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1

Equilibrium uptake and sorption dynamics for the removal of a basic dye using bamboo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bisorption of basic dye from aqueous solution on bamboo based activated carbon was studied in a batch system. The effect of various experimental parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and initial dye concentration was investigated. The results showed that these parameters influenced the adsorption capacity. Higher solution pH favoured the adsorption of basic dye. Dye removal increased with

J. T. Nwabanne; M. I. Mordi

2

Removal of basic dye from water onto pristine and HCl-activated montmorillonite in fixed beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of a basic dye from water onto pristine montmorillonite and HCl-activated montmorillonites in fixed beds was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function of liquid flow rate, influent dye concentration, and column length. The adsorption capacity of basic dye onto pristine clay could be largely improved when the clay is activated by HCl. The mathematical models that

Min-Yu Teng; Su-Hsia Lin

2006-01-01

3

Reuse of activated sludge biomass: I. Removal of basic dyes from wastewater by biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of basic dyes from wastewater was studied using activated sludge biomass as an adsorbent. The experimental results of COD removal (%) showed that for various basic dyes, adsorption by biomass was not only feasible but also effective. The kinetics of adsorption followed first-order processes, controlled by film diffusion. Influences on adsorption capacity of various factors, such as chemical

H. C Chu; K. M Chen

2002-01-01

4

Removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions by dimethyl terephthalate distillation residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions by residue acid mixture (RAM) obtained from dimethyl terephthalate distillation residue was investigated. Adsorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature. A fixed amount of sample was immersed in 50mL basic dye (500mg\\/L) solutions. The amount of residual dye concentrations was determined using UV\\/Vis Spectrophotometer at wavelength 530nm Safranine-T

G. Güçlü

2010-01-01

5

Water treatment to remove acid and basic dyes by biosorption on polysaccharide composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite material based on cross-linked cationic starch and sodium alginate was synthesized and studied. The composite\\u000a is an effective biosorbent for removing various types of synthetic dyes from water. The influence exerted on adsorption of\\u000a a basic dye (Methylene Blue) and an acid dye (Methyl Orange) by temperature, pH, solution ionic strength, and biosorbent amount\\u000a was examined, and the

E. V. Datskevich; R. V. Prikhod’ko; I. V. Stolyarova; A. V. Lozovskii; V. V. Goncharuk

2010-01-01

6

Adsorptive removal of basic dye by chemically activated Parthenium biomass: equilibrium and kinetic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the removal of a basic dye (rhodamine-B) by the activated carbon prepared from Parthenium biomass by sulphuric acid treatment method (SWC). The effectiveness of the prepared adsorbent has been studied as a function of agitation time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and pH. The removal of rhodamine-B by SWC followed second order kinetic model. The second order

Hem Lata; V. K. Garg; R. K. Gupta

2008-01-01

7

Adsorption study for the removal of a basic dye: experimental and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective adsorbent is developed from saw dust and its various adsorption characteristics are studied for removing a basic dye (crystal violet) from its aqueous solution. Equilibrium data are fitted to various adsorption isotherms. It is seen that about 341mg of crystal violet can be removed using 1g of the adsorbent at 298K. Kinetic study is also carried out to

Sourja Chakraborty; Sirshendu De; Sunando DasGupta; Jayanta K. Basu

2005-01-01

8

Application of zeolite MCM-22 for basic dye removal from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

MCM-22 was employed as an effective adsorbent for removal of basic dyes including methylene blue, crystal violet, and rhodamine B from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated. The adsorption capacity of MCM-22 for three dyes follows an order of MB>CV?RB. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows the pseudo second-order kinetics and the adsorption is a two-step

Shaobin Wang; Huiting Li; Longya Xu

2006-01-01

9

Removal of basic dye from aqueous solution using tree fern as a biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A batch sorption system using tree fern as biosorbent was investigated to remove Basic Red 13 from aqueous solutions. The system variables studied include sorbent particle size and temperature and results revealed the potential of tree fern, an agriculture product, as a low-cost sorbent. The Langmuir isotherm was found to represent the measured sorption data well. The dye sorption capacity

Yuh-Shan Hoa; Tzu-Hsuan Chiang; Yu-Mei Hsueh

2005-01-01

10

Removal of basic dyes from aqueous medium using a novel polymer: Jalshakti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to remove basic dyes such as safranine T, methylene blue, crystal violet, light green, brilliant milling violet and patent blue VS from their aqueous solutions using biodegradable polymeric absorbent material, viz., Jalshakti® (JS). Results showed that 93% safranine T, 98% methylene blue and 84% crystal violet were adsorbed on JS relative to their initial concentration (10mgL?1).

Rita Dhodapkar; N. N. Rao; S. P. Pande; S. N. Kaul

2006-01-01

11

Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly

Wen-Tien Tsai; Hsin-Chieh Hsu; Ting-Yi Su; Keng-Yu Lin; Chien-Ming Lin

2008-01-01

12

Equilibrium uptake and sorption dynamics for the removal of a basic dye (basic red) using low-cost adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste carbon slurries (generated in fertilizer plants) and blast furnace slag (generated in steel plants) have been converted into low-cost potential adsorbents. The adsorbents have been characterized and tried for the removal of the dye basic red from wastewater. Studies were performed at different pH to find the pH at which maximum adsorption occurs. Equilibrium isotherms were determined to assess

V. K Gupta; I Ali; Suhas; Dinesh Mohan

2003-01-01

13

Removal of different basic dyes from aqueous solutions by adsorption on palm-fruit bunch particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of three basic dyes (basic yellow, basic red and basic blue) from an aqueous solution on palm-fruit bunch particles has been studied. The equilibrium isotherm for each dye-adsorbent system was determined. The experimental results have been fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities of the palm-fruit bunch particles were found to be 327 mg

Mamdouh M. Nassar; Yehia H. Magdy

1997-01-01

14

Basic dye removal from aqueous solutions by dodecylsulfate- and dodecyl benzene sulfonate-intercalated hydrotalcite.  

PubMed

Dodecylsulfate- and dodecyl benzene sulfonate-hydrotalcites were prepared by calcination-rehydratation method. The surfactants intercalation in the interlayer space of hydrotalcite were checked by PXRD and FTIR spectroscopy where the resulting materials were found to be similar to those reported in the literature and were used to remove a basic dye (safranine) from aqueous solutions. The sorption kinetics data fitted the pseudo second order model. The isotherms were established and the parameters calculated. The sorption data fitted the Langmuir model with good values of the determination coefficient. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from Van't Hoff plots gave a low value of Delta G degrees (<-20 kJ mol(-1)) indicating a spontaneous physisorption process. Two regeneration cycles were processed by acetone extraction leading to the same removal capacity of the obtained materials as the original surfactant-intercalated hydrotalcites. The UV-vis spectra of the recovered extracts were similar to the spectrum of safranine, which means that the dye was recovered without any modification. PMID:17997219

Bouraada, Mohamed; Lafjah, Mama; Ouali, Mohand Said; de Menorval, Louis Charles

2008-05-30

15

Removal of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) using macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have adsorption capacity for a basic dye, Astrazon Blue FGRL. For the whole range of concentrations employed in this work (20–1280mgl?1), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model where the rate constants decreased as initial dye concentrations increased. At low dye

Khanidtha Marungrueng; Prasert Pavasant

2006-01-01

16

Dye remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... remover is a chemical used to remove dye stains. Dye remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this ... by IV Medicines to treat pain Oxygen Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the ...

17

The removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions using agricultural by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two basic dyes, namely, Malachite Green and Methylene Blue onto both agricultural by-products (i.e. rice bran and wheat bran) has been investigated in this study. The adsorption of both basic dyes was solution pH-dependent. The kinetic experimental data were analyzed using four kinetic equations including pseudo-first-order equation, pseudo-second-order equation, external diffusion model and intraparticle diffusion model to

Xue Song Wang; Yin Zhou; Yu Jiang; Cheng Sun

2008-01-01

18

Fabrication of carboxylic functionalized superparamagnetic mesoporous silica microspheres and their application for removal basic dye pollutants from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superparamagnetic mesoporous silica microspheres embedded with a silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles core and mesoporous silica shell have been prepared using stearyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (STAB) as surfactant template. The superparamagnetic mesoporous silica microspheres then were modified with anhydride functionalized silane to graft carboxylic groups and developed for removing basic dye pollutants, e.g., Methylene Blue (MB) and Acridine Orange (AO) from

Xucheng Fu; Xing Chen; Jin Wang; Jinhuai Liu

2011-01-01

19

Characterisation and environmental application of an Australian natural zeolite for basic dye removal from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Australian natural zeolite was collected, characterised and employed for basic dye adsorption in aqueous solution. The natural zeolite is mainly composed of clinoptiloite, quartz and mordenite and has cation-exchange capacity of 120meq\\/100g. The natural zeolite presents higher adsorption capacity for methylene blue than rhodamine B with the maximal adsorption capacity of 2.8×10?5 and 7.9×10?5mol\\/g at 50°C for rhodamine B

Shaobin Wang; Z. H. Zhu

2006-01-01

20

Electrochemically enhanced removal of polycyclic aromatic basic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon cloth electrodes.  

PubMed

Open-circuit (OC) adsorption and electrosorption behaviors of three polycyclic aromatic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon cloth (ACC) were investigated. The selected dyes were crystal violet (BB-3), basic blue7 (BB-7), and basic blue11 (BB-11). OC adsorption and electrosorption processes were monitored by in situ UV-visible spectrophotometry. Electrosorption was carried out by polarization of an ACC electrode, galvanostatically. Considerable enhancements in removal capacity and duration of the dyes were achieved upon polarization of ACC. Kinetic data for OC adsorption and electrosorption were successfully treated according to pseudo-first-order law, and rate constants were determined. Adsorption isotherms were derived, and the data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Both the rate and extent of adsorption and electrosorption of dyes were found to increase in the order of BB-7 < BB-11 < BB-3. This order was discussed in terms of correlation between sizes of dye species and of ACC pores. Electrodesorption experiments were carried out to explore possibilities of regeneration of ACC. PMID:20704233

Bayram, Edip; Ayranci, Erol

2010-08-15

21

Removal of methylene blue, a basic dye, from aqueous solutions using nano-zerovalent iron.  

PubMed

In this research, the preparation of nanoparticles of Fe(0) (nano-zerovalent iron, NZVI) as adsorbent is discussed and the capability of adsorbing methylene blue (MB) is studied. The morphology of the adsorbent was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Batch studies were performed to delineate the influence of various experimental parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time. Optimum conditions for MB removal were found to be pH 9.5, adsorbent dosage of 0.5 g L(-1) and equilibrium time of 1 min. The experimental equilibrium data were adjusted by the adsorption isotherms from Langmuir and Freundlich models, and their equilibrium parameters were determined. The adsorption of MB dye by NZVI obeyed both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption capacity of NZVI for MB in terms of monolayer adsorption was 208.33 mg g(-1). PMID:25026575

Arabi, Simin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza

2014-01-01

22

Adsorption of basic dyes onto MCM-41  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two basic dyes, Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10), onto MCM-41 was studied to examine the possible effect of interactions between large adsorbates and MCM-41 on the pore structure stability of MCM-41 and the potential of MCM-41 for the removal of basic dyes from wastewater. The revolutions of surface characteristics and pore structure of

Lain-Chuen Juang; Cheng-Cai Wang; Chung-Kung Lee

2006-01-01

23

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent-iron humate.  

PubMed

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent-iron humate-was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in most cases) dramatically the sorption of basic (cationic) dyes. Typically, the dye sorption was enhanced in the presence of low concentrations of anionic surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations, a steep decrease in the dye sorption was observed in some systems, probably due to the formation of micelles that solubilize the dye molecules and prevent their sorption. A model describing these experimental dependencies was proposed. The sorption of basic dyes onto iron humate may be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Diffusion processes were identified as the main mechanisms controlling the rate of the dye sorption. PMID:16162351

Janos, Pavel; Smídová, Veronika

2005-11-01

24

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent—iron humate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent—iron humate—was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in

Pavel Janoš; Veronika Šmídová

2005-01-01

25

Removal of basic dye from aqueous medium using a novel agricultural waste material: Pumpkin seed hull  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, pumpkin seed hull (PSH), an agricultural solid waste, is proposed as a novel material for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial concentration, agitation time and solution pH were studied in batch experiments at 30°C. The equilibrium process was described well by the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The adsorption kinetics can

B. H. Hameed; M. I. El-Khaiary

2008-01-01

26

Removal of a basic dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using Parthenium hysterophorus: An agricultural waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbents prepared from Parthenium hysterophorus – unwanted weed – were successfully used to remove methylene blue from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. The adsorbents included sulphuric acid treated Parthenium (SWC) and phosphoric acid treated Parthenium (PWC). Aqueous solutions of various concentrations (50–250mg\\/L) were shaken with certain amount of adsorbent to determine the adsorption capacity on SWC and PWC

Hem Lata; V. K. Garg; R. K. Gupta

2007-01-01

27

A natural sorbent, Luffa cylindrica for the removal of a model basic dye.  

PubMed

In this work, application of Luffa cylindrica in malachite green (MG) removal from aqueous solution was studied in a batch system. The effect of contact time, pH and temperature on removal of malachite green was also investigated. By the time pH was increased from 3 to 5, the amount of sorbed malachite green also increased. Beyond the pH value of 5, the amount of sorbed malachite green remains constant. The fits of equilibrium sorption data to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations were investigated. Langmuir isotherm exhibited best fit with the experimental data. Monolayer sorption capacity increased with the increasing of temperature. Sorption kinetic was evaluated by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich rate equations and intraparticle diffusion models. It was inferred that sorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters for sorption process were also found out. Spontaneous and endothermic nature of sorption was obtained due to negative value of free energy (DeltaG(o)) and positive value of enthalpy (DeltaH(o)) changes. FTIR analyses were also conducted to confirm the sorption of malachite green onto L. cylindrica. PMID:20378245

Altini?ik, Aylin; Gür, Emel; Seki, Yolda?

2010-07-15

28

Effectiveness of Cupressus sempervirens cones as biosorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic modes.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using cypress cone chips from Cupressus sempervirens as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of two representative basic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch and continuous modes. Dyes biosorption was strongly dependent on the solution's pH. Sorption kinetics was determined and properly described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Experimental equilibrium isotherms fitted the Langmuir model, showing maximum biosorption capacities of 0.62 mmol/g for MB and 0.24 mmol/g for RhB. Competitive experiments from a binary solution of the dyes demonstrated the preference of the cone chips for biosorbing MB. Very low desorption efficiencies were obtained for both dyes. Dynamic experiments showed that the breakthrough time was three times higher for MB biosorption than for RhB for the same conditions. Breakthrough curves were properly represented by a mathematical model. PMID:20727738

Fernandez, M E; Nunell, G V; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

2010-12-01

29

Use of slag for dye removal  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption techniques employing activated carbon have been found to be reasonably effective in the removal of some of the ionic impurities in water. However, economic considerations may require the use of inexpensive sorbents which are either naturally available or available as waste products from manufacturing processes. Slag is one such waste product obtained during the manufacture of steel, and the present study investigates dye removal characteristics of slag from colored waters. Aqueous solutions prepared from commercial grade acid, basic, and disperse dyes were used in this study, and batch pH, kinetic, and isotherm studies were undertaken on a laboratory scale. The data were evaluated for applicability to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and BET isotherm models, and the removal capacity of slag was compared with that of granular activated carbon. Results indicated approximately 94% removal of the disperse dye by slag, compared with a removal of approximately 49% achieved by activated carbon. Removal of acid dyes (dyes containing anionic groups) was reasonably good (approximately 47 and 74%), though not as good as obtained using activated carbon (approximately 100%). Column studies were conducted with a disperse dye (nonionic, slightly soluble in water), and analysis of data showed a sorption capacity of 1.3 mg of disperse dye per gram of slag. However, effluent dye concentrations were found to be higher than the permissible levels for discharge to receiving waters.

Ramakrishna, K.R.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

1998-09-01

30

A simplified method for synthesis of Fe3O4@PAA nanoparticles and its application for the removal of basic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified method for synthesis of polyacrylic acid-bound iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PAA NPs) was reported. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, VSM and XRD. Characterization results indicated that PAA was successfully introduced onto the surface of Fe3O4 and did not cause any changes in magnetic property. The Fe3O4@PAA NPs were used to adsorb rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a model basic dye pollutant from aqueous solution. Kinetics data and adsorption isotherms were better fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium could be reached at about 20 min, showing that the as-prepared adsorbent exhibited extremely rapid adsorption rate. The aqueous solution of the Yellow River was chosen as the test sample, and the results showed that the magnetic adsorbent was efficient for the removal of the basic dye in the real sample.

Xu, Yin-Yin; Zhou, Min; Geng, Hui-Juan; Hao, Jun-Jie; Ou, Qian-Qian; Qi, Sheng-Da; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

2012-02-01

31

Reinforcement of carboxyl groups in the surface of Corynebacterium glutamicum biomass for effective removal of basic dyes.  

PubMed

The biomass of Corynebacterium glutamicum was treated with poly(amic acid) to improve the biosorption of Basic Blue 3 (BB3) from aqueous solution. The grafting of poly(amic acid) onto the biomass surface increased the density of the carboxyl groups. The UV-spectrum revealed that strong acidic (pH2) and basic conditions (pH11) resulted in the precipitation of BB3. Therefore, pH edge experiments were conducted only within the range 3-10; these results indicated that electrostatic attraction between carboxyl groups of C. glutamicum and BB3 dye cations was favored under alkaline conditions. From the Langmuir model, poly(amic acid)-modified biomass gave a maximum uptake of 173.6 mg/g at pH 9, compared to 52.8 mg/g by the raw biomass. The biosorption kinetics was found to be fast; with equilibrium attained within 10 min. The increase in the ionic strength strongly affected the uptake of BB3 for both forms of C. glutamicum. PMID:19692228

Won, Sung Wook; Vijayaraghavan, K; Mao, Juan; Kim, Sok; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

2009-12-01

32

Adsorption of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Various Adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated clay, montmorillonite, and activated carbon were used for the removal of two basic dyes, Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10). Both dynamic and equilibrium data were obtained by the batch technique. The dynamic data indicate that the activated carbon was suitable for BG5 but not for BV10 primarily due to the molecular structure, whereas the montmorillonite

2005-01-01

33

Colour removal from a simulated dye wastewater using a two-phase Anaerobic packed bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, rapid technological advances in the textile and dyeing industry have yielded benefits to society but have also generated new and significant environmental problems. The treatment alternatives applicable for the removal of colour vary, depending upon the type of dye wastewater. A synthetic, simulated mixed dye waste (Basic Yellow 28, Basic Yellow 21, Basic Red 18.1, Basic Violet

A. Mahdavi Talarposhti; T. Donnelly; G. K. Anderson

2001-01-01

34

Adsorption of basic dyes onto montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-Mont) was exchanged with titanium cations and the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10) on these montmorillonites were measured to examine the ion-exchange effects on the basic dyes adsorption. The relationship between the dye adsorption and the alteration of pore structures of montmorillonite induced by ion-exchange processes was discussed. Moreover, the

Cheng-Cai Wang; Lain-Chuen Juang; Ting-Chu Hsu; Chung-Kung Lee; Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Fu-Chuang Huang

2004-01-01

35

Basic dye adsorption on activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Victoria Blue dye (Basic Blue 26) on carbon has been investigated. Equilibrium data have been found to obey the Langmuir isotherm. The effects of contact time, agitation, initial dye concentration and carbon particle size range were also studied.

Gordon McKay

1979-01-01

36

Effects of synthesis temperature on the microstructures and basic dyes adsorption of titanate nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two basic dyes (Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10)) onto titanate nanotubes (TNT) that were prepared via a hydrothermal method with different synthesis temperatures was studied to examine the potential of TNT for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. Effects of synthesis temperature on the microstructures of TNT were characterized with transmission

Chung-Kung Lee; Kuen-Song Lin; Chian-Fu Wu; Meng-Du Lyu; Chao-Chun Lo

2008-01-01

37

Dye removal by surfactant encapsulated polyoxometalates.  

PubMed

A novel surfactant encapsulated polyoxometalate (SEP) has been synthesized by using a simple ion-exchange reaction. The prepared SEP complex was found to self-assemble into nanospherical particles whose morphology and component were characterized by TEM and XPS. The SEP was further incorporated into polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) to fabricate SEP incorporated composite membrane (SEP-M). Both the SEP and SEP-M exhibited excellent dye removal activities, which is for the first time reported as an intriguing property of the SEP. A regeneration scheme for SEP-M was successfully proposed without any loss of dye removal efficiency. Detailed mechanism studies were carried out to elucidate the nature of dye decolorization. Ion exchange was revealed to play a dominant role in the dye removal process. The current research not only renders a new example for the simple and direct synthesis of SEP but more importantly provides an efficient dye removal methodology. PMID:25194560

Yao, Lei; Lua, Shun Kuang; Zhang, Lizhi; Wang, Rong; Dong, ZhiLi

2014-09-15

38

Adsorption of basic dye onto palm kernel shell activated carbon: sorption equilibrium and kinetics studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbents prepared from palm kernel shell, an agricultural waste product, were used to remove a dye, Basic Blue 9, from an aqueous solution in batch mode at a constant temperature of 28 °C. The sorption kinetics and equilibrium of basic dye onto palm kernel shell activated carbon (PKSAC) were studied. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich–Peterson isotherm

A. Jumasiah; T. G. Chuah; J. Gimbon; T. S. Y. Choong; I. Azni

2005-01-01

39

Kinetic modeling of the adsorption of basic dyes by kudzu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of kudzu, a rapidly growing, high-climbing perennial leguminous vine, for the adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution has been investigated at various initial dye concentrations, masses of kudzu, and agitation rates. The extent and rate of adsorption of the three basic dyes (Basic Red 22, Basic Yellow 21, and Basic Blue 3) were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order

Stephen J. Allen; Quan Gan; Ronan Matthews; Pauline A. Johnson

2005-01-01

40

Adsorption behaviors of acid and basic dyes on crosslinked amphoteric starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosslinked amphoteric starch with carboxymethyl and quaternary ammonium groups is investigated as an adsorbent for removal of both acid and basic dyes in solution. Acid Light Yellow 2G, Acid Red G, Methyl Green and Methyl Violet were used to study the adsorption behaviors under various parameters such as pH, dose of amphoteric starches, initial dye concentration, adsorption time and adsorption

Shimei Xu; Jingli Wang; Ronglan Wu; Jide Wang; Hong Li

2006-01-01

41

Comparison of optimised isotherm models for basic dye adsorption by kudzu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the use of dried (5% w\\/w moisture) kudzu (Peuraria lobata ohwi) as an adsorbent medium for the removal of two basic dyes, Basic Yellow 21 and Basic Red 22, from aqueous solutions. The extent of adsorption was measured through equilibrium sorption isotherms for the single component systems. Equilibrium was achieved after 21 days. The experimental isotherm data

Stephen J. Allen; Quan Gan; Ronan Matthews; Pauline A. Johnson

2003-01-01

42

Electrochemical removal of dyes from textile wastewater  

SciTech Connect

There are many technologies available for treating wastewater from the textile industry. Included are (1) biological treatment, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) carbon absorption, (4) ultrafiltration, and (5) oxidation with ozone. The main drawback of these technologies is that they generally lack the broad scope of treatment efficiency required to reduce all types of pollutants present in textile wastewater. However, when one approach does look promising, its capital costs or operating costs often become prohibitive when applied to the large water needs common to this industry. It has recently been shown that an electrochemical technology developed in the 1970s by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. effectively removes many of the contaminants including toxic dye species and heavy metals along with significant BOD and COD reduction across many types of textile wastewater and dye species. The removal of dyes and other pollutants in textile wastewater can be accomplished very efficiently with the electrochemical process. Actual operating data, along with actual water samples, will be presented along with economics and operating characteristics of this type of a system. Additional considerations such as removal of other components such as BOD and COD, theoretical interpretations, and the possibility of water reuse will also be discussed.

Uhrich, K.D. (Andco Environmental Processes, Inc., Amherst, NY (USA))

1988-09-01

43

Application of titanate nanotubes for dyes adsorptive removal from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of adsorptive removal of basic dyes with titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and acid dyes with surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) chloride)-modified TNTs were investigated. TNTs were prepared via a hydrothermal method and subsequently washed with HCl aqueous solutions of different concentrations. The prepared TNTs were then mediated by the HDTMA ions through the cation exchange process. Effects of acid washing and

Chung-Kung Lee; Shin-Shou Liu; Lain-Chuen Juang; Cheng-Cai Wang; Meng-Du Lyu; Shui-Hung Hung

2007-01-01

44

Equilibrium and kinetic studies on sorption of basic dyes by a natural biopolymer poly(?-glutamic acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacteria-derived biodegradable and non-toxic biopolymer poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) was evaluated as an adsorbent for removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. Sorption experiments were carried out with three basic dyes Auramine O (Au–O), Rhodamine B (Rh–B) and Safranin O (Sa–O) by a batch mode at different initial dye concentrations, agitation times, ?-PGA doses, temperatures, pH and added salts. Sorption

B. Stephen Inbaraj; J. T. Chien; G. H. Ho; J. Yang; B. H. Chen

2006-01-01

45

Adsorption kinetics of a basic dye from aqueous solutions onto apricot stone activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of activated carbon from apricot stone with H2SO4 activation and its ability to remove a basic dye, astrazon yellow 7GL, from aqueous solutions were reported in this study. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, BET and SEM, respectively. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as initial dye concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature were investigated in a

E. Demirbas; M. Kobya; M. T. Sulak

2008-01-01

46

Adsorption Behaviour of Basic Dyes on the Humic Acid Immobilized Pillared Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the adsorption of three basic dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV) and rhodamine B (RB) on the humic acid (HA) immobilized pillared clay (PILC) (HA-PILC) was studied. The adsorption capacity of dyes at 30 °C using HA–PILC was foundto be 2.6, 2.0 and 2.3 times greater than that using PILC for the removal of MB,

V. P. Vinod; T. S. Anirudhan

2003-01-01

47

Kinetics of basic dye (methylene blue) biosorption by giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza).  

PubMed

Wastewater containing pigments and/or dyes can cause serious water pollution problems in the form of reduced light penetration and photosynthesis, and the toxicity from heavy metals associated with pigments and/or dyes. Laboratory investigations, of the potential use of dried Spirodela polyrrhiza biomass as an adsorbent for the removal of the basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solution were conducted. A series of experiments were undertaken in an agitated batch adsorber to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. sorbent dosage, pH, and contact time. The results showed that as the amount of the dried S. polyrrhiza increased, the percentage of dye sorption increased accordingly. At pH 2.0 the sorption of dye was not favorable, while the sorption at other pHs (3.0-11.0) was remarkable. There was no significant difference in the dye concentration remaining when the pH was increased from 3.0 to 11.0. The dye removal time was influenced by the initial dye concentration, and the process followed the first-order rate kinetics. The rate constants for intraparticle diffusion were 1.00 and 3.27 mg/g/min1/2 for 300 and 500 mg/l of dye, respectively. PMID:12826416

Waranusantigul, P; Pokethitiyook, P; Kruatrachue, M; Upatham, E S

2003-01-01

48

Adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to compare the adsorption capacity of different types of activated carbons produced by steam activation in small laboratory scale and large industrial scale processes. Equilibrium behaviour of the activated carbons was investigated by performing batch adsorption experiments using bottle-point method. Basic dyes (methylene blue (MB), basic red (BR) and basic yellow (BY)) were used

Emad N. El Qada; Stephen J. Allen; Gavin M. Walker

2008-01-01

49

Insight into removal kinetic and mechanisms of anionic dye by calcined clay materials and lime.  

PubMed

Our recent work reported that a mixed adsorbent with natural clay materials and lime demonstrated an enhanced capacity and efficiency to remove anionic Congo Red dye from wastewater. This study aims to investigate the removal kinetic and mechanisms of the mixed materials involved in the decolourisation of the dye to maximise their prospective applications for industrial wastewater treatment. The experimental results showed that dye removal was governed by combined physiochemical reactions of adsorption, ion-exchange, and precipitation. Ca-dye precipitation contributed over 70% total dye removal, followed by adsorption and ion-exchange. The dye removal kinetic followed the pseudo-second-order expression and was well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. This study indicated pH was a key parameter to govern the removal mechanisms, i.e. adsorption/coagulation at acidic pH and precipitation at basic condition. Yet, the overall removal efficiency was found to be independent to the operation conditions, resulting in more than 94% dye removal. This work revealed that the mixed clays and lime can be applied as alternative low-cost adsorbents for industrial wastewater treatment. PMID:20079967

Vimonses, Vipasiri; Jin, Bo; Chow, Christopher W K

2010-05-15

50

Sorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution by activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of dyes in the solutions using activated sludge might be a promising approach in wastewater treatment units. The adsorption of Basic Red 18 and Basic Blue 9 from aqueous solution by dried activated sludge was investigated with in a batch system. The activated sludge had the highest dye uptake capacity, having the monolayer adsorption capacity 285.71 and 256.41mgg?1

Osman Gulnaz; Aysenur Kaya; Fatih Matyar; Burhan Arikan

2004-01-01

51

Adsorption of basic dyes in a fixed bed column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon and natural zeolite has been studied by\\u000a using a fixed bed column. The design procedures for fixed bed adsorption columns have been investigated for two basic dyes,\\u000a Maxilon Goldgelb GL EC 400% (MG-400) and Maxilon Shwarz FBL-01 300% (MS-300). The effects of process variables such as bed\\u000a height,

Liljana Markovska; Vera Meshko; Vladimir Noveski

2001-01-01

52

Adsorption Behavior of Basic Dyes on Activated Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated clay was used to study the adsorption behavior of dyestuffs in synthetic wastewater containing dyestuffs. Three basic dyes were used: C.I. Basic Red 18 (or BR18), C.I. Basic Red 46 (BR46), and C.I. Basic Yellow 28 (BY28). Adsorption occurred almost instantaneously upon contact. The mechanism of adsorption was explained by a charge to the electrostatic attractive force described in

Yung-Chien Hsu; Chun-Chiao Chiang; Mei-Feng Yu

1997-01-01

53

Removal of chrome dye from aqueous solutions by fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of fly ash to remove Omega Chrome Red ME (a chrome dye, mostly used in textile industries) from water has been studied. It has been found that low adsorbate concentration, small particle size of adsorbent, low temperature, and acidic pH of the medium favor the removal of chrome dye from aqueous solutions. The dynamics of adsorbate transport from

G. S. Gupta; G. Prasad; K. K. Panday; V. N. Singh

1988-01-01

54

Studies on castor seed shell as a sorbent in basic dye contaminated wastewater remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentialities of castor seed shell (CSS), a waste agricultural by-product, in the remediation of water, contaminated with Methylene Blue (MB), a basic dye, were investigated in the present study. The CSS was ground and washed, thoroughly, to remove any water extractable constituents. The dried CSS was reground, sieved and used in series of agitated batch adsorption experiments. The experiments

N. A. Oladoja; C. O. Aboluwoye; Y. B. Oladimeji; A. O. Ashogbon; I. O. Otemuyiwa

2008-01-01

55

Sorption of basic dye from aqueous solution by pomelo ( Citrus grandis) peel in a batch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low-cost, locally available sorbent, pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel (PP), was tested for its ability to remove basic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous on PP were studied in a batch process. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated

B. H. Hameed; D. K. Mahmoud; A. L. Ahmad

2008-01-01

56

Removal of dyes from an artificial textile dye effluent by two agricultural waste residues, corncob and barley husk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a previously untried biosorbent, barley husk, for dye removal is compared to corncob. The effectiveness of adsorption as a means of dye removal has made it an ideal alternative to other more costly treatments. This paper deals with two low-cost, renewable biosorbents, which are agroindustrial by-products, for textile dye removal. Experiments at total dye concentrations of 10,

T. Robinson; B. Chandran; P. Nigam

2002-01-01

57

Adsorption of basic dye from aqueous solution onto fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fly ash treated by H2SO4 was used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of a typical dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solution. An increase in the specific surface area and dye-adsorption capacity was observed after the acid treatment. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics of the treated fly ash were studied. The experimental results were fitted using Langmuir and

J. X. Lin; S. L. Zhan; M. H. Fang; X. Q. Qian; H. Yang

2008-01-01

58

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, M.L.

