichroism studies of binding site structures in solution. Complexes between DNA and basic arylmethane dyes.  

PubMed

The interaction between B-form DNA and twelve cationic triaryl-methane dyes was studied with respect to optical properties and stabilities, using linear dichroism (LD) and aqueous two-phase partition techniques. Monovalent dyes derived from crystal violet as a rule form a single strong complex (K1 ca 10(5) M-1; site density per nucleotide base n1 ca 0.1 at 0.1M ionic strength) in which the plane of the dye is at an angle of less than 50 degrees to the local DNA helix axis. The complex with fuchsin is weaker (10(4) M-1) but can be explained by a similar orientation. For some of the dyes (those with pseudo-C2v symmetry) the angular orientations of two molecule-fixed axes can be obtained. For the divalent methyl green a second complex appears to be formed at low ionic strength. Methyl green (and to some extent 2-thiophene green and malachite green) show exciton splitting in the LD spectrum and circular dichroism assignable to exciton coupling between transition dipoles roughly parallel to the helical strands, indicating a dye-dye interaction. The optical data, supported by fitting experiments with space-filling models, suggests a general structure for the binding site. The dye is not intercalated but is bound to exposed hydrophobic regions in the major groove. The ligand is in part (the charged amino groups) in contact with the phosphoribose chain but its main surface lies against the hydrophobic base-pair stack. For a diphenylmethane dye, Michler's hydro blue, a perpendicular orientation was observed, possibly due to intercalation. PMID:647099

Nordén, B; Tjerneld, F; Palm, E

1978-03-01

136

Removal of dyes and their mixtures from aqueous solution using liquid emulsion membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of dyes from aqueous solution was studied using liquid emulsion membrane. Study was carried out using two dyes, namely, crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB). Extraction of single component system of each dye and their binary mixture were investigated. Liquid emulsion membrane was formed using n-heptane as membrane phase, sodium hydroxide solution as the internal phase and dye

Chandan Das; Meha Rungta; Gagandeep Arya; Sunando DasGupta; Sirshendu De

2008-01-01

137

Electrochemical studies of adsorption and inhibitive performance of basic yellow 28 dye on mild steel corrosion in Acid solutions.  

PubMed

Organic corrosion inhibitors are widely used to control the corrosion of different metals in various corrosive solutions. The inhibition performance of Basic yellow 28 (BY28) dye for mild steel corrosion was investigated in 0.1 M HCl solution and in a solution of 0.1 M HCl and 1% NaCl. Two electrochemical methods including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used. The corrosion parameters as well as inhibition efficiencies were obtained for different concentrations of inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies showed that the BY28 dye acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in both solutions. The studies on adsorption isotherm of the dye on mild steel proved that the adsorption of BY28 obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The average value of -?Gads in both solutions was more than 20 and a little less than 40 kJ mol-1. Therefore, both chemisorption and physisorption phenomena were involved in the adsorption of the studied dye on mild steel surface. PMID:24062037

Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Asghari, Elnaz; Ejbari, Parisa

2011-06-01

138

Removal of Acid Orange 7 in simulated wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor: Removal mechanisms and dye degradation pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in simulated wastewater was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor with granular activated carbon as the particle electrode, ACF (activated carbon fiber)\\/Fe as the anode, and ACF\\/Ti as the cathode. Particular attention was paid to the reaction mechanisms and the dye degradation pathway in the system. The removal of AO7 in the

Hua-Zhang Zhao; Yan Sun; Li-Na Xu; Jin-Ren Ni

2010-01-01

139

Compression of the DNA substrate by a viral packaging motor is supported by removal of intercalating dye during translocation  

PubMed Central

Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of packaging, the purified T4 packaging ATPase alone can only remove up to ?1/3 of DNA-bound intercalating YOYO-1 dye molecules in the presence of ATP or ATP-?-S. In sufficient concentration, intercalating dyes arrest packaging, but rare terminase mutations confer resistance. These distant mutations are highly interdependent in acquiring function and resistance and likely mark motor contact points with the translocating DNA. In stalled Y-DNAs, FRET has shown a decrease in distance from the phage T4 terminase C terminus to portal consistent with a linear motor, and in the Y-stem DNA compression between closely positioned dye pairs. Taken together with prior FRET studies of conformational changes in stalled Y-DNAs, removal of intercalating compounds by the packaging motor demonstrates conformational change in DNA during normal translocation at low packaging resistance and supports a proposed linear “DNA crunching” or torsional compression motor mechanism involving a transient grip-and-release structural change in B form DNA.

Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Black, Lindsay W.

2012-01-01

140

Dendritic CdS assemblies for removal of organic dye molecules.  

PubMed

In this paper, novel CdS 3D assemblies are prepared via a facile and effective hydrothermal route using dimethyl sulfoxide as the growth template. Morphologies, microstructures and photocatalytic properties of the as-synthesized products are investigated in detail. It was found that dimethyl sulfoxide played an important role in the formation of CdS assemblies. A possible growth mechanism for CdS assemblies was proposed based on the experimental results. In addition, CdS assemblies exhibit superior photocatalytic activities by the photodegradation of eosin B, Methyl orange (MO) and Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, with a comparison with other CdS nanostructures, P25 and ?-Fe2O3 powders, demonstrating potential applications in removal of organic dye molecules from waste water. PMID:24481318

Yu, Zhou; Qu, Fengyu; Wu, Xiang

2014-03-28

141

Utilization of various agricultural wastes for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons were prepared from the agricultural solid wastes, silk cotton hull, coconut tree sawdust, sago waste, maize cob and banana pith and used to eliminate heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution. Adsorption of all dyes and metal ions required a very short time and gave quantitative removal. Experimental results show all carbons were effective for the removal of

K Kadirvelu; M Kavipriya; C Karthika; M Radhika; N Vennilamani; S Pattabhi

2003-01-01

142

Applicability of waste materials—bottom ash and deoiled soya—as adsorbents for the removal and recovery of a hazardous dye, brilliant green  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoiled soya, an agricultural waste material, and bottom ash, a waste of power plants, have been successfully used for the removal and recovery of the hazardous water-soluble dye brilliant green from water. To remove the dye from water, batch adsorption studies have been carried out by observing the effects of pH, concentration, amounts of adsorbents, size of adsorbent particles, etc.

Alok Mittal; Dipika Kaur; Jyoti Mittal

2008-01-01

143

Removal of cationic methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution by waste materials of Daucus carota  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study adsorption capacity of waste materials of Daucus carota plant (carrot stem powder: CSP and carrot leaves powder: CLP) was explored for the removal of methylene blue (MB) malachite green (MG) dye from water. The morphology and functional groups present were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The operating variables studied were

Atul Kumar Kushwaha; Neha Gupta; M. C. Chattopadhyaya

144

Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Color from Dyeing Wastewater by Pre-ozonation and Subsequent Biological Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pre-ozonation and subsequent biological treatment on the decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and color from dyeing wastewater were investigated. Moreover, the compositions of organic compounds in raw wastewater (RW) and the respective treated waters were estimated, and microscopic observations of the mixed liquor were conducted. The amount of ozone required to remove 1 mg of DOC

Nobuyuki Takahashi; Tomoya Kumagai

2006-01-01

145

Low-cost and effective phenol and basic dyes trapper derived from the porous silica coated with hydrotalcite gel.  

PubMed

Novel low-cost and effective adsorbents of phenol and basic dyes were made by coating amorphous silica with hydrotalcite (HT) gel followed by soaking in alkaline solution, and the surface basic-acidic properties of resulting composites were evaluated by CO(2)-TPD, Hammett indicator method and NH(3)-TPD, respectively. Both BET surface area and microporous surface area of the composites were increased after they were soaked with alkaline solution; meanwhile the center of pore size distribution was changed from 9 to 3-4 nm. These composites efficiently captured phenol in gaseous and liquid phases, superior to mesoporous silica such as MCM-48 or SBA-15 and zeolite NaY, and the equilibrium data of gaseous adsorption could be well fitted to Freundlich model. These modified silicas also exhibited high adsorption capacity forward basic dyes such as crystal violet (CV) and leuco-crystal violet (LCV), reaching the adsorption equilibrium within 1 h and offering a new material for environment protection. PMID:21458822

Tao, Yu Fei; Lin, Wei Gang; Gao, Ling; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jia Yuan; Wei, Feng; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jian Hua

2011-06-15

146

Adsorption of basic dye from wastewater using raw and activated red mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mud, an industrial by?product generated during the processing of bauxite ore, was investigated as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Chemical and heat treatments were applied to the raw red mud. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics

Semra Çoruh; Feza Geyikçi; Osman Nuri Ergun

2011-01-01

147

Triacontanol hormone stimulates population, growth and Brilliant Blue R dye removal by common duckweed from culture media.  

PubMed

This work is focussed on assessing the potentialities of Lemna minor (L.) for the treatment of reactive dyes polluted wastewaters and investigating the possibility of bioremoval performance stimulation by adding triacontanol hormone to the cultures. In the vast literature describing removal of reactive dyes, considering the lack of reports using of common duckweed in wastewater treatment apparently due to the inadequate efficiency. In the present study, the experiments showed that 1 mg l(-1) triacontanol stimulated duckweed growth. The effect of different dye types (Reactive Orange 14, Reactive Red 120, Reactive Black 5, Brilliant Blue R, and Reactive Brilliant Blue R) onto duckweed growth was tested. Plants grew at most in media with Brilliant Blue R. The highest biomass, in terms of frond number (87+/-1.5) were accompanied with 59.6% maximum dye removal were found in samples containing 2.5 mg l(-1) initial Brilliant Blue R and 1 mg l(-1) triacontanol, indicating hormonal stimulation of both activities. The results presented here that L. minor (L.) could be used effectively to treat wastewaters containing dye. PMID:20633998

Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Duygu, Ergin; Dönmez, Gönül

2010-10-15

148

Modelling studies by adsorption for the removal of sunset yellow azo dye present in effluent from a soft drink plant.  

PubMed

This paper reports a study on the adsorption of the dye sunset yellow, present in an aqueous synthetic solution and a real effluent from a soft drink plant, onto granular-activated carbon derived from coconut husks, using a batch system. The kinetic equilibrium was investigated using two different dye concentrations (10(2) and 10(3) mg L(-1)) at 25 degrees C and 150 rpm. The adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics parameters were evaluated at 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 45 degrees C and 55 degrees C, using the synthetic and real effluents (5-10(3) mg L(-1)). Experimental data showed that the adsorbent was effective in the removal of sunset yellow dye and the contact time required to attain the adsorption equilibrium did not exceed 10 h. The adsorption capacity was not influenced within a wide range of pH values (1-12), although at high dye concentrations it increased with increasing temperature for both the synthetic and real effluents. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm best represented the equilibrium data of the system. The negative values obtained for DeltaG0 and DeltaH0 suggest that this adsorption process is spontaneous, favourable, and exothermic. The positive values for DeltaS0 indicate an increase in the entropy at the solid/liquid interface. Based on the results of this study, adsorption appears to be a promising method for the removal of sunset yellow azo dye from effluent generated at soft drink plants. PMID:24701953

Vasques, Erika de Castro; Carpiné, Danielle; Dagostin, Joăo Luiz Andreotti; Canteli, Anderson Marcos Dias; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Scheer, Agnes de Paula

2014-01-01

149

Effectiveness of photochemical and sonochemical processes in degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) dye from aqueous solutions  

PubMed Central

In this study, degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) by ultraviolet radiation (UV), ultrasonic irradiation (US), UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with a 55W immersed-type low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and a sonoreactor with high frequency (130kHz) plate type transducer at 100W of acoustic power. The effects of initial dye concentration, concentration of H2O2 and solution pH and presence of Na2SO4 was studied on the sonochemical and photochemical destruction of BV16 in aqueous phase. The results indicated that in the UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 systems, a sufficient amount of H2O2 was necessary, but a very high H2O2 concentration would inhibit the reaction rate. The optimum H2O2 concentration was achieved in the range of 17 mmol/L at dye concentration of 30 mg/L. A degradation of 99% was obtained with UV/H2O2 within 8 minutes while decolorization efficiency by using UV (23%), US (<6%) and US/H2O2(<15%) processes were negligible for this kind of dye. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dyestuffs concentrations was found to fit all the experimental data.

2012-01-01

150

The adsorption of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite, fly ash and apricot shell activated carbon: kinetic and equilibrium studies.  

PubMed

In this study, sepiolite, fly ash and apricot stone activated carbon (ASAC) were used as adsorbents for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of the basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions at various concentrations (100-300 mg/L), adsorbent doses (3-12 g/L) and temperatures (303-323 K). The result showed that the adsorption capacity of the dye increased with increasing initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature. Three kinetic models, the pseudo-first-order, second-order, intraparticle diffusion, were used to predict the adsorption rate constants. The kinetics of adsorption of the basic dye followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equations were developed using the pseudo-second-order model which predicts the amount of the basic dye adsorbed at any contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dose within the given range accurately. The adsorption equilibrium data obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption capacities (Q0) calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 181.5 mg/g for ASAC, 155.5 mg/g for sepiolite and 128.2 mg/g for fly ash at 303 K. Thermodynamical parameters were also evaluated for the dye-adsorbent systems and revealed that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. PMID:17270343

Karagozoglu, B; Tasdemir, M; Demirbas, E; Kobya, M

2007-08-17

151

An All-or-None Response in the Release of Potassium by Yeast Cells Treated with Methylene Blue and Other Basic Redox Dyes  

PubMed Central

Basic redox dyes, such as methylene blue, induce a loss of K+ from yeast cells. The maximal loss, rather than the rate of loss, is related to the dye concentration, the response following a normal distribution on a plot of log-dose, versus percentage loss of K+. This fact taken together with the observed correlation between K+ loss and frequency of staining (as measured by microscopic observation), indicates that the response is all-or-none for individual cells. The response is produced by all the basic redox dyes tested (9), but by none of the acidic dyes (4). However, only the oxidized form of the dye is effective. Cations protect the cells from the basic dyes in a competitive manner, the bivalent cations (especially UO2++) being more effective than monovalent cations. It is suggested that the action of the dyes involves two steps, the first a binding to ribonucleic acid in the cell membrane (with competition from cations) and the second, an oxidation of neighboring sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. At a threshold level, unique for each cell, a generalized membrane breakdown occurs, resulting in the release of potassium and of other cytoplasmic constituents.

Passow, Hermann; Rothstein, Aser; Loewenstein, Barbara

1959-01-01

152

Efficient removal of malachite green dye using biodegradable graft copolymer derived from amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid).  

PubMed

This article reports on the application of a high performance biodegradable adsorbent based on amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid) (AP-g-PAA) for removal of toxic malachite green dye (MG) from aqueous solution. The graft copolymer has been synthesized and characterized using various techniques including FTIR, GPC, SEM and XRD analyses. Biodegradation study suggests that the co-polymer is biodegradable in nature. The adsorbent shows excellent potential (Qmax, 352.11mgg(-1); 99.05% of MG has been removed within 30min) for removal of MG from aqueous solution. It has been observed that point to zero charge (pzc) of graft copolymer plays significant role in adsorption efficacy. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm follow pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. Thermodynamics parameters suggest that the process of dye uptake is spontaneous. Finally desorption study shows excellent regeneration efficiency of adsorbent. PMID:25037335

Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Pal, Aniruddha; Ghorai, Soumitra; Mandre, N R; Pal, Sagar

2014-10-13

153

Efficient removal of both cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solutions using a novel amphoteric straw-based adsorbent.  

PubMed

In the current paper, a novel amphoteric straw-based adsorbent was prepared and applied to adsorb various dyes from aqueous solutions. The amphoteric adsorbent was proven effective in eliminating both cationic and anionic dyes (methylene blue and acid green 25), especially at corresponding favored pH conditions. The fundamental adsorption behavior of the adsorbent on removing various dyes was also investigated at different temperatures. The adsorption isotherms were all best-fitted by the Langmuir equation, whereas the adsorption kinetics was well-described by both the pseudo-second order model and the Elovich model. The experimental result revealed that the adsorption mechanism followed the monolayer chemical adsorption with an ion-exchange process. PMID:22840016

Zhang, Wenxuan; Yang, Hu; Dong, Lei; Yan, Han; Li, Haijiang; Jiang, Ziwen; Kan, Xiaowei; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

2012-10-01

154

The adsorption of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite, fly ash and apricot shell activated carbon: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, sepiolite, fly ash and apricot stone activated carbon (ASAC) were used as adsorbents for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of the basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions at various concentrations (100–300mg\\/L), adsorbent doses (3–12g\\/L) and temperatures (303–323K). The result showed that the adsorption capacity of the dye increased with increasing

B. Karagozoglu; M. Tasdemir; E. Demirbas; M. Kobya

2007-01-01

155

Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.  

PubMed

In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes. PMID:21752544

Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarăes, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

2011-09-15

156

Performance of dye-affinity beads for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed  

PubMed Central

Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) beads in the size range of 80–120 ?m were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal complexing ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA beads. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 ?mol/g. These beads were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the beads decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these beads without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity beads. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium.

Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andac, Muge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil

2004-01-01

157

Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption potential of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature by batch method. Equilibrium sorption isotherms showed that the lychee peel adsorbent possessed a high affinity and

Amit Bhatnagar; A. K. Minocha

2010-01-01

158

Characterization of basic oxygen furnace dust and zinc removal by acid leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge samples received from Dofasco Inc., have been characterized by a variety of methods such as X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, particle size and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. This characterization phase was accompanied by experimental work to see to what extent the zinc-bearing components would be removed.The experimental work involved various methods

S. Kelebek; S. Yörük; B. Davis

2004-01-01

159

Comparison of disperse and reactive dye removals by chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of wastewater from the dyeing and textile processes is highly variable depending on the dyestuff type and typically has high COD and color. This study examined the decolorization of some of the most commonly used disperse and reactive dyestuffs by combination of chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation. In addition, performances between Fe3+ coagulation and Fenton oxidation of dye

Tak-Hyun Kim; Jeongmok Yang; Sangyong Kim

2004-01-01

160

Preparation of cationic waste paper and its application in poisonous dye removal.  

PubMed

Cationic paper was prepared by reaction of paper with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous suspension, and tested as low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment. The experimental results revealed that anionic dyes (Acid Orange 7, Acid Red 18, and Acid Blue 92) were adsorbed on the cationic paper nicely. The maximum amount of dye Acid Orange 7 adsorbed on cationic paper was 337.2 mg/g in experimental conditions. The effects of initial dye concentration, temperature, and initial pH of dye solution on adsorption capacity of cationic paper were studied. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied to describe the kinetic data. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. The thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption process of dye on cationic paper occurred spontaneously. PMID:23752389

Yang, Fan; Song, Xiaojie; Yan, Lifeng

2013-01-01

161

Removal of Basic Dye Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution by Cu(II)Loaded Montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of contact time, reaction temperature, and ionic strength on crystal violet adsorption onto Cu(II)-loaded montmorillonite were studied. The kinetic experimental data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich equations to examine the adsorption mechanism. The result suggested that the adsorption was best represented by the pseudo-second-order equation. The suitability of the Langmuir, Freundich, and Temkin isotherms to equilibrium

Xue Song Wang; Wei Zhang

2011-01-01

162

Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

Sun, G.; Xu, X. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Textiles and Clothing] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Textiles and Clothing

1997-03-01

163

Free amino and imino-bridged centres attached to organic chains bonded to structurally ordered silica for dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous SBA-15 type silica was synthesized by sol gel polymerization and reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AP) or triethylenetetramine (TE), to attach pendant chains or bridging molecules, with basic centres. The materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state, X-ray diffractometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nitrogen sorption/desorption data for SBA-15 and the organofunctionalized SBA-15AP and SBA-15TE silicas resulted in IV type isotherms with hysteresis loops of the H1 type, surface areas of 800; 213 and 457 m(2) g(-1) and average pore diameters of 8.0; 3.2 and 6.8 nm, respectively. The ordered structural features of the mesoporous silica remained preserved after post-functionalization with pendant and bridged organic chains. Sorption data for organofunctionalized silicas gave highly selective sorption capacities for anionic water soluble Reactive Blue dye, with 0.064 and 0.072 mmol g(-1). Negligible sorption was observed with the unmodified mesoporous silica. The results suggest that organofunctionalized silica can be a simple, efficient, inexpensive and suitable method for the effective and selective removal of anionic organic dye pollutants from aqueous solutions. PMID:24374243

Rehman, Fozia; Volpe, Pedro L O; Airoldi, Claudio

2014-01-15

164

Application of acidic treated pumice as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solutions: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies  

PubMed Central

Colored effluents are one of the important environment pollution sources since they contain unused dye compounds which are toxic and less-biodegradable. In this work removal of Acid Red 14 and Acid Red 18 azo dyes was investigated by acidic treated pumice stone as an efficient adsorbent at various experimental conditions. Removal of dye increased with increase in contact time and initial dye concentration, while decreased for increment in solution temperature and pH. Results of the equilibrium study showed that the removal of AR14 and AR18 followed Freundlich (r2>0.99) and Langmuir (r2>0.99) isotherm models. Maximum sorption capacities were 3.1 and 29.7 mg/g for AR 14 and AR18, namely significantly higher than those reported in the literature, even for activated carbon. Fitting of experimental data onto kinetic models showed the relevance of the pseudo-second order (r2>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion (r2>0.98) models for AR14 and AR18, respectively. For both dyes, the values of external mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing initial dye concentrations, showing increasing external mass transfer resistance at solid/liquid layer. Desorption experiments confirmed the relevance of pumice stone for dye removal, since the pH regeneration method showed 86% and 89% regeneration for AR14 and AR18, respectively.

2012-01-01

165

Application of acidic treated pumice as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solutions: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

Colored effluents are one of the important environment pollution sources since they contain unused dye compounds which are toxic and less-biodegradable. In this work removal of Acid Red 14 and Acid Red 18 azo dyes was investigated by acidic treated pumice stone as an efficient adsorbent at various experimental conditions. Removal of dye increased with increase in contact time and initial dye concentration, while decreased for increment in solution temperature and pH. Results of the equilibrium study showed that the removal of AR14 and AR18 followed Freundlich (r2>0.99) and Langmuir (r2>0.99) isotherm models. Maximum sorption capacities were 3.1 and 29.7 mg/g for AR 14 and AR18, namely significantly higher than those reported in the literature, even for activated carbon. Fitting of experimental data onto kinetic models showed the relevance of the pseudo-second order (r2>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion (r2>0.98) models for AR14 and AR18, respectively. For both dyes, the values of external mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing initial dye concentrations, showing increasing external mass transfer resistance at solid/liquid layer. Desorption experiments confirmed the relevance of pumice stone for dye removal, since the pH regeneration method showed 86% and 89% regeneration for AR14 and AR18, respectively. PMID:23369579

Samarghandi, Mohammad Reza; Zarrabi, Mansur; Sepehr, Mohammad Noori; Amrane, Abdeltif; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Bashiri, Saied

2012-01-01

166

Basic dye adsorption onto an agro-based waste material--sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.).  

PubMed

The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. The adsorption process of MB onto abandoned sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.) (SH) was investigated in a batch system. The results showed that a wide range of pH (3.54-10.50) was favorable for the adsorption of MB onto SH. The Langmuir model displayed the best fit for the isothermal data. The exothermic adsorption process fits a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (359.88 mg g(-1)) was higher than most previously investigated low-cost bioadsorbents (e.g., peanut hull, wheat straw, etc.). This study indicated that sesame hull is a promising, unconventional, affordable and environmentally friendly bio-measure that is easily deployed for removing high levels of MB from wastewater. PMID:21962534

Feng, Yanfang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Yongqian; Ma, Li; Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Yang, Linzhang

2011-11-01

167

Adsorptive potential of cationic Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) dye onto natural untreated clay (NUC) from aqueous phase: Mass transfer analysis, kinetic and equilibrium profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, natural untreated clay (NUC) was studied for the removal of Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) from aqueous solution in batch system. The effects of initial BY2 concentration, contact time, solution temperature and solution pH on BY2 adsorption were investigated. Nitrogen sorption measurements were employed to investigate the variation in surface and pore properties after dye adsorption. The adsorbent was characterized by means of FTIR, PSD, TEM, XRD and BET analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Scatchard isotherm models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 833.33 mg/g at 25 °C (at room temperature). The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental datas compared with pseudo-first-order kinetic adsorption models. To explain mass transfer mechanism of BY2 adsorption, obtained experimental datas were applied Weber and Morris model, Body and Frusawa and Smith models. The results show that the adsorption process is controlled by film diffusion. The thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibbs free energy changes (?G°), standard enthalpy change (?H°) and standard entropy change (?S°) were determined. Adsorption of BY2 on NUC is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The calculated activation energy of adsorption was found to be 5.24 kJ/mol for BY2. This value indicates that the adsorption process is a physisorption.

Öztürk, A.; Malkoc, E.

2014-04-01

168

Paired removal of color and COD from textile dyeing wastewater by simultaneous anodic and indirect cathodic oxidation.  

