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1

High performance biosorbent ( Caulerpa lentillifera) for basic dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorptions of three basic dyes, Astrazon® Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon® Red GTLN (AR), and methylene blue (MB) onto green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera were investigated. The results were compared to the sorption performance of a commercial activated carbon (CARBON). The results revealed that the alga exhibited greater sorption capacities than activated carbon for the three basic dyes investigated in this

Khanidtha Marungrueng; Prasert Pavasant

2007-01-01

2

High performance biosorbent (Caulerpa lentillifera) for basic dye removal.  

PubMed

The sorptions of three basic dyes, Astrazon((R)) Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon((R)) Red GTLN (AR), and methylene blue (MB) onto green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera were investigated. The results were compared to the sorption performance of a commercial activated carbon (CARBON). The results revealed that the alga exhibited greater sorption capacities than activated carbon for the three basic dyes investigated in this work. The sorption process for all mixture systems (ALGA/AB, ALGA/AR, ALGA/MB, CARBON/AB, CARBON/AR, and CARBON/MB) obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. C. lentillifera could more rapidly sequester AR when compared with activated carbon, but was more slowly in the sorption of AB. For the sorption of MB, both ALGA and CARBON seemed to have the same sorption rate. The sorption processes were initially controlled by both film and pore-diffusion, and only were limited by pore diffusion in the later stage. The isotherms followed Langmuir model which suggested that the sorption was monolayer coverage. PMID:16920355

Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

2007-05-01

3

Removal of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) using macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera.  

PubMed

The macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have adsorption capacity for a basic dye, Astrazon Blue FGRL. For the whole range of concentrations employed in this work (20-1280 mgl(-1)), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model where the rate constants decreased as initial dye concentrations increased. At low dye concentrations (20-80 mgl(-1)), an increase in the adsorbent dosage resulted in a higher removal percentage of the dye, but a lower amount of dye adsorbed per unit mass (q). The adsorption isotherm followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich models within the temperature range employed in this work (18-70 degrees C). The highest maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) was obtained at 50 degrees C. The enthalpy of adsorption was estimated at 14.87 kJmol(-1) suggesting a chemical adsorption mechanism. PMID:16112338

Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

2006-02-01

4

Removal of basic dye from aqueous solution using tree fern as a biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A batch sorption system using tree fern as biosorbent was investigated to remove Basic Red 13 from aqueous solutions. The system variables studied include sorbent particle size and temperature and results revealed the potential of tree fern, an agriculture product, as a low-cost sorbent. The Langmuir isotherm was found to represent the measured sorption data well. The dye sorption capacity

Yuh-Shan Hoa; Tzu-Hsuan Chiang; Yu-Mei Hsueh

2005-01-01

5

Removal of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) using macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have adsorption capacity for a basic dye, Astrazon Blue FGRL. For the whole range of concentrations employed in this work (20–1280mgl?1), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model where the rate constants decreased as initial dye concentrations increased. At low dye

Khanidtha Marungrueng; Prasert Pavasant

2006-01-01

6

Characterisation and environmental application of an Australian natural zeolite for basic dye removal from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Australian natural zeolite was collected, characterised and employed for basic dye adsorption in aqueous solution. The natural zeolite is mainly composed of clinoptiloite, quartz and mordenite and has cation-exchange capacity of 120meq\\/100g. The natural zeolite presents higher adsorption capacity for methylene blue than rhodamine B with the maximal adsorption capacity of 2.8×10?5 and 7.9×10?5mol\\/g at 50°C for rhodamine B

Shaobin Wang; Z. H. Zhu

2006-01-01

7

Electrochemically enhanced removal of polycyclic aromatic basic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon cloth electrodes.  

PubMed

Open-circuit (OC) adsorption and electrosorption behaviors of three polycyclic aromatic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon cloth (ACC) were investigated. The selected dyes were crystal violet (BB-3), basic blue7 (BB-7), and basic blue11 (BB-11). OC adsorption and electrosorption processes were monitored by in situ UV-visible spectrophotometry. Electrosorption was carried out by polarization of an ACC electrode, galvanostatically. Considerable enhancements in removal capacity and duration of the dyes were achieved upon polarization of ACC. Kinetic data for OC adsorption and electrosorption were successfully treated according to pseudo-first-order law, and rate constants were determined. Adsorption isotherms were derived, and the data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Both the rate and extent of adsorption and electrosorption of dyes were found to increase in the order of BB-7 < BB-11 < BB-3. This order was discussed in terms of correlation between sizes of dye species and of ACC pores. Electrodesorption experiments were carried out to explore possibilities of regeneration of ACC. PMID:20704233

Bayram, Edip; Ayranci, Erol

2010-08-15

8

Removal of methylene blue, a basic dye, from aqueous solutions using nano-zerovalent iron.  

PubMed

In this research, the preparation of nanoparticles of Fe(0) (nano-zerovalent iron, NZVI) as adsorbent is discussed and the capability of adsorbing methylene blue (MB) is studied. The morphology of the adsorbent was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Batch studies were performed to delineate the influence of various experimental parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time. Optimum conditions for MB removal were found to be pH 9.5, adsorbent dosage of 0.5 g L(-1) and equilibrium time of 1 min. The experimental equilibrium data were adjusted by the adsorption isotherms from Langmuir and Freundlich models, and their equilibrium parameters were determined. The adsorption of MB dye by NZVI obeyed both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption capacity of NZVI for MB in terms of monolayer adsorption was 208.33 mg g(-1). PMID:25026575

Arabi, Simin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza

2014-01-01

9

Characterisation and environmental application of an Australian natural zeolite for basic dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

An Australian natural zeolite was collected, characterised and employed for basic dye adsorption in aqueous solution. The natural zeolite is mainly composed of clinoptiloite, quartz and mordenite and has cation-exchange capacity of 120 meq/100g. The natural zeolite presents higher adsorption capacity for methylene blue than rhodamine B with the maximal adsorption capacity of 2.8 x 10(-5) and 7.9 x 10(-5)mol/g at 50 degrees C for rhodamine B and methylene blue, respectively. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption followed the pseudo second-order kinetics and could be described as two-stage diffusion process. The adsorption isotherm could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the adsorption is endothermic process with Delta H(0) at 2.0 and 8.7 kJ/mol for rhodamine B and methylene blue. It has also found that the regenerated zeolites by high-temperature calcination and Fenton oxidation showed similar adsorption capacity but lower than the fresh sample. Only 60% capacity could be recovered by the two regeneration techniques. PMID:16504394

Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Z H

2006-08-25

10

Removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions with a treated spent bleaching earth.  

PubMed

A spent bleaching earth from an edible oil refinery was treated by impregnation with a normal sodium hydroxide solution followed by mild thermal treatment (100 degrees C). The obtained material (TSBE) was washed, dried, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, BET, and thermal analysis. The clay structure was not apparently affected by the treatment and the impregnated organic matter was quantitatively removed. We have investigated the comparative sorption of safranine and methylene blue on this material, the spent bleaching earth (SBE), and the virgin bleaching earth (VBE). The kinetic results fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion model. The pH had no effect on the sorption efficiency. The sorption isotherms followed the Langmuir model for various sorbent concentrations with good values of the determination coefficient. A linear relationship was found between the calculated maximum removal capacity and the solid/solution ratio. A comparison between the results obtained with this material and those of the literature highlighted the low cost and the good removal capacity of treated spent bleaching earth. PMID:17174964

Mana, Mohamed; Ouali, Mohand-Said; de Menorval, L C

2007-03-01

11

Removal of a low-molecular basic dye (Azure Blue) from aqueous solutions by a native biomass of a newly isolated Cladosporium sp.: Kinetics, equilibrium and biosorption simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosorption of Azure Blue from aqueous solution was investigated for the first time using a new isolated Cladosporium Ch2-2. The biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters, such as initial dye concentration, pH, biosorbent dosage and different cations. High dye removal yield was achieved at pH 8, which was consistent with the pH of most of the wastewater.

Hua Fan; Jin Shui Yang; Tong Guo Gao; Hong Li Yuan

12

Dye removal by surfactant encapsulated polyoxometalates.  

PubMed

A novel surfactant encapsulated polyoxometalate (SEP) has been synthesized by using a simple ion-exchange reaction. The prepared SEP complex was found to self-assemble into nanospherical particles whose morphology and component were characterized by TEM and XPS. The SEP was further incorporated into polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) to fabricate SEP incorporated composite membrane (SEP-M). Both the SEP and SEP-M exhibited excellent dye removal activities, which is for the first time reported as an intriguing property of the SEP. A regeneration scheme for SEP-M was successfully proposed without any loss of dye removal efficiency. Detailed mechanism studies were carried out to elucidate the nature of dye decolorization. Ion exchange was revealed to play a dominant role in the dye removal process. The current research not only renders a new example for the simple and direct synthesis of SEP but more importantly provides an efficient dye removal methodology. PMID:25194560

Yao, Lei; Lua, Shun Kuang; Zhang, Lizhi; Wang, Rong; Dong, ZhiLi

2014-09-15

13

Removal of anionic reactive dyes from water using anion exchange membranes as adsorbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercial anion exchange membranes, strong basic (SB6407) and weak basic (DE81), were evaluated for the removal of anionic reactive dyes, Cibacron blue 3GA (three sulfonic acid groups per dye molecule) and Cibacron red 3BA (four sulfonic acid groups per dye molecule), from water in this study. The adsorption isotherm results show that the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Cibacron

Chia-Hung Liu; Jeng-Shiou Wu; Hsin-Chieh Chiu; Shing-Yi Suen; Khim Hoong Chu

2007-01-01

14

Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride, as compared to alum and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is a less commonly used coagulant in the field of wastewater treatment, with a cost in between alum and PAC. It has been used in this study as a coagulant to investigate the effectiveness in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of colouring matters. The colour concentration of dye

Boon Hai Tan; Tjoon Tow Teng; A. K. Mohd Omar

2000-01-01

15

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia Linn.).  

PubMed

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of the dye solution had little effect on removal of basic dyes, and efficiencies ranged from 97% to 99% over the range of pH used. Over a wide range of pH levels, all types of treated cattail powder had negative charges and probably attracted the basic dyes possessing positive charges. Efficiency of removal by the three NLC treatments ranged from 37% to 42% for direct dyes and from 22% to 54% for direct dyes at pH 7. The pH of the dye solution had substantial effects on the efficiency of removal in direct and reactive dyes. Dye removal was highest at pH 3, with 99% for a direct dye (Sirius Red Violet RL) and 96% for a reactive dye (Basilen Red M-5B). There was mutual attraction between negatively charged direct dye molecules and positively charged molecules on the surface of the FH-treated cattail. In tests of desorption of dyes from cattail in distilled water, the desorption percentage for FH-NLC after adsorbing basic, direct and reactive dyes was 6%, 10% and 35%, respectively, which indicated a chemisorption mechanism for basic and direct dyes and some physiosorption for reactive dyes. PMID:15182837

Inthorn, Duangrat; Singhtho, Siritham; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

2004-09-01

16

Adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto pumice powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of methylene blue and crystal violet on pumice powder samples of varying compositions was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, and contact time, were also investigated. The extent of dye removal increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with increased contact

Feryal Akbal

2005-01-01

17

Isotherm, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic of Cationic Dye Removal from Binary System by Feldspar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic of cationic dye removal onto inorganic adsorbent (Feldspar) were investigated in single and binary systems. Basic Red 18 (BR18) and Basic Blue 41 (BB41) were used as cationic dyes. The characterization of the Feldspar was carried out using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron

Maryam Yazdani; Niyaz Mohammad Mahmoodi; Mokhtar Arami; Hajir Bahrami

2012-01-01

18

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

19

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, M.L.

2000-07-25

20

Effects of sodium content on the microstructures and basic dye cation exchange of titanate nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of titanate nanotubes (TNT) to remove basic dye (Basic Violet 3, BV3) from aqueous solution through a cation exchange mechanism was investigated. TNT was prepared via a hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 powders in a 10M NaOH solution at 150°C for 24h, and subsequently washed with HCl aqueous solution of different concentrations. Effects of the remnant sodium contents on

Chung-Kung Lee; Cheng-Cai Wang; Lain-Chuen Juang; Meng-Du Lyu; Shui-Hung Hung; Shin-Shou Liu

2008-01-01

21

Verifying Removal Of Red Penetrant Dye From Inspected Welds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clean surface assured for more sensitive inspection with fluorescent penetrant dye. Simple procedure devised to ensure visible (red) penetrant dye used to identify flaws in welded surface completely removed from surface. Consists in applying reversible penetrant developer to surface to be inspected.

Torkelson, Jan R.

1996-01-01

22

Color removal from dye-containing wastewater by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color removal by MgCl2 when treating synthetic waste containing pure dyes was studied. The color removal efficiency of MgCl2\\/Ca(OH)2 was compared with that of Al2(SO4)3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and FeSO4\\/Ca(OH)2. The mechanism of color removal by MgCl2 was also investigated. The experimental results show that the color removal efficiency of MgCl2 is related to the type of dye and depends

Bao-Yu Gao; Qin-Yan Yue; Yan Wang; Wei-Zhi Zhou

2007-01-01

23

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using microspherical particles of fly ash.  

PubMed

Batch sorption experiments were carried out for the removal of cationic dyes (methylene blue and malachite green) from their aqueous solutions using sorbent made from fly ash-a waste material. Effects of various experimental parameters: initial dye concentration, contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, solution temperature, surfactant addition and ionic strength on the fly ash sorption of dyes were evaluated. The isothermal data for sorption followed the Langmuir model. The maximum sorption capacity obtained for methylene blue and malachite green was 36.05 mg/g and 40.65 mg/g, respectively. Kinetic studies indicate that sorption on fly ash follows the pseudo-second order kinetics. Present research suggests that fly ash could be an appropriate adsorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:22515067

Witek-Krowiak, Anna; Szafran, Roman G; Modelski, Szymon; Dawiec, Anna

2012-02-01

24

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail ( Typha angustifolia Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of

Duangrat Inthorn; Siritham Singhtho; Paitip Thiravetyan; Eakalak Khan

2004-01-01

25

Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle  

PubMed Central

The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. PMID:24991427

2014-01-01

26

Optimization of biosorptive removal of dye from aqueous system by cone shell of Calabrian pine.  

PubMed

The biosorption performance of raw cone shell of Calabrian pine for C.I. Basic Red 46 as a model azo dye from aqueous system was optimized using Taguchi experimental design methodology. L9 (3(3)) orthogonal array was used to optimize the dye biosorption by the pine cone shell. The selected factors and their levels were biosorbent particle size, dye concentration, and contact time. The predicted dye biosorption capacity for the pine cone shell from Taguchi design was obtained as 71.770 mg g(-1) under optimized biosorption conditions. This experimental design provided reasonable predictive performance of dye biosorption by the biosorbent (R (2): 0.9961). Langmuir model fitted better to the biosorption equilibrium data than Freundlich model. This displayed the monolayer coverage of dye molecules on the biosorbent surface. Dubinin-Radushkevich model and the standard Gibbs free energy change proposed physical biosorption for predominant mechanism. The logistic function presented the best fit to the data of biosorption kinetics. The kinetic parameters reflecting biosorption performance were also evaluated. The optimization study revealed that the pine cone shell can be an effective and economically feasible biosorbent for the removal of dye. PMID:25405213

Deniz, Fatih

2014-01-01

27

Sonochemical degradation of Basic Blue 41 dye assisted by nanoTiO2 and H2O2.  

PubMed

The sonolysis of Basic Blue 41 dye in aqueous solution was performed at 35 kHz using ultrasonic power of 160 W and aqueous temperature of 25+1 degrees C within 180 min. The TiO2 nanoparticles were used as a catalyst to assist the sonication process. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, H2O2 concentration and initial dye concentration on the reaction were investigated. It was recognized that in lower pH values the dye removal rate decreased. However, dye removal increased via increase in H2O2 concentration and lowering the initial dye concentration. All intermediate compounds were detected by integrated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and also ion chromatograph (IC). During the decolorization, all nitrogen atoms and aromatic groups of Basic Blue 41 were converted to urea, nitrate, formic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid, etc. Kinetic studies revealed that the degradation process followed pseudo-first order mechanism with the correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9918 under experimental conditions. The results showed that power ultrasound can be regarded as an appropriate tool for degradation of azo dyes to non-toxic end products. PMID:17950996

Abbasi, Mahmood; Asl, Nima Razzaghi

2008-05-30

28

Sea shell powder as a new adsorbent to remove Basic Green 4 (Malachite Green) from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the feasibility of employing sea shell powder to remove Basic Green 4 (BG 4), a cationic dye from its aqueous solutions was investigated. Parameters that influence the adsorption process such as particle size, pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were studied in batch experiments. Optimum adsorption of Basic Green 4 took place at

Shamik Chowdhury; Papita Saha

2010-01-01

29

Application of dithiocarbamate-modified starch for dyes removal from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The present study shows that the dithiocarbamate-modified starch (DTCS) is a commercially promising sorbent for the removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. It is more effective than activated carbon for this purpose. At the appropriate solution pH of 4, kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of the dyes tends to follow pseudo-first-order equation. The sorption equilibrium is best described by the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model at 298 K. The capacities for individual dyes follow the sequence acid orange 7 > acid orange 10 > acid red 18 > acid black 1 > acid green 25, which is consistent with the inverse order of molecular size. The negative enthalpy change for the adsorption process confirms the exothermic nature of adsorption, and a free energy change confirms the spontaneity of the process. The FT-IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses verify the sorption based on starch-NH(2)(+)CSSH?(-)O(3)S-dye electrostatic attraction. The DTCS can be regenerated from the dye loaded DTCS in a weak basic solution containing sodium sulfate. PMID:21324584

Cheng, Rumei; Xiang, Bo; Li, Yijiu; Zhang, Mingzhen

2011-04-15

30

Biosorption of cationic basic dye and cadmium by the novel biosorbent Bacillus catenulatus JB-022 strain.  

PubMed

Biosorption of heavy metals and dyes is a promising technology that involves the removal of toxic metals from industrial wastes. The present study aims to screen the bacterial strains isolated from soils and polluted pond for their potential biosorption of both cationic dye and cadmium. Bacillus catenulatus JB-022 strain removed 58% and 66% of cationic basic blue 3 (BB3) and cadmium (Cd(II)) at the respective concentrations of 2000 mg/L and 150 mg/L. The biosorption equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption followed the pseudo-second-order model. The biosorption kinetics showed that the equilibrium was reached within 10 min and 5 min for BB3 and Cd(II), respectively. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum uptakes of BB3 and Cd(II) by the JB-022 biomass were estimated to be 139.74 and 64.28 mg/g, respectively. To confirm the surface morphology and functional groups, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out, and the results revealed that the biomass of JB-022 has carboxyl and phosphonate groups as potential surface functional groups capable of binding to cationic pollutants. In conclusion, B. catenulatus JB-022 is proposed as an excellent biosorbent with potentially important applications in removal of cationic pollutants from wastewaters. PMID:25454694

Kim, Su Young; Jin, Mi Ra; Chung, Chang Ho; Yun, Yeoung-Sang; Jahng, Kwang Yeop; Yu, Kang-Yeol

2014-10-29

31

Physical removal of textile dyes from effluents and solid-state fermentation of dye-adsorbed agricultural residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three agricultural residues, wheat straw, wood chips and corn-cob shreds were tested for their ability to adsorb individual dyes and dye mixtures in solutions. Up to 70–75% colour removal was achieved from 500 ppm dye solutions at room temperature using corn-cob shreds and wheat straw. Increasing the temperature had little effect on the adsorption capacity of the residues. The resulting

P Nigam; G Armour; I. M Banat; D Singh; R Marchant

2000-01-01

32

Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those that are not easily biodegradable. Dyes represent one of the problematic groups. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred sorbent for color removal, its

Grégorio Crini

2006-01-01

33

Utilization of powdered peanut hull as biosorbent for removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An untried, low cost, locally available biosorbent was investigated for its anionic dye removal capacity from aqueous solution. Powder prepared from peanut hull was used for biosorption of three anionic dyes, amaranth (Am), sunset yellow (SY) and fast green FCF (FG). The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g. initial pH and dye concentration, sorbent dosage, particle size, ion strength, contact

Renmin Gong; Yi Ding; Mei Li; Chao Yang; Huijun Liu; Yingzhi Sun

2005-01-01

34

AUTOMATIC EXCHANGE RESIN PILOT PLANT FOR REMOVAL OF TEXTILE DYE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of the use of adsorption resins to remove colored dyes from textile dyeing wastewaters, using an automated benchscale pilot unit. This could make possible the reuse of the treated wastewaters in subsequent dyeing operations. The scale ...

35

Discovery and structural elucidation of the illegal azo dye Basic Red 46 in sumac spice.  

PubMed

An unknown red dye was discovered in a sumac spice sample during routine analysis for Sudan dyes. LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS did not reveal the identity of the red substance. Nevertheless, using LC-high-resolution MS and isotope ratio comparisons the structure was identified as Basic Red 46. The identity of the dye was further confirmed by comparison with a commercial hair-staining product and two textile dye formulations containing Basic Red 46. Analogous to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is an azo dye. However, some of the sample clean-up methodology utilised for the analysis of Sudan dyes in food prevents its successful detection. In contrast to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is a cation. Its cationic properties make it bind strongly to gel permeation columns and silica solid-phase extraction cartridges and prevent elution with standard eluents. This is the first report of Basic Red 46 in food. The structure elucidation of this compound as well as the disadvantages of analytical methods focusing on a narrow group of targeted analytes are discussed. PMID:22455543

Ruf, J; Walter, P; Kandler, H; Kaufmann, A

2012-01-01

36

MODIFICATION OF MUTAGENESIS INITIATED BY ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT THROUGH POSTTREATMENT OF BACTERIA WITH BASIC DYES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttreatment with basic dyes, in concentrations that retard cell ; division, was found to influence the tnduction of mutations to prototrophy by UV ; light in a tyrosine-requirtng strain of E. Coli. Pyronin, which is unique among ; the dyes in tts selective affinity for RNA, was found to duplicate the effects of ; chloramphenicol or amino acfd deprtvatfon in

Evelyn M. Witkin

1961-01-01

37

Adsorption of basic dyes on granular acivated carbon and natural zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon and natural zeolite has been studied using an agitated batch adsorber. The influence of agitation, initial dye concentration and adsorbent mass has been studied. The parameters of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms have been determined using the adsorption data. Homogeneous diffusion model (solid diffusion) combined with external mass

V Meshko; L Markovska; M Mincheva; A. E Rodrigues

2001-01-01

38

Removal of Alizarin Violet 3R (anthraquinonic dye) from aqueous solutions by natural coagulants.  

PubMed

In this paper the ability of two natural products in removing dyes has been tested. After a preliminary screening for dye removal capacity, a tannin-based coagulant called ACQUAPOL C-1 and a vegetal protein extract derived from Moringa oleifera seed have been fully studied. The influence of several parameters such as pH, temperature or initial dye concentration (IDC) have been tested and the behavior of both coagulants has been compared. pH results to be an interesting variable and dye removal decreases as pH increases. This effect is higher in ACQUAPOL C-1 than in M. oleifera seed extract. Temperature seems not to be so affecting parameter, while IDC appears to be a very important variable in q(c) capacity, which is higher as IDC increases. Langmuir isotherm model fits very well in both cases of ACQUAPOL C-1 and M. oleifera seed extract dye removal. PMID:19481341

Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J; Delgado-Regalado, A; Jurado-Bustos, C

2009-10-15

39

Hydrothermal conversion of urban food waste to chars for removal of textile dyes from contaminated waters.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal carbonization of urban food waste was carried out to prepare hydrochars for removal of Acridine Orange and Rhodamine 6G dyes from contaminated water. The chemical composition and microstructure properties of the synthesized hydrochars were investigated in details. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that hydrochars with lower degree of carbonization were more efficient in adsorption of dyes. Operational parameters such as pH and temperature had a strong influence on the dye uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations suggested that dye adsorption onto hydrochars was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of dye removal appears to be associated with physisorption. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling was further carried out to predict the dye adsorption capacity of the hydrochars. PMID:24727353

Parshetti, Ganesh K; Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2014-06-01

40

Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

2013-12-01

41

Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: a review.  

PubMed

In this review article the authors presented up to-date development on the application of adsorption in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. This review article provides extensive literature information about dyes, its classification and toxicity, various treatment methods, and dye adsorption characteristics by various adsorbents. One of the objectives of this review article is to organise the scattered available information on various aspects on a wide range of potentially effective adsorbents in the removal of dyes. Therefore, an extensive list of various adsorbents such as natural materials, waste materials from industry, agricultural by-products, and biomass based activated carbon in the removal of various dyes has been compiled here. Dye bearing waste treatment by adsorption using low cost alternative adsorbent is a demanding area as it has double benefits i.e. water treatment and waste management. Further, activated carbon from biomass has the advantage of offering an effected low cost replacement for non-renewable coal based granular activated carbon provided that they have similar or better adsorption on efficiency. The effectiveness of various adsorbents under different physico-chemical process parameters and their comparative adsorption capacity towards dye adsorption has also been presented. This review paper also includes the affective adsorption factors of dye such as solution pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The applicability of various adsorption kinetic models and isotherm models for dye removal by wide range of adsorbents is also reported here. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed and few suggestions for future research are proposed. PMID:24780401

Yagub, Mustafa T; Sen, Tushar Kanti; Afroze, Sharmeen; Ang, H M

2014-07-01

42

REMOVAL OF AZO DYES BY THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research & Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research designed to develop techniques for predicting the fate of azo dyes in typical wastewater treatment systems which are treating wastewater ...

43

Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads for removing dye from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate beads were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate gels to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite beads could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite beads was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite beads effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly. PMID:24945580

Yang, Chih-Hui; Shih, Ming-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Chen; Huang, Keng-Shiang

2014-01-01

44

Removal of C.I. Basic Green 4 (Malachite Green) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using cyclodextrin-based adsorbent: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch sorption experiments were carried out for the removal of C.I. Basic Green 4 (Malachite Green), a cationic dye from its aqueous solution using cyclodextrin-based material (CD\\/CMC material) as adsorbent. The operating variables studied were adsorbent mass, particle size, agitation speed, solution pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. Adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity was dependent of operating

Grégorio Crini; Harmel Ndongo Peindy; Frédéric Gimbert; Capucine Robert

2007-01-01

45

Assessment on the Removal of Methylene Blue Dye using Tamarind Fruit Shell as Biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarind fruit shell was used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The various\\u000a factors affecting adsorption, such as agitation, pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature, were investigated.\\u000a The dye adsorption capacity was strongly dependent on solution pH as well as temperature. The Langmuir isotherm model showed\\u000a good fit to the equilibrium

Papita Saha

2010-01-01

46

Application of dithiocarbamate-modified starch for dyes removal from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study shows that the dithiocarbamate-modified starch (DTCS) is a commercially promising sorbent for the removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. It is more effective than activated carbon for this purpose. At the appropriate solution pH of 4, kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of the dyes tends to follow pseudo-first-order equation. The sorption equilibrium is best described

Rumei Cheng; Bo Xiang; Yijiu Li; Mingzhen Zhang

2011-01-01

47

Optimisation of ozone treatment for colour and COD removal of acid dye effluent using central composite design experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central composite design experiment is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for acid dye effluents and to optimise the variables such as salt concentration, pH and time, which influence the efficiency of colour and COD removal of dye effluents. Acid Red 88 dye is used for this study and the salt additive sodium sulphate is varied between 5

M. Muthukumar; D. Sargunamani; N. Selvakumar; J. Venkata Rao

2004-01-01

48

Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.  

PubMed

The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water. PMID:16406295

Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

2006-07-31

49

Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ? Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ? Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ? Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ? AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: nm_mahmoodi@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farhood [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15

50

Nonlinear absorption and photoluminescence emission in nanocomposite films of Fuchsine Basic dye–polymer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuchsine Basic dye–polyvinyl alcohol composite films were fabricated and their structure, nonlinear absorption as well as linear absorption and photoluminescence properties were investigated. Switchover from saturable absorption to two-photon assisted excited state absorption with increase in intensity was observed in the open aperture Z-scan study (Nd:YAG, 532nm, 7ns). The effective two-photon absorption coefficient ? was found to be several orders

G. Sreekumar; P. G. Louie Frobel; S. Sreeja; S. R. Suresh; S. Mayadevi; C. I. Muneera; C. S. Suchand Sandeep; Reji Philip; Chandrachur Mukharjee

2011-01-01

51

Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic (“acid”) and cationic (“basic”) dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into “acid” and “basicdyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions

H. Puchtler; S. N. Meloan; M. Spencer

1985-01-01

52

Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-08-01

53

Magnetic fluid modified peanut husks as an adsorbent for organic dyes removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetically responsive nanocomposite materials, prepared by modification of diamagnetic materials by magnetic fluids (ferrofluids), have already found many important applications in various areas of biosciences, medicine, biotechnology, environmental technology etc. Ferrofluid modified biological waste (peanut husks) has been successfully used for the separation and removal of water soluble organic dyes and thus this low cost adsorbent could be potentially used for waste water treatment.

Safarik, Ivo; Safarikova, Mirka

54

Removal of Anionic Dyes from Water using Citrus limonum (Lemon) Peel: Equilibrium Studies and Kinetic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Citrus limonum (lemon) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of two anionic dyes, Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration, and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacities of lemon peel adsorbent for

Amit Bhatnagar; Eva Kumar; A. K. Minocha; Byong-Hun Jeon; Hocheol Song; Yong-Chan Seo

2009-01-01

55

Adsorptive Removal of Congo Red Dye Using Ultrasonically Pretreated Strychnos potatorum Seed Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study highlights the removal of Congo red from its aqueous solution using Strychnos potatorum seed powder (SPSP), an Indian seed, used from ancient times for the treatment of turbid water. Surface activation of the adsorbent was carried out using ultra sonication techniques. Comparative studies on the uptake of the dye by both unsonicated and sonicated adsorbents were carried out.

Athinthra Krishnaswamy Sethurajan; Ashwin Ravichandran; Saravana Rajakumar Thangamani; Karuppan Muthukumar

2011-01-01

56

Removal of chlorophenols from aquatic systems with dye-affinity microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cibacron Blue F3GA carrying pHEMA microbeads were investigated as dye-affinity sorbents for removal of chlorophenols (i.e. phenol, m-chlorophenol, p-chlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). PHEMA microbeads were prepared by modified suspension polymerization of HEMA in the presence of an initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile). These microbeads, with a swelling ratio of 55% and carrying 16.5 ?mol Cibacron Blue F3GA\\/g polymer, were then used in the removal

Adil Denizli; Güleren Özkan; Mustafa Uçar

2001-01-01

57

Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic ("acid") and cationic ("basic") dyes.  

PubMed

In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into "acid" and "basic" dyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions between acids and bases result in formation of new acid-base pairs. Lewis acids and bases do not depend on a particular element, but are characterized by their electronic configurations. Lewis bases are electron donors; Lewis acids are electron acceptors. This classification is also unrelated to the electric charge. Lewis acids and bases interact by formation of coordinate covalent bonds. In histochemistry and histology, dyes containing -SO3-, -COO- and/or -O- groups are classified as "acid" dyes. However, such compounds are electron pair donors and hence Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis anionic bases. Dyes carrying a positive charge are termed "basic" dyes. Chemically, many cationic dyes are Lewis acids because they can add a base, e.g. OH-, acetate, halides. The hypothesis that transformation of -NH2 into ammonium groups imparts "basic" properties to dyes is untenable; ammonium groups are proton donors and hence acids. Furthermore, conversion of an amino into an ammonium group blocks a lone electron pair and the color of the dye changes drastically, e.g. from violet to green and yellow. It appears therefore highly unlikely that ammonium groups are responsible for binding of cationic ("basic") dyes. In histochemistry, it is usually not of critical importance whether anionic or cationic dyes are chemically acids or bases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2409057

Puchtler, H; Meloan, S N; Spencer, M

1985-01-01

58

Nanotubular Halloysite Clay as Efficient Water Filtration System for Removal of Cationic and Anionic Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halloysite nanotubes, chemically similar to kaolinite, are formed by rolling of kaolinite layers in tubes with diameter of 50 nm and length of ca. 1 ?m. Halloysite has negative SiO2 outermost and positive Al2O3 inner lumen surface, which enables it to be used as potential absorbent for both cationic and anionic dyes due to the efficient bivalent adsorbancy. An adsorption study using cationic Rhodamine 6G and anionic Chrome azurol S has shown approximately two times better dye removal for halloysite as compared to kaolinite. Halloysite filters have been effectively regenerated up to 50 times by burning the adsorbed dyes. Overall removal efficiency of anionic Chrome azurol S exceeded 99.9% for 5th regeneration cycle of halloysite. Chrome azurol S adsorption capacity decreases with the increase of ionic strength, temperature and pH. For cationic Rhodamine 6G, higher ionic strength, temperature and initial solution concentration were favorable to enhanced adsorption with optimal pH 8. These results indicate a potential to utilize halloysite for the removal of ionic dyes from environmental waters.

Zhao, Yafei; Abdullayev, Elshad; Lvov, Yuri

2014-08-01

59

Batch and bulk removal of hazardous dye, indigo carmine from wastewater through adsorption.  

PubMed

An inexpensive adsorption method has been developed for the removal of indigo carmine, a highly toxic indigoid class of dye from wastewater. Waste materials--bottom ash, a power plant waste and de-oiled soya, an agricultural waste--have been used as adsorbents. Attempts have been made through batch and bulk removal of the dye and both the adsorbents have been found to exhibit good efficiency to adsorb indigo carmine. Under batch technique effect of temperature, pH, concentration, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc. have been observed. The dye uptake on to both the adsorbents is found to validate Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models. Different thermodynamic parameters, like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the on-going adsorption process have also been evaluated. Batch technique has also been employed for the kinetic measurements and the adsorption follows a first order rate kinetics for both the adsorbents. The kinetic investigations also reveal for both the adsorbents film diffusion and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative in the lower and higher concentration ranges, respectively. Under the bulk removal, indigo carmine has been adsorbed through the column beds of bottom ash and de-oiled soya and more than 90% of the dye material has been recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted columns. PMID:16687210

Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

2006-09-01

60

Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].  

PubMed

Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (?) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. PMID:24491599

Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

2014-11-01

61

Adsorptive removal of congo red dye from aqueous solution using bael shell carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential use of bael shell carbon (BSC) as an adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The effect of various operational parameters such as contact time, temperature, pH, and dye concentration were studied. The adsorption kinetics was modeled by first-order reversible kinetics, pseudo-first-order kinetics, and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The dye uptake process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic expression at pH 5.7, 7 and 8 whereas the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was fitted well at pH 9. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models were applied to fit adsorption equilibrium data. The best-fitted data was obtained with the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of CR onto BSC was endothermic in nature and favorable with the positive ? H° value of 13.613 kJ/mol.

Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Rajeev

2010-12-01

62

Equilibrium and kinetics of color removal from dye solutions with bentonite and polyaluminum hydroxide.  