2000-07-25

59

Effects of sodium content on the microstructures and basic dye cation exchange of titanate nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of titanate nanotubes (TNT) to remove basic dye (Basic Violet 3, BV3) from aqueous solution through a cation exchange mechanism was investigated. TNT was prepared via a hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 powders in a 10M NaOH solution at 150°C for 24h, and subsequently washed with HCl aqueous solution of different concentrations. Effects of the remnant sodium contents on

Chung-Kung Lee; Cheng-Cai Wang; Lain-Chuen Juang; Meng-Du Lyu; Shui-Hung Hung; Shin-Shou Liu

2008-01-01

60

Removal of dyes from aqueous solution using fly ash and red mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash and red mud have been employed as adsorbents for the removal of a typical basic dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Heat treatment and chemical treatment have also been applied to the as-received fly ash and red mud samples. It is found that fly ash generally shows higher adsorption capacity than red mud. The raw fly ash and

Shaobin Wang; Y. Boyjoo; A. Choueib; Z. H. Zhu

2005-01-01

61

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using microspherical particles of fly ash.  

PubMed

Batch sorption experiments were carried out for the removal of cationic dyes (methylene blue and malachite green) from their aqueous solutions using sorbent made from fly ash-a waste material. Effects of various experimental parameters: initial dye concentration, contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, solution temperature, surfactant addition and ionic strength on the fly ash sorption of dyes were evaluated. The isothermal data for sorption followed the Langmuir model. The maximum sorption capacity obtained for methylene blue and malachite green was 36.05 mg/g and 40.65 mg/g, respectively. Kinetic studies indicate that sorption on fly ash follows the pseudo-second order kinetics. Present research suggests that fly ash could be an appropriate adsorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:22515067

Witek-Krowiak, Anna; Szafran, Roman G; Modelski, Szymon; Dawiec, Anna

2012-02-01

62

An examination of the adsorption characteristics of a basic dye (Maxilon Red BL-N) on to live activated sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of dyestuffs by adsorption on to live activated sludge was investigated. Two dyes, one acid dye (Acid Yellow 17) and one basic dye (Maxilon Red BL-N), were tested. Initial adsorption studies showed that binding of Acid Yellow 17 onto activated sludge was not promising while Maxilon Red BL-N was adsorbed well by activated sludge and the dye-sludge system conformed

M. Basibuyuk; C. F. Forster

2003-01-01

63

Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The more recent methods for the removal of synthetic dyes from waters and wastewater are complied. The various methods of removal such as adsorption on various sorbents, chemical decomposition by oxidation, photodegradation, and microbiological decoloration, employing activated sludge, pure cultures and microbe consortiums are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed and their efficacies are compared.

Esther Forgacs; Tibor Cserháti; Gyula Oros

2004-01-01

64

A novel biosorbent for dye removal: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery. PMID:18718709

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Xu, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

2009-04-15

65

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail ( Typha angustifolia Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of

Duangrat Inthorn; Siritham Singhtho; Paitip Thiravetyan; Eakalak Khan

2004-01-01

66

Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle  

PubMed Central

The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. PMID:24991427

2014-01-01

67

Optimization of Biosorptive Removal of Dye from Aqueous System by Cone Shell of Calabrian Pine  

PubMed Central

The biosorption performance of raw cone shell of Calabrian pine for C.I. Basic Red 46 as a model azo dye from aqueous system was optimized using Taguchi experimental design methodology. L9 (33) orthogonal array was used to optimize the dye biosorption by the pine cone shell. The selected factors and their levels were biosorbent particle size, dye concentration, and contact time. The predicted dye biosorption capacity for the pine cone shell from Taguchi design was obtained as 71.770?mg?g?1 under optimized biosorption conditions. This experimental design provided reasonable predictive performance of dye biosorption by the biosorbent (R 2: 0.9961). Langmuir model fitted better to the biosorption equilibrium data than Freundlich model. This displayed the monolayer coverage of dye molecules on the biosorbent surface. Dubinin-Radushkevich model and the standard Gibbs free energy change proposed physical biosorption for predominant mechanism. The logistic function presented the best fit to the data of biosorption kinetics. The kinetic parameters reflecting biosorption performance were also evaluated. The optimization study revealed that the pine cone shell can be an effective and economically feasible biosorbent for the removal of dye. PMID:25405213

Deniz, Fatih

2014-01-01

68

Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:25026586

Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

2014-01-01

69

Adsorption isotherm models for basic dye adsorption by peat in single and binary component systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colored effluents from textile industries are a problem in many rivers and waterways. Prediction of dye adsorption capacities is important in design considerations. The sorption of three basic dyes, namely Basic blue 3, Basic yellow 21, and Basic red 22, onto peat is reported. Equilibrium sorption isotherms have been measured for the three single-component systems. Equilibrium was achieved after 21

S. J. Allen; G. Mckay; J. F. Porter

2004-01-01

70

Experimental study and modeling of basic dye sorption by diatomaceous clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the adsorption of basic dye, methylene blue, from an aqueous solution onto diatomaceous earth (diatomite). The effect of initial dye concentrations, adsorbent particle size and concentration, and agitation speed on adsorption was investigated. Adsorption isotherms obtained at different solutions temperatures revealed an irreversible adsorption with a capacity of 42 mmol dye\\/100 g diatomite reached

Reyad A. Shawabkeh; Maha F. Tutunji

2003-01-01

71

Adsorptive removal of reactive azo dye from an aqueous phase onto charfines and activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents results pertaining to the adsorptive removal of reactive azo dye onto a low cost coal-based adsorbent (charfines) and its efficiency in dye colour sorption was compared with activated carbon (F400). Batch sorption studies were performed and the results revealed that charfines demonstrated an ability to adsorb the reactive azo dye. The sorption interaction of reactive dye on

S. Venkata Mohan; J. Karthikeyan

2004-01-01

72

Removal of an anionic dye by adsorption\\/precipitation processes using alkaline white mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline white mud (AWM) has been investigated as a low-cost material for removal of an anionic dye, acid blue 80. The effects of contact time, initial pH of dye solution, AWM dosage, and the presence of inorganic anion sulphate or phosphate ion on removal of the dye were evaluated. The results show that AWM could be used as an effective

Mao-Xu Zhu; Li Lee; Hai-Hua Wang; Zheng Wang

2007-01-01

73

Effect of carbon surface chemistry on the removal of reactive dyes from textile effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal efficiency of activated carbon Filtrasorb 400 (F-400) towards three highly used reactive dyes in the textile industry was investigated. In this work, the adsorption capacities for the anionic reactive dyes, namely; Remazol Reactive Yellow, Remazol Reactive Black and Remazol Reactive Red were determined. The adsorption capacity data showed a high removal ability for the three reactive dyes and

Y. Al-Degs; M. A. M. Khraisheh; S. J. Allen; M. N. Ahmad

2000-01-01

74

Application of dithiocarbamate-modified starch for dyes removal from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The present study shows that the dithiocarbamate-modified starch (DTCS) is a commercially promising sorbent for the removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. It is more effective than activated carbon for this purpose. At the appropriate solution pH of 4, kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of the dyes tends to follow pseudo-first-order equation. The sorption equilibrium is best described by the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model at 298 K. The capacities for individual dyes follow the sequence acid orange 7 > acid orange 10 > acid red 18 > acid black 1 > acid green 25, which is consistent with the inverse order of molecular size. The negative enthalpy change for the adsorption process confirms the exothermic nature of adsorption, and a free energy change confirms the spontaneity of the process. The FT-IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses verify the sorption based on starch-NH(2)(+)CSSH?(-)O(3)S-dye electrostatic attraction. The DTCS can be regenerated from the dye loaded DTCS in a weak basic solution containing sodium sulfate. PMID:21324584

Cheng, Rumei; Xiang, Bo; Li, Yijiu; Zhang, Mingzhen

2011-04-15

75

CONCENTRATION-DEPENDENT DIFFUSION OF BASIC DYES ON GRANULAR ACIVATED CARBON AND NATURAL ZEOLITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbon is the most popular adsorbent applied in the removal of textile dyes by adsorption techniques. The removal of dyes in an economic way remains an important problem since activated carbon is rather expensive. The different alternative natural adsorbents for the treatment of the textile wastewater have been tested in different parts of the world1. In this work

Mirjana Minceva; Verka Meshko; Liljana Markovska; Alirio E. Rodrigues

76

Experimental study and modeling of basic dye sorption by diatomaceous clay  

E-print Network

Experimental study and modeling of basic dye sorption by diatomaceous clay Reyad A. Shawabkeha 24 April 2003; accepted 4 June 2003 Abstract This paper presents a study on the adsorption of basic of initial dye concentrations, adsorbent particle size and concentration, and agitation speed on adsorption

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

77

Low-cost adsorbents from bio-waste for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Activated carbons (ACs) were developed from bio-waste materials like rice husk and peanut shell (PS) by various physicochemical activation methods. PS char digested in nitric acid followed by treatment at 673 K resulted in high surface area up to ?585 m(2)/g. The novelty of the present study is the identification of oxygen functional groups formed on the surface of activated carbons by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quantification by using temperature programmed decomposition (TPD). Typical TPD data indicated that each activation method may lead to varying amounts of acidic and basic functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent, which may be a crucial factor in determining the adsorption capacity. It was shown that ACs developed during the present study are good adsorbents, especially for the removal of a model textile dye methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. As MB is a basic dye, H(2)O(2)-treated rice husk showed the best adsorption capacity, which is in agreement with the acidic groups present on the surface. Removal of the dye followed Langmuir isotherm model, whereas MB adsorption on ACs followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. PMID:23233187

Manoj Kumar Reddy, P; Mahammadunnisa, Sk; Ramaraju, B; Sreedhar, B; Subrahmanyam, Ch

2013-06-01

78

Biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles for removal of reactive dyes from wastewater.  

PubMed

In this study, biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles with diameters less than 100 nm were developed to remove reactive dyes from simulated post-dyeing wastewater with remarkably high efficiency. Reactive dyes are widely used to color cellulosic materials, such as cotton and rayon. Wastewater from reactive dyeing process contains up to 50% dye and electrolytes with concentrations up to 100 g L(-1). Current methods to remove reactive dyes from wastewater are suffering from low adsorption capacities or low biodegradability of the sorbents. In this research, biodegradable zein nanoparticles showed high adsorption capacities for dyes. Hollow zein nanoparticles showed higher adsorption for Reactive Blue 19 than solid structures, and the adsorption amount increased as temperature decreased, pH decreased or initial dye concentration increased. At pH 6.5 and pH 9.0, increasing electrolyte concentration could improve dye adsorption significantly. Under simulated post-dyeing condition with 50.0 g L(-1) salt and pH 9.0, maximum adsorption of 1016.0 mg dye per gram zein nanoparticles could be obtained. The adsorption capacity was much higher than that of various biodegradable adsorbents developed to remove reactive dye. It is suggested that the hollow zein nanoparticles are good candidates to remove reactive dye immediately after dyeing process. PMID:23643969

Xu, Helan; Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Qiuran; Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

2013-08-15

79

Physical removal of textile dyes from effluents and solid-state fermentation of dye-adsorbed agricultural residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three agricultural residues, wheat straw, wood chips and corn-cob shreds were tested for their ability to adsorb individual dyes and dye mixtures in solutions. Up to 70–75% colour removal was achieved from 500 ppm dye solutions at room temperature using corn-cob shreds and wheat straw. Increasing the temperature had little effect on the adsorption capacity of the residues. The resulting

P Nigam; G Armour; I. M Banat; D Singh; R Marchant

2000-01-01

80

Adsorption of basic dyes on activated carbon prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost activated carbon was prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn by phosphoric acid activation. Its ability to remove the basic dyes, malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RB) was evaluated. The surface area of P.orientale Linn activated carbon (PLAC) was found to be 1398m2\\/g. The effects of experimental parameters such as initial concentration, contact time, pH, ionic strength and temperature

Li Wang; Jian Zhang; Ran Zhao; Cong Li; Ye Li; Chenglu Zhang

2010-01-01

81

Electrochemical removal of synthetic textile dyes from aqueous solutions using Ti/Pt anode: role of dye structure.  

PubMed

In this work, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation (EO) was investigated for removing a dye mixture containing Novacron Yellow (NY) and Remazol Red (RR) in aqueous solutions using platinum supported on titanium (Ti/Pt) as anode. Different current densities (20, 40 and 60 mA cm(-2)) and temperatures (25, 40 and 60 °C) were studied during electrochemical treatment. After that, the EO of each of these dyes was separately investigated. The EO of each of these dyes was performed, varying only the current density and keeping the same temperature (25 °C). The elimination of colour was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the degradation of organic compounds was analysed by means of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data obtained from the analysis of the dye mixture showed that the EO process was effective in colour removal, in which more than 90% was removed. In the case of COD removal, the application of a current density greater than 40 mA cm(-2) favoured the oxygen evolution reaction, and no complete oxidation was achieved. Regarding the analysis of individual anodic oxidation dyes, it was appreciated that the data for the NY were very close to the results obtained for the oxidation of the dye mixture while the RR dye achieved higher colour removal but lower COD elimination. These results suggest that the oxidation efficiency is dependent on the nature of the organic molecule, and it was confirmed by the intermediates identified. PMID:24801286

Araújo, Cynthia K C; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Fernandes, Nedja S; Zanta, Carmem L P S; Castro, Suely Souza Leal; da Silva, Djalma R; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

2014-08-01

82

Basic dye decomposition kinetics in a photocatalytic slurry reactor.  

PubMed

Wastewater effluent from textile plants using various dyes is one of the major water pollutants to the environment. Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating textile dye wastewaters have disadvantages such as high cost, energy waste and generating secondary pollution during the treatment process. The photocatalytic process using TiO2 semiconductor particles under UV light illumination has been shown to be potentially advantageous and applicable in the treatment of wastewater pollutants. In this study, the dye decomposition kinetics by nano-size TiO2 suspension at natural solution pH was experimentally studied by varying the agitation speed (50-200 rpm), TiO2 suspension concentration (0.25-1.71 g/L), initial dye concentration (10-50 ppm), temperature (10-50 degrees C), and UV power intensity (0-96 W). The experimental results show the agitation speed, varying from 50 to 200 rpm, has a slight influence on the dye decomposition rate and the pH history; the dye decomposition rate increases with the TiO2 suspension concentration up to 0.98 g/L, then decrease with increasing TiO2 suspension concentration; the initial dye decomposition rate increases with the initial dye concentration up to a certain value depending upon the temperature, then decreases with increasing initial dye concentration; the dye decomposition rate increases with the UV power intensity up to 64 W to reach a plateau. Kinetic models have been developed to fit the experimental kinetic data well. PMID:16563618

Wu, Chun-Hsing; Chang, Hung-Wei; Chern, Jia-Ming

2006-09-01

83

Separation and determination of basic dyes formulated in hair care products by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary electrophoretic (CE) method for analyzing five basic dyes (Basic Red 76, Basic Brown 16, Basic Yellow 57, Basic Brown 17 and Basic Blue 99) sold under the trade name Arianor, which are commonly used in hair care products, has been established. A buffer of 100mM acetic acid–ammonium acetate (50:50) containing 90% (v\\/v) methanol was employed in a fused-silica

Yoshinori Masukawa

2006-01-01

84

Improved biosorption potential of Thuja orientalis cone powder for the biosorptive removal of Basic Blue 9.  

PubMed

This study focused on the development of an efficient and practical biosorbent, a low cost and promising plant waste with cellulose-lignin polymeric structure, for the treatment of dye containing solutions. Thuja orientalis biomass was modified by citric acid and its biosorption potential was investigated with respect to pH (2.0-10.0), contact time (1-60 min), sorbent dosage (0.01-0.05 g), initial dye concentration (10-725 mg L(-1)) and flow rate (0.5-4.0 mL min(-1)). Modification significantly increased the biosorption of dye by 30% as compared with unmodified biomass. Kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model while the equilibrium data were well predicted by the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum dye biosorption capacities for natural and modified biomasses were found to be 91.03 and 203.21 mg g(-1) at 30°C, respectively. Modified biosorbent exhibited very good regeneration potential up to 10 cycles and it was successfully used for the decolorization of synthetic solution in dynamic flow mode. Zeta potential measurements, IR, SEM and EDX analysis were used to characterize the possible dye-biosorbent interactions. Overall, the present study underlines the alternative use of modified T. orientalis cones for removal and recovery applications of cationic dye, Basic Blue 9. PMID:23544555

Tunali Akar, Sibel; Balk, Yasemin Yetimoglu; Tuna, Okan; Akar, Tamer

2013-04-15

85

AUTOMATIC EXCHANGE RESIN PILOT PLANT FOR REMOVAL OF TEXTILE DYE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an investigation of the use of adsorption resins to remove colored dyes from textile dyeing wastewaters, using an automated benchscale pilot unit. This could make possible the reuse of the treated wastewaters in subsequent dyeing operations. The scale ...

86

Agricultural based activated carbons for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review evaluates a number of different agricultural waste adsorbents and types of dyes. Certain wastewater containing different dye contaminants causes serious environmental problems. Recently, growing research interest in the production of carbon based has been focused on agricultural by-products. Low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural wastes have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for the removal of dyes from wastewater. Therefore, low

Ayhan Demirbas

2009-01-01

87

Thermodynamics and kinetic studies of biosorption of a basic dye from aqueous solution using green algae Ulothrix sp.  

PubMed

This study addresses removal of a basic dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solutions by using dried Ulothrix sp. biomass as biosorbent. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature, solution equilibrium pH, biosorbent dosage, and mixing rate on biosorption of the dye have been investigated. It was found that 30min is sufficient in order to reach adsorption equilibrium. The amount of methylene blue adsorbed onto Ulothrix sp. increased with increasing equilibrium pH and mixing rate, in contrary, it decreased with increasing temperature and sorbent dosage. The process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The isosteric enthalpy and entropy values were calculated as -11.8kJ/mol and 37.5J/(molK), respectively. In addition, the results suggest that the physical interactions between sorbent particles and sorbate ions play an important role for the adsorption of methylene blue onto the biosorbent. PMID:19963357

Do?ar, Cetin; Gürses, Ahmet; Açikyildiz, Metin; Ozkan, Esra

2010-03-01

88

Biosorption of Astrazone Blue basic dye from an aqueous solution using dried biomass of Baker's yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study dried biomass of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used as a sorbent for Astrazone Blue basic dye aqueous solution.Factors affecting the adsorption process: dye concentration, contact time, temperature and pH were investigated. The equilibrium concentration and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium were determined using three different sorption models namely: Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. It was found

Joseph Y. Farah; Nour Sh. El-Gendy; Laila A. Farahat

2007-01-01

89

Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe0) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe0 dose used were 100mgL?1

Kai-Sung Wang; Chiou-Liang Lin; Ming-Chi Wei; Hsiu-Hao Liang; Heng-Ching Li; Chih-Hua Chang; Yung-Tai Fang; Shih-Hsien Chang

2010-01-01

90

Flexible removable partial dentures: a basic overview.  

PubMed

For many years, flexible resin materials have been available for fabricating removable partial denture (RPD) prostheses. Using a nonrigid material for the major connector or other components of an RPD may be a consideration for certain patients. Except for the promotional literature that has been written for flexible resin dentures, there is very little information available in the dental literature concerning nonrigid RPDs. As a result, the decision to use this treatment option depends on the judgment and experience of the dentist and fabricating laboratory. This article summarizes clinically pertinent information about flexible, nonrigid partial dentures. PMID:24598492

Hill, Edward E; Rubel, Barry; Smith, John B

2014-01-01

91

Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of three basic dyes, named basic violet 10, basic violet 1, and basic green 4, from aqueous solutions onto sugarcane dust was studied. The results revealed the potential of sugarcane dust, a waste material, to be a low-cost sorbent. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the three-parameter Redlich–Peterson isotherms. In order to determine the

Yuh-Shan Ho; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chung-Chi Wang

2005-01-01

92

Equilibrium modeling and kinetic studies on the adsorption of basic dye by a low-cost adsorbent: Coconut ( Cocos nucifera) bunch waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ability of coconut bunch waste (CBW), an agricultural waste available in large quantity in Malaysia, to remove basic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution by adsorption was studied. Batch mode experiments were conducted at 30°C to study the effects of pH and initial concentration of methylene blue (MB). Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The

B. H. Hameed; D. K. Mahmoud; A. L. Ahmad

2008-01-01

93

Removal of dyes from water using crosslinked aminomethane sulfonic acid based resin.  

PubMed

A new polymeric resin with amino sulfonic acid pendant functions has been prepared for the extraction of acidic and basic dyes from water. Beaded polymer supports were prepared by suspension polymerization of vinyl benzyl chloride (0.9 mol) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (0.1 mol). The resulting copolymer beads were modified with amino methane sulfonic acid. The dye adsorption capacity of the resin was found as 0.16 g dye/g resin for ramazol black and 0.15 g dye/g resin for crystal violet. The pH depending measurements and dye sorption kinetics of the resin were also investigated. PMID:20401517

Kaner, Damla; Saraç, Ayfer; Senkal, Bahire Filiz

2010-08-01

94

Textile dye removal from wastewater effluents using bioflocculants produced by indigenous bacterial isolates.  

PubMed

Bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant located in Durban, South Africa, and identified using standard biochemical tests as well as the analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bioflocculants produced by these organisms were ethanol precipitated, purified using 2% (w/v) cetylpyridinium chloride solution and evaluated for removal of wastewater dyes under different pH, temperature and nutritional conditions. Bioflocculants from these indigenous bacteria were very effective for decolourizing the different dyes tested in this study, with a removal rate of up to 97.04%. The decolourization efficiency was largely influenced by the type of dye, pH, temperature, and flocculant concentration. A pH of 7 was found to be optimum for the removal of both whale and mediblue dyes, while the optimum pH for fawn and mixed dye removal was found to be between 9 and 10. Optimum temperature for whale and mediblue dye removal was 35 °C, and that for fawn and mixed dye varied between 40–45 °C and 35–40 °C, respectively. These bacterial bioflocculants may provide an economical and cleaner alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes for the removal of dyes from wastewater effluents, since they are biodegradable and easily sustainable. PMID:23201644

Buthelezi, Simphiwe P; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

2012-01-01

95

Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing applications of hazardous azo dyes as industrialized coloring agents have led to serious remediation challenges. In this study, proteinaceous nanofibrils were examined as coagulants for decolorization of azo dyes in aqueous solutions. The results provided some insight regarding the mechanism of dye removal. The strength of nanofibrils to remove dyes from solution was evaluated by remediation of acid red 88, Bismarck brown R, direct violet 51, reactive black 5, and Congo red. However, the efficiency of nanofibrils to coagulate with different dyes was variable (60-98%) and dependent on the structures of dyes and the physicochemical conditions of the solutions. Increasing the temperature or ionic strength declined the coagulation time and induced the rate of dye removal. Changing pH had contradictory effects on the dye removal efficiency which was more affected by the chemical structure of the dye rather than the change in stability of the coagulant. The efficiency of nanofibrils to remove dyes was more than that of charcoal, which is considered as one of the most common substances used for azo dye remediation which may be due to its well dispersion in the aqueous solutions, and slower rates of the coagulation than that of the adsorption process. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was not detected after treating cell cultures with the decolorized solutions. Accordingly, by integrating biological and biophysicochemical processes, proteinaceous nanofibrils can be promising candidates for treatment of colored wastewaters. Ease of production, proper and quick dispersion in water, without the production of dangerous dye by-products and derivatives, are some of the main advantages of nanofibrils. PMID:23999142

Morshedi, Dina; Mohammadi, Zeinab; Akbar Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi; Aliakbari, Farhang

2013-12-01

96

Sorption equilibrium and kinetics of basic dye from aqueous solution using banana stalk waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of basic dye from aqueous solutions by banana stalk waste (BSW), an abundant agricultural waste in Malaysia, was studied in a batch system with respect to pH and initial dye concentration. Sorption isotherm of methylene blue (MB) onto the BSW was determined at 30°C with the initial concentrations of MB in the range of 50–500mg\\/L. At pH 2.0,

B. H. Hameed; D. K. Mahmoud; A. L. Ahmad

2008-01-01

97

Adsorption of basic dyes in aqueous solution by clay adsorbent from regenerated bleaching earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerated bleaching earth was used for adsorption and adsorption kinetics of the three basic dyes violet 4, violet 3 and red 9 from aqueous solution. The rate of adsorption has been investigated under various parameters such as initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. Two simple models (i.e., pseudo-second-order reaction and intra-particle diffusion) have been tested to predict the adsorption parameters.

W. T. Tsai; Y. M. Chang; C. W. Lai; C. C. Lo

2005-01-01

98

Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

2013-12-01

99

Color removal of reactive dyes from water by clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

The adsorption of reactive dyes on Gordes (Turkey) clinoptilolite was investigated by a series of batch and column adsorption experiments. Three reactive dyes (Everzol Black, Everzol Red, Everzol Yellow) were used in laboratory studies. Synthetic wastewaters were used and the ability of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and their modified form were examined. The adsorption results, in batch and column reactor, indicate that natural zeolite have limited adsorption capacities of the reactive dyes but are substantially improved upon modifying their surfaces with quaternary amines (HTAB). The degree of hydrophilicity is found to play an important role in the uptake of reactive dyes. PMID:15137695

Arma?an, Bülent; Turan, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Orhan; Celik, Mehmet S

2004-01-01

100

Adsorption of basic dyes in single and mixture systems on granular inorganic–organic pillared clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two basic dyes, CI Basic Yellow 28 and CI Basic Green 4, was studied in single and binary solute systems using two classes of inorganic–organic pillared clay granules as sorbents (300–400 µm and 700–800 µm). These were prepared by high?shear wet granulation from an Al cetyltrimethylammonium bromide intercalated clay powder (particle diameter < 50 µm). Adsorption rate

Benamar Cheknane; Michel Baudu; Omar Bouras

2010-01-01

101

The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution on modified peat–resin particle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified peat was prepared by mixing thoroughly raw peat with sulfuric acid, and modified peat–resin particle was obtained, by mixing modified peat with solutions of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and formaldehyde. In this paper, the adsorption of Basic Magenta and Basic Brilliant Green onto modified peat–resin particle is examined. The adsorption isotherm showed that the adsorption of basic dyes on modified peat–resin

Qingye Sun; Linzhang Yang

2003-01-01

102

Dye coupling in the corneal endothelium: effects of ouabain and extracellular calcium removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ouabain and extracellular calcium removal on gap junctional coupling of isolated rabbit corneal endothelium was examined using a modified dye-spread technique. This technique is a modification of a microelectrode procedure that now utilizes patch electrodes connected to a current-clamp circuit for dye iontophoresis and a shuttering system in the excitation light path to reduce phototoxic effects in

Mitchell A. Watsky; James L. Rae

1992-01-01

103

DYES ADSORPTION ONTO ORGANOCLAY AND MCM-41  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of acid dye (Amido Naphthol Red G, AR1) onto hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) chloride modified montmorillonite and basic dye (Basic Violet 10, BV10) onto MCM-41 was studied to examine the potential of organoclay and MCM-41 for the removal of acid and basic dye from wastewater. The revolutions of surface and pore structure of montmorillonite induced by surfactant modified process were

Lain-Chuen Juang; Cheng-Cai Wang; Chung-Kung Lee; Ting-Chu Hsu

104

Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) Shell Based Activated Carbon for the Removal of Malachite Green Dye From Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of malachite green (MG) dye using coconut shell based activated carbon (CSAC) was investigated. Operational factors such as effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and solution temperature on the adsorption process were studied. Solution pH strongly affected the chemistry of both the dye molecule and CSAC in solution. Optimum dye removal was obtained at

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

2012-01-01

105

Application of zeolite- Arthrobacter viscosus system for the removal of heavy metal and dye: Chromium and Azure B  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid system combining the ion-exchange properties of a NaY zeolite and the characteristics of the bacterium Arthrobacter viscosus was investigated to treat polluted effluents with dye and toxic metals. In this study, the dye and the metal ion employed were a thiazine dye, Azure B, and chromium (VI), respectively. Initially, the removal of dye by the zeolite was tested.

E. Rosales; M. Pazos; M. A. Sanromán; T. Tavares

106

Reuse of activated sludge biomass: II. The rate processes for the adsorption of basic dyes on biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate processes for the adsorption of Basic Yellow 24 dye on activated sludge biomass have been studied. Influences of various factors on adsorption rate, such as shaking rate, initial dye concentration, biomass particle size, and dye solution temperature have been investigated. The experimental results indicate that there is a boundary layer surrounding the biomass particles, the kinetics of the

H. C Chu; K. M Chen

2002-01-01

107

Towards advanced aqueous dye removal processes: a short review on the versatile role of activated carbon.  

PubMed

During the last decade, several physico-chemical and biological techniques have been developed to remove colour from textile wastewaters. Some of these techniques rely on and many will profit from activated carbon (AC). The role of AC is versatile: (1) it acts as a dye adsorbent, not only in straightforward adsorption processes but also in AC-enhanced coagulation and membrane filtration processes; (2) it generates strong oxidising agents (mostly, hydroxyl (OH) radicals) in electrochemical dye oxidation; (3) it catalyses OH production in advanced oxidation processes; (4) it catalyses anaerobic (azo) dye reduction and supports biofilm growth in microbial dye removal. This paper reviews the role of AC in dye decolourisation, evaluates the feasibility of each AC-amended decolourisation technique and discusses perspectives on future research. PMID:22459012

Mezohegyi, Gergo; van der Zee, Frank P; Font, Josep; Fortuny, Agustí; Fabregat, Azael

2012-07-15

108

Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

Tsui, L. S.; Roy, W. R.; Cole, M. A.

2003-01-01

109

REMOVAL OF AZO DYES BY THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research & Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research designed to develop techniques for predicting the fate of azo dyes in typical wastewater treatment systems which are treating wastewater ...