PubMed

The anodic and indirect cathodic removals of color and COD from real dyeing wastewater were investigated simultaneously using a stacked Pt/Ti screen anode and a graphite packed-bed cathode in a divided flow-by electrochemical reactor. The anodically generated hypochlorite and cathodically generated hydrogen peroxide were the main species used to remove color and COD in the wastewater. Various experimental operating factors that can affect the removal efficiency were investigated, including the applied current density, the amount of NaCl added, the solution pH in alkaline ranges and the temperature. The color and COD removal efficiencies in the anodic chamber were much higher than those in the cathodic chamber. The overall (anodic plus cathodic) removal efficiencies increased with the applied current density, the amount of NaCl added and the temperature. In contrast, increasing the solution pH decreased the overall removal efficiency. The anodic and cathodic current efficiencies at 20 mA/cm(2) were 63.50% and 19.57%, respectively. In this work the total treatment cost for removing 1g COD was US $0.643 when an air cylinder was used. PMID:19362772

Wang, Chih-Ta; Chou, Wei-Lung; Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fu-Lin

2009-09-30

169

Bilirubin removal from human plasma in a packed-bed column system with dye-affinity microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dye-ligand, Cibacron Blue F3GA, was covalently coupled with the poly(EGDMA-HEMA) microbeads. The affinity sorbent carrying 16.5 ?mol Cibacron Blue F3GA per gram polymer was then used to remove bilirubin from human plasma in a packed-bed column system. Bilirubin adsorption from human plasma on the unmodified poly(EGDMA-HEMA) microbeads was 0.32 mg\\/g, while much higher adsorption values, up to 24.2 mg\\/g,

Adil Denizli; Mustafa Kocakulak; Erhan Pi?kin

1998-01-01

170

Application of Modified Water Nut Carbon as a Sorbent in Congo Red and Malachite Green Dye Contaminated Wastewater Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and column adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of dyes from wastewater by water nut modified carbon (WNMC). Acidic pH was favorable for adsorption for Congo red dyes and basic pH was favorable for the adsorption for Malachite green dyes. The surface property of the sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared techniques.

Rais Ahmad; Pijush Kanti Mondal

2010-01-01

171

Reactive dyes removal from wastewaters by adsorption on eucalyptus bark: variables that define the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt to help solving the pollution problem caused by the presence of reactive dyes in textile effluents, was undertaken. Owing to the fact that eucalyptus bark is a very abundant, inexpensive, forest residue in the authors' country, Portugal, it was decided to experiment with it as a potential adsorbent for a certain type of the supracited pollutants used in

L. C Morais; O. M Freitas; E. P Gonçalves; L. T Vasconcelos; C. G González Beça

1999-01-01

172

Raman Spectra of Sudan Red Dyes and the Fluorescence Background Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan red dyes, as illegal food additives, can induce carcinoma of bladder. It is important to find out a method to provide an easy, precise and sensitive detection. The aim of our study is to obtain the Raman feature frequency excursion of SudanI, IIand III, and draw clear Raman spectra. We used the Raman Systems R-3000 spectrometer to detect the

Chen Chen; Peng Fei; Cheng Qinghua; Xu Dahai

2010-01-01

173

Acid dye removal: comparison of surfactant-modified mesoporous FSM-16 with activated carbon derived from rice husk.  

PubMed

Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified mesoporous molecular sieve FSM-16, prepared by a hydrothermal process (373 K, 3 days), was tested as an adsorbent for acid dye (acid yellow, AY, and acid blue, AB) removal in comparison with as-prepared FSM-16 and activated carbon (AC) derived from rice husk (50 vol% H3PO4, 773 K, 2.5 h). The adsorption isotherms, sorption kinetics, and pH effects upon acid dyes sorption on the adsorbents were thoroughly investigated. The structures of different adsorbents were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption measurements, and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. It was found that the ultimate capacity of the adsorbents varied in the order FSM-16 > modified FSM-16 > AC and followed first-order rate kinetics. The adsorption isotherm of acid dyes on FSM-16 is of type IV, according to the IUPAC classification, drastically different from that of CTAB/FSM-16, which showed a type I isotherm. The latter sample had better adsorption performance at low concentration of acid dyes than the former. As compared to activated carbon of microporous character, the CTAB/FSM-16 sample achieved higher performance at low concentrations. This was due to the successful narrowing of the pore opening of FSM-16 using CTAB with maintenance of a considerable portion of the pore volume. Powder XRD and N2 adsorption studies of the CTAB/FSM-16 material indicated that the textural properties of the support were preserved during the hydrothermal synthesis and that the channels remained accessible, despite a significant reduction in surface area (ca. 26%). TG studies, on the other hand, confirmed that the modified material presented a higher hydrophobicity than that of the CTAB-free FSM-16 sample. PMID:14985019

Mohamed, Mohamed Mokhtar

2004-04-01

174

Removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto immobilized Scenedesmus quadricauda: Equilibrium and kinetic modeling studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The immobilized active (IASq) and heat inactivated S.quadricauda (IHISq) were used for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (CI 61200, Reactive Blue 19, RBBR) from aqueous solutions in the concentration range 25–200mgL?1. At 150mgL?1 initial dye concentration the IASq and IHISq exhibited the highest dye uptake capacity at

Aysun Ergene; Kezban Ada; Sema Tan; Hikmet Kat?rc?o?lu

2009-01-01

175

A high activity adsorbent of ZnO-Al2O3 nanocomposite particles: Synthesis, characterization and dye removal efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to stabilize the ZnO species on surfaces of Al2O3 particles, the ZnO-Al2O3 nanocomposite particles with different ZnO contents were prepared by heterogeneous precipitation method using bayerite seed particles. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized in terms of crystal structure, morphology and surface area. The results indicated the formation of wurtzite-type ZnO nanoflakes (thickness of 40-80 nm) on surfaces of ?-Al2O3 particles, which led to nanocomposite particles with high surface areas depending on Al2O3 content. The obtained nanocomposites were used as promising adsorbents in adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution as an anionic dye and were compared with pure ZnO and Al2O3 adsorbents. The nanocomposite adsorbents showed a superior MO removal efficiency than pure adsorbents, which was attributed to unique morphology of ZnO active sites with activated surface charge and also high surface area obtained in nanocomposite adsorbents. Moreover, it was found that there is an optimum between the amount of ZnO active sites and Al2O3 for the maximum of percentage removal of MO, which was obtained for 40%ZnO-Al2O3 adsorbent with 98% efficiency and low equilibrium time of 20 min with a fixed adsorbent concentration of 500 ppm and a fixed dye concentration of 50 ppm.

Tajizadegan, Hamid; Jafari, Majid; Rashidzadeh, Mehdi; Saffar-Teluri, Ali

2013-07-01

176

Superwetting double-layer polyester materials for effective removal of both insoluble oils and soluble dyes in water.  

PubMed

Inspired by the mussel adhesive protein and the lotus leaf, Ag-based double-layer polyester (DL-PET) textiles were fabricated for effective removal of organic pollutants in water. The DL-PET textiles are composed of a top superamphiphilic layer and a bottom superhydrophobic/superoleophilic layer. First, the PET textiles were modified with a layer of polydopamine (PDA) and deposited with Ag nanoparticles to form the PET@PDA@Ag textiles. The top superamphiphilic layer, formed by immobilizing Ag3PO4 nanoparticles on the PET@PDA@Ag textile, shows excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity. The bottom superhydrophobic/superoleophilic layer, formed by modifying the PET@PDA@Ag textile using dodecyl mercaptan, is mechanically, environmentally, and chemically very stable. The water-insoluble oils with low surface tension can penetrate both layers of the DL-PET textiles, while the water with soluble organic dyes can only selectively wet the top layer owing to their unique wettability. Consequently, the water-soluble organic contaminants in the collected water can be decomposed by the Ag3PO4 nanoparticles of the top layer under visible-light irradiation or even sunlight in room conditions. Thus, the DL-PET textiles can remove various kinds of organic pollutants in water including both insoluble oils and soluble dyes. The DL-PET textiles feature unique wettability, high oil/water separation efficiency, and visible-light photocatalytic activity. PMID:24956183

Li, Bucheng; Wu, Lei; Li, Lingxiao; Seeger, Stefan; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

2014-07-23

177

A new absorbent by modifying walnut shell for the removal of anionic dye: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

A novel, low cost and easy regeneration biosorbent, chem-modified walnut shell (MWNS), was studied to investigate its potential for removal of an anionic dye, reactive brilliant red K-2BP. The MWNS was synthesized with epichlorohydrin and diethylenetriamine as etherifying agent and crosslinking agent, respectively, and its characteristics were performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The influences of pH (0.5-11) and adsorbent dosage (0.1-6g/L) on adsorption capacity of MWNS were evaluated. The maximum K-2BP adsorption capacities (Qm) calculated by best fitting model (Langmuir) were 568.18mg/g at 313K, which was almost 10 times than that of raw material. The adsorption kinetic was well confirmed with pseudo-second-order equation. Thermodynamic studies demonstrated adsorption process by MWNS was spontaneous and endothermic. Furthermore, the regeneration capability of MWNS implied MWNS was a cheap, excellent and promising biosorbent for K-2BP removal in azo dye wastewater treatment. PMID:24813388

Cao, Jia-Shun; Lin, Jun-Xiong; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Ming-Ting; Hu, Zhi-Rong

2014-07-01

178

Tyre char preparation from waste tyre rubber for dye removal from effluents.  

PubMed

A number of chars from waste tyre rubber were prepared by carbonisation at 673-1173 K. The effects of holding time, heating rate and particle size on the textural characteristics and elemental composition of the resultant chars were investigated. It was demonstrated that temperatures over 773 K did not have a significant improvement on the total surface area but resulted in lower char yields following increased aromatisation. Modelling of dye adsorption isotherms showed that the Redlich-Peterson expression yields the best-fit between experimental and predicted data. Furthermore, for a larger sized dye like Acid Yellow 117 (MW=848 g/mol), the amount adsorbed by the tyre char is not directly proportional to the total surface area when compared with a commercial carbon, revealing that factors other than total surface area are involved in the adsorption potential of the tyre chars. PMID:19854570

Mui, Edward L K; Cheung, W H; McKay, Gordon

2010-03-15

179

Simultaneous removal of chromium and leather dye from simulated tannery effluent by photoelectrochemistry.  

PubMed

The feasibility of the photobleaching of a leather acid dye, acid red 151, simultaneously to degradation of anionic surfactant, Tamol, and reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic Cr(III) was investigated by photoelectrocatalytic oxidation. The best experimental conditions were found to be pH 2.0 and 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium sulfate when the nanoporous Ti/TiO2 photo anode was biased at +1.0 V and submitted to UV-irradiation. The photoelectrocatalytic oxidation promotes 100% discoloration, reducing around 98-100% of Cr(VI) and achieving an abatement of 95% of the original total organic carbon. The effect of pH, the applied potential, the Cr(VI) concentration and the complexation reaction between Cr(VI) and acid red dye were evaluated as to their effect on the kinetics of the reaction. PMID:19168284

Paschoal, Fabiana Maria Monteiro; Anderson, Marc A; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B

2009-07-15

180

Simultaneous removal of chromium and leather dye from simulated tannery effluent by photoelectrochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of the photobleaching of a leather acid dye, acid red 151, simultaneously to degradation of anionic surfactant, Tamol®, and reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic Cr(III) was investigated by photoelectrocatalytic oxidation. The best experimental conditions were found to be pH 2.0 and 0.1molL?1 sodium sulfate when the nanoporous Ti\\/TiO2 photo anode was biased at +1.0V and submitted

Fabiana Maria Monteiro Paschoal; Marc A. Anderson; Maria Valnice B. Zanoni

2009-01-01

181

Removal of sudan dyes from water with C18-functional ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this study, the new C(18)-functionalized ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles (C(18)-UMS NPs) were successfully synthesized and applied for extraction of sudan dyes in water samples based on the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The extraction and concentration were carried out in one step by blending C(18)-UMS NPs and water samples. The sudan dyes adsorbed C(18)-UMS NPs were isolated from the matrix easily with an external magnetic field. After desorption the quantitation of sudan dyes was done by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC). Satisfactory extraction recovery can be obtained with only 50 mg C(18)-UMS NPs. The effects of experimental parameters, including the amount of the nanoparticles, extraction time, pH value, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. The limits of detection for sudan I, II, III and IV were 0.066, 0.070, 0.12 and 0.12 ng mL(-1), respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the six spiked water samples were between 68% and 103%. PMID:22284457

Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Yu, Xi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xiumin; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

2012-01-30

182

Sunflower seed shells: a novel and effective low-cost adsorbent for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

In this paper, the potential of two low-cost adsorbents such as sunflower seed shells (SS) and mandarin peelings (MP) in the removal of the synthetic anionic dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solutions was investigated. SS led to a percentage of dye removal higher than MP (85% and 71% after 210min, respectively, for an initial RB5 concentration of 50mgL(-1) and an initial pH of 2.0). The rate of adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling stage. In addition, the equilibrium data fitted well both the Freundlich and multilayer adsorption isotherm equations indicating the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface. This was also corroborated by the SEM photographs. On the whole, the results in this study indicated that SS were very attractive materials for removing anionic dyes from dyed effluents. PMID:17321679

Osma, Johann F; Saravia, Verónica; Toca-Herrera, José L; Couto, Susana Rodríguez

2007-08-25

183

Photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye using Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin film prepared by chemical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made by researchers for the removal of various dyes using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2; however, removal of `hazardous Ponceau S dye' using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 has been not studied yet. In the present work, environmental application of Nano structured Ni doped TiO2 has been studied. Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by the chemical method on a glass substrate. The prepared thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. The crystal size calculated from XRD is about 26.2 nm. The SEM analysis reveals nano spherical morphology of average particle size about 92 nm. The optical analysis was carried by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The band gap estimated from absorbance spectra for thin film was around 3.5 eV, making suitable Ni-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye. In photocatalytic application different parameters like dye concentration, contact time, pH, UV light and sunlight were optimized for the removal of Ponceau S dye, respectively. The change in chemical oxygen demand after photo catalytic treatment was also studied.

Marathe, Sunil D.; Shrivastava, Vinod S.

2014-05-01

184

Nano-silica fabricated with silver nanoparticles: antifouling adsorbent for efficient dye removal, effective water disinfection and biofouling control.  

PubMed

A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through protein mediated reduction of silver ions at ambient temperature for development of sustainable nanotechnology. The coated proteins on AgNPs led to the formation of stable NSAgNP and protected the AgNPs from oxidation and other ions commonly present in water. The NSAgNP exhibited excellent dye adsorption capacity both in single and multicomponent systems, and demonstrated satisfactory tolerance against variations in pH and dye concentration. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction, though ?-? interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. Moreover, the NSAgNP showed long-term antibacterial activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs retarded the initial attachment of bacteria on NSAgNP and thus significantly improved the antifouling properties of the nanomaterial, which further inhibited biofilm formation. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopic studies revealed that cell death occurred due to irreversible damage of the cell membrane upon electrostatic interaction of positively charged NSAgNP with the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. The high adsorption capacity, reusability, good tolerance, removal of multicomponent dyes and E. coli from the simulated contaminated water and antifouling properties of NSAgNP will provide new opportunities to develop cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification processes. PMID:23680871

Das, Sujoy K; Khan, Md Motiar R; Parandhaman, T; Laffir, Fathima; Guha, Arun K; Sekaran, G; Mandal, Asit Baran

2013-06-21

185

Adsorption properties of nano-cellulose hybrid containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyeing wastewater is an important class of pollutants, which can be identified by human's eye. The release of some dyes in water streams has serious environmental impacts. Nano-cellulose hybrids containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane with multi-N-methylol (R-POSS) could be used as novel biosorbents for dyes. Adsorption properties of nano-cellulose hybrid for reactive dyes from aqueous solution were investigated. Reactive dyes, Yellow

Kongliang Xie; Weiguo Zhao; Xuemei He

2011-01-01

186

Laser-induced removal of a dye C.I. Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst.  

PubMed

Water contamination by organic substances such as dyes is of great concern worldwide due to their utilization in many industrial processes and environmental concerns. To cater the needs for waste water treatment polluted with organic dyes, laser-induced photocatalytic process was investigated for removal of a dye derivative namely Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst. The degradation was investigated in aqueous suspensions of tungsten oxide under different experimental conditions using laser instead of conventional UV lamp as an irradiation source. The degradation process was monitored by measuring the change in dye concentration as a function of laser irradiation time by employing UV spectroscopic analysis. The degradation of dye was studied by varying different parameters such as laser energy, reaction pH, substrate concentration, catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and potassium bromate (KBrO3). The degradation rates were found to be strongly dependent on all the above-mentioned parameters. Our experimental results revealed that the dye degradation process was very fast (within few minutes) under laser irradiation as compared to conventional setups using broad spectral lamps (hours or days) and this laser-induced photocatalytic degradation method could be an effective means to eliminate the pollutants present in liquid phase. The experience gained through this study could be beneficial for treatment of waste water contaminated with organic dyes and other organic pollutants. PMID:19540669

Qamar, M; Gondal, M A; Hayat, K; Yamani, Z H; Al-Hooshani, K

2009-10-30

187

Box-Behnken methodology for Cr (VI) and leather dyes removal by an eco-friendly biosorbent: F. vesiculosus.  

PubMed

This study focused on leather industrial effluents treatment by biosorption using Fucus vesiculosus as low-cost adsorbent. These effluents are yellowish-brown color and high concentration of Cr (VI). Therefore, biosorption process was optimized using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design operating with a simulated leather effluent obtained by mixture of Cr (VI) solution and four leather dyes. The key variables selected were initial solution pH, biomass dosage and CaCl2 concentration in the pretreatment stage. The statistical analysis shows that pH has a negligible effect, being the biomass dosage and CaCl2 concentration the most significant variables. At optimal conditions, 98% of Cr (VI) and 88% of dyes removal can be achieved. Freundlich fitted better to the obtained equilibrium data for all studied systems than Temkin, Langmuir or D-R models. In addition, the use of the final biosorbent as support-substrate to grown of enzyme producer fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus, was also demonstrated. PMID:24484851

Cobas, M; Sanromán, M A; Pazos, M

2014-05-01

188

Improved virus removal by high-basicity polyaluminum coagulants compared to commercially available aluminum-based coagulants.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of basicity, sulfate content, and aluminum hydrolyte species on the ability of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants to remove F-specific RNA bacteriophages from river water at a pH range of 6-8. An increase in PACl basicity from 1.5 to 2.1 and the absence of sulfate led to a reduction of the amount of monomeric aluminum species (i.e., an increase of the total amount of polymeric aluminum and colloidal aluminum species) in the PACl, to an increase in the colloid charge density of the PACl, or to both and, as a result, to high virus removal efficiency. The efficiency of virus removal at around pH 8 observed with PACl-2.1c, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high colloidal aluminum content, was larger than that observed with PACl-2.1b, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high polymeric aluminum content. In contrast, although extremely high basicity PACls (e.g., PACl-2.7ns, basicity 2.7) effectively removed turbidity and UV260-absorbing natural organic matter and resulted in a very low residual aluminum concentration, the virus removal ratio with PACl-2.7ns was smaller than the ratio with PACl-2.1c at around pH 8, possibly as a result of a reduction of the colloid charge density of the PACl as the basicity was increased from 2.1 to 2.7. Liquid (27)Al NMR analysis revealed that PACl-2.1c contained Al30 species, which was not the case for PACl-2.1b or PACl-2.7ns. This result suggests that Al30 species probably played a major role in virus removal during the coagulation process. In summary, PACl-2.1c, which has high colloidal aluminum content, contains Al30 species, and has a high colloid charge density, removed viruses more efficiently (>4 log10 for infectious viruses) than the other aluminum-based coagulants-including commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-1.8), alum, and PACl-2.7ns-over the entire tested pH (6-8) and coagulant dosage (0.54-5.4 mg-Al/L) ranges. PMID:24139360

Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Oshiba, A; Marubayashi, T; Sato, S

2014-01-01

189

Studies on the removal of dyes from a synthetic textile effluent using barley husk in static-batch mode and in a continuous flow, packed-bed, reactor.  

PubMed

The adsorption of five reactive dyes in a synthetic textile dye effluent onto barley husks has been studied in static-batch mode and in a continuous flow, packed-bed, reactor (CFPBR). Effective adsorption, thermodynamics and various initial concentrations (C0) were studied for static batch conditions. The effect of C0 and retention time (r), by varying height and weight of packing, along with the kinetics of dye adsorption in CFPBR, were studied. The Langmuir isotherm was used to predict saturation capacities. The barley husks were found to remove 8 mg g(-1) of dyes at C0 100 mg l(-1) in CFPBR with a residence of 11 min, with 90% adsorption being achieved. PMID:12146642

Robinson, Tim; Chandran, Bennett; Sathya Naidu, G; Nigam, Poonam

2002-10-01

190

Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer.  

PubMed

A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17 mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25°C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1-8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent. PMID:23912074

Gao, Hejun; Kan, Taotao; Zhao, Siyuan; Qian, Yixia; Cheng, Xiyuan; Wu, Wenli; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Liqiang

2013-10-15

191

Acidity control of plasma-chemical oxidation: applications to dye removal, urban waste abatement and microbial inactivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric discharges burning in humid air at atmospheric pressure over aqueous solutions induce acid effects in the liquid phase resulting from the formation of nitric acid and peroxynitrous acid as transient precursor. These acid effects affect the degradation mechanisms of organic wastes and the relevant kinetic rates; therefore they thus must be controlled (e.g. using buffers). Nitrogen reactive species such as peroxynitrous acid or its salt are directly concerned with both acid effects as precursor to nitric acid, and strong oxidizing properties E°(ONO2H/NO2) = 2.02 V/SHE. Illustrating examples are given in the case of an organic dye (Alizarin S) removal and the gliding discharge treatment of urban wastewaters. Additional arguments are presented to explain the biocidal effect of humid air discharges.

Brisset, Jean-Louis; Benstaali, Baghdad; Moussa, David; Fanmoe, Jean; Njoyim-Tamungang, Estella

2011-06-01

192

Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

Nassar, Mostafa Y. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Ahmed, Ibrahim S., E-mail: isahmed2010@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

2012-09-15

193

Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite is reported that was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. The nanocomposite comprises hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted onto xanthan gum as well as incorporated nanosilica. The synthesis exploits the saponification of the grafted polyacrylamide and the in situ formation of nanoscale SiO2 by a sol-gel reaction, in which the biopolymer matrix promotes the silica polymerization and therefore acts as a novel template for nanosilica formation. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherms of MB and MV from aqueous solution showed that the dyes adsorb rapidly, in accordance with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The entropy driven process was furthermore found to strongly depend on the point of zero charge (pzc) of the adsorbent. The remarkably high adsorption capacity of dyes on the nanocomposites (efficiency of MB removal, 99.4%; maximum specific removal Qmax, 497.5 mg g(-1); and efficiency of MV removal, 99.1%; Qmax, 378.8 mg g(-1)) is rationalized on the basis of H-bonding interactions as well as dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions between anionic adsorbent and cationic dye molecules. Because of the excellent regeneration capacity the nanocomposites are considered interesting materials for the uptake of, for instance, toxic dyes from wastewater. PMID:24579659

Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Asish; Raoufi, Mohammad; Panda, Asit Baran; Schönherr, Holger; Pal, Sagar

2014-04-01

194

Magnetite\\/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: One step solvothermal synthesis and use as a novel platform for removal of dye pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple one step solvothermal strategy using non-toxic and cost-effective precursors has been developed to prepare magnetite\\/reduced\\u000a graphene oxide (MRGO) nanocomposites for removal of dye pollutants. Taking advantage of the combined benefits of graphene\\u000a and magnetic nanoparticles, these MRGO nanocomposites exhibit excellent removal efficiency (over 91% for rhodamine B and over\\u000a 94% for malachite green) and rapid separation from aqueous

Hongmei Sun; Linyuan Cao; Lehui Lu

2011-01-01

195

Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet dyes by adsorption onto bagasse fly ash—kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as waste material from sugar mill), was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange-G (OG), and Methyl Violet (MV), from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to address various experimental parameters like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration for the removal of these dyes. Effective pH for OG

Indra D. Mall; Vimal C. Srivastava; Nitin K. Agarwal

2006-01-01

196

Optimization of batch process parameters using response surface methodology for dye removal by a novel adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of Astrazone Blue FRR (Basic Blue 69) and Teflon Blue ANL (Acid Blue 125) was investigated using a hybrid adsorbent that was prepared by pyrolysing a mixture of carbon and fly ash in 1:1 ratio. A 24 full factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The combined effect of pH, temperature,

K. Ravikumar; K. Pakshirajan; T. Swaminathan; K. Balu

2005-01-01

197

Template-Free Synthesis of Functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156 m2 g-1, and the total pore volume is about 1.17 cm3 g-1. The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment.