PubMed

Wastewater from the textile industry contains soluble dyes that are toxic and particularly difficult to remove. A promising low-cost treatment, however, is use of polyaluminum hydroxide associated with bentonite. At suitable conditions, this process is able to efficiently remove color from solutions containing mixtures of soluble acid azo dyes and produce easily settleable sludge. The removal mechanism, which is believed to involve adsorption or precipitation and weak pH variations, is not well understood. With the overall reaction being second order, two elementary first-order reactions could be assumed. The equilibrium removal is a decreasing function of the temperature. However, this effect is weak and decreases when the dye concentration increases. At usual values of concentration in textile wastewater, this effect can be neglected. The resulting solid compound is particularly resistant to mechanical stress. Moreover, color was significantly released at pH greater than 8. Sodium ions have no influence on the compound stability, which reinforces the assumption of the involvement of an adsorption process. PMID:12683459

Kacha, S; Derriche, Z; Elmaleh, S

2003-01-01

63

Structure, morphologies and dye removal efficiency of ZnO nanorods grown on polycrystalline Zn substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rod-like ZnO with the different morphologies were grown on polycrystalline Zn substrate by a simple hydrothermal process in a NaOH or NH4OH solution at the hydrothermal temperature range from 80 to 150 °C for different reaction time. Variations preparation in the different alkali solution concentration, hydrothermal temperature, and reaction times were explored to shed light on the morphology of the rod-like nanostructures. The thorough structural characterization including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) were employed to examine the morphology and the microstructure of the final products. It was found that alkali solution concentration, hydrothermal temperature and time have important influence on the morphology of the rod-like nanostructures. The dye removal efficiency of ZnO nanorods was explored by the decoloration of azo dye Congo red (CR). In order to obtain the optimum removal conditions of Congo red, the performance of removing CR with various initial concentrations by ZnO nanorods on Zn substrates with different morphologies was tested under various ambient conditions (visible light illumination and darkness). All prepared samples showed an excellent dye removal efficiency for organic pollutants CR from wastewater, making them promising candidates for the wastewater treatment.

Yin, Tiantian; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Yingying; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yude

2014-10-01

64

Adsorption studies of basic dye on activated carbon derived from agricultural waste: Hevea brasiliensis seed coat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon prepared from rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed coat was used to remove basic blue 3 (BB3) from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of contact time, and initial concentration (50–500mg\\/L) on the removal of BB3 at temperature of 30°C. The equilibrium adsorption data of BB3 on activated carbon were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich

B. H. Hameed; F. B. M. Daud

2008-01-01

65

TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface: Superior adsorption performance for dye removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface were synthesized by a facile template-assisted solvothermal reaction. The adsorption performance of TiO2 hollow microspheres for removing Methylene Blue from aqueous solution has been investigated. The comparative adsorption study indicated that adsorption capacity of TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface is markedly higher than that of solid microsphere. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity reached 196.83 mg/g. The kinetics of dye adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the adsorbed dye could be degraded completely by the subsequent photocatalytic process. These TiO2 hollow microspheres can be considered as a low-cost alternative adsorbent for removal of organic pollutants from wastewater.

Wang, Ran; Cai, Xia; Shen, Fenglei

2014-06-01

66

Removal of a cationic dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto bentonite clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of bentonite to remove malachite green from aqueous solutions has been studied for different adsorbate concentrations by varying the amount of adsorbent, temperature, pH and shaking time. Maximum adsorption of the dye, i.e. >90% has been achieved in aqueous solutions using 0.05g of bentonite at a pH of 9. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?H°, ?S° and ?G° were

S. S. Tahir; Naseem Rauf

2006-01-01

67

Removal of cationic dye methyl violet 2B from water by cation exchange membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of methyl violet 2B, a cationic dye, from water using two kinds of strong-acid cation exchange membranes, ICE 450 supported (with sulfonic acid groups and ion exchange capacity of 9.6–31?eq\\/47mm disc) and P81 (with phosphate groups and ion exchange capacity of 312?eq\\/47mm disc), was investigated in this study. In the batch process, the adsorption isotherm results show that

Jeng-Shiou Wu; Chia-Hung Liu; Khim Hoong Chu; Shing-Yi Suen

2008-01-01

68

Carboxymethyl cellulose-g-poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) hydrogel as adsorbent for dye removal.  

PubMed

A novel adsorbent was prepared via crosslinking graft copolymerization of 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) backbone. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and potassium persulphate were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. CMC-g-PDMAEMA hydrogel was used to remove methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were found to follow Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model, respectively. The high maximum adsorption capacity (1825mg/g) implied that CMC-g-PDMAEMA can be used as promising adsorbent for the synthetic dyes removal from wastewater. PMID:25450049

Salama, Ahmed; Shukry, Nadia; El-Sakhawy, Mohamed

2015-02-01

69

Influence of particle size and salinity on adsorption of basic dyes by agricultural waste: dried Seagrape ( Caulerpa lentillifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have reasonable adsorption capacity for basic dyes, Astrazon® Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon® Red GTLN (AR), and Astrazon® Golden Yellow GL-E (AY). The initial dye concentration was in the range of 100–1,800 mg\\/L. The dried algal sorbent was ground and sieved into 3 sizes: S (0.1–0.84 mm), M (0.84–2.0 mm), and L sizes (larger

Punjongharn Pimol; Meevasana Khanidtha; Pavasant Prasert

2008-01-01

70

Application of chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents for dye removal from water and wastewater: a review.  

PubMed

Chitosan based adsorbents have received a lot of attention for adsorption of dyes. Various modifications of this polysaccharide have been investigated to improve the adsorption properties as well as mechanical and physical characteristics of chitosan. This review paper discusses major research topics related to chitosan and its derivatives for application in the removal of dyes from water. Modification of chitosan changes the original properties of this material so that it can be more suitable for adsorption of different types of dye. Many chitosan derivatives have been obtained through chemical and physical modifications of raw chitosan that include cross-linking, grafting and impregnation of the chitosan backbone. Better understanding of these varieties and their affinity toward different types of dye can help future research to be properly oriented to address knowledge gaps in this area. This review provides better opportunity for researchers to better explore the potential of chitosan-derived adsorbents for removal of a great variety of dyes. PMID:25256466

Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Salamatinia, Babak; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Tan, Kok Bing; Gholami, Zahra; Amouzgar, Parisa

2014-11-26

71

Nanoporous membranes with cellulose nanocrystals as functional entity in chitosan: removal of dyes from water.  

PubMed

Fully biobased composite membranes for water purification were fabricated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as functional entities in chitosan matrix via freeze-drying process followed by compacting. The chitosan (10 wt%) bound the CNCs in a stable and nanoporous membrane structure with thickness of 250-270 ?m, which was further stabilized by cross-linking with gluteraldehyde vapors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed well-individualized CNCs embedded in a matrix of chitosan. Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) measurements showed that the membranes were nanoporous with pores in the range of 13-10nm. In spite of the low water flux (64 Lm(-2) h(-1)), the membranes successfully removed 98%, 84% and 70% respectively of positively charged dyes like Victoria Blue 2B, Methyl Violet 2B and Rhodamine 6G, after a contact time of 24h. The removal of dyes was expected to be driven by the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged CNCs and the positively charged dyes. PMID:25129796

Karim, Zoheb; Mathew, Aji P; Grahn, Mattias; Mouzon, Johanne; Oksman, Kristiina

2014-11-01

72

Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fly ash resulted from coal burning is a waste that can be used in wastewater treatment for removal of dyes and heavy metals by adsorption. Class “F” fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO2/Al2O3 over 2.4 was used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. A new material was obtained from modified fly ash with NaOH and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) a cationic surfactant. Contact time, optimum amount of substrate and the pH corresponding to 50 mL solution of pollutants were the parameters optimized for obtaining the maximum efficiency in the adsorption process. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The adsorption kinetic mechanisms, and the substrate capacities are further discussed correlated with the surface structure (XRD), composition (EDS, FTIR), and morphology (SEM, AFM). The results indicate that the novel nano-substrate composite with fly ash modified can be used as an efficient and low cost adsorbent for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, the resulted water respects the discharge regulations.

Visa, Maria; Chelaru, Andreea-Maria

2014-06-01

73

Removal and recovery of hazardous triphenylmethane dye, Methyl Violet through adsorption over granulated waste materials.  

PubMed

Bottom Ash a power plant waste material and De-Oiled Soya, an agricultural waste product have been successfully used for the removal and recovery of a hazardous triphenylmethane dye-Methyl Violet, from wastewaters. The characterization of each adsorbent has been carried out by I.R. and D.T.A. curves. Batch adsorption studies have been made by measuring effects of pH, sieve size, amount of adsorbent, contact time, temperature, concentration of the adsorbate solution, etc. Kinetic studies have been used to determine the nature of rate controlling step of the processes and confirm the applicability of the first order rate expression in the ongoing adsorption process. Various thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated by applying the linear forms of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The linear nature of adsorption isotherms obtained shows the dependence of the processes on the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. Furthermore, to ascertain the adsorption processes to be particle diffusion or film diffusion mechanism, Boyd and Reichenberg's expressions have been applied. For both the adsorbents, column operations have been carried out for the bulk removal of the dye. The adsorbed dye has been recovered by eluting hydrochloric acid of pH 3 through exhausted columns. PMID:17543448

Mittal, Alok; Gajbe, Vibha; Mittal, Jyoti

2008-01-31

74

Edge Removal in Random Contact Networks1 and the Basic Reproduction Number2  

E-print Network

Edge Removal in Random Contact Networks1 and the Basic Reproduction Number2 Dean Koch1 Reinhard Abstract6 Understanding the effect of edge removal on the basic reproduction7 number R0 for disease spread on contact networks is important for dis-8 ease management. The formula for the basic reproduction number R09

Illner, Reinhard

75

Textile dye removal by natural clay--case study of Fouchana Tunisian clay.  

PubMed

A significant amount of unused dyes remain in textile industry wastewater, the treatment of which presents a great challenge, particularly in semi-arid countries where water resources are of great concern. Liquid-phase adsorption is highly efficient for the removal of dyes and adsorbents, for example, activated carbons are used to treat wastewater, but are expensive. Clays are cheaper and several works have showed their high pollutant adsorption capacity in cases of environmental problems. The aim of this work is to present the use of clay as a means of textile wastewater treatment and colour adsorption. The adsorbent used in this study is natural clay from the Fouchana region (Tunisia), which contains 60% smectites, 30% kaolinite and 10% illite, in which the cation-exchange capacity is about 50 meq/ 100 g of clay. Two types of waters were treated: one from a leaching textile industry and another from a dyeing industry. Moreover the treatment by clay was compared to the treatment by a coagulation flocculation standard method. The experimental results show that the treatment by natural clay is more efficient than the conventional treatment by coagulation flocculation. It allowed decolorization of the dye effluent and a decrease down to 97% for biochemical demand for oxygen, 93% for suspended matter, 95% for chemical demand for oxygen and 76% for the spectral absorption coefficient. Thus, the quality of dye wastewater has reached the Tunisian standards of releases (NT 106.02 and 106.03, 1989), and as such it makes it possible to test wastewater at the industrial scale. PMID:20450111

Errais, E; Duplay, J; Darragi, F

2010-04-01

76

Accelerated removal of Sudan dye by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the presence of quinones and humic acids.  

PubMed

Although there have been many studies on bacterial removal of soluble azo dyes, much less information is available for biological treatment of water-insoluble azo dyes. The few bacterial species capable of removing Sudan dye generally require a long time to remove low concentrations of insoluble dye particles. The present work examined the efficient removal of Sudan I by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the presence of redox mediator. It was found that the microbially reduced anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) could abiotically reduce Sudan I, indicating the feasibility of microbially-mediated reduction. The addition of 100 ?M AQDS and other different quinone compounds led to 4.3-54.7 % increase in removal efficiencies in 22 h. However, adding 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone into the system inhibited Sudan I removal. The presence of 10, 50 and 100 ?M AQDS stimulated the removal efficiency in 10 h from 26.4 to 42.8, 54.9 and 64.0 %, respectively. The presence of 300 ?M AQDS resulted in an eightfold increase in initial removal rate from 0.19 to 1.52 mg h?¹ g?¹ cell biomass. A linear relationship was observed between the initial removal rates and AQDS concentrations (0-100 ?M). Comparison of Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants revealed the advantage of AQDS-mediated removal over direct reduction. Different species of humic acid could also stimulate the removal of Sudan I. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis confirmed the accelerated removal performance in the presence of AQDS. These results provide a potential method for the efficient removal of insoluble Sudan dye. PMID:23539152

Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Ji, Qiuyan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

2013-09-01

77

Comparison of color removal from reactive dye contaminated water by systems containing fungal biosorbent, active carbon and their mixture.  

PubMed

The adsorption of Everzol Black (EB) from synthetic aqueous solution onto active carbon (AC) and dried fungal biosorbent (Rhizopus arrhizus) was studied under the same experimental conditions. The effects of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time were examined at a batch-scale level. As an alternative to AC, fungus was investigated as a low-cost adsorbent for dye removal. The amount of EB adsorbed onto AC was lower compared with fungal biosorbent; dye adsorption capacity of AC and fungal biosorbent were 94.48 and 106.61 mg/g, respectively. The adsorbent dosage experiments showed that 4 g/L biosorbent removed 100% of EB (Co: 114.39 mg/L) after 2 hours. The results obtained from this study showed that biosorbent effectively removed reactive dye from dye-containing water in a short time period. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were used for mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data; the Freundlich model was found to exhibit good fits to the experimental data. According to the Freundlich isotherm, the maximum dye adsorption capacities of AC and biosorbent were calculated as 344.82 and 357.14 mg/g, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral analysis showed the involvement of functional groups for dye bindings. PMID:25325540

Gül, Ulküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya

2014-01-01

78

Effectiveness of Dyes Removal by Mixed Fungal Cultures and Toxicity of Their Metabolites.  

PubMed

Decolorization of brilliant green (0.06 g/L), Evans blue (0.15 g/L), and their mixture (total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w) by fungi was studied. Fungal strains [Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH), Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa), and Fusarium oxysporum (G1)] were used separately and as a mixture of them. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna) and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor) changes were estimated after the end of experiment. Mixtures of fungal strains were less effective in decolorization process than the same strains used separately (as a single strains). After 96 h of experiment, living biomass of strain BWPH removed up to 95.5 %; DCa, up to 84.6 %; G1, up to 79.2 % where mixtures BWPH + DCa removed up to 74.3 %; and BWPH + G1, only up to 32.2 % of used dyes. High effectiveness of dyes removal not always corresponded with decrease of toxicity. The highest decrease of zootoxicity and phytotoxicity (from V to III toxicity class or to even nontoxic) was noticed for single strains, while no changes or slight toxicity decrease was noticed in samples with strains mixtures. PMID:23687394

Przysta?, Wioletta; Zab?ocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabi?ska-Sota, El?bieta

2013-05-01

79

Basic Study of Dyeing on Oshima-Tsumugi-Mushiro by Electrostatically Extracted Ink Jet System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of electro-statically extracted ink-jet technology was studied in dyeing processing of Oshima-tsumugi-mushiro. It is needed to dye about 1mm width on that mushiro. Our results showed that, electrostatically extracted ink-jet technology was effective for application to dyeing processing automatically.

Matsuo, Kazuhisa; Akiyama, Kouhei; Shirakawa, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Hideki

80

An improved method for removal of azo dye orange II from textile effluent using albumin as sorbent.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are generally resistant to biodegradation due to their complex structures. Acid orange II is one of the most widely used dyes in the textile industry. The influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in different concentrations, pH, and time of contact on Orange II was investigated using kinetics and adsorption-isotherm experiments. The results showed that the maximum colour removed from dye/albumin was 99.50% and that a stable dye-protein complex had been formed at pH 3.5 and in a proportion of 1:3 (v/v), respectively. The synthetic effluent did not show toxicity to the microcrustacean Artemia salina, and showed a CL?? equal to 97 µg/mL to azo dye orange II. Additionally, the methodology was effective in removing the maximum of orange II using BSA by adsorption at pH 3.5 which mainly attracted ions to the azo dye during the adsorption process. This suggests that this form of treatment is economical and easy to use which potentially could lead to bovine serum albumin being used as a sorbent for azo dyes. PMID:23201641

Ohashi, Tadashi; Jara, Alícia M T; Batista, Anabelle C L; Franco, Luciana O; Barbosa Lima, Marcos A; Benachour, Mohand; Alves da Silva, Carlos A; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

2012-01-01

81

Adsorptive removal of Erythrosine dye onto activated low cost de-oiled mustard.  

PubMed

The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for colour removal from wastewater using waste material de-oiled mustard as adsorbent. De-oiled mustard, a biosorbent, was successfully utilized for removing a water-soluble xanthene dye, Erythrosine from wastewater. Kinetic studies of adsorption of Erythrosine at de-oiled mustard were carried out at 30 degrees C, using aqueous solutions with 5 x 10(-5)M concentration of Erythrosine. The adsorption process followed a pseudo-first order model. The equilibrium process can be well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models, at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C. Free energy of adsorption (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) changes were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption. The estimated values for DeltaG degrees were -12.81 x 10(3) and -12.57 x 10(3) over activated carbon and activated de-oiled mustard at 203 K (30 degrees C), indicate toward a spontaneous process. The positive value for DeltaH degrees indicates that the adsorption of Erythrosine dye to de-oiled mustard is an endothermic process. PMID:18818014

Jain, Rajeev; Sikarwar, Shalini

2009-05-30

82

Influence of Basic Red 1 dye adsorption on thermal stability of Na-clinoptilolite and Na-bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of physically adsorbed basic red 1 (BR1) dye on the physicochemical properties of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite)\\u000a and clay (bentonite) was compared using adsorption, FTIR, and TG\\/DTA methods. A larger adsorption of the dye was observed\\u000a for bentonite (0.143 mmol\\/g) than for clinoptilolite (0.0614 mmol\\/g) per gram of an adsorbent. However, the adsorption values\\u000a are the same per surface unit (1.8 ?mol\\/m2). The

D. Sternik; M. Majdan; A. Dery?o-Marczewska; G. ?ukoci?ski; A. G?adysz-P?aska; V. M. Gun’ko; S. V. Mikhalovsky

2011-01-01

83

Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water  

PubMed Central

The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond) shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34?mg g?1 at 293?K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media. PMID:23935442

Deniz, Fatih

2013-01-01

84

Removal of water-insoluble Sudan dyes by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.  

PubMed

Decolorization of water-insoluble Sudan dyes was studied with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which removed 66.8%, 43.4%, 56.0% and 33.7% Sudan I-IV in 104 h, respectively and reduced Sudan I to aniline and 1-amino-2-naphthol. Lactate was identified as the most efficient electron donor for Sudan I reduction. Improved reduction performance was obtained in the presence of higher lactate or biomass concentration. The correlation between specific reduction rate and initial Sudan I concentration could be described with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (V(max)=1.8 mg Sudan I mg cell(-1) h(-1) and K(m)=5.3 mg l(-1)). The addition of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate stimulated the reduction significantly whereas the presence of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone had little enhancing effect. The main azoreductase activity was found with membrane-bound proteins of MR-1 and no reduction occurred when Sudan I was incubated with cell extracts. These data indicated for the first time that Shewanella could reduce solid-phase Sudan dye particles. PMID:22456237

Ji, Qiuyan; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

2012-06-01

85

Applicability of waste materials—bottom ash and deoiled soya—as adsorbents for the removal and recovery of a hazardous dye, brilliant green  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoiled soya, an agricultural waste material, and bottom ash, a waste of power plants, have been successfully used for the removal and recovery of the hazardous water-soluble dye brilliant green from water. To remove the dye from water, batch adsorption studies have been carried out by observing the effects of pH, concentration, amounts of adsorbents, size of adsorbent particles, etc.

Alok Mittal; Dipika Kaur; Jyoti Mittal

2008-01-01

86

A simple method for simultaneous determination of basic dyes encountered in food preparations by reversed-phase HPLC.  

PubMed

The present method utilizes a simple pretreatment step, cleanup on polyamide SPE cartridges, and HPLC resolution on reversed-phase C18 for the detection of the three basic nonpermitted dyes encountered in food matrixes. Polyamide cartridges were chosen because both acidic and basic dyes can be cleaned up due to their amphoteric nature. Analysis was performed on a reversed-phase C18 micro-Bondapak column using the isocratic mixture of acetonitrile-sodium acetate with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and a programmable lambda(max) specific visible detection to monitor colors, achieving higher sensitivity and expanded scope to test multicolor blends. All the colors showed linearity with the regression coefficient, from 0.9983 to 0.9995. The LOD and LOQ ranged between 0.107 and 0.754 mg/L and 0.371 and 2.27 mg/L or mg/kg, respectively. The intraday and interday precision gave good RSDs, and percentage recoveries in different food matrixes ranged from 75 to 96.5%. The study demonstrates that the use of a combination of a simple SPE cleanup and HPLC resolution with UV-Vis end point detection was successful in screening the presence of these three basic nonpermitted dyes individually or in blend, in a variety of food matrixes. PMID:22320095

Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

2011-01-01

87

Influence of particle size and salinity on adsorption of basic dyes by agricultural waste: dried seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera).  

PubMed

Green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have reasonable adsorption capacity for basic dyes, Astrazon Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon Red GTLN (AR), and Astrazon Golden Yellow GL-E (AY). The initial dye concentration was in the range of 100-1,800 mg/L. The dried algal sorbent was ground and sieved into 3 sizes: S (0.1-0.84 mm), M (0.84-2.0 mm), and L sizes (larger than 2.0 mm). For all conditions examined in this work (at 25 degrees C in batch systems), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second order kinetic model where the rate constant, k2, decreased as the sorbent size increased for all dyes. The adsorption isotherms followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Among three sorbent sizes, S size gave the highest adsorption capacity followed by M and L sizes. A reduction of sorbent size increased the specific surface area for mass transfer, and also increased the total pore volume, thus providing more active sites for adsorption. The adsorption of AB was adversely influenced by the protonation of algal surface at low pH. On the other hand, the adsorption of AR and AY could be due to weak electrostatic interaction, which was not significantly affected by pH. Increasing salinity of the system caused a decrease in adsorption capacity possibly due to the competition between Na+ and the dye cations for the binding sites on algal surface. Moreover, an increase in salinity generated a compressed electrical double layer on the algal surface which exerted repulsive force, retarding the adsorption of positive charged molecules such as the basic dyes. PMID:18763573

Punjongharn, Pimol; Meevasana, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

2008-01-01

88

Removal of acidic or basic ?-amino acids in water by poorly water soluble scandium complexes.  

PubMed

To recognize ?-amino acids with highly polar side chains in water, poorly water soluble scandium complexes with both Lewis acidic and basic portions were synthesized as artificial receptors. A suspension of some of these receptor molecules in an ?-amino acid solution could remove acidic and basic ?-amino acids from the solution. The compound most efficient at preferentially removing basic ?-amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) was the receptor with 7,7'-[1,3-phenylenebis(carbonylimino)]bis(2-naphthalenesulfonate) as the ligand. The neutral ?-amino acids were barely removed by these receptors. Removal experiments using a mixed amino acid solution generally gave results similar to those obtained using solutions containing a single amino acid. The results demonstrated that the scandium complex receptors were useful for binding acidic and basic ?-amino acids. PMID:23050492

Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Jin, Shigeki; Ujihara, Tomomi

2012-11-01

89

Batch and bulk removal of a triarylmethane dye, Fast Green FCF, from wastewater by adsorption over waste materials.  

PubMed

De-Oiled Soya, an agricultural waste material and Bottom Ash a waste of power plants, have been used as adsorbents for the removal and recovery of a triarylmethane dye Fast Green FCF from wastewater. Batch studies have been carried by observing the effects of pH, temperature, concentration of the dye, amount of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbent, contact time, etc. Graphical correlation of various adsorption isotherm models like, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich have been carried out for both the adsorbents. The adsorption over both the materials has been found endothermic and feasible in nature. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process have been calculated. The kinetic studies suggest the process following pseudo first order kinetics and involvement of particle diffusion mechanism. The bulk removal of the dye has been carried out by passing the dye solution through columns of Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya and saturation factor of each column has been calculated. Attempts have also been made to recover the dye by eluting dilute NaOH through the columns. PMID:18692961

Mittal, Alok; Kaur, Dipika; Mittal, Jyoti

2009-04-30

90

Acrylic acid grafted cellulosic Luffa cylindrical fiber for the removal of dye and metal ions.  

PubMed

Acrylic acid grafted cellulosic Luffa cylindrical fiber was utilized for the removal of methylene blue and metal ions from the water system using batch process. The grafted sample used was found to demonstrate a maximum grafting efficiency of 90.8% under concentrations of 0.432×10(-3) mol/L, temperature of 35 °C, time of 60 min and pH of 7.0 respectively. The remarkable improvement in thermal properties of the grafted sample was observed. The formation of new bands in FTIR spectra of grafted sample confirmed the grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulosic fiber. The maximum adsorption capacity of dye onto adsorbent was observed to be 62.15 mg g(-1) at 175 min. A maximum removal of 45.8% was observed for Mg(2+) as compared to other metal ions. High values of correlation coefficient for methylene blue (0.995) and metal ions such as Mg(2+) (0.996), Ni(2+) (0.995), Zn(2+) (0.996) confirmed the applicability of Langmuir isotherm that assumed a monolayer coverage and uniform activity distribution on the adsorbent surface. PMID:23987466

Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Agarwal, Shilpi; Singh, Prerna; Pathania, Deepak

2013-10-15

91

Electrochemical studies of adsorption and inhibitive performance of basic yellow 28 dye on mild steel corrosion in Acid solutions.  

PubMed

Organic corrosion inhibitors are widely used to control the corrosion of different metals in various corrosive solutions. The inhibition performance of Basic yellow 28 (BY28) dye for mild steel corrosion was investigated in 0.1 M HCl solution and in a solution of 0.1 M HCl and 1% NaCl. Two electrochemical methods including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used. The corrosion parameters as well as inhibition efficiencies were obtained for different concentrations of inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies showed that the BY28 dye acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in both solutions. The studies on adsorption isotherm of the dye on mild steel proved that the adsorption of BY28 obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The average value of -?Gads in both solutions was more than 20 and a little less than 40 kJ mol-1. Therefore, both chemisorption and physisorption phenomena were involved in the adsorption of the studied dye on mild steel surface. PMID:24062037

Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Asghari, Elnaz; Ejbari, Parisa

2011-06-01

92

Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase in phospholipid-templated titania and its applications in phenolic compounds and dye removal.  

PubMed

In this study, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was encapsulated in phospholipid-templated titania particles through the biomimetic titanification process and used for the treatment of wastewater polluted with phenolic compounds and dye. The encapsulated HRP exhibited improved thermal stability, a wide range of pH stability and high tolerance against inactivating agents. It was observed an increase in Km value for the encapsulated HRP (8.21 mM) when compared with its free counterpart. For practical applications in the removal of phenolic compounds and dye by the encapsulated HRP, the removal efficiency for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, Direct Black-38 were 92.99%, 87.97%, and 79.72%, respectively, in the first treatment cycle. Additionally, the encapsulated HRP showed better removal efficiency than free HRP and a moderately good capability of reutilization. PMID:24411438

Jiang, Yanjun; Tang, Wei; Gao, Jing; Zhou, Liya; He, Ying

2014-02-01

93

Selective removal and recovery of Black B reactive dye from simulated textile wastewater using the supported liquid membrane process.  

PubMed

Effluent containing colour/dyes, especially reactive dyes, becomes a great concern of wastewater treatment because it is toxic to human life and aquatic life. In this study, reactive dye of Black B was separated using the supported liquid membrane process. Commercial polypropylene membrane was used as a support of the kerosene-tridodecylamine liquid membrane. Several parameters were tested and the result showed that almost 100% of 70?ppm Black B was removed and 99% of 70?ppm Black B was recovered at pH 2 of the feed phase containing 0.00001?M Na2SiO3, flow rate of 150?ml/min and 0.2?M NaOH. The membrane support also remained stable for up to 36 hours under an optimum condition. PMID:25514128

Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin; Lim Ee Sin, Andeline; Raja Sulaiman, Raja Norimie

2015-02-01

94

Pyronin Y (basic xanthene dye)-bentonite composite: A spectroscopic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion by 1.43 Angstrom of basal spacing and the shift to higher frequencies of in-plane ring vibrations of the Pyronin Y molecule at 1603 and 1527 cm-1 on the formation of Pyronin Y-bentonite composite exhibited that the dye cations might be oriented as a monolayer form in the interlamellar spacing with aromatic rings parallel to clay layers. Thermal analysis results of this composite compared to those of raw bentonite signified the different outer sphere water entities associated with the replacement of inorganic cations with organic dye cations and the gradual decomposition of the organic molecule in the interlamellar spacing. Thermo-Infrared spectra of Pyronin Y-bentonite sample up to high temperatures showed the thermal stability of the dye-clay composite as a result of the presence of ? interactions. The pore structure characteristics of Pyronin Y-bentonite composite exhibited the increase in the number of mesopores during formation of the composite.

Tabak, A.; Kaya, M.; Yilmaz, N.; Meral, K.; Onganer, Y.; Caglar, B.; Sungur, O.

2014-02-01

95

Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.  

PubMed

Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water. PMID:19786292

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2009-11-01

96

Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.  

PubMed

In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes. PMID:21752544

Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

2011-09-15

97

Processing fly ash stabilized hydrogen titanate nano-sheets for industrial dye-removal application.  

PubMed

We report a new method for the processing of fly ash (FA) stabilized hydrogen titanate nano-sheets in the form of aggregated microspheres. The industrial silica-based FA has been utilized for this purpose which has been surface-modified by coating with the anatase-titania (TiO(2)) via sol-gel. The anatase-TiO(2) coated FA particles are subjected to the hydrothermal treatment in an autoclave under high temperature and pressure conditions in a highly alkaline solution. The hydrothermal conditions cause dissolution of silica resulting in the disintegration of other constituents of FA which are adsorbed in ionic and/or oxidized form on the surface of intermediate product of the hydrothermal treatment of anatase-TiO(2), specifically the hydrogen titanate. The adsorption of FA constituents has resulted in the stabilization of hydrogen titanate in the nano-sheet morphology instead of nanotubes. The FA stabilized hydrogen titanate nano-sheets exhibit higher specific surface-area than that of the hydrogen titanate nanotubes and have been successfully utilized for the removal of an organic synthetic-dye from an aqueous solution via surface-adsorption, involving the electrostatic-attraction and ion-exchange mechanisms operating, in the dark-condition. PMID:22717069

Hareesh, P; Babitha, K B; Shukla, S

2012-08-30

98

Performance of dye-affinity beads for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed  

PubMed Central

Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) beads in the size range of 80–120 ?m were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal complexing ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA beads. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 ?mol/g. These beads were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the beads decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these beads without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity beads. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium. PMID:15329149

Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andaç, Müge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil

2004-01-01

99

Macrophages possess probenecid-inhibitable organic anion transporters that remove fluorescent dyes from the cytoplasmic matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduced several membrane- impermeant fluorescent dyes, including Lucifer Yellow, carboxyfluorescein, and fura-2, into the cytoplasmic matrix of J774 cells and thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages by ATP permeabilization of the plasma membrane and observed the subsequent fate of these dyes. The dyes did not remain within the cytoplasmic matrix; instead they were sequestered within phase-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles and released into

Thomas H. Steinberg; Alan S. Newman; Joel A. Swanson; Samuel C. Silverstein

1987-01-01

100

Removal of Synthetic Textile Dyes From Wastewaters: A Critical Review on Present Treatment Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of industrial colorants. These are no longer used only for the coloration of textiles, plastics, paints, inks, and lacquers, but rather serve as key components in high-tech applications such as optical data storage, reprographics, display devices, dye-sensitized solar cells, energy transfer cascades, light-emitting diodes, laser welding processes, or heat management systems. Azo dyes are

Kamaljit Singh; Sucharita Arora

2011-01-01

101

Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions by cellulosic waste orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of dyes such as congo red, procion orange and rhodamine-B by waste orange peel was examined at different concentrations of dyes, adsorbent dosage, agitation time and pH. The adsorption obeyed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the process of uptake followed first-order rate kinetics. Acidic pH was favourable for adsorption for all three dyes. Desorption studies showed

C. Namasivayam; N. Muniasamy; K. Gayatri; M. Rani; K. Ranganathan

1996-01-01

102

Effectiveness of photochemical and sonochemical processes in degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) dye from aqueous solutions  

PubMed Central

In this study, degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) by ultraviolet radiation (UV), ultrasonic irradiation (US), UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with a 55W immersed-type low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and a sonoreactor with high frequency (130kHz) plate type transducer at 100W of acoustic power. The effects of initial dye concentration, concentration of H2O2 and solution pH and presence of Na2SO4 was studied on the sonochemical and photochemical destruction of BV16 in aqueous phase. The results indicated that in the UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 systems, a sufficient amount of H2O2 was necessary, but a very high H2O2 concentration would inhibit the reaction rate. The optimum H2O2 concentration was achieved in the range of 17 mmol/L at dye concentration of 30 mg/L. A degradation of 99% was obtained with UV/H2O2 within 8 minutes while decolorization efficiency by using UV (23%), US (<6%) and US/H2O2(<15%) processes were negligible for this kind of dye. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dyestuffs concentrations was found to fit all the experimental data. PMID:23369268

2012-01-01

103

Novel magnetic Fe3O4@C nanoparticles as adsorbents for removal of organic dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The magnetic Fe(3)O(4)/C core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple strategy and used as adsorbents for removal of organic dyes from aqueous solution. The resulting products are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). Adsorption performances of the nanomaterial adsorbents are tested with removal of methylene blue (MB) and cresol red (CR) from aqueous solution. The effects of solution pH value, adsorption time and capacity of the nanocomposites have been fully investigated. The results reveal that the nanospheres can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field with high separation efficiency. In addition, the process is clean and safe for purifying water pollution. The prepared Fe(3)O(4)/C complex nanomaterials could thus be used as promising adsorbents for the remove organic dyes, especially, cationic dye, from polluted water. PMID:21813238

Zhang, Zhengyong; Kong, Jilie

2011-10-15

104

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by kaolin: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations were carried out using commercially available kaolin to adsorb two different toxic cationic dyes namely crystal violet and brilliant green from aqueous medium. Kaolin was characterized by performing particle size distribution, BET surface area measurement and XRD analysis. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, stirring speed, pH, salt concentration and temperature were studied in

B. K. Nandi; A. Goswami; M. K Purkait

2009-01-01

105

Sorption of some textile dyes by beech wood sawdust.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to establish the experimental conditions for removal of several textile dyes from aqueous solutions by sorption on beech wood sawdust, an industrial waste lignocellulosic product. From the six dyes tested, the sorbent shows preference for three dyes: Direct Brown, Direct Brown 2 and Basic Blue 86. Sorption of dyes on the beech wood sawdust is dependent on the nature of dye, pH, dyes concentration, contact time, and amount of sorbent. By comparative kinetic studies, the rate of sorption was found to conform with good correlation to pseudo-second-order kinetics. The parameters that characterize the sorption were determined on the basis of Langmuir isotherms. The preference of beech sawdust for dyes increases as follows: Basic Blue 86dye (of approximately 60% purity) was found to be 526.3 mg g(-1) for Direct Brown. PMID:18656305

Dulman, Viorica; Cucu-Man, Simona Maria

2009-03-15

106

Application of acidic treated pumice as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solutions: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

Colored effluents are one of the important environment pollution sources since they contain unused dye compounds which are toxic and less-biodegradable. In this work removal of Acid Red 14 and Acid Red 18 azo dyes was investigated by acidic treated pumice stone as an efficient adsorbent at various experimental conditions. Removal of dye increased with increase in contact time and initial dye concentration, while decreased for increment in solution temperature and pH. Results of the equilibrium study showed that the removal of AR14 and AR18 followed Freundlich (r2>0.99) and Langmuir (r2>0.99) isotherm models. Maximum sorption capacities were 3.1 and 29.7 mg/g for AR 14 and AR18, namely significantly higher than those reported in the literature, even for activated carbon. Fitting of experimental data onto kinetic models showed the relevance of the pseudo-second order (r2>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion (r2>0.98) models for AR14 and AR18, respectively. For both dyes, the values of external mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing initial dye concentrations, showing increasing external mass transfer resistance at solid/liquid layer. Desorption experiments confirmed the relevance of pumice stone for dye removal, since the pH regeneration method showed 86% and 89% regeneration for AR14 and AR18, respectively. PMID:23369579

Samarghandi, Mohammad Reza; Zarrabi, Mansur; Sepehr, Mohammad Noori; Amrane, Abdeltif; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Bashiri, Saied

2012-01-01

107

Removal of heavy metals and dyes by supported nano zero-valent iron on barium ferrite microfibers.  