110

The Use of Basic Dyes and Ribonuclease for the Cytochemical Detection of Ribonucleic Acid 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Basic dyes (methyl green\\/pyronin, and toluidin blue), in conjunction with ribonuclease, may be used to detect the cytochemical localization of ribonucleic acid. This technique has been examined critically. 2. The fixative used is important and results vary with different materials. It is suggested that Zenker and Serra fixation should be compared in preliminary investi- gations. Unexplained anomalies arise

J. BRACHET

1953-01-01

111

A comparison of basic dye adsorption onto zeolitic materials synthesized from fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation reveals the adsorption characteristics of two basic dyes, thionine (TH) and safranine T (ST), onto fly ash (FA) and its three zeolitized products prepared at different hydrothermal conditions. Typical two-step isotherms were observed for TH adsorption onto four adsorbents, whereas the isotherms of the larger ST molecules were S-shaped. The adsorption capacities of the zeolitized fly ash (ZFA)

Gülten Atun; Gül Hisarl?; Ay?e Engin Kurto?lu; Nihat Ayar

2011-01-01

112

Kinetic modeling of the adsorption of basic dyes onto steam-activated bituminous coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal aim of this work is to investigate the mechanism of basic dye (methylene blue (MB) and basic red (BR)) adsorption onto activated carbons produced from steam-activated bituminous coal. The rate of adsorption onto various activated carbons, produced in small laboratory-scale and pilot-industrial-scale processes, was investigated under a variety of conditions. The kinetic data from these investigations were correlated

Emad N. El Qada; Stephen J. Allen; Gavin M. Walker

2007-01-01

113

Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads for removing dye from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate beads were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate gels to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite beads could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite beads was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite beads effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly. PMID:24945580

Yang, Chih-Hui; Shih, Ming-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Chen; Huang, Keng-Shiang

2014-01-01

114

REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF DYESTUFFS FROM DYEING WASTEWATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic nature of some dyestuffs (DSs) has long been recognized. Accordingly, dyeing wastewaters represent a source of water contamination, and should be treated in some way so as to reduce the concentration of the polluting DSs to permissible limits, prior to dumping its wastewater. In addition, some DSs can be recovered for reuse, a point which should represent saving

Mona M. Naim; Yehia M. El Abd

2002-01-01

115

Removal of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions using Chemically Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyes (Acid Yellow 17 and Acid Orange 7) were removed from its aqueous solution in batch and continuous packed bed adsorption systems by using thermally activated Euphorbia macroclada carbon with respect to contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The activated carbon was prepared using a cheap plant-based material called Euphorbia macroclada, which was chemically modified with K2CO3. Lagergren-first-order

Özgül Gerçel; H. Ferdi Gerçel

2009-01-01

116

Assessment on the Removal of Methylene Blue Dye using Tamarind Fruit Shell as Biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarind fruit shell was used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The various\\u000a factors affecting adsorption, such as agitation, pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature, were investigated.\\u000a The dye adsorption capacity was strongly dependent on solution pH as well as temperature. The Langmuir isotherm model showed\\u000a good fit to the equilibrium

Papita Saha

2010-01-01

117

Removal of Alizarin Yellow dye from water using zinc doped WO3 catalyst.  

PubMed

The degradation of Alizarin Yellow dye is studied here using the laser-induced photo-catalysis process in the presence of a zinc doped tungsten oxide catalyst. For optimization of the photo-catalytic process, the following parameters were investigated: dye concentration, laser irradiation time and incident laser energy. The calculated value of the reaction rate was found to be of a high value (k) = 0.197 (with estimated half-life of 6.5 min). This high value of k indicates the efficiency of this method in removing Alizarin Yellow dye from wastewater. PMID:20419288

Seddigi, Zaki Shakir

2010-05-01

118

Phosphorus removal from waste waters using basic oxygen steel slag.  

PubMed

Few studies have characterized reactive media for phosphorus (P) removal in passive treatment systems in terms of both batch and continuous flow experiments. This study uses basic oxygen steel slag (BOS) from a U.K. feedstock. Batch experiments demonstrated the effective removal of phosphorus with varying initial pH, initial P concentration, clast size, and ionic strength to represent environmental conditions. Continuous flow column experiments, operated for 406 days, with an influent P concentration of 1-50 mg/L (typical of domestic and dairy parlour waste) achieved removal of up to 62%; a second set of column experiments running for 306 days with an influent P concentration of 100-300 mg/L achieved a maximum effective removal of 8.39 mg/g. This figure is higher than that for other slags reviewed in this study (e.g., EAF Slag 3.93 mg/g and NZ melter slag 1.23 mg/g). XRD, E-SEM, and EDX data provide evidence for a sequential series of increasingly less soluble P mineral phases forming on the BOS surface (octa-calcium phosphate, brushite, and hydroxylapatite),which suggests that BOS may be a suitable substrate in passive treatment systems, providing a long-term P removal mechanism. PMID:19452904

Bowden, Lawrence I; Jarvis, Adam P; Younger, Paul L; Johnson, Karen L

2009-04-01

119

Effect of surface chemistry on the adsorption of basic dyes on carbon aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on how the surface chemical groups of carbon aerogels (CAs) affect their adsorption properties of basic dyes. First of all, the surface structures of CAs were tailored by controlling carbonization temperatures and oxidation treatments including HNO3 oxidation, H2O2 oxidation and hot air oxidation. The pore structures of samples were investigated by N2 adsorption–desorption analysis. In addition, their

Wenjin Yang; Dingcai Wu; Ruowen Fu

2008-01-01

120

Adsorption of Some Basic Dyes by Acrylamide-Maleic Acid Hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, acrylamide-maleic acid (AAm\\/MA) hydrogels containing different quantities of maleic acid have been irradiated with ?-radiation. They have been used in experiments on swelling, diffusion, and the adsorption of basic dyes such as methylene blue, methyl violet, and nile blue. Acrylamide-maleic acid hydrogel containing 40 mg maleic acid and irradiated at 3.73 kGy has been used for swelling

Dursun Saraydin; Erdener Karada?; Olgun Güven

1996-01-01

121

Adsorption of basic dyes in single and mixture systems on granular inorganic-organic pillared clays.  

PubMed

The adsorption of two basic dyes, CI Basic Yellow 28 and CI Basic Green 4, was studied in single and binary solute systems using two classes of inorganic-organic pillared clay granules as sorbents (300-400 microm and 700-800 microm). These were prepared by high-shear wet granulation from an Al cetyltrimethylammonium bromide intercalated clay powder (particle diameter < 50 microm). Adsorption rate data indicate that BY 28 adsorbs more rapidly than BG 4 and a pseudo-first-order model was found to fit the kinetic curves, with regression coefficients above 0.98. Adsorption isotherms in single solute systems at pH 3 and pH6 were respectively analysed according to the Langmuir and Freundlich models using non-linear regression. Best fits were obtained with the Langmuir model. In binary dye systems the adsorption at three molar ratios (1:9, 1:1 and 9:1) demonstrated that the adsorption of BG 4 was greater than that of BY 28 on all the sorbents studied; this was in agreement with the results obtained for single solute systems. Increasing the granule size decreased dye adsorption, an effect in accordance with the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch model. PMID:20586243

Cheknane, Benamar; Baudu, Michel; Basly, Jean-Philippe; Bouras, Omar

2010-06-01

122

Three-dimensional graphene oxide nanostructure for fast and efficient water-soluble dye removal.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated the potential of graphene nanomaterials as environmental pollutant adsorbents by utilizing the characteristics of ultralarge surface area and strong ?-? interaction on the surface. We generated a three-dimensional (3D) graphene oxide sponge (GO sponge) from a GO suspension through a simple centrifugal vacuum evaporation method, and used them to remove both the methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) dyes which are main contaminants from the dye manufacturing and textile finishing. The efficiency and speed of dye adsorption on a GO sponge was investigated under various parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, temperature, and pH. The adsorption process shows that 99.1% of MB and 98.8% of MV have been removed and the equilibrium status has been reached in 2 min. The 3D GO sponge displays adsorption capacity as high as 397 and 467 mg g(-1) for MB and MV dye, respectively, and the kinetic data reveal that the adsorption process of MB and MV dyes is well-matched with the pseudo second-order model. The MB and MV adsorption on the 3D GO sponge involved in endothermic chemical adsorption through the strong ?-? stacking and anion-cation interaction with the activation energy of 50.3 and 70.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The 3D GO sponge has demonstrated its high capability as an organic dye scavenger with high speed and efficiency. PMID:22206476

Liu, Fei; Chung, Soyi; Oh, Gahee; Seo, Tae Seok

2012-02-01

123

Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ? Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ? Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ? Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ? AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: nm_mahmoodi@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farhood [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15

124

Wastewater purification to remove dyes with monocation-substituted forms of bentonite and flocculants-coagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibility of performing sorption-coagulation purification of model wastewater to remove cationactive dyes (Rhodamine G,\\u000a Methylene blue, thionine, and fuchsine) with bentonite sorbents and Gyanja flocculant-coagulant was studied. The effect of\\u000a the nature and charge of exchange cations on the sorptioncoagulation capacity of bentonite samples was examined.

A. I. Yagubov; L. A. Binnatova; N. M. Muradova; A. N. Nuriev

2010-01-01

125

Removal of Anionic Dyes from Water using Citrus limonum (Lemon) Peel: Equilibrium Studies and Kinetic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Citrus limonum (lemon) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of two anionic dyes, Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration, and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacities of lemon peel adsorbent for

Amit Bhatnagar; Eva Kumar; A. K. Minocha; Byong-Hun Jeon; Hocheol Song; Yong-Chan Seo

2009-01-01

126

Utilization of walnut shells (Juglans regia) as an adsorbent for the removal of acid dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of acid red 183 and acid green 25 onto walnut shells (Juglans regia) (WS) from aqueous solutions was investigated by using parameters such as contact time, temperature, pH, adsorbent doses and initial dye concentration. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min. The adsorption isotherms were described by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. It was found that

Haluk Aydin; Gülay Baysal; Yasemin Buluta

2009-01-01

127

Removal of chlorophenols from aquatic systems with dye-affinity microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cibacron Blue F3GA carrying pHEMA microbeads were investigated as dye-affinity sorbents for removal of chlorophenols (i.e. phenol, m-chlorophenol, p-chlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). PHEMA microbeads were prepared by modified suspension polymerization of HEMA in the presence of an initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile). These microbeads, with a swelling ratio of 55% and carrying 16.5 ?mol Cibacron Blue F3GA\\/g polymer, were then used in the removal

Adil Denizli; Güleren Özkan; Mustafa Uçar

2001-01-01

128

Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].  

PubMed

Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (?) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. PMID:24491599

Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

2014-11-01

129

Removal of COD and color from hydrolyzed textile azo dye by combined ozonation and biological treatment.  

PubMed

The application of ozonation has been increasing in recent years, the main disadvantage of this type of treatment being related to the by-products, which can have toxic and carcinogenic properties, and therefore should be studied further. In this study, the combined treatment of ozonation and subsequent biological degradation with a biofilm, to reduce the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD), was investigated. The experimental part of the study consisted of two phases. The first phase was the ozonation process, the results obtained demonstrated that the ozonation of Remazol Black B dye at pH values of 3-11, was effective, partially oxidizing and completely decolorizing the effluent, even at relatively high concentrations of the dye (500 mg/L). Color removal efficiencies greater than 96% were obtained in all cases. The degradation kinetics of ozone is a pseudo-first-order reaction with respect to the dye concentration. It was possible to verify that the ozonation process as a pre-treatment increases the dye degradation efficiency. For the biological treatment, an increase in ozonization time increased the dye concentration reduction in hydrolyzed dye synthetic effluent. The toxicological results of the tests with Daphnia Magna showed that there is an increase in toxicity after ozonization and a decrease after submitting the ozonized synthetic wastewater to biological treatment with a biofilm. PMID:20227826

de Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson; Bonilla, Karin Angela Santos; de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson

2010-07-15

130

A review on applicability of naturally available adsorbents for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste.  

PubMed

The effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing, cosmetics, etc., contains large amount of hazardous dyes. There is huge number of treatment processes as well as adsorbent which are available for the processing of this effluent water-containing dye content. The applicability of naturally available low cast and eco-friendly adsorbents, for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste by adsorption treatment, has been reviewed. In this review paper, we have provided a compiled list of low-cost, easily available, safe to handle, and easy-to-dispose-off adsorbents. These adsorbents have been classified into five different categories on the basis of their state of availability: (1) waste materials from agriculture and industry, (2) fruit waste, (3) plant waste, (4) natural inorganic materials, and (5) bioadsorbents. Some of the treated adsorbents have shown good adsorption capacities for methylene blue, congo red, crystal violet, rhodamine B, basic red, etc., but this adsorption process is highly pH dependent, and the pH of the medium plays an important role in the treatment process. Thus, in this review paper, we have made some efforts to discuss the role of pH in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:21387170

Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen; Sharma, Monika; Sahore, Vishal

2011-12-01

131

Biological Removal of Azo and Triphenylmethane Dyes and Toxicity of Process By-Products.  

PubMed

Increasing environmental pollution is connected with broad applications of dyes and imperfection of dyeing technology. Decolourization of triphenylmethane brilliant green and disazo Evans blue by bacterial and fungal strains and toxicity (phyto- and zootoxicity) of degradation by-products were investigated. Influence of incubation method on dyes removal was evaluated (static, semi-static, shaken). Dead biomass was used for sorption estimation. Toxicity of treated dyes was measured to estimate possible influence on aquatic ecosystems. The zootoxicity test was done with Daphnia magna and phytotoxicity with Lemna minor. Samples were classified according to ACE 89/BE 2/D3 Final Report Commission EC. The best results of removal for all tested strains were reached in shaken samples. In opposite to fungi, bacterial strains decolourized brilliant green more effectively than Evans blue. The most effective bacterial strain was Erwinia spp. (s12) and fungal strains were Polyporus picipes (RWP17) and Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB). Decolourization of brilliant green was connected with decrease of zootoxicity (D. magna) and phytotoxicity (L. minor). Removal of Evans blue was connected with no changes in zootoxicity and decrease of phytotoxicity in most of samples. PMID:22593606

Przysta?, Wioletta; Zab?ocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabi?ska-Sota, El?bieta

2012-05-01

132

Nanotubular Halloysite Clay as Efficient Water Filtration System for Removal of Cationic and Anionic Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halloysite nanotubes, chemically similar to kaolinite, are formed by rolling of kaolinite layers in tubes with diameter of 50 nm and length of ca. 1 ?m. Halloysite has negative SiO2 outermost and positive Al2O3 inner lumen surface, which enables it to be used as potential absorbent for both cationic and anionic dyes due to the efficient bivalent adsorbancy. An adsorption study using cationic Rhodamine 6G and anionic Chrome azurol S has shown approximately two times better dye removal for halloysite as compared to kaolinite. Halloysite filters have been effectively regenerated up to 50 times by burning the adsorbed dyes. Overall removal efficiency of anionic Chrome azurol S exceeded 99.9% for 5th regeneration cycle of halloysite. Chrome azurol S adsorption capacity decreases with the increase of ionic strength, temperature and pH. For cationic Rhodamine 6G, higher ionic strength, temperature and initial solution concentration were favorable to enhanced adsorption with optimal pH 8. These results indicate a potential to utilize halloysite for the removal of ionic dyes from environmental waters.

Zhao, Yafei; Abdullayev, Elshad; Lvov, Yuri

2014-08-01

133

Structure, morphologies and dye removal efficiency of ZnO nanorods grown on polycrystalline Zn substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rod-like ZnO with the different morphologies were grown on polycrystalline Zn substrate by a simple hydrothermal process in a NaOH or NH4OH solution at the hydrothermal temperature range from 80 to 150 °C for different reaction time. Variations preparation in the different alkali solution concentration, hydrothermal temperature, and reaction times were explored to shed light on the morphology of the rod-like nanostructures. The thorough structural characterization including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) were employed to examine the morphology and the microstructure of the final products. It was found that alkali solution concentration, hydrothermal temperature and time have important influence on the morphology of the rod-like nanostructures. The dye removal efficiency of ZnO nanorods was explored by the decoloration of azo dye Congo red (CR). In order to obtain the optimum removal conditions of Congo red, the performance of removing CR with various initial concentrations by ZnO nanorods on Zn substrates with different morphologies was tested under various ambient conditions (visible light illumination and darkness). All prepared samples showed an excellent dye removal efficiency for organic pollutants CR from wastewater, making them promising candidates for the wastewater treatment.

Yin, Tiantian; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Yingying; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yude

2014-10-01

134

Photocatalytic removal of C.I. Basic Red 46 on immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles: artificial neural network modelling.  

PubMed

C.I. Basic Red 46, commonly used as a textile dye, was photocatalytically removed using supported TiO2 nanoparticles irradiated by a 30 W UV-C lamp in a batch reactor. The investigated photocatalyst was industrial Degussa P25 (crystallite mean size 21 nm) immobilized on glass beads by a heat attachment method. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques. The process of the dye decolorization in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles was experimentally studied through changing the initial dye concentration, UV light intensity and initial pH. The influence of inorganic anions such as chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate and phosphate on the photocatalytic decolorization of BR46 was investigated. The decolorization of BR46 follows the pseudo-first-order kinetic according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model (k1 = 0.273 mg L(-1) min(-1), 2 = 0.313 (mg L(-1))(-1)). The efficiency parameters such as apparent quantum yield and electrical energy per order (EEO) were estimated. An artificial neural network model (ANN) was developed to predict the photocatalytic decolorization of BR46 solution. The findings indicated that the ANN provided reasonable predictive performance (R2 = 0.96). The influence of each parameter on the variable studied was assessed: initial concentration of the dye being the most significant factor, followed by the initial pH and reaction time. PMID:19947146

Khataee, A R

2009-10-01

135

Kinetics of adsorption of sulphonated azo dyes on strong basic anion exchangers.  

PubMed

The macroporous polystyrene anion exchangers Amberlite IRA-900 and Amberlite IRA-910 were used in order to remove sulphonated azo dyes (Allura Red and Sunset Yellow) from aqueous solutions of 100-500 mg/L concentrations. The experimental data obtained at 100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/L initial concentrations at 20 degrees C were applied to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Weber-Morris kinetic models. The calculated sorption capacities (qe,cal) and the rate constant of the first-order adsorption (k1) were determined. The pseudo-second-order kinetic constants (k2) and capacities were calculated from the plots of t/qt vs t, 1/qt vs 1/t, 1/t vs 1/qt, qt/t vs qt and 1/qe-qt vs t for type 1, type 2, type 3, type 4 and type 5 of the pseudo-second-order expression, respectively. The influence of phase contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on Allura Red and Sunset Yellow removal was also discussed. PMID:19886431

Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Hubicki, Zbigniew

2009-09-01

136

Evaluation of the performance of calix[8]arene derivatives as liquid phase extraction material for the removal of azo dyes.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study on the removal of azo dyes (Reactive Black 5, Trapaeolin 000, Methyl Orange and Direct Violet 51) with calix[n]arene derivatives from aqueous solution into the organic phase in order to explore the potential use of calixarenes as low-cost efficient extractants for wastewater dye removal. The carboxylic acid derivative of calix[8]arene shows highest affinity towards the azo dyes. The influence of NaCl (present in the solution) on extraction process was also studied. The extent of the dye removal increased with the addition of NaCl. The proposed extraction mechanism involves several kinds of interactions: electrostatic repulsion between carboxylic acid groups of calix[8]arenes and sulfonate groups of azo dyes, hydrogen bonding and formation of an inclusion complex due to three dimensional cavity type calix[n]arene molecules through host-guest interactions. PMID:18321641

Gungor, Omer; Yilmaz, Aydan; Memon, Shahabuddin; Yilmaz, Mustafa

2008-10-01

137

Influence of particle size and salinity on adsorption of basic dyes by agricultural waste: dried Seagrape ( Caulerpa lentillifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have reasonable adsorption capacity for basic dyes, Astrazon® Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon® Red GTLN (AR), and Astrazon® Golden Yellow GL-E (AY). The initial dye concentration was in the range of 100–1,800 mg\\/L. The dried algal sorbent was ground and sieved into 3 sizes: S (0.1–0.84 mm), M (0.84–2.0 mm), and L sizes (larger

Punjongharn Pimol; Meevasana Khanidtha; Pavasant Prasert

2008-01-01

138

TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface: Superior adsorption performance for dye removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface were synthesized by a facile template-assisted solvothermal reaction. The adsorption performance of TiO2 hollow microspheres for removing Methylene Blue from aqueous solution has been investigated. The comparative adsorption study indicated that adsorption capacity of TiO2 hollow microspheres with mesoporous surface is markedly higher than that of solid microsphere. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity reached 196.83 mg/g. The kinetics of dye adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the adsorbed dye could be degraded completely by the subsequent photocatalytic process. These TiO2 hollow microspheres can be considered as a low-cost alternative adsorbent for removal of organic pollutants from wastewater.

Wang, Ran; Cai, Xia; Shen, Fenglei

2014-06-01

139

Sorption of basic dyes onto granulated pillared clays: thermodynamic and kinetic studies.  

PubMed

Effect of the granulation process onto the thermodynamic and kinetic sorption parameters of two basic dyes (Basic Yellow 28-BY 28 and Basic Green 4-BG 4) was evaluated in the present work. The charge surface properties of the surfactant-modified aluminium-pillared clay (CTAB-Al-Mont-PILC) particles were not modified, and the isoelectric point remains constant after high shear wet granulation. The Gibbs free energy of both BY 28 and BG 4 sorption was negative and decreased with the granulation; the endothermic nature of the sorption process was confirmed by the positive values of ?H°. Adsorption kinetics of the two dyes, studied at pH 6 and 150 mg L(-1), follow the pseudo-first order kinetic model with observed rate constants of 2.5-4.2×10(-2) min(-1). The intraparticle diffusion model, proposed by Weber and Morris, was applied, and the intraparticle plots revealed three distinct sections representing external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and adsorption/desorption equilibrium. Diffusion coefficients, calculated from the Boyd kinetic equation, increased with the granulation and the particle size. Pseudo-first order kinetic constants, intraparticle diffusion rate constants and diffusion coefficients were determined for two other initial concentrations (50 and 100 mg L(-1)) and include in a statistical study to evaluate the impact of granulation and initial concentration on the kinetic parameters. Kruskal-Wallis tests, Spearman's rank order correlation and factor analysis revealed a correlation between (i) the diffusion coefficients and granulation, and between (ii) the intraparticle diffusion rate constants and initial concentration. PMID:22721789

Cheknane, B; Zermane, F; Baudu, M; Bouras, O; Basly, J P

2012-09-01

140

Edge Removal in Random Contact Networks1 and the Basic Reproduction Number2  

E-print Network

Edge Removal in Random Contact Networks1 and the Basic Reproduction Number2 Dean Koch1 Reinhard Abstract6 Understanding the effect of edge removal on the basic reproduction7 number R0 for disease spread on contact networks is important for dis-8 ease management. The formula for the basic reproduction number R09

Illner, Reinhard

141

Effect of the interaction between dye and acetic acid on the decomposition of Basic Green 4 with additive by ozone.  

PubMed

This research investigated the ozonation of Basic Green 4 (BG4) under the presence of acetic acid (AA). This acid is used as a textile additive for many industrial dyes derived from triphenylmethane. Determining the effect of this additive on discoloration, degradation dynamics, and final by-product distribution is the main objective of this study. The reaction system was the ozonation of a dye solution in co-solvents. This solution (dye and AA) was considered a simplified version of real BG4 dyeing wastewaters supplied with additives. The dye concentration was set to 50, 150, and 250 mg/L without pH adjustment (pH = 3). This low value was forced by the AA. Ozonation reaction with dye was mainly done by a direct molecular mechanism. The discoloration dynamics of BG4 without and with the additive were determined by ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectroscopy. The dye decomposition and the intermediate and final product formation-decomposition dynamics were followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of AA in the ozonation results were significant in the following ways: 1) a possible complex, formed between AA and the dye, changed ozone consumption; 2) the presence of additive decelerated the dye discoloration and decomposition; and 3) the number of by-products was dissimilar in both systems, with and without the additive the ozonation. The accumulation of organic acids with low molecular weight was determined in both systems, with and without the additive. Only one by-product was obtained in ozonation when AA participated in the reactor. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the system dye-AA-ozone. PMID:24117080

Pérez, Arizbeth A; Poznyak, Tatiana I; Chairez, Jorge I

2014-01-01

142

Response surface optimization for efficient dye removal by isolated strain Pseudomonas sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response surface methodology (RSM) involving the central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize three important process variables for the decolourization of synthetic dye solutions containing Remazol Turquoise Blue (RTB) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. The interaction between three variables i.e. Initial concentration of dye, carbon source and nitrogen source were studied and modeled. According to the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results the predicted results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results ( R 2: 0.9726; Adj R 2: 0.9480 for RTB and R 2: 0.9789; Adj R 2: 0.9750 for RB5) which indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data from the second order polynomial regression model. Mathematical models were developed by the proposed system, for each process variable showed the effect of each factor and their interactions on biodecolourization process. The optimum concentrations of Dye, Carbon source, and Nitrogen source were found to be 20 mgL-1, 1.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L, respectively for RTB and RB5 to obtain maximum dye removing capacity. Predicted values were validated with experimental results, which indicated appropriateness of the employed model and the success of RSM.

Senthilkumar, Shanmugam; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Prabhuy, Harinarayan Janardhana; AhmedBasha, Chiya; Anantharaman, Narayan

2012-09-01

143

Effective removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using modified xanthan gum/silica hybrid nanocomposite as adsorbent.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of XG-g-PAM/SiO2 nanocomposite towards its potential application as high performance adsorbent for removal of Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The surface area, average pore size and total pore volume of the developed nanocomposite has been determined. The efficiency of CR dye adsorption depends on various factors like pH, temperature of the solution, equilibrium time of adsorption, agitation speed, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage. It has been observed that the nanocomposite is having excellent CR dye adsorption capacity (Q0=209.205 mg g(-1)), which is considerably high. The dye adsorption process is controlled by pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The adsorption equilibrium data correlates well with Langmuir isotherm. Desorption study indicates the efficient regeneration ability of the dye loaded nanocomposite. PMID:23896441

Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Panda, A B; Pal, Sagar

2013-09-01

144

Removal of Disperse Red dye by bamboo-based activated carbon: optimisation, kinetics and equilibrium.  

PubMed

This research involved the use of response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the adsorption of Disperse Red 167 dye onto the bamboo-based activated carbon activated with H3PO4 (PBAC) in a batch process. F400, a commercially available activated carbon, was used in parallel for comparison. Analysis of variance showed that input variables such as the contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the interaction between the temperature and the contact time had a significant effect on the dye removal for both adsorbents. RSM results show that the optimal contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage for both adsorbents were found to be 15.4 h, 50 °C, 50.0 mg L(-1) and 12.0 g L(-1), respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies reached 90.23% and 92.13% for PBAC and F400, respectively, with a desirability of 0.937. The validation of the experimental results confirmed the prediction of the models derived from RSM. The adsorption followed a nonlinear pseudo-first-order model and agreed well with the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm as judged by the levels of the AICc and the Akaike weight. Furthermore, the thermodynamics analysis indicated that, for both adsorbents, the adsorption was a physical process that was spontaneous, entropy-increasing and endothermic. PMID:23288676

Wang, Lianggui

2013-07-01

145

Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fly ash resulted from coal burning is a waste that can be used in wastewater treatment for removal of dyes and heavy metals by adsorption. Class “F” fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO2/Al2O3 over 2.4 was used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. A new material was obtained from modified fly ash with NaOH and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) a cationic surfactant. Contact time, optimum amount of substrate and the pH corresponding to 50 mL solution of pollutants were the parameters optimized for obtaining the maximum efficiency in the adsorption process. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The adsorption kinetic mechanisms, and the substrate capacities are further discussed correlated with the surface structure (XRD), composition (EDS, FTIR), and morphology (SEM, AFM). The results indicate that the novel nano-substrate composite with fly ash modified can be used as an efficient and low cost adsorbent for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, the resulted water respects the discharge regulations.

Visa, Maria; Chelaru, Andreea-Maria

2014-06-01

146

Synthesis and application of calix[4]arene based resin for the removal of azo dyes.  

PubMed

The present study describes a novel synthetic method for the immobilization of calix[4]arene (II) onto the surface of modified Amberlite XAD-4 resin (4), which does not require the derivatization of calixarene moiety. The novel calix[4]arene based resin (C4 resin) 5 was used as sorbent for the removal of azo dyes. Batch-wise sorption study was carried out and observed that the C4 resin (5) is more effective as compared to compound II as well as pure Amberlite XAD-4 resin (1) to remove the selected dyes [i.e. Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), Reactive Red-45 (RR-45) and Congo Red (CR)]. The effect of sorbent dosage and pH on % sorption was studied. During the extraction process, various kinds of interactions such as electrostatic repulsion, deprotonation of the hydroxyl groups of C4 resin, dissociation of reactive dyes into anions/cations and structural variations were monitored and found that they are highly pH dependent. PMID:19640639

Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Sherazi, S T H; Memon, Shahabuddin

2009-12-15

147

Nanoporous membranes with cellulose nanocrystals as functional entity in chitosan: removal of dyes from water.  

PubMed

Fully biobased composite membranes for water purification were fabricated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as functional entities in chitosan matrix via freeze-drying process followed by compacting. The chitosan (10 wt%) bound the CNCs in a stable and nanoporous membrane structure with thickness of 250-270 ?m, which was further stabilized by cross-linking with gluteraldehyde vapors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed well-individualized CNCs embedded in a matrix of chitosan. Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) measurements showed that the membranes were nanoporous with pores in the range of 13-10nm. In spite of the low water flux (64 Lm(-2) h(-1)), the membranes successfully removed 98%, 84% and 70% respectively of positively charged dyes like Victoria Blue 2B, Methyl Violet 2B and Rhodamine 6G, after a contact time of 24h. The removal of dyes was expected to be driven by the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged CNCs and the positively charged dyes. PMID:25129796

Karim, Zoheb; Mathew, Aji P; Grahn, Mattias; Mouzon, Johanne; Oksman, Kristiina

2014-11-01

148

Effects of compound bioflocculant on coagulation performance and floc properties for dye removal.  

PubMed

A series of jar tests was conducted to investigate the coagulation performance of using compound bioflocculant (CBF) as a coagulant aid with aluminum sulfate (AS) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) in synthetic dyeing wastewater treatment. Floc size, growth, breakage, re-growth and sedimentation natural were investigated by PDA2000. The results showed that the corresponding dual-coagulants of AS and PAC enhanced the color removal efficiency, especially at low aluminum dosage. Results also indicated that the floc generated by aluminum salts and CBF had larger size and higher growth rate. In addition, for both AS and PAC the floc recoverability was improved by addition of CBF. The adsorption and bridging effect of CBF performed a positive role in dye wastewater treatment. PMID:24656485

Huang, Xin; Bo, Xiaowen; Zhao, Yanxia; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Sun, Shenglei; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

2014-08-01

149

Porous Pr(OH)3 nanostructures as high-efficiency adsorbents for dye removal.  

PubMed

Herein we report the electrochemical synthesis of porous Pr(OH)(3) nanobelt arrays (NBAs), nanowire arrays (NWAs), nanowire bundles (NWBs), and nanowires (NWs) and their applications as dye absorbents in water treatment. These Pr(OH)(3) nanostructures exhibit high efficient and selective adsorption of the dyes with amine (-NH(2)) functional groups such as Congo red, reactive yellow, and reactive blue. The high efficiency and selectivity is attributed to the large effective surface area of the porous structure, plentiful hydroxyl groups, and basic sites on the Pr(OH)(3) surface. Furthermore, the toxicity studies of these porous Pr(OH)(3) nanostructure show a negligible effect on seed germination, indicating that they hold great potential as environmentally friendly absorbents in water treatment. PMID:22775312

Zhai, Teng; Xie, Shilei; Lu, Xihong; Xiang, Lei; Yu, Minghao; Li, Wei; Liang, Chaolun; Mo, Cehui; Zeng, Feng; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang

2012-07-31

150

Textile dye removal by natural clay--case study of Fouchana Tunisian clay.  