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-03-01

198

Template-free synthesis of functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156?m(2) g(-1), and the total pore volume is about 1.17?cm(3) g(-1). The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment. PMID:24663292

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-01-01

199

Template-Free Synthesis of Functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156?m2 g?1, and the total pore volume is about 1.17?cm3 g?1. The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment.

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-01-01

200

Capacity of activated carbon in the removal of acid dyes subsequent to its thermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial activated carbon (Prolabo) was subjected to thermal treatment at 400 and 600°C for 2h. Characterization of the parent, and heated products, was carried out by determining the N2\\/77K adsorption isotherms, FTIR spectra, acidic\\/basic sites, and adsorption of iodine, Acid Blue 74 (AB), Acid Red 73 (AR) and Acid Yellow 23 (AY) from aqueous solution. Thermal treatment resulted in

Amina A. Attia; Wafaa E. Rashwan; Soheir A. Khedr

2006-01-01

201

Evaluation of several commercial synthetic polymers as flocculant aids for removal of highly concentrated C.I. Acid Black 210 dye.  

PubMed

The removal of C.I. Acid Black 210 dye from highly concentrated solutions was studied using a coagulation/flocculation process. Aluminium sulphate was used as a primary coagulant and five commercial polymers were used as flocculant aids. The five commercial polymers were ACCEPTA 2058 (poly-diallyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride), ACCEPTA 2047 (high molecular mass (MM) anionic polyacrylamide), ACCEPTA 2111 (high MM cationic polyacrylamide), ACCEPTA 2105 (Low-medium MM cationic polyacrylamide) and ACCEPTA 2037 (Composite of high MM cationic polyacrylamide-inorganic salt(s)). The five polymers behaved differently and they showed maximum colour removal increment in the order: ACCEPTA 2058 > ACCEPTA 2037 > ACCEPTA 2111 approximately = ACCEPTA 2047 > ACCEPTA 2105. Results also showed that the aluminium sulphate is important as primary coagulant and settling time has significant effect on the dye removal. PMID:20633995

Zahrim, A Y; Tizaoui, C; Hilal, N

2010-10-15

202

Kinetic analysis for the removal of a reactive dye from aqueous solution onto hydrotalcite by adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of a reactive color, Cibacron Yellow LS-R, from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto hydrotalcite particles is investigated using batch rate experiments. Measurements are performed at various initial color concentrations, solid loads, pH values and ionic backgrounds (dissolved NaCl). The speed of agitation and the temperature inside the batch adsorber are also varied within a practical range of values.

N. K. Lazaridis; T. D. Karapantsios; D. Georgantas

2003-01-01

203

Removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto crosslinked poly(4-vinylpyridine\\/crotonic acid) and its N-oxide derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, crosslinked poly(4-vinylpyridine\\/crotonic acid) [poly(4-VPy\\/CrA)] and its N-oxide derivative were synthesized\\u000a to compare the adsorption of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye on these materials. The adsorptive removal of MB from aqueous\\u000a solution onto adsorbents was studied by using column adsorption method. Experimental results showed that MB was removed more\\u000a effective by poly(4-VPy\\/CrA)–N-oxide than poly(4-VPy\\/CrA) resins. The percentage removal

Ramazan Co?kun

2011-01-01

204

Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Magnetic chitosan composites (MCCs) are a novel material that exhibits good sorption behavior toward various toxic pollutants in aqueous solution. These magnetic composites have a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption efficiency, efficient to remove various pollutants and they are easy to recover and reuse. These features highlight the suitability of MCCs for the treatment of water polluted with metal and organic materials. This review outlines the preparation of MCCs as well as methods to characterize these materials using FTIR, XRD, TGA and other microscopy-based techniques. Additionally, an overview of recent developments and applications of MCCs for metal and organic pollutant removal is discussed in detail. Based on current research and existing materials, some new and futuristic approaches in this fascinating area are also discussed. The main objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the most important features of MCCs and to show their advantages as adsorbents in the treatment of polluted aqueous solutions. PMID:24182685

Reddy, D Harikishore Kumar; Lee, Seung-Mok

2013-12-01

205

Efficient removal of bilirubin from human serum by monosize dye affinity beads.  

PubMed

Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB) was covalently attached onto poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) monosize beads for removal of bilirubin from hyperbilirubinemia human serum. PGMA beads were produced by dispersion polymerization (1.6 ?m in diameter). CB loading was 1.73 mmol/g. Bilirubin adsorption experiments were performed by stirred-batch adsorption. The non-specific adsorption of bilirubin was low (0.4 mg/g polymer). CB attachment onto the PGMA beads significantly increased the bilirubin adsorption (241.5 mg/g) from aqueous solutions. The maximum bilirubin adsorption was observed at pH 6.0. With an increase of the aqueous phase concentration of sodium chloride, the adsorption amount of bilirubin decreased drastically. The equilibrium adsorption of bilirubin significantly increased with increasing temperature. Much higher adsorption values up to 332 mg bilirubin/g were achieved in the case of the PGMA/CB beads from human plasma. PMID:20566067

Alt?nta?, Evrim Banu; Türkmen, Deniz; Karakoç, Veyis; Denizli, Adil

2011-01-01

206

Removal efficiency of a calix[4]arene-based polymer for water-soluble carcinogenic direct azo dyes and aromatic amines.  

PubMed

A Mannich base derivative of 5,11,17,23-tetrakis-[(1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro-[4.5]decanyl)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene 3 was synthesized by the treatment of calix[4]arene with a cyclic secondary amine (1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro-[4.5]decane) and formaldehyde. The compound 3 was treated with dibromoxylene to obtain a calix[4]arene-based copolymer 4. In batch sorption experiments of selected carcinogenic azo dyes and aromatic amines, the compounds 3 and 4 were found to be a better sorbent for azo dyes than for the aromatic amines. It was observed that the percentage of azo dye removal was 95-99% for compound 3 and 83-97% for 4 when the pH of the dye solution was in the range of 2.0-8.0. The sorption of azo dyes and aromatic amines by calix[4]arenes-based compounds indicates that amino groups play the major role for the formation of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. PMID:18599207

Akceylan, Ezgi; Bahadir, Müfit; Yilmaz, Mustafa

2009-03-15

207

BiFeO3/?-Fe2O3 core/shell composite particles for fast and selective removal of methyl orange dye in water.  

PubMed

BiFeO3/?-Fe2O3 core/shell composite particles featuring fast removal, selective adsorption, and magnetic recycle capability on anionic methyl orange (MO) dye in water was synthesized by a two-step chemical route. A discontinuous and rough shell consisting of the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was deposited on the BiFeO3 core surface preferentially, forming raspberry-like core/shell particle morphology. The core/shell particles demonstrated a pronounced adsorption to the MO molecules when compared with particulate mixtures of the same molar ratio. At an initial MO concentration of 2.5×10(-5)M, nearly 80% of the dye molecules were captured by the core/shell particles within 5min at an acidic pH of 5.2. Desorption of the MO dye could be made easily when the solution pH was adjusted to 9.5. This together with a minute adsorption capacity (<2%) from solutions consisting of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye suggests that the adsorption selectivity was in part due to electrostatic interactions between the dye molecules and the core/shell particles. PMID:24910040

Tseng, Wenjea J; Lin, Ruei-De

2014-08-15

208

Biodegradation potential of pure and mixed bacterial cultures for removal of 4-nitroaniline from textile dye wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally toxic aromatic amines including nitroanilines are commonly generated in dye contaminated wastewater in which azo dyes undergo degradation under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a process for biological treatment of 4-nitroaniline. Three bacteria identified as Acinetobacter sp., Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated from enrichment cultures of activated sludge on 4-nitroaniline, after which

Azeem Khalid; Muhammad Arshad; David E. Crowley

2009-01-01

209

[Study on removal effect of different organic fractions from bio-treated effluent of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process].  

PubMed

The pretreatment of bio-treated effluent of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process was studied. The influencing factors, such as H2O2 dosage, reaction time and pH values were evaluated for the removal efficiency of UV254, ADMI7.6, DOC and DOC of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process. The experimental results showed that,the optimal conditions determined were as follows: initial pH 7.4-8.1, H2O2 dosage 4.5 mmol x L(-1) and UV irradiation time of 50 min. Under the optimal conditions, UV254, ADMI7.6, DOC and COD removal rate could reach 77%, 94%, 40% and 69%. Removal effects of four different DOM fractions, hydrophobic acids, non-acid hydrophobics, tasnsphilics and hydrophilics separated by XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The experimental results show that: hydrophobic material was the main substance causing color, when it was characterized by ADMI7.6, the proportion could reach 92%, of which 53% was non-acid hydrophobics. It indicated that removal efficiencies of tasnsphilics, hydrophobic acids and non-acid hydrophobics were high through UV/H2O2, process, while hydrophilics' efficiencies were lower. The experimental results showed that organic molecules with molecular weight over 10,000 contributed greatly to UV254, ADMI7.6 and DOC removal rate. PMID:23213897

Li, Xin; Liu, Yong-di; Sun, Xian-bo; Xu, Hong-yong; Qian, Fei-yue; Li, Xin-jue; Li, Mu

2012-08-01

210

Determination of adsorptive properties of a Turkish Sepiolite for removal of Reactive Blue 15 anionic dye from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Reactive Blue 15 (RB 15) adsorption on the Turkish Sepiolite was carried out by batch equilibrium technique. IR spectrum and surface area measurement of the composite of dye-sepiolite (Turkish) pointed out that dye species replaced partly the zeolitic water to form hydrogen bond with bound water and adsorbed to the channels sites. The effects of temperature, pH and ionic strength on adsorption of dye molecules were investigated and the nature of adsorption process was determined by calculating DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaG values. The adsorbed amount increased with increase in temperature, but that for high pH values decreased for the adsorption of reactive dye. PMID:18534746

Tabak, A; Eren, E; Afsin, B; Caglar, B

2009-01-30

211

Removal and degradation of the fungicide dye malachite green from aqueous solution using the system wheat bran– Fomes sclerodermeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triphenylmethane dye malachite green (MG), commonly used as fungicide, was adsorbed onto wheat bran (WB) by using a batch technique. The effects of contact time, dye concentration and pH were investigated. The equilibrium was attained after 40min of contact time irrespective of MG concentration. The pH of MG aqueous solution greatly influenced the adsorption capacity and intensity, it was

Leandro Papinutti; Nora Mouso; Flavia Forchiassin

2006-01-01

212

Synthesis of porous chitosan-polyaniline/ZnO hybrid composite and application for removal of reactive orange 16 dye.  

PubMed

For the first time, chitosan-polyaniline/ZnO hybrids were prepared through a polymerization of aniline hydrochloride in the presence of ZnCl2 and chitosan. The hybrid materials were characterized by FT-IR, BET, SEM, UV-vis spectra and XRD analysis. From the BET and SEM micrographs, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles into chitosan-polyaniline hybrid could obviously increase the porosity due to good possibility for dye adsorption. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage and pH using reactive orange 16 as a model pollutant. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm equation, with maximum adsorption capacity value was found to be 476.2mgg(-1). Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model agreed well with the experimental data and good correlation (R(2)>0.999). Photocatalytic degradation of dye under UV irradiation at pH 5.8 has also been examined. FT-IR spectrum clearly indicates that before adsorption of hybrid showed the functional groups of chitosan and polyaniline, whereas the dye adsorbed hybrid only present the dye molecules and ZnO. Based on the results of present investigation, the introduction of ZnCl2 into chitosan-polyaniline hybrid will enhance the adsorption of reactive dyes and photocatalytic degradation. PMID:23563288

Kannusamy, Pandiselvi; Sivalingam, Thambidurai

2013-08-01

213

Adsorption process of methyl orange dye onto mesoporous carbon material-kinetic and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

The mesoporous carbon CMK-3 adsorbent was prepared, characterized, and used for the removal of anionic methyl orange dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption experiments were carried out as batch studies at different contact time, pH, initial dye concentration, and salt concentration. The dye adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 60 min of contact time. Removal of dye in acidic solutions was better than in basic solutions. The adsorption of dye increased with increasing initial dye concentration and salt concentration. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, which revealed that Langmuir model was more suitable to describe the methyl orange adsorption than Freundlich model. Experimental data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was found that kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order equation. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. PMID:21798549

Mohammadi, Nourali; Khani, Hadi; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Amereh, Ehsanollah; Agarwal, Shilpi

2011-10-15

214

IonSelective Electrodes for the Determination of Antimony and Thallium Based on Water-Insoluble Basic Dye Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexachloroantimonate(V) and tetrachlorothallate(III) salts of Sevron Red L (C.I. Basic Red 17), Sevron Red GL (C.I. 11,085), Flavinduline O (C.I. 50,000) and Phenazinduline O have been applied in liquid-state ion-selective electrodes for the determination of antimony and thallium. The slope of potential versus pM graphs approach full Nernstian response in the range 10 M (Sb) and 10 M (T1) to

A. G. Fogg; A. A. Al-sibaai; C. Burgess

1975-01-01

215

Adsorption of basic dye onto activated carbon prepared from durian shell: Studies of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activated carbon was prepared from durian shell and used for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The activated carbon was prepared using chemical activation method with potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. The activation was conducted at 673.15K for 1h with mass ratio of chemical activating agent to durian shell 1:2. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were

Thio Christine Chandra; M. M. Mirna; Y. Sudaryanto; S. Ismadji

2007-01-01

216

Modified subretinal dye extrusion technique (MORE-DETECH): subretinal diluted trypan blue for detecting occult retinal breaks in retinal detachment after endotamponade removal.  

PubMed

To investigate the effectiveness of a new technique for the identification of occult retinal breaks in retinal redetachment after removal of silicone oil endotamponade. The technique involves injection of subretinal dye and extrusion through the unidentified breaks. A prospective interventional case series. Main outcome measures were rate of break detection, rate of retinal attachment at 3 months after removal of endotamponade, and improvement in visual acuity after surgery. A total of 21 patients fulfilled the study criterion. The occult rhegma could be identified successfully in all except two cases (90.4 % success). In most cases the rhegma was identified at the posterior edge of the laser retinopexy scar. Complete retinal attachment could be seen in all cases at 12 weeks after removal of silicone oil. The mean visual acuity improved from logMAR 1.4, preoperatively to logMAR 0.81 (p = 0.001) postoperatively. Subretinal dye injection was useful in detecting occult retinal breaks in patients with retinal redetachment and was helpful in preventing surgical failure. PMID:23408012

Khanduja, Sumeet; Sinha, Subijay; Gogia, Varun; Kakkar, Ashish; Vohra, Rajpal

2013-12-01

217

Electrochemical degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on Pb/PbO2 electrode in the presence of different conductive electrolyte and effect of various operating factors.  

PubMed

Electrocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes from simulated wastewater on lead dioxide anode was investigated in different conductive electrolytes. It was shown that complete degradation of these dyes is dependent primarily on type and concentration of the conductive electrolyte. The highest electrocatalytic activity was achieved in the presence of NaCl (2g/l) and could be attributed to indirect oxidation of the investigated dyes by the electrogenerated hypochlorite ions formed from the chloride oxidation. In addition, contribution from direct oxidation could also be possible via reaction of these organic compounds with the electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals adsorbed on the lead dioxide surface. In the presence of NaOH, the electrocatalytic activity of the employed anode was not comparable to that in NaCl due primarily to the absence of chloride. This indicates that dyes degradation in NaOH occurs exclusively via direct electrochemical process. However, in H2SO4, the electrode performance was poor due partially to the absence of chloride from the conductive solution. The possibility of electrode poisoning as a result of growth of adherent film on the anode surface or production of stable intermediates not easily further oxidized by direct electrolysis in H2SO4 might also be accountable for the poor performance observed in this conductive electrolyte. Optimizing the conditions that ensure effective electrochemical degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on lead dioxide electrode necessitates the control of all the operating factors. PMID:15878189

Awad, H S; Galwa, N Abo

2005-12-01

218

Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Remazol Brilliant Blue Reactive Dye Removal Using Periwinkle Shell-Based Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates both batch and optimization studies of adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue Reactive (RBBR) dye onto activated carbon prepared from periwinkle shells (PSAC). The effects of three preparation variables: CO2 activation temperature, CO2 activation time, and KOH: char impregnation ratio (IR) were studied using Response Surface Modeling (RSM). Based on the central composite design (CCD), a quadratic model

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

2011-01-01

219

Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Remazol Brilliant Blue Reactive Dye Removal Using Periwinkle Shell - Based Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates both batch and optimization studies of adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue Reactive (RBBR) dye onto activated carbon prepared from periwinkle shells (PSAC). The effects of three preparation variables: CO2 activation temperature, CO2 activation time and KOH: char impregnation ratio (IR) were studied using Response Surface Modeling (RSM). Based on the central composite design (CCD), a quadratic model

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

2011-01-01

220

Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using rambutan peel-based activated carbon: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of malachite green (MG) dye onto rambutan peel-based activated carbon (RPAC) was carried out in this work. The effects of different reaction parameters such as the initial MG concentration, contact time, solution temperature and initial pH on MG adsorption were investigated. MG adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, contact time and solution temperature.

Mohd Azmier Ahmad; Rasyidah Alrozi

2011-01-01

221

Fabrication of nanospinel ZnCr2O4 using sol-gel method and its application on removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

For the first time, nanoparticles of zinc chromite, spinel ZnCr(2)O(4) have been fabricated by the thermal decomposition of Zn-Cr gel prepared by sol-gel method in the presence of oxalic acid as a chelating agent. It was shown that the well-crystallized spinel structure is formed after calcination at 450°C. The nanospinel has been characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average particle size is approximately 13 nm according to the TEM image. The nanoparticles of zinc chromites showed excellent adsorption properties towards reactive dye, reactive blue 5 (RB5). The adsorption studies have been carried out for contact time, different pH values, different temperatures, and adsorbent doses. The investigation of removal kinetics of RB5 indicates that the removal process obeys the rate of second-order kinetic equation. The results indicate that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the data better than the Freundlich. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of RB5 using spinel ZnCr(2)O(4) under UV irradiation at pH=1 has been also examined. The results showed that the degradation of RB5 dye follows merely an adsorption process. PMID:20863619

Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Khosravi, Iman; Goharshadi, Elaheh K; Youssefi, Abbas

2010-12-15

222

Preparation and characterization of magnetic rectorite\\/iron oxide nanocomposites and its application for the removal of the dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized on the rectorite (REC) to prepare the adsorbent of magnetic REC (REC-Fe3O4), which was explored to adsorb three dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and methyl orange (MO). Characterization of REC-Fe3O4 by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that REC was attached with clusters of Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

Dongliang Wu; Pengwu Zheng; Peter R. Chang; Xiaofei Ma

2011-01-01

223

Parametric study on the effect of the ratios [H2O2]\\/[Fe] and [H2O2]\\/[substrate] on the photo-Fenton degradation of cationic azo dye Basic Blue 41  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental parametric study was carried out to investigate the effects of [H2O2], [Fe] and [H2O2]\\/[Fe] ratio on the photo-Fenton degradation of a azo dye Basic Blue 41 (BB41) in aqueous solution. This method consists of coupling between Fenton's reagent and UV irradiation in order to catalyze the in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals, a powerful oxidizing agent which leads

Souâd Bouafia-Chergui; Nihal Oturan; Hussein Khalaf; Mehmet A. Oturan

2010-01-01

224

Influence of humic acids on the adsorption of Basic Yellow 28 dye onto an iron organo-inorgano pillared clay and two hydrous ferric oxides.  

PubMed

Effect of humic acids (HAs), macromolecules from natural organic matter, on the adsorption of Basic Yellow 28 is the aim of the present work. Three adsorbents were investigated in this study: an iron organo-inorgano pillared clay and two synthetic Hydrous Iron Oxide (Goethite and HFO). The surface charge was positive in the pH range of this study for the pillared clay; in contrast, it changes from positive to negative when the pH value increased (pH>9) for the two (oxy)hydroxides. Pseudo-first order kinetic rate constants and adsorption capacities increase from humic acid to BY 28. Adsorption isotherms of BY 28 and HA in single component were analysed using the Freundlich equation. Adsorption capacities increased sharply when the pH value of the dye solution was raised from 3 to 9. Increasing the pH medium from 3 to 9 reduces the HA adsorption capacities onto Fe-SMPM and iron oxyhydroxides, respectively. Fitting between measured and predicted sorption capacities of BY 28 and HA in a binary component system indicates that the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch (SRS) model, an extended Freundlich model, is able to describe the simultaneous adsorption of BY 28 and HA. Humic acids favourably affect the adsorption of BY 28, and a cooperative mechanism could be suggested. The synergetic effect existing between BY 28 and HA is shown by the interaction coefficients ?12, which are generally high and increase with pH. Some phenomena have been advanced to explain this mechanism. PMID:23332940

Zermane, Faiza; Cheknane, Benamar; Basly, Jean Philippe; Bouras, Omar; Baudu, Michel

2013-04-01

225

Effects of interaction of folic acid with uranium (VI) and basic triphenylmethane dyes on resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra and their analytical applications.  

PubMed

In pH 4.2-4.8 HAc-NaAc buffer solution, folic acid (FA) could react with uranium (VI) to form a 2:1 anionic chelate which further reacted with some basic triphenylmethane dyes (BTPMD) such as Ethyl Violet (EV), Methyl Violet (MV) and Crystal Violet (CV) to form 1:2 ion-association complexes. As a result, not only the absorption spectra were changed, but also the intensities of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) were enhanced greatly and the new RRS spectra were observed. The maximum RRS wavelengths were located at 328 nm for EV system, 325 nm for MV system and 328 nm for CV system. The fading degree (DeltaA) and RRS intensities (DeltaI) of three systems were different. Under given conditions, the DeltaA and DeltaI were all directly proportional to the concentration of FA. The linear ranges and the detection limits of RRS methods were 0.0039-5.0 microg mL(-1) and 1.2 ng mL(-1) for EV system, 0.0073-4.0 microg mL(-1) and 2.2 ng mL(-1) for MV system, 0.014-3.5 microg mL(-1) and 4.7 ng mL(-1) for CV system. The RRS methods exhibited higher sensitivity, so they are more suitable for the determination of trace FA. The optimum conditions, the influencing factors and the effects of coexisting substances on the reaction were investigated. The method can be applied to the determination of FA in serum and urine samples with satisfactory results. The structure of the ternary ion-association complex and the reaction mechanism were discussed in this work. PMID:18374705

Xi, Cunxian; Liu, Zhongfang; Kong, Ling; Hu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shaopu

2008-04-14

226

Arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by membrane-integrated hybrid plant: optimization and control using Visual Basic platform.  

PubMed

A simulation software (ARRPA) has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic platform for optimization and control of a novel membrane-integrated arsenic separation plant in the backdrop of absence of such software. The user-friendly, menu-driven software is based on a dynamic linearized mathematical model, developed for the hybrid treatment scheme. The model captures the chemical kinetics in the pre-treating chemical reactor and the separation and transport phenomena involved in nanofiltration. The software has been validated through extensive experimental investigations. The agreement between the outputs from computer simulation program and the experimental findings are excellent and consistent under varying operating conditions reflecting high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. High values of the overall correlation coefficient (R (2)?=?0.989) and Willmott d-index (0.989) are indicators of the capability of the software in analyzing performance of the plant. The software permits pre-analysis, manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. Performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units is possible using the tool. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. PMID:24288068

Chakrabortty, S; Sen, M; Pal, P

2014-03-01

227

An efficient removal of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto chitosan/MgO composite: A novel reusable adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel multi-functional magnesium oxide (MgO) immobilized chitosan (CS) composite was prepared by chemical precipitation method. The CS-MgO composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential. The composite was applied as a novel adsorbent for removal of methyl orange model dye and the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were studied. The adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo second order reaction. The adsorbent efficiency was unaltered even after five cycles of reuse. In addition, the composite exhibited a superior antibacterial efficacy of 93% within 24 h against Escherichia coli as measured by colony forming units. Based on the data of present investigation the composite being a biocompatible, eco-friendly and low-cost adsorbent with antibacterial activity could find potential applications in variety of fields and in particular environmental applications.

Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Shim, Jae-Jin

2014-02-01

228

Silica coated magnetic particles using microwave synthesis for removal of dyes from natural water samples: Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium, isotherm and kinetics studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring pollutants in water samples is a challenge to analysts. So, the removal of Napthol blue black (NBB) and Erichrome blue black R (EBBR) from aqueous solutions was investigated using magnetic chelated silica particles. Magnetic solids are widely used in detection and analytical systems because of the performance advantages they offer compared to similar solids that lack magnetic properties. In this context, a fast, simple and clean method for modification of magnetic particles (Fe3O4) with silica gel was developed using microwave technique to introduce silica gel coated magnetic particles (SG-MPs) sorbent. The magnetic sorbent was characterized by the FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scan electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The effects of pH, time, weight of sorbent and initial concentration of dye were evaluated. It was interesting to find from results that SG-MPs exhibits high percentage extraction of the studied dyes (100% for NBB and 98.75% for EBBR) from aqueous solutions. The Freundlich isotherm with r2 = 0.973 and 0.962 and Langmuir isotherms with r2 = 0.993 and 0.988 for NBB and EBBR, respectively were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. Also, adsorption kinetic experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation r2 = 1.0 for NBB and 0.999 for EBBR. The prepared sorbent with rapid adsorption rate and separation convenience was applied for removal of NBB and EBBR pollutants from natural water samples with good precision (RSD% = 0.05-0.3%).