PubMed

The binary nano zero-valent iron/barium ferrite (NZVI/BFO) microfibers with uniform diameters and high porosity were prepared by the organic gel-thermal selective reduction process. The composite microfibers are fabricated from nano zero-valent iron and nano BaFe12O19 grains. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time on the adsorption of heavy metals and dyes have been investigated. The adsorption isotherms of heavy metals and dyes on the microfibers are well described by the Langmuir model, in which the estimated adsorption capacities are 14.5, 29.9, 68.3 and 110.4 mg/g for Pb(II), As(V), Congo red and methylene blue, respectively. After five cycles, these microfibers still exhibit a high removal efficiency for As(V), Pb(II), Congo red and methylene blue. The enhanced adsorption characteristics can be attributed to the porous structure, strong surface activity and electronic hopping. Therefore, the magnetic NZVI/BFO microfibers can be used as an efficient, fast and high capacity adsorbent for heavy metals and dyes removal. PMID:24758012

Yang, Xinchun; Shen, Xiangqian; Jing, Maoxiang; Liu, Ruijiang; Lu, Yi; Xiang, Jun

2014-07-01

108

Synthesis of magnetic ?-cyclodextrin-chitosan/graphene oxide as nanoadsorbent and its application in dye adsorption and removal.  

PubMed

Magnetic ?-cyclodextrin-chitosan/graphene oxide materials (MCCG) were fabricated through a facile chemical route and their application as excellent adsorbents for dye removal were also demonstrated. The characteristics results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD showed that MCCG was successfully prepared. The results showed that, benefiting from the surface property of graphene oxide, hydrophobicity of ?-cyclodextrin, the abundant amino and hydroxyl functional groups of chitosan, and from the magnetic property of Fe(3)O(4), the adsorbent possesses quite a good and versatile adsorption capacity to the dye under investigation, and can be easily and rapidly extracted from water by magnetic attraction. Most importantly, the adsorbent can be easily and efficiently regenerated for reuse with hardly any compromise of the adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics were investigated to indicate that the kinetics and equilibrium adsorptions were well-described by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The inherent advantages of the nano-structured adsorbent, such as adsorption capacity, easy, handy operation, rapid extraction, and regeneration, may pave a new, efficient and sustainable way towards highly-efficient dye pollutant removal in water and wastewater treatment. PMID:23261586

Fan, Lulu; Luo, Chuannan; Sun, Min; Qiu, Huamin; Li, Xiangjun

2013-03-01

109

Mathematical modelling and optimization of synthetic textile dye removal using soil composites as highly competent liner material.  

PubMed

Soil is widely used as adsorbent for removing toxic pollutants from their aqueous solutions due to its wide availability and cost efficiency. This study investigates the potential of soil and soil composites for removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from solution on a comparative scale. Optimisation of different process parameters was carried out using a novel approach of response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) was used for determining the optimum experimental conditions, as well as the result of their interactions. Around 99.85 % removal of CV was obtained at initial pH 6.4, which further increased to 99.98 % on using soil and cement composite proving it to be the best admixture of those selected. The phenomenon was found to be represented best by the Langmuir isotherm at different temperatures. The process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and was determined to be spontaneous chemisorption in nature. This adsorbent can hence be suggested as an appropriate liner material for the removal of CV dye. PMID:25138552

Das, Papita; Banerjee, Priya; Mondal, Sandip

2015-01-01

110

THE PENETRATION OF BASIC DYE INTO NITELLA AND VALONIA IN THE PRESENCE OF CERTAIN ACIDS, BUFFER MIXTURES, AND SALTS  

PubMed Central

When living cells of Nitella are exposed to an acetate buffer solution until the pH value of the sap is decreased and subsequently placed in a solution of brilliant cresyl blue, the rate of penetration of dye into the vacuole is found to decrease in the majority of cases, and increase in other cases, as compared with the control cells which are transferred to the dye solution directly from tap water. This decrease in the rate is not due to the lowering of the pH value of the solution just outside the cell wall, as a result of diffusion of acetic acid from the cell when cells are removed from the buffer solution and placed in the dye solution, because the relative amount of decrease (as compared with the control) is the same whether the external solution is stirred or not. Such a decrease in the rate may be brought about without a change in the pH value of the sap if the cells are placed in the dye solution after exposure to a phosphate buffer solution in which the pH value of the sap remains normal. The rate of penetration of dye is then found to decrease. The extent of this decrease is the greater the lower the pH value of the solution. It is found that hydrochloric acid and boric acid have no effect while phosphoric acid has an inhibiting effect at pH 4.8 on stirring. Experiments with neutral salt solutions indicate that a direct effect on the cell (decreasing penetration) is due to monovalent base cations, while there is no such effect directly on the dye. It is assumed that the effect of the phosphate and acetate buffer solutions on the cell, decreasing the rate of penetration, is due (1) to the penetration of these acids into the protoplasm as undissociated molecules, which dissociate upon entrance and lower the pH value of the protoplasm or to their action on the surface of the protoplasm, (2) to the effect of base cations on the protoplasm (either at the surface or in the interior), and (3) possibly to the effect of certain anions. In this case the action of the buffer solution is not due to its hydrogen ions. In the case of living cells of Valonia under the same experimental conditions as Nitella it is found that the rate of penetration of dye decreases when the pH value of the sap increases in presence of NH3, and also when the pH value of the sap is decreased in the presence of acetic acid. Such a decrease may be brought about even when the cells are previously exposed to sea water containing HCl, in which the pH value of the sap remains normal. PMID:19872321

Irwin, Marian

1926-01-01

111

Basic ultrasound training can replace chest radiography for safe tube thoracostomy removal.  

PubMed

An ultrasound (US) examination can be easily and rapidly performed at the bedside to aide in clinical decisions. Previously we demonstrated that US was safe and as effective as a chest x-ray (CXR) for removal of tube thoracostomy (TT) when performed by experienced sonographers. This study sought to examine if US was as safe and accurate for the evaluation of pneumothorax (PTX) associated with TT removal after basic US training. Patients included had TT managed by the surgical team between October 2012 and May 2013. Bedside US was performed by a variety of members of the trauma team before and after removal. All residents received, at minimum, a 1-hour formal training class in the use of ultrasound. Data were collected from the electronic medical records. We evaluated 61 TTs in 61 patients during the study period. Exclusion of 12 tubes occurred secondary to having incomplete imaging, charting, or death before having TT removed. Of the 49 remaining TT, all were managed with US imaging. Average age of the patients was 40 years and 30 (61%) were male. TT was placed for PTX in 37 (76%), hemothorax in seven (14%), hemopneumothorax in four (8%), or a pleural effusion in one (2%). Two post pull PTXs were correctly identified by residents using US. This was confirmed on CXR with appropriate changes made. US was able to successfully predict the safe TT removal and patient discharge at all residency levels after receiving a basic US training program. PMID:25105398

Lavingia, Kedar S; Soult, Michael C; Collins, Jay N; Novosel, Timothy J; Weireter, Leonard J; Britt, L D

2014-08-01

112

Bilirubin removal from human plasma in a packed-bed column system with dye-affinity microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dye-ligand, Cibacron Blue F3GA, was covalently coupled with the poly(EGDMA-HEMA) microbeads. The affinity sorbent carrying 16.5 ?mol Cibacron Blue F3GA per gram polymer was then used to remove bilirubin from human plasma in a packed-bed column system. Bilirubin adsorption from human plasma on the unmodified poly(EGDMA-HEMA) microbeads was 0.32 mg\\/g, while much higher adsorption values, up to 24.2 mg\\/g,

Adil Denizli; Mustafa Kocakulak; Erhan Pi?kin

1998-01-01

113

Adsorptive potential of cationic Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) dye onto natural untreated clay (NUC) from aqueous phase: Mass transfer analysis, kinetic and equilibrium profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, natural untreated clay (NUC) was studied for the removal of Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) from aqueous solution in batch system. The effects of initial BY2 concentration, contact time, solution temperature and solution pH on BY2 adsorption were investigated. Nitrogen sorption measurements were employed to investigate the variation in surface and pore properties after dye adsorption. The adsorbent was characterized by means of FTIR, PSD, TEM, XRD and BET analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Scatchard isotherm models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 833.33 mg/g at 25 °C (at room temperature). The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental datas compared with pseudo-first-order kinetic adsorption models. To explain mass transfer mechanism of BY2 adsorption, obtained experimental datas were applied Weber and Morris model, Body and Frusawa and Smith models. The results show that the adsorption process is controlled by film diffusion. The thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibbs free energy changes (?G°), standard enthalpy change (?H°) and standard entropy change (?S°) were determined. Adsorption of BY2 on NUC is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The calculated activation energy of adsorption was found to be 5.24 kJ/mol for BY2. This value indicates that the adsorption process is a physisorption.

Öztürk, A.; Malkoc, E.

2014-04-01

114

Laser-dye ablation technique for removal of carious dentin and enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GaAlAs semiconductor diode laser operating at a wavelength of 796 nm has been sued in conjunction with Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye to ablate carious dentin and enamel from extracted human teeth. The laser-dye ablation technique offers selective ablation as it is controlled by the placement of the ICG dye. In contrast with other laser techniques, the risk of collateral thermal damage is substantially reduced. The diode laser is suitable for ordinary fiber delivery and is cheaper and more compact than the higher power CO2; Er:YAG, Nd:YAG and Argon lasers currently being used by researchers. This paper reports the ablation of dental caries in fifty extracted teeth with various laser diode powers and dye concentrations. The mass of material ablated, temperature rise in the pulp and surface temperature were measured. The ablation was found to be efficient with negligible thermal damage to surrounding tissue. At the same time average surface temperatures reached during ablation may be sufficient to sterilize the treated surface. Hardness measurements and scanning electron microscopy of the laser treated cavity surfaces show the new surfaces to be suitable for placement of a dental filling.

McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Gillings, Barrie R.; Dawes, Judith M.

1997-05-01

115

Layered double hydroxide-carbon dot composite: high-performance adsorbent for removal of anionic organic dye.  

PubMed

It would be of significance to design a green composite for efficient removal of contaminants. Herein, we fabricated a facile and environmentally friendly composite via direct assembly of surface passivated carbon dots with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the positively charged layered double hydroxide (LDH). The resulting LDH-carbon dot composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption technique. The adsorption performances of the resulting LDH-carbon dot composites were evaluated for the removal of anionic methyl blue dye. Taking advantage of the combined benefits of LDH and carbon dots, the as-prepared composites exhibited high uptake capability of methyl blue (185 mg/g). The adsorption behavior of this new adsorbent fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The reasons for the excellent adsorption capacity of methyl blue on the surface of the LDH-carbon dot hybrid were further discussed. A probable mechanism was speculated to involve the cooperative contributions of hydrogen bonding between methyl blue and carbon dots and electrostatic attraction between methyl blue and LDH, in the adsorption process. This work is anticipated to open up new possibilities in fabricating LDH-carbon dot materials in dealing with anionic dye pollutants. PMID:25313875

Zhang, Manlin; Yao, Qingfeng; Lu, Chao; Li, Zenghe; Wang, Wenxing

2014-11-26

116

Diphosphonium ion-exchanged montmorillonite for Telon dye removal from aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diphosphonium-intercalated montmorillonites were prepared via ion exchange using para, meta and ortho-bis(triphenyl phosphonium methylene)-benzene-dichloride (p-, m- and o-TPhPMB) in quantities not exceeding the cation exchange capacity. Adsorption tests applied to Telon dyes (Red, blue and orange) revealed a significant increase of the maximum adsorption capacity from ca. 11-26 to 110-160mg.g-1 after intercalation. This improvement was explained by an increased organophilic

B. Makhoukhi; M. A. Didi; H. Moulessehoul; A. Azzouz; D. Villemin

2010-01-01

117

Removal of sudan dyes from water with C18-functional ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this study, the new C(18)-functionalized ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles (C(18)-UMS NPs) were successfully synthesized and applied for extraction of sudan dyes in water samples based on the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The extraction and concentration were carried out in one step by blending C(18)-UMS NPs and water samples. The sudan dyes adsorbed C(18)-UMS NPs were isolated from the matrix easily with an external magnetic field. After desorption the quantitation of sudan dyes was done by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC). Satisfactory extraction recovery can be obtained with only 50 mg C(18)-UMS NPs. The effects of experimental parameters, including the amount of the nanoparticles, extraction time, pH value, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. The limits of detection for sudan I, II, III and IV were 0.066, 0.070, 0.12 and 0.12 ng mL(-1), respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the six spiked water samples were between 68% and 103%. PMID:22284457

Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Yu, Xi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xiumin; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

2012-01-30

118

Simultaneous removal of binary mixture of Brilliant Green and Crystal Violet using derivative spectrophotometric determination, multivariate optimization and adsorption characterization of dyes on surfactant modified nano-?-alumina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with the simultaneous removal of Brilliant Green (BG) and Crystal Violet (CV) by surfactant-modified alumina. The utilization of alumina nanoparticles with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) as a novel and efficient adsorbent is successfully carried out to remove two cationic dyes from aqueous solutions in binary batch systems. A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV in binary solutions. The linear concentration range and limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV were found to be: 1-20, 1-15 mg/L, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The influence of various parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration of dyes and sorbent mass on the dye adsorption is investigated. A response surface methodology achieved through performing the Box-Behnken design is utilized to optimize the removal of dyes by surfactant-modified nanoparticle alumina through a batch adsorption process. The proposed quadratic model resulting from the Box-Behnken design approach fitted very well with the experimental data. The optimal conditions for dye removal were contact time t = 50 min, sorbent dose = 0.036 g, CBG (Initial BG concentration) = 215 mg/L and CCV (Initial CV concentration) = 170 mg/L. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis, the isotherms and kinetics of adsorption were also explored.

Zolgharnein, Javad; Bagtash, Maryam; Shariatmanesh, Tahere

2015-02-01

119

Photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye using Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin film prepared by chemical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made by researchers for the removal of various dyes using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2; however, removal of `hazardous Ponceau S dye' using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 has been not studied yet. In the present work, environmental application of Nano structured Ni doped TiO2 has been studied. Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by the chemical method on a glass substrate. The prepared thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. The crystal size calculated from XRD is about 26.2 nm. The SEM analysis reveals nano spherical morphology of average particle size about 92 nm. The optical analysis was carried by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The band gap estimated from absorbance spectra for thin film was around 3.5 eV, making suitable Ni-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye. In photocatalytic application different parameters like dye concentration, contact time, pH, UV light and sunlight were optimized for the removal of Ponceau S dye, respectively. The change in chemical oxygen demand after photo catalytic treatment was also studied.

Marathe, Sunil D.; Shrivastava, Vinod S.

2015-02-01

120

[Determination of ten basic dyes in meat products by ultra fast liquid chromatography-ion trap time of flight mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 basic dyes in meat products using ultra fast liquid chromatography-ion trap time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS). The target analytes were separated at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) column with a gradient elution. The mobile phase was 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid). The identification and quantification were achieved in positive ion mode with electro spray ionization source. The samples were extracted with a simple procedure using acetonitrile and cleaned up by weak cation exchange (Oasis WCX) solid phase extraction column. Ten basic dyes were determined by LC-IT-TOF-MS, and quantified by external standard method. The developed method showed a good linearity over the wide range of 1.0 - 100.0 microg/L, and the relative standard deviations (n = 7) were less than 8.54%. The average recoveries of the ten basic dyes at three levels (2, 10 and 25 microg/kg) were ranged from 65.39% to 119.18%. Therefore, this method, owing to its simplicity, rapidity and high sensitivity, has a good applicability to the simultaneous determination of dye residues in meat products. PMID:23256378

Zhang, Donglei; Wang, Lina; Chen, Xiaozhen; Wang, Jin; Cao, Hui; Huang, Liying

2012-08-01

121

Utilization of various agricultural wastes for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Activated carbons were prepared from the agricultural solid wastes, silk cotton hull, coconut tree sawdust, sago waste, maize cob and banana pith and used to eliminate heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution. Adsorption of all dyes and metal ions required a very short time and gave quantitative removal. Experimental results show all carbons were effective for the removal of pollutants from water. Since all agricultural solid wastes used in this investigation are freely, abundantly and locally available, the resulting carbons are expected to be economically viable for wastewater treatment. PMID:12733586

Kadirvelu, K; Kavipriya, M; Karthika, C; Radhika, M; Vennilamani, N; Pattabhi, S

2003-03-01

122

Process development for the removal and recovery of hazardous dye erythrosine from wastewater by waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya as adsorbents.  

PubMed

Erythrosine is a water-soluble xanthene class of dye. It is widely used as colorant in foods, textiles, drugs and cosmetics. It is highly toxic, causes various types of allergies, thyroid activities, carcinogenicity, DNA damage behaviour, neurotoxicity and xenoestrogen nature in the humans and animals. The photochemical and biochemical degradation of the erythrosine is not recommended due to formation of toxic by-products. The present paper is an attempt to remove erythrosine from wastewater using adsorption over Bottom Ash-a power plant waste and De-Oiled Soya-an agricultural waste. Under the batch studies, effect of concentration of dye, temperature, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc., have been studied for the uptake of the dye over both adsorbents. The adsorption process verifies Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms in both the cases and based on the data different thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Batch studies also include kinetic measurements, rate constant study, mass transfer behaviour and establishment of mechanistic pathway for both the cases. For the bulk removal of the dye column operations have been carried out and breakthrough capacities of the Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated. Attempts have also been made for the recovery of the adsorbed dye from exhausted columns by eluting dilute NaOH and more than 90% of the dye was recovered. PMID:16806679

Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha; Singh, A K

2006-11-01

123

Nano-silica fabricated with silver nanoparticles: antifouling adsorbent for efficient dye removal, effective water disinfection and biofouling control.  

PubMed

A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through protein mediated reduction of silver ions at ambient temperature for development of sustainable nanotechnology. The coated proteins on AgNPs led to the formation of stable NSAgNP and protected the AgNPs from oxidation and other ions commonly present in water. The NSAgNP exhibited excellent dye adsorption capacity both in single and multicomponent systems, and demonstrated satisfactory tolerance against variations in pH and dye concentration. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction, though ?-? interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. Moreover, the NSAgNP showed long-term antibacterial activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs retarded the initial attachment of bacteria on NSAgNP and thus significantly improved the antifouling properties of the nanomaterial, which further inhibited biofilm formation. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopic studies revealed that cell death occurred due to irreversible damage of the cell membrane upon electrostatic interaction of positively charged NSAgNP with the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. The high adsorption capacity, reusability, good tolerance, removal of multicomponent dyes and E. coli from the simulated contaminated water and antifouling properties of NSAgNP will provide new opportunities to develop cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification processes. PMID:23680871

Das, Sujoy K; Khan, Md Motiar R; Parandhaman, T; Laffir, Fathima; Guha, Arun K; Sekaran, G; Mandal, Asit Baran

2013-06-21

124

One-step fabricated Fe3O4@C core-shell composites for dye removal: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B-Fe3O4@C core-shell composites were synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process and used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. By using sodium borate as the catalyst, the hydrothermal carbonization process of B-Fe3O4@C core-shell composites was optimized and a higher surface area was obtained. The adsorbent was characterized by XRD, Raman spectra, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. We studied the dye adsorption process at different conditions and analyzed the data by employing the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the equilibrium data fitted well with both models. Kinetic analyses were conducted by using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model and the results showed that the adsorption process was more consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. To better understand the dye adsorption process from the thermodynamics perspective, we also calculated ?H?, ?S?, ?G? and Ea, the results suggesting that the MB adsorption process was physisorption endothermic process, and spontaneous at room temperature. The as-synthesized B-Fe3O4@C showing high magnetic sensitivity provides a facile and efficient way to recycle from aqueous solution.

Qu, Lingling; Han, Tingting; Luo, Zhijun; Liu, Cancan; Mei, Yan; Zhu, Ting

2015-03-01

125

Preparation of carbon microspheres decorated with silver nanoparticles and their ability to remove dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Solid, but not hollow or porous, carbon microspheres decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP-CMSs) were prepared from silver nitrate and CMSs by a redox reaction at room temperature. The CMSs and AgNP-CMSs were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Though with non-high specific surface area, the AgNP-CMSs exhibited a high adsorption capacity toward methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution. The AgNP-CMSs were able to remove all the MB from a solution of 30mg/L MB in water within 1min when the adsorbent concentration was 0.12g/L. The AgNP-CMSs also exhibited good adsorption and photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of aqueous Rhodamine B as well as MB under visible light. FTIR was used to examine the interaction between AgNP-CMSs and MB, and the spectrum and more extra experiments suggest ionic interactions between cationic dyes and the negatively charged groups can be formed but not the presence of abundant ?-? conjugations between dye molecules and the aromatic rings. The origin of the photocatalytic activity of AgNP-CMSs was attributed to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of the silver nanoparticles on the CMSs. PMID:25278157

Chen, Qingchun; Wu, Qingsheng

2015-02-11

126

Box-Behnken methodology for Cr (VI) and leather dyes removal by an eco-friendly biosorbent: F. vesiculosus.  

PubMed

This study focused on leather industrial effluents treatment by biosorption using Fucus vesiculosus as low-cost adsorbent. These effluents are yellowish-brown color and high concentration of Cr (VI). Therefore, biosorption process was optimized using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design operating with a simulated leather effluent obtained by mixture of Cr (VI) solution and four leather dyes. The key variables selected were initial solution pH, biomass dosage and CaCl2 concentration in the pretreatment stage. The statistical analysis shows that pH has a negligible effect, being the biomass dosage and CaCl2 concentration the most significant variables. At optimal conditions, 98% of Cr (VI) and 88% of dyes removal can be achieved. Freundlich fitted better to the obtained equilibrium data for all studied systems than Temkin, Langmuir or D-R models. In addition, the use of the final biosorbent as support-substrate to grown of enzyme producer fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus, was also demonstrated. PMID:24484851

Cobas, M; Sanromán, M A; Pazos, M

2014-05-01

127

Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal. PMID:19815339

Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

2010-02-15

128

Study of the physical properties of calcium alginate hydrogel beads containing vineyard pruning waste for dye removal.  

PubMed

In this work the morphological and surface properties of a biocomposite formulated with vineyard pruning waste entrapped in calcium alginate hydrogel beads were studied. The formulation of the calcium alginate hydrogel beads, containing vineyard pruning waste, was based on the capacity of this green adsorbent to remove dye compounds from wastewater, observing that in the optimum condition (1.25% of cellulosic residue, 2.2% of sodium alginate and 0.475 mol L(-1) CaCl2) the percentage of dyes was reduced up to 74.6%. At lower concentration of CaCl2, high-resolution optical images show that the elongation of the vineyard-alginate biocomposite decreased, whereas the compactness increased. Moreover, higher concentrations of cellulosic residue increased the biocomposite roundness in comparison with biocomposite without the cellulosic residue. Interferometric perfilometry analysis (Ra, Rq, Rz and Rt) revealed that high concentrations of CaCl2 increased the roughness of the of the calcium alginate hydrogel beads observing vesicles in the external surface. PMID:25439877

Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

2015-01-22

129

Textile dye dermatitis.  

PubMed

The literature concerning textile dye dermatitis published during the last decade was reviewed. Sixty-one cases of dye-allergic contact dermatitis in which the presentation or course of the dermatitis was unusual or the dye allergen was one not previously reported have been described. The four new dye allergens discovered were Disperse Blue 106, Disperse Blue 85, Disperse Brown 1, and Basic Red 46. The incidence of dye dermatitis varied from 1% to 15.9% depending on the country, patient sample, and number of dyes in the patch test series. The 10 new dye allergens discovered in these studies were Disperse Blue 153, Disperse Orange 13, Basic Black 1, Basic Brown 1, the acid dyes Supramine Yellow and Supramine Red, the direct dye Diazol Orange, the basic dye Brilliant Green, Turquoise Reactive, and Neutrichrome Red. Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 were shown to be the strongest clothing dye sensitizers to date. Standard screening patch test series were found to be inadequate for the detection of textile dye sensitivity; therefore textile dye patch test series should be used. It is difficult to determine whether the incidence of dye dermatitis is increasing or decreasing because controlled epidemiologic studies are lacking, but data suggest that textile dye sensitivity is more common than previously believed. PMID:7896955

Hatch, K L; Maibach, H I

1995-04-01

130

Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite is reported that was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. The nanocomposite comprises hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted onto xanthan gum as well as incorporated nanosilica. The synthesis exploits the saponification of the grafted polyacrylamide and the in situ formation of nanoscale SiO2 by a sol-gel reaction, in which the biopolymer matrix promotes the silica polymerization and therefore acts as a novel template for nanosilica formation. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherms of MB and MV from aqueous solution showed that the dyes adsorb rapidly, in accordance with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The entropy driven process was furthermore found to strongly depend on the point of zero charge (pzc) of the adsorbent. The remarkably high adsorption capacity of dyes on the nanocomposites (efficiency of MB removal, 99.4%; maximum specific removal Qmax, 497.5 mg g(-1); and efficiency of MV removal, 99.1%; Qmax, 378.8 mg g(-1)) is rationalized on the basis of H-bonding interactions as well as dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions between anionic adsorbent and cationic dye molecules. Because of the excellent regeneration capacity the nanocomposites are considered interesting materials for the uptake of, for instance, toxic dyes from wastewater. PMID:24579659

Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Asish; Raoufi, Mohammad; Panda, Asit Baran; Schönherr, Holger; Pal, Sagar

2014-04-01

131

Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

Nassar, Mostafa Y. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Ahmed, Ibrahim S., E-mail: isahmed2010@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

2012-09-15

132

Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents.  

PubMed

Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g(-1) for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations. PMID:23040660

Cardoso, Natali F; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V; Dotto, Guilherme L; Pinto, Luiz A A; Calvete, Tatiana

2012-11-30

133

Functional display of triphenylmethane reductase for dye removal on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal domain of ice nucleation protein.  

PubMed

Traditional biological treatment for triphenylmethane dye effluent is stuck with the inaccessibility of dye molecules to intracellular dye-degrading enzyme, thus a high-efficiency and low-cost method for dye decolorization is highly desirable. Here we established a bioremediation approach to display triphenylmethane reductase (TMR) on the surface of Escherichia coli (E. coli) using N-terminal of ice nucleation protein as anchoring motif for triphenylmethane dye decolorization for the first time. Approximately 85% of recombinant protein positioning on the surface of E. coil cells exhibited high activity and stability. The optimal temperature and pH of the surface-displayed TMR are 50 °C and 8.5, respectively. Comparing with other reported microorganisms, the decolorization rate for malachite green of this engineered strain is the highest so far, reaching 640 ?mol min(-1) g(-1) dry weight cells. These results indicate that this engineered E. coli strain is a very promising candidate for synthetic dye removal. PMID:25058292

Gao, Fen; Ding, Haitao; Feng, Zhuo; Liu, Danfeng; Zhao, Yuhua

2014-10-01

134

Enhancement of azo dye Acid Orange 7 removal in newly developed horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Horizontal subsurface-flow (HSF) constructed wetland incorporating baffles was developed to facilitate upflow and downflow conditions so that the treatment of pollutants could be achieved under multiple aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions sequentially in the same wetland bed. The performances of the baffled and conventional HSF constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, in the removal of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) were compared at the hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 5, 3 and 2 days when treating domestic wastewater spiked with AO7 concentration of 300 mg/L. The planted baffled unit was found to achieve 100%, 83% and 69% AO7 removal against 73%, 46% and 30% for the conventional unit at HRT of 5, 3 and 2 days, respectively. Longer flow path provided by baffled wetland units allowed more contact of the wastewater with the rhizomes, microbes and micro-aerobic zones resulting in relatively higher oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and enhanced performance as kinetic studies revealed faster AO7 biodegradation rate under aerobic condition. In addition, complete mineralization of AO7 was achieved in planted baffled wetland unit due to the availability of a combination of aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:25284799

Tee, Heng-Chong; Lim, Poh-Eng; Seng, Chye-Eng; Mohd Nawi, Mohd Asri; Adnan, Rohana

2015-01-01

135

Template-Free Synthesis of Functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156 m2 g-1, and the total pore volume is about 1.17 cm3 g-1. The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment.

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-03-01

136

Template-free synthesis of functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156?m(2) g(-1), and the total pore volume is about 1.17?cm(3) g(-1). The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment. PMID:24663292

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-01-01

137

Template-Free Synthesis of Functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156?m2 g?1, and the total pore volume is about 1.17?cm3 g?1. The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment. PMID:24663292

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-01-01

138

Highly active ZnO rod-like nanomaterials: Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity for dye removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly active ZnO rod-like nanostructures with pointed-shape ends have been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method using acetic acid as an organic capping agent. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the prepared sample reveals that the ZnO rod-like nanostructures are of pure hexagonal wurtzite structure. Morphology of the nanorods has been investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), which showed the formation of pointed nanorods of 30-50 nm in diameter and 400-650 nm in length. Optical properties have been investigated by UV-vis diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. UV-vis absorption spectrum indicated that the ZnO nanorods have higher visible light harvesting as compared to the other morphologies in the literature. Intense room temperature green-red photoluminescence peaks at 486 nm and 564 nm has been observed for the prepared ZnO. This gives a good evidence of the presence of ionized oxygen vacancies which are favorable for photocatalytic reactions. The BET surface area and the average (BJH) adsorption pore size were 269.86 m2/g and 2.86 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared sample was tested on the degradability of an industrial textile dye, Reactive Yellow 15 (Yellow GR), under sunlight irradiation. A 85.7% dye removal was achieved by applications of these rod-like nanostructures as a photocatalyst. The reusability of the synthesized ZnO nanomaterial has been investigated under the same experimental conditions for three time to evaluate the photoactivity of the photocatalyst.

Hafez, Hoda S.

2012-04-01

139

A new morphological approach for removing acid dye from leather waste water: Preparation and characterization of metal-chelated spherical particulated membranes (SPMs).  

PubMed

In this study, p(HEMA-GMA) poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) spherical particulated membranes (SPMs) were produced by UV-photopolymerization and the synthesized SPMs were coupled with iminodiacetic acid (IDA). Finally the novel SPMs were chelated with Cr(III) ions as ligand and used for removing acid black 210 dye. Characterizations of the metal-chelated SPMs were made by SEM, FTIR and swelling test. The water absorption capacities and acid dye adsorption properties of the SPMs were investigated and the results were 245.0, 50.0, 55.0 and 51.9% for p(HEMA), p(HEMA-GMA), p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA and p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs respectively. Adsorption properties of the p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs were investigated under different conditions such as different initial dye concentrations and pH. The optimum pH was observed at 4.3 and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 885.14 mg/g at about 8000 ppm initial dye concentration. The concentrations of the dyes were determined using a UV/Vis Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 435 nm. Reusability of p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs was also shown for five adsorption-desorption cycles without considerable decrease in its adsorption capacity. Finally, the results showed that the metal-chelated p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA SPMs were effective sorbent systems removing acid dye from leather waste water. PMID:25585142

?enay, Raziye Hilal; Gökalp, Safiye Meriç; Türker, Evren; Feyzio?lu, Esra; Aslan, Ahmet; Akgöl, Sinan

2015-03-15

140

BiFeO?/?-Fe?O? core/shell composite particles for fast and selective removal of methyl orange dye in water.  

PubMed

BiFeO3/?-Fe2O3 core/shell composite particles featuring fast removal, selective adsorption, and magnetic recycle capability on anionic methyl orange (MO) dye in water was synthesized by a two-step chemical route. A discontinuous and rough shell consisting of the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was deposited on the BiFeO3 core surface preferentially, forming raspberry-like core/shell particle morphology. The core/shell particles demonstrated a pronounced adsorption to the MO molecules when compared with particulate mixtures of the same molar ratio. At an initial MO concentration of 2.5×10(-5) M, nearly 80% of the dye molecules were captured by the core/shell particles within 5 min at an acidic pH of 5.2. Desorption of the MO dye could be made easily when the solution pH was adjusted to 9.5. This together with a minute adsorption capacity (<2%) from solutions consisting of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye suggests that the adsorption selectivity was in part due to electrostatic interactions between the dye molecules and the core/shell particles. PMID:24910040

Tseng, Wenjea J; Lin, Ruei-De

2014-08-15

141

Efficient removal of bilirubin from human serum by monosize dye affinity beads.  

PubMed

Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB) was covalently attached onto poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) monosize beads for removal of bilirubin from hyperbilirubinemia human serum. PGMA beads were produced by dispersion polymerization (1.6 ?m in diameter). CB loading was 1.73 mmol/g. Bilirubin adsorption experiments were performed by stirred-batch adsorption. The non-specific adsorption of bilirubin was low (0.4 mg/g polymer). CB attachment onto the PGMA beads significantly increased the bilirubin adsorption (241.5 mg/g) from aqueous solutions. The maximum bilirubin adsorption was observed at pH 6.0. With an increase of the aqueous phase concentration of sodium chloride, the adsorption amount of bilirubin decreased drastically. The equilibrium adsorption of bilirubin significantly increased with increasing temperature. Much higher adsorption values up to 332 mg bilirubin/g were achieved in the case of the PGMA/CB beads from human plasma. PMID:20566067

Alt?nta?, Evrim Banu; Türkmen, Deniz; Karakoç, Veyis; Denizli, Adil

2011-01-01

142

Batch and dynamic biosorption of basic dyes from binary solutions by alkaline-treated cypress cone chips.  

PubMed

A simple alkaline pre-treatment of Cupressus sempervirens cone chips was performed to improve their biosorption capacity towards methylene blue and rhodamine B from aqueous solutions, in batch and continuous modes. Biosorption kinetics were determined from single and binary dyes solutions, and properly described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Experimental single-dye equilibrium isotherms fitted the Langmuir-Freundlich model, with maximum biosorption capacities of 0.68mmol/g for methylene blue and 0.50mmol/g for rhodamine B. Single-dye dynamic biosorption showed that breakthrough time for methylene blue biosorption was almost four times longer than for rhodamine B and that the alkaline modification of the chips greatly improved the biosorption performance. Competitive dynamic biosorption demonstrated the preference of the modified cone chips for biosorbing methylene blue, confirmed by the exit concentration overshoots obtained in the breakthrough curves of rhodamine B. PMID:22197337

Fernandez, M E; Nunell, G V; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

2012-02-01

143

STATISTICAL DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF BATCH ADSORPTION CONDITIONS FOR REMOVAL OF REACTIVE RED 194 TEXTILE DYE FROM AQUEOUS EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factorial and central composite design experiments were performed to maximize the percentage removal of hydrolyzed reactive red 194 (HRR) from a simulated textile effluent by using Brazilian pine fruit wastes. Solution pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and adsorbent mass levels were systematically varied for both untreated and acid-treated wastes. Biosorbent dosage of 9.0 g L, pH of 2.0, and at least

Betina Royer; Eder C. Lima; Natali F. Cardoso; Tatiana Calvete; Roy E. Bruns

2010-01-01

144

A novel reusable nanocomposite for complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and microbial load from water based on nanocellulose and silver nano-embedded pebbles.  