PubMed

A significant amount of unused dyes remain in textile industry wastewater, the treatment of which presents a great challenge, particularly in semi-arid countries where water resources are of great concern. Liquid-phase adsorption is highly efficient for the removal of dyes and adsorbents, for example, activated carbons are used to treat wastewater, but are expensive. Clays are cheaper and several works have showed their high pollutant adsorption capacity in cases of environmental problems. The aim of this work is to present the use of clay as a means of textile wastewater treatment and colour adsorption. The adsorbent used in this study is natural clay from the Fouchana region (Tunisia), which contains 60% smectites, 30% kaolinite and 10% illite, in which the cation-exchange capacity is about 50 meq/ 100 g of clay. Two types of waters were treated: one from a leaching textile industry and another from a dyeing industry. Moreover the treatment by clay was compared to the treatment by a coagulation flocculation standard method. The experimental results show that the treatment by natural clay is more efficient than the conventional treatment by coagulation flocculation. It allowed decolorization of the dye effluent and a decrease down to 97% for biochemical demand for oxygen, 93% for suspended matter, 95% for chemical demand for oxygen and 76% for the spectral absorption coefficient. Thus, the quality of dye wastewater has reached the Tunisian standards of releases (NT 106.02 and 106.03, 1989), and as such it makes it possible to test wastewater at the industrial scale. PMID:20450111

Errais, E; Duplay, J; Darragi, F

2010-04-01

151

Resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra for studying the interaction of heparin with some basic phenothiazine dyes and their analytical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In near neutral medium, binding of heparin with some basic phenothiazine dyes such as methylene blue (MB), Azure B or toluidine blue (TB) can result in a significant enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and appearance of a new RRS spectrum. Their maximum scattered wavelengths appear at 346, 338 and 329nm for MB, Azure B and TB, respectively. The optimum

Hong Qun Luo; Shao Pu Liu; Zhong Fang Liu; Qin Liu; Nian Bing Li

2001-01-01

152

A Comparative Study Between the Adsorption Behavior of Activated Carbon Fiber and Modified Alginate I. Basic Dyes Adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon fibers and modified alginate were prepared by using a cheap precursor material. The adsorption behavior of these materials was studied toward basic dyes. It was found that the most effective factor in the adsorption process onto ACF is the high surface area followed by a little assist of the carboxylic groups on the surface. On the contrary, only

M. F. Nasr; S. M. Abo El-Ola; A. Ramadan; A. Hashem

2006-01-01

153

Adsorption of a basic dye from aqueous solutions onto sugar-industry-mud in two modes of operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of sugar industry mud to adsorb Basic Red-22 dye has been studied in two modes of operation. That is, in batch systems and continuous flow systems. Langmuir and Freundlich constants have been determined. In continuous flow system, the influence of varying parameters such as bed depth and solution flowrate has been studied. The bed depth service time (BDST)

Y. H. Magdy; A. A. M. Daifullah

1998-01-01

154

Low-cost and effective phenol and basic dyes trapper derived from the porous silica coated with hydrotalcite gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel low-cost and effective adsorbents of phenol and basic dyes were made by coating amorphous silica with hydrotalcite (HT) gel followed by soaking in alkaline solution, and the surface basic–acidic properties of resulting composites were evaluated by CO2-TPD, Hammett indicator method and NH3-TPD, respectively. Both BET surface area and microporous surface area of the composites were increased after they were

Yu Fei Tao; Wei Gang Lin; Ling Gao; Jin Yang; Yu Zhou; Jia Yuan Yang; Feng Wei; Ying Wang; Jian Hua Zhu

2011-01-01

155

Comparison of color removal from reactive dye contaminated water by systems containing fungal biosorbent, active carbon and their mixture.  

PubMed

The adsorption of Everzol Black (EB) from synthetic aqueous solution onto active carbon (AC) and dried fungal biosorbent (Rhizopus arrhizus) was studied under the same experimental conditions. The effects of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time were examined at a batch-scale level. As an alternative to AC, fungus was investigated as a low-cost adsorbent for dye removal. The amount of EB adsorbed onto AC was lower compared with fungal biosorbent; dye adsorption capacity of AC and fungal biosorbent were 94.48 and 106.61 mg/g, respectively. The adsorbent dosage experiments showed that 4 g/L biosorbent removed 100% of EB (Co: 114.39 mg/L) after 2 hours. The results obtained from this study showed that biosorbent effectively removed reactive dye from dye-containing water in a short time period. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were used for mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data; the Freundlich model was found to exhibit good fits to the experimental data. According to the Freundlich isotherm, the maximum dye adsorption capacities of AC and biosorbent were calculated as 344.82 and 357.14 mg/g, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral analysis showed the involvement of functional groups for dye bindings. PMID:25325540

Gül, Ulküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya

2014-01-01

156

Utilization of industrial waste products as adsorbents for the removal of dyes.  

PubMed

A number of low cost adsorbents from steel and fertilizer industries wastes have been prepared and investigated for the removal of anionic dyes such as ethyl orange, metanil yellow and acid blue 113 from aqueous solutions. The results indicate that inorganic wastes, i.e. blast furnace dust, sludge and slag from steel plants are not suitable for the removal of organic materials, whereas a carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from carbon slurry of fertilizer industry was found to adsorb 198, 211 and 219mg/g of ethyl orange, metanil yellow and acid blue 113, respectively. The adsorption of dyes on this adsorbent was studied as a function of contact time, concentration, particle size and temperature by batch method. The adsorption isotherm conformed to Langmuir model and the adsorption was found to be exothermic and physical in nature. Kinetic data conforms to Lagergren's equation with good correlation coefficients varying from 0.9998 to 0.9999 indicating that the adsorption is a first-order process. The adsorption data on carbonaceous adsorbent was compared to a standard activated charcoal sample and it was found that the prepared adsorbent is about 80% as efficient as standard activated charcoal and therefore, can be used as low cost alternative ( approximately 100 US dollars per ton) for colour removal from effluents. PMID:12850318

Jain, A K; Gupta, V K; Bhatnagar, A; Suhas

2003-07-01

157

Effectiveness of Dyes Removal by Mixed Fungal Cultures and Toxicity of Their Metabolites.  

PubMed

Decolorization of brilliant green (0.06 g/L), Evans blue (0.15 g/L), and their mixture (total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w) by fungi was studied. Fungal strains [Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH), Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa), and Fusarium oxysporum (G1)] were used separately and as a mixture of them. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna) and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor) changes were estimated after the end of experiment. Mixtures of fungal strains were less effective in decolorization process than the same strains used separately (as a single strains). After 96 h of experiment, living biomass of strain BWPH removed up to 95.5 %; DCa, up to 84.6 %; G1, up to 79.2 % where mixtures BWPH + DCa removed up to 74.3 %; and BWPH + G1, only up to 32.2 % of used dyes. High effectiveness of dyes removal not always corresponded with decrease of toxicity. The highest decrease of zootoxicity and phytotoxicity (from V to III toxicity class or to even nontoxic) was noticed for single strains, while no changes or slight toxicity decrease was noticed in samples with strains mixtures. PMID:23687394

Przysta?, Wioletta; Zab?ocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabi?ska-Sota, El?bieta

2013-05-01

158

Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

1985-01-01

159

Removal of dark green PLS dye from textile industrial waste through low cost carbons.  

PubMed

Low cost carbons were prepared from Palm nut shells, Cashew nut shells and Broom sticks by Sulphuric acid process and characterised. The activities of these carbons (PNSC, CNSC and BSC) were compared with that of high cost Commercial activated carbon (CAC). The effect of pH, time, carbon dose were examined along with isotherm studies. The application of these carbons were examined on colour removal of Dark green PLS from both effluent samples and synthetic samples. Comparison is made among the carbons for adsorption of the dye. Desorption studies were also carried out along with BDST studies. Mathematical equations have been designed for the wide range of applications. PMID:15315141

Rajavel, G; Anathanarayanan, C; Prabhakar, L D; Palanivel, C

2003-07-01

160

Influence of Basic Red 1 dye adsorption on thermal stability of Na-clinoptilolite and Na-bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of physically adsorbed basic red 1 (BR1) dye on the physicochemical properties of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite)\\u000a and clay (bentonite) was compared using adsorption, FTIR, and TG\\/DTA methods. A larger adsorption of the dye was observed\\u000a for bentonite (0.143 mmol\\/g) than for clinoptilolite (0.0614 mmol\\/g) per gram of an adsorbent. However, the adsorption values\\u000a are the same per surface unit (1.8 ?mol\\/m2). The

D. Sternik; M. Majdan; A. Dery?o-Marczewska; G. ?ukoci?ski; A. G?adysz-P?aska; V. M. Gun’ko; S. V. Mikhalovsky

2011-01-01

161

A comparison of basic dye adsorption onto zeolitic materials synthesized from fly ash.  

PubMed

This investigation reveals the adsorption characteristics of two basic dyes, thionine (TH) and safranine T (ST), onto fly ash (FA) and its three zeolitized products prepared at different hydrothermal conditions. Typical two-step isotherms were observed for TH adsorption onto four adsorbents, whereas the isotherms of the larger ST molecules were S-shaped. The adsorption capacities of the zeolitized fly ash (ZFA) estimated from the first plateau region of the TH isotherms was nearly twice the FA capacity. The capacities increased by up to five times in the second plateau region. The adsorption capacity of FA for ST is equivalent that of TH, whereas the capacities of ZFA are lower than those found for TH. The equilibrium results were well-described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The kinetic data obtained in the temperature range of 298-318 K was analyzed using Paterson's and Nernst Plank's approximations based on the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). The thermodynamic functions for the transition state were evaluated from the temperature-dependence of the surface diffusion coefficients by applying the Eyring model. PMID:21300434

Atun, Gülten; Hisarl?, Gül; Kurto?lu, Ay?e Engin; Ayar, Nihat

2011-03-15

162

Growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis upon interaction between basic dyes and DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater in the process of dyeing is not always purified effectively by biological treatment such as the activated sludge method, since dyes, bichromates, etc. contained in the water are toxic to microbes. In preference to employment of the treatment, therefore, how the components of the water influence growth and physiological activities of microbes should have to be evaluated. It was

Toshihiko Ogawa; Hiroko Fujii; Kenji Kawai; Chizuko Yatome; Eiichi Idaka

1989-01-01

163

Study on the Catalytic Effects of Ruthenium on the Oxidation of Basic Dyes by Kio4 and its Analytical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sensitive catalytic spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of ruthenium(III), based on its catalytic effects on the oxidation reactions of three basic dyes: nile blue (NB), butyl rhodamine B (BRB) and methylene blue (MB), by KIO in acidic medium at 90±0.5 °C. The above reactions are followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance at 630

Qiu-e Cao; Zubi Li; Jialin Wang; Qiheng Xu

2000-01-01

164

Photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of Crystal Violet (Basic Violet 3) and Methyl Red dye in aqueous suspensions using Ag + doped TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of two dyes: Crystal Violet (CV), also known as C.I. Basic Violet 3, which is a cationic triphenylmethane dye and Methyl Red (MR), which is an anionic azo dye was studied using untreated TiO2 and silver ion doped TiO2 under UV irradiation. To increase the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 and to make its separation

A. K. Gupta; Anjali Pal; C. Sahoo

2006-01-01

165

Compression of the DNA substrate by a viral packaging motor is supported by removal of intercalating dye during translocation.  

PubMed

Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of packaging, the purified T4 packaging ATPase alone can only remove up to ?1/3 of DNA-bound intercalating YOYO-1 dye molecules in the presence of ATP or ATP-?-S. In sufficient concentration, intercalating dyes arrest packaging, but rare terminase mutations confer resistance. These distant mutations are highly interdependent in acquiring function and resistance and likely mark motor contact points with the translocating DNA. In stalled Y-DNAs, FRET has shown a decrease in distance from the phage T4 terminase C terminus to portal consistent with a linear motor, and in the Y-stem DNA compression between closely positioned dye pairs. Taken together with prior FRET studies of conformational changes in stalled Y-DNAs, removal of intercalating compounds by the packaging motor demonstrates conformational change in DNA during normal translocation at low packaging resistance and supports a proposed linear "DNA crunching" or torsional compression motor mechanism involving a transient grip-and-release structural change in B form DNA. PMID:23185020

Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Black, Lindsay W

2012-12-11

166

Compression of the DNA substrate by a viral packaging motor is supported by removal of intercalating dye during translocation  

PubMed Central

Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of packaging, the purified T4 packaging ATPase alone can only remove up to ?1/3 of DNA-bound intercalating YOYO-1 dye molecules in the presence of ATP or ATP-?-S. In sufficient concentration, intercalating dyes arrest packaging, but rare terminase mutations confer resistance. These distant mutations are highly interdependent in acquiring function and resistance and likely mark motor contact points with the translocating DNA. In stalled Y-DNAs, FRET has shown a decrease in distance from the phage T4 terminase C terminus to portal consistent with a linear motor, and in the Y-stem DNA compression between closely positioned dye pairs. Taken together with prior FRET studies of conformational changes in stalled Y-DNAs, removal of intercalating compounds by the packaging motor demonstrates conformational change in DNA during normal translocation at low packaging resistance and supports a proposed linear “DNA crunching” or torsional compression motor mechanism involving a transient grip-and-release structural change in B form DNA. PMID:23185020

Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Black, Lindsay W.

2012-01-01

167

Color Tuning of an Acidic Blue Dye by Intercalation into the Basic Interlayer Galleries of a Poly(allylamine)/Synthetic Fluoromica  

E-print Network

Color Tuning of an Acidic Blue Dye by Intercalation into the Basic Interlayer Galleries of a Poly conjugated system and a free sulfonate group. Introduction Many organic dyes are used in the food, cosmetics traditional inorganic pigments such as iron oxides, iron blue, ultramarine blue, and trivalent chromium oxide

168

Electrochemical studies of adsorption and inhibitive performance of basic yellow 28 dye on mild steel corrosion in Acid solutions.  

PubMed

Organic corrosion inhibitors are widely used to control the corrosion of different metals in various corrosive solutions. The inhibition performance of Basic yellow 28 (BY28) dye for mild steel corrosion was investigated in 0.1 M HCl solution and in a solution of 0.1 M HCl and 1% NaCl. Two electrochemical methods including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used. The corrosion parameters as well as inhibition efficiencies were obtained for different concentrations of inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies showed that the BY28 dye acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in both solutions. The studies on adsorption isotherm of the dye on mild steel proved that the adsorption of BY28 obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The average value of -?Gads in both solutions was more than 20 and a little less than 40 kJ mol-1. Therefore, both chemisorption and physisorption phenomena were involved in the adsorption of the studied dye on mild steel surface. PMID:24062037

Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Asghari, Elnaz; Ejbari, Parisa

2011-06-01

169

A new method to improve penetration depth of dyes into the follicular duct: Potential application for laser hair removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many persons seek to decrease hair growth and hair density. Although a variety of epilating methods are available, a practical and permanent hair removal treatment is needed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method of obtaining a better penetration depth of dyes into the follicular duct. By increasing both the quantity and the penetration

Chryslain C. Sumian; Franck B. Pitre; Béatrice E. Gauthier; Martine Bouclier; Serge R. Mordon

1999-01-01

170

Use of hen feathers as potential adsorbent for the removal of a hazardous dye, Brilliant Blue FCF, from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste material, hen feather, a biosorbent, was successfully utilized in removing a water-soluble hazardous triphenylmethane dye, Brilliant Blue FCF from wastewater. The paper incorporates effect of pH, temperature, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, etc. The adsorption data validates Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and on the basis of these isotherms thermodynamic parameters like Gibb's free energy, change

Alok Mittal

2006-01-01

171

Cooperative coadsorption of 4-nitrophenol and basic yellow 28 dye onto an iron organo-inorgano pillared montmorillonite clay.  

PubMed

Sorption properties of an iron surfactant-modified pillared montmorillonite (Fe-SMPM) toward two organic pollutants, basic yellow 28 dye (BY28) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), were studied at different pH values in both single component and binary pollutant systems. The pseudo-first-order model fits well with the kinetic data obtained in single component studies and sorption capacities of both BY28 and 4-NP increased with the pH value. A sorption synergetic mechanism was observed in binary systems; 4-nitrophenol adsorption was enhanced by the presence of BY28 in the mixture and increased with dye concentrations. Isotherms were described using the Freundlich model in single component systems and the Sheindorf-Rebhun-Sheintuch (SRS) model, an extended Freundlich model, in binary mixtures systems. Hydrophobic interactions between the surfactant-modified pillared clay and the pollutants were suggested to explain the sorption mechanisms. PMID:20638666

Zermane, Faiza; Bouras, Omar; Baudu, Michel; Basly, Jean-Philippe

2010-10-01

172

Dye Painting!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

Johnston, Ann

173

Low-cost and effective phenol and basic dyes trapper derived from the porous silica coated with hydrotalcite gel.  

PubMed

Novel low-cost and effective adsorbents of phenol and basic dyes were made by coating amorphous silica with hydrotalcite (HT) gel followed by soaking in alkaline solution, and the surface basic-acidic properties of resulting composites were evaluated by CO(2)-TPD, Hammett indicator method and NH(3)-TPD, respectively. Both BET surface area and microporous surface area of the composites were increased after they were soaked with alkaline solution; meanwhile the center of pore size distribution was changed from 9 to 3-4 nm. These composites efficiently captured phenol in gaseous and liquid phases, superior to mesoporous silica such as MCM-48 or SBA-15 and zeolite NaY, and the equilibrium data of gaseous adsorption could be well fitted to Freundlich model. These modified silicas also exhibited high adsorption capacity forward basic dyes such as crystal violet (CV) and leuco-crystal violet (LCV), reaching the adsorption equilibrium within 1 h and offering a new material for environment protection. PMID:21458822

Tao, Yu Fei; Lin, Wei Gang; Gao, Ling; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jia Yuan; Wei, Feng; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jian Hua

2011-06-15

174

Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.  

PubMed

Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water. PMID:19786292

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2009-11-01

175

Performance of dye-affinity beads for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed  

PubMed Central

Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) beads in the size range of 80–120 ?m were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal complexing ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA beads. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 ?mol/g. These beads were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the beads decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these beads without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity beads. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium. PMID:15329149

Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andac, Muge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil

2004-01-01

176

Removal of direct dye from aqueous solutions with a novel adsorbent made from Tamarind Fruit Shell, an agricultural solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of a direct dye, Congo Red has been carried out using an agricultural solid waste or by-product, Tamarind Fruit Shell (TFS) as an adsorbent. Parameters like agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH effect have been studied. Adsorption followed the first-order rate expression. The equilibrium data fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Desorption experiments confirmed that

M. C. Somasekhara Reddy

177

Novel magnetic Fe3O4@C nanoparticles as adsorbents for removal of organic dyes from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The magnetic Fe(3)O(4)/C core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple strategy and used as adsorbents for removal of organic dyes from aqueous solution. The resulting products are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). Adsorption performances of the nanomaterial adsorbents are tested with removal of methylene blue (MB) and cresol red (CR) from aqueous solution. The effects of solution pH value, adsorption time and capacity of the nanocomposites have been fully investigated. The results reveal that the nanospheres can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field with high separation efficiency. In addition, the process is clean and safe for purifying water pollution. The prepared Fe(3)O(4)/C complex nanomaterials could thus be used as promising adsorbents for the remove organic dyes, especially, cationic dye, from polluted water. PMID:21813238

Zhang, Zhengyong; Kong, Jilie

2011-10-15

178

A Study on Removing Basic Nitrogen Compounds From Diesel Oil by Ferric Chloride Complexing Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of the basic nitrogen compounds from diesel oil by using ferric chloride as complexing agent was studied. The influence of affect factors on treating conditions was investigated, and orthogonal tests were done to conform the optimum process condition. The results showed that the optimum condition was that of the volume ratio of complexing agent to oil was 1.0, stirring

H. Yu; Z. Hu

2012-01-01

179

The adsorption of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite, fly ash and apricot shell activated carbon: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, sepiolite, fly ash and apricot stone activated carbon (ASAC) were used as adsorbents for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of the basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions at various concentrations (100–300mg\\/L), adsorbent doses (3–12g\\/L) and temperatures (303–323K). The result showed that the adsorption capacity of the dye increased with increasing

B. Karagozoglu; M. Tasdemir; E. Demirbas; M. Kobya

2007-01-01

180

The testing of several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R azo dye removal.  

PubMed

Several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R reactive azo dye degradation have been evaluated. Initially, a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biotreatment has been assessed for different dye concentrations (250, 1250 and 3135 mg l(-1)). 92-97% decolourisation was attained during the anaerobic digestion operating in batch mode. However, no dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal neither biogas production was observed during the process, indicating that no methanogenesis occurred. Additionally, according to Biotox and Zahn-Wellens assays, the anaerobically generated colourless solutions (presumably containing the resulting aromatic amines from azo bond cleavage) were found to be more toxic than the initial dye as well as aerobically non-biodegradable, thus impeding the anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment. In a second part, the use of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) like photo-Fenton or ozonation as a chemical post-treatments of the anaerobic process has been considered for the complete dye by-products mineralisation. The best results were obtained by means of ozonation at pH 10.5, achieving a global 83% mineralisation and giving place to a final harmless effluent. On the contrary, the tested photo-Fenton conditions were not efficient enough to complete oxidation. PMID:18053640

García-Montaño, Julia; Domènech, Xavier; García-Hortal, José A; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José

2008-06-15

181

Adsorptive removal of acid blue 113 and tartrazine by fly ash from single and binary dye solutions  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of two acid dyestuffs, acid blue 113 (AB) and tartrazine (TA), has been studied from their single and binary solutions by using fly ash (FA) as an adsorbent. The S shaped isotherms observed for dye adsorption from single solutions show that both acid dyes are not preferred at a low concentration region whereas adsorption of the dyes from binary solutions is enhanced via solute-solute interactions. Although the L-shaped isotherm is observed in binary solutions adsorbability of AB decreases in concentrated solutions with respect to single one, time dependency of adsorption is well described with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model as well as the linear relation of Bt vs. t plots (not passing through origin) indicates that film diffusion is effective on dye adsorption. Modeled isotherm curves using isotherm parameters of the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations adequately fit to experimental equilibrium data. Equilibrium adsorption of AB in binary solutions has been quite well predicted by the extended Freundlich and the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch (SRS) models. In general, the isotherm curves constructed in the temperature range of 298-328K show that the optimum temperature is 318K for AB removal from both single and binary solutions.

Pura, S.; Atun, G. [Istanbul University, Avcilar (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01

182

Application of acidic treated pumice as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solutions: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

Colored effluents are one of the important environment pollution sources since they contain unused dye compounds which are toxic and less-biodegradable. In this work removal of Acid Red 14 and Acid Red 18 azo dyes was investigated by acidic treated pumice stone as an efficient adsorbent at various experimental conditions. Removal of dye increased with increase in contact time and initial dye concentration, while decreased for increment in solution temperature and pH. Results of the equilibrium study showed that the removal of AR14 and AR18 followed Freundlich (r2>0.99) and Langmuir (r2>0.99) isotherm models. Maximum sorption capacities were 3.1 and 29.7 mg/g for AR 14 and AR18, namely significantly higher than those reported in the literature, even for activated carbon. Fitting of experimental data onto kinetic models showed the relevance of the pseudo-second order (r2>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion (r2>0.98) models for AR14 and AR18, respectively. For both dyes, the values of external mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing initial dye concentrations, showing increasing external mass transfer resistance at solid/liquid layer. Desorption experiments confirmed the relevance of pumice stone for dye removal, since the pH regeneration method showed 86% and 89% regeneration for AR14 and AR18, respectively. PMID:23369579

Samarghandi, Mohammad Reza; Zarrabi, Mansur; Sepehr, Mohammad Noori; Amrane, Abdeltif; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Bashiri, Saied

2012-01-01

183

The use of an agricultural waste material, Jujuba seeds for the removal of anionic dye (Congo red) from aqueous medium.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using Indian Jujuba Seeds (IJS) (Zizyphus maruritiana), abundantly available in and around the Nallamalla forest in Andhra Pradesh, for the anionic dye (Congo red, CR) adsorption from aqueous solution, has been investigated as low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent. Adsorption studies were conducted on a batch process, to study the effects of contact time, initial concentration of CR, pH and temperature. Maximum colour removal was observed at pH 2. The equilibrium data was analyzed by the Langmuir, the Freundlich and the General isotherms. The data fitted well with the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 55.56 mg g(-1). The pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best for the adsorption of CR, by IJS (Z. maruritiana) with good correlation. Thermodynamic parameters, such as standard free energy change (?G°), standard enthalpy change (?H°) and standard entropy change (?S°), were analyzed. The results suggest that IJS (Z. maruritiana) is a potential low-cost adsorbent for the CR dye removal from synthetic dye wastewater. PMID:22209325

Reddy, M C Somasekhara; Sivaramakrishna, L; Reddy, A Varada

2012-02-15

184

Free amino and imino-bridged centres attached to organic chains bonded to structurally ordered silica for dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Ordered mesoporous SBA-15 type silica was synthesized by sol gel polymerization and reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AP) or triethylenetetramine (TE), to attach pendant chains or bridging molecules, with basic centres. The materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state, X-ray diffractometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nitrogen sorption/desorption data for SBA-15 and the organofunctionalized SBA-15AP and SBA-15TE silicas resulted in IV type isotherms with hysteresis loops of the H1 type, surface areas of 800; 213 and 457 m(2) g(-1) and average pore diameters of 8.0; 3.2 and 6.8 nm, respectively. The ordered structural features of the mesoporous silica remained preserved after post-functionalization with pendant and bridged organic chains. Sorption data for organofunctionalized silicas gave highly selective sorption capacities for anionic water soluble Reactive Blue dye, with 0.064 and 0.072 mmol g(-1). Negligible sorption was observed with the unmodified mesoporous silica. The results suggest that organofunctionalized silica can be a simple, efficient, inexpensive and suitable method for the effective and selective removal of anionic organic dye pollutants from aqueous solutions. PMID:24374243

Rehman, Fozia; Volpe, Pedro L O; Airoldi, Claudio

2014-01-15

185

Adsorption of basic dye from wastewater using raw and activated red mud.  

PubMed

Red mud, an industrial by-product generated during the processing of bauxite ore, was investigated as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Chemical and heat treatments were applied to the raw red mud. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics of the raw and activated red mud were studied. Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were obtained using concentrations of methylene blue ranging from 10 to 70 mg/L. The results indicated that the Dubinin-Radushkevich model provides the best correlation of the experimental data. The adsorption rate data were analysed according to the pseudo-first order kinetic, pseudo-second order kinetic, intraparticle diffusion kinetic and Elovich kinetic models. The pseudo-second order kinetic was the best fit kinetic model for the experimental data. PMID:21970160

Coruh, Semra; Geyikçi, Feza; Ergun, Osman Nuri

2011-01-01

186

Basic ultrasound training can replace chest radiography for safe tube thoracostomy removal.  

PubMed

An ultrasound (US) examination can be easily and rapidly performed at the bedside to aide in clinical decisions. Previously we demonstrated that US was safe and as effective as a chest x-ray (CXR) for removal of tube thoracostomy (TT) when performed by experienced sonographers. This study sought to examine if US was as safe and accurate for the evaluation of pneumothorax (PTX) associated with TT removal after basic US training. Patients included had TT managed by the surgical team between October 2012 and May 2013. Bedside US was performed by a variety of members of the trauma team before and after removal. All residents received, at minimum, a 1-hour formal training class in the use of ultrasound. Data were collected from the electronic medical records. We evaluated 61 TTs in 61 patients during the study period. Exclusion of 12 tubes occurred secondary to having incomplete imaging, charting, or death before having TT removed. Of the 49 remaining TT, all were managed with US imaging. Average age of the patients was 40 years and 30 (61%) were male. TT was placed for PTX in 37 (76%), hemothorax in seven (14%), hemopneumothorax in four (8%), or a pleural effusion in one (2%). Two post pull PTXs were correctly identified by residents using US. This was confirmed on CXR with appropriate changes made. US was able to successfully predict the safe TT removal and patient discharge at all residency levels after receiving a basic US training program. PMID:25105398

Lavingia, Kedar S; Soult, Michael C; Collins, Jay N; Novosel, Timothy J; Weireter, Leonard J; Britt, L D

2014-08-01

187

Paired removal of color and COD from textile dyeing wastewater by simultaneous anodic and indirect cathodic oxidation.  

PubMed

The anodic and indirect cathodic removals of color and COD from real dyeing wastewater were investigated simultaneously using a stacked Pt/Ti screen anode and a graphite packed-bed cathode in a divided flow-by electrochemical reactor. The anodically generated hypochlorite and cathodically generated hydrogen peroxide were the main species used to remove color and COD in the wastewater. Various experimental operating factors that can affect the removal efficiency were investigated, including the applied current density, the amount of NaCl added, the solution pH in alkaline ranges and the temperature. The color and COD removal efficiencies in the anodic chamber were much higher than those in the cathodic chamber. The overall (anodic plus cathodic) removal efficiencies increased with the applied current density, the amount of NaCl added and the temperature. In contrast, increasing the solution pH decreased the overall removal efficiency. The anodic and cathodic current efficiencies at 20 mA/cm(2) were 63.50% and 19.57%, respectively. In this work the total treatment cost for removing 1g COD was US $0.643 when an air cylinder was used. PMID:19362772

Wang, Chih-Ta; Chou, Wei-Lung; Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fu-Lin

2009-09-30

188

Bilirubin removal from human plasma in a packed-bed column system with dye-affinity microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dye-ligand, Cibacron Blue F3GA, was covalently coupled with the poly(EGDMA-HEMA) microbeads. The affinity sorbent carrying 16.5 ?mol Cibacron Blue F3GA per gram polymer was then used to remove bilirubin from human plasma in a packed-bed column system. Bilirubin adsorption from human plasma on the unmodified poly(EGDMA-HEMA) microbeads was 0.32 mg\\/g, while much higher adsorption values, up to 24.2 mg\\/g,

Adil Denizli; Mustafa Kocakulak; Erhan Pi?kin

1998-01-01

189

Basic dye adsorption onto an agro-based waste material--sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.).  

PubMed

The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. The adsorption process of MB onto abandoned sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.) (SH) was investigated in a batch system. The results showed that a wide range of pH (3.54-10.50) was favorable for the adsorption of MB onto SH. The Langmuir model displayed the best fit for the isothermal data. The exothermic adsorption process fits a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (359.88 mg g(-1)) was higher than most previously investigated low-cost bioadsorbents (e.g., peanut hull, wheat straw, etc.). This study indicated that sesame hull is a promising, unconventional, affordable and environmentally friendly bio-measure that is easily deployed for removing high levels of MB from wastewater. PMID:21962534

Feng, Yanfang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Yongqian; Ma, Li; Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Yang, Linzhang

2011-11-01

190

Basic dye adsorption onto an agro-based waste material – Sesame hull ( Sesamum indicum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. The adsorption process of MB onto abandoned sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.) (SH) was investigated in a batch system. The results showed that a wide range of pH (3.54–10.50) was favorable for the adsorption of MB onto SH. The

Yanfang Feng; Fan Yang; Yongqian Wang; Li Ma; Yonghong Wu; Philip G. Kerr; Linzhang Yang

2011-01-01

191

Removal of Acid Orange 7 in simulated wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor: removal mechanisms and dye degradation pathway.  