Ahmed, Salwa A.; Soliman, Ezzat M.

2013-11-01

229

Novel Application of Alkali Oxides in Basic Tundish Fluxes for Enhancing Inclusion Removal in 321 Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental work on the effect of alkali oxides including Li2O, Na2O, and K2O on the absorption ability of inclusions in a typical basic tundish flux for 321 stainless steels has been studied. The effects on the absorption ability are dependent on the type of alkali oxides and the amount composed within the tundish flux. Results from kinetics studies using an induction furnace at 1823 K (1550 °C) on the reaction of tundish fluxes containing alkali oxides with 321 stainless steels suggest minimal improvement with Li2O and Na2O additions and in some cases hindered inclusion removal, but K2O additions seems to significantly improve the cleanliness in the as-quenched 321 stainless steel melts compared to preexisting tundish flux compositions. Both Li2O and Na2O significantly lower the viscosity of the melt, while K2O increases the viscosity. Although alkali oxides have a propensity to enhance the cohesion of aluminate melts due to the ionic compensation effect in [AlO4]5--tetrahedral structural units, this effect was not pronounced for Li2O and Na2O compared to K2O additions, which may be due to the large ionic radius size of potassium. An automated SEM-EDS analysis was utilized to identify the inclusion morphology and abundance within the steel. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the effects of alkali oxides on the tundish flux structure for improved absorption capability and described the characteristic effect of K2O on increasing the asymmetric stretching vibrations of [AlO4]5--tetrahedral structural units and Si-O-Al bonding within the flux, thus polymerizing the flux and selectively absorbing inclusions.

Yu, Jong Yeong; Kang, Youngjo; Sohn, Il

2014-01-01

230

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 3, and Basic Violet 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic Violet 3, Basic Violet 1, and Basic Violet 4 are triphenylmethane dyes that function as direct (nonoxidative) hair colorants. No current uses or use concentrations in cosmetics are reported. The term Gentian Violet is used synonymously with Basic Violet 1 and Basic Violet 3, although the chemical structures of these 2 dyes are not the same. The Cosmetic Ingredient

Catherine Diamante; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Curtis D. Klaassen; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder; F. Alan Andersen

2009-01-01

231

Blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in aswan governorate, Upper Egypt, as an adsorbent for the removal of merocyanine dye from its aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The adsorption potential of the blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in Aswan Governorate, Egypt, to decolorize aqueous solutions of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one 4[2] merocyanine dye (1) was investigated at room temperature. The influence of the solution pH, the quantity of adsorbent, the initial concentration of 1, and the applied contact time were studied with the batch technique. The maximum percentage of removal of 1 was observed at pH 4. The adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, confirming the formation of monolayers of 1 on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic rate constants and the transient behavior at different initial concentrations of 1 were determined with both the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and the Ho and McKay pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of 1 on blast furnace slag followed a second-order chemisorption process. PMID:20397223

Taha, Gharib Mahmoud; Mosaed, Taghreed Mahmoud

2010-04-01

232

Efficient removal of dyes by a novel magnetic Fe3O4/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent from heavy metal wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel magnetic Fe(3)O(4)/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent was produced from electroplating wastewater and pickling waste liquor via a two-step microwave hydrothermal method. Adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from water was studied using this material. The effects of three variables have been investigated by a single-factor method. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was successfully applied to the optimization of the preparation conditions. The maximum adsorption capacity of MO was found to be 240.16 mg/g, indicating that this material may be an effective adsorbent. It was shown that 99% of heavy metal ions (Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), and Zn(2+)) can be effectively removed into precipitates and released far less in the adsorption process. In addition, this material with adsorbed dye can be easily separated by a magnetic field and recycled after catalytic regeneration with advanced oxidation technology. Meanwhile, kinetic models, FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction pattern were applied to the experimental data to examine uptake mechanism. The boundary layer and intra-particle diffusion played important roles in the adsorption mechanisms. PMID:23122732

Chen, Dan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Zhou, Jizhi; Shao, Li; Qian, Guangren

2012-12-01

233

Reconstruction of the (001) surface of TiO2 nanosheets induced by the fluorine-surfactant removal process under UV-irradiation for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The champion dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO(2) nanoparticles nearly reach the limit of photo-current density using the black dye or zinc porphyrin dye as sensitizer. However, the way to make ordinary DSSCs more efficient as well as to understand the mechanism is still essential. Here we present an elegant UV irradiation treatment of TiO(2) nanosheets to enhance the performance of DSSCs based on the TiO(2) nanosheets via room temperature removal of inorganic surfactants and reconstruction of the (001) surface of TiO(2) nanosheets, killing two birds with one stone. UV irradiation was utilized to remove the fluorine-surfactant on the surface of anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with a high percentage of exposed {001} facets which were synthesized with the aid of hydrofluoric acid. The nanosheets treated with UV irradiation for 40 min had the advantage of improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs by 17.6%, compared to that without UV treatment when they were introduced into DSSCs as photoanode materials. The improved efficiency was ascribed to more dye adsorption. A theoretical calculation proposed that UV irradiation induced microfaceted steps on the TiO(2) surface by two domain (1 × 4) reconstruction after UV irradiating the (1 × 1) (001) surface. The microfaceted steps increase the active surface area of the TiO(2) nanosheets by increasing the exposure of titanium atoms and engendering active sites. PMID:22382572

Zhang, Jiyuan; Wang, Jiajia; Zhao, Zongyan; Yu, Tao; Feng, Jianyong; Yuan, Yongjun; Tang, Zekun; Liu, Yunhong; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

2012-04-14

234

Basic Red 51, a permitted semi-permanent hair dye, is cytotoxic to human skin cells: Studies in monolayer and 3D skin model using human keratinocytes (HaCaT).  

PubMed

The use of hair dyes is closely associated with the increase of cancer, inflammation and other skin disorders. The recognition that human skin is not an impermeable barrier indicates that there is the possibility of human systemic exposure. The carcinogenic potential of hair dye ingredients has attracted the attention of toxicologists for many decades, mainly due to the fact that some ingredients belong to the large chemical family of aromatic amines. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Basic Red 51 (BR51) in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). BR51 is a temporary hair dye that belongs to the azo group (NN); the cleavage of this bond may result in the release of toxic aromatic amines. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) in HaCaT cells is 13?g/mL. BR51 induced a significant decrease on expression of p21 in a dose dependent manner. p53 was not affected, whereas BR51 decreased procaspase 8 and cleaved procaspase 9. These results proved that caspase 3 is fully involved in BR51-induced apoptosis. The dye was also able to stop this cell cycle on G2 in sub-toxic doses. Moreover, we reconstructed a 3D artificial epidermis using HaCaT cells; using this model, we observed that BR51 induced cell injury and cells were undergoing apoptosis, considering the fragmented nuclei. Subsequently, BR51 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase on the levels of 8-oxo-dG. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence that consumer and/or professional exposure to BR51 poses risk to human health. PMID:24657526

Zanoni, Thalita B; Tiago, Manoela; Faiăo-Flores, Fernanda; de Moraes Barros, Silvia B; Bast, Aalt; Hageman, Geja; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

2014-06-01

235

Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism modeling and simulation of basic and acid dyes sorption onto jute fiber carbon: Eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet single component systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto jute fiber carbon (JFC). The operating variables studied are the initial dye concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson isotherm by non-linear regression method. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the

K. Porkodi; K. Vasanth Kumar

2007-01-01

236

Effect of iron salt on the color removal of water containing the azo-dye reactive blue 69 using photo-assisted Fe(II)\\/H 2O 2 and Fe(III)\\/H 2O 2 systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chloride, sulfate and nitrate anions on the color removal of water containing the azo-dye reactive blue 69 (RB69) in acidic solution, by using photo-assisted Fenton process with Fe(II)\\/H2O2 and Fe(III)\\/H2O2 systems was investigated. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor irradiated during 5h with a domestic 15W lamp with emission in the visible spectra. Experimental results showed

Sayra L. Orozco; Erick R. Bandala; Camilo A. Arancibia-Bulnes; Benito Serrano; Raúl Suárez-Parra; Isaias Hernández-Pérez

2008-01-01

237

Fast removal of malachite green dye using novel superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this study, superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Alg-Fe3O4) as a novel magnetic adsorbent were prepared by in situ coprecipitation method, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles were precipitated from FeCl3 and FeCl2 under alkaline medium in the presence of sodium alginate. The Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used for removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption technique. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed using XRD, FTIR, TEM, TGA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. FTIR analysis of synthesized nanoparticles provided the evidence that sodium alginate was successfully coated on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The FT-IR and TGA characterization showed that the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles contained about 14% (w/w) of sodium alginate. Moreover, TEM analysis indicated that the average diameter of the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 12nm. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature were investigated on the adsorption properties of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The equilibrium adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 47.84mg/g. The kinetics of adsorption of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the adsorption of MG onto nanoparticles followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:24875322

Mohammadi, Abbas; Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi

2014-08-01

238

Atmospheric Pollutant Removal by Non-Thermal Plasmas: Basic Data Needs for Understanding and Optimization of the Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since fifteen years, an increasing interest has been devoted to removal of atmospheric pollutant by non-thermal plasmas achieved using e-beams or pulsed discharges, for the nitrous oxides the so-called de-NOx process, or for Volatils Organic Compounds, the so-called de-VOC process. However the physical and chemical mechanisms involved are not easy to understand: molecules or gas mixtures are quite complex, and the transient plasma created by the type of discharge often used, dielectric barrier or corona ones, is non homogeneous in space. In this paper is discussed some data needs for understanding of the NO-removal process and the destruction of some selected VOC molecules, TCE and TCA, by pulsed discharge plasmas. Some experimental studies performed to get insight into the discharge plasma kinetic involved in the pollutant removal are presented, in particular about the hydroxyl radical OH which play an important role in this kinetic.

Pasquiers, S.; Cormier, M.; Motret, O.

2002-10-01

239

Environmentally stable adsorbent of tetrahedral silica and non-tetrahedral alumina for removal and recovery of malachite green dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional adsorbents like activated carbon, agricultural wastes, molecular sieves, etc., used for dye adsorption are unstable in the environment for long time, and hence the adsorbed dyes again gets liberated and pollute the environment. To avoid this problem, environmentally stable adsorbent of silica and alumina should be employed for malachite green adsorption. The adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transformed

Chellapandian Kannan; Thiravium Sundaram; Thayumanavan Palvannan

2008-01-01

240

Adsorption of basic fuchsin using waste materials—bottom ash and deoiled soya—as adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic fuchsin, a triaminotriphenylmethane dye, was removed by adsorption utilizing two waste materials—“bottom ash,” a power plant waste material, and “deoiled soya,” an agriculture waste product. The adsorbents were characterized through IR spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out by measuring effects of pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, amount of adsorbent, contact time, temperature, etc.

V. K. Gupta; Alok Mittal; Vibha Gajbe; Jyoti Mittal

2008-01-01

241

Biological treatment of dye wastewaters using an anaerobic-oxic system.  

PubMed

Three dye solutions, namely, C.I. Acid Yellow 17, C.I. Basic Blue 3, and C.I. Basic Red 2, were treated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a semi-continuous aerobic activated sludge tank. When hydraulic retention time was about 12 hours, no significant color removal was observed in the aerobic stage. In the anaerobic stage, Acid Yellow 17, Basic Blue 3, and Basic Red 2 were removed by 20%, 72%, and 78%, respectively. To treat wastewater from a dye manufacturing factor with COD concentration of 1200 mg/l and Color of 500 degrees (dilution factor), an UASB reactor (4.5 liters) and an activated sludge tank (5 liters, adjustable), COD and color were removed by more than 83% and 90% at a COD loading rate of 5.3 kg COD/m3-day in the anaerobic stage, and at the hydraulic retention time of 6-10 hours for the anaerobic stage and 6.5 for the aerobic stage. The anaerobic stage of the A/O system removes both color and COD. In addition, it also improves biodegradability of dyes for further aeroic treatment. PMID:8976059

An, H; Qian, Y; Gu, X; Tang, W Z

1996-12-01

242

Removal of anionic azo dye from aqueous solution via an adsorption-photosensitized regeneration process on a TiO2 surface.  

PubMed

Textile dye effluents are typically characterized by strong color and recalcitrance, even at very low concentration. The process of enrichment of anionic azo dye on the surface of TiO(2) fibers followed by photosensitization degradation under ambient air conditions was extensively investigated. Adsorption isotherms and zeta potentials were used to describe the "dye/TiO(2) surface" interface, taking into account the effects of pH on the nature and population of the surface groups on the TiO(2) fibers. The extent of the photocatalytic degradation of dye on TiO(2) surface was determined by FTIR. N(2) adsorption isotherms and optical spectra were employed to investigate the effect of photosensitization. The adsorption of dyes on the TiO(2) surface occurs via electrostatic attraction through the formation of single- or multidentate-coordinated surface complexes. Almost complete photobleaching of the absorption band at 534 nm is achieved in ~4 h. Dye-sensitized TiO(2) fiber could absorb part of the visible light spectrum (? < 600 nm). Interfacial electron transfer can potentially alter the degradation efficiency. The regenerated TiO(2) fiber could be reused for subsequent decolorization without a decline in adsorption efficiency compared with freshly prepared TiO(2) samples, which may be attributed to preservation of the hierarchical pore structure and restoration of the original surface properties. In summary, we propose an efficient "adsorption-photoregeneration-reuse" process applying TiO(2) fibers for the degradation of dyes in water. PMID:22544602

Bao, Nan; Li, Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Niu, Jun-Jian; Wu, Guo-Lin; Xu, Xiao-Hong

2013-02-01

243

Decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes and textile and dye-stuff effluent by Kurthia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of soil and water samples were collected from the vicinity of effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing industry. Several organisms were screened for their ability to decolorize triphenylmethane group of dyes. A Kurthia sp. was selected on the basis of rapid dye decolorizing activity. Under aerobic conditions, 98% color was removed intracellularly by this strain. A

Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1999-01-01

244

Dye filled security seal  

SciTech Connect

A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

1982-04-27

245

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Sřsted

246

Application of chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide, for dye removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption processes using batch studies: A review of recent literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of chitinous products in wastewater treatment has received considerable attention in recent years in the literature. In particular, the development of chitosan-based materials as useful adsorbent polymeric matrices is an expanding field in the area of adsorption science. This review highlights some of the notable examples in the use of chitosan and its grafted and crosslinked derivatives for dye

Grégorio Crini; Pierre-Marie Badot

2008-01-01

247

Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of Basic Yellow 28 and Basic Red 46 by a boron industry waste.  

PubMed

In this study, the adsorption characteristics of Basic Yellow 28 (BY 28) and Basic Red 46 (BR 46) onto boron waste (BW), a waste produced from boron processing plant were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and the results have shown that adsorption behavior of two dyes could be described reasonably well by a generalized isotherm. Kinetic studies indicated that the kinetics of the adsorption of BY 28 and BR 46 onto BW follows a pseudo-second-order model. The result showed that the BW exhibited high-adsorption capacity for basic dyes and the capacity slightly decreased with increasing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of BY 28 and BR 46 are reported at 75.00 and 74.73mgg(-1), respectively. The dye adsorption depended on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at about pH 9 and electrokinetic behavior of BW. Activation energy of 15.23kJ/mol for BY 28 and 18.15kJ/mol for BR 46 were determined confirming the nature of the physisorption onto BW. These results indicate that BW could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of the textile dyes from effluents. PMID:18434000

Olgun, Asim; Atar, Necip

2009-01-15

248

Dye lasers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dye laser. It consists of a composite composition of an inorganic oxide glass monolith with a microporous structure containing an incorporated solution comprising a solvent component and a lasable dye component. Wherein the glass monolith has sealed outer surfaces.

Kuder, J.E.; McGinnis, J.L.; Goldberg, H.A.; Hart, T.R.; Che, T.M.

1989-10-31

249

Enzymatic biobleaching of two recalcitrant paper dyes with horseradish and soybean peroxidase.  

PubMed

A stilbene dye (Direct Yellow 11) and a methine dye, Basazol 46L, recalcitrant to common chemical bleaches, were treated with horseradish and soybean peroxidases. Both enzymes were effective at chromophore removal. When compared to laccase in combination with a mediator (ABTS), soybean peroxidase was more effective at oxidative dye removal, especially for the methine dye. PMID:16086255

Knutson, Kristina; Kirzan, Sylva; Ragauskas, Arthur

2005-06-01

250

The removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using chemically modified mesoporous silica in the presence of anionic surfactant—The temperature dependence and a thermodynamic multivariate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-parameter Sips adsorption model was successfully employed to modeled equilibrium adsorption data of a yellow and a red dye onto a mesoporous aminopropyl-silica, in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) from 25 to 55°C. The results were evaluated in relation to the previously reported surface tension measurements. The presence of curvatures of the van?t Hoff plots suggested

Antonio R. Cestari; Eunice F. S. Vieira; Gláucia S. Vieira; Luiz P. da Costa; Andréa M. G. Tavares; Watson Loh; Claudio Airoldi

2009-01-01

251

Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Color from Dyeing Wastewater by Pre-Ozonation and Subsequent Biological Treatment Using Test-Scale Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pre-ozonation and subsequent biological treatment process on the decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and color were investigated in a test-scale plant of 5 m\\/d capacity using actual raw wastewater (RW) from a dye works. Ozone dosage rate and contacting time were around 70 mg\\/L on average and 30 min, respectively. The DOC concentration was gradually decreased

Nobuyuki Takahashi; Tomoya Kumagai; Masami Shimizu; Takahisa Suzuki; Toshi Ohtsuki

2007-01-01

252

Efficient removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous medium by in situ electrogenerated Fenton’s reagent at carbon-felt cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenton’s reagent (Fe2++H2O2) has been electrogenerated in situ in an undivided electrolytic cell from the effective reduction of Fe3+ and O2 at carbon-felt cathode for the treatment of aqueous solutions of four triphenylmethane dyes (TPMs), namely malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG) and fast green FCF (FCF), at pH 3.0 and room temperature. MG has been used

Ignasi Sirés; Elodie Guivarch; Nihal Oturan; Mehmet A. Oturan

2008-01-01

253

Synthesis of magnetic activated carbon/?-Fe2O3 nanocomposite and its application in the removal of acid yellow 17 dye from water.  

PubMed

The adsorption of acid yellow 17 dye on activated carbon/?-Fe2O3 nanocomposite prepared by simple pyrolytic method using iron(II) gluconate was investigated by batch technique. The composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The size of iron oxide nanoparticles formed from iron(II) gluconate precursor is in the range 5-17nm. The saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) of the magnetic carbon nanocomposite is 5.6emu/g, 1.14emu/g and 448Oe, respectively. The adsorption data are found to fit well with Langmuir and, fairly well with Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms at higher concentration of dye (40-100mg/L). Kinetics data indicate that the adsorption of dye follows pseudo-second order kinetics model. PMID:24727015

Ranjithkumar, V; Sangeetha, S; Vairam, S

2014-05-30

254

Removal of dyes from water using chitosan hydrogel/SiO2 and chitin hydrogel/SiO2 hybrid materials obtained by the sol-gel method.  

PubMed

This work describes the synthesis of chitosan hydrogel/SiO(2) and chitin hydrogel/SiO(2) hybrid mesoporous materials obtained by the sol-gel method for their use as biosorbents. Their adsorption capabilities against four dyes (Remazol Black B, Erythrosine B, Neutral Red and Gentian Violet) were compared in order to evaluate chitin as a plausible replacement for chitosan considering its efficiency and lower cost. Both chitin and chitosan were used in the form of hydrogels. This allowed full compatibility with the ethanol release from tetraethoxysilane. The hybrid materials were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Nitrogen Adsorption Isotherms and (13)C solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Adsorption experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models along with the evaluation of adsorption energy and standard free energy (?G(0)). The adsorption was observed to be pH dependent. The main mechanism of dye adsorption was found to be a spontaneous charge associated interaction, except for EB adsorption on chitin/SiO(2) matrix, which showed to involve a lower energy physical adsorption interaction. Aside from highly charged dyes the chitin containing matrix has similar or higher adsorption capacity than the chitosan one. PMID:21163576

Copello, Guillermo J; Mebert, Andrea M; Raineri, M; Pesenti, Mariela P; Diaz, Luis E

2011-02-15

255

Biosorption of Remazol Black B dye (Azo dye) by the growing Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt was made for the removal of Remazol Black B dye (azo dye) by using Aspergillus Flavus during its growth. Biosorption of the azo dye by growing fungi was investigated in batch reactors as a function of initial concentration of dye (25-1000 mg/L), inoculum concentration (5-20%), and pH (2.5-6.5). The total biomass concentration decreased from 6.3 g/L to 1.44 g/L by increasing the dye concentration from 0 to 1000 mg/L. The dye uptake increased from 4.37 to 233 mg/g of dried biomass by increasing initial concentration of dye from 25 to 1000 mg/L. The nearly complete removal of dye was found at initial concentration upto 250 mg/L and at pH 4.5 which was used as working pH value for removal of dye in all the batch studies. The removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was found to be 90% at 100 mg/L initial concentration of dye. The experiments were also performed with wastewater from textile industry with an aim to examine the potential of fungal biomass for the removal of dyes from wastewater under actual field conditions. The maximum dye removal was obtained at 30° C temperature (87%) in presence of 1 % glucose concentration (89%) and 10 % inoculum concentration (91%) after 96 hours from textile wastewater. The surface of the biosorbent before and after the sorption of the dye was examined by FTIR and SEM analysis. PMID:20635293

Ranjusha, V P; Pundir, Reena; Kumar, Kapil; Dastidar, M G; Sreekrishnan, T R

2010-08-01

256

Unblocking the Sink: Improved CID-Based Analysis of Phosphorylated Peptides by Enzymatic Removal of the Basic C-Terminal Residue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-step enzymatic reaction for improving the collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of phosphorylated peptides in an ion trap is presented. Carboxypeptidase-B (CBP-B) was used to selectively remove C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from phosphorylated tryptic/Lys-C peptides prior to their MS/MS analysis by CID with a Paul-type ion trap. Removal of this basic C-terminal residue served to limit the extent of gas-phase neutral loss of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), favoring the formation of diagnostic b and y ions as determined by an increase in both the number and relative intensities of the sequence-specific product ions. Such differential fragmentation is particularly valuable when the H3PO4 elimination is so predominant that localizing the phosphorylation site on the peptide sequence is hindered. Improvement in the quality of tandem mass spectral data generated by CID upon CBP-B treatment resulted in greater confidence both in assignment of the phosphopeptide primary sequence and for pinpointing the site of phosphorylation. Higher Mascot ion scores were also generated, combined with lower expectation values and higher delta scores for improved confidence in site assignment; Ascore values also improved. These results are rationalized in accordance with the accepted mechanisms for the elimination of H3PO4 upon low energy CID and insights into the factors dictating the observed dissociation pathways are presented. We anticipate this approach will be of utility in the MS analysis of phosphorylated peptides, especially when alternative electron-driven fragmentation techniques are not available.

Lanucara, Francesco; Chi Hoo Lee, Dave; Eyers, Claire E.

2013-12-01

257

Unblocking the sink: improved CID-based analysis of phosphorylated peptides by enzymatic removal of the basic C-terminal residue.  