PubMed

The present work proposed a nanocellulose (NC)-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded pebbles-based composite material as a novel reusable cost-effective water purification device for complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and microbes. NC was prepared using acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The AgNPs were generated in situ using glucose and embedded within the porous concrete pebbles by the technique of inter-diffusion of ion, providing a very strong binding of nanoparticles within the porous pebbles and thus preventing any nanomaterials leaching. Fabrication of a continual running water purifier was achieved by making different layering of NC and Ag nano-embedded pebbles in a glass column. The water purifier exhibited not only excellent dye and heavy metal adsorption capacity, but also long-term antibacterial activity against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. The bed column purifier has shown 99.48% Pb(II) and 98.30% Cr(III) removal efficiency along with 99% decontamination of microbial load at an optimum working pH of 6.0. The high adsorption capacity and reusability, with complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and Escherichia coli from the simulated contaminated water of composite material, will provide new opportunities to develop a cost-effective and eco-friendly water purifier for commercial application. PMID:25243917

Suman; Kardam, Abhishek; Gera, Meeta; Jain, V K

2015-03-01

145

Removal of hazardous azopyrazole dye from an aqueous solution using rice straw as a waste adsorbent: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, activated carbonmade from rice straw (ACRS) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure and used for the adsorption of hazardous azopyrazole dye. The effect of different variables in the batch method as a function of solution pH, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, adsorbent dosage and temperature were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertaine. Surface modification of ACRS using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was obtained. More than 75% removal efficiency was obtained within 75 min at adsorbent dose of 0.5 g for initial dye concentration of 30-100 mg L-1 at pH 3. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by the isotherm models namely, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption and the isotherm constants were determined. The kinetic data obtained with different initial concentration and temperature were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated and found to be +13.25 kJ mol-1 indicating that the adsorption is physisorption. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that ACRS could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from aqueous solution.

El-Bindary, Ashraf A.; El-Sonbati, Adel Z.; Al-Sarawy, Ahmad A.; Mohamed, Khaled S.; Farid, Mansour A.

2015-02-01

146

Removal of hazardous azopyrazole dye from an aqueous solution using rice straw as a waste adsorbent: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

In this research, activated carbonmade from rice straw (ACRS) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure and used for the adsorption of hazardous azopyrazole dye. The effect of different variables in the batch method as a function of solution pH, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, adsorbent dosage and temperature were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertaine. Surface modification of ACRS using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was obtained. More than 75% removal efficiency was obtained within 75min at adsorbent dose of 0.5g for initial dye concentration of 30-100mgL(-1) at pH 3. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by the isotherm models namely, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption and the isotherm constants were determined. The kinetic data obtained with different initial concentration and temperature were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated and found to be +13.25kJmol(-1) indicating that the adsorption is physisorption. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that ACRS could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from aqueous solution. PMID:25467678

El-Bindary, Ashraf A; El-Sonbati, Adel Z; Al-Sarawy, Ahmad A; Mohamed, Khaled S; Farid, Mansour A

2014-10-31

147

Removal of Remazol Blue RR dye from aqueous solutions with Neem leaves and evaluation of their acute toxicity with Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

The removal of dyes present in industrial effluent has received great attention in the past few years. This is partly due to increasing environmental awareness and the implementation of ever stricter environmental rules. However, some treatments for color removal from these effluents do not guarantee the absence of other secondary toxic substances, often originating from the treatment process itself. The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity level of the adsorbent Neem, used in adsorption processes for color removal, as well as that of the dye solution before and after the adsorption process. The toxicity tests were carried out according to the Environment Agency FATMA regulation no. 017/02. They consisted of exposing representative microorganisms from the environment, for a certain time interval, to several concentrations of one or more substances, under different environmental conditions, and then evaluating the toxic effects. The results show that the Neem leaf extract had a harmful affect on the test organism used. Thus, it is recommended that the leaf extract is removed prior to effluent treatment, since the results of this study indicate that this will reduce the toxicity of the effluent and also improve the efficiency of the adsorption process. PMID:18976858

Immich, Ana Paula Serafini; Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto; Ulson de Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli

2009-05-30

148

Suitability of dye–clay complexes for removal of non-ionic organic compounds from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous sorption of phenol, atrazine and naphthalene was measured on complexes formed from Na-montmorillonite (Fischer bentonite) and the organic cationic dyes crystal violet and rhodamine-B. Sorption isotherms were found to be non-linear. This agrees well with the rigid nature of the dye–clay organic coverage, which provides a finite surface for adsorption. High values of organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficients reached 20,000–25,000

Mikhail Borisover; Ellen R. Graber; Fernando Bercovich; Zev Gerstl

2001-01-01

149

Cr(VI) and azo dye removal using a hollow-fibre membrane system functionalized with a biogenic Pd-magnetite catalyst.  

PubMed

This study investigates the application of a hybrid system combining hollow-fibre membrane technology with the reductive abilities of magnetic nanoparticles for the remediation of toxic Cr(VI) and the azo dye, Remazol Black B. Nano-scale biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4), formed by microbial reduction of the mineral ferrihydrite, has a high reductive capacity due to the presence of Fe(II) in the mineral structure. The magnetic nanoparticles (approximately 20 nm) can be arrayed with Pd0 nanoparticles (approximately 5 nm) making a catalytically active nanomaterial. Membrane units, with and without nanoparticles, were challenged with either Cr(VI) or azo dye and some were supplemented with sodium formate, as an electron donor for contaminant reduction promoted by the Pd. The combination of Pd-magnetite with formate resulted in the most effective remediation strategy for both contaminants and the lifetime of the membrane unit was also increased, with 55% (19 days) and 70% (23 days) removal of the azo dye and Cr(VI), respectively. Low flow rates of 0.1 ml/min resulted in improved efficiencies due to increased contact time with the membrane/nanoparticle unit, with 70-75% removal of each contaminant. Chemical analyses of the nanoparticles post-exposure to Cr(VI) in the membrane modules indicated Pd to be more oxidized when Cr removal was maximized, and that the Cr was partially reduced to Cr(III) at the surface of the magnetite. These results have demonstrated that hollow-fibre membrane units can be enhanced for the removal of soluble, redox sensitive contaminants by incorporation of a layer of palladized biogenic nanoparticulate magnetite. PMID:24645489

Coker, V S; Garrity, A; Wennekes, W B; Roesink, H D W; Cutting, R S; Lloyd, J R

2014-01-01

150

Dye remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

151

Biosorption of Basic Green 4 from aqueous solution by Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption characteristics of Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder was investigated for decolorization of Basic Green 4 (BG 4), a cationic dye from its aqueous solutions employing a batch experimental set-up. Parameters that influence the sorption process such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were systematically studied. The optimum conditions for removal of BG 4 were

Shamik Chowdhury; Sagnik Chakraborty; Papita Saha

2011-01-01

152

Fabrication of nanospinel ZnCr2O4 using sol-gel method and its application on removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

For the first time, nanoparticles of zinc chromite, spinel ZnCr(2)O(4) have been fabricated by the thermal decomposition of Zn-Cr gel prepared by sol-gel method in the presence of oxalic acid as a chelating agent. It was shown that the well-crystallized spinel structure is formed after calcination at 450°C. The nanospinel has been characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average particle size is approximately 13 nm according to the TEM image. The nanoparticles of zinc chromites showed excellent adsorption properties towards reactive dye, reactive blue 5 (RB5). The adsorption studies have been carried out for contact time, different pH values, different temperatures, and adsorbent doses. The investigation of removal kinetics of RB5 indicates that the removal process obeys the rate of second-order kinetic equation. The results indicate that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the data better than the Freundlich. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of RB5 using spinel ZnCr(2)O(4) under UV irradiation at pH=1 has been also examined. The results showed that the degradation of RB5 dye follows merely an adsorption process. PMID:20863619

Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Khosravi, Iman; Goharshadi, Elaheh K; Youssefi, Abbas

2010-12-15

153

Characterization and utilization of mesoporous fertilizer plant waste carbon for adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the physico-chemical characteristics of low-cost fertilizer plant waste carbon (WC) for the adsorption of different dyes. The particle size analysis showed an average particle size of 167.35?m. Proximate and CHN analysis showed the presence of high amount of carbon in WC. Bulk density and heating value of WC were found to be 308.03kg\\/m3 and 22.3MJ\\/kg, respectively. The

I. D. Mall; V. C. Srivastava; G. V. A. Kumar; I. M. Mishra

2006-01-01

154

Removal of acidic dye from aqueous solutions using poly(DMAEMA–AMPS–HEMA) terpolymer\\/MMT nanocomposite hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, poly(DMAEMA–AMPS–HEMA) terpolymer\\/montmorillonite nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by in situ polymerization\\u000a technique using 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), 2-acrylamido-2-methlypropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate\\u000a (HEMA) monomers in clay suspension media. N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) was used as crosslinker and potassium persulfate\\/potassium bisulfide were used as initiator\\u000a and accelerator pair. The water absorption capacities and acidic dye (indigo carmine) adsorption properties of the

Mert Dalaran; Serkan Emik; Gamze Güçlü; Tülin Banu ?yim; Saadet Özgümü?

2009-01-01

155

Significantly enhanced dye removal performance of hollow tin oxide nanoparticles via carbon coating in dark environment and study of its mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the correlation between physicochemical properties and morphology of nanostructures is a prerequisite for widespread applications of nanomaterials in environmental application areas. Herein, we illustrated that the uniform-sized SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles were large-scale synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The size of the core-shell hollow nanoparticles was about 56 nm, and the shell was composed of a solid carbon layer with a thickness of 2 ~ 3 nm. The resulting products were characterized in terms of morphology, composition, and surface property by various analytical techniques. Moreover, the SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing four different dyes from aqueous solutions, which is superior to the pure hollow SnO2 nanoparticles and commercial SnO2. The enhanced mechanism has also been discussed, which can be attributed to the high specific surface areas after carbon coating.

Yang, Shuanglei; Wu, Zhaohui; Huang, LanPing; Zhou, Banghong; Lei, Mei; Sun, Lingling; Tian, Qingyong; Pan, Jun; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Hongbo

2014-08-01

156

An efficient removal of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto chitosan/MgO composite: A novel reusable adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel multi-functional magnesium oxide (MgO) immobilized chitosan (CS) composite was prepared by chemical precipitation method. The CS-MgO composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential. The composite was applied as a novel adsorbent for removal of methyl orange model dye and the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were studied. The adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo second order reaction. The adsorbent efficiency was unaltered even after five cycles of reuse. In addition, the composite exhibited a superior antibacterial efficacy of 93% within 24 h against Escherichia coli as measured by colony forming units. Based on the data of present investigation the composite being a biocompatible, eco-friendly and low-cost adsorbent with antibacterial activity could find potential applications in variety of fields and in particular environmental applications.

Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Shim, Jae-Jin

2014-02-01

157

Synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) coated-Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nano-composites and their fast removal of dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coated-Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nano-composites were synthesized through a solvothermal technique by using cheap and environmental friendly iron salts and PAA. Each nano-composite was composed of many small primary nanocrystals. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. These nano-composites showed rapid adsorption rate and super removal capacity of cation organic dye methylene blue (MB). Moreover, the MB desorption could be easily performed using methanol and acetic acid mixed solution. The reused performance of the nano-composites was also studied. PMID:23901484

Zhou, Chunjiao; Zhang, Wenjie; Xia, Mingxia; Zhou, Weichang; Wan, Qiang; Peng, Kun; Zou, Bingsuo

2013-07-01

158

Significantly enhanced dye removal performance of hollow tin oxide nanoparticles via carbon coating in dark environment and study of its mechanism.  

PubMed

Understanding the correlation between physicochemical properties and morphology of nanostructures is a prerequisite for widespread applications of nanomaterials in environmental application areas. Herein, we illustrated that the uniform-sized SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles were large-scale synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The size of the core-shell hollow nanoparticles was about 56 nm, and the shell was composed of a solid carbon layer with a thickness of 2?~?3 nm. The resulting products were characterized in terms of morphology, composition, and surface property by various analytical techniques. Moreover, the SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing four different dyes from aqueous solutions, which is superior to the pure hollow SnO2 nanoparticles and commercial SnO2. The enhanced mechanism has also been discussed, which can be attributed to the high specific surface areas after carbon coating. PMID:25221462

Yang, Shuanglei; Wu, Zhaohui; Huang, LanPing; Zhou, Banghong; Lei, Mei; Sun, Lingling; Tian, Qingyong; Pan, Jun; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Hongbo

2014-01-01

159

Color Tuning of an Acidic Blue Dye by Intercalation into the Basic Interlayer Galleries of a Poly(allylamine)/Synthetic Fluoromica  

E-print Network

conjugated system and a free sulfonate group. Introduction Many organic dyes are used in the food, cosmetics and hydroxide. For food, medical, and cosmetics applications, however, only certain acidic dyes for cosmetics, the use is strictly restricted by the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR

160

Process development for the batch and bulk removal and recovery of a hazardous, water-soluble azo dye (Metanil Yellow) by adsorption over waste materials (Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya).  

PubMed

Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya have been used as adsorbents for the removal of a hazardous azo dye-Metanil Yellow from its aqueous solutions. Adsorption of Metanil Yellow on these adsorbents has been studied as function of time, temperature, concentration and pH. Batch adsorption studies, kinetic studies and column operations enabled extraction of lethal dye from wastewaters. Adsorption equilibrium data confirms both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and monolayer coverage of dye over adsorbents. Kinetic data have been employed to calculate specific rate constants, indicating thereby involvement of first order kinetics in the on-going adsorption and activation energy was determined as 0.813 and 1.060 kJ mol(-1) for Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, respectively. For both adsorbents, the adsorption process has been found governing by film diffusion, over the entire concentration range. Column operations have also been performed for the bulk removal of the dye and also to examine the practical utilization of fixed bed adsorption technique in elimination of dangerous effluent. Saturation factors for Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated as 99.15 and 99.38%, respectively. Attempts have also been made to regenerate the dye from the exhausted columns using aqueous sodium hydroxide as eluent. PMID:17659833

Mittal, Alok; Gupta, V K; Malviya, Arti; Mittal, Jyoti

2008-03-01

161

Artificial neural network modeling of photocatalytic removal of a disperse dye using synthesized of ZnO nanoparticles on montmorillonite.  

PubMed

In this study, the photocatalytic ability of ZnO/Montmorilonite (ZnO/MMT) nanocomposite under UV-A, UV-B and UV-C radiation was investigated. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of MMT and used as photocatalyst in decolorization of Disperse Red 54 (DR54) solution. Synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms curves. The average width of synthesized ZnO particles is in the range of 30-45nm. Effect of UV light regions, initial dye concentration, initial dosage of nanocomposite, and reusability of catalyst was studied on decolorization efficiency. The highest decolorization efficiency was achieved under UV-C radiation. A three-layered feed forward back propagation artificial neural network model was developed to predict the photocatalysis of DR54 under UV-C radiation. According to ANN model the ZnO/MMT dosage with a relative importance of 49.21% is the most influential parameter in the photocatalytic decolorization process. PMID:25638428

K?ran?an, Murat; Khataee, Alireza; Karaca, Semra; Sheydaei, Mohsen

2015-04-01

162

Photoelectrocatalysis based on Ti/TiO2 nanotubes removes toxic properties of the azo dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 1 from aqueous chloride samples.  

PubMed

This work describes the efficiency of photoelectrocatalysis based on Ti/TiO2 nanotubes in the degradation of the azo dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 1 and to remove their toxic properties, as an alternative method for the treatment of effluents and water. For this purpose, the discoloration rate, total organic carbon (TOC) removal, and genotoxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic responses were determined, using the comet, micronucleus and cytotoxicity assays in HepG2 cells and the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. In a previous study it was found that the surfactant Emulsogen could contribute to the low mineralization of the dyes (60% after 4 h of treatment), which, in turn, seems to account for the mutagenicity of the products generated. Thus this surfactant was not added to the chloride medium in order to avoid this interference. The photoelectrocatalytic method presented rapid discoloration and the TOC reduction was ?87% after 240 min of treatment, showing that photoelectrocatalysis is able to mineralize the dyes tested. The method was also efficient in removing the mutagenic activity and cytotoxic effects of these three dyes. Thus it was concluded that photoelectrocatalysis was a promising method for the treatment of aqueous samples. PMID:23624428

Ferraz, E R A; Oliveira, G A R; Grando, M D; Lizier, T M; Zanoni, M V B; Oliveira, D P

2013-07-30

163

Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil  

PubMed Central

The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV–vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC–MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

2013-01-01

164

Microwave induced synthesis of graft copolymer of binary vinyl monomer mixtures onto delignified Grewia optiva fiber: application in dye removal.  

PubMed

Grafting method, through microwave radiation technique is very effective in terms of time consumption, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Via this method, delignified Grewia optiva identified as a waste biomass, was graft copolymerized with methylmethacrylate (MMA) as an principal monomer in a binary mixture of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) under microwave irradiation (MWR) using ascorbic acid/H2O2 as an initiator system. The concentration of the comonomer was optimized to maximize the graft yield with respect to the primary monomer. Maximum graft yield (86.32%) was found for dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) binary mixture as compared to other synthesized copolymer. The experimental results inferred that the optimal concentrations for the comonomers to the optimized primary monomer was observed to be 3.19 mol/L × 10(-1) for EMA and 2.76 mol/L × 10(-1) for EA. Delignified and graft copolymerized fiber were subjected to evaluation of physicochemical properties such as swelling behavior and chemical resistance. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermal stability of dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) was found to be more as compared to the delignified Grewia optiva fiber and other graft copolymers. Although the grafting technique was found to decrease percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index among the graft copolymers but there was significant increase in their acid/base and thermal resistance properties. The grafted samples have been explored for the adsorption of hazardous methylene dye from aqueous system. PMID:25157348

Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Priya, Bhanu; Singha, Amar Singh; Sharma, Gaurav

2014-01-01

165

Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.  

PubMed

Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. PMID:20456377

Davari, P; Maibach, H I

2011-01-01

166

Kinetic and equilibrium isotherm studies for the adsorptive removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution by rice husk ash.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the adsorption of Brilliant Green (BG) on rice husk ash (RHA). RHA is a solid waste obtained from the particulate collection equipment attached to the flue gas lines of rice husk fired boilers. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like initial pH (pH0), contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration (C0) on the removal of BG. Optimum conditions for BG removal were found to be pH0 approximately 3.0, adsorbent dose approximately 6 g L(-1) of solution and equilibrium time approximately 5 h for the C0 range of 50-300 mg L(-1). Adsorption of BG followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Intra-particle diffusion does not seem to control the BG removal process. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of BG on RHA were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson (R-P), Dubnin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin isotherm models using a non-linear regression technique. Langmuir and R-P isotherms were found to best represent the data for BG adsorption onto RHA. Adsorption of BG on RHA is favourably influenced by an increase in the temperature of the operation. Values of the change in entropy (DeltaS0) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH0) for BG adsorption on RHA were positive. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy (DeltaG0) indicates the feasible and spontaneous adsorption of BG on RHA. PMID:17000044

Mane, Venkat S; Deo Mall, Indra; Chandra Srivastava, Vimal

2007-09-01

167

Dye removal from aqueous solution by cobalt-nano particles decorated aluminum silicate: Kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanism studies.  

PubMed

This article describes the preparation of a nanoadsorbent containing Co-nanoparticles decorated functionalized SiO2-Al2O3 mixed-oxides as a scavenger toward removal of methyl orange. SiO2-Al2O3 mixed-oxides were functionalized with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde and thereafter, in the next step, Co-nanoparticle was prepared over the modified mixed-oxides. The as-prepared nanoadsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that Co-nanoparticle with average size of about 5-25nm was immobilized successfully on the surface of modified mixed-oxides and was widely dispersed. EPR and CV of Si/Al-PAEA=PyCA@CoNP confirmed that most of the covalently bond active sites of the nano-adsorbent are in the form of Co(II) ions. The supported cobalt is a suitable and efficient adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution. The heterogeneous Co-NPs were found to be effective adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange ions from solution. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The CV and EIS of the Co-NPs-MO indicates an easily oxidizable environment, this being in agreement with the FTIR data, where the electron density at Co-NPs is higher due to the presence of a donor-electron ligand (methyl orange), that is, reduction of Co-NPs from +3 to +2 oxidation state is more favored. PMID:25460694

Arshadi, M; Faraji, A R; Mehravar, M

2015-02-15

168

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TOXIC RELEASES FROM LEATHER INDUSTRY DYEING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number of formulations used at a...

169

Ultrasound-promoted coating of MOF-5 on silk fiber and study of adsorptive removal and recovery of hazardous anionic dye "congo red".  

PubMed

A metal-organic framework MOF-5 has been synthesized on silk fiber through electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly. The silk surface coating was formed via sequential dipping in an alternating bath of metal and ligand solutions at room temperature by direct mixing. SEM was used to investigate the growth of MOF-5 coating as materials for separation membrane due to their desirable properties in adsorptive removal of congo red (CR) from contaminated water. The adsorption capacity of MOF-5 is remarkable high in the liquid phase. The adsorption of CR at various concentration and contact time in spontaneous process were studied. The silk fibers containing MOF-5 open a wide field of possible applications, such as protection layers or membranes in pollution remediation wastewater and any effluent. Desorption of the dye can be carried out by using NaOH solution with more than about 50% recovery of congo red from MOF-5 coated on silk membrane filtration. In order to investigate the role of sonicating on the morphology of products, one of the reactions was performed with ultrasound irradiation and the crystal growth is completed more than other methods. The samples and adsorption of CR were characterized with SEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. PMID:24412182

Khanjani, Somayeh; Morsali, Ali

2014-07-01

170

Efficient removal of dyes by a novel magnetic Fe3O4/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent from heavy metal wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel magnetic Fe(3)O(4)/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent was produced from electroplating wastewater and pickling waste liquor via a two-step microwave hydrothermal method. Adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from water was studied using this material. The effects of three variables have been investigated by a single-factor method. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was successfully applied to the optimization of the preparation conditions. The maximum adsorption capacity of MO was found to be 240.16 mg/g, indicating that this material may be an effective adsorbent. It was shown that 99% of heavy metal ions (Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), and Zn(2+)) can be effectively removed into precipitates and released far less in the adsorption process. In addition, this material with adsorbed dye can be easily separated by a magnetic field and recycled after catalytic regeneration with advanced oxidation technology. Meanwhile, kinetic models, FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction pattern were applied to the experimental data to examine uptake mechanism. The boundary layer and intra-particle diffusion played important roles in the adsorption mechanisms. PMID:23122732

Chen, Dan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Zhou, Jizhi; Shao, Li; Qian, Guangren

2012-12-01

171

Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper–pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results

Zümriye Aksu; I. Alper Isoglu

2006-01-01

172

Fast removal of malachite green dye using novel superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this study, superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Alg-Fe3O4) as a novel magnetic adsorbent were prepared by in situ coprecipitation method, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles were precipitated from FeCl3 and FeCl2 under alkaline medium in the presence of sodium alginate. The Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used for removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption technique. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed using XRD, FTIR, TEM, TGA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. FTIR analysis of synthesized nanoparticles provided the evidence that sodium alginate was successfully coated on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The FT-IR and TGA characterization showed that the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles contained about 14% (w/w) of sodium alginate. Moreover, TEM analysis indicated that the average diameter of the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 12nm. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature were investigated on the adsorption properties of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The equilibrium adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 47.84mg/g. The kinetics of adsorption of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the adsorption of MG onto nanoparticles followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:24875322

Mohammadi, Abbas; Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi

2014-08-01

173

Adsorption of basic fuchsin using waste materials—bottom ash and deoiled soya—as adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic fuchsin, a triaminotriphenylmethane dye, was removed by adsorption utilizing two waste materials—“bottom ash,” a power plant waste material, and “deoiled soya,” an agriculture waste product. The adsorbents were characterized through IR spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out by measuring effects of pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, amount of adsorbent, contact time, temperature, etc.

V. K. Gupta; Alok Mittal; Vibha Gajbe; Jyoti Mittal

2008-01-01

174

Dye filled security seal  

DOEpatents

A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

1982-04-27

175

Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

2011-01-01

176

Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

1977-01-01

177

Electrochemical decolourisation of structurally different dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical decolourisation of structurally different dyes (bromophenol blue, indigo, poly R-478, phenol red, methyl orange, fuchsin, methyl green and crystal violet) by means of the application of DC electric current was assessed. It was found that the electrochemical process allowed a colour removal of all dyes studied, although the decolourisation rate largely depended on the chemical structure of the

M. A. Sanromán; M. Pazos; M. T. Ricart; C. Cameselle

2004-01-01

178

Dye adsorption on mesoporous activated carbon fiber obtained from pitch containing yttrium complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of acid dyes (Acid Blue 9, Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Orange 51), direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Yellow 11, and Direct Yellow 50), and basic dyes (Basic Brown 1 and Basic Violet 3) on a highly mesoporous activated carbon fiber (Y-ACF) obtained from pitch containing yttrium acetylacetonate was investigated in terms of size

Hisashi Tamai; Takeshi Yoshida; Masahiko Sasaki

1999-01-01

179

Poly(acrylic acid)-coated iron oxide nanoparticles: quantitative evaluation of the coating properties and applications for the removal of a pollutant dye.  

PubMed

In this work, 6-12 nm iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and coated with poly(acrylic acid) chains of molecular weight 2100 g mol(-1). Based on a quantitative evaluation of the dispersions, the bare and coated particles were thoroughly characterized. The number densities of polymers adsorbed at the particle surface and of available chargeable groups were found to be 1.9±0.3 nm(-2) and 26±4 nm(-2), respectively. Occurring via a multi-site binding mechanism, the electrostatic coupling leads to a solid and resilient anchoring of the chains. To assess the efficacy of the particles for pollutant remediation, the adsorption isotherm of methylene blue molecules, a model of pollutant, was determined. The excellent agreement between the predicted and the measured amounts of adsorbed dyes suggests that most carboxylates participate to the complexation and adsorption mechanisms. An adsorption of 830 mg g(-1) was obtained. This quantity compares well with the highest values available for this dye. PMID:23305885

Fresnais, J; Yan, M; Courtois, J; Bostelmann, T; Bée, A; Berret, J-F

2013-04-01

180

Photosensitization of diazo disperse dye in aqueous acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most disperse dyes that are usually used by the textile dyeing industry are resistant to UV degradation. The photodegradation of dyeing wastewater in the presence of acetone, which performs as a solvent and\\/or a photo-sensitizer, was investigated in this study. The results demonstrated that photochemical reaction in the presence of acetone could rapidly and effectively enhance color removal at a

Wei Chu; Sui-Mei Tsui

1999-01-01

181

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

182

Unblocking the Sink: Improved CID-Based Analysis of Phosphorylated Peptides by Enzymatic Removal of the Basic C-Terminal Residue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-step enzymatic reaction for improving the collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of phosphorylated peptides in an ion trap is presented. Carboxypeptidase-B (CBP-B) was used to selectively remove C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from phosphorylated tryptic/Lys-C peptides prior to their MS/MS analysis by CID with a Paul-type ion trap. Removal of this basic C-terminal residue served to limit the extent of gas-phase neutral loss of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), favoring the formation of diagnostic b and y ions as determined by an increase in both the number and relative intensities of the sequence-specific product ions. Such differential fragmentation is particularly valuable when the H3PO4 elimination is so predominant that localizing the phosphorylation site on the peptide sequence is hindered. Improvement in the quality of tandem mass spectral data generated by CID upon CBP-B treatment resulted in greater confidence both in assignment of the phosphopeptide primary sequence and for pinpointing the site of phosphorylation. Higher Mascot ion scores were also generated, combined with lower expectation values and higher delta scores for improved confidence in site assignment; Ascore values also improved. These results are rationalized in accordance with the accepted mechanisms for the elimination of H3PO4 upon low energy CID and insights into the factors dictating the observed dissociation pathways are presented. We anticipate this approach will be of utility in the MS analysis of phosphorylated peptides, especially when alternative electron-driven fragmentation techniques are not available.

Lanucara, Francesco; Chi Hoo Lee, Dave; Eyers, Claire E.

2013-12-01

183

Dye adsorption by prehydrolysed beech sawdust in batch and fixed-bed systems.  

PubMed

The batch and column kinetics of methylene blue and red basic 22 adsorption on mild acid-hydrolysed beech sawdust were investigated, using untreated beech sawdust as control, in order to explore its potential use as a low cost adsorbent for wastewater dye removal. The adsorption capacities, estimated according to Freundlich's model, and the adsorption capacity coefficient values, determined using the Bohart and Adams' bed depth service model, indicated that prehydrolysis enhances the adsorption properties of the original material. This enhancement can possibly be attributed to (a) the removal of the hemicelluloses during sulphuric acid treatment, resulting in the 'opening' of the lignocellulosic matrix's structure and the increasing of the BET surface area and (b) the activation of the material's surface owing to an increase in the number of dye binding sites. PMID:16815007

Batzias, F A; Sidiras, D K

2007-04-01

184

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

185

Utilization of Fly ash as Low-Cost Adsorbent for the Removal of Methylene Blue, Malachite Green and Rhodamine B Dyes from Textile Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash was utilized as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue, malachite green and rhodamine B from artificial textile wastewater. The adsorbent was characterized by its physico-chemical analyses, porosity, surface area, ignition loss measurements and scanning electron micrograph. Adsorption studies were carried out in a batch process with different concentrations of dyestuffs, pH, temperature and contact

Tabrez A. KHAN; Imran ALI; Ved VATI SINGH; Sangeeta SHARMA

186

Just Dyeing to Find Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

Monhardt, Becky Meyer

1996-01-01

187

A hybrid artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization for prediction of removal of hazardous dye brilliant green from aqueous solution using zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R2) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively.

Ghaedi, M.; Ansari, A.; Bahari, F.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Vafaei, A.

2015-02-01

188

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

189

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

190

Removal of some textile dyes from aqueous solutions by poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/water and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/K 2S 2O 8/water systems are hydrogels prepared by irradiation with ?-rays at ambient temperature. Both hydrogel systems were employed for diffusion and swelling experiments in various textile dyes aqueous solutions (textile dyes such as Cibacron Blue (CB) F3GA, Methyl Orange (MO), Congo Red (CR)). For these hydrogel systems, swelling studies indicated that swelling percentages increased in the following order: MO>CB F3GA>CR at fixed dose 96 kGy. Because of this reason MO dye solution has been chosen and all swelling properties are investigated for 26, 64, 96 and 124 kGy. The swelling capabilities of PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels in MO dye solution vary in the range of 400-1500%. The diffusion of dye solutions PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels was assumed to be Fickian character. The swelling behavior of PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels exhibits second-order kinetic in all dye solutions. Diffusion coefficient, initial swelling rate, swelling rate constant, maximum swelling and equilibrium water/dye content were found for all gel systems in dye solutions.

Can, Hatice Kaplan; Kirci, Betül; Kavlak, Serap; Güner, Ali

2003-12-01

191

Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2008-01-01

192

Dye Like A Natural  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

Yu, Julie

2010-01-01

193

A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10-5 mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia

2013-11-01

194

Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas  

E-print Network

Abstract—Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM) h, at 320 C. Keywords- Dye effluent degradation; biokinetics; anaerobic. I.

Natarajan Rajamohan; Manivasagan Rajasimman

195

Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and column operations for the removal of hazardous dye, Tartrazine from aqueous solutions using waste materials--Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, as adsorbents.  

PubMed

Adsorbents, Bottom Ash (a power plant waste) and De-Oiled Soya (an agricultural waste) exhibit good efficacy to adsorb a highly toxic dye, Tartrazine. Through the batch technique equilibrium uptake of the dye is observed at different concentrations, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents and sieve size of adsorbents. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms are successfully employed on both the adsorbents and on the basis of these models the thermodynamic parameters are evaluated. Kinetic investigations reveal that more than 50% adsorption of dye is achieved in about 1h in both the cases, whereas, equilibrium establishment takes about 3-4h. The linear plots obtained in rate constant and mass transfer studies further confirm the applicability of first order rate expression and mass transfer model, respectively. The kinetic data treated to identify rate controlling step of the ongoing adsorption processes indicate that for both the systems, particle diffusion process is predominant at higher concentrations, while film diffusion takes place at lower concentrations. The column studies reveal that about 96% saturation of both the columns is attained during their exhaustion, while about 88 and 84% of the dye material is recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns, respectively. PMID:16442722

Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

2006-08-25

196

Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor.  

PubMed

This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm(-2) and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E(dye)) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg(dye) was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg(dye) for disperse and 50 kWh/kg(dye) for the mixture. PMID:20870356

Balla, Wafaa; Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Dassaa, A; Chenik, H; Azzi, M

2010-12-15

197

Wet oxidation of high-concentration reactive dyes  

SciTech Connect

Advanced oxidation methods were used to degrade reactive dyes at high concentrations in aqueous solutions. Wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) was found to be the best method in terms of the removal of color and total organic carbon (TOC). Reactive blue (Basilen Brilliant Blue P-3R) was chosen as a model dye for determining the suitable reaction conditions. The variables studied include reaction temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, solution pH, dye concentration, and catalyst usage. The removal of TOC and color by wet oxidation is very sensitive to the reaction temperature. At 150 C, the removal of 77% TOC and 90% color was obtained in less than 30 min. The initial TOC removal rate is proportional to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage. The TOC removal is insignificant even when 50% of the stoichiometric amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used. No color change is observed until the dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is 100% of the stoichiometric amount. The color removal is closely related to TOC removal. When the pH of the solution is adjusted to 3.5, the dye degradation rate increases significantly. The rates of TOC and color removal are enhanced by using a Cu{sup 2+} catalyst. Another four reactive dyes, Procion Red PX-4B, Cibacron Yellow P-6GS, Cibacron Brown P-6R, and Procion Black PX-2R, were treated at 150 C using WPO. More than 80% TOC was removed from the solution in less than 15 min. The process can remove the colors of al these dyes except Procion Black PX-2R.

Chen, G.; Lei, L.; Yue, P.L. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-05-01

198

[Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].  