PubMed

The removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in simulated wastewater was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor with granular activated carbon as the particle electrode, ACF (activated carbon fiber)/Fe as the anode, and ACF/Ti as the cathode. Particular attention was paid to the reaction mechanisms and the dye degradation pathway in the system. The removal of AO7 in the system was mainly dependent on the oxidation by the produced active substances (()OH, etc.) and the coagulation by Fe(II) or Fe(III) dissolved from the anode. The former mechanism was predominant. A possible pathway for AO7 degradation was proposed by monitoring the temporal evolution of intermediates in the solution, with the use of some techniques including GC/MS, FTIR and HPLC. The AO7 molecule was observed to be firstly decomposed to aromatic intermediates, further degraded to ring opening products and finally mineralized to CO(2), H(2)O and inorganic salts. The intermediates increased the biodegradability of the wastewater, which was proved by the increase of the BOD/COD value after electrolysis treatment. The three-dimensional electrode method can be considered an effective alternative to dye wastewater pretreatment prior to the biological process. PMID:19897229

Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Sun, Yan; Xu, Li-Na; Ni, Jin-Ren

2010-01-01

192

Reactive dyes removal from wastewaters by adsorption on eucalyptus bark: variables that define the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt to help solving the pollution problem caused by the presence of reactive dyes in textile effluents, was undertaken. Owing to the fact that eucalyptus bark is a very abundant, inexpensive, forest residue in the authors' country, Portugal, it was decided to experiment with it as a potential adsorbent for a certain type of the supracited pollutants used in

L. C Morais; O. M Freitas; E. P Gonçalves; L. T Vasconcelos; C. G González Beça

1999-01-01

193

Biological color stripping: A novel technology for removal of dye from cellulose fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work was carried out to compare the color stripping efficiency of optimized biological method with the chemical stripping, commonly employed in the textile industries. Knitted fabric dyed with Reactive black B dye in 2, 4 and 6% shades strengths was subjected to chemical and biological stripping processes individually. Biological stripping process was found many fold superior to chemical

Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha; Muhammad Asgher; Shaukat Ali; Abdullah Ijaz Hussain

194

Layered double hydroxide-carbon dot composite: high-performance adsorbent for removal of anionic organic dye.  

PubMed

It would be of significance to design a green composite for efficient removal of contaminants. Herein, we fabricated a facile and environmentally friendly composite via direct assembly of surface passivated carbon dots with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the positively charged layered double hydroxide (LDH). The resulting LDH-carbon dot composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption technique. The adsorption performances of the resulting LDH-carbon dot composites were evaluated for the removal of anionic methyl blue dye. Taking advantage of the combined benefits of LDH and carbon dots, the as-prepared composites exhibited high uptake capability of methyl blue (185 mg/g). The adsorption behavior of this new adsorbent fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The reasons for the excellent adsorption capacity of methyl blue on the surface of the LDH-carbon dot hybrid were further discussed. A probable mechanism was speculated to involve the cooperative contributions of hydrogen bonding between methyl blue and carbon dots and electrostatic attraction between methyl blue and LDH, in the adsorption process. This work is anticipated to open up new possibilities in fabricating LDH-carbon dot materials in dealing with anionic dye pollutants. PMID:25313875

Zhang, Manlin; Yao, Qingfeng; Lu, Chao; Li, Zenghe; Wang, Wenxing

2014-11-26

195

A high activity adsorbent of ZnO-Al2O3 nanocomposite particles: Synthesis, characterization and dye removal efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to stabilize the ZnO species on surfaces of Al2O3 particles, the ZnO-Al2O3 nanocomposite particles with different ZnO contents were prepared by heterogeneous precipitation method using bayerite seed particles. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized in terms of crystal structure, morphology and surface area. The results indicated the formation of wurtzite-type ZnO nanoflakes (thickness of 40-80 nm) on surfaces of ?-Al2O3 particles, which led to nanocomposite particles with high surface areas depending on Al2O3 content. The obtained nanocomposites were used as promising adsorbents in adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution as an anionic dye and were compared with pure ZnO and Al2O3 adsorbents. The nanocomposite adsorbents showed a superior MO removal efficiency than pure adsorbents, which was attributed to unique morphology of ZnO active sites with activated surface charge and also high surface area obtained in nanocomposite adsorbents. Moreover, it was found that there is an optimum between the amount of ZnO active sites and Al2O3 for the maximum of percentage removal of MO, which was obtained for 40%ZnO-Al2O3 adsorbent with 98% efficiency and low equilibrium time of 20 min with a fixed adsorbent concentration of 500 ppm and a fixed dye concentration of 50 ppm.

Tajizadegan, Hamid; Jafari, Majid; Rashidzadeh, Mehdi; Saffar-Teluri, Ali

2013-07-01

196

A new absorbent by modifying walnut shell for the removal of anionic dye: kinetic and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

A novel, low cost and easy regeneration biosorbent, chem-modified walnut shell (MWNS), was studied to investigate its potential for removal of an anionic dye, reactive brilliant red K-2BP. The MWNS was synthesized with epichlorohydrin and diethylenetriamine as etherifying agent and crosslinking agent, respectively, and its characteristics were performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The influences of pH (0.5-11) and adsorbent dosage (0.1-6g/L) on adsorption capacity of MWNS were evaluated. The maximum K-2BP adsorption capacities (Qm) calculated by best fitting model (Langmuir) were 568.18 mg/g at 313 K, which was almost 10 times than that of raw material. The adsorption kinetic was well confirmed with pseudo-second-order equation. Thermodynamic studies demonstrated adsorption process by MWNS was spontaneous and endothermic. Furthermore, the regeneration capability of MWNS implied MWNS was a cheap, excellent and promising biosorbent for K-2BP removal in azo dye wastewater treatment. PMID:24813388

Cao, Jia-Shun; Lin, Jun-Xiong; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Ming-Ting; Hu, Zhi-Rong

2014-07-01

197

Superwetting double-layer polyester materials for effective removal of both insoluble oils and soluble dyes in water.  

PubMed

Inspired by the mussel adhesive protein and the lotus leaf, Ag-based double-layer polyester (DL-PET) textiles were fabricated for effective removal of organic pollutants in water. The DL-PET textiles are composed of a top superamphiphilic layer and a bottom superhydrophobic/superoleophilic layer. First, the PET textiles were modified with a layer of polydopamine (PDA) and deposited with Ag nanoparticles to form the PET@PDA@Ag textiles. The top superamphiphilic layer, formed by immobilizing Ag3PO4 nanoparticles on the PET@PDA@Ag textile, shows excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity. The bottom superhydrophobic/superoleophilic layer, formed by modifying the PET@PDA@Ag textile using dodecyl mercaptan, is mechanically, environmentally, and chemically very stable. The water-insoluble oils with low surface tension can penetrate both layers of the DL-PET textiles, while the water with soluble organic dyes can only selectively wet the top layer owing to their unique wettability. Consequently, the water-soluble organic contaminants in the collected water can be decomposed by the Ag3PO4 nanoparticles of the top layer under visible-light irradiation or even sunlight in room conditions. Thus, the DL-PET textiles can remove various kinds of organic pollutants in water including both insoluble oils and soluble dyes. The DL-PET textiles feature unique wettability, high oil/water separation efficiency, and visible-light photocatalytic activity. PMID:24956183

Li, Bucheng; Wu, Lei; Li, Lingxiao; Seeger, Stefan; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

2014-07-23

198

Removal of Remazol Brilliant Violet5R dye using periwinkle shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to obtain optimal processing conditions for the adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Violet-5R (RBV-5R) dye onto activated carbon prepared from periwinkle shells (PSAC) by chemical activation with KOH using response surface methodology. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effects of three preparation variables; CO2 activation temperature, CO2 activation time and KOH:char impregnation

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

2011-01-01

199

Use of activated clays in the removal of dyes and surfactants from tannery waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is tested to reduce the pollution of effluents produced in the hide transformation process. Adsorption processes with clays could constitute a simple, selective and economical alternative to conventional physical–chemical treatments.The adsorption capacity of natural and acid-activated bentonite and sepiolite for anionic dyes normally used in the tannery was compared with that of a conventional adsorbent such as activated

A. G Espantaleón; J. A Nieto; M Fernández; A Marsal

2003-01-01

200

Sunflower seed shells: a novel and effective low-cost adsorbent for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

In this paper, the potential of two low-cost adsorbents such as sunflower seed shells (SS) and mandarin peelings (MP) in the removal of the synthetic anionic dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solutions was investigated. SS led to a percentage of dye removal higher than MP (85% and 71% after 210min, respectively, for an initial RB5 concentration of 50mgL(-1) and an initial pH of 2.0). The rate of adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling stage. In addition, the equilibrium data fitted well both the Freundlich and multilayer adsorption isotherm equations indicating the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface. This was also corroborated by the SEM photographs. On the whole, the results in this study indicated that SS were very attractive materials for removing anionic dyes from dyed effluents. PMID:17321679

Osma, Johann F; Saravia, Verónica; Toca-Herrera, José L; Couto, Susana Rodríguez

2007-08-25

201

Photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye using Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin film prepared by chemical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made by researchers for the removal of various dyes using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2; however, removal of `hazardous Ponceau S dye' using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 has been not studied yet. In the present work, environmental application of Nano structured Ni doped TiO2 has been studied. Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by the chemical method on a glass substrate. The prepared thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. The crystal size calculated from XRD is about 26.2 nm. The SEM analysis reveals nano spherical morphology of average particle size about 92 nm. The optical analysis was carried by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The band gap estimated from absorbance spectra for thin film was around 3.5 eV, making suitable Ni-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye. In photocatalytic application different parameters like dye concentration, contact time, pH, UV light and sunlight were optimized for the removal of Ponceau S dye, respectively. The change in chemical oxygen demand after photo catalytic treatment was also studied.

Marathe, Sunil D.; Shrivastava, Vinod S.

2014-05-01

202

A facile one-pot solvothermal method to produce superparamagnetic graphene-Fe3O4 nanocomposite and its application in the removal of dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

A superparamagnetic graphene-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite (G/Fe(3)O(4)) was synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The nanocomposite G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the new method was firstly used as an adsorbent to remove dye for water pollution remediation. In comparison with G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the in situ chemical coprecipitation, the newly prepared G/Fe(3)O(4) had a higher adsorption efficiency for the dye. The adsorption characteristics of the nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using the organic dye pararosaniline as the adsorbate. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and the effect of the adsorbent dosage and solution pH on the removal efficiency of pararosaniline were investigated. The adsorption capacity of G/Fe(3)O(4) for pararosaniline was evaluated using the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite can be easily manipulated in magnetic field for desired separation, leading to an easy removal of the dye from polluted water. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite would have a great potential in removing organic dyes from polluted water. PMID:23010021

Wu, Qiuhua; Feng, Cheng; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

2013-01-01

203

Resonance Rayleigh scattering method for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium with iodide-basic triphenylmethane dye systems.  

PubMed

In dilute phosphoric acid solution, cadmium (II) reacts with a large excess of I- to form [CdI4]2- which reacts further with basic triphenylmethane dyes such as crystal violet (CV), ethyl violet (EV), methyl violet (MV), brilliant green (BG) or malachite green (MG) to form an ion-association complex. This results in a significant enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity and the appearance of new RRS spectra. The characteristics of RRS spectra of the ion-association complexes, the influencing factors and the optimum conditions of these reactions have been investigated. The intensity of RRS is directly proportional to the concentration of cadmium from 0 to 60 ng mL(-1) for EV and MV systems, 0 to 80 ng mL(-1) for CV system, and 0 to 100 ng mL(-1) for BG and MG systems. The methods exhibit high sensitivities and the detection limits for cadmium are between 0.35 and 2.00 ng mL(-1) depending on the different reaction systems. The new RRS method was applied to the direct determination of traces of cadmium in pure zinc and synthetic water samples. PMID:11227575

Liu, S; Liu, Z; Li, M; Li, N; Luo, H

2000-12-01

204

Nano-silica fabricated with silver nanoparticles: antifouling adsorbent for efficient dye removal, effective water disinfection and biofouling control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through protein mediated reduction of silver ions at ambient temperature for development of sustainable nanotechnology. The coated proteins on AgNPs led to the formation of stable NSAgNP and protected the AgNPs from oxidation and other ions commonly present in water. The NSAgNP exhibited excellent dye adsorption capacity both in single and multicomponent systems, and demonstrated satisfactory tolerance against variations in pH and dye concentration. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction, though ?-? interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. Moreover, the NSAgNP showed long-term antibacterial activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs retarded the initial attachment of bacteria on NSAgNP and thus significantly improved the antifouling properties of the nanomaterial, which further inhibited biofilm formation. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopic studies revealed that cell death occurred due to irreversible damage of the cell membrane upon electrostatic interaction of positively charged NSAgNP with the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. The high adsorption capacity, reusability, good tolerance, removal of multicomponent dyes and E. coli from the simulated contaminated water and antifouling properties of NSAgNP will provide new opportunities to develop cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification processes.A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through protein mediated reduction of silver ions at ambient temperature for development of sustainable nanotechnology. The coated proteins on AgNPs led to the formation of stable NSAgNP and protected the AgNPs from oxidation and other ions commonly present in water. The NSAgNP exhibited excellent dye adsorption capacity both in single and multicomponent systems, and demonstrated satisfactory tolerance against variations in pH and dye concentration. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction, though ?-? interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. Moreover, the NSAgNP showed long-term antibacterial activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs retarded the initial attachment of bacteria on NSAgNP and thus significantly improved the antifouling properties of the nanomaterial, which further inhibited biofilm formation. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopic studies revealed that cell death occurred due to irreversible damage of the cell membrane upon electrostatic interaction of positively charged NSAgNP with the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. The high adsorption capacity, reusability, good tolerance, removal of multicomponent dyes and E. coli from the simulated contaminated water and antifouling properties of NSAgNP will provide new opportunities to develop cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification processes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Other experimental details and additional results. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00856h

Das, Sujoy K.; Khan, Md. Motiar R.; Parandhaman, T.; Laffir, Fathima; Guha, Arun K.; Sekaran, G.; Mandal, Asit Baran

2013-05-01

205

Laser-induced removal of a dye C.I. Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst.  

PubMed

Water contamination by organic substances such as dyes is of great concern worldwide due to their utilization in many industrial processes and environmental concerns. To cater the needs for waste water treatment polluted with organic dyes, laser-induced photocatalytic process was investigated for removal of a dye derivative namely Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst. The degradation was investigated in aqueous suspensions of tungsten oxide under different experimental conditions using laser instead of conventional UV lamp as an irradiation source. The degradation process was monitored by measuring the change in dye concentration as a function of laser irradiation time by employing UV spectroscopic analysis. The degradation of dye was studied by varying different parameters such as laser energy, reaction pH, substrate concentration, catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and potassium bromate (KBrO3). The degradation rates were found to be strongly dependent on all the above-mentioned parameters. Our experimental results revealed that the dye degradation process was very fast (within few minutes) under laser irradiation as compared to conventional setups using broad spectral lamps (hours or days) and this laser-induced photocatalytic degradation method could be an effective means to eliminate the pollutants present in liquid phase. The experience gained through this study could be beneficial for treatment of waste water contaminated with organic dyes and other organic pollutants. PMID:19540669

Qamar, M; Gondal, M A; Hayat, K; Yamani, Z H; Al-Hooshani, K

2009-10-30

206

Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal. PMID:19815339

Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

2010-02-15

207

Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer.  

PubMed

A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17 mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25°C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1-8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent. PMID:23912074

Gao, Hejun; Kan, Taotao; Zhao, Siyuan; Qian, Yixia; Cheng, Xiyuan; Wu, Wenli; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Liqiang

2013-10-15

208

Optical phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in basic green 1 dye-doped gelatin film using He–Ne laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical phase conjugation in gelatin film doped with basic green 1 has been measured using CW laser radiation (?=632.8nm) generated by He–Ne laser of total power 35mW. The degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) experiment allowed for measurement of phase conjugate reflectivity as a function of dye concentration, backward beam intensity, forward beam intensity, probe beam intensity, mean pumping beam intensity and

Qusay Mohammed Ali; P. K. Palanisamy

2007-01-01

209

Efficient removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous medium by in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent at carbon-felt cathode.  

PubMed

Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ +H2O2) has been electrogenerated in situ in an undivided electrolytic cell from the effective reduction of Fe3+ and O2 at carbon-felt cathode for the treatment of aqueous solutions of four triphenylmethane dyes (TPMs), namely malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG) and fast green FCF (FCF), at pH 3.0 and room temperature. MG has been used as a model among them to study the influence of some experimental parameters on the decay kinetics, COD removal and current efficiency. The results in such electro-Fenton system are explained in terms of the many parasitic reactions involving .OH. Higher efficiency values are obtained with rising organic content and decreasing applied current. The first stage of the mineralization process, involving aromatic by-products, leads to fast decoloration as well as quick initial COD removal that fit well to a pseudo-first-order kinetics. At prolonged electrolysis time, the mineralization rate and efficiency decrease due to the formation of hardly oxidizable compounds and the enhancement of wasting reactions. Solutions of all four TPMs are quickly degraded following a pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The absolute rate constant (kTPM) for their reaction with .OH increases in the order MeGdyes with initial COD ca. 1000 mg l(-1) is totally depolluted with efficiency near 100% at the beginning of the treatment. A general scheme for the mineralization of TPMs is proposed. PMID:18486964

Sirés, Ignasi; Guivarch, Elodie; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet A

2008-06-01

210

Treatment of dyeing wastewater by TiO2/H2O2/UV process: experimental design approach for evaluating total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency.  

PubMed

Optimal operating conditions in order to treat dyeing wastewater were investigated by using the factorial design and responses surface methodology (RSM). The experiment was statistically designed and carried out according to a 22 full factorial design with four factorial points, three center points, and four axial points. Then, the linear and nonlinear regression was applied on the data by using SAS package software. The independent variables were TiO2 dosage, H2O2 concentration and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of dyeing wastewater was dependent variable. From the factorial design and responses surface methodology (RSM), maximum removal efficiency (85%) of dyeing wastewater was obtained at TiO2 dosage (1.82 gL(-1)), H2O2 concentration (980 mgL(-1)) for oxidation reaction (20 min). PMID:15717785

Lee, Seung-Mok; Kim, Young-Gyu; Cho, Il-Hyoung

2005-01-01

211

Optical phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in basic green 1 dye-doped gelatin film using He Ne laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical phase conjugation in gelatin film doped with basic green 1 has been measured using CW laser radiation ( ?=632.8 nm) generated by He-Ne laser of total power 35 mW. The degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) experiment allowed for measurement of phase conjugate reflectivity as a function of dye concentration, backward beam intensity, forward beam intensity, probe beam intensity, mean pumping beam intensity and angle between the forward pumping beam and probe beam. For 1 mM concentration of basic green 1-doped gelatin film, 0.1% phase conjugate reflectivity has been observed.

Ali, Qusay Mohammed; Palanisamy, P. K.

2007-09-01

212

Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite is reported that was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. The nanocomposite comprises hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted onto xanthan gum as well as incorporated nanosilica. The synthesis exploits the saponification of the grafted polyacrylamide and the in situ formation of nanoscale SiO2 by a sol-gel reaction, in which the biopolymer matrix promotes the silica polymerization and therefore acts as a novel template for nanosilica formation. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherms of MB and MV from aqueous solution showed that the dyes adsorb rapidly, in accordance with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The entropy driven process was furthermore found to strongly depend on the point of zero charge (pzc) of the adsorbent. The remarkably high adsorption capacity of dyes on the nanocomposites (efficiency of MB removal, 99.4%; maximum specific removal Qmax, 497.5 mg g(-1); and efficiency of MV removal, 99.1%; Qmax, 378.8 mg g(-1)) is rationalized on the basis of H-bonding interactions as well as dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions between anionic adsorbent and cationic dye molecules. Because of the excellent regeneration capacity the nanocomposites are considered interesting materials for the uptake of, for instance, toxic dyes from wastewater. PMID:24579659

Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Asish; Raoufi, Mohammad; Panda, Asit Baran; Schönherr, Holger; Pal, Sagar

2014-04-01

213

Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: Removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl 2 activated coir pith carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl2 activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as

C. Namasivayam; D. Sangeetha

2006-01-01

214

Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet dyes by adsorption onto bagasse fly ash—kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as waste material from sugar mill), was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange-G (OG), and Methyl Violet (MV), from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to address various experimental parameters like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration for the removal of these dyes. Effective pH for OG

Indra D. Mall; Vimal C. Srivastava; Nitin K. Agarwal

2006-01-01

215

Single and binary dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation properties of Candida tropicalis: use of response surface methodology (RSM) for the estimation of removal yields.  

PubMed

The single and binary effects of initial Remazol Turquoise Blue-G (RTBG) reactive dye and initial copper(II) concentrations on the dye or/and copper(II) bioaccumulation efficiency of C. tropicalis was investigated in 10 g l(-1) molasses sucrose containing growth medium at an initial pH value of 4.0 and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A 2(2) full factorial central composite design was successfully used for experimental design and analyses of the results. Two numerical correlations fitted to a second-order quadratic equation were obtained to estimate the responses of dye and copper(II) removal yields. The statistical analysis indicated that although relatively high accumulation efficiency of C. tropicalis was obtained for the single removal of dye and copper(II), individual uptake of both the components from binary mixture was affected negatively by the addition of other component up to 500 mg l(-1) due to inhibition caused by high concentrations of RTBG dye and copper(II). The optimum combination predicted via RSM confirmed that growing C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating RTBG and copper(II) with the maximum yields of 59.2% and 21.3% in the growth medium containing 50 mg l(-1) RTBG and 50 mg l(-1) copper(II) together, respectively. PMID:19720462

Gönen, Ferda; Aksu, Zümriye

2009-12-30

216

Template-Free Synthesis of Functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156 m2 g-1, and the total pore volume is about 1.17 cm3 g-1. The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment.

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-03-01

217

Template-Free Synthesis of Functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156?m2 g?1, and the total pore volume is about 1.17?cm3 g?1. The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment. PMID:24663292

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-01-01

218

Template-free synthesis of functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156?m(2) g(-1), and the total pore volume is about 1.17?cm(3) g(-1). The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment. PMID:24663292

Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

2014-01-01

219

An advanced Ag-based photocatalyst Ag2Ta4O11 with outstanding activity, durability and universality for removing organic dyes.  

PubMed

Constructing Ag-based photocatalysts by the incorporation of Ag(+) ions into metal/nonmetal oxides for removing organic pollutants is a recently developed strategy, but overcoming their own photocorrosion is still a tremendous challenge. In this work, an advanced Ag-based photocatalyst Ag2Ta4O11 is obtained by this strategy, which exhibits improved photocatalytic activity compared with Ta2O5 and the universality for degrading several organic dyes. Importantly, the Ag2Ta4O11 photocatalyst has outstanding durability and reusability, which indicates that it has potential application prospects for organic wastewater treatment in the printing and dyeing industry. PMID:25277949

Dong, Hongjun; Sun, Jingxue; Chen, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Hu, Yidong; Lv, Chade

2014-11-21

220

Improved virus removal by high-basicity polyaluminum coagulants compared to commercially available aluminum-based coagulants.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of basicity, sulfate content, and aluminum hydrolyte species on the ability of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants to remove F-specific RNA bacteriophages from river water at a pH range of 6-8. An increase in PACl basicity from 1.5 to 2.1 and the absence of sulfate led to a reduction of the amount of monomeric aluminum species (i.e., an increase of the total amount of polymeric aluminum and colloidal aluminum species) in the PACl, to an increase in the colloid charge density of the PACl, or to both and, as a result, to high virus removal efficiency. The efficiency of virus removal at around pH 8 observed with PACl-2.1c, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high colloidal aluminum content, was larger than that observed with PACl-2.1b, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high polymeric aluminum content. In contrast, although extremely high basicity PACls (e.g., PACl-2.7ns, basicity 2.7) effectively removed turbidity and UV260-absorbing natural organic matter and resulted in a very low residual aluminum concentration, the virus removal ratio with PACl-2.7ns was smaller than the ratio with PACl-2.1c at around pH 8, possibly as a result of a reduction of the colloid charge density of the PACl as the basicity was increased from 2.1 to 2.7. Liquid (27)Al NMR analysis revealed that PACl-2.1c contained Al30 species, which was not the case for PACl-2.1b or PACl-2.7ns. This result suggests that Al30 species probably played a major role in virus removal during the coagulation process. In summary, PACl-2.1c, which has high colloidal aluminum content, contains Al30 species, and has a high colloid charge density, removed viruses more efficiently (>4 log10 for infectious viruses) than the other aluminum-based coagulants-including commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-1.8), alum, and PACl-2.7ns-over the entire tested pH (6-8) and coagulant dosage (0.54-5.4 mg-Al/L) ranges. PMID:24139360

Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Oshiba, A; Marubayashi, T; Sato, S

2014-01-01

221

Batch and dynamic biosorption of basic dyes from binary solutions by alkaline-treated cypress cone chips.  

PubMed

A simple alkaline pre-treatment of Cupressus sempervirens cone chips was performed to improve their biosorption capacity towards methylene blue and rhodamine B from aqueous solutions, in batch and continuous modes. Biosorption kinetics were determined from single and binary dyes solutions, and properly described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Experimental single-dye equilibrium isotherms fitted the Langmuir-Freundlich model, with maximum biosorption capacities of 0.68mmol/g for methylene blue and 0.50mmol/g for rhodamine B. Single-dye dynamic biosorption showed that breakthrough time for methylene blue biosorption was almost four times longer than for rhodamine B and that the alkaline modification of the chips greatly improved the biosorption performance. Competitive dynamic biosorption demonstrated the preference of the modified cone chips for biosorbing methylene blue, confirmed by the exit concentration overshoots obtained in the breakthrough curves of rhodamine B. PMID:22197337

Fernandez, M E; Nunell, G V; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

2012-02-01

222

Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Magnetic chitosan composites (MCCs) are a novel material that exhibits good sorption behavior toward various toxic pollutants in aqueous solution. These magnetic composites have a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption efficiency, efficient to remove various pollutants and they are easy to recover and reuse. These features highlight the suitability of MCCs for the treatment of water polluted with metal and organic materials. This review outlines the preparation of MCCs as well as methods to characterize these materials using FTIR, XRD, TGA and other microscopy-based techniques. Additionally, an overview of recent developments and applications of MCCs for metal and organic pollutant removal is discussed in detail. Based on current research and existing materials, some new and futuristic approaches in this fascinating area are also discussed. The main objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the most important features of MCCs and to show their advantages as adsorbents in the treatment of polluted aqueous solutions. PMID:24182685

Reddy, D Harikishore Kumar; Lee, Seung-Mok

2013-12-01

223

BiFeO?/?-Fe?O? core/shell composite particles for fast and selective removal of methyl orange dye in water.  

PubMed

BiFeO3/?-Fe2O3 core/shell composite particles featuring fast removal, selective adsorption, and magnetic recycle capability on anionic methyl orange (MO) dye in water was synthesized by a two-step chemical route. A discontinuous and rough shell consisting of the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was deposited on the BiFeO3 core surface preferentially, forming raspberry-like core/shell particle morphology. The core/shell particles demonstrated a pronounced adsorption to the MO molecules when compared with particulate mixtures of the same molar ratio. At an initial MO concentration of 2.5×10(-5) M, nearly 80% of the dye molecules were captured by the core/shell particles within 5 min at an acidic pH of 5.2. Desorption of the MO dye could be made easily when the solution pH was adjusted to 9.5. This together with a minute adsorption capacity (<2%) from solutions consisting of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye suggests that the adsorption selectivity was in part due to electrostatic interactions between the dye molecules and the core/shell particles. PMID:24910040

Tseng, Wenjea J; Lin, Ruei-De

2014-08-15

224

BASICS  

E-print Network

BASICS (Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention of College Students) is a selective or indicated alcohol abuse prevention program for college students. Program Targets BASICS is aimed at college students 18-24 years old who drink alcohol heavily and have experienced or are at risk for alcohol-related problems such as academic failure, social conflicts, accidents, sexual assault, or violence. The program was not designed to treat alcohol dependence and is unlikely to resolve the disorders of students who are severely alcohol dependent, but can be used for those students in a stepped-care model that provides them with a comprehensive assessment, feedback, advice and referral to specialty care. Program Content BASICS is conducted over the course of two structured interviews and is delivered using motivational interviewing, a counseling modality that is empathetic and accepting rather than confrontational or judgmental. Before or after the first interview, the student completes a self-report questionnaire usually online. From the questionnaire and the assessment interview, information is gathered about the student’s: 1) typical alcohol consumption and peak drinking episodes, 2) beliefs about the drinking habits of other college students 3) number and type of alcohol-related negative consequences, 4) indices of alcohol dependence, 5) family history of alcohol problems, 6) alcohol outcome expectancies, and 7) perceived level of risk for developing a drinking problem. The second interview, which occurs 1-2 weeks after the initial interview, provides the student with personalized feedback about each piece of information gathered in the assessment session. Feedback to the student is accompanied by challenges to myths about alcohol’s effects, ways to reduce future risks associated with alcohol use, a menu of options to assist in making changes and may also include stepped-care options such as a follow-up session or referral to on or off campus mental health and substance abuse treatment services. www.colorado.edu/cspv

unknown authors

225

The effects of acid and alkali modification on the adsorption performance of fuller's earth for basic dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to prepare modified adsorbents from fuller's earth (FE) by acid and alkali treatment for enhancement cationic dye adsorption. Toluidine blue (TB) was selected as adsorbate for evaluating the adsorption performance of fuller's earth samples, which was affected significantly by acid and alkali modification. The adsorption of TB was studied by visible spectra. The absorption

G. Hisarli

2005-01-01

226

Benzene carboxylic acid derivatized graphene oxide nanosheets on natural zeolites as effective adsorbents for cationic dye removal.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were grafted to acid-treated natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders followed by a coupling reaction with a diazonium salt (4-carboxybenzenediazoniumtetrafluoroborate) to the GO surface. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of GO nanosheets onto the zeolite surface. The application of the adsorbents for the adsorption of rhodamine B from aqueous solutions was then demonstrated. After reaching adsorption equilibrium the maximum adsorption capacities were shown to be 50.25, 55.56 and 67.56 mg g(-1) for pristine natural zeolite, GO grafted zeolite (GO-zeolite) and benzene carboxylic acid derivatized GO-zeolite powders, respectively. The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. Further, a relationship between surface functional groups, pH and adsorption efficiency was established. Results indicate that benzene carboxylic acid derivatized GO-zeolite powders are environmentally favorable adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:23778259

Yu, Yang; Murthy, Bandaru N; Shapter, Joseph G; Constantopoulos, Kristina T; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Ellis, Amanda V

2013-09-15

227

Magnetic carbon nanotubes synthesis by Fenton's reagent method and their potential application for removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

We report a simple and easy method to fabricate magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Fenton's reagent method without the addition of any cations. H(2)O(2) was added slowly into the FeSO(4) solution mixed with purified CNTs, and the resulting reactants were placed into a quartz tube to undergo heat treatment under a nitrogen/hydrogen flow. Iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on CNTs without any pretreatment such as strong acid or covalent functionalization processes. The as-produced magnetic CNTs were used as an adsorbent for removal of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments indicated that the magnetic CNTs have good adsorption capacity (q(e)) of MO (28 mg/g). The Freundlich isotherm model fitted the experiment data better than the Langmuir isotherm mode. The mean energy of adsorption was calculated as 3.72 kJ/mol based on the Dubinin-Radushkevich model, which suggests that the removal process was dominated by physical adsorption. Kinetic regression results showed that the adsorption kinetics was more accurately represented by a pseudo second-order model. Intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process, but it was not the only rate-controlling step. More importantly, a new photocatalytic regeneration technology can be enabled by the high nanoscale iron oxide loading (50%). The magnetic CNT adsorbents could be effectively and quickly separated by applying an external magnetic field and regenerated by UV photocatalysis. Therefore, CNTs/?-Fe(2)O(3) hybrid is a promising magnetic nanomaterial for preconcentration and separation of organic pollutants for environmental remediation. PMID:22564767

Yu, Fei; Chen, Junhong; Chen, Lu; Huai, Jing; Gong, Wenyi; Yuan, Zhiwen; Wang, Jinhe; Ma, Jie

2012-07-15

228

Adsorption of basic dye on high-surface-area activated carbon prepared from coconut husk: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption isotherm and kinetics of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from coconut husk were determined from batch tests. The effects of contact time (1–30h), initial dye concentration (50–500mg\\/l) and solution temperature (30–50°C) were investigated. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best represented by Langmuir isotherm model, showing maximum monolayer

I. A. W. Tan; A. L. Ahmad; B. H. Hameed

2008-01-01

229

Parametric study on the effect of the ratios [H2O2]/[Fe3 +] and [H2O2]/[substrate] on the photo-Fenton degradation of cationic azo dye basic blue 41.  