PubMed

A one-step enzymatic reaction for improving the collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of phosphorylated peptides in an ion trap is presented. Carboxypeptidase-B (CBP-B) was used to selectively remove C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from phosphorylated tryptic/Lys-C peptides prior to their MS/MS analysis by CID with a Paul-type ion trap. Removal of this basic C-terminal residue served to limit the extent of gas-phase neutral loss of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), favoring the formation of diagnostic b and y ions as determined by an increase in both the number and relative intensities of the sequence-specific product ions. Such differential fragmentation is particularly valuable when the H3PO4 elimination is so predominant that localizing the phosphorylation site on the peptide sequence is hindered. Improvement in the quality of tandem mass spectral data generated by CID upon CBP-B treatment resulted in greater confidence both in assignment of the phosphopeptide primary sequence and for pinpointing the site of phosphorylation. Higher Mascot ion scores were also generated, combined with lower expectation values and higher delta scores for improved confidence in site assignment; Ascore values also improved. These results are rationalized in accordance with the accepted mechanisms for the elimination of H3PO4 upon low energy CID and insights into the factors dictating the observed dissociation pathways are presented. We anticipate this approach will be of utility in the MS analysis of phosphorylated peptides, especially when alternative electron-driven fragmentation techniques are not available. PMID:24297471

Lanucara, Francesco; Lee, Dave Chi Hoo; Eyers, Claire E

2014-02-01

258

Development and field testing of an alternative latrine design utilizing basic oxygen furnace slag as a treatment media for pathogen removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In densely-populated communities in developing countries, appropriate setback distances for pit latrines often cannot be met. An alternative latrine was designed that incorporates two permeable reactive media to treat pathogens and nitrate from effluent. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag in contact with wastewater effluent elevates pH to levels (> 11) that inactivate pathogens. Saturated woodchip creates reducing conditions that encourage the growth of denitrifying bacteria which remove NO3-. The field application was constructed in Santo Antônio, a peri-urban community located 25 km south of the city of Săo Paulo, Brazil. A 2-m diameter pit was excavated to a depth of 4 m into the sandy-clay unsaturated zone. A geotextile liner was emplaced to create saturated conditions in the 0.5-m thick woodchip barrier. Above the woodchip barrier, a 1-m thick layer of BOF slag mixed with pea gravel and sand was emplaced. A series of filter layers, grading upward from coarse sand to fine gravel, where placed above the BOF layer, and gravel was also infilled around the outer perimeter of the excavation, to ensure O2 diffusion into the design, the formation of biofilm, and degradation of organic material. A control latrine, constructed with similar hydraulic characteristics and nonreactive materials, was constructed at a locality 100 m away, in the same geological materials. Total coliform, thermotolerant coliform, and E. coli are removed by approximately 4-5 log concentration units in less than one meter of vertical transport through the BOF slag media. In the control latrine, comparable reductions in these pathogenic indicators are observed over three meters of vertical transport. Removal of sulphur-reducing Clostridia, Clostridium perfrigens and somatic coliphage are also achieved in the alternative design, but initial concentrations in effluent are low. Some measurable concentrations of pathogen indicators are measured in lysimeters below the BOF layer, but are associated with low-TDS, neutral water that is infiltrating in from the sidewall of the excavation. Oxygen concentration is augmented (5 mg L-1) in the alternative latrine compared to the control design (1-2 mg L-1), suggesting that conditions for biofilm development are improved. The decline in pH between sampling events after 42 and 82 days of wastewater application suggest that the potential for base release is decreased over time. Somatic coliphage concentrations are 1-2 log concentration units lower in stainless steel lysimeters compared to concentrations measured in adjacent pan lysimeters, suggesting that the filtration of coliphage by the porous cup may negatively bias sampling.

Stimson, J.; Suhogusoff, A. V.; Blowes, D. W.; Hirata, R. A.; Ptacek, C. J.; Robertson, W. D.; Emelko, M. B.

2009-05-01

259

Removal efficiency of a calix[4]arene-based polymer for water-soluble carcinogenic direct azo dyes and aromatic amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mannich base derivative of 5,11,17,23-tetrakis-[(1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro-[4.5]decanyl)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene 3 was synthesized by the treatment of calix[4]arene with a cyclic secondary amine (1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro-[4.5]decane) and formaldehyde. The compound 3 was treated with dibromoxylene to obtain a calix[4]arene-based copolymer 4. In batch sorption experiments of selected carcinogenic azo dyes and aromatic amines, the compounds 3 and 4 were found to be a better sorbent

Ezgi Akceylan; Müfit Bahadir; Mustafa Y?lmaz

2009-01-01

260

Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic physical and chemical principles behind the dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cell (DSC: also known as the Gratzel cell after its inventor) are outlined in order to clarify the differences and similarities between the DSC and conventional semiconductor solar cells. The roles of the components of the DSC (wide bandgap oxide, sensitizer dye, redox electrolyte or hole conductor, counter electrode)

Laurence M. Peter

2007-01-01

261

Facile fabrication of mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticles pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite: a smart photo-Fenton catalyst for quick removal of organic dyes.  

PubMed

A mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticle pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite (mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite) was synthesized by using sodium exchanged montmorillonite by cation-exchange, gallery-templated synthesis and impregnation method. Formation of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) having average particle size 5.20-6.50 nm within montmorillonite, formation of mesoporous Al2O3 NPs pillared montmorillonite (mesoporous APM) from montmorillonite and formation of a mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite signifies the present investigation. The roles of ammonia, CTAB, octyl amine and calcination temperature for fabrication of mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite were highly significant. Ammonia was used for post-synthesis treatment, which helped in the formation of micellar assemblies in the interlayer space. The materials were characterized by different techniques such as N2 adsorption-desorption study, which demonstrated the mesoporosity of the material. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image proves the morphology and size of the Al2O3 NPs and mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) describes the formation of the pillaring of the Al2O3 NPs within montmorillonite (APM). It has been noted that pure montmorillonite is a micro/mesoporous material. But after pillaring of Al2O3 NPs within the montmorillonite, mesoporosity developed, which is the vital aspect of present investigation. It was observed that the mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite has high photo-Fenton activity towards degradation of organic dyes such as acid blue (AB) and reactive blue (RB). Nearly 100% degradation took place within 30 minutes with high concentration of dye (500 mg L(-1)) by mesoporous 5 Fe/APM nanocomposite under ambient conditions. Small particle sizes of nanocomposite, quick reduction of Fe(III) and mesoporosity are the key points for proficient degradation of AB and RB. PMID:24002045

Pradhan, Amaresh C; Varadwaj, G Bishwa Bidita; Parida, K M

2013-11-14

262

Dyeing properties of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural dye was extracted from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and was used to dye cotton by direct dyeing method at different dyeing conditions. Then, the fastness properties of dyeing with different dyeing techniques were compared.

S. Ali; N. Nisar; T. Hussain

2007-01-01

263

Use of beech wood sawdust for adsorption of textile dyes.  

PubMed

In this research a new efficient adsorbent of dyes is used. Thus, adsorption of some textile dyes from aqueous solution by using an industrial waste lignocellulosic product is studied. Between five dyes tested, three dyes were chosen for testing: Direct Orange 26, Acid Orange 7, Acid Green 20. Kinetics of adsorption and equilibrium isotherm of dyes was investigated using Longmuir and Freundlich models. This study showed that the beech wood sawdust could be employed as low-cost and effective sorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. PMID:19070030

Izadyar, Soheila; Rahimi, Maryam

2007-01-15

264

Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of malachite green (MG) was studied using three adsorbents namely, bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, and activated carbons commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial MG concentration on the removal of MG. The initial pH

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

265

Decolorization of the textile dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six bacterial strains with the capability of degrading textile dyes were isolated from sludge samples and mud lakes. Aeromonas hydrophila was selected and identified because it exhibited the greatest color removal from various dyes. Although A. hydrophila displayed good growth in aerobic or agitation culture (AGI culture), color removal was the best in anoxic or anaerobic culture (ANA culture). For

Kuo-Cheng Chen; Jane-Yii Wu; Dar-Jen Liou; Sz-Chwun John Hwang

2003-01-01

266

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

267

Feasibility analysis of color removal from textile dyeing wastewater in a fixed-bed column system by surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ).  

PubMed

In this study, the ability of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) to remove color from real textile wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in a fixed-bed column reactor and the surface of natural zeolite was modified with a quaternary amine surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB). The zeolite bed that was modified at 1 g L(-1) HTAB concentration and HTAB flow rate of 0.015 L min(-1) showed good performance in removing color. Effects of wastewater color intensity, flow rates and bed heights were also studied. Wastewater was diluted several times in the ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% in order to assess the influence of wastewater strength. The breakthrough curves of the original and diluted wastewaters are dispersed due to the fact that breakthrough came late at lower color intensities and saturation of the bed appeared faster at higher color intensities. The column had a 3-cm diameter and four different bed heights of 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 cm, which treated 5.25, 19.50, 35.25 and 51 L original textile wastewater, respectively, at the breakthrough time at a flow rate of 0.025 L min(-1). The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different column variables. The calculated and theoretical values of the exchange zone height were found with a difference of 27%. The various design parameters obtained from fixed-bed experimental studies showed good correlation with corresponding theoretical values, under different bed heights. The regeneration of the SMZ was also evaluated using a solution consisting of 30 g L(-1) NaCl and 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH at pH 12 and temperature 30 degrees C. Twice-regenerated SMZ showed the best performance compared with the others while first- and thrice-regenerated perform lower than the original SMZ. PMID:19136207

Ozdemir, Ozgur; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Zahid; Faki, Aysegul; Engin, Ahmet Baki

2009-07-30

268

Adsorption and desorption kinetics of anionic dyes on doped polyaniline.  

PubMed

In this study, we report an approach for the adsorption and desorption of anionic (sulfonated) dyes from aqueous solution by doped polyaniline. In this study, we have synthesized PANI with two dopants, namely, p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) and camphorsulfonic acid (CSA), and used these to adsorb various dyes. It was found that the doped PANI selectively adsorbs anionic dyes and does not adsorb cationic dyes. The adsorption of anionic dyes causes the variation in electrical conductivity of PANI, indicating its potential as a conductometric sensor for these dyes at very low concentration. The adsorbed dyes were desorbed from the polymer by using a basic aqueous solution. The adsorption and desorption kinetics of the dye in the presence of doped PANI were also determined. PMID:19195986

Mahanta, Debajyoti; Madras, Giridhar; Radhakrishnan, S; Patil, Satish

2009-02-26

269

Biosorption of Basic Orange from aqueous solution onto dried A. filiculoides biomass: Equilibrium, kinetic and FTIR studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dried Azolla filiculoides (A. filiculoides ) biomass was used to remove Basic Orange (BO) dye from aqueous solution using batch experiments. The kinetic results demonstrated that the biosorption of BO onto the dried A. filiculoides was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum biosorption capacity for BO was 833.33mg\\/g based on the Langmuir equation at a temperature

Cai-yun Tan; Min Li; Yu-Man Lin; Xiao-Qiao Lu; Zu-liang Chen

2011-01-01

270

Uptake of Basic Blue 17 from aqueous solutions by using chemically crosslinked polyelectrolyte AAm\\/AASS hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the removal of a cationic thiazin dye such as Basic Blue 17 (Toluidin Blue, BB 17) by chemically crosslinked\\u000a acrylamide (AAm)\\/acrylic acid sodium salt (AASS) hydrogels was investigated. Super water retainer AAm\\/AASS hydrogels with\\u000a various compositions were prepared from ternary mixtures of AAm, AASS and water by free radical polymerization in aqueous\\u000a solution using multifunctional crosslinkers such

Ömer Bar?? Üzüm; Erdener Karada?

2006-01-01

271

Just Dyeing to Find Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

Monhardt, Becky Meyer

1996-01-01

272

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Cosmetics Tips Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Espańol Hair dye is ... hair relaxers. Hair Dyes Hair Relaxers Report Problems Hair Dyes There are different types of hair dyes used ...

273

Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for highly effective removal of a carcinogenic dye from aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel chitosan-modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CS-m-GMCNTs) were synthesized via a suspension cross-linking method. Composition, morphology and magnetic properties of as-prepared CS-m-GMCNTs were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDS, BET and VSM. The large saturation magnetization (12.27 emu g-1) allows fast separation of CS-m-GMCNTs from treated aqueous solution. The adsorption of congo red (CR) on CS-m-GMCNTs was strongly dependent on pH, temperature of the aqueous phase and adsorbent dosage. Up to 100 and 94.58% color removal could be achieved in 100 min contact time with 10 and 50 mg L-1 of initial concentrations, respectively. The adsorption capacity of CR onto CS-m-GMCNTs could reach 262.9 mg g-1. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.999) was suitable to describe the process of CR adsorption onto CS-m-GMCNTs. The Langmuir model fitted the adsorption isotherm data better than the Freundlich model. Values of thermodynamic parameters (?G°, ?H° and ?S°) indicated that the adsorption process was strongly dependent on temperature of the aqueous phase, and spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. Therefore, CS-m-GMCNTs adsorbent displays main advantages of excellent dispersion, convenience separation and high adsorption capacity, which implies their potential application in the environmental cleanup.

Zhu, HuaYue; Fu, YongQian; Jiang, Ru; Yao, Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, YanWen; Xiao, Ling; Zeng, GuangMing

2013-11-01

274

Invasive Freshwater Macrophyte Alligator Weed: Novel Adsorbent for Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The batch sorption experiments were carried out using a novel adsorbent, freshwater macrophyte alligator weed, for the removal\\u000a of basic dye malachite green from aqueous solution. Effects of process parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time,\\u000a adsorbent concentration, particle size, and ion strength were investigated. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR. The\\u000a adsorption of malachite green by alligator weed

Xue Song Wang

2010-01-01

275

Predicting azo dye toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature regrading azo dye carcinogenicity was examined to establish, if possible, guidelines to predict the human health risks of new azo dyes. Three different mechanisms for azo dye carcinogenicity were identified, all involving metabolic activation to reactive electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind DNA. In the order of decreasing number of published references, these mechanisms are 1. Azo dyes that are

Mark A. Brown; Stephen C. De Vito

1993-01-01

276

Microbial decolorization of azo dyes by Proteus mirabilis.  

PubMed

A bacterium identified as Proteus mirabilis was isolated from acclimated sludge from a dyeing wastewater treatment plant. This strain rapidly decolorized a deep red azo dye solution (RED RBN). Features of the decolorizing process related to biodegradation and biosorption were also studied. Although P. mirabilis displayed good growth in shake culture, color removal was best in anoxic static cultures. For color removal, the optimal pH and temperature were 6.5-7.5 and 30-35 degrees C, respectively. The organism exhibited a remarkable color removal capability, even at a high concentration of azo dye. More than 95% of azo dye was reduced within 20 h at a dye concentration of 1.0 g L-1. Decolorization appears to proceed primarily by enzymatic reduction associated with a minor portion, 13-17%, of biosorption to inactivated microbial cells. PMID:10455502

Chen, K C; Huang, W T; Wu, J Y; Houng, J Y

1999-07-01

277

A Study of the Photodegradation of Commercial Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stability of thirty-six different commercial dyes in water to visible and ultraviolet light from a carbon arc has been studied. The dyes were selected on the basis of their importance in the textile industry from six major classes: basic, acid, direct...

J. J. Porter

1973-01-01

278

Treatment of wastewater from dye manufacturing industry by coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical coagulation was used to remove the compounds present in wastewater from dye manufacturing industry. The character of wastewater was determined. Most compounds found in the wastewater are phenol derivatives, aniline derivatives, organic acid and benzene derivatives, output from dye manufacturing. Various polyferric chloride coagulants were investigated. Results showed that high extent of Fe(III) hydrolysis was not always suited for

YUAN Yu-li; WEN Yue-zhong; LI Xiao-ying; LUO Si-zhen

279

Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of synthetic dyestuffs released by the textile industry pose a threat to environmental safety. Azo dyes account for the majority of all dyestuffs, produced because they are extensively used in the textile, paper, food, leather, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Existing effluent treatment procedures are unable to remove recalcitrant azo dyes completely from effluents because of their color fastness,

R. G. Saratale; G. D. Saratale; J. S. Chang; S. P. Govindwar

2011-01-01

280

Design and Construction of Simple, Nitrogen-Laser-Pumped, Tunable Dye Lasers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic physical principles of dye lasers are discussed and used to analyze the design and operation of tunable dye lasers pumped by pulsed nitrogen lasers. Details of the design and construction of these dye lasers are presented. Some simple demonstration experiments are described. (BB)

Hilborn, Robert C.

1978-01-01

281

Application of Brazilian kaolinite clay as adsorbent to removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution: Kinetic and thermodynamic of cation-basic interactions  

SciTech Connect

The compound N{sup 1}-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface by heterogeneous route. The modified and natural kaolinite samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C. The well-defined peaks obtained in the {sup 13}C NMR spectrum in the 5.0-62.1 ppm region confirmed the attachment of organic functional groups as pendant chains bonded into the porous clay. The ability of these materials to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to a Sips equation at room temperature and pH 4.0. The kinetic parameters analyzed by the Lagergren and Elovich models gave a good fit for a pseudo-second order reaction with k{sub 2} values 16.0 and 25.1 mmol g{sup -1} min{sup -1} ranges for natural and modified kaolinite clays, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metal ion adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. - Graphical abstract: This investigation reports the use of original and modified kaolinites as alternative absorbents. The compound N-[3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface by heterogeneous route.

Guerra, Denis L., E-mail: denis@cpd.ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, UFMT, Centro de Recursos Minerais, Cuiaba 78060 900, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Leidens, Victor L.; Viana, Rubia R. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, UFMT, Centro de Recursos Minerais, Cuiaba 78060 900, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio [Chemistry Institute, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-05-15

282

Application of Brazilian kaolinite clay as adsorbent to removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution: Kinetic and thermodynamic of cation-basic interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compound N 1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface by heterogeneous route. The modified and natural kaolinite samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of 29Si and 13C. The well-defined peaks obtained in the 13C NMR spectrum in the 5.0-62.1 ppm region confirmed the attachment of organic functional groups as pendant chains bonded into the porous clay. The ability of these materials to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to a Sips equation at room temperature and pH 4.0. The kinetic parameters analyzed by the Lagergren and Elovich models gave a good fit for a pseudo-second order reaction with k2 values 16.0 and 25.1 mmol g -1 min -1 ranges for natural and modified kaolinite clays, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metal ion adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations.

Guerra, Denis L.; Leidens, Victor L.; Viana, Rúbia R.; Airoldi, Claudio

2010-05-01

283

Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

NONE

1996-09-01

284

Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of a cationic dye by a natural adsorbent--silkworm pupa.  

PubMed

In this work the use of silkworm pupa, which is the waste of silk spinning industries has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of C.I. Basic Blue 41. The amino acid nature of the pupa provided a reasonable capability for dye removal. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and the results have shown that adsorption behavior of the dye could be described reasonably well by either Langmuir or Freundlich models. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The monolayer adsorption capacity was determined to be 555 mg/g. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0434 and 0.0572 g/min mg for initial dye concentration of 200 mg/l at 20 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion were simultaneously operating during the adsorption process. The rate constant for intra-particle diffusion was estimated to be 1.985 mg/g min(0.5). PMID:16859827

Noroozi, B; Sorial, G A; Bahrami, H; Arami, M

2007-01-01

285

Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo...

S. Allinikov

1979-01-01

286

Fluorescent dye binding peptides  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is directed to novel polypeptides, termed fluorettes, that bind with high avidity to fluorophore dyes. The peptides find use in a variety of methods and approaches involving fluorophore dyes.

2004-06-08

287

Oxidative degradation of dyes in water using Co 2+\\/H 2O 2 and Co 2+\\/peroxymonosulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye degradation using advanced oxidation processes with Co2+\\/H2O2 and Co2+\\/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) systems has been investigated. Two types of dyes, basic blue 9 and acid red 183, were employed. Several parameters affecting dye degradation such as Co2+, PMS, H2O2, and dye concentrations were investigated. The optimal ratio of oxidant (PMS, H2O2)\\/Co2+ for the degradation of two dyes was determined. It is

Sie King Ling; Shaobin Wang; Yuelian Peng

2010-01-01

288

Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2008-01-01

289

Passive mode locking of lasers with a tunable dye cell  

SciTech Connect

A laminar-flow dye cell with continuously variable thickness (tunable without removal of the dye solution) provides an excellent way of optimizing passively mode-locked lasers. Varying the cell thickness adjusts low-light-level transmittance to match the total cavity and excitation energy conditions and also varies pulse duration. Acceptable cell thicknesses and dye concentrations can be calculated theoretically using well-known parameters. The cell can be conveniently retuned to compensate for dye degradation or to provide conditions for Q switching. Experimental evidence is presented for a Nd:YAG laser.

Baumann, G.Z.; Goldstein, R.L.

1982-11-01

290

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building on work done in Phase I of this study (See AD-748 863), research on near-infrared dye lasers continued along several lines. Eighteen more Kodak organic dyes were screened for laser action using a linear flash lamp for excitation. Six dyes lased b...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1973-01-01

291

Assessment of degradation of eight commercial reactive azo dyes individually and in mixture in aqueous solution by ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of eight commercial reactive azo dyes with different structures containing different substituted groups has been investigated in a semi-batch reactor by ozonation individually and in mixture. The results showed that pH 10 was effective for color and COD removal of these dyes. Different dyes needed different time of ozonation for decolorization. Dyes even if decolorized to 95–99%, COD removal

K. Sarayu; K. Swaminathan; S. Sandhya

2007-01-01

292

What's Basic About Basic Emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

1990-01-01

293

Reaction of chrysotile asbestos with triphenylmethane dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triphenylmethane dyes react at ambient conditions with chrysotile asbestos to form homogeneously coloured fibres. Formation of the chelates on the fibre varies: for Basic Fuchsin, Malachite Green and Methyl Blue equilibrium is reached in 1 h, the concentration on the fibre is 1% to 2.4%, and increases slightly on boiling. For Brilliant Blue R, Crystal Violet, and Methyl Violet equilibrium

Farouk T. Awadalla; Fathi Habashi

1990-01-01

294

A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10-5 mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia

2013-11-01

295

Removal of some textile dyes from aqueous solutions by poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)\\/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)\\/water and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)\\/K2S2O8\\/water systems are hydrogels prepared by irradiation with ?-rays at ambient temperature. Both hydrogel systems were employed for diffusion and swelling experiments in various textile dyes aqueous solutions (textile dyes such as Cibacron Blue (CB) F3GA, Methyl Orange (MO), Congo Red (CR)). For these hydrogel systems, swelling studies indicated that swelling percentages increased in the following order: MO>CB

Hatice Kaplan Can; Betül Kirci; Serap Kavlak; Ali Güner

2003-01-01

296

Exploring the potential of natural bacterial consortium to degrade mixture of dyes and textile effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixture of 8 textile dyes was degraded in nutrient broth by using natural bacterial consortium within 3.5h at static condition. The same consortium effectively degraded textile industry effluent within 3h. ADMI (American Dye Manufacturer’s Institute) value removal was 89% and 67% for dye mixture and industrial effluent, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolorization of dye mixture was

Swati M. Joshi; Shrirang A. Inamdar; Amar A. Telke; Dhawal P. Tamboli; Sanjay P. Govindwar

2010-01-01

297

Laser ablation of dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High density 50 ?s pulses of the UV dyes PPF, POPOP and BBO and of two dyes in the visible region, Xanthen N92 and Fluorol 7GA were generated by laser ablation. Dye powders were pressed with 7800 kp/cm 2 in round pellets which were ablated by exposure to KrF excimer laser radiation (248 nm) at a fluence of 100 mJ/cm 2. The ablation cloud was optically activated with a XeCl excimer laser. Its fluorescence spectrum was measured and was identified as a dye vapour fluorescence spectrum by comparison to conventional dye solution and dye vapour spectra. The dye cloud is not deflected in an electric field (10 6 V/m). By changing the delay time between the ablation laser and the focused activation laser, the velocity distribution of the ablated dye was measured. Its maximum is at 600 m/s for PPF. Knowing the thickness of the ablated dye layer per shot (300 Ĺ) and the size of the ablation cloud (pictures of a video camera), one can estimate the maximum density of the dye in the gas pulse to be 10 -5 mol/ l in the range of concentration of lasing dyes. However, no lasing was observed up to now.

Späth, M.; Stuke, M.

1992-01-01

298

Corrosion Basics  

SciTech Connect

Retaining much of the text of the Basic Corrosion Course, Corrosion Basics contains updated, and additional information on plastics, concrete, coatings, water, cracking phenomena, and design. Chapters were rearranged. The cross referenced index was retained and updated to facilitate the quick location of any topic throughout the text. This publication provides the general coverage of the field of corrosion.

Not Available

1985-01-01

299

Influence of Temperature and pH on the Stability and Colorimetric Measurement of Textile Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the textile dye removal techniques operate within temperature and pH ranges of 20- 60 °C and 2-12, respectively. Both the pH and temperature have been reported to have significant effects on the efficiencies of the dye removal techniques. In this study, the effects of pH and temperature on the stability and color measurement (absorbance) of the textile dye

A. S. Mahmoud; A. E. Ghaly; S. L. Brooks

300

Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye on Pure and Carbonized Water Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of process variables in batch adsorption has been used to assess the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using pure and carbonized biomasses of water hyacinth and water spinach. Dried leaves of the water weeds were carbonized at temperature up to 750°C. The optimum removal of dye was achieved at pH 10, 30°C, and 55 min

Timi Tarawou; Michael Horsfall Jr

2007-01-01

301

Dyes and biomimetic systems: detergency and food industry Colorantes y sistemas biomiméticos: detergencia e industria alimentaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are widely used as additives in the food industry. As some dyes may pose health risks when being in contact with food, their removal in industrial processes is an important issue. Since the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) covers a wide range of variety of task to remove oily materials, and it is often used in detergency processes, the

G. Astray; A. Cid; J. A. Manso; O. Moldes; J. Morales; J. Quintás

2011-01-01

302

Batch tests for assessing decolourisation of azo dyes by methanogenic and mixed cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the published studies on azo dye colour removal involve anaerobic mixed cultures and there is some interest in the knowledge of how dye reduction occurs, if by facultative, strictly anaerobic or both bacterial trophic groups present in classic anaerobic digestors. This paper describes the behaviour of methanogenic and mixed bacteria cultures on the colour removal in batch systems,

Rui Brás; M. Isabel A. Ferra; Helena M. Pinheiro; Isolina Cabral Gonçalves

2001-01-01

303

Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of maxilon blue 5G dye on sepiolite from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sepiolite for the removal of maxilon blue 5G from aqueous solutions at different contact times, stirring speeds, initial dye concentrations, pHs, ionic strengths and temperatures was investigated. The adsorption process attained equilibrium within 60min, which was an economically favorable requisite, in addition to the local abundance of the raw material. The extent of dye removal increased with

M. Alkan; M. Do?an; Y. Turhan; Ö. Demirba?; P. Turan

2008-01-01

304

Effect of some operational parameters on textile dye biodegradation in a sequential batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of anaerobic and aerobic periods in the operation cycle of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was chosen to study biological color removal from simulated textile effluents containing reactive, sulfonated, monoazo and diazo dyes, respectively, Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R and Remazol Black B. 90% color removal was obtained for the violet dye in a 24-h cycle with a Sludge

N. D Lourenço; J. M Novais; H. M Pinheiro

2001-01-01

305

Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor.  