PubMed

In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

2014-04-16

199

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Cosmetics Tips Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

200

THE REMOVAL OF BROMOPHENOL BLUE FROM WATER BY SOLVENT SUBLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromophenol blue (BB), an anionic dye, was removed from aqueous solution by solvent sublation of a BB hexadecyl-pyridiumchloride (HPC) complex (sublate) into isopentanol. A stoichiometric amount of surfactant (surfactant-dye = 2:1) was the most effective compound for the removal, with over 95% BB removed from the aqueous solution in 10 minutes by solvent sublation. The removal rate was somewhat enhanced

Yujuan Lu; Yuesong Wang; Xihai Zhu

2001-01-01

201

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

202

Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of water pollution has become of increasing importance in recent years. The release of dyes into the environment constitutes only a small proportion of water pollution, but dyes are visible in small quantities due to their brilliance. Tightening government legislation is forcing textile industries to treat their waste effluent to an increasingly high standard. Currently, removal of dyes

Tim Robinson; Geoff McMullan; Roger Marchant; Poonam Nigam

2001-01-01

203

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

204

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

205

Degradation of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 in pyrite ash catalyzed Fenton reaction.  

PubMed

Pyrite ash (PA) is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4) degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2?g?L(-1); [H2O2]0=5?mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100?mg?L(-1). The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu) content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes. PMID:24526885

Becelic-Tomin, Milena; Dalmacija, Bozo; Rajic, Ljiljana; Tomasevic, Dragana; Kerkez, Djurdja; Watson, Malcolm; Prica, Miljana

2014-01-01

206

Ultrafast interfacial electron transfer in dye-sensitized ZnO nanocrystalline films: comparison with other metal oxides (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor films are used as a photoactive part in dye-sensitized solar cells, which are recently attracting much interest both in basic and applied studies. Electron transfer reaction from a photoexcited dye molecule, which is chemically adsorbed on the surface of semiconductor, into the semiconductor conduction band is the primary step to generate photocurrent. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with

Akihiro Furube; Ryuzi Katoh; Kohjiro Hara; Masanori Tachiya

2005-01-01

207

Degradation of environment pollutant dyes using phytosynthesized metal nanocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present for the first time biogenic reduction and stabilization of gold and silver ions at room temperature using fruit juice of Punica granatum. The formation, morphology and crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles are determined using UV-Visible, XRD and TEM. An attempt to reveal the partial role of phenolic hydroxyls in the reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ is done through FTIR analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles are used as potential catalysts in the degradation of a cationic phenothiazine dye, an anionic mono azo dye and a cationic fluorescent dye. The calculated values of percentage removal of dyes and the rate constants from pseudo first order kinetic data fit give a comparative study on degradation of organic dyes in presence of prepared gold and silver nanoparticles.

MeenaKumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

2015-01-01

208

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

209

Wastewater treatment: Dye and pigment industry. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of wastewater containing dyes and pigments. The citations discuss the of dyes and pigments in wastewater treatment systems, biodegradation of dyes, absorption and adsorption processes to remove dyes from wastewater, environmental effects from the disposal of dye-containing wastes, and methods of analysis for dyes in waste streams. Treatment methods such as ozonation, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal filtration, activated sludge, electrochemical treatments, thermal treatments, simple filtration, and absorption media are included. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01

210

Dye system for dye laser applications  

DOEpatents

A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

211

Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.  

PubMed

The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:19631461

Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

2009-12-15

212

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-01-01

213

Local delivery of fluorescent dye for fiber-optics confocal microscopy of the living heart  

PubMed Central

Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption, and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release vs. foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5–9 lines, which is comparable to 4–8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery. PMID:25309455

Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K.; Hitchcock, Robert W.; Sachse, Frank B.

2014-01-01

214

Chemical stabilization of laser dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

Koch, Tad H.

1987-05-01

215

Vermicompost for Tinted Organic Cationic Dyes Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of vermicompost was expanded as natural adsorbent for cationic dyes retention. The adsorption profiles in batch and\\u000a flow modes for crystal violet and methylene blue on vermicompost material were evaluated. In batch mode, a retention index\\u000a higher than 97% was obtained for both compounds, while in flow condition, 40 g of dried adsorbent material were enough to\\u000a remove 100 mg

Madson de Godoi Pereira; Mauro Korn; Bruno Barros Santos; Marcia Guia Ramos

2009-01-01

216

Resonance energy transfer in DNA duplexes labeled with localized dyes.  

PubMed

The growing maturity of DNA-based architectures has raised considerable interest in applying them to create photoactive light harvesting and sensing devices. Toward optimizing efficiency in such structures, resonant energy transfer was systematically examined in a series of dye-labeled DNA duplexes where donor-acceptor separation was incrementally changed from 0 to 16 base pairs. Cyanine dyes were localized on the DNA using double phosphoramidite attachment chemistry. Steady state spectroscopy, single-pair fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, and ultrafast two-color pump-probe methods were utilized to examine the energy transfer processes. Energy transfer rates were found to be more sensitive to the distance between the Cy3 donor and Cy5 acceptor dye molecules than efficiency measurements. Picosecond energy transfer and near-unity efficiencies were observed for the closest separations. Comparison between our measurements and the predictions of Förster theory based on structural modeling of the dye-labeled DNA duplex suggest that the double phosphoramidite linkage leads to a distribution of intercalated and nonintercalated dye orientations. Deviations from the predictions of Förster theory point to a failure of the point dipole approximation for separations of less than 10 base pairs. Interactions between the dyes that alter their optical properties and violate the weak-coupling assumption of Förster theory were observed for separations of less than four base pairs, suggesting the removal of nucleobases causes DNA deformation and leads to enhanced dye-dye interaction. PMID:25397906

Cunningham, Paul D; Khachatrian, Ani; Buckhout-White, Susan; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Goldman, Ellen R; Medintz, Igor L; Melinger, Joseph S

2014-12-18

217

Kinetics of UV, Fenton and Photo Fenton Processes for Decolorization of Various Red CL-5B Dye Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decolorization of Red CL-5B azo dye was studied using UV, Fenton and Photo Fenton processes. The effect of initial dye concentration, FeSO4 dose, pH and variation in UV time on decolorization was investigated. UV radiation was carried out with a 108 W low-pressure mercury lamp. Increase in the ferrous dose beyond the optimal dose resulted in significant decrease in color removal efficiency. The optimal doses were found to be 20, 30 and 50 mg L-1 for 100, 300 and 500 mg L-1 dye concentrations, respectively. The highest decolorization was observed at pH 2. However, in acidic range (2-6) removal efficiency for particular dye concentration was almost same at particular settling time. For photo Fenton process UV irradiation time was doubled as the dye concentration was increased to furnish more than 90% removal efficiency. Color removal curves obeyed first order kinetics irrespective of dye concentration.

Yasar, Abdullah; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Aamir Amanat Ali; Khan, Hajira; Khalid, Mehwish

218

Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

219

A comparative study on biosorption characteristics of certain fungi for bromophenol blue dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory investigations of the potential use of dried biomasses of Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., and Aspergillus fumigatus as biosorbents for the removal of bromophenol blue (BPB) dye from aqueous solutions were conducted. Kinetics studies indicated\\u000a that the BPB dye uptake processes can be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The fungal biomasses exhibited the\\u000a highest dye biosorption at

Youssef Zeroual; Beom Su Kim; Choel Sang Kim; Mohamed Blaghen; Kang Min Lee

2006-01-01

220

Decolorization of an anthraquinone-type dye using a laccase formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was studied, as it is representative of an important class of recalcitrant anthraquinone-type dyes. For this purpose a commercial laccase formulation (CLF) containing laccase, a redox mediator and a non-ionic surfactant was used. Small molecular weight components were removed from the CLF by gel filtration, which made it possible to compare

Graça M. B Soares; Maria Costa-Ferreira; M. T Pessoa de Amorim

2001-01-01

221

Adsorption of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Calcined Alunite and Granular Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyestuff production units and dyeing units have always had a pressing need for techniques that allow economical pretreatment for color in the effluent. The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters had made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment options. This paper deals with an investigation on alunite, existing wide reserves in Türkiye and in the world,

Mahmut Özacar; ?. Ayhan ?engil

2002-01-01

222

Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2012-01-01

223

Sorption characterization of a cationic dye retained by clays and perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of C.I. Basic Blue 41 onto raw perlite, expanded perlite, bentonite and montmorillonite was characterized. Sorption experiments demonstrated that the clays are more efficient adsorbents compared with the perlites but their dye retention is less increased with pH and temperature. Higher dye aggregates are formed in all aluminosilicates due to the existence of adsorption locations that promote the

Maria Roulia; Alexandros A. Vassiliadis

2008-01-01

224

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11

225

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye ingredients is available from the National Toxicology Program (NTP), an interagency program of the U.S. ... permanent hair dyes: new insights. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2007; 37(6):521–536. [PubMed Abstract] de ...

226

Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

2012-03-01

227

Understanding the degradation of Congo red and bacterial diversity in an air-cathode microbial fuel cell being evaluated for simultaneous azo dye removal from wastewater and bioelectricity generation.  

PubMed

We investigated the mechanism of Congo red degradation and bacterial diversity in a single-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) incorporating a microfiltration membrane and air-cathode. The MFC was operated continuously for more than 4 months using a mixture of Congo red and glucose as fuel. We demonstrated that the Congo red azo bonds were reduced at the anode to form aromatic amines. This is consistent with the known mechanism of anaerobic biodegradation of azo dyes. The MFC developed a less dense biofilm at the anode in the presence of Congo red compared to its absence indicating that Congo red degradation negatively affected biofilm formation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and direct 16S ribosomal DNA gene nucleotide sequencing revealed that the microbial communities differed depending on whether Congo red was present in the MFC. Geobacter-like species known to generate electricity were detected in the presence or absence of Congo red. In contrast, Azospirillum, Methylobacterium, Rhodobacter, Desulfovibrio, Trichococcus, and Bacteroides species were only detected in its presence. These species were most likely responsible for degrading Congo red. PMID:22678023

Sun, Jian; Li, Youming; Hu, Yongyou; Hou, Bin; Zhang, Yaping; Li, Sizhe

2013-04-01

228

SEDIMENT REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

When properly conducted, sediment removal is an effective lake management technique. This chapter describes: (1) purposes of sediment removal, (2) environmental concerns, (3) appropriate depth of sediment removal, (4) sediment removal techniques, (5) suitable lake conditions, (6)...

229

Demonstration of oxidation dyes on human hair.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method of selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis which can demonstrate the staining of human hair with oxidation hair dyes. Hair samples were decomposed with NaOH-Na2S2O4 solution by heating (100 degrees C, 30 min) in a stream of nitrogen. Basic and neutral ether extracts from the reaction mixture were trifluoroacetylated with trifluoroacetic anhydride in ethyl acetate and were then analyzed by SIM. The minimum lengths of a single hair for the detection of the 5 components of oxidation hair dyes acting as indicators were 1 mm for toluene-2,5-diamine, 2 mm for p-phenylenediamine, 20 mm for p-aminophenol, 50 mm for m-aminophenol and 100 mm for o-aminophenol. This method was applied to practical cases and the results were good. PMID:8157226

Tanada, N; Kageura, M; Hara, K; Hieda, Y; Takamoto, M; Kashimura, S

1994-01-01

230

Azo dye load-shock on relative behavior of biofilm and suspended growth configured periodic discontinuous batch mode operations: critical evaluation with enzymatic and bio-electrocatalytic analysis.  

PubMed

Effect of dye (C.I.Acid Black 10B) load-shock was comparatively evaluated in biofilm (self-immobilized) and suspended growth systems operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode (PDBR, anoxic-aerobic-anoxic) was investigated. At higher dye load (1250 mg dye/l), biofilm system showed relatively higher dye (74.5%) and COD (46%) removal efficiencies than the corresponding suspended mode operation (dye/COD removal efficiency, 42%/65%). Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Voltammograms (cyclic) showed higher reduction currents (RC) with increment in dye load specifically in biofilm system. Derivative cyclic voltammograms analysis depicted the involvement of mediators (NAD (+), FAD(+), etc.) which presumably played a major role in electron transport chain and dye degradation. Disappearance of peak (1612 cm(-1)) specific to azo group in FTIR spectrum, at higher loading rate in both the systems indicates the non-inhibitory and robust nature of PDBR operation. PMID:24859232

Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Hari Prasad, R; Venkata Mohan, S

2014-09-01

231

The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

1976-01-01

232

Fluoridation Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Oral Health home School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation Fluoridation Basics Benefits Guidelines ... Health Engineering & Operations Infection Control School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation FAQs Community Water Fluoridation ...

233

Alzheimer's Dye Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

234

[Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal tissues during chromovitrectomy. This review suggests that the field of chromovitrectomy represents an expanding area of research. The first line agents for internal limiting membrane staining in chromovitrectomy are indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue. Patent blue, bromophenol blue and trypan blue arose as outstanding biostains for visualization of epiretinal membranes. Novel dyes available for chromovitrectomy deserve further investigation. PMID:20098913

Dib, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchelle; Maia, Maurício; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Furlani, Bruno de Albuquerque; Costa, Elaine de Paula Fiod; Farah, Michel Eid

2009-01-01

235

Energy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demos and activities in this lesson are intended to illustrate the basic concepts of energy science—work, force, energy, power etc., and the relationships among them. The "lecture" portion of the lesson includes many demonstrations to keep students engaged, yet has high expectations for students to perform energy-related calculations and convert units. A homework assignment and quiz are provided to reinforce and assess these basic engineering science concepts.

Office of Educational Partnerships,

236

Adsorption of hazardous dye crystal violet from wastewater by waste materials.  

PubMed

The adsorption performance of the materials bottom ash (BA), a power plant waste, and de-oiled soya (DOS), a soya bean industry waste for removal of crystal violet dye, has been investigated through batch and column experiments. Batch studies have been performed to describe the impact of parameters such as pH, amount of adsorbent, dye concentration, temperature, and contact time on the removal of the dye. Experimental data have been modeled by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters (DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o), and DeltaS(o)) were evaluated for the dye-adsorbent systems, which revealed that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature. Pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic models have been applied to the experimental data and pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to describe the adsorption of the dye (crystal violet) on the adsorbents. In order to achieve bulk removal of the dye, column operations were made. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting HCl solution through the exhausted columns and almost 95% and 78% of the dye was recovered from BA and DOS columns, respectively. PMID:20045526

Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Malviya, Arti; Kaur, Dipika; Gupta, V K

2010-03-15

237

Synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.): effects of dye, salinity and metals.  

PubMed

Narrow-leaved cattails were studied in synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) under caustic conditions. The effects of the toxic dye were expressed in terms of relative plant growth rate and the appearance of symptoms such as necrosis, and chronic or acute wilting. The dye toxicity was 25.33 mg l(-1) which was close to approximate the concentration of dye residue from the textile effluent in the public stream. The system pH and % color removal were decreased, indicating that narrow-leaved cattail can treat wastewater. The average system pH decreased from 9 to 7. The maximum color removal was approximately 60% when cultured under soil conditions. The SEM image of narrow-leaved cattail root after treatment with SRDW indicated that the root cortex was damaged and the crystalline sodium salts deposited in the root cells which caused evaporation and transpiration decreased in SRDW. The salinity under caustic conditions also affects the growth of the plants. The maximum sodium removal was approximately 44% and was found in the SRDW under soil conditions within 14 days. A small amount of sodium could enhance the relative growth rate. However, the sodium removal of the plants was limited after the third week of treatment. It should be noted that narrow-leaved cattails are known to avoid the textile dye and salt stress conditions during SRDW treatment through special mechanisms such as salt accumulation in the roots or shedding of older leaves. In addition, elements such as silicon, calcium and iron in plants might help the plant to detoxify by forming complexes with dye molecules. PMID:17688914

Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

2007-10-01

238

Reagent ultrafiltration purification of water contaminated with reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater from the textile industry is characterized by a varying and often unidentified composition. The basic contaminants normally present include surfactants, organic and mineral acids, bleachers and dyes. These substances deteriorate the quality of the water downstream via direct contamination and through the occurrence of secondary processes. The use of reagent treatment methods does not always lead to sufficient purification.

S Petrov; PA Stoichev

2002-01-01

239

Comparison of nickel doped Zinc Sulfide and/or palladium nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon as efficient adsorbents for kinetic and equilibrium study of removal of Congo Red dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the efficiency of nickel doped Zinc Sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (Ni-ZnS-NP-AC) and palladium nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Pd-NP-AC) for the removal of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solution was investigated. These materials were fully identified and characterized in term of structure, surface area and pore volume with different techniques such XRD, FE-SEM and TEM analysis. The dependency of CR removal percentage to variables such as pH, contact time, amount of adsorbents, CR concentration was examined and optimum values were set as: 0.03 g Ni-ZnS-NP-AC and 0.04 g of Pd-NP-AC at pH of 3 and 2 after mixing for 22 and 26 min for Ni-ZnS-NP-AC and Pd-NP-AC, respectively. Subsequently, it was revealed that isotherm data efficiency can be correlated Langmuir with maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 286 and 126.6 mg g-1 at room temperature for Ni-ZnS-NP-AC and Pd-NP-AC, respectively. Investigation of correlation between time and rate of adsorption reveal that the CR adsorption onto both adsorbents followed pseudo second order and interparticle diffusion simultaneously.

Ahmadi, K.; Ghaedi, M.; Ansari, A.

2015-02-01

240

Adsorption of dyes onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment.  

PubMed

Organic wastes have been burned for reclamation. However, they have to be recycled and reused for industrial sustainable development. Carbonaceous materials were produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment. There are many phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of carbonaceous materials. The base consumption of the carbonaceous materials was larger than that of the commercially activated carbon. The carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were applied to the adsorbates for the removal of basic dyes (methylene blue and gentian violet) in wastewater. This result indicated that the adsorption of dyes depended upon the surface polar groups on the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the Freundlich constants of isotherms for the adsorption of methylene blue and gentian violet onto the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were greater than those for adsorption onto activated carbon or ceramic activated carbon. The interaction was greatest between the surface or porosity of the carbonaceous materials and methylene blue and gentian violet. The microwave treatment would be useful for the carbonization of organic wastes to save energy. PMID:12702420

Hirata, Mizuho; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Kazuoki; Kabayama, Mineaki; Tamura, Takamichi; Tanada, Seiki

2002-10-01

241

Summary of the National Toxicology Program benzidine dye initiative.  

PubMed Central

The benzidine dye initiative is a research program established by the National Toxicology Program to generate an integrated body of scientific information regarding the potential health risks associated with exposure to benzidine- and benzidine-congener-derived dyes. Because an in-depth evaluation of each of the hundreds of benzidine-congener-derived dyes was considered impractical, the research program was designed to study the metabolism and disposition, genetic toxicity, and in vivo toxicity and carcinogenicity of two primary benzidine congeners, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine, and a select group of prototypical dyes derived from those amines. It was anticipated that by applying the basic information generated in these extensive studies, it would be possible to make regulatory decisions about other dyes after conducting only a minimal number of experiments such as studies of disposition and metabolism, and in vitro mutagenicity. This paper summarizes the results of studies conducted to evaluate the metabolism, disposition, mutagenicity, toxicity, and carcinogenicity of representative benzidine congeners and derived dyes. PMID:7925189

Morgan, D L; Dunnick, J K; Goehl, T; Jokinen, M P; Matthews, H B; Zeiger, E; Mennear, J H

1994-01-01

242

Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 ?m inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 ?m inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

2013-03-01

243

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

244

Ozonation of azo dyes (Orange II and Acid Red 27) in saline media.  

PubMed

Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L(-1), NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at pH 7.5. Ozone self-decomposition rate-constant increased with salt concentration. Color removal was very effective and fast achieved under all experimental conditions. For the two azo dyes tested, more than 98% of color intensity was removed in 30-min ozonation assays. However, only partial mineralization of azo dyes (45%-Orange II; 20%-Acid Red 27) was attained in such experiments. The degree of mineralization (TOC removal) was negatively affected by salt concentration. Biodegradation assays conducted by respirometry revealed the inhibitory effect of dye degradation products formed during ozonation. PMID:19443113

Silva, Alessandra C; Pic, Jean Stephane; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Marcia

2009-09-30

245

Body Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

246

Basic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

247

Preparation of calcium oxalate—bromopyrogallol red inclusion sorbent and application to treatment of cationic dye and heavy metal wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Dye pollutants are a major class of environmental contaminants. Over 100,000 dyes have been synthesized worldwide and more\\u000a than 700,000 tons are produced annually and over 5% are discharged into aquatic environments. The adsorption or sorption is\\u000a one of the most efficient methods to remove dye and heavy metal pollutants from wastewater. However, most of the present

Hong-Yan Wang; Hong-Wen Gao

2009-01-01

248

Dye-coated europium monosulfide  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

2011-05-15

249

Decolorization of the textile dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Six bacterial strains with the capability of degrading textile dyes were isolated from sludge samples and mud lakes. Aeromonas hydrophila was selected and identified because it exhibited the greatest color removal from various dyes. Although A. hydrophila displayed good growth in aerobic or agitation culture (AGI culture), color removal was the best in anoxic or anaerobic culture (ANA culture). For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 5.5-10.0 and 20-35 degrees C under anoxic culture (ANO culture). More than 90% of RED RBN was reduced in color within 8 days at a dye concentration of 3,000 mg l(-1). This strain could also decolorize the media containing a mixture of dyes within 2 days of incubation. Nitrogen sources such as yeast extract or peptone could enhance strongly the decolorization efficiency. In contrast to a nitrogen source, glucose inhibited decolorization activity because the consumed glucose was converted to organic acids that might decrease the pH of the culture medium, thus inhibiting the cell growth and decolorization activity. Decolorization appeared to proceed primarily by biological degradation. PMID:12523970

Chen, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Jane-Yii; Liou, Dar-Jen; Hwang, Sz-Chwun John

2003-02-27

250

Bioremediation of Dyes in Textile Effluents by Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized\\u000a mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B\\u000a (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption

Carlos Renato Corso; Ana Carolina Maganha de Almeida

2009-01-01

251

Azo dye treatment with simultaneous electricity production in an anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor and microbial fuel cell coupled system.  

PubMed

A microbial fuel cell and anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor coupled system was used for azo dye degradation with simultaneous electricity production. Electricity was produced during the co-metabolism process of glucose and azo dye. A microorganism cultured graphite-granular cathode effectively decreased the charge transfer resistance of the cathode and yielded higher power density. Operation parameters including glucose concentration and hydraulic retention time were optimized. The results indicated that recovering electricity during a sequential aerobic-anaerobic azo dye treatment process enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal and did not decrease azo dye removal. Moreover, UV-vis spectra and GC-MS illustrated that the azo bond was cleaved biologically in the anaerobic chamber and abiotically in the aerobic chamber. The toxic intermediates, aromatic amines, were removed by aerobic treatment. Our work demonstrated that the microbial fuel cell and sequential anode-cathode reactor coupled system could be applied to achieve electricity production with simultaneous azo dye degradation. PMID:20188540

Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang; Lin, Jun; Han, Song; Lei, Lecheng

2010-06-01

252

Prospects for Organic Dye Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  A review of organic nanoparticles consisting of small functional dye molecules is presented in this chapter. The study of\\u000a organic dye nanoparticles does not have a lengthy history, but there is growing scientific and technological interest owing\\u000a to their special characteristics: physicochemical properties of organic dye nanoparticles considerably differ not only from\\u000a those of individual molecules due to the presence

Hiroshi Yao

253

Contour Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contour Basics is an exercise designed to introduce students to contour plots. The Contour Activity is a great on-line resource that starts slowly and increases in difficulty. It teaches students basic techniques for generating contours, introduces students to the subtleties of generating contour plots with sparse data, provides many opportunities for students to assess their own progress and understanding and has complete on-line drawing capabilities. The exercise is geared toward atmospheric and oceanic sciences but is beneficial for all geoscience students. In addition to the exercise, this site includes information on teaching materials, teaching notes and tips, assessment suggestions and additional references. This activity is part of the Starting Point Collection: http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/

Ackerman, Steve

254

Basic Immunology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some individuals might blanch at the idea of a "basic" immunology overview, but Professor Vladimir V. Klimov provides just such a resource on this site. As the homepage notes, the site is designed to assist undergraduate students learning about the basics of immunology through essays, images, animations, quizzes, case histories, and external links. Visitors can begin by looking over the "Table of Contents" area, which includes seven complete chapters of information. These chapters include "The Immune Responses", "Effector Activity", and "Functional Organization of the Immune System". While some of the materials on the site require a paid subscription, there's enough free material here to get students on their way to learning more about this field of study.

Klimov, Vladimir V.

255

Biodecolorization and biodegradation potential of recalcitrant triphenylmethane dyes by Coriolopsis sp. isolated from compost.  

PubMed

Triphenylmethane dyes (TPM) are recalcitrant colorants brought into the environment. In this study, a lesser-known white rot fungus Coriolopsis sp. (1c3), isolated from compost of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm, was explored for its decolorization potential of TPM dyes. The isolate 1c3 demonstrated good decolorization efficiencies in the treatment of Crystal Violet (CV; 100 mg l(-1)), Methyl Violet (MV; 100 mg l(-1)) and Cotton Blue (CB; 50 mg(-1)), with 94%, 97% and 91%, within 7, 7 and 1 day(s), respectively. Malachite Green (MG; 100 mg l(-1)) was the most recalcitrant dye, with 52% decolorization after 9 days. Dye removal by 1c3 was presumably via biosorption, whereby the process was determined to be influenced by fungal biomass, initial dye concentrations and oxygen requirements. Biodegradation was also a likely mechanism responsible for dye removal by 1c3, occurred as indicated by the reduction of dye spectra peaks. Detection of laccase, lignin peroxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase activities further substantiate the possible occurrence of biodegradation of TPM dyes by 1c3. PMID:25527986

Chen, Si Hui; Yien Ting, Adeline Su

2015-03-01

256

Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: kinetic and equilibrium studies.  

PubMed

Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies of three reactive dyes namely, Remazol Brillant Blue (RB), Remazol Red 133 (RR) and Rifacion Yellow HED (RY) from aqueous solutions at various initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/l), pH (2-8), particle size (45-112.5 microm) and temperature (293-323 K) on fly ash (FA) were studied in a batch mode operation. The adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such as SEM, XRD and FTIR. Adsorption of RB reactive dye was found to be pH dependent but both RR and RY reactive dyes were not. The result showed that the amount adsorbed of the reactive dyes increased with increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. Batch kinetic data from experimental investigations on the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using FA have been well described by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion had rate limiting affects on the removal process. This was attributed to the relatively simple macropore structure of FA particles. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum conditions for removal of the reactive dyes were 100mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6g/100ml adsorbent dose, temperature of 293 K, 45 microm particle size, pH 6 and agitation speed of 250 rpm, respectively. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants were found to increase with increasing temperature in the range 135-180 and 15-34 mg/g for RB, 47-86 and 1.9-3.7 mg/g for RR and 37-61 and 3.0-3.6 mg/g for RY reactive dyes, respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. PMID:17574338

Dizge, N; Aydiner, C; Demirbas, E; Kobya, M; Kara, S

2008-02-11

257

An animal model assessment of common dye-induced allergic contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Dyes are a category of substances capable of inducing allergic contact dermatitis found in a variety of foods, drugs, textiles, cosmetics, and hair dyes. This study tested 33 dyes in guinea pigs using a modified Buehler and Klecak method for open epicutaneous testing. The dyes were tested at an induction concentration of 10% and challenge concentrations of 10.0%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. Nine of the 33 dyes tested produced positive allergic reactions in the guinea pig model (2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, acid yellow 23, acid orange 3, basic black 3, basic orange 1, disperse orange 3, solvent black 27, and solvent black 34). When eight of the nine positive dyes were retested using a 1% induction concentration, five dyes produced allergic contact dermatitis at a 1% challenge concentration (2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, acid yellow 23, disperse orange 3, and solvent black 34), two at a 0.5% challenge concentration (2-amino-5-nitrophenol and solvent black 34), and one at a 0.25% challenge concentration (2-amino-5-nitrophenol). DNCB at a 0.5% induction/challenge concentration was used as a positive control. With the exception of disperse orange 3 and acid yellow 23, the seven additional dyes that elicited positive allergic reactions in the guinea pig model have not been previously reported. PMID:17598023

Dinardo, Joe; Draelos, Zoe Diana

2007-01-01

258

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

259

Degradation of Textile Dyes Ponceau-S and Sudan IV Using RecentlyDeveloped Photocatalyst, Immobilized Resin Dowex11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: In present study, we selected a model dyes Ponceau S and Sudan IV, to test a recently developed photo catalyst methylene blue immobilized resin dowex-11. Approach: This is a light-activated process that has been successfull y applied to remove organic and inorganic dyes of textile industries. Results: The reactor, made of glass slides (tubes) coated w ith a

R. C. Meena; Ram Babu Pachwarya; Vijay Kumar Meena; Shakuntla Arya

2009-01-01

260

Ultrasound assisted synthesis of polyacrylic acid–nanoclay nanocomposite and its application in sonosorption studies of malachite green dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of nanoclay nanocomposite has been undertaken by using polyacryalic acid (PAA) in aqueous medium and ultrasound environment and its application in dye removal has been investigated. The synthesized product was characterized by using FTIR and XRD techniques. The sonosorption capacity of the product namely PAA–nanoclay composite was determined by choosing malachite green (MG) dye as a model pollutant. The

S. H. Sonawane; P. L. Chaudhari; S. A. Ghodke; M. G. Parande; V. M. Bhandari; S. Mishra; R. D. Kulkarni

2009-01-01

261

Biosorption of Basic Green 4 from aqueous solution by Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder.  

PubMed

Biosorption characteristics of Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder was investigated for decolorization of Basic Green 4 (BG 4), a cationic dye from its aqueous solutions employing a batch experimental set-up. Parameters that influence the sorption process such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were systematically studied. The optimum conditions for removal of BG 4 were found to be pH 9.0, contact time=150 min, biosorbent dosage=5.0 g L(-1), initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1). The temperature had a strong influence on the biosorption process. Further, the biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) surface area and pore size analysis. Experimental biosorption data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high coefficients of correlation (R(2)>0.99) at different temperatures. The pseudo second order kinetic model fitted well in correlation to the experimental results. Activation energy of the biosorption process (E(a)) was found to be 45.79 kJ mol(-1) by using the Arrhenius equation, indicating chemisorption nature of BG 4 sorption onto pineapple leaf powder. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the biosorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Overall, the present findings suggest that this environmentally friendly, efficient and low-cost biosorbent may be useful for the removal of BG 4 from aqueous media. PMID:21349693

Chowdhury, Shamik; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Saha, Papita

2011-06-01

262

Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

263

GPS Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Aviation Administration maintains the graphically impressive Global Positioning System (GPS) Basics Web site. From the history of the global positioning system and how it works to governmental policy that controls its use, this site does a good job of explaining all facets of what GPS is about without being overly technical. Interested visitors can explore some of the other links that cover satellite navigation topics as well, such as GPS programs; a library of documents, fact sheets, press releases, and news; frequently asked questions; links; and more. Anyone interested in mapping, navigation, or similar subjects will enjoy exploring the interesting information provided on this well designed site.

264

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University of Houston,

265

Organization of butadienyl dyes containing benzodithiacrown-ether or dimethoxybenzene in monolayers at the air/aqueous salt solution interface.  

PubMed

Two amphiphilic butadienyl dyes 1 and 2 form stable monolayers at the air/water interface in the presence of various salts. Dye 1 consists of the basic amphiphilic butadienyl chromophore. In dye 2, the dimethoxybenzene part of dye 1 is substituted by benzodithia-15-crown-5. The monolayers have been characterized by surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as well as Brewster angle microscopy and reflection spectroscopy. In contrast to dye 1, dye 2 interacts specifically with Hg(2+) and Ag(+) cations forming complexes. No complex formation was observed with alkali and earth alkali metal ions. The nature of the anion (Cl(-) or ClO(4)(-)) influences the monolayer behaviour of both dyes. At the air/water interface, besides monomers of the dyes, two types of associates are coexisting in the pure dye monolayers on aqueous salt solutions, attributed to dimers and aggregates, respectively. Their equilibria depend on the nature of both cations and anions in the subphase, as in the case of dye 2, or only anions, as in the case of dye 1. The dimers may be organized as head-to-tail dimers with the intermolecular distances 0.38 and 0.45nm for dye 1 and dye 2, respectively. According to the extended dipole model, we propose formation of aggregates in which the chromophores are parallel to each other with the same intermolecular distances as in the dimers, and the centers of their transition moments shifted by 0.95nm (dye 1) and 1.2nm (dye 2). PMID:19720508

Sergeeva, T I; Gromov, S P; Zaitsev, S Yu; Möbius, D

2009-12-01

266

Enhancement of acidic dye biosorption capacity on poly(ethylenimine) grafted anaerobic granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a novel biosorbent with high capacity is crucial to remove dyes from waters in an efficient way. This study demonstrated that porous anaerobic granular sludge could be grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI), which definitely improved the sorption capacity towards Acid Red 18 (AR18) removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed that the PEI modification introduced

Xue-Fei Sun; Shu-Guang Wang; Wen Cheng; Maohong Fan; Bing-Hui Tian; Bao-Yu Gao; Xiao-Ming Li

2011-01-01

267

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.

1968-01-01

268

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

1984-01-01

269

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

1986-01-01

270

Sunspace basics  

SciTech Connect

Anyone who lives in a home with a sunspace will tell you that the sunspace is the most enjoyable room in the house. Many times the homeowner`s only regret is that the sunspace is not larger. Although aesthetics often drive the decision to add a sunspace or include one in a new home design, sunspaces can also provide supplemental space heating and a healthy environment for plants and people. In fact, a well-designed sunspace can provide up to 60% of a home`s winter heating requirements. This publication addresses basic elements of sunspace design; design considerations for supplemental space heating, growing plants, and use as a living space; design guidelines including siting, heat distribution, and glazing angles; and major sunspace components including glazing options, thermal mass, insulation, and climate controls. A list of sources for more information is also provided.

Not Available

1994-11-01

271

Identification of human hair stained with oxidation hair dyes by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GCMS) analysis of oxidation hair dyes from human hair. Diamines from the dyes were directly extracted from the hair in basic solution and aminophenols were extracted after neutralization. Both extracts were derivatised with trifluoroacetic anhydride and analysed by GCMS. Five components of oxidation hair dyes namely, p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine, o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol were clearly identified, whilst no other compounds originating from the hair dyes were detected. The presence and relative amounts of these dye components from hair extracts may assist in the discrimination of human hair especially in cases involving forensic science. PMID:1783337

Tanada, N; Kageura, M; Hara, K; Hieda, Y; Takamoto, M; Kashimura, S

1991-12-01

272

Real-time imaging of electrical signals with an infrared FDA-approved dye.  