PubMed

An experimental parametric study was carried out to investigate the effects of [H(2)O(2)], [Fe(3 +)] and [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(3 +)] ratio on the photo-Fenton degradation of a azo dye Basic Blue 41 (BB41) in aqueous solution. This method consists of coupling between Fenton's reagent and UV irradiation in order to catalyze the in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals, a powerful oxidizing agent which leads to degradation of organic pollutants until total mineralization. The kinetics study of the reaction between BB41 and hydroxyl radicals showed that the degradation of BB41 follows the first-order kinetics. It was found that the concentration of H(2)O(2) and ferric iron as well as their ratio [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(3 +)] are key factors governing the removal of BB41 in aqueous medium and that the optimal ratio [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(3 +)] is equal to 10 for 0.2 mM Fe(3 +) concentration. The initial BB41 concentration and the [H(2)O(2)]/[BB41] ratio are also found as significant operating parameters on the mineralization efficiency. The optimization of the operating conditions permitted to obtain a quasi-total mineralization of synthetic BB41 aqueous solutions. When these optimal conditions were applied to the real wastewater, 90% of TOC removal was obtained after 8 h of irradiation time. PMID:20390909

Bouafia-Chergui, Souad; Oturan, Nihal; Khalaf, Hussein; Oturan, Mehmet A

2010-01-01

230

Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.  

PubMed

The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. PMID:23321372

Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

2013-02-15

231

Sex Discrimination in Grading in the Basic Course?: Removing Potential Explanations for Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the differential grading that occurs in the basic speech communication classroom and attempted to identify predictors for the differences in the grades that male and female students receive. Subjects, 47 women and 48 men enrolled in the same lecture section of a basic communication course at a small private midwestern college,…

Pearson, Judy C.; Roberts, Charles

232

Adsorptive removal of direct yellow 161dye from aqueous solution using bamboo charcoals activated with different chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of direct yellow 161 dye from aqueous solution on derived bamboo charcoals activated with orthophosphoric acid, nitric acid, potassium hydroxide and zinc chloride was investigated. Batch adsorption results showed that under optimal sorption condition including initial dye concentration 24.62mg\\/L, pH 1.0, contact time 21h, and temperature 298k the maximum and the minimum adsorption capacities were 2.401mg\\/g and 1.705mg\\/g

Liang-Gui Wang; Guo-Bing Yan

2011-01-01

233

Adsorption process of methyl orange dye onto mesoporous carbon material-kinetic and thermodynamic studies.  

PubMed

The mesoporous carbon CMK-3 adsorbent was prepared, characterized, and used for the removal of anionic methyl orange dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption experiments were carried out as batch studies at different contact time, pH, initial dye concentration, and salt concentration. The dye adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 60 min of contact time. Removal of dye in acidic solutions was better than in basic solutions. The adsorption of dye increased with increasing initial dye concentration and salt concentration. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, which revealed that Langmuir model was more suitable to describe the methyl orange adsorption than Freundlich model. Experimental data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was found that kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order equation. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. PMID:21798549

Mohammadi, Nourali; Khani, Hadi; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Amereh, Ehsanollah; Agarwal, Shilpi

2011-10-15

234

A green-chemical synthetic route to fabricate a lamellar-structured Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite exhibiting a high removal ability for organic dye.  

PubMed

A novel lamellar-structured Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite was synthesized with a room-temperature solution-phase reduction method. A possible reaction mechanism and shape evolutionary process for the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite were supposed. The Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite shows a ferromagnetic behavior. Congo red (CR) was used to evaluate the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite wastewater treatment capability. It was found that 150 ppm of CR could be removed from an aqueous solution within 10 min using the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite, and the adsorption maximum is 2058 mg g(-1) which is higher than all previously reported values. The significantly reduced treatment time required to remove the CR and the simple, low-cost and pollution-free preparation method make the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite promising for use in the highly efficient removal of dyes from wastewater. PMID:24519445

Wu, Longyun; Liu, Yuhua; Zhang, Lishu; Zhao, Lijun

2014-04-14

235

Removal of lead and yellow 44 acid dye in single and binary component systems by raw Posidonia oceanica and the cellulose extracted from the raw biomass.  

PubMed

This study examined the sorption behaviour of Pb(II) and C.I. Acid Yellow 44 on Posidonia oceanica, an abundant Mediterranean biomass. A comparison with sorption onto cellulose extracted from the raw material was carried out to identify those site characteristics that play a predominant role in the adsorption of both dye and metal ions. Kinetic and equilibrium studies were performed for single and binary component systems, and the experimental data were analyzed by a non-linear method. The pseudo second-order kinetic model was successfully applied for both dye and metal retention onto sorbents in single and binary systems. Both sorbents were found to be more effective for lead than for Yellow 44 removal. However, lead sorption was more effective on raw P. oceanica suggesting that the metal ions are sorbed into the whole available biomass sites (cellulose and lignin). An opposite behaviour was reported for Yellow 44 sorption, which was found to be more effective on the extracted cellulose than raw P. oceanica. This finding proves that the only available sites for dye sorption are the cellulosic ones. The binary component experimental studies indicated competition between dye and lead for the available sites of raw P. oceanica. However, this competition was found to be less prevalent for sorption by cellulose extracted from raw P. oceanica suggesting that, in binary component systems, the cellulosic sites are equally available for both pollutants, the only limiting parameter being the size of the molecular sorbate. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the experimental data using the non-linear method for parameter determination. PMID:21780701

Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Ben Douissa-Lazreg, Najoua; M'Henni, M Farouk

2011-01-01

236

Removal of dye-based ink stains from ivory: evaluation of cleaning results based on wavelength dependency and laser type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of ink stains from elephant ivory and related materials can present an intractable problem for the conservator. This research evaluates laser energy as a tool for ivory conservation and highlights the differences between removing stains that penetrate the substrate, as opposed to surface accretions, using a range of laser wavelengths. Samples of ink-stained ivory were prepared and treated

Odile Madden; Paraskevi Pouli; Meg Abraham; Costas Fotakis

2003-01-01

237

Removal of color from real dyeing wastewater by Electro-Fenton technology using a three-dimensional graphite cathode.  

PubMed

This work investigates the removal of color from wastewater that contains low dyestuff concentrations by the Electro-Fenton process. The color was removed by in situ electrogenerated hydrogen peroxides at a three-dimensional graphite cathode with added ferrous sulfates. Experimental runs were conducted to evaluate the effect of the operating parameters, such as the oxygen contact mode, the oxygen sparging rate, the applied current density, the concentration of ferrous ions, the solution temperature and the pH among others, on the removal of color. The removal efficiency of the color in the cathodic chamber reached 70.6% under specified operation conditions in 150 min. The removal efficiency was controlled by the mass transfer when the oxygen-sparging rate was less than 0.3 dm(3)/min for the reactor configuration herein. The optimal applied current density was 68 A/m(2) when the energy consumption was considered. The highest removal efficiency was obtained by adding 20 mM Fe(II) to the solution. The optimal solution pH was 3 in this work. The temperature negatively affected color removal. PMID:17707581

Wang, Chih-Ta; Hu, Jen-Lu; Chou, Wei-Lung; Kuo, Yi-Ming

2008-04-01

238

Microwave-enhanced UV/H2O2 degradation of an azo dye (tartrazine): optimization, colour removal, mineralization and ecotoxicity.  

PubMed

This study optimizes two factors, pH and initial [H2O2], in the ultraviolet (UV)/H2O2/microwave (MW) process through experimental design and assesses the effect of MWs on the colour removal of an azo-dye (tartrazine) solution that was favoured by an acidic pH. The estimated optimal conditions were: initial [H2O2] = 2.0 mmol L(-1) and pH = 2.6, at 30 +/- 2 degrees C. We obtained colour removals of approximately 92% in 24 min of irradiation (EDL, 244.2 W), following zero order kinetics: k = (3.9 +/- 0.52) x 10(-2) a.u. min(-1) and R2 = 0.989. Chemical and biological oxygen demand were significantly removed. On the other hand, the carbon content, biodegradability and ecotoxicity (Lactuca sativa) remained approximately the same. The UV/H2O2/MW process was shown to be eight times faster than other tested processes (MW, H2O2, H2O2/MW, and UV/MW). PMID:24191458

Parolin, Fernanda; Nascimento, Ulisses Magalhães; Azevedo, Eduardo Bessa

2013-01-01

239

Significantly enhanced dye removal performance of hollow tin oxide nanoparticles via carbon coating in dark environment and study of its mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the correlation between physicochemical properties and morphology of nanostructures is a prerequisite for widespread applications of nanomaterials in environmental application areas. Herein, we illustrated that the uniform-sized SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles were large-scale synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The size of the core-shell hollow nanoparticles was about 56 nm, and the shell was composed of a solid carbon layer with a thickness of 2 ~ 3 nm. The resulting products were characterized in terms of morphology, composition, and surface property by various analytical techniques. Moreover, the SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing four different dyes from aqueous solutions, which is superior to the pure hollow SnO2 nanoparticles and commercial SnO2. The enhanced mechanism has also been discussed, which can be attributed to the high specific surface areas after carbon coating.

Yang, Shuanglei; Wu, Zhaohui; Huang, LanPing; Zhou, Banghong; Lei, Mei; Sun, Lingling; Tian, Qingyong; Pan, Jun; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Hongbo

2014-08-01

240

Significantly enhanced dye removal performance of hollow tin oxide nanoparticles via carbon coating in dark environment and study of its mechanism  

PubMed Central

Understanding the correlation between physicochemical properties and morphology of nanostructures is a prerequisite for widespread applications of nanomaterials in environmental application areas. Herein, we illustrated that the uniform-sized SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles were large-scale synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The size of the core-shell hollow nanoparticles was about 56 nm, and the shell was composed of a solid carbon layer with a thickness of 2?~?3 nm. The resulting products were characterized in terms of morphology, composition, and surface property by various analytical techniques. Moreover, the SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing four different dyes from aqueous solutions, which is superior to the pure hollow SnO2 nanoparticles and commercial SnO2. The enhanced mechanism has also been discussed, which can be attributed to the high specific surface areas after carbon coating.

2014-01-01

241

Silica coated magnetic particles using microwave synthesis for removal of dyes from natural water samples: Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium, isotherm and kinetics studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring pollutants in water samples is a challenge to analysts. So, the removal of Napthol blue black (NBB) and Erichrome blue black R (EBBR) from aqueous solutions was investigated using magnetic chelated silica particles. Magnetic solids are widely used in detection and analytical systems because of the performance advantages they offer compared to similar solids that lack magnetic properties. In this context, a fast, simple and clean method for modification of magnetic particles (Fe3O4) with silica gel was developed using microwave technique to introduce silica gel coated magnetic particles (SG-MPs) sorbent. The magnetic sorbent was characterized by the FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scan electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The effects of pH, time, weight of sorbent and initial concentration of dye were evaluated. It was interesting to find from results that SG-MPs exhibits high percentage extraction of the studied dyes (100% for NBB and 98.75% for EBBR) from aqueous solutions. The Freundlich isotherm with r2 = 0.973 and 0.962 and Langmuir isotherms with r2 = 0.993 and 0.988 for NBB and EBBR, respectively were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. Also, adsorption kinetic experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation r2 = 1.0 for NBB and 0.999 for EBBR. The prepared sorbent with rapid adsorption rate and separation convenience was applied for removal of NBB and EBBR pollutants from natural water samples with good precision (RSD% = 0.05-0.3%).

Ahmed, Salwa A.; Soliman, Ezzat M.

2013-11-01

242

High basicity adsorbents from solid residue of cellulose and synthetic polymer co-pyrolysis for phenol removal: Kinetics and mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activated carbons (ACs) produced from solid residue of cellulose and synthetic polymer co-pyrolysis (CACs) and commercial activated carbon from coconut shell (GC) were used for phenol removal. The adsorption kinetics and mechanism were investigated. All studied activated carbons are predominantly microporous and are characterized by basic surface characteristics. Surface area SBET varies between 1235 and 1499 m2/g, whereas the pHPZC changes from 7.70 to 10.63. The bath adsorption of phenol (P) was carried out at ambient temperature. The equilibrium time and equilibrium sorption capacity were determined. It was found that the boundary layer effect is bigger in AC with high basic characteristics of the surface. The rate controlling step is the intraparticle diffusion in CACs only, whereas in ACs with higher amount of acidic functionalities the adsorbate-surface interaction influences the rate of kinetic as well. The equilibrium isotherms are L2 type for commercial AC and L4 for CACs. The CACs are characterized by very high adsorption capacity that vary between 312 and 417 mg/g. The main mechanism of phenol adsorption is micropore filling within pores smaller than 1.4 nm. In the absence of solvent effect further adsorption of phenol on CACs takes place. The enhanced adsorption is due to dispersive/repulsive interaction induced by oxygen functionalities.

Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Rutkowski, Piotr

2014-10-01

243

THE EFFECT OF DYES ON THE CALCIFICATION OF HYPERTROPHIC RACHITIC CARTILAGE IN VITRO  

PubMed Central

The calcification of rat hypertrophic cartilage slices in vitro is markedly inhibited by preliminary exposure to metachromatic and other basic dyes. The dyes are effective at 10–3 to 10–4 M in the absence of calcium and phosphate. This inhibition does not occur at the same low dye concentration if calcium and phosphate are present. Neither ion alone is effective in preventing the inhibition. The inhibitory action can be removed by placing slices which have been treated with basic dye in a solution which contains calcium and phosphate ions, plus an acid dye, Orange G. Most acid dyes do not inhibit calcification, except at very high concentrations. Alizarin and quinalizarin are exceptional, and produce marked inhibition at 10–3 M, an effect which is perhaps attributable to the tendency of these dyes to form lakes with calcium. Rachitic cartilage slices which no longer calcify in inorganic phosphate as a result of treatment with basic dyes show normal calcification in the presence of organic phosphate esters. These results are discussed in terms of the possibility that chondroitin sulfate ester participates in normal calcification. PMID:14927802

Miller, Zelma B.; Waldman, Jerome; McLean, Franklin C.

1952-01-01

244

Influence of humic acids on the adsorption of Basic Yellow 28 dye onto an iron organo-inorgano pillared clay and two hydrous ferric oxides.  

PubMed

Effect of humic acids (HAs), macromolecules from natural organic matter, on the adsorption of Basic Yellow 28 is the aim of the present work. Three adsorbents were investigated in this study: an iron organo-inorgano pillared clay and two synthetic Hydrous Iron Oxide (Goethite and HFO). The surface charge was positive in the pH range of this study for the pillared clay; in contrast, it changes from positive to negative when the pH value increased (pH>9) for the two (oxy)hydroxides. Pseudo-first order kinetic rate constants and adsorption capacities increase from humic acid to BY 28. Adsorption isotherms of BY 28 and HA in single component were analysed using the Freundlich equation. Adsorption capacities increased sharply when the pH value of the dye solution was raised from 3 to 9. Increasing the pH medium from 3 to 9 reduces the HA adsorption capacities onto Fe-SMPM and iron oxyhydroxides, respectively. Fitting between measured and predicted sorption capacities of BY 28 and HA in a binary component system indicates that the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch (SRS) model, an extended Freundlich model, is able to describe the simultaneous adsorption of BY 28 and HA. Humic acids favourably affect the adsorption of BY 28, and a cooperative mechanism could be suggested. The synergetic effect existing between BY 28 and HA is shown by the interaction coefficients ?12, which are generally high and increase with pH. Some phenomena have been advanced to explain this mechanism. PMID:23332940

Zermane, Faiza; Cheknane, Benamar; Basly, Jean Philippe; Bouras, Omar; Baudu, Michel

2013-04-01

245

Process development for the batch and bulk removal and recovery of a hazardous, water-soluble azo dye (Metanil Yellow) by adsorption over waste materials (Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya).  

PubMed

Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya have been used as adsorbents for the removal of a hazardous azo dye-Metanil Yellow from its aqueous solutions. Adsorption of Metanil Yellow on these adsorbents has been studied as function of time, temperature, concentration and pH. Batch adsorption studies, kinetic studies and column operations enabled extraction of lethal dye from wastewaters. Adsorption equilibrium data confirms both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and monolayer coverage of dye over adsorbents. Kinetic data have been employed to calculate specific rate constants, indicating thereby involvement of first order kinetics in the on-going adsorption and activation energy was determined as 0.813 and 1.060 kJ mol(-1) for Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, respectively. For both adsorbents, the adsorption process has been found governing by film diffusion, over the entire concentration range. Column operations have also been performed for the bulk removal of the dye and also to examine the practical utilization of fixed bed adsorption technique in elimination of dangerous effluent. Saturation factors for Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated as 99.15 and 99.38%, respectively. Attempts have also been made to regenerate the dye from the exhausted columns using aqueous sodium hydroxide as eluent. PMID:17659833

Mittal, Alok; Gupta, V K; Malviya, Arti; Mittal, Jyoti

2008-03-01

246

Arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by membrane-integrated hybrid plant: optimization and control using Visual Basic platform.  

PubMed

A simulation software (ARRPA) has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic platform for optimization and control of a novel membrane-integrated arsenic separation plant in the backdrop of absence of such software. The user-friendly, menu-driven software is based on a dynamic linearized mathematical model, developed for the hybrid treatment scheme. The model captures the chemical kinetics in the pre-treating chemical reactor and the separation and transport phenomena involved in nanofiltration. The software has been validated through extensive experimental investigations. The agreement between the outputs from computer simulation program and the experimental findings are excellent and consistent under varying operating conditions reflecting high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. High values of the overall correlation coefficient (R (2)?=?0.989) and Willmott d-index (0.989) are indicators of the capability of the software in analyzing performance of the plant. The software permits pre-analysis, manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. Performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units is possible using the tool. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. PMID:24288068

Chakrabortty, S; Sen, M; Pal, P

2014-03-01

247

Bioremoval of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 by Pseudomonas putida and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.  

PubMed

Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 are the most important group of synthetic colourants extensively used in textile industries for dyeing cotton, wool, silk and nylon. Release of these dye pollutants in to the environment adversely affects the human health and aquatic organisms. The present study we used Pseudomonas putida MTCC 4910 for the adsorptive removal of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 from the aqueous solutions. The pH (4-9) and NaCl concentrations (1mM-1M) did not influence the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption process fitted well to Freundlich model than Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fitted well by pseudo-second-order. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to exploit the dye removal capability of P. putida MTCC 4910, and it was found to be an efficient microbe that could be used for bio removal of dyes from textile effluents. PMID:23010121

Arunarani, A; Chandran, Preethy; Ranganathan, B V; Vasanthi, N S; Sudheer Khan, S

2013-02-01

248

Mechanisms and chemistry of dye adsorption on manganese oxides-modified diatomite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations into structural changes which occur during adsorbent modification and the adsorption mechanisms are essential for an effective design of adsorption systems. Manganese oxides were impregnated onto diatomite to form the type known as ?-birnessite. Initial investigations established the effectiveness of manganese oxides-modified diatomite (MOMD) to remove basic and reactive dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity of MOMD

Mohammad A. Al-Ghouti; Yehya S. Al-Degs; Majeda A. M. Khraisheh; Mohammad N. Ahmad; Stephen J. Allen

2009-01-01

249

Blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in aswan governorate, Upper Egypt, as an adsorbent for the removal of merocyanine dye from its aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The adsorption potential of the blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in Aswan Governorate, Egypt, to decolorize aqueous solutions of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one 4[2] merocyanine dye (1) was investigated at room temperature. The influence of the solution pH, the quantity of adsorbent, the initial concentration of 1, and the applied contact time were studied with the batch technique. The maximum percentage of removal of 1 was observed at pH 4. The adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, confirming the formation of monolayers of 1 on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic rate constants and the transient behavior at different initial concentrations of 1 were determined with both the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and the Ho and McKay pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of 1 on blast furnace slag followed a second-order chemisorption process. PMID:20397223

Taha, Gharib Mahmoud; Mosaed, Taghreed Mahmoud

2010-04-01

250

Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper–pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results

Zümriye Aksu; I. Alper Isoglu

2006-01-01

251

Biological decolorization of xanthene dyes by anaerobic granular biomass.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of a xanthene dyes was investigated for the first time using anaerobic granular sludge. On a first screening, biomass was able to decolorize, at different extents, six azo dye solutions: acid orange 7, direct black 19, direct blue 71, mordant yellow 10, reactive red 2 and reactive red 120 and two xanthene dyes--Erythrosine B and Eosin Y. Biomass concentration, type of electron donor, induction of biomass with dye and mediation with activated carbon (AC) were variables studied for Erythrosine B (Ery) as model dye. Maximum color removal efficiency was achieved with 4.71 g VSS L?¹, while the process rates were independent of the biomass concentration above 1.89 g VSS L?¹. No considerable effects were observed when different substrates were used as electron donors (VFA, glucose or lactose). Addition of Ery in the incubation period of biomass led to a fivefold increase of the decolorization rate. The rate of Ery decolorization almost duplicated in the presence of commercial AC (0.1 g L?¹ AC?). Using different modified AC samples (from the treatment of AC?), a threefold higher rate was obtained with the most basic one, AC(H?), as compared with non-mediated reaction. Higher rates were obtained at pH 6.0. Chemical reduction using Na?S confirmed the recalcitrant nature of this dye. The results attest that decolorization of Ery is essentially due to enzymatic and adsorption phenomena. PMID:22437968

Apostol, Laura Carmen; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Gavrilescu, Maria; Alves, Maria Madalena

2012-09-01

252

Kinetic catalytic determination of trace levels of iodide based on the oxidation of basic dyes with hydrogen peroxide monitored potentiometrically using simple PVC electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four sensitive catalytic potentiometric methods have been developed for trace levels determination of iodide based on its catalytic effects on the oxidation of four dyes: viz. variamine blue (VB), rhodamine B (RB), methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG), with H2O2 in H3PO4 medium at 25±0.5°C. The catalyzed reaction rates were estimated potentiometrically by monitoring the potential of the corresponding

Elmorsy Khaled; M. A. El-Ries; F. I. Zidane; S. A. Ibrahim; M. S. Abd-Elmonem

2011-01-01

253

Optical enhancement of dye-doped PDLC by additional dye-LC layer coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-doped PDLC has a high probability to be used as reflective optical shutter due to its good reflectance compared to normal PDLC or LC shutter structures. The black state can be significantly enhanced by the minimized surface scattering between polymer and LC surface, which makes a harmful result to the contrast ratio, one of most important factors for optical shutter. To remove this scattering effect, we have developed new combinational structure, consisted of guest dye-doped LC (DLC) and dye-doped PDLC (DPDLC). In the newly fabricated dye-doped PDLC structure, the front location of dye-doped LC layer can remove the light scattering effect of the surface of single dye PDLC structure. The proposed process can also remove the randomly distributed dyes in polymer area of dye PDLC. This technique enhances the reflectance as well as the contrast ratio.

Jung, Jae Eun; Lee, Gae Hwang; Jang, Jae Eun; Hwang, Kyu Young; Ahmad, Farzana; Muhammad, Jamil; Woo Lee, Jin; Jeon, Young Jae

2011-11-01

254

Removal of organic pollutants from industrial wastewater: performance evaluation of inorganic adsorbents based on pillared clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the application of a natural clay and an alumina-pillared clay as adsorbents for the removal of a basic dye, Methylene Blue, from aqueous solutions. The intercalation and pillaring processes improve the adsorption capacity of the montmorillonite. The adsorption kinetics of the dye has been studied in terms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The equilibrium data are mathematically

F. C. C. Assis; S. Albeniz; A. Gil; S. A. Korili; R. Trujillano; M. A. Vicente; L. Marçal; M. Saltarelli; K. J. Ciuffi

2012-01-01

255

Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

2012-12-01

256

Ligninase-catalysed decolorization of synthetic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many synthetic dyes in industrial wastewaters are resistant to degradation in conventional biological treatment process. Decolorization of eight synthetic dyes including azo, anthraquinone, metal complex and indigo were examined in white-rot fungal cultures and by fungal peroxidase-catalysed oxidation. The dyes were not decolorized by manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) while above 80% color was removed by ligninase-catalysed oxidation. Dye decolorization rate increased

Lawrence Young; Jian Yu

1997-01-01

257

Studies on the removal of dyes from a synthetic textile effluent using barley husk in static-batch mode and in a continuous flow, packed-bed, reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of five reactive dyes in a synthetic textile dye effluent onto barley husks has been studied in static-batch mode and in a continuous flow, packed-bed, reactor (CFPBR). Effective adsorption, thermodynamics and various initial concentrations (C0) were studied for static batch conditions. The effect of C0 and retention time (?), by varying height and weight of packing, along with

Tim Robinson; Bennett Chandran; G Sathya Naidu; Poonam Nigam

2002-01-01

258

Removing user fees for basic health services: a pilot study and national roll-out in Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Background User fees for primary care tend to suppress utilization, and many countries are experimenting with fee removal. Studies show that additional inputs are needed after removing fees, although well-documented experiences are lacking. This study presents data on the effects of fee removal on facility quality and utilization in Afghanistan, based on a pilot experiment and subsequent nationwide ban on fees. Methods Data on utilization and observed structural and perceived overall quality of health care were compared from before-and-after facility assessments, patient exit interviews and catchment area household surveys from eight facilities where fees were removed and 14 facilities where fee levels remained constant, as part of a larger health financing pilot study from 2005 to 2007. After a national user fee ban was instituted in 2008, health facility administrative data were analysed to assess subsequent changes in utilization and quality. Results The pilot study analysis indicated that observed and perceived quality increased across facilities but did not differ by fee removal status. Difference-in-difference analysis showed that utilization at facilities previously charging both service and drug fees increased by 400% more after fee removal, prompting additional inputs from service providers, compared with facilities that previously only charged service fees or had no change in fees (P = 0.001). Following the national fee ban, visits for curative care increased significantly (P < 0.001), but institutional deliveries did not. Services typically free before the ban—immunization and antenatal care—had immediate increases in utilization but these were not sustained. Conclusion Both pilot and nationwide data indicated that curative care utilization increased following fee removal, without differential changes in quality. Concerns raised by non-governmental organizations, health workers and community leaders over the effects of lost revenue and increased utilization require continued effort to raise revenues, monitor health worker and patient perceptions, and carefully manage health facility performance. PMID:22027924

Steinhardt, Laura C; Aman, Iqbal; Pakzad, Iqbalshah; Kumar, Binay; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Peters, David H

2011-01-01

259

Nickel removal from nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine using supercritical water in absence of catalyst: a basic study.  

PubMed

Reactions of nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine (Ni-TPP) were studied in supercritical water in the presence of toluene without the addition of any catalyst, H(2) or H(2)S that is called a green process. The objective of this study was to remove nickel from Ni-TPP, the most common metal compound present in heavy crude, in high extent at low reaction time. All experiments were carried out in an 8.8 mL batch reactor fabricated from hastelloy C-276. The ability of supercritical water (SCW) to remove nickel from Ni-TPP was studied at temperatures of 450-490 °C and water partial pressures of 25-35 MPa. Water partial pressure had no effect on overall conversion at temperatures of 450 °C and a reaction time of 60 min. The overall Ni-TPP conversion was 89.80%, a figure above that of previous catalytic studies. The percentage of nickel removal was estimated as a function of reaction time and temperature. It were temperature 490 °C and pressure 25 MPa at reaction time 90 min where 65.68% nickel were removed by the action of SCW and toluene, as a co-solvent. It was determined that Ni-TPP undergoes a series of reactions, ending in demetallation and ring fragmentation. The obtained results suggest that supercritical water has a capability to remove nickel from Ni-TPP. PMID:21300437

Mandal, Pradip Chandra; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

2011-03-15

260

The removal of organic matter with a weakly basic macroreticular ion-exchange resin. A case history.  

PubMed

Natural waters containing organic pollutants have a strong tendency to foul anionic exchange resins irremediably. The use of various types of scavenging resins is discussed and results are given on trials carried out at a chemical plant. The conclusion is drawn that a proper analysis of organic matter present in water cannot be made and that consequently it is difficult to determine which types of scavengers are the most suitable. The paper suggests a principle of calculating weakly basic macroreticular resins into the flow system so as to function both as a scavenger and a weakly basic ion-exchange resin. PMID:1117044

Van Ryswyk, W

1975-01-22

261

Dye filled security seal  

DOEpatents

A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

1982-04-27

262

Decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes and textile and dye-stuff effluent by Kurthia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of soil and water samples were collected from the vicinity of effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing industry. Several organisms were screened for their ability to decolorize triphenylmethane group of dyes. A Kurthia sp. was selected on the basis of rapid dye decolorizing activity. Under aerobic conditions, 98% color was removed intracellularly by this strain. A

Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1999-01-01

263

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

264

Removal of C.I. Basic Yellow 2 from aqueous solution by low-cost adsorbent: hardened paste of Portland cement.  