PubMed

This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm(-2) and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E(dye)) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg(dye) was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg(dye) for disperse and 50 kWh/kg(dye) for the mixture. PMID:20870356

Balla, Wafaa; Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Dassaa, A; Chenik, H; Azzi, M

2010-12-15

306

Peruvian natural dye plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of natural dyes to color textiles and other objects has a long history in Andean South America, but has for the most\\u000a part become a lost technology with the introduction of synthetic dyes. A literature and field survey to recover information\\u000a about the traditional use of dye plants in Peru, from pre-Hispanic to recent times, was accompanied by

Kay K. Antúnez de Mayolo

1989-01-01

307

Basic HTML  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most web designers use an editor, it is a good idea to have a working knowledge of HTML code. It is useful to be able to go into the code and make adjustments that an editor will not do. knowing HTML will give you more control over the look and function of your web site. Remember that this is just the basics but will provide you with the tools to design great web sites. Assignment Instructions: Go through the HTML Goodies Primers. You will create some basic web pages in these primers. E-mail your instructor each primer assignment at tami.warnick@cmacademy.org Primer 1: Basic HTML: Introduction Instructions: Read through the primer and then send your instructor a breif summary of what you learned. Primer 2: Learn the Basic HTML Tags! Instructions: After ...

Warnick, Mrs.

2009-12-04

308

The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

1976-01-01

309

Ultrasonic assisted dyeing. IV. Dyeing of cationised cotton with lac natural dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dyeing of cationised cotton fabrics with lac natural dye has been studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effects of dye bath pH, salt concentration, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with ultrasonic and conventional techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic

M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Youssef; H. Mashaly

2007-01-01

310

Dispersion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Webcast, Dr. Timothy Spangler (Director of the COMET Program and a former air quality consultant) provides a brief overview of the basics of atmospheric dispersion and how dispersion is modeled, particularly for accidental releases of hazardous materials. The lecture is presented in six sections and covers the effects of stability, turbulence, plume rise, and wind. Basic dispersion models are discussed, along with a brief summary of models used in special situations and factors that complicate their use.

Spangler, Tim

2002-11-01

311

Dyeing Wool with Fungi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.23 of PDF), learners dye wool with fungi. Learners discover that natural chemicals in fungi can dye wool different colors. Note: Natural dyeing normally requires a color fixative such as alum. This is not necessary if you use an aluminum, tin, or copper pot as the metal in the pot will take part in the dyeing reaction. However, if you use a non-stick saucepan you should add a few copper coins to the mix. Safety note: Always wash your hands after touching fungi! Adult supervision recommended.

Assinder, Sue; Rutter, Gordon

2002-01-01

312

Chemical Stabilization of Laser Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output. Modes of degradation of coumarin dye lasers under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions were determined...

T. H. Koch

1984-01-01

313

Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent.  

PubMed

This study investigated the efficiency of electrocoagulation in removing color from synthetic and real textile wastewater. Two representative dye molecules were selected for the synthetic dye wastewater: a blue reactive dye (Reactive Blue 140) and a disperse dye (Disperse Red 1). The electrochemical technique showed satisfactory color removal efficiency and reliable performance in treating both individual and mixed dye types. The removal efficiency and energy consumption data showed that, for a given current density, iron was superior to aluminum in treating both the reactive dye and the disperse dye. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the energy cost in achieving >95% color removal was on the order of 1 kWh m(-3) for both dyes. The effect of changing the initial pH of the samples on the removal efficiency and energy consumption was also studied. It was found that the design parameters used for the synthetic wastewater were less effective for treatment of real textile wastewater, with 1 in 5 tests on real wastewater failing. PMID:20042267

Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Polgumhang, Suprangpak; Tongdaung, Warangkana; Karakat, Benjawan; Nuyut, Thanawin

2010-01-01

314

Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of water pollution has become of increasing importance in recent years. The release of dyes into the environment constitutes only a small proportion of water pollution, but dyes are visible in small quantities due to their brilliance. Tightening government legislation is forcing textile industries to treat their waste effluent to an increasingly high standard. Currently, removal of dyes

Tim Robinson; Geoff McMullan; Roger Marchant; Poonam Nigam

2001-01-01

315

Flocculation of both anionic and cationic dyes in aqueous solutions by the amphoteric grafting flocculant carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide.  

PubMed

In the current work, a series of amphoteric grafting chitosan-based flocculants (carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide, denoted as CMC-g-PAM) was designed and prepared successfully. The flocculants were applied to eliminate various dyes from aqueous solutions. Among different graft copolymers, CMC-g-PAM11 with a PAM grafting ratio of 74% demonstrated the most efficient performance for removal of both the anionic dye (Methyl Orange, MO) and the cationic dye (Basic Bright Yellow, 7GL) under the corresponding favored conditions (80 mg/L of the flocculant at pH 4.0, and 160 mg/L at pH 11.0). In comparison with its precursors, chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan, CMC-g-PAM11 showed higher removal efficiencies and wider flocculation windows. More importantly, the graft copolymer produced notably more compacted flocs based on image analysis in combination with fractal theory, which was of great significance in practical water treatment. Furthermore, the flocculation mechanism was discussed in detail. The grafted polyacrylamide chains were found to contribute much to the improved bridging and sweeping flocculation effects, but reduced charge neutralization flocculation for the effect of charge screening. PMID:23583947

Yang, Zhen; Yang, Hu; Jiang, Ziwen; Cai, Tao; Li, Haijiang; Li, Haibo; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

2013-06-15

316

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

317

[Berlin dye laser].  

PubMed

The conditions for an optimal ophthalmic coagulating system are derived from the absorption spectra of xanthophyll, melanin and hemoglobin. Coagulation is effected by a dye laser with two dyes. The continuously tunable range of 570 nm to 680 nm opens up new horizons in photocoagulation of the retina. PMID:6543236

Wollensak, J; Seiler, T

1984-12-01

318

Tie-Dye Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

Cessna, Gretchen; Cessna, Stephen

2001-03-01

319

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near infrared laser action has been demonstrated for 9 Kodak organic dyes, using a linear flash lamp for excitation. The spectral region covered by these 9 dyes extends from 850 nm to at least 960 nm, with no tuning attempted so far. Output is in the kilo...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1972-01-01

320

DOS basics  

SciTech Connect

DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

O`Connor, P.

1994-09-01

321

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

322

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

323

Weather Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the basics of the Earth's weather. Concepts include fundamental causes of common weather phenomena such as temperature changes, wind, clouds, rain and snow. The different factors that affect the weather and the instruments that measure weather data are also addressed.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

324

Basic Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

Geer, Barbra Farabough

325

Basic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

326

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

327

A study on the adsorption of some cationic dyes onto acrylamide\\/itaconic acid hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylamide\\/itaconic acid (AAm\\/IA) hydrogels prepared by irradiating with ? radiation were used in experiments on the adsorption of some cationic dyes such as basic red 9 (BR 9), basic green 4 (BG 4), cresyl violet (CV), and basic blue 20 (BB 20). Adsorption of the cationic dyes onto AAm\\/IA hydrogels is studied by batch adsorption technique. In the experiments of

Erdener Karadag; Dursun Saraydin; Olgun Giiven

1996-01-01

328

Ethylenediamine modified starch as biosorbent for acid dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated the sorption performance of the ethylenediamine modified starch (CAS) for the removal of acid dyes from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH on adsorption of acid orange 10 (AO10), acid green 25 (AG25) and amido black 10B (AB10B) was evaluated. The sorption kinetics, equilibrium uptake and desorption of the loaded dyes in sodium sulfate solution were studied.

Rumei Cheng; Shengju Ou; Mengjie Li; Yijiu Li; Bo Xiang

2009-01-01

329

Treatment of wastewater from dye manufacturing industry by coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical coagulation was used to remove the compounds present in wastewater from dye manufacturing industry. The character\\u000a of wastewater was determined. Most compounds found in the wastewater are phenol derivatives, aniline derivatives, organic\\u000a acid and benzene derivatives, output from dye manufacturing. Various polyferric chloride coagulants were investigated. Results\\u000a showed that high extent of Fe(III) hydrolysis was not always suited for

Yu-li Yuan; Yue-zhong Wen; Xiao-ying Li; Si-zhen Luo

2006-01-01

330

Accumulation of Methylene Blue Dye by Growing Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation bioaccumulation studies were performed for the removal of Methylene Blue dye from an aqueous solution using live Lemna minor. The effect of various parameters such as the biosorbent dosage (1–3 g), pH (3-8) and initial dye concentration (2–10 mg L) were studied. The maximum uptake capacity of the Methylene Blue using L. minor was observed as 10.93 mg g

R. M. Reema; P. Saravanan; M. Dharmendira Kumar; S. Renganathan

2011-01-01

331

Adsorption of acid dyes on chitosan—equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of chitosan, derived from deacetylated crab shell chitin, to remove acid dyes from effluent solution by adsorption has been studied. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of five acid dyes, Acid Green 25 (AG25), Acid Orange 10 (AO10), Acid Orange 12 (AO12), Acid Red 18 (AR18) and Acid Red 73 (AR73), on chitosan were measured experimentally. Results were analysed

Y. C. Wong; Y. S. Szeto; W. H. Cheung; G. McKay

2004-01-01

332

Reductive Decouloristation of Dyes by Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour removal achieved under anaerobic conditions is also called reductive decolourisation, which is composed of a biological part, i.e. the reducing equivalents are biologically generated, anda chemical part, i.e. the formed electrons reduce<\\/span>chemically the dyes. The overall objective of this research was to explore different strategies to increase the reduction of dyes in bioreactors by using thermophilic anaerobic

A. Bezerra Dos Santos

2005-01-01

333

Use of thermally treated waste biological sludge as dye absorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of adsorbent recycled from microwave thermal treatment to remove a synthetic dye, Rhodamine 6G, from a water bath, was examined. The acidified, dewatered sludge was microwave heated for 1–4 min. Batch adsorption tests were conducted on this sludge at various pH values and solution temperatures. Equilibrium of dye adsorption was obtained in 30 h. Three kinetic models—pseudo first-order,

G. Annadurai; R. S. Juang; P. S. Yen; D. J. Lee

2003-01-01

334

Decolourization of dye-containing solutions by electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the electrocoagulation of Drimarene Discharge X-3LG® (R12S) and Samaron Yellow 4® (D05H), the effects of sacrificial anodes, initial pH, rate of stirring and concentrations of dyes on the fraction of decolourization were tested. The experimental results revealed that the colour of dyes in the aqueous phase was effectively removed when iron and aluminium were used as sacrificial anodes and

J.-S. Do; M.-L. Chen

1994-01-01

335

Electrocoagulation of reactive textile dyes and textile wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-coagulation of a blue reactive dye (Drimarene K2LR CDG Blue) solution has been optimised by experimental design and surface response analysis in terms of colour removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease. The optimal conditions (pH, current density, reaction time) have then been applied to other reactive dyes solutions as well as synthetic and real textile wastewater samples. The biodegradability

A. Alinsafi; M. Khemis; M. N. Ponsa; J. P. Leclerc; A. Yaacoubi; A. Benhammou; A. Nejmeddine

2005-01-01

336

Tremor (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... of Parkinson disease Overview of tremor Patient information: Fragile X syndrome (The Basics) Patient information: Myoclonus (The Basics) Patient ... Basics) Patient information: Myoclonus (The Basics) Patient information: Fragile X syndrome (The Basics) Beyond the Basics — Beyond the Basics ...

337

Adsorption studies of cationic, anionic and azo-dyes via monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The present paper reports the applicability of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles as an adsorbent for the removal of three dyes viz. Acridine orange (cationic dye), Comassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (anionic dye) and Congo red (azo dye) from their aqueous solution. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via simple chemical precipitation method using CTAB, as surfactant. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties by using transmission electron microscopy X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements. The dye removal efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs have been determined by investigating several factors such as effect of pH, amount of adsorbent dose and effect of contact time on different dye concentrations. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms have also been studied to explain the interaction of dyes. The experimental data indicate that the adsorption rate follows pseudo- second-order kinetics for the removal of all the three dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles and the adsorbed dyes were desorbed. The identities of recovered nanoparticles as well as the three dyes have been found, as same and were reused. PMID:23858837

Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Saharan, Priya; Kumar, Arun; Mehta, S K; Mor, Suman; Umar, Ahmad

2013-05-01

338

Dye system for dye laser applications  

DOEpatents

A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

339

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila.

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-01-01

340

Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such

Shoji Furukawa; Hiroshi Iino; Tomohisa Iwamoto; Koudai Kukita; Shoji Yamauchi

2009-01-01

341

Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach

1985-01-01

342

Physics based simulation of dye solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye sensitized solar cells are interesting candidates for providing a renewable, cost efficient energy source with low environmental\\u000a impact. The lack of a suitable simulation software to study basic cell properties and to optimize the cell topology is currently\\u000a one of the factors hindering their commercialization. We present in this paper a theoretical model of the entire device based\\u000a on

M. Auf der Maur; A. Gagliardi; A. Di Carlo

343

Contour Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contour Basics is an exercise designed to introduce students to contour plots. The Contour Activity is a great on-line resource that starts slowly and increases in difficulty. It teaches students basic techniques for generating contours, introduces students to the subtleties of generating contour plots with sparse data, provides many opportunities for students to assess their own progress and understanding and has complete on-line drawing capabilities. The exercise is geared toward atmospheric and oceanic sciences but is beneficial for all geoscience students. In addition to the exercise, this site includes information on teaching materials, teaching notes and tips, assessment suggestions and additional references. This activity is part of the Starting Point Collection: http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/

Ackerman, Steve; Mackay, R. M.; Whittaker, Tom

2011-05-12

344

Basic Immunology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some individuals might blanch at the idea of a "basic" immunology overview, but Professor Vladimir V. Klimov provides just such a resource on this site. As the homepage notes, the site is designed to assist undergraduate students learning about the basics of immunology through essays, images, animations, quizzes, case histories, and external links. Visitors can begin by looking over the "Table of Contents" area, which includes seven complete chapters of information. These chapters include "The Immune Responses", "Effector Activity", and "Functional Organization of the Immune System". While some of the materials on the site require a paid subscription, there's enough free material here to get students on their way to learning more about this field of study.

Klimov, Vladimir V.

345

Education: The Basics. The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

Wood, Kay

2011-01-01

346

Implementation of a biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad.  

PubMed

The traditional process for vat dyeing with woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) basically relies on microbial reduction of indigo to its soluble form, leucoindigo, through a complex fermentative process. In the 19th century, cultivation of woad went into decline and use of synthetic indigo dye and chemical reduction agents was established, with a consequent negative impact on the environment due to the release of polluting wastewaters by the synthetic dyeing industry. Recently, the ever-growing demand for environmentally friendly dyeing technologies has led to renewed interest in ecological textile traditions. In this context, this study aims at developing an environmentally friendly biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad to replace use of polluting chemical reduction agents. Two simple broth media, containing yeast extract or corn steep liquor (CSL), were comparatively evaluated for their capacity to sustain the growth and reducing activity of the strain Clostridium isatidis DSM 15098(T). Subsequently, the dyeing capacity of the CSL medium added with 140 g L?ą of woad powder, providing 2.4 g L?ą of indigo dye, was evaluated after fermentation in laboratory bioreactors under anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions. In all fermentations, a sufficiently negative oxidation/reduction potential for reduction of indigo was reached as early as 24 h and maintained up to the end of the monitoring period. However, clearly faster indigo dye reduction was seen in the broth cultures fermented under strict anaerobiosis, thus suggesting the suitability of the N? flushing strategy for enhancement of bacterial-driven indigo reduction. PMID:22581408

Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Baldini, Gessica; Silvestri, Gloria; Butta, Alessandro; Clementi, Francesca

2012-09-01

347

Decolorization of Azo Dyes by Immobilized Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Decolorization has recently become an area of major scientific interest as indicated by the large quantity of related research\\u000a reports. During the past two decades, several color removal techniques have been reported, few of which have been accepted\\u000a by some industries. There is a need to find alternative technologies that are effective in decolorizing dyes from large volume\\u000a of effluents.

Mehmet Ali Mazmanci

348

Chemical stabilization of laser dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

Koch, Tad H.

1987-05-01

349

Kinetics of UV, Fenton and Photo Fenton Processes for Decolorization of Various Red CL-5B Dye Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decolorization of Red CL-5B azo dye was studied using UV, Fenton and Photo Fenton processes. The effect of initial dye concentration, FeSO4 dose, pH and variation in UV time on decolorization was investigated. UV radiation was carried out with a 108 W low-pressure mercury lamp. Increase in the ferrous dose beyond the optimal dose resulted in significant decrease in color removal efficiency. The optimal doses were found to be 20, 30 and 50 mg L-1 for 100, 300 and 500 mg L-1 dye concentrations, respectively. The highest decolorization was observed at pH 2. However, in acidic range (2-6) removal efficiency for particular dye concentration was almost same at particular settling time. For photo Fenton process UV irradiation time was doubled as the dye concentration was increased to furnish more than 90% removal efficiency. Color removal curves obeyed first order kinetics irrespective of dye concentration.

Yasar, Abdullah; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Aamir Amanat Ali; Khan, Hajira; Khalid, Mehwish

350

Comparison of historic Grübler dyes with modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography.  

PubMed

The aniline dye industry was created in 1856 when William Perkin prepared the dye, mauve, from coal tar. Following that discovery, several dye manufacturing businesses were formed in Western Europe, most successfully in Germany. It was to these companies that early investigators turned to obtain these new dyes for the developing field of biology. In 1880, Dr. Georg Grübler started a company in Germany to supply the needs of biologists. Grübler dyes developed a reputation for excellence. In the study reported here, 29 samples of 12 Grübler dyes were compared to modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography. The dyes studied were basic fuchsine, acid fuchsine, safranine, pyronine, aniline blue, ponceau, gentian violet, methylene blue, orange G, malachite green, and Sudan III and IV. I found that these early Grübler dyes closely resembled modern day counterparts; however, the use of synonyms was confusing and some of the fat stains were mislabeled by modern criteria. The chromatograms of some dyes exhibited smearing, probably representing multiple closely related dye species. The study of old dyes provides interesting comparisons with modern counterparts as the center of dye manufacturing is moving from Europe and the United States to Asia. PMID:18074269

Titford, M

2007-08-01

351

Relative performance of biofilm configuration over suspended growth operation on azo dye based wastewater treatment in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation.  

PubMed

Functional role of biofilm and suspended growth bioreactor configurations in response to the treatment of azo-dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) bearing wastewater was evaluated in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation at varying dye concentrations. The biofilm system depicted higher dye removal efficiency (93.14%) compared to suspended mode (84.29%) at 350 mg dye/l operation. Both the reactor configurations did not show much process inhibition at higher dye loads studied. Azo reductase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities showed significant variation indicating the different metabolic capabilities of the native-microflora, stable proton shuttling between metabolic intermediates and differences in the delivery of reducing powers from the substrate metabolism towards dye removal. Voltammograms visualized marked variations in electron discharge properties with the function of reactor configuration, time intervals and dye load. Higher redox catalytic currents, lower Tafel slopes and polarization resistance showed good correlation with enzyme activities and dye removal. PMID:24012732

Mohan, S Venkata; Reddy, C Nagendranatha; Kumar, A Naresh; Modestra, J Annie

2013-11-01

352

Adsorption studies of methylene blue dye on tunisian activated lignin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon prepared from natural lignin, providing from a geological deposit, was used as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate various experimental parameters like pH and contact time for the removal of this dye. Effective pH for MB removal was 11. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye was gradual process. Quasi equilibrium reached in 4 h. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data. Pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide realistic description of adsorption kinetics. The experimental isotherms data were also modelled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g. Activated lignin was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions.

Kriaa, A.; Hamdi, N.; Srasra, E.

2011-02-01

353

Anthraquinone Dye Toxicological Profiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Consumer Product Safety Commission conducted a review of anthraquinone dyes having consumer application for which toxicity data was available. Both natural and synthetic anthraquinones have been employed as colorants in food, drugs, cosmetics, hair dy...

1981-01-01

354

GPS Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Aviation Administration maintains the graphically impressive Global Positioning System (GPS) Basics Web site. From the history of the global positioning system and how it works to governmental policy that controls its use, this site does a good job of explaining all facets of what GPS is about without being overly technical. Interested visitors can explore some of the other links that cover satellite navigation topics as well, such as GPS programs; a library of documents, fact sheets, press releases, and news; frequently asked questions; links; and more. Anyone interested in mapping, navigation, or similar subjects will enjoy exploring the interesting information provided on this well designed site.

355

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University Of Houston

356

Biological and oxidative treatment of cotton textile dye-bath effluents by fixed and fluidized bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A treatability study for highly polluted and recalcitrant azo reactive dye-baths from cotton textile dyeing processes was conducted by using fixed and up-flow fluidized bed type reactors packed with brown coal. Ozone oxidation was carried out to assess the combination of biological and chemical oxidation. COD removal efficiencies ranged from 70% to 93%, and up to 99% color removal was

A. Baban; A. Yediler; G. Avaz; S. S. Hostede

2010-01-01

357

Activated Carbon Produced from Waste Wood Pallets: Adsorption of Three Classes of Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon was derived from waste wood pallets in Hong Kong via phosphoric acid activation and applied to adsorption\\u000a of basic dye (methylene blue), acid dyes (acid blue 25 and acid red 151), and reactive dye (reactive red 23). The results\\u000a showed that respective adjustment in phosphoric acid concentration, impregnation ratio, activation temperature, and activation\\u000a time could maximize the surface

Daniel C. W. Tsang; Jing Hu; Mei Yi Liu; Weihua Zhang; Keith C. K. Lai; Irene M. C. Lo

2007-01-01

358

Anaerobic–aerobic biotreatment of simulated textile effluent containing varied ratios of starch and azo dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined anaerobic–aerobic treatment was used to treat a simulated textile industry wastewater (overall HRT 1.8 days). The azo dye (PROCION Red H-E7B) and starch concentrations were varied in a series of 1-week experiments to determine the effect of starch:dye ratio on COD, BOD and colour removal. The treatment efficiency of the system at 1.9 g l?1 starch and 0.15 g l?1 dye

C O’Neill; F. R Hawkes; D. L Hawkes; S Esteves; S. J Wilcox

2000-01-01

359

Biodegradation of Azo Dyes in Anaerobic–Aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Effluent discharge from textile and dyestuff industries to neighboring water bodies is currently causing significant health\\u000a concerns to environmental regulatory agencies due to the toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of the dyes and their\\u000a breakdown products. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to evaluate the removal of dyes during wastewater treatment\\u000a and in the natural environment. The most widely used dyes

Özer Çinar; Kevser Demiröz

360

Decolorization and biodegradability of photocatalytic treated azo dyes and wool textile wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photodegradation and biodegradability have been investigated for four non-biodegradable commercial azo dyes, Reactive YellowKD-3G, Reactive Red 15, Reactive Red 24, Cationic Blue X-GRL, an indicator. Methyl Orange, and one industrial wool textile wastewater, using TiO2 suspensions irradiated with a medium pressure mercury lamp. The color removal of dyes solution and dyeing wastewater reached to above 90% within 20–30min. of

Hu Chun; Wang Yizhong

1999-01-01

361

Sunspace basics  

SciTech Connect

Anyone who lives in a home with a sunspace will tell you that the sunspace is the most enjoyable room in the house. Many times the homeowner`s only regret is that the sunspace is not larger. Although aesthetics often drive the decision to add a sunspace or include one in a new home design, sunspaces can also provide supplemental space heating and a healthy environment for plants and people. In fact, a well-designed sunspace can provide up to 60% of a home`s winter heating requirements. This publication addresses basic elements of sunspace design; design considerations for supplemental space heating, growing plants, and use as a living space; design guidelines including siting, heat distribution, and glazing angles; and major sunspace components including glazing options, thermal mass, insulation, and climate controls. A list of sources for more information is also provided.