PubMed

Clinical methods used to assess the electrical activity of excitable cells are often limited by their poor spatial resolution or their invasiveness. One promising solution to this problem is to optically measure membrane potential using a voltage-sensitive dye, but thus far, none of these dyes have been available for human use. Here we report that indocyanine green (ICG), an infrared fluorescent dye with FDA approval as an intravenously administered contrast agent, is voltage-sensitive. The fluorescence of ICG can follow action potentials in artificial neurons and cultured rat neurons and cardiomyocytes. ICG also visualized electrical activity induced in living explants of rat brain. In humans, ICG labels excitable cells and is routinely visualized transdermally with high spatial resolution. As an infrared voltage-sensitive dye with a low toxicity profile that can be readily imaged in deep tissues, ICG may have significant utility for clinical and basic research applications previously intractable for potentiometric dyes. PMID:25229155

Treger, Jeremy S; Priest, Michael F; Iezzi, Raymond; Bezanilla, Francisco

2014-09-16

273

Abatement of Azo Dye from Wastewater Using Bimetal-Chitosan  

PubMed Central

We introduce a new adsorbent, bimetallic chitosan particle (BCP) that is successfully synthesized and applied to remove the orange II dye from wastewater. The effects of pH, BCP quantity, and contact time are initially verified on the basis of the percentage of orange II removed from the wastewater. Experimental data reveal that the Cu/Mg bimetal and chitosan have a synergistic effect on the adsorption process of the adsorbate, where the dye adsorption by Cu/Mg bimetal, chitosan alone, and bimetal-chitosan is 10, 49, and 99.5%, respectively. The time required for the complete decolorization of orange II by 1?mg/L of BCP is 10?min. The Langmuir model is the best fit for the experimental data, which attains a maximum adsorption capacity of 384.6?mg/g. The consideration of the kinetic behavior indicates that the adsorption of orange II onto the BCP fits best with the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Further, the simulated azo dye wastewater can be effectively treated using a relatively low quantity of the adsorbent, 1?mg/L, within a short reaction time of 20?min. Overall, the use of BCP can be considered a promising method for eliminating the azo dye from wastewater effectively. PMID:24348163

Asgari, Ghorban; Farjadfard, Sima

2013-01-01

274

Electrocoagulation\\/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation\\/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue

Wafaa Balla; A. H. Essadki; B. Gourich; A. Dassaa; H. Chenik; M. Azzi

2010-01-01

275

The Fenton Chemistry and Its Combination with Coagulation for Treatment of Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Violet 19 were subjected to Fenton\\/Fenton?like oxidation and its combination with lime coagulation. The analysis indicated no dependence of chemical oxidation efficacy on dye concentration in the range of 0.1–1 g L. Complete or nearly complete (higher than 95%) color removal of all treated samples was observed. Dye:H2O2 weight ratio of

Niina Kulik; Yekaterina Panova; Marina Trapido

2007-01-01

276

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

Skotheim, T.A.

1980-03-04

277

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

1980-03-04

278

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe. PMID:22476459

2012-01-01

279

Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions using Eichhornia crassipes.  

PubMed

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using dried roots, stems, and leaves of Eichhornia crassipes biomass obtained from Lake Victoria was studied. Batch experimental results revealed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, E. crassipes particle size and aqueous solution temperature. The isotherm data fitted Freundlich mathematical models with maximum dye adsorption of 35.37 mg g(-1). Roots adsorbed over 99 % of the MB in <5 min. Sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. Results provide evidence that E. crassipes is an effective and inexpensive biomaterial for dye removal from aqueous dye solutions and industrial effluents. PMID:23839152

Wanyonyi, Wycliffe Chisutia; Onyari, John Mmari; Shiundu, Paul Mwanza

2013-09-01

280

Crystalline calmagite and a study of sulphonation effects on azo dye metal-ion indicators.  

PubMed

Calmagite was introduced in 1960 as a stable substitute for Eriochrome Black T in EDTA titrations of calcium plus magnesium. The colour changes were the same but somewhat sharper. Indicator stock solutions were stable indefinitely. The new indicator was designed as an indicator and not as a wool dye. Azo dye impurities which may be present in some commercial supplies tend to lengthen the end-points. A simple means of removing these impurities to yield crystalline indicator has been developed. The effects of sulphonation on the performance of azo dyes as indicators have been studied. PMID:18959965

Lindstrom, F; Isaac, R

1966-07-01

281

Characterization of decrystallized chitosan and its application in biosorption of textile dyes.  

PubMed

Decrystallized chitosan was produced from shrimp shells with a low degree of crystallinity (10%) and a high anionic dye binding capacity. Raw, mixed dye wastewater from a textile factory was efficiently decolorized using decrystallized chitosan that was more efficient than using normal chitosan and activated carbon. Decolorization reached 90% within 10 min and could be carried out from pH 4.5 to 8.1. Decrystallized chitosan can be regenerated by 2 M H2SO4 and was reusable more than 10 times. It is, therefore, an attractive candidate for the removal of dyes from textile wastewater. PMID:12967010

Trung, Trang Si; Ng, Chuen-How; Stevens, Willem F

2003-07-01

282

Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes  

E-print Network

Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes Brian E. Hardin1 efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate on the basis of light harvesting using a sensitizing dye (SD) attached to a wide- bandgap semiconductor1

McGehee, Michael

283

Biosorption of arsenic from aqueous solution using dye waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine on removal of arsenic from water by biosorption through potential application of herbal dye wastes. Four different flower dye residues (after extraction of natural dye) viz. Hibiscus rosasinensis, Rosa rosa, Tagetes erecta, and Canna indica were utilized successfully for the removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. Batch studies were carried out for various parameters viz. pH, sorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. Data were utilized for isothermal, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of biomass were performed. The results showed that 1 g/100 ml for 5.0-5.5 h contact time at pH 6.0-7.5 with agitation rate 150 rpm provided 98, 96, 92, and 85 % maximum absorption of arsenic by R. rosa, H. rosasinensis, T. erecta, and C. indica, respectively, at initial concentration of 500 ppb. Data followed Langmuir isotherm showing sorption to be monolayer on heterogeneous surface of biosorbent. Negative values of ?G° indicated spontaneous nature, whereas ?H° indicates exothermic nature of system followed by pseudo-first-order adsorption kinetics. FTIR results showed apparent changes in functional group regions after metal chelation. SEM and EDAX analyses showed the changes in surface morphology of all test biosorbents. Herbal dye wastes, used as biosorbent, exhibited significant (85-98 %) removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. Hence, these biosorbents are cost-effective, easily available, eco-friendly, and comparatively more effective than other biosorbents already in use. These may be used to remove arsenic and other toxic metals from water. PMID:22661261

Nigam, Shubha; Vankar, Padma S; Gopal, Krishna

2013-02-01

284

Kinetic study of electro-Fenton oxidation of azo dyes on boron-doped diamond electrode.  

PubMed

The present work compares electrochemical degradation of red and blue azo textile dyes in single- and two-compartment electrochemical cells in the presence of Fenton reagent (Fe2+) and using a boron-doped diamond anode. Degradation of both dyes was related to the concentration of dye, applied current density and the concentration of FeSO4 catalyst. Complete colour removal and approximately 91% of organic matter oxidation was achieved in a two-compartment electrochemical cell at an applied current density of 20 mA x cm(-2), pH of 3 and Fe(2+) ion concentration of 0.02 mM. Higher current density and reaction time were required to achieve the same removals in a one-compartment electrochemical cell. Dye degradation kinetics as well as chemical oxygen demand removal rate were successfully modelled to pseudo first-order kinetics. The apparent first-order rate constants (k(o)) for degradation of red dye with an initial concentration of 20, 40 and 60 ppm were found to be 2.67 +/- 0.16, 2.19 +/- 0.09 and 1.5 +/- 0.03 min(-1), and for blue dye at the same initial concentrations were 1.99 +/- 0.2, 0.95 +/- 0.02 and 0.71 +/- 0.030 min(-1), respectively. PMID:24191481

Almomani, Fares; Baranova, Elena A

2013-01-01

285

A new mussel-inspired polydopamine sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells: controlled synthesis and charge transfer.  

PubMed

The efficient electron injection by direct dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer and strong adhesion of mussel-inspired synthetic polydopamine (PDA) dyes with TiO(2) electrode is demonstrated. Spontaneous self-polymerization of dopamine using dip-coating (DC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in basic buffer solution were applied to TiO(2) layers under a nitrogen atmosphere, which offers a facile and reliable synthetic pathway to make the PDA dyes, PDA-DC and PDA-CV, with conformal surface and perform an efficient dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer. Both synthetic methods led to excellent photovoltaic results and the PDA-DC dye exhibited larger current density and efficiency values than those in the PDA-CV dye. Under simulated AM 1.5?G solar light (100 mW cm(-2)), a PDA-DC dye exhibited a short circuit current density of 5.50 mW cm(-2), corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.2 %, which is almost 10 times that of the dopamine dye-sensitized solar cell. The PDA dyes showed strong adhesion with the nanocrystalline TiO(2) electrodes and the interface engineering of a dye-adsorbed TiO(2) surface through the control of the coating methods, reaction times and solution concentration maximized the overall conversion efficiency, resulting in a remarkably high efficiency. PMID:23001762

Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Boeun; Ko, Min Jae; Jin, Mingshi; Kim, Ji Man; Jung, Duk-Young

2012-10-29

286

Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

2013-01-01

287

Removal of Direct Red 12B by garlic peel as a cheap adsorbent: Kinetics, thermodynamic and equilibrium isotherms study of removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of dyes from industrial waste is very important from health and hygiene point of view and for environmental protection. In this work, efficiency and performance of garlic peel (GP) adsorbent for the removal of Direct Red 12B (DR12B) from wastewater was investigated. The influence of variables including pH, concentration of the dye and amount of adsorbent, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal has been investigated. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better with good correlation coefficient and the equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 25 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g per 50 ml for initial dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of DR12B adsorption.

Asfaram, A.; Fathi, M. R.; Khodadoust, S.; Naraki, M.

2014-06-01

288

Competitive adsorption of dye metanil yellow and RB15 in acid solutions on chemically cross-linked chitosan beads.  

PubMed

One kind of adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity for anionic dyes was prepared using ionically and chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption behavior of one acid dye (MY, metanil yellow) and one reactive dye (RB15, reactive blue 15) in aqueous solutions by the cross-linked chitosan beads. The adsorption capacities was 3.56 mmol g(-1) (1334 mg g(-1)) for dye MY and 0.56 mmol g(-1) (722 mg g(-1)) for dye RB15 at pH4, 30 degrees C. The Langmuir model agreed very well with the experimental data (R(2)>0.996). The kinetics of adsorption for a single dye and the kinetics of removal of ADMI color value in mixture solutions at different initial dye concentrations were evaluated by the nonlinear first-order and second-order models. The first-order kinetic model fits well with the dynamical adsorption behavior of a single dye for lower initial dye concentrations, while the second-order kinetic model fits well for higher initial dye concentrations. The competitive adsorption favored the dye RB15 in the mixture solution (initial conc. (mM): MY=1.34; RB15=1.36); while it favored the dye MY in the mixture solution (initial conc. (mM): MY=3.00; RB15=1.34) and the adsorption kinetics for dye RB15 has the tendency to shift to a slower first order model. PMID:15967484

Chiou, Ming-Shen; Chuang, Guo-Syong

2006-02-01

289

Removal of Rhodamine-B by biogas waste slurry from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of biogas waste slurry to adsorb a basic dye (Rhodamine-B) has been investigated. The parameters include agitation time, initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage. The rate controlling step is mainly intraparticle diffusion. The adsorption rate constant was found to be 2.9 × 10-2 min-1 at 20 mg L-1 initial dye concentration. The adsorption conforms with Freundlich isotherm.

C. Namasivayam; R. T. Yamuna

1992-01-01

290

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

291

Color removal from aqueous solution by biogas residual slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Brilliant Blue on biogas residual slurry has been investigated. The parameters studied include dye concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH. The equilibrium data fit well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption isotherm. Maximum removal of 99% was observed at pH 2.56. Desorption studies indicate that the dye is solubilised in 50%(v\\/v) acetic

R. T. Yamuna; C. Namasivayam

1993-01-01

292

A constructed wetland model for synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.).  

PubMed

Textile wastewater is contaminated by reactive dye causing unattractive levels of wastewater color, high pH and high salt content when discharged into public water systems. Decolorization of textile wastewater by plant, phytoremediation, is an alternative, sustainable method which is suitable for long term operation. Narrow-leaved cattails are one species of wetland plant with efficiency for decolorizing and remediating textile wastewater. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be lowered and dye residue can be removed. The plant also showed a good salt tolerance even after being exposed to a salt solution for 15 days. The narrow-leaved cattails were set up in a constructed wetland model with a vertical flow system operating from bottom to top for synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) removal. Narrow-leaved cattails could achieve the removal of SRDW at approximately 0.8 g(SRDW) m(-2) day(-1). Decolorization of SRDW by this plant was approximately 60%. The advantage of this method is that it is suitable for textile wastewater management and improvement of wetland. These plants could lower COD, remove dye, sodium and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas other biological and chemical methods could not remove TDS and dye in the same time. These results suggested that the spongy cell structure of this plant has the ability to absorb large amounts of water and nutrients. Physico-chemical analysis revealed increasing amounts of sulfur, silicon, iron and calcium in the plant leafs and roots after exposure to wastewater. Proteins or amide groups in the plant might help in textile dye removal. Regarding decolorization, this plant accumulates dye in the intercellular space and still grows in this SRDW condition. Hence, it can be noted here that narrow-leaved cattails are efficient for textile dye wastewater treatment. PMID:19759459

Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

2009-01-01

293

Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and mechanism of methylene blue adsorption on perlite have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as initial dye concentration, temperature and pH on the adsorption rate were investigated. Adsorption measurements show that the process is very fast and physical in nature. The extent of the dye removal increased with increase in the initial concentration of

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan; Ayd?n Türkyilmaz; Yasemin Özdemir

2004-01-01

294

Color removal from textile effluents by electrochemical destruction  

SciTech Connect

In this work, aqueous solutions of three azo dyes and a waste water sample taking from a local textile plant have been studied. Effect of several factors such as color, pH, presence of NaCl, applied potential, initial dye concentration and solution flow rate on the removal rate has been investigated. Energy consumption values have been calculated for different initial dye concentrations and flow rates, and shown as the function of applied potential. Removal rates of 98%, 86% and 85% have been achieved with energy consumption values of 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1], 0.106 kWhg[sup [minus]1] and 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1] for Ostazin Rod H3B, Ostazin Black HN and Ostazin Olive HG respectively. Removal rate of 82% with energy consumption value of 2 kWhm[sup [minus]3] has been observed for textile effluent. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Oeguetveren, U.B.; Koparal, S. (Anadolu Ueniversitesi, Eskisehir (Turkey))

1994-01-01

295

Adsorption and desorption studies on hazardous dye Naphthol Yellow S.  

PubMed

In the present study, the batch technique was adopted under a variety of conditions, viz., amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using UV spectrophotometer, concentration of dye was measured before and after adsorption. Dye removal data were fitted into the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. The values of their corresponding constants were determined. Thermodynamic parameters like free energy (DeltaG), enthalpy (DeltaH) and entropy (DeltaS) of the systems were calculated by using Langmuir constant. The estimated values for (DeltaG) were -8.027x10(3) and -28.46x10(3) kJ mol(-1) over activated carbon and activated de-oiled mustard at 303 K (30 degrees C), indicate toward a spontaneous process. The adsorption process followed pseudo-first-order model. The values of % removal and k(ad) for dye systems were calculated at different temperatures ranging (303-323 K). Desorption studies indicate that elution by dilute NaOH through the fixed bed of the adsorbents columns could be regenerated and a quantitative recovery of Naphthol Yellow S can be achieved. PMID:20667651

Jain, Rajeev; Gupta, V K; Sikarwar, Shalini

2010-10-15

296

Sorption of hydrophilic dyes on anodic aluminium oxide films and application to pH sensing.  

PubMed

The sorption of selected hydrophilic pH-sensitive dyes (bromophenol blue, bromothymol blue, bromocresol purple, alizarin red, methyl orange, congo red, rhodamine 6G) on films of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) was investigated in this study. Depth and pore structure of the AAO channels were adjusted by changing electrolysis time and current density during treatment of aluminium foil in oxalic acid, sulfosalycilic acid and sulfuric acid at concentration levels between 0.2 and 0.6 M. The dyes were immobilized on the AAO surface by direct saturation of the films in dye solutions. It was shown by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis that the dyes penetrated into the AAO channels by more than 1.5 ?m, even at static saturation conditions. The anionic dyes linked to the porous AAO surface exhibited differential shifts of the UV absorption bands in their acidic/basic forms. By combining several dyes, the films have an application range between pH = 0.5-9 in aqueous media. The dye-modified AAO film was a simple, portable, inexpensive and reusable pH sensor with very fast response time and clear colour transitions. PMID:25436239

Silina, Yuliya E; Kuchmenko, Tatyana A; Volmer, Dietrich A

2015-01-20

297

Assessment of the breakdown products of solar/UV induced photolytic degradation of food dye tartrazine.  

PubMed

The food dye tartrazine (CI 19140) was exposed to UV irradiation from an artificial source, a mercury vapor lamp, and a natural one, sunlight. It was observed that conditions such as energy dose, irradiation time, pH and initial dye concentration affected its discoloration. There was 100% of color removal, after 30min of irradiation, when a dye solution 1×10(-5)molL(-1) was submitted to an energy dose of 37.8Jcm(-2). Liquid Chromatography coupled to Diode Array Detection and Mass Spectrometry confirmed the cleavage of the chromophore group and the formation of five by-products at low concentration. Although by-products were formed, the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay performed for both, the dye solution at a dose of 5.34mg/plate and the solutions obtained after exposure to UV irradiation, did not present mutagenic activity for TA98 and TA100 with and without S9. PMID:24704040

dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Morales, Daniel Alexandre; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin

2014-06-01

298

Master dye laser oscillator including a specific grating assembly for use therein  

DOEpatents

A dye laser oscillator for producing a tuned dye beam is disclosed herein and includes, among other components, a beam output coupling assembly, a dye cell assembly, a beam expander assembly, an etalon assembly, and a grating assembly. Each of three assemblies is vertically supported from a horizontal base so as to be readily removable from the base without interference from or interfering with the other assemblies. The particular grating assembly disclosed is specifically designed for proper optical alignment with the intended path of the dye beam to be produced and for accurate pivotal movement relative to the beam path in order to function as a coarse tuning mechanism in the production of the ultimately tuned beam. 5 figs.

Davin, J.M.

1992-09-01

299

Master dye laser oscillator including a specific grating assembly for use therein  

DOEpatents

A dye laser oscillator for producing a tuned dye beam is disclosed herein and includes, among other components, a beam output coupling assembly, a dye cell assembly, a beam expander assembly, an etalon assembly, and a grating assembly. Each of three assemblies is vertically supported from a horizontal base so as to be readily removable from the base without interference from or interfering with the other assemblies. The particular grating assembly disclosed is specifically designed for proper optical alignment with the intended path of the dye beam to be produced and for accurate pivotal movement relative to the beam path in order to function as a coarse tuning mechanism in the production of the ultimately tuned beam.

Davin, James M. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

300

Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells  

SciTech Connect

This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

Barber, Greg D.

2009-12-21

301

Effective removal of methyl blue by fine-structured strontium and barium phosphate nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the composite of strontium phosphate and barium phosphate (called SBP) nanorods have been synthesized, characterized and studied for removal of methyl blue (MB). The effects of pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration on removal of MB were studied in detail. Results suggest that pH and temperature were not critical limiting factors for the removal of MB. Reaching equilibrium was very rapid (within 10 min) and the high adsorption capacity of MB by SBP nanorods was 1691.8 mg/g at initial dye concentration of 2000 mg/L. The adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and Langmuir isotherm model. Importantly, the mechanism contributed to the MB removal was proposed to be the ionic interaction and hydrogen bonds for low dye concentration, chemical precipitation for high dye concentration. It is predicted that the SBP nanorods being an effective adsorbent for elimination of MB from colored aqueous solutions.

Zhang, Fan; Song, Weijie; Lan, Jing

2015-01-01

302

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

Hackel, R.P.

1992-11-24

303

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

304

Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

2011-06-01

305

Adsorption and desorption studies of a water soluble dye, Quinoline Yellow, using waste materials.  

PubMed

Bottom ash, a power plant waste, and de-oiled soya, an agricultural waste material, were employed for the removal and recovery of Quinoline Yellow, a water-soluble dye. Characterization of adsorbent materials was made by their infrared and differential thermal analysis curves. Along with batch adsorption studies, which involve effect of pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, etc., kinetic studies and column operations were also made to remove the dye from wastewater. On the basis of kinetic studies, specific rate constants involved in the processes were calculated and first-order adsorption kinetics was observed in both the cases. The paper also incorporates Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models, which are used to calculate thermodynamic parameters and also to suggest a plausible mechanism of the ongoing adsorption processes. Fixed bed columns were prepared for both the adsorbents and bulk removal of the dye was achieved by eluting aqueous solution of the dye and saturation factor for both columns were evaluated. Dilute NaOH solution was then percolated through the exhausted columns to recover the adsorbed dye. PMID:15752789

Gupta, V K; Mittal, Alok; Gajbe, Vibha

2005-04-01

306

Electrochemical treatment of dye-bath effluent by stainless steel electrodes: Multiple response optimization and residue analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal, and simultaneously minimize the energy consumed per unit mass of COD removed for the treatment of dye-bath effluent (DBE) by electrochemical (EC) method using stainless steel (SS) electrode in a batch EC reactor. Response surface methodology involving central composite design was employed to optimize

Bhaskar Mondal; Vimal C. Srivastava; Indra D. Mall

2012-01-01

307

Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

1987-01-01

308

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

309

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

310

Electroenzymatic degradation of azo dye using an immobilized peroxidase enzyme.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are largely resistant to biodegradation and persist in conventional wastewater treatment processes. Combining enzymatic catalysis and the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an electroenzymatic process was developed, which is a potential alternative to traditional processes. In this study, an electroenzymatic method that uses an immobilized horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP), was investigated to degrade orange II (azo dye) within a two-compartment packed-bed flow reactor. To evaluate the electroenzymatic degradation of orange II, electrolytic experiments were carried out with 0.42 U/mL HRP at -0.5 V. It was found that removal of orange II was partly due to its adsorption to the graphite felt. The overall application of the electroenzymatic led to a greater degradation rate than the use of electrolysis alone. Also the by-products formed were found to consist primarily of an aromatic amine, sulfanilic acid, and unknown compounds. PMID:16084014

Kim, Gha-Young; Lee, Ki-Beom; Cho, Seung-Hee; Shim, Joonmok; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

2005-11-11

311

Environmentally Friendly Natural Dyeing of Organic Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, organic cotton fabrics were dyed with different natural dye sources (madder root, walnut shell, henna, horse chestnut, pomegranate peel, berberis vulgaris root, thyme, and sage tea). The dyeing was carried out with different mordants (copper sulphate, potassium aluminum sulphate, potassium tartrate, and citric acid), using pre-mordanting dyeing methods. The color of the fabrics was investigated in terms

Mustafa Tutak; N. Ebru Korkmaz

2012-01-01

312

In the Bag: Contact Natural Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact dyeing is a practical alternative to the more common immersion method of natural dyeing. Contact dyeing is a very low liquor ratio method where the actual natural dyestuff is placed around and between the goods to be dyed. The dyestuff and goods are compressed into a bundle that is placed in a plastic bag and heated by using steam,

Sara J. Kadolph; Karen Diadick Casselman

2004-01-01

313

Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

1991-01-01

314

PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

315

Removal of direct blue-86 from aqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel.  

PubMed

The use of low-cost, easy obtained, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from orange peel for the removal of direct blue-86 (DB-86) (Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as approximately 2.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 30min after the beginning for every experiment. The adsorption of direct blue-86 followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit well Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations better than Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations. The maximum removal of direct blue-86 was obtained at pH 2 as 92% for adsorbent dose of 6gL(-1) and 100mgL(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 33.78mgg(-1). Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of DB-86 was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation (R2>0.99) with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Activated carbon developed from orange peel can be attractive options for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater show better removal percentage of DB-86. PMID:18455301

Nemr, Ahmed El; Abdelwahab, Ola; El-Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

2009-01-15

316

pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Dyes: Are They Really pH-Sensitive in Cells?  

PubMed Central

Chemically synthesized near-infrared (NIR) aza-BODIPY dyes displayed OFF/ON fluorescence at acidic pH (pKa = 6.2-6.6) through the suppression of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and/or internal charge transfer (ICT) process. The apparent pKas of the dyes were shifted well above physiological pH in hydrophobic microenvironment, which led to “turned-on” fluorescence in micelles and liposomes at neutral and basic pH. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) also activated the fluorescence, though to a much less extent. When these small molecular dyes entered cells, instead of being fluorescent only in acidic organelles, the whole cytoplasm exhibited fluorescence, with signal/background ratio as high as ?10 in no-wash live cell imaging. The dye 1 labeled cells remained highly fluorescent even after 3 days. Moreover, slight variations of the dye structure resulted in significantly different intracellular fluorescence behaviors, possibly due to their different cellular uptake and intracellular activation capabilities. After separation of cellular components, the fraction of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed the highest fluorescence, further confirming the fluorescence activation by membrane structures. The fluorescence intensity of these dyes at different intracellular pH (6.80 and 8.00) did not differ significantly, indicating that intracellular pH did not play a critical role. Altogether, we showed here for the first time that the fluorescence of pH-sensitive aza-BODIPY dyes were switched intracellularly not by acidic pH, but by intracellular membranes (and proteins as well). The excellent membrane permeability, ultra high fluorescence contrast ratio, persistent fluorescent signal, and minimum biological interference of dye 1 make it an ideal choice for live cell imaging and in vivo cell tracking. These findings also imply that the intracellular fluorescent properties of pH-sensitive dyes should be carefully examined before used as pH indicators. PMID:23464828

Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; Wang, Zhe; Yue, Xuyi; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2013-01-01

317

Dye laser for lidar ozonometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus results have been published in Ref. 2 of observations of ozone in the lower layers of the atmosphere with the help of lidar, but the necessary measurement accuracy was not obtained due to insufficient energy of the laser pulses. A detailed analysis of the possibility of such measurements [3] has shown the need to use a dye laser with

P. A. Baranov; V. I. Kozintsev; V. N. Makarov; V. G. Nikiforov; A. N. Novoselov

1982-01-01

318

Adsorption of yellow lanasol 4g reactive dye in a simulated textile effluent on gallinaceous feathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption is one of the most efficient physicochemical processes known to remove colour in textile industry effluents. Activated charcoal is conventionally the most used mate- rial for this purpose and although its efficiency is very high also is its price. The aim of this study was to know the variables that influence the adsorption process of wool reactive dye Yellow

L. M. A. Moura; E. P. R. Gonçalves; M. T. Amorim; L. A. Teles de Vasconcelos; C. G. González Beça

319

Remove One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners are given 15 chips and a number line labeled from 2-12. They are instructed to place their 15 chips on the numbers which they think will represent the sums when two dice are rolled. The object of the game is to be the first person to remove all of the chips. A chip is removed if it is on a number that corresponds to the sum rolled. The game is analyzed and the concepts of probability, sample space and game winning strategies are discussed. Learners place chips on their number lines and play the game again to implement winning strategies.

Pbs

2012-01-01

320

Electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO? interfaces.  

PubMed

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) represent a promising approach to the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy at low cost and high efficiency. DSCs are based on a film of anatase TiO? nanoparticles covered by adsorbed molecular dyes and immersed in a liquid redox electrolyte. Upon photoexcitation of the chemisorbed dye, electrons are injected into the TiO? conduction band and can travel across the nanostructured film to reach the counter-electrode, while the oxidized dye is regenerated by the redox electrolyte. In this review we present a summary of recent computational studies of the electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO2 interfaces, with the aim of providing the basic understanding of the operation principles of DSCs and establishing the conceptual basis for their design and optimization.We start with a discussion of isolated dyes in solution, focusing on the dye's atomic structure, ground and excited state oxidation potentials, and optical absorption spectra. We examine both Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes and organic "push-pull" dyes with a D-?-A structure, where the donor group (D) is an electron-rich unit, linked through a conjugated linker (?) to the electron-acceptor group (A). We show that a properly calibrated computational approach based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) can provide a good description of both the absorption spectra and ground and excited state oxidation potential values of the Ru(II) complexes. On the other hand, organic push-pull dyes are not well described by the standard DFT/TD-DFT approach. For these dyes, an excellent description of the electronic structure in gas phase can be obtained by the many body perturbation theory GW method, which has, however, a much higher computational cost.We next consider interacting dye/semiconductor systems. Key properties are the dye adsorption structure onto the semiconductor, the nature and localization of the dye@semiconductor excited states, and the alignment of ground and excited state energy levels at the dye/semiconductor heterointerface. These properties, along with an estimate of the electronic coupling, constitute the fundamental parameters that determine the electron injection and dye regeneration processes. For metallorganic dyes, standard DFT/TDDFT methods are again found to reproduce accurately most of the relevant electronic and optical properties. For highly conjugated organic dyes, characterized by a high degree of charge transfer excited states, instead, the problems associated to the charge-transfer nature of their excited states extend to their interaction with TiO? and translate into an erroneous description of the relative energetics of dye/semiconductor excited states. A full description of push-pull organic dyes/semiconductor excited states, which is essential for modeling the key process of electron injection in DSCs, still represents a challenge which should be addressed by next generation DFT or post-DFT methods. PMID:24488437

Pastore, Mariachiara; Selloni, Annabella; Fantacci, Simona; De Angelis, Filippo

2014-01-01

321

Anaphylaxis to annatto dye: a case report.  

PubMed

Annatto dye is an orange-yellow food coloring extracted from the seeds of the tree Bixa orellana. It is commonly used in cheeses, snack foods, beverages, and cereals. Previously reported adverse reactions associated with annatto dye have included urticaria and angioedema. We present a patient who developed urticaria, angioedema, and severe hypotension within 20 minutes following ingestion of milk and Fiber One cereal, which contained annatto dye. Subsequent skin tests to milk, wheat, and corn were negative. The patient had a strong positive skin test to annatto dye, while controls had no response. The nondialyzable fraction of annatto dye on SDS-PAGE demonstrated two protein staining bands in the range of 50 kD. Immunoblotting demonstrated patient IgE-specific for one of these bands, while controls showed no binding. Annatto dye may contain contaminating or residual seed proteins to which our patient developed IgE hypersensitivity. Annatto dye is a potential rare cause of anaphylaxis. PMID:1994783

Nish, W A; Whisman, B A; Goetz, D W; Ramirez, D A

1991-02-01

322

Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

2012-08-01

323

Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

324

Kidney removal  

MedlinePLUS

... your side. Your surgeon will make an incision (cut) up to 12 inches long. This cut will be on your side, just below the ... the last ribs. Muscle, fat, and tissue are cut and moved. Your surgeon may need to remove ...

325

ARSENIC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

326

Enhanced anaerobic fermentation with azo dye as electron acceptor: simultaneous acceleration of organics decomposition and azo decolorization.  

PubMed

Accumulation of hydrogen during anaerobic processes usually results in low decomposition of volatile organic acids (VFAs). On the other hand, hydrogen is a good electron donor for dye reduction, which would help the acetogenic conversion in keeping low hydrogen concentration. The main objective of the study was to accelerate VFA composition through using azo dye as electron acceptor. The results indicated that the azo dye serving as an electron acceptor could avoid H2 accumulation and accelerate anaerobic digestion of VFAs. After adding the azo dye, propionate decreased from 2400.0 to 689.5mg/L and acetate production increased from 180.0 to 519.5mg/L. It meant that the conversion of propionate into acetate was enhanced. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundance of propionate-utilizing acetogens with the presence of azo dye was greater than that in a reference without azo dye. The experiments via using glucose as the substrate further demonstrated that the VFA decomposition and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increased by 319.7mg/L and 23.3% respectively after adding the azo dye. Therefore, adding moderate azo dye might be a way to recover anaerobic system from deterioration due to the accumulation of H2 or VFAs. PMID:25288539

Li, Yang; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Jingxin; Chen, Shuo; Afzal, Shahzad

2014-10-01

327

Recovery of small dye molecules from aqueous solutions using charged ultrafiltration membranes.  

PubMed

Recovery of reactive dyes from effluent streams is a growing environmental challenge. In this study, various charged regenerated cellulose (RC) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were prepared and tested for removal of three model reactive dyes (reactive red ED-2B, reactive brilliant yellow K-6G, and reactive brilliant blue KN-R). Data were obtained with charged UF membranes having different spacer arm lengths between the base cellulose and the charge functionality. The effects of charge density of the dye molecules, ionic strength of the feed solution, spacer arm length of charged membranes and filtrate flux were studied. Results indicated that dye retention was greatest with the most negatively charged dye molecule. Higher rejection was also observed in low ionic strength solutions. Results were consistent with model calculations based on the partitioning of a charged sphere into a charged cylindrical pore. The membranes with longer spacer arm length had higher rejection coefficients, consistent with the greater negative charge on these membranes. This study confirms that charged UF membranes can effectively recover small reactive dye molecules at low pressures (below 100kPa) under appropriate solution conditions due to the strong electrostatic repulsion from the membrane pores. PMID:25463218

Chen, Xiuwen; Zhao, Yiru; Moutinho, Jennifer; Shao, Jiahui; Zydney, Andrew L; He, Yiliang

2015-03-01

328

The Enzymatic Decolorization of Textile Dyes by the Immobilized Polyphenol Oxidase from Quince Leaves  

PubMed Central

Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100?mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents. PMID:24587743

Arabaci, Gulnur; Usluoglu, Ayse

2014-01-01

329

Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

330

Basics of Photometry Photometry: Basic Questions  

E-print Network

Basics of Photometry #12;Photometry: Basic Questions · How do you identify objects in your image type of object you're studying? #12;#12;#12;Topics 1. General Considerations 2. Stellar Photometry 3. Galaxy Photometry #12;I: General Considerations 1. Garbage in, garbage out... 2. Object Detection 3

Masci, Frank

331

Zeolite-dye micro lasers  

E-print Network

We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

1998-01-01

332

Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase.  

PubMed

Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation. PMID:23369690

Forootanfar, Hamid; Moezzi, Atefeh; Aghaie-Khozani, Marzieh; Mahmoudjanlou, Yasaman; Ameri, Alieh; Niknejad, Farhad; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

333

Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15min), and amounts of salt (10g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. PMID:25575805

Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

2015-05-01

334

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from The Lawrence Hall of Science was taught in spring 2012 and teaches students about nano and environmental technologies. Students will create "dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using nano-crystalline titanium dioxide." This page includes links to the Source Articles for the Hands-on Module and Project Staff Write-ups of the Hands-on Module. Additionally, five documents provide lecture and lab materials for instructor use.

2014-06-03

335

NIR Dyes for Bioimaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Fluorescent dyes based on small organic molecules that function in the near infra red (NIR) region are of great current interest in chemical biology. They allow for imaging with minimal autofluorescence from biological samples, reduced light scattering and high tissue penetration. Herein, examples of ongoing NIR fluorophore design strategies as well as their properties and anticipated applications relevant to the bioimaging are presented. PMID:19926332

Escobedo, Jorge O.; Rusin, Oleksandr; Lim, Soojin

2009-01-01

336

Enzymatic decolorization of sulfonphthalein dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus (WRF) Pleurotus ostreatus produced manganese peroxidase (MnP) and manganese-independent peroxidase (MIP) activities during solid state fermentation of wheat straw, a natural lignocellulosic substrate. Most of the sulfonphthalein (SP) dyes were decolorized by MnP at pH 4.0. The higher Km for meta-cresol purple (40?M) and lower Km for ortho-cresol red (26?M) for MnP activities explained the preference

R. Shrivastava; V. Christian; B. R. M. Vyas

2005-01-01

337

Dye laser traveling wave amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Injection locking was applied to a cavity-dumped coaxial flashlamp pumped dye laser in an effort to obtain nanosecond duration pulses which have both high energy and narrow-linewidth. In the absence of an injected laser pulse, the cavity-dumped dye laser was capable of generating high energy (approx. 60mJ) nanosecond duration output pulses. These pulses, however, had a fixed center wavelength and were extremely broadband (approx. 6nm FWHM). Experimental investigations were performed to determine if the spectral properties of these outputs could be improved through the use of injection-locking techniques. A parametric study to determine the specific conditions under which the laser could be injection-locked was also carried out. Significant linewidth reduction to 0.0015nm) of the outputs was obtained through injection-locking but only at wavelengths near the peak lasing wavelength of the dye. It was found, however; that by inserting weakly dispersive tuning elements in the laser cavity, these narrow-linewidth outputs could be obtained over a wide (24nm) tuning range. Since the tuning elements had low insertion losses, the tunability of the output was obtained without sacrificing output pulse energy.

Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

1985-01-01

338

Ultrafast distributed feedback dye lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distributed feedback dye laser (DFDL) was experimentally studied to determine the utmost lower limit on ultrafast pulse generation. The ultimate aim was to determine its suitability as a cheaper high peak power laser source. The dye cell was excited by the second harmonic of a laboratory built cavity dumped passively q switched and modelocked Nd:YAG Laser to induce temperature phase grating in dye solution. Different features studied include threshold conditions, pulse shortening, by reducing cavity length, polymerization limitations, simultaneous induction of multiple superimposed gratings, line narrowing, polarization, temporal and spectral characteristics. The pump polarization affect on dynamic gratings and threshold conditions indicated the number of lasing lines (maximum nine) or intensity of a single line depends upon the state of pump polarization (SOP). Various types of tuning methods such as Bragg index, refractive index, half angle and state of pump polarization were tested for improved divergence, bandwidth, line-width and wider spectral ranges. The combined effect of coherence length and SOP of excitation laser on emission of multiple lines was studied without using external gratings. The results of this critical and contemporary work on DFDL is in agreement with most of the published results and opens a new era for their potential suitability in optical communication, sensing and photonic devices.

Khan, Nasrullah

2000-04-01

339

In defence of 'dye therapy'.  

PubMed

Worldwide, healthcare is facing enormous problems with the continuing rise of drug-resistant infectious diseases. In view of the scarcity of new antimicrobial agents and the withdrawal of many pharmaceutical houses from the fray, alternative approaches are required. One of these is photoantimicrobial chemotherapy, which is highly effective across the range of microbial pathogens and does not suffer from resistance. However, there is a lack of uptake of this approach by healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry alike. It is seldom recalled that, unlike anticancer photodynamic therapy, the development of photoantimicrobial agents has evolved from the antiseptic 'dye therapy' in common use until the widespread introduction of the penicillin class in the mid-1940s. Cationic biological dyes such as methylene blue, crystal violet and acriflavine were effective in local wound therapy and today provide a sound basis for light-activated antimicrobial therapeutics. It is proposed that such 'safe' dyes are introduced as locally administered photoantimicrobials, especially in order to conserve valuable conventional antibacterial drugs. PMID:24795083

Wainwright, Mark

2014-07-01

340

A comparative computational study on the interactions of N719 and N749 dyes with iodine in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The intermolecular interactions of the two most basic Ru(ii) complex dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), N719 and N749, with the iodine species are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). In addition to interactions with a single I2 molecule, multiple I2 interactions and simultaneous interactions of I2 and I(-) occur. N719 with two isothiocyanato (NCS) ligands interacts with two I2 molecules via the two terminal S atoms in the ground singlet electronic state, whereas N749 with three NCS ligands forms three SI-I bonds. Irrespective of the NCS position and the number of I2 molecules, N749 has a stronger interaction with I2 than N719. Conversely, the interaction of I(-) with oxidized N749 via the terminal S atom of the NCS ligand is weaker than that with oxidized N719. However, simultaneous interactions of oxidized N749 with two I2 molecules promote the I(-) interaction, and the I(-) interaction with N749 becomes stronger than that with N719 bonded to both an I2 and I(-). The computational results of multiple interactions between the dye and iodine species suggest that the difference in DSSC performance between N719 and N749 dyes is explained by recombination related to the I2 interaction and regeneration of the oxidized dye by I(-). PMID:25578335

Kusama, Hitoshi; Sayama, Kazuhiro

2015-01-28

341

Mechanism of methylene blue removal from water by swelling clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive but separate studies have been conducted to focus on utilization of swelling clays to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution and to investigate the feasibility and applicability of using methylene blue (MB) adsorption for cation exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SSA) determination. This research aims at elucidating the mechanism of MB adsorption on low-charge montmorillonite in order

Zhaohui Li; Po-Hisang Chang; Wei-Teh Jiang; Jiin-Shuh Jean; Hanlie Hong

2011-01-01

342

[Novelty of vital dyes in ophthalmic surgery].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present recent developments in the area of novelty of vital dyes in intraocular surgery. The authors present the advantages and disadvantages of several vital dyes currently used in ophthalmic surgery. Vital dyes are used to allow better intraoperative visualization of both the anterior and posterior segments. Indocyanine green and trypan blue are the most frequently used and the most efficacious dyes for staining the important anatomic areas but often are associated with significant side effects. These dyes are used in cataract and vitreo-retinal surgery. Other dyes including rhodamine 6G, E68, bromophenol blue, light green and Chicago blue are still under preclinical assessment. PMID:20825072

Rejdak, Robert; Oleszczuk, Agnieszka; Ma?kowska, Anna; Kiczy?ska, Magdalena; Zagórski, Zbigniew; Zarnowski, Tomasz

2010-01-01

343

Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

Hardin, Brian E.; Hoke, Eric T.; Armstrong, Paul B.; Yum, Jun-Ho; Comte, Pascal; Torres, Tomás; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

2009-07-01

344

Probing the regeneration process of triphenylamine-based organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regeneration processes of triphenylamine (TPA)-based dyes with cobalt redox mediator in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been investigated using density functional theory combined with the Marcus theory of electron transfer. Our results show that with the extension or rigidification of the oligothiophene conjugation linker the absorption spectra of TPA dyes exhibit observable red-shift in the maximum absorbance that favors light-harvesting, while the electron transfer rates for dye regeneration decrease in some degrees due to the increased activation free energies and the reduced electronic coupling energies which hampers the dye regeneration. Importantly, the undesirable influences on dye regeneration by extending the linker moiety are more significant than that by the way of rigidification. Thus, the rigidification is a better choice than the extension of the conjugated moiety for the design of D-?-A type dyes based on the properties of light-harvesting and the kinetics of dye regeneration.

Sun, Zhu-Zhu; Li, Quan-Song; Sun, Ping-Ping; Li, Ze-Sheng

2015-02-01

345

Decolorization of the AO24 azo dye and reduction of toxicity and genotoxicity in trickling biofilters.  

PubMed

Acid Orange 24 (AO24) dye was degraded in a trickling biofilter packed with peat and wood chips and inoculated with biomass from a petrochemical industry wastewater system. Different operating strategies were tested; in the first stage, two biofilters were operated independently--one non-aerated biofilter (passive) and the other with aeration-subsequently, the systems were operated serially, and effluent from the non-aerated biofilter was fed to the biofilter with aeration. This treatment train was used to test three different filtration velocities--0.141, 0.282, and 0.423 m/d. The results show that, when operating the systems with a dye charge of 0.035 kg AO24 m2/d and treating the effluent in a single step, good removal efficiencies of AO24 (95 and 89%), COD (63 and 53%), and acute toxicity (63 and 78%) were obtained in both biofilters (with and without air), although mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic intermediary compounds were not removed, because genotoxicity exhibits values higher than 2.0 units for the mutation rate. When using the non-aerated biofilter/aerated biofilter treatment train, it is possible to treat a dye charge 3 times greater (0.106 kg AO24 m2/d) and efficiently remove 98% AO24, 76% COD, 100% acute toxicity, and 100% genotoxicity, which indicates that, with this biological system, an advanced degree of biotransformation and mineralization of the azo dye AO24 is achieved. PMID:21449472

Garzóón-Zúñga, Marco A; Sandoval-Villasana, Ana M; Moeller-Chávez, Gabriela E

2011-02-01

346

Thermodynamics of the adsorption of different dyes onto bentonite modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of two different dyes: Acid Orange 10 (AO10) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from their aqueous solutions using organobentonite as adsorbent was investigated. The experiments were carried out at different temperatures (298, 313, 323, and 333 K) in order to obtain thermodynamic parameters for adsorbate/adsorbent system i.e., activation energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy. The results of thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of both dyes onto organobentonite is an endothermic process, while the values for activation energies (76 kJ mol-1 for AO10 and 51 kJ mol-1 for RB5) indicated that chemisorption occurred.

Žuni?, M.; Jovi?-Jovi?i?, N.; Milutinovi?-Nikoli?, A.; Bankovi?, P.; Mojovi?, Z.; Ivanovi?-Šaši?, A.; Jovanovi?, D.

2013-12-01

347

Adsorption of heavy metal ions, dyes and proteins by chitosan composites and derivatives — A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitosan composites and derivatives have gained wide attentions as effective biosorbents due to their low costs and high contents of amino and hydroxyl functional groups. They have showed significant potentials of removing metal ions, dyes and proteins from various media. Chemical modifications that lead to the formation of the chitosan derivatives and chitosan composites have been extensively studied and widely reported in literatures. The aims of this review were to summarize the important information of the bioactivities of chitosan, highlight the various preparation methods of chitosan-based active biosorbents, and outline its potential applications in the adsorption of heavy metal ions, dyes and proteins from wastewater and aqueous solutions.

Liu, Bingjie; Wang, Dongfeng; Yu, Guangli; Meng, Xianghong

2013-09-01

348

Highly efficient passive Q switches for a neodymium laser based on thiopyrylotricarbocyanine dyes  

SciTech Connect

The spectral, photochemical and nonlinear optical properties of a group of thiopyrylotricarbocyanine dyes in a polyurethane matrix are studied and compared with well-known materials for passive Q-switching such as nickel BDN and BDNII complexes. Passive laser Q switches based on these dyes feature the high modulation efficiency (up to 76%) in neodymium lasers and high photochemical stability. It is shown that the service life of Q switches can be considerably increased by removing oxygen from a polymer matrix. (elements of laser setups)

Bezrodnyi, V I [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine); Derevyanko, Nadezhda A; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A; Kropachev, A V [Institute of Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

2009-01-31

349

Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner  

PubMed Central

The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

Mizutani, Takaharu

2009-01-01

350

Preparation and characterization of ammonium-functionalized silica nanoparticle as a new adsorbent to remove methyl orange from aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (PEI) was successfully modified to silica nanoparticle (QPEI/SiO2) as a new adsorbent to remove methyl orange from aqueous solution. The isotherm and kinetics of dye adsorption were studied, which showed that Langmuir isotherm fit the experimental results well. The maximum adsorption capacity of QPEI/SiO2 for methyl orange is 105.4 mg/g. The equilibrium time for methyl orange adsorption onto QPEI/SiO2 was as short as 10 min, indicating that the adsorbent has a strong affinity for methyl orange. The adsorption capacities of the methyl orange are slightly influenced by the pH in the range of 3.2-9.6. The QPEI/SiO2 adsorbent can be used in the wide pH range, which is different from other adsorbent. This may attribute to the quaternary ammonium carrying positive charges in acidic and basic solution.

Liu, Jinshui; Ma, Shi; Zang, Lingjie

2013-01-01

351

Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.  

PubMed

Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them. PMID:19113946

Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

2009-02-17

352

Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (?) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs. PMID:23832227

Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

2013-11-01

353

Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (?) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

2013-11-01

354

Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic structure enables the systematic design of new dyes using less expensive materials.

Johnson, Phillip S.

355

40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section... § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical substance...generically as a substituted diphenylazo dye (PMN P-95-514) is subject to...

2010-07-01

356

40 CFR 721.5915 - Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. 721.5915 Section 721.5915 Protection...Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant...polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye (PMN P-93-658) is subject to...

2010-07-01

357

PASCAL vs BASIC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

Mundie, David A.

1978-01-01

358

Basic Facts about VHL  

MedlinePLUS

Home › Patients/Caregivers › Basic Facts about VHL Basic Facts about VHL The VHL gene hijacks the major ... body. While blood vessels normally branch out like trees, in people with VHL little knots of blood ...

359

Basics of Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS

... 2 Standard Handouts • S01 Version 5.0 The Basics of Weight Control A calorie is a unit ... beverages you drink provide energy and nutrients. The basic required nutrients are: water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary ...

360

Sodic and Acidic Crystalline Lamellar Magadiite Adsorbents for the Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the feasibility of two synthetic crystalline lamellar nano-silicates, sodic magadiite (Na-mag) and its converted acidic form (H-mag), as alternative adsorbents for the removal of the dye methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The ability of these adsorbents for removing the dye was explored through the batch adsorption procedure. Effects such as the pH and the adsorbent

Betina Royer; Natali F. Cardoso; Eder C. Lima; Thais R. Macedo; Claudio Airoldi

2009-01-01

361

INVEST IN YOUR BONES Bone Basics  

E-print Network

to left) to become so fragile (see above bone figure to right) that they break. Bone Basics You may think. Keeping your bones healthy by preventing osteoporosis is particularly important as you age. Bones are changing constantly with fragments of old bone being removed and replaced by new bone. Think of bones like

362

CSF myelin basic protein  

MedlinePLUS

CSF myelin basic protein is a test to measure the level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF ... less than 4 ng/mL of myelin basic protein in the CSF. Note: ng/mL = nanogram per ...

363

Mechanism of acridine orange removal from water by low-charge swelling clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swelling clays have been extensively studied to remove contaminants from aqueous solution. This research aimed at elucidating the mechanism of adsorption of acridine orange (AO), a cationic dye, on low charge montmorillonite in order to better understand the principles behind AO removal using swelling clays. Proportional desorption of exchangeable cations from the clays accompanying AO adsorption confirmed cation exchange as

Guocheng Lv; Zhaohui Li; Wei-Teh Jiang; Po-Hsiang Chang; Jiin-Shuh Jean; Kao-Hung Lin

2011-01-01

364

Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached. PMID:23985354

Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

2013-10-01

365

Theoretical evidence of multiple dye regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), with N3 (Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2) as dye and I-/I3- as redox shuttle, have been studied by DFT methods. Our results show that different reaction pathways are possible within the same dye and the actual mechanism is controlled by the initial geometry of the dyeI complex. By considering the rapid interconversion between different N3I geometries, the reaction mechanism where N3I dissociates into neutral dye and Irad radical is preferred to the mechanism where N3I reacts with a second iodide.

Liu, Tao; Troisi, Alessandro

2013-05-01

366

Liquid-Crystal Photoalignment by Super Thin Azo Dye Layer Xihua LI, Vladimir M. KOZENKOV, Fion Sze-Yan YEUNG, Peizhi XU, Vladimir G. CHIGRINOV and Hoi-Sing KWOK  

E-print Network

of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay azo dye molecular layer is proposed. The basic idea of this method is to form a very neat textile azo dye SD-1 layer. This new method includes the formation of a very neat ``textile knitwear'' and can

367

Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and identification of intermediate products during phytoremediation of an anionic dye (C.I. Acid Blue 92) by pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris).  

PubMed

The potential of pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) for phytoremediation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92) was evaluated. The effects of various experimental parameters including pH, temperature, dye concentration and plant weight on dye removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the optimal condition for dye removal were pH 3.5 and temperature 25 degree C. Moreover, the absolute dye removal enhanced with increase in the initial dye concentration and plant weight. Pennywort showed the same removal efficiency in repeated experiments (four runs) as that obtained from the first run (a 6-day period). Therefore, the ability of the plant in consecutive removal of AB92 confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. The effect of treatment on photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in plant roots and leaves were evaluated. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content under dye treatments. Antioxidant enzyme responses showed marked variations with respect to the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activity under AB92 stress in the roots was much higher than that in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in malondialdehyde content was detected in roots or leaves, implying that the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. Based on these results, pennywort was founded to be a capable species for phytoremediation of AB92-contaminated water, may be effective for phytoremediation dye-contaminated polluted aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24552049

Vafaei, Fatemeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Khataee, Alireza

2013-11-01

368

Effects of pH of Dyes on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dyes and synthesized dyes in which rear metal was not contained. Effects of pH of dyes on the characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells were also examined. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 2.5 was 0.10 point larger than that of the solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 4.0. It was also found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using red-perilla dye with a pH of 3.1 was 0.10 point larger than that of the solar cell fabricated using red-perilla dye with a pH of 5.8. The results are discussed on the bases of the molecular structure of mainly contained dye and the optical absorption spectra.

Furukawa, Shoji; Iino, Hiroshi; Kukita, Koudai; Kaminosono, Kaoru

369

Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

2011-07-01

370

Predicting with confidence the efficiency of new dyes in dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

We ask whether it is possible to predict the efficiency of a new dye in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) on the basis of the known performance of existing dyes in the same type of device. We evaluate a number of computable predictors of the efficiency for a large set of dyes whose experimental efficiency is known. We have then used statistical regression methods to establish the relation between the predictors and the efficiency. Our predictions are associated with a rigorously determined confidence level. For a new dye of the same family we are able to predict the probability that its efficiency in a DSSC is larger than a certain threshold. This method is useful for accelerating the discovery of new dyes and establishing more rigorously the existence of specific correlations between structure and properties. Within the properties considered we find that the dye efficiency correlates more strongly with its oxidation potential and reorganization energy. PMID:25097038

Ip, Chung Man; Eleuteri, Antonio; Troisi, Alessandro

2014-09-28

371

ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

372

Application of 'waste' wood-shaving bottom ash for adsorption of azo reactive dye.  

PubMed

The utilization of wood-shaving bottom ash (WBA) for the removal of Red Reactive 141 (RR141), an azo reactive dye, was investigated. WBA/H(2)O and WBA/H(2)SO(4) were made by treating WBA with water and 0.1M H(2)SO(4), respectively, to increase adsorption capacity. Adsorption of RR141 from reactive dye solution (RDS) and reactive dye wastewater (RDW) by WBA/H(2)O and WBA/H(2)SO(4) involved the BET surface area and pore size diameter. Properties of adsorbents, effect of contact time, initial pH of solution, dissolved metals and elution studies indicated that the decolorisation mechanism involved both chemical adsorption and precipitation with calcium ions. In addition, the WBA/H(2)SO(4) surface might contain sulphate-cation complexes that were specific to enhancing dye adsorption from RDW. The adsorption isotherm had a best fit by the Freundlich model. Freundlich parameters showed that WBA/H(2)O used more heterogeneous surface than WBA/H(2)SO(4) and activated carbon for RDW adsorption. A thermodynamic study indicated that RDW adsorption was an endothermic process. The maximum dye adsorption capacities of WBA/H(2)O, WBA/H(2)SO(4) and activated carbon obtained from a Langmuir model at 30 degrees C were 24.3, 29.9, and 41.5mgl(-1), respectively. In addition, WBA/H(2)O and WBA/H(2)SO(4) could reduce colour and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of real textile wastewater. According to the difficulty in the elution study, it was an environmentally safe disposal of this waste. Therefore, WBA, a waste from combustion of wood shavings, was suitable to be used as an effective adsorbent for azo reactive dye removal. PMID:18436367

Leechart, Piyawan; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

2009-02-01

373

Enhancement of acidic dye biosorption capacity on poly(ethylenimine) grafted anaerobic granular sludge.  

PubMed

Developing a novel biosorbent with high capacity is crucial to remove dyes from waters in an efficient way. This study demonstrated that porous anaerobic granular sludge could be grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI), which definitely improved the sorption capacity towards Acid Red 18 (AR18) removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed that the PEI modification introduced a large number of amino groups on the surface of sludge, and the amino groups played an important role in the adsorption of dye molecule. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms the film diffusion was the rate-limiting step. The equilibrium data were well fitted Langmuir model, with a maximum AR18 uptake of 520.52 mg/g. Removal of AR18 decreased with the increasing pH and the maximum color removal was observed at pH 2.0. The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was found to be less than 8 for the biosorption of AR 18, which suggested that the biosorption processes of dye molecule onto modified anaerobic granules could be taken place by physical adsorption. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ?G(0), ?H(0) and ?S(0), were also calculated, which indicated that the present system was spontaneous and endothermic process. PMID:21354702

Sun, Xue-Fei; Wang, Shu-Guang; Cheng, Wen; Fan, Maohong; Tian, Bing-Hui; Gao, Bao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming

2011-05-15

374

Photophysics of xanthene dyes in surfactant solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral (both absorption and fluorescence) and photoelectrochemical studies of some anionic xanthene dyes namely erythrosin B, rose bengal and eosin have been carried out in micellar solution of cationic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and neutral triton X-100 (TX-100). The results show that all these dyes form 1:1 electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) or charge-transfer (CT) complexes with TX-100, which acts as an electron donor. There is no interaction of these dyes with SDS, whereas the interaction with CTAB is mainly electrostatic in nature. In presence of TX-100, these dyes show enhancement of fluorescence intensity with a red shift and develop photovoltage in a photoelectrochemical cell. A good correlation has been found among the photovoltage generation in the systems consisting of these dyes and TX-100, spectral shift due to complex formation and thermodynamic properties of these complexes.

Bhowmik, Benoy B.; Ganguly, Papia

2005-07-01

375

Photolysis of smoke dyes on soils  

SciTech Connect

Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. Initially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemically protected. The average mean depths of photolysis ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 mm for outdoor studies and from 0.42 to 0.73 mm for lab studies. The magnitude of the mean depths of photolysis suggests that photo-degradation of the dyes occurs through indirect photochemical processes. Photolysis products for only two of the dyes could be identified. Photolysis of Disperse Red 9 resulted in the formation of 1-aminoanthraquinone, whereas Solvent Yellow 33 photo-degraded to give 2-carboxyquinoline and phthalic anhydride. Reaction mechanisms involving sensitized photo-oxidation by singlet oxygen are consistent with the formation of these reaction products.

Adams, R.L. (Technology Applications Inc., Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.); Weber, E.J.; Baughman, G.L. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.)

1994-06-01

376

Adsorptive removal of methyl orange and methylene blue from aqueous solution with a metal-organic framework material, iron terephthalate (MOF-235)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iron terephthalate (MOF-235), one of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), has been used for the removal of harmful dyes (anionic dye methyl orange (MO) and cationic dye methylene blue (MB)) from contaminated water via adsorption. The adsorption capacities of MOF-235 are much higher than those of an activated carbon. The performance of MOF-235 having high adsorption capacity is remarkable because

Enamul Haque; Jong Won Jun; Sung Hwa Jhung

2011-01-01

377

Molecular engineering of simple phenothiazine-based dyes to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration in highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A series of simple phenothiazine-based dyes, namely, TP, EP, TTP, ETP, and EEP have been developed, in which the thiophene (T), ethylenedioxythiophene (E), their dimers, and mixtures are present to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Devices sensitized by the dyes TP and TTP display high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.07 (Jsc = 15.2?mA?cm(-2), Voc =0.783?V, fill factor (FF) = 0.679) and 7.87?% (Jsc = 16.1?mA?cm(-2), Voc = 0.717?V, FF = 0.681), respectively; these were measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight in conjunction with the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple. By replacing the T group with the E unit, EP-based DSSCs had a slightly lower PCE of 7.98?% with a higher short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 16.7?mA?cm(-2). The dye ETP, with a mixture of E and T, had an even lower PCE of 5.62?%. Specifically, the cell based on the dye EEP, with a dimer of E, had inferior Jsc and Voc values and corresponded to the lowest PCE of 2.24?%. The results indicate that the photovoltaic performance can be finely modulated through structural engineering of the dyes. The selection of T analogues as donors can not only modulate light absorption and energy levels, but also have an impact on dye aggregation and interfacial charge recombination of electrons at the interface of titania, electrolytes, and/or oxidized dye molecules; this was demonstrated through DFT calculations, electrochemical impedance analysis, and transient photovoltage studies. PMID:24715494

Hua, Yong; Chang, Shuai; He, Jian; Zhang, Caishun; Zhao, Jianzhang; Chen, Tao; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Zhu, Xunjin

2014-05-19

378

Multiplexed target detection using DNA-binding dye chemistry in droplet digital PCR.  

PubMed

Two years ago, we described the first droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) system aimed at empowering all researchers with a tool that removes the substantial uncertainties associated with using the analogue standard, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This system enabled TaqMan hydrolysis probe-based assays for the absolute quantification of nucleic acids. Due to significant advancements in droplet chemistry and buoyed by the multiple benefits associated with dye-based target detection, we have created a "second generation" ddPCR system compatible with both TaqMan-probe and DNA-binding dye detection chemistries. Herein, we describe the operating characteristics of DNA-binding dye based ddPCR and offer a side-by-side comparison to TaqMan probe detection. By partitioning each sample prior to thermal cycling, we demonstrate that it is now possible to use a DNA-binding dye for the quantification of multiple target species from a single reaction. The increased resolution associated with partitioning also made it possible to visualize and account for signals arising from nonspecific amplification products. We expect that the ability to combine the precision of ddPCR with both DNA-binding dye and TaqMan probe detection chemistries will further enable the research community to answer complex and diverse genetic questions. PMID:24180464

McDermott, Geoffrey P; Do, Duc; Litterst, Claudia M; Maar, Dianna; Hindson, Christopher M; Steenblock, Erin R; Legler, Tina C; Jouvenot, Yann; Marrs, Samuel H; Bemis, Adam; Shah, Pallavi; Wong, Josephine; Wang, Shenglong; Sally, David; Javier, Leanne; Dinio, Theresa; Han, Chunxiao; Brackbill, Timothy P; Hodges, Shawn P; Ling, Yunfeng; Klitgord, Niels; Carman, George J; Berman, Jennifer R; Koehler, Ryan T; Hiddessen, Amy L; Walse, Pramod; Bousse, Luc; Tzonev, Svilen; Hefner, Eli; Hindson, Benjamin J; Cauly, Thomas H; Hamby, Keith; Patel, Viresh P; Regan, John F; Wyatt, Paul W; Karlin-Neumann, George A; Stumbo, David P; Lowe, Adam J

2013-12-01

379

Difference spectroscopic and kinetic studies on the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with structurally related triazine dyes.  

PubMed

Difference spectroscopy and enzyme kinetics were employed to study the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle with the azo-dye Procion Red HE-3B and two of its structural variants in order to follow the significance of the sulphonated terminal rings for the strength and specificity of binding. Procion Red HE-3B possesses a significantly higher affinity to LDH compared to the dye Cibacron Blue F3G-A, a well characterized pseudo-biospecific ligand of dehydrogenases. Moreover, Procion Red HE-3B showed competition towards the cofactor NAD+/NADH. The enzyme-dye complex is mainly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, but other binding forces cannot be excluded. LDH possesses one dye-binding site per subunit. As a binding region the active center of LDH, preferentially the hydrophobic nicotinamide pocket is involved. Removal of the negatively charged sulphonic acid group from the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B decreases the affinity to LDH significantly but does not change the type of binding. Addition of an anilino group to the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B does not affect the affinity to the active site significantly but enables the binding on other sites with lower affinity in dependence on the dye concentration. PMID:1824535

Cadelis, F; Kirchberger, J; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Kopperschläger, G

1991-01-01

380

Biosorption of an Azo Dye by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. Fungal Biomasses.  

PubMed

Biosorption is an eco-friendly and cost-effective method for treating the dye house effluents. Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. were cultivated in bulk and biomasses used as biosorbents for the biosorption of an azo dye Orange G. Batch biosorption studies were performed for the removal of Orange G from aqueous solutions by varying the parameters like initial aqueous phase pH, biomass dosage, and initial dye concentration. It was found that the maximum biosorption was occurred at pH 2. Experimental data were analyzed by model equations such as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and it was found that both the isotherm models best fitted the adsorption data. The monolayer saturation capacity was 0.48 mg/g for Aspergillus niger and 0.45 mg/g for Trichoderma sp. biomasses. The biosorption kinetic data were tested with pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order rate equations, and it was found that the pseudo second-order model fitted the data well for both the biomasses. The rate constant for the pseudo second-order model was found to be 10-0.8 (g/mg min?¹) for Aspergillus niger and 8-0.4 (g/mg min?¹) for Trichoderma sp. by varying the initial dye concentrations from 5 to 25 mg/l. It was found that the biomass obtained from Aspergillus niger was a better biosorbent for the biosorption of Orange G dye when compared to Trichoderma sp. PMID:20644933

Sivasamy, Arumugam; Sundarabal, Nethaji

2011-02-01

381

Determination of viable wine yeast using DNA binding dyes and quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The detection and quantification of wine yeast can be misleading due to under or overestimation of these microorganisms. Underestimation may be caused by variable growing rates of different microorganisms in culture media or the presence of viable but non-cultivable microorganisms. Overestimation may be caused by the lack of discrimination between live and dead microorganisms if quantitative PCR is used to quantify with DNA as the template. However, culture-independent methods that use dyes have been described to remove the DNA from dead cells and then quantify the live microorganisms. Two dyes have been studied in this paper: ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) and propidium monoazide bromide (PMA). The technique was applied to grape must fermentation and ageing wines. Both dyes presented similar results on yeast monitoring. Membrane cell recovery was necessary when yeasts were originated from ethanol-containing media. When applied to grape must fermentation, differences of up to 1 log unit were seen between the QPCR estimation with or without the dye during the stationary phase. In ageing wines, good agreement was found between plating techniques and QPCR. Most of the viable cells were also culturable and no differences were observed with the methods, except for Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Dekkera bruxellensis where much higher counts were occasionally detected by QPCR. The presence of excess dead cells did not interfere with the quantification of live cells with either of the dyes. PMID:21036413

Andorrà, Imma; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Guillamón, José M; Mas, Albert

2010-12-15

382

Reactive dye house wastewater treatment. Use of hybrid technology: Membrane, sonication followed by wet oxidation  

SciTech Connect

To address problems associated with treatment of an aqueous waste stream from a reactive dye house, a model dye, turquoise blue CI25, was studied. A hybrid technology, membrane separation followed by sonication and wet oxidation, has been demonstrated to treat the wastewater for reuse and discharge. Experiments were first performed with the reactive dye solution in water. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) was found to be suitable to concentrate the dye. The concentrate was then treated with a wet oxidation process. Kinetics studies were performed with and without catalyst, in the temperature range of 170--215 C. The color destruction achieved was > 99%. After process parameters were fixed, studies were conducted with the actual dye waste stream. The actual waste stream was found to be refractory for wet oxidation under the above conditions. Sonication of the concentrate obtained after membrane filtration, in the presence of CuSO{sub 4}, made the waste stream amenable to wet oxidation. Sonication followed by wet oxidation was found to be more effective at near neutral conditions as compared to basic conditions.

Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V. [Univ. of Mumbai (India)] [Univ. of Mumbai (India)

1999-05-01

383

Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.  

PubMed

Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

2005-04-15

384

"Back to Basics" or "Forward to Basics"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Politicians have used the promise of "back to basics in our schools" as an educational platform for some time now, possibly in recognition that this is something the general population perceives as an issue they might just vote for. In the various positions the author has held, both professional and in community service, she has been required to…

Perso, Thelma

2007-01-01

385

Plant-mediated synthesis of silver-nanocomposite as novel effective azo dye adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicity of textile effluent is a globally alarming issue nowadays. In order to address this problem, a cost-effective and environment-friendly technique for adsorption of toxic dyes has been introduced in this research. Firstly in this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having antibacterial efficacy, had been carried out using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica as reducing as well as capping agent. This research idea was further extended for the development and application of a novel method of preparation of silver-nanocomposite using synthesized microwave-assisted AgNPs with soil as a novel nanocomposite to adsorb hazardous dyes. However, this nanocomposite was found to possess higher efficiency and adsorption capacity in comparison to soil as adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye under same experimental conditions. Additionally, it was also observed that use of this Ag-nanocomposite as adsorbent helped in achieving about 97.2 % removal of crystal violet dye from the effluent solution.

Satapathy, Mantosh Kumar; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita

2015-01-01

386

Plant-mediated synthesis of silver-nanocomposite as novel effective azo dye adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicity of textile effluent is a globally alarming issue nowadays. In order to address this problem, a cost-effective and environment-friendly technique for adsorption of toxic dyes has been introduced in this research. Firstly in this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having antibacterial efficacy, had been carried out using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica as reducing as well as capping agent. This research idea was further extended for the development and application of a novel method of preparation of silver-nanocomposite using synthesized microwave-assisted AgNPs with soil as a novel nanocomposite to adsorb hazardous dyes. However, this nanocomposite was found to possess higher efficiency and adsorption capacity in comparison to soil as adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye under same experimental conditions. Additionally, it was also observed that use of this Ag-nanocomposite as adsorbent helped in achieving about 97.2 % removal of crystal violet dye from the effluent solution.

Satapathy, Mantosh Kumar; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita

2013-12-01

387

A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye--Acid Blue 113.  

PubMed

A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column. PMID:21163571

Gupta, V K; Gupta, Bina; Rastogi, Arshi; Agarwal, Shilpi; Nayak, Arunima

2011-02-15

388

Beneficial role of ZnO photocatalyst supported with porous activated carbon for the mineralization of alizarin cyanin green dye in aqueous solution  

PubMed Central

The present investigation depicts the development of a simple and low cost method for the removal of color from textile dyeing and printing wastewater using ZnO as photocatalyst supported with porous activated carbon (AC). Photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out for water soluble toxic alizarin cyanin green (ACG) dye in aqueous suspension along with activated carbon (AC) as co-adsorbent. Different parameters like concentration of ACG dye, irradiation time, catalyst concentration and pH have also been studied. The pseudo first order kinetic equation was found to be applicable in the present dye-catalyst systems. It was observed that photocatalytic degradation by ZnO along with AC was a more effective and faster mode of removing ACG from aqueous solutions than the ZnO alone.

Muthirulan, P.; Meenakshisundararam, M.; Kannan, N.

2012-01-01

389

A simple method to prepare magnetic modified beer yeast and its application for cationic dye adsorption.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe(3)O(4) particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q(m)) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g(-1), respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment. PMID:22529003

Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

2013-01-01

390

Adsorption of cationic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution using poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4?-sulfonyldiphenol) nanospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4?-sulfonyldiphenol) (PZS) nanospheres were prepared by a simple precipitation polymerization method and used as an efficient and specific adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB), a cationic dye from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PZS nanospheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of initial solution pH, initial MB concentration, adsorbent dosage, and contact time on MB adsorption have been investigated. Results showed that the neutral and basic solutions benefited MB adsorption. The pseudo-second-order model could be better fit to the experimental data compared with the pseudo-first-order kinetic adsorption model. In addition, Weber's intraparticle diffusion model was used to further understand the adsorption process. The mechanism of efficient and specific adsorption possibly involved the presence of numerous electron-rich N, P and S atoms in PZS, the electrostatic attraction and ?-? stacking interactions between PZS nanospheres and MB.