PubMed

The adsorption of C.I. Basic Yellow 2 (BY2) from aqueous solutions on to hardened paste of Portland cement (HPPC) as a low-cost adsorbent and its adsorption kinetics at different conditions were studied. The adsorption process was followed by an online spectrophotometric analysis system, which consisted of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, a designed spectrophotometric cell, a peristaltic pump and a glass reactor. The effect of experimental parameters, including initial dye concentration, mass of HPPC, initial pH and temperature, on adsorption was studied over a 30 miin adsorption period. For the kinetic study, the obtained data were treated according to various kinetic models. The results revealed that the experimental data were better fitted to the first-order kinetics model than to the second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of BY2 on HPPC were analysed by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms equations using the linear correlation coefficient. The Freundlich isotherm gave the best correlation of adsorption. PMID:20426269

Rasoulifard, M H; Esfahlani, F Haddai; Mehrizadeh, H; Sehati, N

2010-03-01

265

Laser induced photocatalytic degradation of hazardous dye (Safranin-O) using self synthesized nanocrystalline WO3.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic degradation of Safranin-O (known as Basic Red 2) in water using locally synthesized nanocrystalline WO(3) as a photocatalyst was investigated under UV laser irradiation. The photo-oxidation removal of the dye was monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The blank experiments for either laser irradiated only Safranin-O solution or the suspension containing WO(3) and Safranin-O in the dark showed that both laser illumination and the photocatalyst were essential for the removal of Safranin-O. The effect of experimental parameters including laser energy, catalyst loading, solution pH and the initial dye concentration on photocatalytic degradation of Basic Red 2 were also investigated. Results indicate that the rate of reaction is strongly influenced by the adsorption of an azo dye into the surface of the photocatalyst materials and suggests an optimum catalyst loading and dye concentration for the degradation reaction. It was investigated that the adsorption of the dye decreases at higher alkaline pH because both catalyst and substrate are negatively charged, developing repulsive forces between them. Kinetic data obtained reveals that the rate of the reaction obeys the first-order kinetics. PMID:21177021

Hayat, K; Gondal, M A; Khaled, M M; Yamani, Z H; Ahmed, S

2011-02-28

266

Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper-pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent and slightly temperature-dependent. At 800 mg l(-1) initial Gemazol turquoise blue-G concentration, dried sugar beet pulp exhibited the highest Gemazol turquoise blue-G uptake capacity of 234.8 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C and at an initial pH value of 2.0. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich, the two and three parameters adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated depending on temperature. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were applicable for describing the dye biosorption by dried sugar beet pulp in the concentration (100-800 mg l(-1)) and temperature (25-45 degrees C) ranges studied. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of biosorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and biosorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by both surface and pore diffusion with surface diffusion at the earlier stages followed by pore diffusion at the later stages. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and saturation type kinetic models described the biosorption kinetics accurately at all concentrations and temperatures studied. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was exothermic and the biosorption of dye on dried sugar beet pulp might be physical in nature. PMID:16603311

Aksu, Zümriye; Isoglu, I Alper

2006-09-01

267

Oil Palm Biomass–Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Water Pollutants—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based

TANWEER AHMAD; MOHD RAFATULLAH; ARNIZA GHAZALI; OTHMAN SULAIMAN; ROKIAH HASHIM

2011-01-01

268

Ultrasonication-assisted preparation of water-in-oil emulsions and application to the removal of cationic dyes from water by emulsion liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the efficiency of emulsification by ultrasound was investigated for the preparation of water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsions. The produced W\\/O emulsions will be employed for the recovery and separation of cationic dyes by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM), a novel and effective method. The study highlights the importance of emulsion stability that is the major problem associated with ELMs. The

Meriem Djenouhat; Oualid Hamdaoui; Mahdi Chiha; Mohamed H. Samar

2008-01-01

269

Evaluation of thermodynamics and effect of chemical treatments on sorption potential of Citrus waste biomass for removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this study is to assess the sorption potential of Citrus waste biomasses, i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Citrus limetta and Citrus paradisi having optimum sorption capacity for anionic reactive dyes. Citrus sinensis biosorbent showing maximum sorption capacity was selected (qe 13.99, 15.21, 14.80 and 27.41mg\\/g for Reactive yellow 42, Reactive red 45, Reactive blue 19 and Reactive

Mahwish Asgher; Haq Nawaz Bhatti

270

Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of Basic Yellow 28 and Basic Red 46 by a boron industry waste.  

PubMed

In this study, the adsorption characteristics of Basic Yellow 28 (BY 28) and Basic Red 46 (BR 46) onto boron waste (BW), a waste produced from boron processing plant were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and the results have shown that adsorption behavior of two dyes could be described reasonably well by a generalized isotherm. Kinetic studies indicated that the kinetics of the adsorption of BY 28 and BR 46 onto BW follows a pseudo-second-order model. The result showed that the BW exhibited high-adsorption capacity for basic dyes and the capacity slightly decreased with increasing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of BY 28 and BR 46 are reported at 75.00 and 74.73mgg(-1), respectively. The dye adsorption depended on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at about pH 9 and electrokinetic behavior of BW. Activation energy of 15.23kJ/mol for BY 28 and 18.15kJ/mol for BR 46 were determined confirming the nature of the physisorption onto BW. These results indicate that BW could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of the textile dyes from effluents. PMID:18434000

Olgun, Asim; Atar, Necip

2009-01-15

271

Adsorption of Several Dyes from Aqueous Solutions on Silica-Containing Complex-Oxide Gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions was investigated in a batchwise operation using binary or ternary silica-containing complex-oxide gels as adsorbents. The following three combinations of gels showed the best results: (1) silica-titania-magnesia gel for C.I. Acid Blue 40, (2) silica-titania gel for C.I. Basic Blue 3, and (3) silica-titania gel treated with alkali for C.I. Reactive Red 5. The

Shoji Kaneko

1982-01-01

272

Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

1977-01-01

273

Application of Chitosan in Remediation of Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chitosan is derived from Chitin, which is the exoskeleton of a crab or shrimp shell and some other crustaceans. This project\\u000a explores this characteristic behavior of chitosan in the removal of dye from solution as a model for the potential application\\u000a in textile industry wastewater treatment. Azure dye was used as the model dye used in the textile industry wastewater

Gbekeloluwa B. Oguntimein; Olatunde Animashaun; Ivie Okpere

274

Glycan analysis via derivatization with a fluorogenic pyrylium dye.  

PubMed

The expansion of glycomics analysis is reliant upon the development of robust, routine methods for carbohydrate characterization. Simple protocols to derivatize sugars with functionality that facilitate analysis-chromophores, fluorophores, charges, ionizable groups-are therefore necessary. Here we describe a method for the labeling of oligosaccharide mixtures with a fluorogenic pyrylium dye to enable analysis by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS). The unreacted free dye, Py-1, is effectively non-fluorescent but when conjugated to the analyte it displays strong fluorescence at 600-640 nm. Removal of excess dye following labeling is not required prior to analysis unlike for many traditional oligosaccharide labels. Labeling is achieved in two steps; the oligosaccharide mixtures are first functionalized with an ethylenediamine moiety via reductive amination at the reducing-end sugar, then the remaining free primary amine is reacted with the pyrylium dye (Py-1) under basic conditions to form a pyridinium ion. We have labeled mixtures of maltooligosaccharides and observed good peak separation in CE analysis using a SDS/borate pH 9.3 running buffer. Excellent sensitivity in MALDI-ToF-MS analysis enabled detection of oligosaccharides with up to 58 glucose units. PMID:22425443

Johannesen, Sine A; Beeren, Sophie R; Blank, Dennis; Yang, Byung Y; Geyer, Rudolf; Hindsgaul, Ole

2012-05-01

275

Unblocking the sink: improved CID-based analysis of phosphorylated peptides by enzymatic removal of the basic C-terminal residue.  

PubMed

A one-step enzymatic reaction for improving the collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of phosphorylated peptides in an ion trap is presented. Carboxypeptidase-B (CBP-B) was used to selectively remove C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from phosphorylated tryptic/Lys-C peptides prior to their MS/MS analysis by CID with a Paul-type ion trap. Removal of this basic C-terminal residue served to limit the extent of gas-phase neutral loss of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), favoring the formation of diagnostic b and y ions as determined by an increase in both the number and relative intensities of the sequence-specific product ions. Such differential fragmentation is particularly valuable when the H3PO4 elimination is so predominant that localizing the phosphorylation site on the peptide sequence is hindered. Improvement in the quality of tandem mass spectral data generated by CID upon CBP-B treatment resulted in greater confidence both in assignment of the phosphopeptide primary sequence and for pinpointing the site of phosphorylation. Higher Mascot ion scores were also generated, combined with lower expectation values and higher delta scores for improved confidence in site assignment; Ascore values also improved. These results are rationalized in accordance with the accepted mechanisms for the elimination of H3PO4 upon low energy CID and insights into the factors dictating the observed dissociation pathways are presented. We anticipate this approach will be of utility in the MS analysis of phosphorylated peptides, especially when alternative electron-driven fragmentation techniques are not available. PMID:24297471

Lanucara, Francesco; Lee, Dave Chi Hoo; Eyers, Claire E

2014-02-01

276

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

277

Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of malachite green (MG) was studied using three adsorbents namely, bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, and activated carbons commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial MG concentration on the removal of MG. The initial pH

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

278

Decolorization of the textile dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six bacterial strains with the capability of degrading textile dyes were isolated from sludge samples and mud lakes. Aeromonas hydrophila was selected and identified because it exhibited the greatest color removal from various dyes. Although A. hydrophila displayed good growth in aerobic or agitation culture (AGI culture), color removal was the best in anoxic or anaerobic culture (ANA culture). For

Kuo-Cheng Chen; Jane-Yii Wu; Dar-Jen Liou; Sz-Chwun John Hwang

2003-01-01

279

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

280

Efficient removal of lead (II) ions and methylene blue from aqueous solution using chitosan/Fe-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite beads.  

PubMed

Chitosan is a well-known sorbent and effective in the uptake of anionic or reactive dyes, but it has deficiency in adsorption of basic dyes. In this work, chitosan/Fe-substituted hydroxyapatite composite beads were prepared in a different ratio via embedding of hydroxyapatite into chitosan solution for removal of basic dye and heavy metal from aqueous solution. The composite beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy in order to reveal their composition and surface morphology. In this particular study, methylene blue (MB) and lead (Pb (II)) ions were selected as representatives of dye and a heavy metal, respectively. The various experimental conditions affecting dye adsorption were explored to achieve maximum adsorption capacity. Moreover, the kinetic, thermodynamic and adsorption isotherm models were employed for the description of the heavy metal and dye adsorption processes. The results indicated that the prepared hydrogel is an efficient adsorbent for the aforementioned dye and metal concomitant with the ability of regeneration without losing the original activity and stability for water treatment applications. PMID:25199605

Saber-Samandari, Samaneh; Saber-Samandari, Saeed; Nezafati, Nader; Yahya, Kovan

2014-12-15

281

Removing Stains from Washable Fabrics.  

E-print Network

protein and dye. d. Special stains needing unique treatment be cause of chemical make-up or physical characteristics. (Examples: chewing gum, iodine, lead pencil) Stain Removal Products Bleaches Chlorine bleaches contain a hypochlorite com pound... Beer Combination 8 Wet 8 Protein 8 Tannin 8 Chewing gum Benzoil peroxide Special 9 Special 9 Chocolate Blood Combination 8 Wet 8 Dye 8 Protein 8 4 Stain Page Numbers Stain Page Numbers Cocoa Feces Combination 8 Wet 8 Dye 8 Protein 8 Coffee...

Beard, Ann Vanderpoorten

1988-01-01

282

Feasibility analysis of color removal from textile dyeing wastewater in a fixed-bed column system by surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ).  

PubMed

In this study, the ability of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) to remove color from real textile wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in a fixed-bed column reactor and the surface of natural zeolite was modified with a quaternary amine surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB). The zeolite bed that was modified at 1 g L(-1) HTAB concentration and HTAB flow rate of 0.015 L min(-1) showed good performance in removing color. Effects of wastewater color intensity, flow rates and bed heights were also studied. Wastewater was diluted several times in the ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% in order to assess the influence of wastewater strength. The breakthrough curves of the original and diluted wastewaters are dispersed due to the fact that breakthrough came late at lower color intensities and saturation of the bed appeared faster at higher color intensities. The column had a 3-cm diameter and four different bed heights of 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 cm, which treated 5.25, 19.50, 35.25 and 51 L original textile wastewater, respectively, at the breakthrough time at a flow rate of 0.025 L min(-1). The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different column variables. The calculated and theoretical values of the exchange zone height were found with a difference of 27%. The various design parameters obtained from fixed-bed experimental studies showed good correlation with corresponding theoretical values, under different bed heights. The regeneration of the SMZ was also evaluated using a solution consisting of 30 g L(-1) NaCl and 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH at pH 12 and temperature 30 degrees C. Twice-regenerated SMZ showed the best performance compared with the others while first- and thrice-regenerated perform lower than the original SMZ. PMID:19136207

Ozdemir, Ozgur; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Zahid; Faki, Aysegul; Engin, Ahmet Baki

2009-07-30

283

Removal of organic dye by air and macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid under room conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid was synthesized by a method involving sol-gel technology and biomimetic synthesis. It was characterized by Elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical degradation of 0.3 g/L Safranin T (ST) by air oxidation over macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid was studied. It was found that the decolorization efficiency and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of ST reached above 95.3% and 93.2%, respectively, within 25 min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. And the organic pollutant was mineralized to simple inorganic species such as HCO3-, Cl- and NO3-, while the total organic carbon (TOC) decreased 95.4%. The structure and morphology of the catalyst were still stable after six cycling runs and the leaching test showed negligible leaching effect.

Yuan, Mengjia; Wang, Shengtian; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lingling; Hao, Tianhong

2011-07-01

284

Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for highly effective removal of a carcinogenic dye from aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel chitosan-modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CS-m-GMCNTs) were synthesized via a suspension cross-linking method. Composition, morphology and magnetic properties of as-prepared CS-m-GMCNTs were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDS, BET and VSM. The large saturation magnetization (12.27 emu g-1) allows fast separation of CS-m-GMCNTs from treated aqueous solution. The adsorption of congo red (CR) on CS-m-GMCNTs was strongly dependent on pH, temperature of the aqueous phase and adsorbent dosage. Up to 100 and 94.58% color removal could be achieved in 100 min contact time with 10 and 50 mg L-1 of initial concentrations, respectively. The adsorption capacity of CR onto CS-m-GMCNTs could reach 262.9 mg g-1. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.999) was suitable to describe the process of CR adsorption onto CS-m-GMCNTs. The Langmuir model fitted the adsorption isotherm data better than the Freundlich model. Values of thermodynamic parameters (?G°, ?H° and ?S°) indicated that the adsorption process was strongly dependent on temperature of the aqueous phase, and spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. Therefore, CS-m-GMCNTs adsorbent displays main advantages of excellent dispersion, convenience separation and high adsorption capacity, which implies their potential application in the environmental cleanup.

Zhu, HuaYue; Fu, YongQian; Jiang, Ru; Yao, Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, YanWen; Xiao, Ling; Zeng, GuangMing

2013-11-01

285

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

286

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

287

Ultrasonic assisted dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dyeing of wool fabrics using lac as a natural dye has been studied in both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The extractability of lac dye from natural origin using power ultrasonic was also evaluated in comparison with conventional heating. The results of dye extraction indicate that power ultrasonic is rather effective than conventional heating at low temperature and short time.

M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Yussef; H. Mashaly

2005-01-01

288

Dye-adsorption capacity of high surface-area hydrogen titanate nanosheets processed via modified hydrothermal method.  

PubMed

High surface-area (380 m2 x g(-1)) hydrogen titanate nanosheets (HTNS) processed via the modified hydrothermal method have been utilized for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from an aqueous solution via the surface-adsorption process involving the electrostatic attraction mechanism. The HTNS have been characterized using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface-area measurement techniques. The amount of MB dye adsorbed on the surface of HTNS at equilibrium (q(e)) has been examined as a function of contact time, initial dye-concentration, and initial solution-pH. Within the investigated range of initial solution-pH (2.5-11), the MB dye adsorption on the surface of HTNS has been observed to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics with the dye-adsorption capacity of 119 mg x g(-1) at the initial solution-pH of - 10. The adsorption equilibrium follows the Langmuir isotherm within the initial solution-pH range of 2.5-10. However, in a highly basic solution (initial solution-pH -11), the adsorption equilibrium has been observed to follow the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) models in the different ranges of initial MB dye concentration. The mere dependence on the DKR model has not been observed within the investigated range of initial solution-pH. The differences in the dye-adsorption characteristics and capacity of HTNS, compared with those of hydrogen titanate nanotubes, have been attributed to the difference in their specific surface-area. Irrespective of the morphology, the maximum coverage of MB dye on the surface of hydrogen titanate has been noted to be the same (52%). PMID:23763198

Padinhattayil, Hareesh; Augustine, Rimesh; Shukla, Satyajit

2013-04-01

289

Biosorption of Basic Orange from aqueous solution onto dried A. filiculoides biomass: Equilibrium, kinetic and FTIR studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dried Azolla filiculoides (A. filiculoides ) biomass was used to remove Basic Orange (BO) dye from aqueous solution using batch experiments. The kinetic results demonstrated that the biosorption of BO onto the dried A. filiculoides was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum biosorption capacity for BO was 833.33mg\\/g based on the Langmuir equation at a temperature

Cai-yun Tan; Min Li; Yu-Man Lin; Xiao-Qiao Lu; Zu-liang Chen

2011-01-01

290

Monitoring the dye impregnation time of nanostructured photoanodes for dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are getting increasing attention as low-cost, easy-to-prepare and colored photovoltaic devices. In the current work, in view of optimizing the fabrication procedures and understanding the mechanisms of dye attachment to the semiconductor photoanode, absorbance measurements have been performed at different dye impregnation times ranging from few minutes to 24 hours using UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition to the traditional absorbance experiments, based on diffuse and specular reflectance on dye impregnated thin films and on the desorption of dye molecules from the photoanodes by means of a basic solution, an alternative in-situ solution depletion measurement, which enables fast and continuous evaluation of dye uptake, is presented. Photoanodes have been prepared with two different nanostructured semiconducting films: mesoporous TiO2, using a commercially available paste from Solaronix, and sponge-like ZnO obtained in our laboratory from sputtering and thermal annealing. Two different dyes have been analyzed: Ruthenizer 535-bisTBA (N719), which is widely used because it gives optimal photovoltaic performances, and a new metal-free organic dye based on a hemisquaraine molecule (CT1). Dye sensitized cells were fabricated using a customized microfluidic architecture. The results of absorbance measurements are presented and discussed in relation to the obtained solar energy conversion efficiencies and the incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies (IPCE).

Shahzad, N.; Pugliese, D.; Lamberti, A.; Sacco, A.; Virga, A.; Gazia, R.; Bianco, S.; Shahzad, M. I.; Tresso, E.; Pirri, C. F.

2013-06-01

291

Dyeing of Jute Fabric Using Indigosol Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleached jute fabric has been dyed with three indigosol dyes, namely Indigosol Violet I4R, Indigosol Golden Yellow IGK, and Indigosol Blue O4B, having different sensitivity to oxidation. Development stage (i.e., oxidation, neutralization, and soaping of the dyed fabric) plays the most important role for dyeing of jute fabric with indigosol dyes. Concentrations of chemicals in different processing steps such as

S. N. Chattopadhyay; N. C. Pan; A. K. Roy; A. Khan

2009-01-01

292

Basic model Basic model  

E-print Network

Spearman's (1904) seminal paper on the American Journal of Psychology entitled "General Inteligente, British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 48, 211-220. 3 / 66 #12;Early days Basic model that Spearman invented factor analysis but his almost exclusive concern with the notion of a general factor

Liu, I-Shih

293

Performance of mango seed adsorbents in the adsorption of anthraquinone and azo acid dyes in single and binary aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

In this study the husk of mango seed and two carbonaceous adsorbents prepared from it were used to study the adsorption behavior of eight acid dyes. The adsorbed amount in mmol m(-2) decayed asymptotically as the molecular volume and area increased. The interaction between the studied dyes and the mesoporous carbon was governed by the ionic species in solution and the acidic/basic groups on the surface. Less than 50% of the external surface of the microporous carbon became covered with the dyes molecules, though monolayer formation demonstrating specific interactions only with active sites on the surface and the adsorption magnitudes correlated with the shape parameter of the molecule within a particular dye group. The adsorption behavior in mixtures was determined by the molecular volume of the constituents; the greater the molecular volume difference, the greater the effect on the adsorbed amount. We also demonstrated that the raw husk of the mango seed can be used to remove up to 50% from model 50 mg l(-1) solutions of the studied acid dyes. PMID:19692231

Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia

2009-12-01

294

The dyeing of Lyocell fabric with direct dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyocell, cotton and viscose fabrics were dyed using four direct dyes. With the exception of the bordeaux dye used, dyeings on Lyocell were of slightly different colour to comparative dyeings on cotton and viscose; the colour strength (K\\/S) of the dyeings on Lyocell was lower than on cotton and viscose and the four dyes exhibited lower build-up character on Lyocell

S. M. Burkinshaw; R. Krishna

1995-01-01

295

Studies on adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP).  

PubMed

The present study shows that the coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP) can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet (basic dye) from aqueous solutions. Experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH and dosage. The amount of dye uptake was found to vary with increasing initial solution pH and maximum adsorption was observed at pH 8. The equilibrium was attained in 2h. The amount of dye uptake (mg/g) was found to increase with increase in dye concentration and contact time. The % adsorption was found to decrease with increase in amount of adsorbent. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and the positive value of DeltaH degrees indicates the endothermic nature of adsorption. The applicability of the three isotherm's model for the present data follows the order: Langmuir>Temkin>Freundlich. The kinetics of crystal violet on to the adsorbent can be described well by pseudo-second order>Elovich>pseudo-first order equation. PMID:19604639

Ahmad, Rais

2009-11-15

296

Dye adsorption characteristics of magnetite nanoparticles coated with a biopolymer poly(?-glutamic acid).  

PubMed

Magnetite nanoparticles coated with an anionic biopolymer poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA-MNPs) were synthesized and characterized for their methylene blue dye adsorption capability. Both bare- and dye-loaded PGA-MNPs were characterized by FTIR, TEM and VSM measurements, revealing the PGA-MNPs to be superparamagnetic with average particle diameter being 12.4 nm and magnetization value 59.2 emu/g. The synthesized PGA-MNPs were stable in deionized, tap and river waters as well as in acidic and basic media. Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir models precisely described the isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity was 78.67 mg/g. A pseudo-second-order equation best predicted the kinetics with a maximum adsorption attained within 5 min. Incorporation of sodium or calcium ions reduced the dye adsorption, while a raise in pH enhanced adsorption and a complete desorption occurred at pH 1.0. Dye removal mechanism by PGA-MNPs was probably due to electrostatic interaction through exchange of protons from side-chain ?-carboxyl groups on PGA-MNPs surface. PMID:21775135

Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

2011-10-01

297

Dye adsorption on unburned carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unburned carbon in fly ash is an important by-product from coal combustion. In this investigation, unburned carbon has been separated from fly ash and been employed as a low cost adsorbent for a basic dye adsorption (Rhodamine B) in aqueous solution. Adsorption isotherm and kinetics of adsorption have been investigated using batch experiments. It is found that dye adsorption capacity

Shaobin Wang; Huiting Li

2005-01-01

298

Preferential biodegradation of structurally dissimilar dyes from a mixture by Brevibacillus laterosporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of a mixture containing seven commercial textile dyes with different structures and color properties has been investigated by an ecofriendly strain –Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298. It showed 87% decolorization in terms of ADMI removal (American Dye Manufacturing Institute) within 24h. The effective decolorization of dye mixture was attained in the presence of metal salt – CaCl2 and nitrogen sources.

Mayur B. Kurade; Tatoba R. Waghmode; Sanjay P. Govindwar

2011-01-01

299

Reuse of Solid Waste in Adsorption of the Textile Dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the study of the reuse of a regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE). The RSBE material was tested in the removal of a basic textile dye presents in aqueous solution. The effect of physicochemical parameters such as stirring speed, initial concentration, contact time and temperature have been invested and thermodynamic nature of the adsorption process was determined by calculating the ?H°, ?S° and ?G° values The results obtained show that the adsorption mechanism was described by the Langmuir model and the adsorption capacity, qmax (72.41 to 82.37 mg.g-1), increases with temperature (20-50 °C). The thermodynamic parameters show a presence of a strong affinity between two phases (liquid-solid) and an endothermic equilibrium adsorption process. However, the phenomenon of the adsorption kinetic follows the pseudo second order kinetic model.

Meziti, Chafika; Boukerroui, Abdelhamid

300

Dye Like A Natural  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

Yu, Julie

2010-01-01

301

Kinetic modelling and mechanism of dye adsorption on unburned carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes by producing coloured wastewaters. The adsorption method using unburned carbon from coal combustion residue was studied for the decolourisation of typical acidic and basic dyes. It was discovered that the unburned carbon showed high adsorption capacity at 1.97×10?4 and 5.27×10?4mol\\/g for Basic Violet 3 and Acid Black 1, respectively.

Shaobin Wang; Huiting Li

2007-01-01

302

A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10-5 mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia

2013-11-01

303

Basic Stamp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Parallax, Inc. gives some information about basic stamp microcontrollers. A Basic-Stamp microcontroller is a single-board computer. Parallax makes a variety of controllers; the BASIC Stamp II uses a PIC16C57microchip.

2012-10-12

304

Extraction and recovery of azo dyes into an ionic liquid.  

PubMed

The azo dyes are commonly used in the leather and textile industries as they are quite versatile in nature. However, they are neither totally utilised during the process, nor are they recovered at the end of the process. In fact, in the leather industry, typically about 10-15% of the dye is discharged with the effluent creating both environmental and economic issues. Hence, there is a need to remove the residual dye from the large volume of aqueous effluent. In this study, for the first time, azo dyes employed in the leather industry have been successfully extracted into a neutral ionic liquid, with an extraction efficiency of 98%, potentially providing a method of minimizing pollution of waste-waters. The extraction of the dye into the ionic liquid also provides a potential analytical approach to determination of these dyes. PMID:18970681

Vijayaraghavan, R; Vedaraman, N; Surianarayanan, M; MacFarlane, D R

2006-07-15

305

Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

306

Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye on Pure and Carbonized Water Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of process variables in batch adsorption has been used to assess the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using pure and carbonized biomasses of water hyacinth and water spinach. Dried leaves of the water weeds were carbonized at temperature up to 750°C. The optimum removal of dye was achieved at pH 10, 30°C, and 55 min

Timi Tarawou; Michael Horsfall Jr

2007-01-01

307

Effect of some operational parameters on textile dye biodegradation in a sequential batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of anaerobic and aerobic periods in the operation cycle of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was chosen to study biological color removal from simulated textile effluents containing reactive, sulfonated, monoazo and diazo dyes, respectively, Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R and Remazol Black B. 90% color removal was obtained for the violet dye in a 24-h cycle with a Sludge

N. D Lourenço; J. M Novais; H. M Pinheiro

2001-01-01

308

Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with –OH groups of cotton through substitution and\\/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to

Zeeshan Khatri; Muhammad Hanif Memon; Awais Khatri; Anwaruddin Tanwari

2011-01-01

309

Ultrasonic assisted dyeing. IV. Dyeing of cationised cotton with lac natural dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dyeing of cationised cotton fabrics with lac natural dye has been studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effects of dye bath pH, salt concentration, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with ultrasonic and conventional techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic

M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Youssef; H. Mashaly

2007-01-01

310

Reusable nanomaterial and plant biomass composites for the removal of Methylene Blue from water.  

PubMed

A novel composite has been prepared from nanomaterials and powdered orange peel. The composite is adhered to a plastic strip and may be employed for the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solutions, for example from dyehouse effluents. Using Methylene Blue (CI Basic Blue 9) as the reference dye, the characteristics of the adsorbent have been studied. The effect of pH, type of nanomaterial (e.g. carbon nanotubes, activated carbon nanotubes, or titanium dioxide nanoparticles), contact time, and reusability have each been investigated. The results show that the adsorption capacity of suspended orange peel powder, an orange peel strip, and an activated carbon nanotube/orange peel strip were 46%, 67% and 78%, respectively. The uptake of dye was greatly affected by the pH of the solution, maximum absorption being obtained at pH 10, and none at all at pH 2. The improved performance was probably the result of the increased area available for adsorption compared with orange peel powder alone. The system was found to be reusable for up to six cycles without appreciable loss of adsorption and desorption efficiency. The nanomaterial in the composite enhanced performance, not only by increasing adsorption efficiency but also by inhibiting biodegradation of the orange peel powder, thereby increasing the life of the strips. The system offers an economical, user-friendly, efficient and reusable adsorption treatment for the removal of dyes from wastewater. PMID:20586237

Jain, Nidhi; Basniwal, Rupesh Kumar; Suman; Srivastava, Ashwani Kumar; Jain, Vinod Kumar

2010-06-01

311

The effect of molecular structure on the biodegradation of selected sulphonated phenylazonaphthol dyes by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

E-print Network

??The removal of water-soluble sulphonated azo dye effluents generated by textile industries is an important issue in wastewater treatment. Microbial treatment of environmental pollutants including… (more)

Lu, Yiping

2006-01-01

312

Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent.  

PubMed

This study investigated the efficiency of electrocoagulation in removing color from synthetic and real textile wastewater. Two representative dye molecules were selected for the synthetic dye wastewater: a blue reactive dye (Reactive Blue 140) and a disperse dye (Disperse Red 1). The electrochemical technique showed satisfactory color removal efficiency and reliable performance in treating both individual and mixed dye types. The removal efficiency and energy consumption data showed that, for a given current density, iron was superior to aluminum in treating both the reactive dye and the disperse dye. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the energy cost in achieving >95% color removal was on the order of 1 kWh m(-3) for both dyes. The effect of changing the initial pH of the samples on the removal efficiency and energy consumption was also studied. It was found that the design parameters used for the synthetic wastewater were less effective for treatment of real textile wastewater, with 1 in 5 tests on real wastewater failing. PMID:20042267

Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Polgumhang, Suprangpak; Tongdaung, Warangkana; Karakat, Benjawan; Nuyut, Thanawin

2010-01-01

313

Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of water pollution has become of increasing importance in recent years. The release of dyes into the environment constitutes only a small proportion of water pollution, but dyes are visible in small quantities due to their brilliance. Tightening government legislation is forcing textile industries to treat their waste effluent to an increasingly high standard. Currently, removal of dyes

Tim Robinson; Geoff McMullan; Roger Marchant; Poonam Nigam

2001-01-01

314

Tie-Dye Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

Cessna, Gretchen; Cessna, Stephen

2001-03-01

315

Degradation of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 in pyrite ash catalyzed Fenton reaction.  

PubMed

Pyrite ash (PA) is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4) degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2?g?L(-1); [H2O2]0=5?mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100?mg?L(-1). The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu) content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes. PMID:24526885

Becelic-Tomin, Milena; Dalmacija, Bozo; Rajic, Ljiljana; Tomasevic, Dragana; Kerkez, Djurdja; Watson, Malcolm; Prica, Miljana

2014-01-01

316

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

317

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

318

Flocculation of both anionic and cationic dyes in aqueous solutions by the amphoteric grafting flocculant carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide.  

PubMed

In the current work, a series of amphoteric grafting chitosan-based flocculants (carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide, denoted as CMC-g-PAM) was designed and prepared successfully. The flocculants were applied to eliminate various dyes from aqueous solutions. Among different graft copolymers, CMC-g-PAM11 with a PAM grafting ratio of 74% demonstrated the most efficient performance for removal of both the anionic dye (Methyl Orange, MO) and the cationic dye (Basic Bright Yellow, 7GL) under the corresponding favored conditions (80 mg/L of the flocculant at pH 4.0, and 160 mg/L at pH 11.0). In comparison with its precursors, chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan, CMC-g-PAM11 showed higher removal efficiencies and wider flocculation windows. More importantly, the graft copolymer produced notably more compacted flocs based on image analysis in combination with fractal theory, which was of great significance in practical water treatment. Furthermore, the flocculation mechanism was discussed in detail. The grafted polyacrylamide chains were found to contribute much to the improved bridging and sweeping flocculation effects, but reduced charge neutralization flocculation for the effect of charge screening. PMID:23583947

Yang, Zhen; Yang, Hu; Jiang, Ziwen; Cai, Tao; Li, Haijiang; Li, Haibo; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

2013-06-15

319

Wastewater treatment: Dye and pigment industry. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of wastewater containing dyes and pigments. The citations discuss the of dyes and pigments in wastewater treatment systems, biodegradation of dyes, absorption and adsorption processes to remove dyes from wastewater, environmental effects from the disposal of dye-containing wastes, and methods of analysis for dyes in waste streams. Treatment methods such as ozonation, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal filtration, activated sludge, electrochemical treatments, thermal treatments, simple filtration, and absorption media are included. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-03-01

320

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

321

Dyeing Effects Of Bifunctional Reactive Dyes On Knitted Cotton Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new bifunctional reactive dyes of the Sumifix Supra range that carry monochlorotriazine and sulphato ethyl sulphone reactive systems were developed and their dyeing perfor- mance studied. Suitable characteristic properties and fastness properties were examined over the knitted cotton fab- rics. The dyes were characterized by spectral data and elemental analysis. The dyes structures were established by preparing the coupling

M. M. Dalal; K. R. Desai

1996-01-01

322

Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.  