Not Available

1994-11-01

362

Barometer Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experimental activity is designed to develop a basic understanding of the interrelationship between temperature and pressure and the structure of a device made to examine this relationship. Resources needed to conduct this activity include two canning jars, two large rubber balloons, a heat lamp or lamp with 150 watt bulb, and access to freezer or water and ice. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 5 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

363

Purification of Bipyridyl Ruthenium Dye and Its Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bipyridyl ruthenium dye N3 and N719 was synthesized, purified by the gel chromatogram method and characterized by the proton NMR and UV-Vis spectra. After the purification most of the impurities that decreased the photoelectrochemical properties were removed and the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and overall photo-electric conversion efficiency (?) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) increased dramatically. The standard curve of absorbance vs. concentration of N3 and N719 dye was achieved by using UV-Vis quantitative analytic spectrophotometry. This method was employed to determine the concentration of the dye solution after coating of TiO2 films. The linear concentration range of absorbance vs. concentration of N719 was between 6.25 × 10-6 mol . L-1 and 1 × 10-4 mol . L-1 with the molar extinction coefficient (?) 1.58 × 104 L . mol-1cm-1 at a wavelength of 533 ~ 531 nm and 1.50 × 104 L . mol-1 . cm-1 at a wavelength of 393 ~ 384 nm , accordingly. The linear concentration range of the N3 dye was 6.25 × 10-6 mol . L-1 to 1.5 × 10-4 mol . L-1 with ? of 1.47 × 104 L . mol-1 . cm-1 at a wavelength of 538 ~ 535 nm and 1.48 × 104 L . mol-1 . cm-1 at a wavelength of 399 ~ 393 nm.

Kong, Fantai; Dai, Songyuan; Wang, Kongjia

2006-09-01

364

Adsorption of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Calcined Alunite and Granular Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyestuff production units and dyeing units have always had a pressing need for techniques that allow economical pretreatment for color in the effluent. The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters had made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment options. This paper deals with an investigation on alunite, existing wide reserves in Türkiye and in the world,

Mahmut Özacar; ?. Ayhan ?engil

2002-01-01

365

Effect of quaternary ammonium cations on dye sorption to fly ash from aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of the surface modification of fly ash by quarternary ammonium cations in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution is demonstrated. A series of organo-fly ash materials were synthesized by treating fly ash with quarternary ammonium cations such as tetraethylammonium, hexadecyltrimethylammonium, and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (TEA, HDTMA, and BDTDA). Two types of dyes were used for the investigation, disperse and

Shashwat S. Banerjee; Milind V. Joshi; Radha V. Jayaram

2006-01-01

366

Decolourisation of model and industrial dyes by mitosporic fungi in different culture conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six mitosporic fungi belonging to five species (Aspergillus flavus var. flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium glabrum and Penicillium verrucosum) were selected from a screening on 258 fungal strains as the most promising for their ability to remove 2 model dyes in solid\\u000a conditions. Hence they were tested in liquid conditions for their ability to decolourise 3 model dyes and

Antonella Anastasi; Valeria Prigione; Leonardo Casieri; Giovanna Cristina Varese

2009-01-01

367

Electrochemical degradation of the dye indigo carmine at boron-doped diamond anode for wastewaters remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we demonstrate that anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode can be applied to the remediation of wastewaters containing indigo carmine. This environmentally friendly method decontaminates completely acid and alkaline aqueous solutions of this dye. The degradation rate increases with increasing current and dye concentration. Indigo carmine is more rapidly removed in alkaline than in acid medium, but

Salah Ammar; Ridha Abdelhedi; Cristina Flox; Conchita Arias; Enric Brillas

2006-01-01

368

Acid azo dye degradation by free and immobilized horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid azo (Acid Black 10 BX) dye removal by plant based peroxidase catalyzed reaction was investigated. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was extracted from horseradish roots and its performance was evaluated in both free and immobilized form. HRP showed its ability to degrade the dye in aqueous phase. Studies are further carried out to understand the process parameters such as aqueous phase

S. Venkata Mohan; K. Krishna Prasad; N. Chandrasekhara Rao; P. N. Sarma

2005-01-01

369

Performance of an Electrocoagulation Process in Treating Direct Dye: Batch and Continuous Upflow Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an investigation of electrochemical variables and an application of the optimal parameters in operating a continuous upflow electrocoagulation reactor in removing dye. Direct red 23, which is azo-based, was used as a representative of direct dyes. First, a batch mode was employed to optimize the design parameters: electrode type, electrode distance, current density and electrocoagulation time. The

C. Phalakornkule; S. Polgumhang; W. Tongdaung

370

Removable camouflage paints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All military objects must have basic camouflage that is usually achieved by painting. Patterned camouflage painting hides the object and blends its shape and characteristic features in with its surroundings. Basic camouflage can be complemented by using temporary camouflage such as removable camouflage paints. These paints can be used in seasons and environments where the basic pattern is not appropriate. A research project was begun at the Defence Forces Technical Research Centre (DFTRC) in 1994 in order to formulate an environmentally friendly, removable camouflage paint for military use. The paint should be easily removable when they are applied to previously painted military equipment. However, it should also be resistant to drizzle. The paint should have optical properties similar to those of its surroundings. The surface of the coatings should also be matt to avoid any conspicuous reflection. Finally, it should be possible to apply removable camouflage paints in the field using any painting method. During the project environmentally friendly and non-toxic removable paints were successfully formulated. The colors of removable paints are compromises of average operating environments. The project included numerous laboratory tests in addition to natural and accelerated weathering tests. Several field tests have been carried out. According to the tests, the removable paints are well resistant to drizzle, sufficiently resistant to abrasion, and they can be washed off with water.

Salonen, Pasi S.; Niinimaki-Heikkila, Tiina; Hallenberg, Ilkka

2001-09-01

371

Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized.

D. Kim, S.; I. Jang, D.; J. Lim, B.; B. Lee, S.; S. Mok, Y.

2013-07-01

372

Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

2012-03-01

373

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01

374

VIS absorption spectrophotometry of disperse dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the investigations of the dyeing processes, the low solubility of disperse dyes in water represents a practical problem for the determination of dye concentration in dyebaths and waste waters. Therefore the use of an organic solvent which, dissolves disperse dyes, is recommended in visible spectrophotometry of disperse dyes. Three organic solvents (ethanol, N,N-dimethylformamide, acetone) and two disperse dyes, the

Vera Golob; Lidija Tušek

1999-01-01

375

Azo dye load-shock on relative behavior of biofilm and suspended growth configured periodic discontinuous batch mode operations: Critical evaluation with enzymatic and bio-electrocatalytic analysis.  

PubMed

Effect of dye (C.I.Acid Black 10B) load-shock was comparatively evaluated in biofilm (self-immobilized) and suspended growth systems operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode (PDBR, anoxic-aerobic-anoxic) was investigated. At higher dye load (1250 mg dye/l), biofilm system showed relatively higher dye (74.5%) and COD (46%) removal efficiencies than the corresponding suspended mode operation (dye/COD removal efficiency, 42%/65%). Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Voltammograms (cyclic) showed higher reduction currents (RC) with increment in dye load specifically in biofilm system. Derivative cyclic voltammograms analysis depicted the involvement of mediators (NAD (+), FAD(+), etc.) which presumably played a major role in electron transport chain and dye degradation. Disappearance of peak (1612 cm(-1)) specific to azo group in FTIR spectrum, at higher loading rate in both the systems indicates the non-inhibitory and robust nature of PDBR operation. PMID:24859232

Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Hari Prasad, R; Venkata Mohan, S

2014-09-01

376

Role of brown-rot fungi in the bioremoval of azo dyes under different conditions  

PubMed Central

The present study is vital to the understanding of bioremediation of structurally different azo dyes by some unusual Brown-rot fungi. Bioremoval of each dye (20 mg l-1) was tested in two different culture media under static and shaking conditions by taking inocula from different fungi. Fungal strains showed varying dyes removal abilities, though considerable high in case of Acid Red (AR) 151(di-azo) as compared to Orange (Or) II (mono-azo). With an exception of Aspergillus tereus SA3, all the fungal isolates showed higher removal of dyes in SDB. Under static condition, the maximum decolorizing fungal strains were; Aspergillus flavus SA2 (67%) and Alternaria spp. SA4 (57%) in AR 151, while Penicillium spp. (34 and 33 %) in Orange II, in SDB and STE, respectively. Bioremoval of dyes was considerably increased when experiments were shifted from static to shaking mode. It was specifically increased (%) in; AR 151 (255) with Penicillium spp., Or II with A. flavus SA2 (112) and Alternaria spp. (111). The primary mechanism of dyes removal proved to be fungal biosorption. However, reduction of dyes (onto fungal) with formation of their products (?. naphthol, sulphalinic acid and aniline) furthermore revealed that dyes (specifically azo) were actually biodegraded.

Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

2010-01-01

377

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a flash lamp pumped, near infrared dye laser operating at a moderate repetition rate was shown. The laser produced output pulses of 17 kw peak power at a rate of 4 pulses per minute. The flow system that is essential for multiflash oper...

1973-01-01

378

Alzheimer's Dye Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

379

Pyranoquinoline Laser Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application pertains to 2-keto-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-2H-pyrano(3,2-g)-quinoline and 2-keto-9-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-2H-pyrano(3,2-g)-quinoline, compounds useful as laser dyes, which are prepared from 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline.

P. R. Hammond E. J. Schimitschek J. Trias

1976-01-01

380

Biosorption of Basic Green 4 from aqueous solution by Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder.  

PubMed

Biosorption characteristics of Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder was investigated for decolorization of Basic Green 4 (BG 4), a cationic dye from its aqueous solutions employing a batch experimental set-up. Parameters that influence the sorption process such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were systematically studied. The optimum conditions for removal of BG 4 were found to be pH 9.0, contact time=150 min, biosorbent dosage=5.0 g L(-1), initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1). The temperature had a strong influence on the biosorption process. Further, the biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) surface area and pore size analysis. Experimental biosorption data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high coefficients of correlation (R(2)>0.99) at different temperatures. The pseudo second order kinetic model fitted well in correlation to the experimental results. Activation energy of the biosorption process (E(a)) was found to be 45.79 kJ mol(-1) by using the Arrhenius equation, indicating chemisorption nature of BG 4 sorption onto pineapple leaf powder. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the biosorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Overall, the present findings suggest that this environmentally friendly, efficient and low-cost biosorbent may be useful for the removal of BG 4 from aqueous media. PMID:21349693

Chowdhury, Shamik; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Saha, Papita

2011-06-01

381

“Critical” effect of hydrogen peroxide in photochemical dye degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary or pretreatment of dyeing effluents by advanced oxidation processes (AOP) catalyzed by a source of UV light and a powerful oxidant is a promising alternative for the effective removal of color and refractory organics from the effluent. A crucial feature in designing such systems is the optimization of operating conditions (such as UV and oxidant dosages), which yield maximum

Nilsun H. Ince

1999-01-01

382

Combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and synthetic dyes on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of Pichia fermentans MTCC 189.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of synthetic dyes viz. Acid Blue 93, Direct Red 28 and Basic Violet 3 by growing cells of yeast, Pichia fermentans MTCC 189 was investigated in growth media prepared from sugarcane bagasse extract. The maximum dye bioaccumulation was determined at pH 5.0 for all the dyes tested. Two kinetic models viz. Noncompetitive and Uncompetitive models were tested in order to determine the toxic effects of dyes on the specific growth rate of P. fermentans MTCC 189. Basic Violet 3 was found to be more toxic than the other two dyes. The combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and initial Basic Violet 3 dye concentrations on the specific growth rate and dye bioaccumulation efficiency of P. fermentans MTCC 189 was investigated and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A 2(2) full factorial central composite design was successfully used for analysis of results. The optimum combination predicted via RSM confirmed that P. fermentans MTCC 189 was capable of bioaccumulating Basic Violet 3 dye upto 69.8% in the medium containing 10 mg/L of dye and 24 g/L sugar extracted from sugarcane bagasse. PMID:20692093

Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D; Das, Nilanjana

2010-11-15

383

Reduction of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent using Fenton-coagulation process.  

PubMed

Dye wastewater exhibits significant ecotoxicity even though its physico-chemical parameters meet the discharge standards. In this work, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent were tested, and the Fenton-coagulation process was carried out to detoxify this dye effluent. The acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality rate of zebrafish, and genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also investigated. The results indicated that the dye effluent showed strong acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. After 4h of treatment by Fenton-coagulation process, the dye effluent exhibited no significant acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. In addition, its COD was less than 50mg/L, which met the discharge standard. It demonstrates that Fenton-coagulation process can comprehensively reduce the acute toxicity and genotoxicity as well as the COD of the dye effluent. PMID:24793295

Zhang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

2014-06-15

384

Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes  

SciTech Connect

Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

von Trebra, R.J.

1984-01-01

385

Potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris for phytoremediation of a textile dye: Inducing antioxidant response in roots and leaves.  

PubMed

The potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris as an aquatic plant species was evaluated for phytoremediation of C.I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) from nutrient solution. Under the optimized experimental conditions, BR46 was removed up to 95% from incubation medium by H. vulgaris. The ability of the plant in consecutive removal under long term repetitive experiments confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the biodegradation efficiency. A predictive performance (R(2)=0.974) was obtained based on the network results. Interestingly, dye stress enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in H. vulgaris roots and leaves. Enzymatic responses found to be highly depended on the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was much higher in the roots than in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected in both roots and leaves which reflects the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23660490

Vafaei, F; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Zarei, M; Salehi Lisar, S Y

2013-07-01

386

Competitive biosorption of azo dyes from aqueous solution on the templated crosslinked-chitosan nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The nanoparticles of templated crosslinked chitosan, ECH-RB5 and ECH-3R, were prepared through the imprinting process using Remazol Black 5 (RB5) and Remazol Brilliant Orange 3R (3R) dyes, respectively, as templates and ECH as a crosslinker. The nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher adsorption capacities of the dyes than other nanoparticles formed without a dye template and with three crosslinkers (ECH, GLA, and EGDE). The adsorption of the dyes on the nanoparticles was affected by the initial pH, dye concentration, and temperature. The results were in accordance with the second-order and the Langmuir adsorption models. Meanwhile, the E values of the dyes calculated using the Dubinnin-Radushkevich model revealed that the adsorption process may be due to the dual nature of the process, physisorption and chemisorption, and that adsorption was predominant in the chemisorption process. The adsorption processes in the nanoparticles were spontaneous and exothermic. Moreover, competition adsorption through analysis of the intraparticle diffusion model apparently favored the 3R dye more than the RB5 dye on the nanoparticles in mixture solution B. The nanoparticles for the adsorption of the dyes were regenerated efficiently through the alkaline solution and were then reused for dye removal. PMID:20934251

Chen, Chia-Yun; Chang, Jen-Chao; Chen, Arh-Hwang

2011-01-15

387

Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes.  

PubMed

Toxic effluents containing azo dyes are discharged from various industries and they adversely affect water resources, soil fertility, aquatic organisms and ecosystem integrity. They pose toxicity (lethal effect, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) to aquatic organisms (fish, algae, bacteria, etc.) as well as animals. They are not readily degradable under natural conditions and are typically not removed from waste water by conventional waste water treatment systems. Benzidine based dyes have long been recognized as a human urinary bladder carcinogen and tumorigenic in a variety of laboratory animals. Several microorganisms have been found to decolourize, transform and even to completely mineralize azo dyes. A mixed culture of two Pseudomonas strains efficiently degraded mixture of 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and phenol/cresols. Azoreductases of different microorganisms are useful for the development of biodegradation systems as they catalyze reductive cleavage of azo groups (-N=N-) under mild conditions. In this review, toxic impacts of dyeing factory effluents on plants, fishes, and environment, and plausible bioremediation strategies for removal of azo dyes have been discussed. PMID:16924831

Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

2006-08-01

388

Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes  

PubMed Central

During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.

Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

2014-01-01

389

Effective NH2-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes.  

PubMed

The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH(2)-attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH(2) groups. PMID:21959185

Xue, Ailian; Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang; Lu, Xiaoping; Han, Pingfang

2011-10-30

390

New fluorescent symmetrically substituted perylene-3,4,9,10-dianhydride-azohybrid dyes: Synthesis and spectroscopic studies.  

PubMed

Five phenolic azo-dyes (3a-e) were synthesized by diazo coupling of the suitably substituted anilines (1a-e) with phenol at low temperature in alkaline medium. The resulting dyes have low solubility in aqueous medium due to lack of carboxylic or sulfonic solubilizing functionalities. The hybridization of perylene dianhydride with phenolic azo-dyes was achieved by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction of perylene-3,4,9,10-dianhydride 4 with phenolic azo-dyes 3a-e in basic medium. The hybrid dyes exhibit absorption maxima ?max in the range 440-460nm in aqueous medium due to presence of azo linkage and highly conjugated system of ? bonds. Fluorescence spectra of these dyes in water show sharp emission peaks with small band widths. The structures of perylene-azo dyes were confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24914994

Saeed, Aamer; Shabir, Ghulam

2014-12-10

391

New fluorescent symmetrically substituted perylene-3,4,9,10-dianhydride-azohybrid dyes: Synthesis and spectroscopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five phenolic azo-dyes (3a-e) were synthesized by diazo coupling of the suitably substituted anilines (1a-e) with phenol at low temperature in alkaline medium. The resulting dyes have low solubility in aqueous medium due to lack of carboxylic or sulfonic solubilizing functionalities. The hybridization of perylene dianhydride with phenolic azo-dyes was achieved by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction of perylene-3,4,9,10-dianhydride 4 with phenolic azo-dyes 3a-e in basic medium. The hybrid dyes exhibit absorption maxima ?max in the range 440-460 nm in aqueous medium due to presence of azo linkage and highly conjugated system of ? bonds. Fluorescence spectra of these dyes in water show sharp emission peaks with small band widths. The structures of perylene-azo dyes were confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy.

Saeed, Aamer; Shabir, Ghulam

2014-12-01

392

Flocculation performance of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polyamine in treating dyeing wastewater.  

PubMed

Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymers with different intrinsic viscosity (eta) and cationicity (tau) were synthesized. The flocculation performance and mechanism of these polymers in the removal of the reactive and disperse dyes from synthetic wastewater was investigated in terms of flocculation dynamics and color removal efficiency. The polymer flocculation efficiency was compared with that of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and a composite flocculant based on polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polyamine. The results showed that epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymer was effective over a pH range of 2-10 for the reactive and disperse dye removal (Reactive Brilliant Red and Disperse Yellow dyes). Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymer with the highest eta and tau gave the best reactive dye removal efficiency, and its adsorption-bridging and electric neutralization ability played important roles in the flocculation process. The higher the eta viscosity of the epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymer, the better the flocculation performance of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polyamine, and stronger adsorption-bridging ability was obtained for removing the disperse dye from dyeing wastewaters. Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymer achieved better decolorization performance when used together with PAC. PMID:19781846

Wang, Yuanfang; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Zhan, Xiao; Si, Xiaohui; Li, Chunxiao

2009-01-01

393

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

394

Dyeing of wool with natural anthraquinone dyes from Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two anthraquinone compounds are described which were produced by liquid cultures of Fusarium oxysporum (isolate no. 4), isolated from the roots of citrus trees affected with root rot disease. These anthraquinone compounds are 2-acetyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone or 3-acetyl-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone. Dyeing of wool fabrics with these new anthraquinone compounds as natural dyes has been studied. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time

F. A. Nagia; R. S. R. EL-Mohamedy

2007-01-01

395

Dyeing fabrics with metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

Kalivas, Georgia

2002-06-01

396

Dye laser tuner  

SciTech Connect

A laser of the kind in which the lasing medium is a free flowing dye stream incorporates a means of tuning the output wave length of the laser, this means being in the form of a wedged birefringent plate which is driven in a linear mode by a linear translator so that the thickness of the birefringent plate traversed by the intracavity beam of laser light may be varied.

Arthurs, E.G.; Purdie, A.F.

1980-11-11

397

Dye-enhanced selective laser ablation for surgical mucosectomy.  

PubMed

The diode laser operates at a wavelength of 805 nm; indocyanine green (ICG) has a maximum energy absorption of a wavelength of approximately 800 nm. The effect of the diode laser as a laser knife can be significantly enhanced with an injection of ICG. In the present study, this dye-enhanced photothermal effect was investigated in the field of surgical endoscopy. A 9-cm2 region of the canine gastric mucosa was removed by the laser after injection of 5 ml of ICG solution at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL into the submucosal space. The diode laser was used at a power output of 10 watts. The canine stomach was removed 10 days after the operation to investigate the site histologically. Clinical application using transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was employed using a dye-enhanced laser in five patients with a rectal adenoma. The pathological changes in the canine gastric wall resected 10 days after the operation showed that the low-power laser enhanced by ICG produced less fibrosis in the submucosal space than electrocautery. Mucosal resection using a dye-enhanced laser was easily performed in these five patients. It was concluded that this easy removal of the mucosa by a dye-enhanced laser was due to its ability to produce hemostasis of the vessels and its excellent tissue-cutting effect. PMID:10872619

Yamashita, Y; Sakai, T; Watanabe, K; Maekawa, T; Shirakusa, T

1999-12-01

398

Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ?E (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

2011-11-01

399

Dye-coated europium monosulfide  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

2011-05-15

400

Study of a natural dye solubilisation in o\\/w microemulsions and its dyeing behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacture of synthetic dyes involves many non eco-friendly chemical procedures. For this reason, the application of natural dyes in textile dyeing is being explored worldwide. The dye exhaustion, fixation and levelness of dyeing depends on several factors such as the properties of fibres, the molecular structure of dyes, and the medium of the dyebath. The solubilisation of insoluble natural

Roshan Paul; Conxita Solans; Pilar Erra

2005-01-01

401

Fillings: The Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... the bacteria that cause decay to other teeth. Cavity-detecting dye — This can be rinsed over your ... may block the view of decay. Laser fluorescence cavity detection aids — These small wands measure changes caused ...

402

Adsorption of dye from aqueous solution by cashew nut shell: Studies on equilibrium isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew nut shell (CNS) — a novel, low cost adsorbent prepared from agricultural waste has been utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of Congo red (CR) dye from an aqueous solution. The effect of pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, time and temperature on adsorption was studied. The results indicate that CNS can be employed as a low cost

P. Senthil Kumar; S. Ramalingam; C. Senthamarai; M. Niranjanaa; P. Vijayalakshmi; S. Sivanesan

2010-01-01

403

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

404

Electrolytic removal of Rhodamine B from aqueous solution by peroxicoagulation process.  

PubMed

Peroxicoagulation treatment of aqueous solution containing hazardous dye, Rhodamine B, with commercially available graphite as cathode and iron as anode has been studied. The effect of various operational parameters such as solution pH, applied voltage, electrode area, other ions, etc. on the dye removal was investigated. The experimental result showed that pH-regulated peroxicoagulation system is an efficient process for the dye removal. Ninety-five percent of the dye was removed after 180 min of electrolysis. Anions such as carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride and sulphate negatively affected the efficiency of peroxicoagulation system. From the present study, it can be concluded that peroxicoagulation process is an efficient tool for dye removal from aqueous solution. PMID:24687786

Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Gandhimathi, Rajan

2014-07-01

405

Methyl-orange and cadmium simultaneous removal using fly ash and photo-Fenton systems.  

PubMed

Wastewaters resulting from the textile and dye finishing industries need complex treatment for efficient removal of colour and other compounds existent in the dyeing and rising baths (heavy metals, surfactants, equalizers, etc.). Modified fly ash (FA) mixed with TiO(2) photocatalyst represent a viable option for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, and the optimized conditions are discussed in this paper for synthetic wastewaters containing methyl-orange (MO) and cadmium. For a cost-effective dye removal process, further tests were done, replacing the photocatalyst with a (photo)Fenton system. The optimized technological parameters (contact time, amount of fly ash and amount of Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) allow to reach removal efficiencies up to 88% for the heavy metal and up to 70% for the dye. The adsorption mechanisms and the process kinetic are discussed, also considering the possibility of in situ generation of the Fenton system, due to the fly ash composition. PMID:23200622

Visa, Maria; Duta, Anca

2013-01-15

406

Polymeric dyes based on thiadiazole derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of polymeric dyes were synthesized by free radical addition polymerization of monomeric dyes. The 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole\\u000a was diazotized and coupled with various N-arylmaleimides to give monomeric dyes. All the polymeric dyes were characterized\\u000a by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, visible absorption spectroscopy, viscometry, and thermogravimetric analysis.\\u000a Color and dyeing properties of the polymeric dyes were discussed by comparing them with

Hari Raghav Maradiya; Vithal Soma Patel

2001-01-01

407

Organization of butadienyl dyes containing benzodithiacrown-ether or dimethoxybenzene in monolayers at the air/aqueous salt solution interface.  