Chen, Zhonghui; Fu, Jianwei; Wang, Minghuan; Wang, Xuzhe; Zhang, Jianan; Xu, Qun

2014-01-01

391

Kinetic study of laser-induced photocatalytic degradation of dye (alizarin yellow) from wastewater using nanostructured ZnO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles of zinc oxide semiconductor were applied for removal of toxic organic pollutants such as dyes (alizarin yellow GG) from wastewater using laser induced photocatalytic process. A special photoreactor was designed for this purpose using local resources. Laser enhanced photo degradation of alizarin yellow GG (AYGG) was carried out by irradiating the contaminated aqueous solution with a 355 nm radiation

Khizar Hayat; Mohammed A. Gondal; Mazen M. Khaled; Shakeel Ahmed

2010-01-01

392

Low-cost adsorbents for a dye uptake from contaminated water modeling of adsorption isotherms: The Langmuir, Freundlich and Elovich models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of organic molecule to clay minerals has been reported by several investigators. Bentonite, which is made homoionics\\u000a by mono-, di- and trivalent cations was used to remove the dye, an organic molecule (Quinalizarin) used to dye cotton. Equilibrium\\u000a data were obtained by the batch technique. The results show the largest adsorption capacity of the homoionic bentonite; the\\u000a saturation

F. Ayari; E. Srasra; M. Trabelsi-Ayadi

2008-01-01

393

Novel fungal consortium for bioremediation of metals and dyes from mixed waste stream.  

PubMed

The present study is targeted towards development of a three member fungal consortium for effective removal of metals [Cr(6+) and Cu(2+)] and dyes [AB and PO] from mixed waste streams. Initial studies using individual fungal strain showed that Aspergillus lentulus was best for Cu(2+) and AB removal, Aspergillus terreus for Cr(6+) removal whereas, Rhizopus oryzae was best for PO removal. Based on the complementary pollutant affinities and positive interactions, a consortium comprising all three strains was developed. Consortium removed 100% Cr(6+) and 81.60% Cu(2+) from metal mixture which was significantly higher than that achieved individually by A. lentulus (Cr(6+): 83.11%; Cu(2+): 67.32%), A. terreus (Cr(6+): 95.57%; Cu(2+): 65.77%) or R. oryzae (Cr(6+): 25.34%; Cu(2+): 30.20%). Further, 98.0% AB and 100.0% PO was removed after 48 h by the consortia. Unlike individual strains, consortium's performance was unaltered irrespective of the complexity of metal-dye mixtures, thereby establishing its superiority. PMID:25203229

Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree

2014-11-01

394

Photostability of dye molecules trapped in solid matrices  

E-print Network

, chemical, mechanical, and optical properties. Effi- cient solid-state dye lasers were recently obtained of the absence of dye reservoirs and circulation systems in solid-state dye lasers, photostability is a critical organic laser dyes improves when molecules are trapped in solid matrices.6­9 Nevertheless, be- cause

Boyer, Edmond

395

Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.  

PubMed

This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. PMID:25017677

Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

2014-08-01

396

Novel aminobenzanthrone dyes for amyloid fibril detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel fluorescent aminobenzanthrone dyes have been tested for their ability to identify and characterize the oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates of lysozyme. The parameters of the dye binding to native, oligomeric and fibrillar protein have been calculated from the results of fluorimetric titration. Furthermore, several additional quantities reflecting the preference of the probe to either pre-fibrillar or fibrillar protein aggregates, have been evaluated. Based on the comparative analysis of the recovered parameters, AM4 was recommended for selective detection of protein pre-fibrillar assemblies, while the dyes AM1, AM2, AM3 were selected as the most prospective amyloid tracers.

Vus, Kateryna; Trusova, Valeriya; Gorbenko, Galyna; Kirilova, Elena; Kirilov, Georgiy; Kalnina, Inta; Kinnunen, Paavo

2012-04-01

397

Basic Microfluidic Lithographic  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 2 Basic Microfluidic and Soft Lithographic Techniques Sindy K.Y. Tang and George M in these devices are based on those developed for microfluidics used in biochemical anal- ysis. This chapter describes the basic ideas of microfluidics. We first summarize the materials most commonly used

Prentiss, Mara

398

Construction & Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic skills education has become a pressing need in the construction industry as jobs become more complex and fewer workers have needed skills. However, the construction industry lags in spending on training for entry-level workers. The Home Builders Institute (HBI) is testing a pilot basic skills program that it hopes will prove useful to the…

BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

1991-01-01

399

Basic Electronics I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

Robertson, L. Paul

400

TOOLS AND BASIC MACHINES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BASIC READER IS A PART OF AN EXPERIMENTAL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT DESCRIBED IN VT 004 454, TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE SPECIAL NEW TRAINING MATERIALS TO TEACH BASIC VOCATIONAL TALENT SKILLS TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WHICH WERE TESTED ON APPROXIMATELY 2,500 EIGHTH AND NINTH GRADERS IN EIGHT SCHOOL SYSTEMS ACROSS THE NATION. THIS READER WAS…

George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.

401

Basic principle of superconductivity  

E-print Network

The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

Tian De Cao

2007-08-23

402

Solar Electric System Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this sheet on the basics of solar electric systems. The document describes how photovoltaic cells work, basic energy terminology, photovoltaic materials and other related information. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Gordes, Joel N.

403

Supernova basics Supernova types  

E-print Network

1 Supernovae · Supernova basics · Supernova types · Light Curves · SN Spectra ­ after explosion · Supernova Remnants (SNRs) · Collisional Ionization #12;2 Supernova Basics · Supernova (SN) explosions in our) · Typical SN rates ~ 1/Galaxy/century · Recent local supernovae: 1006 AD, 1054 AD (produced Crab nebula

Crenshaw, Michael

404

Romanian Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Romanian Basic Course," consisting of 89 lesson units in eight volumes, is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing Romanian (based on a 1-5 scale in which Level 5 is native speaker proficiency). Volume 1, which introduces basic sentences in dialog form with…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

405

Basic Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Line plots are a useful way to display data especially change over time. In this lesson, students learn basic line plot analysis using authentic NASA wind speed data from two locations. In the extensions sections, there is an opportunity to build upon basic line plot analysis skills and opportunities for further assessment.

406

Basic Science Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

Brummel, Clete

407

Fluency with Basic Addition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

Garza-Kling, Gina

2011-01-01

408

Adsorptive and Desorption Studies on Toxic Dye Erioglaucine Over Deoiled Mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a fundamental investigation on the removal of Erioglaucine dye by deoiled mustard is conducted in batch conditions. This article incorporates effect of pH, temperature, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, particle size on adsorption. The adsorption kinetics was shown to be pseudo-first-order. The adsorption equilibrium data can be fitted well by both Freundlich and Langmuir

Rajeev Jain; Shalini Sikarwar

2010-01-01

409

Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed

Brian Yuliarto; Fahiem Fanani; M. Kasyful Fuadi; Nugraha

2010-01-01

410

Interaction of protonated merocyanine dyes with amines in organic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2,6-Diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl)phenolate ( 1a) and 4-[(1-methyl-4(1 H)-pyridinylidene)-ethylidene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one ( 2a) were protonated in organic solvents (dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and DMSO) to form 1b and 2b, respectively. The appearance of the solvatochromic bands of 1a and 2a was studied UV-vis spectrophotometrically by deprotonation of 1b and 2b in solution in the presence of the following amines: aniline (AN), N-methylaniline (NMAN), N, N-dimethylaniline (NDAN), n-butylamine (BA), diethylamine (DEA), and triethylamine (TEA). Titrations of 1b and 2b with the amines were carried out and the binding constants were determined from the titration curves in each solvent, using a mathematical model adapted from the literature which considers the simultaneous participation of two dye: amine stoichiometries, 1:1 and 1:2. The data obtained showed the following base order for the two compounds in DMSO: BA > DEA > TEA, while aromatic amines did not cause any effect. In dichloromethane, the following base order for 1b was verified: TEA > DEA > BA ?NDAN, while for 2b the order was: TEA > DEA > BA, suggesting that 1b is more acidic than 2b. The data in acetonitrile indicated for 1b and 2b the following order for the amines: DEA > TEA > BA. The diversity of the experimental data were explained based on a model that considers the level of interaction of the protonated dyes with the amines to be dependent on three aspects: (a) the basicity of the amine, which varies according to their molecular structure and the solvent in which it is dissolved, (b) the molecular structure of the dye, and (c) the solvent used to study the system.

Ribeiro, Eduardo Alberton; Sidooski, Thiago; Nandi, Leandro Guarezi; Machado, Vanderlei Gageiro

2011-10-01

411

Precise Identification and Manipulation of Adsorption Geometry of Donor-?-Acceptor Dye on Nanocrystalline TiO2 Films for Improved Photovoltaics.  

PubMed

Adsorption geometry of dye molecules on nanocrystalline TiO2 plays a central role in dye-sensitized solar cells, enabling effective sunlight absorption, fast electron injection, optimized interface band offsets, and stable photovoltaic performance. However, precise determination of dye binding geometry and proportion has been challenging due to complexity and sensitivity at interfaces. Here employing combined vibrational spectrometry and density functional calculations, we identify typical adsorption configurations of widely adopted cyanoacrylic donor-? bridge-acceptor dyes on nanocrystalline TiO2. Binding mode switching from bidentate bridging to hydrogen-bonded monodentate configuration with Ti-N bonding has been observed when dye-sensitizing solution becomes more basic. Raman and infrared spectroscopy measurements confirm this configuration switch and determine quantitatively the proportion of competing binding geometries, with vibration peaks assigned using density functional theory calculations. We further found that the proportion of dye-binding configurations can be manipulated by adjusting pH value of dye-sensitizing solutions. Controlling molecular adsorption density and configurations led to enhanced energy conversion efficiency from 2.4% to 6.1% for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells, providing a simple method to improve photovoltaic performance by suppressing unfavorable binding configurations in solar cell applications. PMID:25418522

Zhang, Fan; Ma, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Jingchuan; Shan, Xinyan; Li, Hui; Lu, Xinghua; Meng, Sheng

2014-12-24

412

Dimerization of Cibacron Blue F3GA and other dyes: influence of salts and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monomer–dimer equilibria of Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB) and five other dyes (Levafix Brilliant Blue EB, Reactive Scarlet 017, Methyl Orange, Basic Blue 3 and Chicago Blue Sky) have been investigated in water and in the presence of KH2PO4. Aggregation of CB has been also examined in the presence of NaH2PO4, LiCl and KCl. When a new iterative approach, based

Gaetano Alberghina; Roberto Bianchini; Maria Fichera; Salvatore Fisichella

2000-01-01

413

Predictive modeling of sorption and desorption of a reactive azo dye by pumpkin husk.  

PubMed

The use of effective disposal of redundant pumpkin husk (PH) to remove pollutants is an important issue for environmental protection and utilization of resource. The aim of this study was to remove a potentially toxic reactive azo dye, Reactive Red (RR) 120, by widespread PH as a low-cost adsorbent. Particle size, adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, and contact time affected the sorption process. Amine, amide, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups of PH played significant roles on the sorption process. Rapid sorption occurred within the first 2 min and equilibrium was reached within 60 min. Sorption kinetic was well represented by logistic equation. Generated secondary logistic model can be used to describe effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature by a single equation with high R (2) value. Monolayer sorption capacity was found as 98.61 mg g(-1). Activation energy, thermodynamic, and desorption studies showed that this process was physical, endothermic, and spontaneous. This study indicated that redundant PH as a low-cost adsorbent had a great potential for the removal of RR 120 as an alternative eco-friendly process. PMID:24374618

Çelekli, Abuzer; Çelekli, Fadime; Çiçek, Erdo?an; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

2014-04-01

414

Tested Demonstrations: Dyeing of Anodized Aluminum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a list of needed materials, required preparations, and instructions for demonstrating the dyeing of anodized aluminum. Discusses the chemistry involved and gives equations for reactions occurring at the anode and cathode. (JM)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

415

Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes  

PubMed Central

Summary A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethyl)phenylamino)-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2), blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyl)oxy)phenylamino)anthraquinone (6) and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)anthraquinone (12), as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)amino)anthraquinone (15) were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants. PMID:23503994

Dollendorf, Christian; Kreth, Susanne Katharina; Choi, Soo Whan

2013-01-01

416

Biodegradation and detoxification potential of rotating biological contactor (RBC) with Irpex lacteus for remediation of dye-containing wastewater.  

PubMed

Use of fungal organisms in rotating biological contactors (RBC) for bioremediation of liquid industrial wastes has so far been limited in spite of their significant biodegradation potential. The purpose was to investigate the power of RBC using Irpex lacteus for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes and dyeing textile liquors. Recalcitrant dye Methylene Blue (150 mg L(-1)) was decolorized within 70 days, its mutagenicity removed, and the biological toxicity decreased more than 10-fold. I. lacteus biofilm in the RBC completely decolorized within 26 and 47 days dyeing liquors containing disperse or reactive dyes adjusted to pH4.5 and 5-fold diluted with the growth medium, respectively. Their respective biological toxicity values were reduced 10- to 10(4)-fold in dependence of the test used. A battery of toxicity tests comprising Vibrio fisheri, Lemna minor and Sinapis alba was efficient to monitor the toxicity of textile dyes and wastewaters. Strong decolorization and detoxification power of RBC using I. lacteus biofilms was demonstrated. PMID:24210510

Malachova, Katerina; Rybkova, Zuzana; Sezimova, Hana; Cerven, Jiri; Novotny, Cenek

2013-12-01

417

Adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes on ferromagnetic ordered mesoporous carbon from aqueous solution: equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetics.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-CMK-3) with iron magnetic nanoparticles was prepared by a casting process via SBA-15 silica as template and anthracene as carbon source, was used as a magnetic adsorbent for the removal of anionic dye Orange II (O II) and cationic dye methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. TEM and magnetometer images showed that the iron magnetic nanoparticles were successfully embedded in the interior of the mesoporous carbon. The effect of various process parameters such as temperature (25-45°C), initial concentration (100-500 mg L(-1)) and pH (2-12) were performed. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were also studied. The equilibrium experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson model. The equilibrium data for two dyes adsorption was fitted to the Langmuir, and the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for O II and MB dyes were 269 and 316 mg g(-1), respectively. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic and intraparticle diffusion model were used to evaluate the adsorption kinetic data. The kinetic data of two dyes could be better described by the pseudo second-order model. Thermodynamic data of the adsorption process were also obtained. It was found that the adsorption process of the two dyes were spontaneous and exothermic. PMID:24973701

Peng, Xiaoming; Huang, Dengpo; Odoom-Wubah, Tareque; Fu, Dafang; Huang, Jiale; Qin, Qingdong

2014-09-15

418

Kinetics and thermodynamic studies for removal of acid blue 129 from aqueous solution by almond shell  

PubMed Central

Efficiency and performance of Almond shell (AS) adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Acid Blue 129 (AB129) from wastewater is presented in this report. The influence of variables including pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal have been investigated in batch method by one at a time optimization method. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by four widely used isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D–R). It was found that adsorption of AB129 on AS well with the Langmuir isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of dye molecules onto the surface of the adsorbent. More than 98% removal efficiency was obtained within 14 min at adsorbent dose of 0.4 g for initial dye concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 2. Kinetics of the adsorption process was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order model. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb’s free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of AB129 adsorption on all adsorbents. This work can be used in design of adsorption columns for dyes removal. PMID:24620822

2014-01-01

419

Synthesis of azoimidazolium dyes with nitrous oxide.  

PubMed

A new method for the synthesis of industrially important azoimidazolium dyes is presented. The procedure is based on a reagent which is rarely used in the context of synthetic organic chemistry: nitrous oxide ("laughing gas"). N2 O is first coupled to N-heterocyclic carbenes. Subsequent reaction with aromatic compounds through an AlCl3 -induced C?H activation process provides azoimidazolium dyes in good yields. PMID:25420599

Tskhovrebov, Alexander G; Naested, Lara C E; Solari, Euro; Scopelliti, Rosario; Severin, Kay

2015-01-19

420

Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

2003-01-01

421

Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy of oxazine dyes.  

PubMed

The structure and energetic properties of four common oxazine dyes, Nile red, Nile blue A, Cresyl violet, and Brilliant cresyl blue, have been probed using a combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. IRMPD spectra of the protonated dyes, as generated from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, were collected in the range of 900-1800 cm(-1). Vibrational band assignments related to carbonyl and substituted-amine stretches were established from a comparison of the experimental spectra of these related systems as well as from a comparison with spectra generated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For Nile red, the thermochemical landscape for protonation at different basic sites was probed using DFT; comparison of IRMPD and calculated IR spectra reveals the site of protonation to be at the carbonyl oxygen. The structural information obtained here in the gas phase pertaining to these important fluorophores is anticipated to provide further insight into their associated intrinsic fluorescent properties in solution. PMID:23450155

Nieckarz, Robert J; Oomens, Jos; Berden, Giel; Sagulenko, Pavel; Zenobi, Renato

2013-04-14

422

Latest innovations for tattoo and permanent makeup removal.  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to reveal the latest techniques and advances in laser removal of both amateur and professional tattoos, as well as cosmetic tattoos and permanent makeup. Each pose different challenges to the removing physician, but the goal is always the same: removal without sequelae. The authors' technique is detailed, and discussion of basic principles of light reflection, ink properties, effects of laser energy and heat, and outcomes and complications of tattoo removal are presented. PMID:22537781

Mao, Johnny C; DeJoseph, Louis M

2012-05-01

423

Nature of Interaction between basic fibroblast growth factor and the antiangiogenic drug 7,7-(carbonyl-bis[imino-N-methyl-4,2-pyrrolecarbonylimino[N-methyl-4,2-pyrrole]-carbonylimino])-bis-(1,3-naphtalene disulfonate). II. Removal of polar interactions affects protein folding.  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factor-2 (basic FGF), a potent inducer of angiogenesis, and the naphthalene sulfonic distamycin A derivative, 7,7-(carbonyl-bis[imino-N-methyl-4,2-pyrrolecarbonylimino[N-methyl-4,2-pyrrole]-carbonylimino])-bis-(1,3-naphtalene disulfonate) (PNU145156E), which exhibits in vivo antiangiogenic activity, form a tight reversible (1:1) complex. PNU145156E binds to the heparin and the selenate-binding sites on bFGF. The cis bFGF-heparin (2:1) complex, essential for the activation of the angiogenic process, is thus prevented. The nature of the forces involved in bFGF:PNU145156E complex, using the wild-type and the K128Q, K138Q, K134Q, and K128Q-K138Q point mutated bFGFs was sought. Based on thermodynamic analysis of the complexation constants, protein temperature stability profiles by ultraviolet absorption, circular dichroism measurements, fluorescence Förster energy-transfer, and anisotropy studies, in harmony with the published x-ray crystallographic structure, the following molecular interactions are proposed: reduced coulombic interactions, hence loosening of the complex by the removal of charged polar groups from the bFGF-heparin binding cleft resulted in decreased binding constants and in a change in the binding mode from polar to nonpolar. Concomitantly, upon mutation, the protein was rendered more compact, less flexible, and less aqueously exposed compared with the wild type. These were further pronounced with the double mutant: weaker dominantly nonpolar protein-drug interactions were accompanied by conspicuous folding. With heparin, however, wild-type bFGF forms a tighter complex with a more compact structure. PMID:11964252

Zamai, Moreno; Hariharan, Chithra; Pines, Dina; Safran, Michal; Yayon, Avner; Caiolfa, Valeria R; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Pines, Ehud; Parola, Abraham H

2002-01-01

424

Ed's Basic Histology Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website introduces the basic concepts of histology. The site is organized by different anatomical structures and provides a tutorial, histology slices and quiz for students for each structure presented.

2010-03-02

425

Basic Electricity Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents basic materials electricity. Topics include safety, metric notations, atomic structure, instruments, electrical concepts, resistor and AC circuits, power supplies, circuit protection, relays, connections, and electrostatic states.

2010-11-24

426

Video Screen Capture Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

Dunbar, Laura

2014-01-01

427

Basic analytic number theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give an informal introduction to the most basic techniques used to\\u000aevaluate moments on the critical line of the Riemann zeta-function and to find\\u000aasymptotics for sums of arithmetic functions.

David W. Farmer

2004-01-01

428

Basic Nuclear Science Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory contains an overview of the basic concepts in nuclear science. Nuclear structure, particle decay, nuclear reactions, and cosmic rays are briefly discussed. The page also contains helpful pictures to illustrate the concepts.

2009-10-30

429

BMP (Basic Metabolic Panel)  

MedlinePLUS

... Pages On This Site Apart from the Related Tests noted above, there are no other related pages on this site. Elsewhere On The Web MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Basic metabolic panel » See all ...

430

Basic Electronics Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives a number of tutorials and information to help students and instructors develop a knowledge and understanding of the basics of Electronics. Topics include amplifiers, inductors, capacitors, electromagnetism, transformers, transistors and more.

Storr, Wayne

431

Skywarn Spotter Convective Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "SKYWARN® Spotter Convective Basics" module will guide users to a basic understanding of convective storms. Through three different scenarios, you will cover reporting and proper communication of local storm reports to the National Weather Service (NWS), personal safety during these events, and field identification of convective storm hazards. After completing the scenarios, you will be given the opportunity to practice identifying storm features from a spectrum of photos.

Comet

2011-04-22

432

DESIGN MANUAL: PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual summarizes process design information for the best developed methods for removing phosphorus from wastewater. his manual discusses several proven phosphorus removal methods, including phosphorus removal obtainable through biological activity as well as chemical precip...

433

Dye laser amplifier including a specifically designed diffuser assembly  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replened supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a relatively high flow rate and a specifically designed diffuser assembly for slowing down the flow of dye while, at the same time, assuring that as the dye stream flows through the diffuser assembly it does so in a stable manner.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA); Johnston, James P. (Stanford, CA)

1992-01-01

434

Evanescent wave absorption based fiber optic pH sensor prepared by dye doped sol-gel immobilization technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber optic pH sensor based on evanescent wave absorption is presented. To prepare the probe a small length of the cladding is removed from the middle portion of the fiber. A thin porous film of glass with pH-sensitive dye entrapped in it is deposited on the surface of the unclad portion of the fiber using sol-gel technology. The sensor response and its dynamic range are reported for phenol red, cresol red and bromophenol blue dyes. The sol-gel process has been found to increase the dynamic range of the pH sensor.

Gupta, B. D.; Sharma, D. K.

1997-02-01

435

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 6. METHINE AND POLYMETHINE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of methine and polymethine dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts prod...

436

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 3. STILBENE DYES AND FLUORESCENT BRIGHTENING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of Stilbene dyes and fluorescent brightening agents was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amoun...

437

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 9. SULFUR DYES  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of sulfur dyes was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced, and the known U.S. produ...

438

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 4. ANTHRAQUINONE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of Anthraquinone dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced and t...

439

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 5. DIPHENYLMETHANE AND TRIARYLMETHANE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of diphenylmethane and triarylmethane dyes was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produc...

440

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 8. PHTHALOCYANINE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of phthalocyanine dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced, and...

441

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 7. XANTHENE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of Xanthene dyes was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced and the known U.S. prod...

442

Sonophotocatalytic degradation of dye C.I. Acid Orange 7 by TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles immobilized on corona pretreated polypropylene non-woven fabric.  

PubMed

This study discusses the possibility of using corona pre-treated polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric as a support for immobilization of colloidal TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles in order to remove dye C.I. Acid Orange 7 from aqueous solution. Dye removal efficiency by sonocatalysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis was evaluated on corona pre-treated fabric loaded with TiO2 nanoparticles, corona pre-treated fabric double loaded with TiO2 nanoparticles and corona pre-treated fabrics loaded with TiO2 nanoparticles before and after deposition of Ag nanoparticles. In addition, the stability of PP non-woven fabric during these processes was investigated. The substrates were characterized by SEM, EDX and AAS analyses. The change of the dye concentration was evaluated by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Unlike sonocatalysis and photocatalysis, complete dye removal from both solution and non-woven fabric was obtained already after 240-270min of sonophotocatalysis. Corona pre-treated PP non-woven fabric loaded with Ag nanoparticles prior to deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles provided excellent degradation efficiency and superior reusability. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of dye in the presence of all investigated samples was the most prominent in acidic conditions. Although this nanocomposite system ensured fast discoloration of dye solution, TOC values of water measured after sonophotocatalysis were not satisfactory because of PP degradation. Therefore, it is suggested to include TOC evaluation in each case study where different supports for TiO2 nanoparticles are used since these nanoparticles may guarantee the dye removal from solution but the stability of support could be problematic causing even more serious environmental impact. PMID:25487219

Markovi?, Darka; Šaponji?, Zoran; Radoi?i?, Marija; Radeti?, Tamara; Vodnik, Vesna; Potkonjak, Branislav; Radeti?, Maja

2015-05-01

443

Organic dyes containing fluorene decorated with imidazole units for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

New organic dyes containing fluorene functionalized with two imidazole chromophores as donors and cyanoacrylic acid acceptors have been synthesized and successfully demonstrated as sensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The monoimidazole analogues were also synthesized for comparison. The Sommelet reaction of bromomethylated 2-bromo-9,9-diethyl-9H-fluorene produced the key precursor 7-bromo-9,9-diethyl-9H-fluorene-2,4-dicarbaldehyde required for the preparation of imidazole-functionalized fluorenes. Since the dyes possess weak donor segment, the electron-richness of the conjugation pathway dictated the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of the dyes. The dyes served as sensitizers in DSSC and exhibited moderate efficiency up to 3.44%. The additional imidazole present on the fluorene has been found to retard the electron recombination due to the bulkier hydrophobic environment and led to high open-circuit voltage in the devices. PMID:24628443

Kumar, Dhirendra; Thomas, K R Justin; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

2014-04-01

444

Interaction of lactate dehydrogenase with structurally related triazine dyes using affinity partitioning and affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

Affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems consisting of dextran and dye-liganded polyethylene glycol was employed to study the interaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle (E.C. 1.1.1.27) with Procion Red HE-3B and four structurally related derivatives of this dye in order to follow the significance of the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B for the strength of interaction. The study revealed that the arrangement of the two 1-amino-8-naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid rings seems to be a prerequisite for the interaction of azonaphthol dyes with LDH. The negatively charged sulfonic acid group at the terminal rings of Procion Red HE-3B enhances the affinity of the ligand for LDH significantly. The removal of this sulphonic acid group or splitting off the complete terminal rings decreases the affinity to LDH and improves the competitive effect of NAD+. The results of affinity partitioning are compared with those of affinity chromatography and kinetic data. The usefulness and the choice of parameters of affinity partitioning as an analytical tool to predict the chromatographic behaviour of dye ligands are discussed. PMID:2625437

Kirchberger, J; Cadelis, F; Kopperschläger, G; Vijayalakshmi, M A

1989-12-01

445

Modeling the discoloration of a mixture of reactive textile dyes by commercial laccase.  

PubMed

Degradation of a mixture of three reactive textile dyes (Reactive Black 5, Reactive Yellow 15 and Reactive Red 239), simulating a real textile effluent, by commercial laccase, was investigated in a batch reactor. The discoloration was appraised as a percentage of the absorbance reduction at the wavelength of maximum absorbance for each dye and as total color removal based in all visible spectrum. A significantly high discoloration was achieved in both cases, indicating the applicability of this method for textile wastewater treatment. Mathematical models were developed to simulate the kinetics of laccase catalyzed degradation of reactive dyes in mixtures. Like in single dye degradation, some of the reactions present an unusual kinetic behavior, corresponding to the activation of the laccase-mediator system. The kinetic constants of the models were estimated by minimizing the difference between the predicted and the experimental time courses. Although not perfect, the ability of the models in representing the experimental results suggests that they could be used in design and simulation applications. PMID:18809317

Cristóvão, Raquel O; Tavares, Ana P M; Ferreira, Luísa A; Loureiro, José M; Boaventura, Rui A R; Macedo, Eugénia A

2009-02-01

446

High-value zeolitic material from bagasse fly ash: utilization for dye elimination.  

PubMed

Bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, was used to prepare zeolitic material (ZFA) by means of alkaline hydrothermal treatment. ZFA showed improved morphology as a result of this treatment. The adsorption of the reactive dyes turquoise blue (TB) and brilliant magenta (BM), on both BFA and ZFA, was investigated in a batch contact system. A series of batch experiments revealed that optimal dye removal occurs at a 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L solute concentration, 60 minutes of agitation time, 5 g/L to 10 g/L adsorbent dose, a pH level of 2 to 4, and a temperature of 298 K. ZFA showed enhanced adsorption capacity as compared to BFA. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity was 12.66 mg/g and 45.45 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on BFA; and 21.74 mg/g and 100.00 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on ZFA. Kinetic studies showed that the correlation coefficients best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, confirming that the adsorption rate was controlled by a hemisorptions process. PMID:23833819

Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Patel, Harendra D; Mistry, Chirag B

2013-06-01

447

Toxicity of textile dyes and their degradation by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP).  

PubMed

The enzyme peroxidase is known for its capacity to remove phenolic compounds and aromatic amines from aqueous solutions and also to decolorize textile effluents. This study evaluates the potential of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the decolorization of textile dyes and effluents. Some factors such as pH and the amount of H(2)O(2) and the enzyme were evaluated in order to determine the optimum conditions for the enzyme performance. For the dyes tested, the results indicated that the decolorization of the dye Remazol Turquoise Blue G 133% was approximately 59%, and 94% for the Lanaset Blue 2R; for the textile effluent, the decolorization was 52%. The tests for toxicity towards Daphnia magna showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. However, the toxicity of the textile effluent showed no change towards Artemia salina after the enzyme treatment. This study verifies the viability of the use of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase in the biodegradation of textile dyes. PMID:17628340

Ulson de Souza, Selene Maria Arruda Guelli; Forgiarini, Eliane; Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto

2007-08-25

448

Lasing with well-defined cavity modes in dye-infiltrated silica inverse opals.  

PubMed

Lasing in dye solution-embedded inverse silica opal structures was investigated. The opal films were prepared by sedimentation of polystyrene microspheres on a cover glass. The polystyrene structures were inverted using sol-gel infiltration of silica and subsequent removal of polystyrene. Photoluminescence of rhodamine (rhodamine B, 6G and sulfo-rhodamine 101) dye solutions embedded into the inverse silica opal structures exhibited clear signatures of the lasing via a distributed feedback (DFB) and gain modulation. The refractive index contrast between the dye and the inverse opal was small enough (approximately 0.03%) for the formation of refractive index coupling between the lasing modes. The lasing spectrum exhibited a highly regular periodic structure of modal peaks, rather than the chaotic superposition of peaks reported in previous studies. Lasing modes having a spectral width of about 0.25 nm and a free spectral range of about 0.75 nm appeared at the position of the maximum gain (the maximum fluorescence of the dye). PMID:19219202

Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Ueno, Kosei; Juodkazis, Saulius; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Fujiwara, Hideki; Sasaki, Keiji; Misawa, Hiroaki

2009-02-16

449

Uniform Cu2Cl(OH)3 hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu2Cl(OH)3 microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1-2 ?m and 76.61 m2 g-1, respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin; Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

2013-08-01

450

Basic Principles of Ultrasound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

451

Artificial neural networks (ANN) approach for modeling of removal of Lanaset Red G on Chara contraria.  

PubMed

A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed to predict the removal efficiency of Lanaset Red (LR) G on Chara contraria based on 2304 experimental sets. The effects of operating variables (particle size, adsorbent dosage, pH regimes, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied to optimize the sorption conditions of this dye. The operating variables were used as the input to the constructed neural network to predict the dye uptake at any time as the output. This adsorbent was characterized by FTIR. Pseudo second-order model was also fitted to the experimental data. According to values of error analyses and determinations coefficient, the ANN was more appropriate to describe this adsorption process. Result of this model indicated that pH regimes had the highest importance effect (49%) on the dye uptake. PMID:21388806

Celekli, Abuzer; Geyik, Faruk

2011-05-01

452

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

453

The basics of ostomies.  

PubMed

Basic ostomy care can be intimidating because nurses don't often see colostomies, ileostomies, or urostomies. While there are as many different ostomies as there are people who have them, there are some commonalities in the care of the stoma. These can be generalized to all stomas, regardless of the type of output. Some care, however, is specific to the placement of the stoma and the type of effluent flowing from the opening. This article will provide the gastroenterology nurse an overview of the basic features of ostomies as well as routine ostomy care. PMID:12488686

Hyland, Jo

2002-01-01

454

Basics of fiber optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Optics are a medium for transmitting light. Think of having a garden hose five hundred meters long. When looking through it you are able to see 50% of the light. Now you understand the power of fiber optics. The wide variety of fiber optics presently available has advanced its use for sensing, process control and laser delivery applications. However, there is a strong need to understand fiber optics at the basic level. The focus of this paper will discuss the basics of fiber optics for step-index fibers.

Harrison, Craig D.

1992-08-01

455

Biosorption characteristics of Aspergillus fumigatus for the decolorization of triphenylmethane dye acid violet 49.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the possible use of Aspergillus fumigatus to remove acid violet 49 dye (AV49) from aqueous solution. In batch biosorption experiments, the highest biosorption efficiency was achieved at pH 3.0, with biosorbent dosage of 3.0 gL(-1) within about 30 min at 40 °C. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the biosorption equilibrium of AV49 onto fungal biomass with maximum dye uptake capacity 136.98 mg g(-1). Biosorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (R (2)?>?0.99), and the biosorption rate constants increased with increasing temperature. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the biosorption process was favorable, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature, with insignificant entropy changes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy strongly supported the presence of several functional groups responsible for dye-biosorbent interaction. Fungal biomass was regenerated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide and could be reused a number of times without significant loss of biosorption activity. The effective decolorization of AV49 in simulated conditions indicated the potential use of biomass for the removal of color contaminants from wastewater. PMID:24136473

Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Zohaib, Muhammad; Rauf, Naseem; Tahir, Subhe Sadiq; Parvez, Shoukat

2014-04-01

456

Identification and measurement of food and cosmetic dyes in a municipal wastewater treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Acid Blue 9, Acid Violet 17, Quinoline Yellow, Acid Red 51, Acid Red 87, and Acid Red 92 along with N-benzyl-N-ethylaniline sulfonic acid (BEASA), a synthetic precursor, were identified and measured in colored wastewater samples from a municipal treatment plant. Continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry was used to analyze BEASA. Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to analyze the other dyes, but its lack of selectivity required prior isolation of the analytes from interfering compounds by solid-phase extraction onto C[sub 18] extraction disks and onto cartridges packed with strong anion-exchange resins. The xanthene dyes (Acid Red 51, 87, and 92) were found in low parts per billion (ppb) concentrations in the plant influent and were rapidly removed by adsorption to sludge. Acid Red 92 was found to be over 35 times more concentrated on secondary sludge than in the corresponding liquid samples, indicating high levels of accumulation. The other dyes and BEASA were found in hundred ppb concentrations in both the influent and the effluent of the plant, indicating a resistance to both degradation and removal by sorption. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Borgerding, A.J.; Hites, R.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1994-07-01

457

Basic Electricity. Part 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide, fourth in a set of four, includes three units: Unit X--Splicing Wires, covering thirteen lessons (removing insulation, pigtail splice, Western Union splice, tap splice, extension cord splice, connecting wires to a terminal screw, underwriter's knot, three-wire ground…

Kilmer, Donald C.

458

Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... for sexually transmitted infections (The Basics) Patient information: Syphilis (The Basics) Patient information: Urethritis (The Basics) Prevention ... those that also produce genital ulcers, such as syphilis and chancroid. Several diagnostic tests may also be ...

459

Basic Soils. Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

460

MONITORING DROUGHT Basic Climatology  

E-print Network

MONITORING DROUGHT Basic Climatology Colorado Climate Center Funding provided by NOAA Sectoral Applications Research Project #12;DEFINING DROUGHT #12;First off, just what is drought? Define a tornado the same for drought #12;First off, just what is drought? Precipitation deficits? Soil moisture