PubMed

Two amphiphilic butadienyl dyes 1 and 2 form stable monolayers at the air/water interface in the presence of various salts. Dye 1 consists of the basic amphiphilic butadienyl chromophore. In dye 2, the dimethoxybenzene part of dye 1 is substituted by benzodithia-15-crown-5. The monolayers have been characterized by surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as well as Brewster angle microscopy and reflection spectroscopy. In contrast to dye 1, dye 2 interacts specifically with Hg(2+) and Ag(+) cations forming complexes. No complex formation was observed with alkali and earth alkali metal ions. The nature of the anion (Cl(-) or ClO(4)(-)) influences the monolayer behaviour of both dyes. At the air/water interface, besides monomers of the dyes, two types of associates are coexisting in the pure dye monolayers on aqueous salt solutions, attributed to dimers and aggregates, respectively. Their equilibria depend on the nature of both cations and anions in the subphase, as in the case of dye 2, or only anions, as in the case of dye 1. The dimers may be organized as head-to-tail dimers with the intermolecular distances 0.38 and 0.45nm for dye 1 and dye 2, respectively. According to the extended dipole model, we propose formation of aggregates in which the chromophores are parallel to each other with the same intermolecular distances as in the dimers, and the centers of their transition moments shifted by 0.95nm (dye 1) and 1.2nm (dye 2). PMID:19720508

Sergeeva, T I; Gromov, S P; Zaitsev, S Yu; Möbius, D

2009-12-01

408

Reactive dye bioaccumulation by fungus Aspergillus niger isolated from the effluent of sugar fabric-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The present study dealt with the decolorization of textile dye Reactive Black-5 by actively growing mycelium of Aspergillus niger MT-1 in molasses medium. It was found that the fungus, which was isolated from the effluent of sugar fabric-contaminated soil, was capable of decolorizing the Reactive Black-5 dye in a wide range of temperature, shaking speed and pH values. The experiments also revealed that highest dye decolorization efficiency was achieved with cheap carbon (molasses sucrose) and nitrogen (ammonium chloride) sources. Under the optimized culture conditions, the complete decolorization (100%) of 0.1 g/L dye was achieved in 60 hours. The dominant mechanism of dye removal by the fungus was found to be probably bioaccumulation. Fungal growth in small uniform pellet form was found to be better for dye bioacumulation. Molass as carbon source increased dye bioaccumulation by stimulating the mycelial growth in small uniform pellet form. The maximum bioaccumulation efficiency of fungus for dye was 91% (0.273 g bioaccumulated dye) at an initial dye concentration of 0.3 g/L in 100 hours. It was shown for the first time in the present study that the effluent of sugar fabric-contaminated soil was a good source of microorganisms, being capable of decolorizing snythetic textile dyes. PMID:20237194

Taskin, Mesut; Erdal, Serkan

2010-05-01

409

Polymeric dyes: useful nonabsorbable reference markers for intestinal perfusion studies in animals.  

PubMed

The properties of two polymeric dyes were examined to determine their suitability as nonabsorbable reference markers for intestinal perfusion studies. The first dye was a violet anthroquinone dye, R-478, named polyporphyre; the second was a blue anthroquinone dye, R-411, named polycyanine. The dyes could be determined spectrophotometrically over a concentration range of 0.03-5 microM (1-200 micrograms/mL) and had no appreciable osmotic effect. They were light stable and their absorption spectra did not change in solution over a pH range of 1-11. The dyes had a molecular weight of approximately 40,000 by gel permeation chromatography; they did not appear to have hydrophobic binding sites because they did not bind added dihydroxy bile acid or fatty acid anions. Determination of the dyes was not influenced by the presence of bilirubin when the latter was present at concentrations reported to occur in small intestinal content during digestion. The dyes did not interfere with an endpoint enzymatic determination of bile acids. The dyes caused little quenching of 3H- or 14C-radioactivity in a toluene-based liquid scintillation cocktail. Dyes were easily removed from aqueous solution by passage over a large-pore anion exchange column or by a BaCl2:ZnSO4 protein precipitation procedure. When tested in a rat jejunal perfusion model, changes in dye concentration evoked by hypotonic or hypertonic perfusates were identical to those of polyethylene glycol 4000, a commonly used reference marker. The dyes did not influence the rate of glucose absorption and did not bind to mucus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4009443

Dupas, J L; Moreau, M; Hofmann, A F

1985-03-01

410

Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

411

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

Wei, Di

2010-01-01

412

Dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

Wei, Di

2010-01-01

413

Dye adsorption by sewage sludge-based activated carbons in batch and fixed-bed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research work deals with the production of activated carbons by chemical activation and pyrolysis of sewage sludges. The adsorbent properties of these sewage sludges based activated carbons were studied by liquid-phase adsorption tests. Dyes removal from colored wastewater being a possible application for sludge based adsorbents, methylene blue and saphranine removing from solution was studied. Pure and binary

F. Rozada; L. F. Calvo; A. I. Garc??a; J. Mart??n-Villacorta; M. Otero

2003-01-01

414

Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of cationic methyl violet and methylene blue dyes onto sepiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents was investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Sepiolite was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet (MV) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, ionic strength,

Mehmet Do?an; Yasemin Özdemir; Mahir Alkan

2007-01-01

415

Biosorption of Basic Orange using dried A. filiculoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the biosorption of Basic Organic (BO) textile dye on dried Azolla filiculoides (A. filiculoides), batch experiments were conducted under various conditions. The results show that biosorption of BO on dried A. filiculoides was dependent on the initial solution pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time and the initial BO concentration. Using the Langmuir equation, the biosorption capacity (qm)

Cai-yun Tan; Gan Li; Xiao-Qiao Lu; Zu-liang Chen

2010-01-01

416

Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry, which damages the mechanical properties of the fibers. PMID:22055328

Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2012-05-01

417

Ozonation of reactive dye, Procion red MX-5B catalyzed by metal ions.  

PubMed

Ozonation of aqueous solution of Procion red MX-5B, a commercial azo reactive dye was investigated. The effect of various experimental variables on decolorization and degradation of the dye has been studied. Color removal was faster than organic removal. Dye mineralization was evident by the generation of sulphate, chloride, nitrate, oxalic and acetic acid during ozonation. The decolorization and organic removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Among the metal ions studied, manganese catalyzed ozonation showed better decolorization and organic removal. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated the disappearance of bands for aromatics and appearance of bands due to carboxylic acids in the ozonated samples. Acetyl benzoic acid, diethyl phthalate and phthalic anhydride were identified as intermediates by gas chromatography mass spectra (GC/MS). Based on these findings a tentative pathway for the degradation MX-5B was postulated. PMID:19200652

Pachhade, K; Sandhya, S; Swaminathan, K

2009-08-15

418

Bursitis (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... information: Arthritis (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Elbow tendinopathy (tennis and golf elbow) (Beyond the Basics) Patient ... is a typical complaint. (See "Patient information: Elbow tendinopathy (tennis and golf elbow) (Beyond the Basics)" .) Treatment ...

419

Powder Dyeing Method for Cosmetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A powder dyeing method for cosmetics is described that is characterized in that dyes or pigments are dispersed in water or alcohol, the solution or dispersion is mixed with porous adsorbant such as silicon dioxide or alumina powder and dried, and the drie...

S. Iwao

1974-01-01

420

Dendrimers and dyes — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrimers are a class of macromolecules characterized by a highly branched structure of great regularity, a compact shape, a large number of (reactive) end groups, and room between the branches for taking up guest molecules. Dyes have been used to probe the structure of dendrimers; special combinations of dyes and dendrimers can be used to capture and transfer photon energy.

Peter E Froehling

2001-01-01

421

Decolorization Of Textile Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the use of ozone to decolorize textile dye solutions. The results describe the rates of reaction and the stoichiometry for the use of ozone to decolorize a simulated wastewater containing a bisazo acid dye (Acid Red 158). These rates of reaction are not sensitive to pH and are only mildly affected by temperature. The effects of

Julie Carričre; J. Peter Jones; Arthur D. Broadbent

1993-01-01

422

Optofluidic Distributed Feedback Dye Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review our recent work on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based optofluidic dye lasers using a guided wave distributed feedback (DFB) cavity. We show experimental results of single-mode operation, an integrated laser array, multiple color dye lasing, mechanical and fluidic tuning, and monolithic integration with microfluidic circuits. Potential applications and future directions are discussed

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2007-01-01

423

Decolorization of direct dyes by salt fractionated turnip proteins enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and redox mediators.  

PubMed

The present paper demonstrates the effect of salt fractionated turnip (Brassica rapa) proteins on the decolorization of direct dyes, used in textile industry, in the presence of various redox mediators. The rate and extent of decolorization of dyes was significantly enhanced by the presence of different types of redox mediators. Six out of 10 investigated compounds have shown their potential in enhancing the decolorization of direct dyes. The performance was evaluated at different concentrations of mediator and enzyme. The efficiency of each natural mediator depends on the type of dye treated. The decolorization of all tested direct dyes was maximum in the presence of 0.6mM redox mediator at pH 5.5 and 30 degrees C. Complex mixtures of dyes were also maximally decolorized in the presence of 0.6mM redox mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole/violuric acid). In order to examine the operational stability of the enzyme preparation, the enzyme was exploited for the decolorization of mixtures of dyes for different times in a stirred batch process. There was no further change in decolorization of an individual dye or their mixtures after 60 min; the enzyme caused more than 80% decolorization of all dyes in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole/violuric acid. However, there was no desirable increase in dye decolorization of the mixtures on overnight stay. Total organic carbon analysis of treated dyes or their mixtures showed that these results were quite comparable to the loss of color from solutions. However, the treatment of such polluted water in the presence of redox mediators caused the formation of insoluble precipitate, which could be removed by the process of centrifugation. The results suggested that catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions might be important for natural transformation pathways for dyes and indicate their potential use as an efficient means for removal of dyes color from waters and wastewaters. PMID:17524451

Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

2007-09-01

424

Comprehensive review and compilation of treatment for azo dyes using microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent an emerging technology that focuses on power generation and effluent treatment. This review compiles articles related to MFCs using azo dye as the substrate. The significance of the general components in MFCs and systems of MFCs treating azo dye is depicted in this review. In addition, degradation of azo dyes such as Congo red, methyl orange, active brilliant red X-3B, amaranth, reactive blue 221, and acid orange 7 in MFCs are summarized. Further exploration and operational modification are suggested to address the challenges of complete removal of azo dye with maximum power generation in an MFC. In addition, a sequential treatment system with MFCs is suggested for complete mineralization of azo dye. PMID:23581242

Murali, V; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Hamidin, Nasrul

2013-03-01

425

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E. D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.

1984-01-01

426

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.

1968-01-01

427

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.

1986-01-01

428

Application of Acid Treated Almond Peel for Removal and Recovery of Brilliant Green from Industrial Wastewater by Column Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treated almond peels (TAP) have been employed as adsorbents for the removal of Brilliant green dye from waste water. The nature of possible adsorbent and dye interaction was examined by the FTIR and SEM technique. The adsorption of BG was found to be maximum (93%) at pH 8. The extent of removal of BG was found to be dependent

Rais Ahmad; Pijush Kanti Mondal

2009-01-01

429

Effects of pH of Dyes on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dyes and synthesized dyes in which rear metal was not contained. Effects of pH of dyes on the characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells were also examined. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 2.5 was 0.10

Shoji Furukawa; Hiroshi Iino; Koudai Kukita; Kaoru Kaminosono

2010-01-01

430

Azoreductase and dye detoxification activities of Bacillus velezensis strain AB.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are known to be a very important and widely used class of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. Although lot of research has been carried out for their removal from industrial effluents, very little attention is given to changes in their toxicity and mutagenicity during the treatment processes. Present investigation describes isolation of a Bacillus velezensis culture capable of degrading azo dye Direct Red 28 (DR28). Azoreductase enzyme was isolated from it, and its molecular weight was found to be 60 kDa. The enzyme required NADH as cofactor and was oxygen-insensitive. Toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye during biodegradation was monitored by using a battery of carefully selected in vitro tests. The culture was found to degrade DR28 to benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl, both of which are potent mutagens. However, on longer incubation, both the compounds were degraded further, resulting in reduction in toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye. Thus, the culture seems to be a suitable candidate for further study for both decolourization and detoxification of azo dyes, resulting in their safe disposal. PMID:18034237

Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devi, Sivanesan Saravana

2008-01-01

431

Effect of nitrate on anaerobic azo dye reduction.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nitrate on anaerobic color removal efficiencies. For this aim, anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a simulated textile effluent including Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R azo dye was operated with a total cycle time of 12 h, including anaerobic (6 h) and aerobic cycles (6 h). Microorganism grown under anaerobic phase of the reactor was exposed to different amounts of competitive electron acceptor (nitrate) and performance of the system was determined by monitoring color removal efficiency, nitrate removal, nitrite formation and removal, oxidation reduction potential, color removal rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), specific anaerobic enzyme (azo reductase) and aerobic enzyme (catechol 1,2 dioxygenase), and formation and removal of aromatic amines. Variations of population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was found that nitrate has adverse effect on anaerobic color removal efficiency and color removal was achieved after denitrification process was completed. It was found that nitrate stimulates the COD removal efficiency and accelerates the COD removal in the first hour of anaerobic phase. About 90 % total COD removal efficiencies were achieved in which microorganism exposed to increasing amount of nitrate. Population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were changed and diversity was increased. PMID:22836282

Cirik, Kevser; Kiti?, Mehmet; Çinar, Özer

2013-01-01

432

Abatement of Azo Dye from Wastewater Using Bimetal-Chitosan  

PubMed Central

We introduce a new adsorbent, bimetallic chitosan particle (BCP) that is successfully synthesized and applied to remove the orange II dye from wastewater. The effects of pH, BCP quantity, and contact time are initially verified on the basis of the percentage of orange II removed from the wastewater. Experimental data reveal that the Cu/Mg bimetal and chitosan have a synergistic effect on the adsorption process of the adsorbate, where the dye adsorption by Cu/Mg bimetal, chitosan alone, and bimetal-chitosan is 10, 49, and 99.5%, respectively. The time required for the complete decolorization of orange II by 1?mg/L of BCP is 10?min. The Langmuir model is the best fit for the experimental data, which attains a maximum adsorption capacity of 384.6?mg/g. The consideration of the kinetic behavior indicates that the adsorption of orange II onto the BCP fits best with the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Further, the simulated azo dye wastewater can be effectively treated using a relatively low quantity of the adsorbent, 1?mg/L, within a short reaction time of 20?min. Overall, the use of BCP can be considered a promising method for eliminating the azo dye from wastewater effectively.

Asgari, Ghorban; Farjadfard, Sima

2013-01-01

433

AN ENZYMATIC METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF PHENOL FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenols in an aqueous solution were removed after treatment with peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Phenols occur in wastewater of a number of industries, such as high temperature coal conversion, petroleum refining, resin and plastic, wood and dye industries, etc. It can be toxic when present at elevated levels and is known to be carcinogeneous. Thus, removal of

Naresh Singh; Jai Singh

2002-01-01

434

Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis by adsorption.  

PubMed

The use of low-cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 7.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50 min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of malachite green followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 7 as 99.04% for adsorbent dose of 1 g 50 mL(-1) and 25 mg L(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from R. communis can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG. PMID:20303654

Santhi, T; Manonmani, S; Smitha, T

2010-07-15

435

Eco-friendly dyeing of wool using natural dye from weld as copartner with synthetic dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the last decade, the application of natural dyes on textile materials is gaining popularity all over the world, possibly because of increasing awareness of environment, ecology, and pollution control. In this research, extraction of dyes from weld using soxhlet apparatus has been studied. The color components extracted and isolated from weld plant were characterized by Column Chromatography, Thin Layer

Mohammad Mirjalili; Khosro Nazarpoor; Loghman Karimi

2011-01-01

436

Electroadsorption of acilan blau dye from textile effluents by using activated carbon-perlite mixtures.  

PubMed

The feasibility of the removal of dye stuffs from textile effluents by electroadsorption has been investigated. An activated carbon-perlite mixture with a ratio of 8:1 for bipolarity has been used as the adsorbent. Conventional adsorption experiments have also been conducted for comparison. A bipolar trickle reactor has been used in the electroadsorption experiments. The model wastewater has been prepared by using acilan blau dye. Initial dye concentration, bed height between the electrodes, applied potential, flowrate, and the supporting electrolyte concentration have been examined as the parameters affecting the removal efficiency. A local textile plant effluent has been treated in the optimum values of these parameters obtained from the experimental studies. Adsorption kinetics and the amount of adsorbent required to reach the maximum removal efficiency have also been investigated and mass-transfer coefficients have been calculated for adsorption and electroadsorption. The results showed that a removal efficiency of up to 100% can be achieved with energy consumption values of 1.58 kWh/m3 of wastewater treated. However, energy consumption decreases to 0.09 kWh/m3 if an exit dye concentration of 4.65 mg/L is accepted. It can be concluded from this work that this method combines all of the advantages of the activated-carbon adsorption and electrolytic methods for the removal of dyes from wastewater. PMID:12540091

Koparal, A S; Yavuz, Y; Bakir Ogütveren, U

2002-01-01

437

The Interaction of Acridine Dyes with the Densely Packed DNA of Bacteriophage  

PubMed Central

The interactions of acridine dyes with intact phage DNA differ from those with extracted DNA in the following respects. Strong binding (intercalation) is greatly reduced in intact phage but probably not eliminated. The cooperative, weak binding is stronger and the stacking tendency is increased. In gels of DNA the stacking tendency is seen to increase with decreasing hydration. These influences of the dense packing of DNA must be taken into account when using basic dyes to study chromosome structure.

Dusenbery, David B.; Uretz, Robert B.

1972-01-01

438

The interaction of acridine dyes with the densely packed DNA of bacteriophage.  

PubMed

The interactions of acridine dyes with intact phage DNA differ from those with extracted DNA in the following respects. Strong binding (intercalation) is greatly reduced in intact phage but probably not eliminated. The cooperative, weak binding is stronger and the stacking tendency is increased. In gels of DNA the stacking tendency is seen to increase with decreasing hydration. These influences of the dense packing of DNA must be taken into account when using basic dyes to study chromosome structure. PMID:5044579

Dusenbery, D B; Uretz, R B

1972-08-01

439

Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The ISC from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the VOC from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and Pmax from 58?W to 327?W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts.

Sancun Hao; Jihuai Wu; Yunfang Huang; Jianming Lin

2006-01-01

440

Facile and rapid synthesis of a dithiol-protected Ag7 quantum cluster for selective adsorption of cationic dyes.  

PubMed

We report a facile and rapid (less than 15 min) synthesis of atomically precise, dithiol-protected, silver quantum cluster, Ag7(DMSA)4 (DMSA: meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid), through a modified solid state route. The as-synthesized cluster exhibits molecular optical absorption features with a prominent ?max at ~500 nm. Composition of the cluster was confirmed using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). Clusters supported on neutral alumina have been shown as better adsorbents for selective adsorption of cationic dyes (over anionic dyes) from water. This selectivity for cationic dyes was evaluated by zeta potential (?) measurements. The efficiency of clusters for removal of dyes is very high when compared to nanoparticles (NPs) protected with ligands (citrate and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA)) possessing similar chemical structures as that of DMSA. The higher efficiency of clusters for the removal of dyes is attributed to their smaller size and large surface area compared to the NPs in addition to favorable electrostatic interactions between the clusters and cationic dyes. Adsorption of dyes (cationic and anionic) was enhanced when dye molecules contain hydrogen bond forming functional groups. Supported clusters have been reused up to five cycles without the loss of activity once the adsorbed dye is extracted using suitable solvents. PMID:23705791

Bootharaju, M S; Pradeep, T

2013-06-25

441

Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods. PMID:22864427

Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

2012-01-01

442

Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions using Eichhornia crassipes.  

PubMed

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using dried roots, stems, and leaves of Eichhornia crassipes biomass obtained from Lake Victoria was studied. Batch experimental results revealed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, E. crassipes particle size and aqueous solution temperature. The isotherm data fitted Freundlich mathematical models with maximum dye adsorption of 35.37 mg g(-1). Roots adsorbed over 99 % of the MB in <5 min. Sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. Results provide evidence that E. crassipes is an effective and inexpensive biomaterial for dye removal from aqueous dye solutions and industrial effluents. PMID:23839152

Wanyonyi, Wycliffe Chisutia; Onyari, John Mmari; Shiundu, Paul Mwanza

2013-09-01

443

Background-free, fast protein staining in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel using counterion dyes, zincon and ethyl violet.  

PubMed

A background-free, fast protein staining method in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using an acidic dye, zincon (ZC) and a basic dye, ethyl violet (EV) is described. It is based on the counterion dye staining technique that employs two oppositely charged dyes to form an ion-pair complex in staining solution. The selective binding of free dye molecules to proteins in acidic solution produces bluish violet-colored bands. It is a rapid and end-point staining procedure, involving only fixing and staining steps that are completed in 1-1.5 h. The detection limit of this method is 8-15 ng of protein that is comparable to the sensitivity of the colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue G (CBBG) stain. Due to its sensitivity and speed, this stain may be more practical than any other dye-based stains for routine laboratory purposes. PMID:12481259

Choi, Jung-Kap; Tak, Keong-Hoon; Jin, Li-Tai; Hwang, Sun-Young; Kwon, Tae-Ik; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo

2002-12-01

444

High-performance dye-sensitized solar cell with a multiple dye system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) using two dyes achieved high external quantum efficiency as sensitizers. We confirmed that terpyridine complex (black dye, Solaronix) and an indoline dye (D131, Mitsubishi Paper Mill) were adsorbed by the TiO2 electrode without either dye interfering with the electron transfer of the other dye to the electrode. The high performance of the new arrangement is made possible by the dissociation function of these two particular dyes. The multiple dye system achieved a power conversion efficiency of 11.0%. Moreover, the fabrication of the multiple dye system only mixed the two reagents in one pot.

Ogura, Reiko Yoneya; Nakane, Shigeru; Morooka, Masahiro; Orihashi, Masaki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Noda, Kazuhiro

2009-02-01

445

Methylene blue dye as an alternative to isosulfan blue dye for sentinel lymph node localization.  

PubMed

Isosulfan blue dye has been used with increasing frequency in localizing sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Few alternative types of dye have been investigated. In a prospective study of 30 patients, methylene blue dye was used instead of isosulfan blue dye to localize the sentinel lymph node. The methylene blue dye localization technique was successful in 90% of patients. These results are similar to those for isosulfan blue dye. This study describes methylene blue dye localization as a successful alternative to isosulfan dye in identifying the sentinel node in breast cancer patients. The methylene blue dye technique offers a substantial cost reduction. PMID:11469932

Simmons, R M; Smith, S M; Osborne, M P

2001-01-01

446

Removal of Azo Dye C.I. Acid Red 14 from Contaminated Water using Fenton, UV\\/H2O2, UV\\/H2O2\\/Fe(II), UV\\/H2O2\\/Fe(III) and UV\\/H2O2\\/Fe(III)\\/Oxalate Processes: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization of the solution containing a common textile and leather dye, C.I. Acid Red 14 (AR14), at pH 3 by hydrogen peroxide photolysis, Fenton, Fenton-like and photo-Fenton processes was studied. The dark and light reactions were carried out in stirred batch photoreactor equipped with an UV-C lamp (30 W) as UV light source. The experiments showed that the dye

N. DANESHVAR; A. R. KHATAEE

2006-01-01

447

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

Skotheim, Terje A. (Berkeley, CA)

1980-01-01

448

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

Skotheim, T.A.

1980-03-04

449

Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

450

Basicity and optical basicities of slags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various terms used to define basicity are outlined. The concept of optical basicity is discussed and its relationships with the following are discussed: elemental partition between slag and metal phases for example S, P, and O; solubility of oxides in the slag phase; thermodynamic properties; and structure and certain physical properties of the slag.

Mills, K. C.

1992-02-01

451

Removal of Rhodamine-B by biogas waste slurry from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of biogas waste slurry to adsorb a basic dye (Rhodamine-B) has been investigated. The parameters include agitation time, initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage. The rate controlling step is mainly intraparticle diffusion. The adsorption rate constant was found to be 2.9 × 10-2 min-1 at 20 mg L-1 initial dye concentration. The adsorption conforms with Freundlich isotherm.

C. Namasivayam; R. T. Yamuna

1992-01-01

452

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe.

2012-01-01

453

Multiwavelength dye laser  

SciTech Connect

The problems of collimating, synchronizing and combining a plurality of laser beams to generate a composite beam are substantially reduced by the use of one or more lasers especially adapted to lase in two or more separate wavelengths. Specifically , a composite beam generating system comprises at least one multiwavelength laser for emitting a multiwavelength beam having at least two separated wavelength components, one or more additional lasers for generating respective additional beams, and means for combining the multiwavelength beam with one or more additional beams. In a preferred embodiment, a four-component multiwavelength composite beam is generated by polarization combination of the outputs of a pair of orthogonally polarized two-component multiwavelength lasers. The preferred embodiment of a multiwavelength laser is a liquid dye laser having, as one of the reflecting means defining the resonant cavity, an optical reflector having a reflectivity versus wavelength characteristic