PubMed

The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:19631461

Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

2009-12-15

323

Local delivery of fluorescent dye for fiber-optics confocal microscopy of the living heart  

PubMed Central

Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption, and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release vs. foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5–9 lines, which is comparable to 4–8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery.

Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K.; Hitchcock, Robert W.; Sachse, Frank B.

2014-01-01

324

Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent  

PubMed Central

Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24?h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50?mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

2011-01-01

325

Diffusive and convective dye replenishment in optofluidic light sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optofluidic dye lasers have recently attracted much interest as potentially efficient light sources for integration on lab-on-a-chip micro-systems. However, dye bleaching resulting in limited life-time could limit the applications of such devices in lab-on-a-chip technology. Typically, the problem of dye bleaching is addressed by employing a continuous convective flow of liquid-dissolved dye molecules, compensating the bleaching caused by the external optical pump. In previously reported optofluidic light sources the required convective dye replenishing flow has been achieved by external fluid handling apparatus (syringe pumps), on-chip microfluidic pumps, or by means of capillary effect. We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in optofluidic light sources where a liquid laser dye in a micro-fluidic channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. A simple one-dimensional diffusion model is used to explore the characteristic evolution of the local un-bleached dye concentration in the optically pumped or bleached volume of the device. In the absence of convective flow, the decay of the local dye concentration in the optically pumped volume is governed by the diffusion rate and the resulting lifetime of the device is mainly limited by the capacity of the fluidic reservoirs. Generic microfluidic platforms typically allow for device layouts with a large volume ratio between the fluidic reservoir and the region being optically pumped. These conclusions drawn from the simple model are supported by basic experiments. Our investigations reveal the possibility that such optofluidic dye laser devices may potentially be operated for days by diffusion without the need for a convective flow. Relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment significantly simplifies optofluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip microfluidic pumping devices.

Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Kristensen, Anders

2007-09-01

326

Decolorization of Azo Dyes by Immobilized Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Decolorization has recently become an area of major scientific interest as indicated by the large quantity of related research\\u000a reports. During the past two decades, several color removal techniques have been reported, few of which have been accepted\\u000a by some industries. There is a need to find alternative technologies that are effective in decolorizing dyes from large volume\\u000a of effluents.

Mehmet Ali Mazmanci

327

Basic Warehousing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on basic warehousing is designed to provide Marines with Military Occupation Speciality 3051 in the rank of private through corporal with instruction in those basic principles, methods, and procedures that can be applied to any warehousing or storage…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

328

Basic Equality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a three-part study and defense of the idea of basic human equality. (This is the idea that humans are basically one another's equals, as opposed to more derivative theories of the dimensions in which we ought to be equal or the particular implications that equality might have for public policy.) Part (1) of the paper examines the very

Jeremy Waldron

2008-01-01

329

Equilibrium and kinetic studies on the adsorption of acidic dye by the gel anion exchanger.  

PubMed

In the present study, the gel anion exchanger Purolite A-850 of N(+)(CH(3))(3) functional groups was used in order to remove the acidic dye (Acid Blue 29) from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of phase contact time (1-180 min), initial concentration of dye (100-500 mg/L), solution pH (1-8), anion exchanger dosage (0.25-1.0 g) as well as temperature (20-40 degrees C). The contact time necessary to reach equilibrium was 40 min with the exception for the solution of the initial concentration 500 mg/L. The amounts of Acid Blue 29 adsorbed at equilibrium using the strongly basic anion exchanger were equal to 9.97, 19.97, 29.96 and 49.90 mg/g for the dye solutions of the initial concentrations 100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/L, respectively. The equilibrium sorption capacity slightly increased when the temperature of dye solution increased from 20 to 40 degrees C. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 83.303 mg/g at 20 degrees C. The value of R(L) was equal to 0.00054 (favourable). The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations were modeled using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data were well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. PMID:19692176

Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Hubicki, Zbigniew

2009-12-30

330

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms  

E-print Network

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms Radiation Radiation is energy in transit in the form of high not carry enough energy to separate molecules or remove electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly

Vallino, Joseph J.

331

Molecular Models of Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The paper on the synthesis of several dyes by James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett (1) provides us with the JCE Featured Molecules for this month. The authors mention various applications of these dyes, ranging from commercial dyeing to techniques for determining the course of complex biochemical processes. One of the reaction products, rhodamine B, is a member of a family of molecules that are widely used as tunable laser dyes. In this application, the rhodamines are most commonly encountered in a cationic form, rather than in the neutral form shown in the paper. In the cations, the carboxyl group is no longer part of a ring system. Several different members of the rhodamine family are included in the molecule collection because substituents have a marked effect on the effective lasing range of a given dye. Additionally, the solvent and the excitation source also influence the lasing range (2). Students can learn more about the relationship between structure, absorption and emission properties, and lasing ranges of various dyes by consulting ref 2 and from PhotochemCAD, Jonathan Lindsey's free application (3).

332

Preferential biodegradation of structurally dissimilar dyes from a mixture by Brevibacillus laterosporus.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of a mixture containing seven commercial textile dyes with different structures and color properties has been investigated by an ecofriendly strain--Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298. It showed 87% decolorization in terms of ADMI removal (American Dye Manufacturing Institute) within 24h. The effective decolorization of dye mixture was attained in the presence of metal salt--CaCl(2) and nitrogen sources. The induction of oxido-reductive enzymes such as veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase, NADH-DCIP reductase and azo reductase was found to be responsible for biotransformation of dyes. High performance thin layer chromatography exposed the mechanism of preferential biodegradation of dyes at different time periods. Significant change in the high pressure liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of sample before and after treatment confirmed the biodegradation of dye mixture. Phytotoxicity study revealed the much less toxic nature of the metabolites produced after the degradation of dyes mixture. PMID:21803494

Kurade, Mayur B; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Govindwar, Sanjay P

2011-09-15

333

Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

334

Decoloration and mineralization of reactive dyes using electron beam irradiation, Part I: Effect of the dye structure, concentration and absorbed dose (single, binary and ternary systems)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, three different reactive dyes (C.I. Reactive Red 4, C.I. Reactive Blue 2 and C.I. Reactive Yellow 4) and their blend solutions were irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam. Effect of absorbed dose, dye structure and primary solution concentrations on the pH value changes, degree of decoloration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of solutions were investigated. Results show that this method is effective in decomposition and decoloration of the dyes solutions. This method can be applied in mineralization of wastewater containing different dyes.

Vahdat, Ali; Bahrami, S. Hajir; Arami, M.; Bahjat, A.; Tabakh, F.; Khairkhah, M.

2012-07-01

335

Anaerobic–aerobic biotreatment of simulated textile effluent containing varied ratios of starch and azo dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined anaerobic–aerobic treatment was used to treat a simulated textile industry wastewater (overall HRT 1.8 days). The azo dye (PROCION Red H-E7B) and starch concentrations were varied in a series of 1-week experiments to determine the effect of starch:dye ratio on COD, BOD and colour removal. The treatment efficiency of the system at 1.9 g l?1 starch and 0.15 g l?1 dye

C O’Neill; F. R Hawkes; D. L Hawkes; S Esteves; S. J Wilcox

2000-01-01

336

Activated Carbon Produced from Waste Wood Pallets: Adsorption of Three Classes of Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon was derived from waste wood pallets in Hong Kong via phosphoric acid activation and applied to adsorption\\u000a of basic dye (methylene blue), acid dyes (acid blue 25 and acid red 151), and reactive dye (reactive red 23). The results\\u000a showed that respective adjustment in phosphoric acid concentration, impregnation ratio, activation temperature, and activation\\u000a time could maximize the surface

Daniel C. W. Tsang; Jing Hu; Mei Yi Liu; Weihua Zhang; Keith C. K. Lai; Irene M. C. Lo

2007-01-01

337

Basic HTML  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most web designers use an editor, it is a good idea to have a working knowledge of HTML code. It is useful to be able to go into the code and make adjustments that an editor will not do. knowing HTML will give you more control over the look and function of your web site. Remember that this is just the basics but will provide you with the tools to design great web sites. Assignment Instructions: Go through the HTML Goodies Primers. You will create some basic web pages in these primers. E-mail your instructor each primer assignment at tami.warnick@cmacademy.org Primer 1: Basic HTML: Introduction Instructions: Read through the primer and then send your instructor a breif summary of what you learned. Primer 2: Learn the Basic HTML Tags! Instructions: After ...

Warnick, Mrs.

2009-12-04

338

Basic Finance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

Vittek, J. F.

1972-01-01

339

The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

1976-01-01

340

Energy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demos and activities in this lesson are intended to illustrate the basic concepts of energy scienceâwork, force, energy, power etc., and the relationships among them. The "lecture" portion of the lesson includes many demonstrations to keep students engaged, yet has high expectations for students to perform energy-related calculations and convert units. A homework assignment and quiz are provided to reinforce and assess these basic engineering science concepts.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

341

REMOVAL OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY BIOADSORPTION ONTO Ricinus communis EPICARP ACTIVATED CARBON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis was used to remove a textile dye (methylene blue (MB)) from an aqueous solution by adsorption technique under varying conditions of agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption depended on solution pH, dye concentration, carbon concen- tration and contact time. Adsorption followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption

T. Santhi; S. Manonmani

2009-01-01

342

Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2012-01-01

343

The use of caffeine as a liquid filter in coaxial flashlamp pumped dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of cooling and preserving laser dyes can be solved by adding caffeine or other suitable filter materials to the cooling water in coaxial systems. Systems using dissolved filter chemicals are cheap, versatile and assist in heat removal from coaxial type dye lasers.

John Calkins; Ed Colley; John Hazle

1982-01-01

344

Adsorption of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Calcined Alunite and Granular Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyestuff production units and dyeing units have always had a pressing need for techniques that allow economical pretreatment for color in the effluent. The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters had made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment options. This paper deals with an investigation on alunite, existing wide reserves in Türkiye and in the world,

Mahmut Özacar; ?. Ayhan ?engil

2002-01-01

345

Sorption characterization of a cationic dye retained by clays and perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of C.I. Basic Blue 41 onto raw perlite, expanded perlite, bentonite and montmorillonite was characterized. Sorption experiments demonstrated that the clays are more efficient adsorbents compared with the perlites but their dye retention is less increased with pH and temperature. Higher dye aggregates are formed in all aluminosilicates due to the existence of adsorption locations that promote the

Maria Roulia; Alexandros A. Vassiliadis

2008-01-01

346

Basic Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by National Aerospace Technical Education Center (SpaceTEC), is centered on basic electricity. The presentation focuses on standards for SpaceTEC certification. Safety when using electricity is the focal point of the slides. Basic diagrams and charts illustrate the do and donâÂÂts when using electrical appliances. After the discussion of safety, the presentation shifts to the fundamental aspects of electricity. Such items as current, flow, voltage and other elements are discussed. Examples are used as representations of these basic processes. Overall, this is thorough presentation of this material. It totals nearly one-hundred twenty slides in length. Instructors could use this either as a presentation or simply to enhance existing curriculum.

2009-10-06

347

Lucifer dyes-highly fluorescent dyes for biological tracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lucifer dyes are intensely fluorescent 4-aminonaphthalimides which are readily visible in living cells at concentrations and levels of illumination at which they are nontoxic. Because of their low molecular weight they frequently pass from one cell to another; this widespread phenomenon, termed dye-coupling, is thought to reveal functional relationships between cells. Lucifer dyes can also be used for ultrastructural tracing

Walter W. Stewart

1981-01-01

348

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01

349

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11

350

Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

2012-03-01

351

Basic cosmology  

E-print Network

Basic cosmology describes the universe as a Robertson-Walker model filled with black-body radiation and no barionic matter, and as observational data it uses only the value of the speed of light, the Hubble and deceleration parameters and the black-body temperature at the present epoch. It predicts the value of the next new parameter in the Hubble law.

Ll. Bel

2014-03-22

352

Dispersion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A webcast presentation by Dr. Timothy Spangler (Director of the COMET Program and a former air quality consultant). This 25-minute lecture provides an overview of the basics of dispersion, the effects of different atmospheric conditions on dispersion, and how dispersion is commonly modeled after an accidental release of a hazardous material.

Comet

2002-11-12

353

Dyes adsorption using a synthetic carboxymethyl cellulose-acrylic acid adsorbent.  

PubMed

Removal of noxious dyes is gaining public and technological attention. Herein grafting polymerization was employed to produce a novel adsorbent using acrylic acid and carboxymethyl cellulose for dye removal. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy verified the adsorbent formed under optimized reaction conditions. The removal ratio of adsorbent to Methyl Orange, Disperse Blue 2BLN and malachite green chloride reached to 84.2%, 79.6% and 99.9%, respectively. The greater agreement between the calculated and experimental results suggested that pseudo second-order kinetic model better represents the kinetic adsorption data. Equilibrium adsorptions of dyes were better explained by the Temkin isotherm. The results implied that this new cellulose-based absorbent had the universality for removal of dyes through the chemical adsorption mechanism. PMID:25079652

Zhang, Genlin; Yi, Lijuan; Deng, Hui; Sun, Ping

2014-05-01

354

Role of brown-rot fungi in the bioremoval of azo dyes under different conditions  

PubMed Central

The present study is vital to the understanding of bioremediation of structurally different azo dyes by some unusual Brown-rot fungi. Bioremoval of each dye (20 mg l-1) was tested in two different culture media under static and shaking conditions by taking inocula from different fungi. Fungal strains showed varying dyes removal abilities, though considerable high in case of Acid Red (AR) 151(di-azo) as compared to Orange (Or) II (mono-azo). With an exception of Aspergillus tereus SA3, all the fungal isolates showed higher removal of dyes in SDB. Under static condition, the maximum decolorizing fungal strains were; Aspergillus flavus SA2 (67%) and Alternaria spp. SA4 (57%) in AR 151, while Penicillium spp. (34 and 33 %) in Orange II, in SDB and STE, respectively. Bioremoval of dyes was considerably increased when experiments were shifted from static to shaking mode. It was specifically increased (%) in; AR 151 (255) with Penicillium spp., Or II with A. flavus SA2 (112) and Alternaria spp. (111). The primary mechanism of dyes removal proved to be fungal biosorption. However, reduction of dyes (onto fungal) with formation of their products (?. naphthol, sulphalinic acid and aniline) furthermore revealed that dyes (specifically azo) were actually biodegraded. PMID:24031570

Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

2010-01-01

355

Treatment of textile dye wastewater using modified silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a ‘carrier’ was selected that would separate an anionic reactive dye from aqueous solution, and would display an intense white colour and a high adsorptive capacity. In this context, a commercial, highly dispersed precipitate, Syloid® 244 silica was employed to remove C.I. Reactive Blue 19. The adsorption resulted in blue pigmentation of the silica carrier; the ensuing

Agnieszka Andrzejewska; Andrzej Krysztafkiewicz; Teofil Jesionowski

2007-01-01

356

Decolorization of anthraquinone dye by Shewanella decolorationis S12  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of genus Shewanella, Shewanella decolorationis S12, from activated sludge of a textile-printing wastewater treatment plant, can decolorize Reactive Brilliant Blue K-GR, one kind of anthraquinone dye, with flocculation first. Although S. decolorationis displayed good growth in an aerobic condition, color removal was the best in an anaerobic condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH values and

Meiying Xu; Jun Guo; Guoqu Zeng; Xiaoyan Zhong; Guoping Sun

2006-01-01

357

Holograms recorded in organic dye sensitized dichromate gelatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental techniques are described for recording holograms in dichromate gelatin doped with an organic dye. This material has excellent resolution, and increase the photo sensibility. We present some basic studies about the possible form of to storage information, and reported results. This material is cheap, easy of to use, and it decrease the register time.

Páez-Trujillo, G.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Mejias-Brizuela, N.; Garay-Hernández, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Amigón-De León, E.

2007-09-01

358

[Allergy to dyes in stockings].  

PubMed

Skin allergies caused by the wearing of stockings and hose have received little attention. Findings in patients of an allergy department, enquiries at stocking counters of stores and recent publications indicate, however, that probably many more persons have an allergy to stocking dyes than is generally thought. Skin tests with isolated stocking dyes indicate that azo dye dispersion yellow 3, dispersion orange 3 and dispersion red 1 are the most important contact allergens. They were demonstrated in 18-21 of the 23 hose examined. In textile materials, azo dye dispersion blue 124 is predominant among allergens. Cross-reactions may occur to other dispersion azo dyes, used in cosmetics, textiles, toiletries and hygenic articles, permitted food additives and hair dyes. It is suggested that in persons who have dye allergy or intolerance, decolouration followed by colouring with natural colours be undertaken. PMID:6479046

Hausen, B M; Schulz, K H

1984-09-28

359

Plasma surface functionalization and dyeing kinetics of Pan-Pmma copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber surface modification with air corona plasma has been studied through dyeing kinetics under isothermal conditions at 30 °C on an acrylic-fiber fabric with a cationic dye (CI Basic Blue 3) analyzing the absorption, desorption and fixing on the surface of molecules having defined cationic character. The initial dyeing rate in the first 60 s indicates an increase of 58.3% in the dyeing rate due to the effect of corona plasma on the acrylic fiber surface. At the end of the dyeing process, the plasma-treated fabrics absorb 24.7% more dye, and the K/S value of the acrylic fabric increases by 8.8%. With selected dyestuff molecules, new techniques can be designed to amplify the knowledge about plasma-treated surface modifications of macromolecules.

Labay, C.; Canal, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Caballero, G.; Canal, J. M.

2013-10-01

360

GPS Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Aviation Administration maintains the graphically impressive Global Positioning System (GPS) Basics Web site. From the history of the global positioning system and how it works to governmental policy that controls its use, this site does a good job of explaining all facets of what GPS is about without being overly technical. Interested visitors can explore some of the other links that cover satellite navigation topics as well, such as GPS programs; a library of documents, fact sheets, press releases, and news; frequently asked questions; links; and more. Anyone interested in mapping, navigation, or similar subjects will enjoy exploring the interesting information provided on this well designed site.

361

Potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris for phytoremediation of a textile dye: Inducing antioxidant response in roots and leaves.  

PubMed

The potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris as an aquatic plant species was evaluated for phytoremediation of C.I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) from nutrient solution. Under the optimized experimental conditions, BR46 was removed up to 95% from incubation medium by H. vulgaris. The ability of the plant in consecutive removal under long term repetitive experiments confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the biodegradation efficiency. A predictive performance (R(2)=0.974) was obtained based on the network results. Interestingly, dye stress enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in H. vulgaris roots and leaves. Enzymatic responses found to be highly depended on the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was much higher in the roots than in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected in both roots and leaves which reflects the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23660490

Vafaei, F; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Zarei, M; Salehi Lisar, S Y

2013-07-01

362

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

363

Microwave assisted dyeing of polyester fabrics with disperse dyes.  

PubMed

Dyeing of polyester fabrics with thienobenzochromene disperse dyes under conventional and microwave heating conditions was studied in order to determine whether microwave heating could be used to enhance the dyeability of polyester fabrics. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. All samples dyed with or without microwave heating displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness. The biological activities of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungus were also evaluated. PMID:24022764

Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed Hilmy

2013-01-01

364

Dye laser tuner  

SciTech Connect

A laser of the kind in which the lasing medium is a free flowing dye stream incorporates a means of tuning the output wave length of the laser, this means being in the form of a wedged birefringent plate which is driven in a linear mode by a linear translator so that the thickness of the birefringent plate traversed by the intracavity beam of laser light may be varied.

Arthurs, E.G.; Purdie, A.F.

1980-11-11

365

New fluorescent symmetrically substituted perylene-3,4,9,10-dianhydride-azohybrid dyes: Synthesis and spectroscopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five phenolic azo-dyes (3a-e) were synthesized by diazo coupling of the suitably substituted anilines (1a-e) with phenol at low temperature in alkaline medium. The resulting dyes have low solubility in aqueous medium due to lack of carboxylic or sulfonic solubilizing functionalities. The hybridization of perylene dianhydride with phenolic azo-dyes was achieved by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction of perylene-3,4,9,10-dianhydride 4 with phenolic azo-dyes 3a-e in basic medium. The hybrid dyes exhibit absorption maxima ?max in the range 440-460 nm in aqueous medium due to presence of azo linkage and highly conjugated system of ? bonds. Fluorescence spectra of these dyes in water show sharp emission peaks with small band widths. The structures of perylene-azo dyes were confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy.

Saeed, Aamer; Shabir, Ghulam

2014-12-01

366

Barometer Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experimental activity is designed to develop a basic understanding of the interrelationship between temperature and pressure and the structure of a device made to examine this relationship. Resources needed to conduct this activity include two canning jars, two large rubber balloons, a heat lamp or lamp with 150 watt bulb, and access to freezer or water and ice. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 5 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

367

Biosorption of Basic Green 4 from aqueous solution by Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder.  

PubMed

Biosorption characteristics of Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder was investigated for decolorization of Basic Green 4 (BG 4), a cationic dye from its aqueous solutions employing a batch experimental set-up. Parameters that influence the sorption process such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were systematically studied. The optimum conditions for removal of BG 4 were found to be pH 9.0, contact time=150 min, biosorbent dosage=5.0 g L(-1), initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1). The temperature had a strong influence on the biosorption process. Further, the biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) surface area and pore size analysis. Experimental biosorption data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high coefficients of correlation (R(2)>0.99) at different temperatures. The pseudo second order kinetic model fitted well in correlation to the experimental results. Activation energy of the biosorption process (E(a)) was found to be 45.79 kJ mol(-1) by using the Arrhenius equation, indicating chemisorption nature of BG 4 sorption onto pineapple leaf powder. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the biosorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Overall, the present findings suggest that this environmentally friendly, efficient and low-cost biosorbent may be useful for the removal of BG 4 from aqueous media. PMID:21349693

Chowdhury, Shamik; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Saha, Papita

2011-06-01

368

Enhancement of Rhodamine B removal by low-cost fly ash sorption with Fenton pre-oxidation.  

PubMed

The removal of a basic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), by fly ash adsorption, Fenton oxidation, and combined Fenton oxidation-fly ash adsorption were evaluated. Even though fly ash is a low cost absorbent, a high dose of fly ash was needed to remove RhB. Only 54% of RhB was removed by 80 g L(-1) fly ash. Solution pH did not significantly affect the RhB sorption by fly ash after 8h. Fenton reagents at H(2)O(2) dose of 6 x 10(-3)M and pH 3 rapidly decolorized 97% of RhB within 2 min, and 72% of COD removal was obtained at 30min reaction time. Spectrum analysis result showed that a large area of UV spectrum at 200-400 nm remained after Fenton reaction. The addition of 1gL(-1) fly ash effectively removed COD from Fenton-treated solution, and the UV absorption spectrum at 220-400 nm totally vanished within 2h. COD removal of RhB by the combined Fenton oxidation and fly ash sorption process was 98%. The COD removal capacity of fly ash for Fenton-treated RhB solution was 41.6 times higher than that for untreated RhB solution. The results indicated that the combined process is a potential technique for RhB removal. PMID:19695774

Chang, Shih-Hsien; Wang, Kai-Sung; Li, Heng-Ching; Wey, Ming-Yen; Chou, Jing-Dong

2009-12-30

369

Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of methylene blue and of indigo carmine was spontaneous and exothermic occurring with entropy decrease. H(0) values confirmed the physical nature of the adsorption processes. The adsorption followed the Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetics over the entire range of tested concentrations but the process was controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The maximal uptakes were 7.81 mg g(-1), for methylene blue, and 1.09 mg g(-1) for indigo carmine, at room temperature. These results indicate that Brazil nut shells may be useful as adsorbent either for basic or acid dyes. PMID:19781853

de Oliveira Brito, Suzana Modesto; Andrade, Heloysa Martins Carvalho; Soares, Luciana Frota; de Azevedo, Rafael Pires

2010-02-15

370

Metabolism of azo dyes: implication for detoxication and activation.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are consumed and otherwise utilized in varying quantities in many parts of the world. Such widely used chemicals are of great concern with regard to their potential toxicity and carcinogenic properties. Their metabolism has been studied extensively and is significant for detoxication and metabolic activation. Both oxidative and reductive pathways are involved in these processes. The majority of azo dyes undergo reduction catalyzed by enzymes of the intestinal microorganisms and/or hepatic enzymes including microsomal and soluble enzymes. The selectivity of substrate and enzyme may to a large extent be determined by the oxygen sensitivity of reduction since a normal liver is mainly aerobic in all areas, whereas the microorganisms of the lower bowel exist in an anaerobic environment. However, it should be pointed out that the pO2 of centrilobular cells within the liver is only a fraction that of air, where pO2 = 150 torr. Therefore, an azo dye reduction experiment performed aerobically may not be an accurate predictor of reductive metabolism in all areas of the liver. Many of the azo dyes in common use today have highly charged substituents such as sulfonate. These resist enzymic attack and for the most part are poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract, providing poor access to the liver, the major site of the mixed-function oxidase system. Lipophilic dyes, such as DAB, which are often carcinogenic, readily access oxidative enzymes and are activated by both mixed-function oxidase and conjugating systems. Reduction of the carcinogenic dyes usually leads to loss of carcinogenic activity. By contrast, most of the highly charged water-soluble dyes become mutagenic only after reduction. Even then, most of the fully reduced amines required oxidative metabolic activation. An outstanding example is the potent human bladder carcinogen benzidine, which derives from the reduction of several azo dyes. Many problems regarding mutagenic and carcinogenic activation remain to be solved. At the present time, it is apparent that both oxidative and reductive pathways yield toxic products. Toxicologic assessment of azo dyes must consider all pathways and particularly the oxygen sensitivity of azoreduction. This is critical in the treatment of waste from chemical plants where there is a great need for soil bacteria which catalyze reduction aerobically. Consideration of secondary pathways are also of great concern. For example, azoreduction of carcinogenic dyes such as DAB removes carcinogenic activity although oxidative metabolism of the primary amines yield mutagenic products. Such apparent dilemmas must be dealt with when considering metabolism/toxicity relationships for azo dyes. PMID:1935573

Levine, W G

1991-01-01

371

Modeling the effects of adsorbent dose and particle size on the adsorption of reactive textile dyes by fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of three reactive dyes, Remazol Red, Remazol Blue and Rifacion Yellow, from aqueous solutions using fly ash as an adsorbent was studied in an agitated batch system to investigate the influence of two parameters viz., adsorbent dosage and particle size on the removal efficiency of the reactive dyes. Firstly, the adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such

S. Kara; C. Aydiner; E. Demirbas; M. Kobya; N. Dizge

2007-01-01

372

Niobium Oxide Nanoscrolls as Building Blocks for Dye-Sensitized Hydrogen Production from Water under Visible Light Irradiation  

E-print Network

by Gerischer in 1972.8 Scheme 1 illustrates the basic principle of dye-sensitized H2 production from waterNiobium Oxide Nanoscrolls as Building Blocks for Dye-Sensitized Hydrogen Production from Water be primarily attributed to the strong adsorption of Ru(bpy)3 2+ in the case of the nanoscrolls. The maximum

373

Decolorization Of Textile Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the use of ozone to decolorize textile dye solutions. The results describe the rates of reaction and the stoichiometry for the use of ozone to decolorize a simulated wastewater containing a bisazo acid dye (Acid Red 158). These rates of reaction are not sensitive to pH and are only mildly affected by temperature. The effects of

Julie Carrière; J. Peter Jones; Arthur D. Broadbent

1993-01-01

374

Optofluidic Distributed Feedback Dye Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review our recent work on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based optofluidic dye lasers using a guided wave distributed feedback (DFB) cavity. We show experimental results of single-mode operation, an integrated laser array, multiple color dye lasing, mechanical and fluidic tuning, and monolithic integration with microfluidic circuits. Potential applications and future directions are discussed

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2007-01-01

375

Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall

Yuze Sun; Jonathan D. Suter; Xudong Fan

2010-01-01

376

[Adsorption kinetic mechanism of ionic soluble dye mixture on fly ash].  

PubMed

The fly ash from coal combustion was used as adsorbent for the removal of binary mixtures of dyes from aqueous solution. The binary solution included reactive red 23 and one of reactive blue 4, reactive yellow 4, acid black 1 and acid blue 193. The experimental findings show the removal efficiency of reactive red 23 is about 60% -70% while the removal of acid dyes exceeds 90%. The removal value of reactive blue 4 is about 85%, while the value is only 50% for reactive yellow 4. The adsorption kinetic data are good fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The external diffusion coefficient solution is in the order of 10(-4) cm x s(-1), while the intraparticle diffusion coefficient is in the order of 10(-8) cm2 x s(1). Because all B(N) numbers are smaller than 100, adsorption of dyes on fly ash is mainly controlled by the external diffusion mechanism. PMID:25244842

Sun, De-Shuai; Zheng, Qiang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Fang, Long

2014-07-01

377

Methyl-orange and cadmium simultaneous removal using fly ash and photo-Fenton systems.  

PubMed

Wastewaters resulting from the textile and dye finishing industries need complex treatment for efficient removal of colour and other compounds existent in the dyeing and rising baths (heavy metals, surfactants, equalizers, etc.). Modified fly ash (FA) mixed with TiO(2) photocatalyst represent a viable option for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, and the optimized conditions are discussed in this paper for synthetic wastewaters containing methyl-orange (MO) and cadmium. For a cost-effective dye removal process, further tests were done, replacing the photocatalyst with a (photo)Fenton system. The optimized technological parameters (contact time, amount of fly ash and amount of Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) allow to reach removal efficiencies up to 88% for the heavy metal and up to 70% for the dye. The adsorption mechanisms and the process kinetic are discussed, also considering the possibility of in situ generation of the Fenton system, due to the fly ash composition. PMID:23200622

Visa, Maria; Duta, Anca

2013-01-15

378

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E. D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.

1984-01-01

379

Nevus Removal  

MedlinePLUS

... Surgical Removal of CMN - the State of the Art Alternate Therapies Nurse Confidential Research Update Life 102 ... Surgical Removal of CMN - the State of the Art Alternate Therapies Nurse Confidential Research Update Life 102 ...

380

Comprehensive review and compilation of treatment for azo dyes using microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent an emerging technology that focuses on power generation and effluent treatment. This review compiles articles related to MFCs using azo dye as the substrate. The significance of the general components in MFCs and systems of MFCs treating azo dye is depicted in this review. In addition, degradation of azo dyes such as Congo red, methyl orange, active brilliant red X-3B, amaranth, reactive blue 221, and acid orange 7 in MFCs are summarized. Further exploration and operational modification are suggested to address the challenges of complete removal of azo dye with maximum power generation in an MFC. In addition, a sequential treatment system with MFCs is suggested for complete mineralization of azo dye. PMID:23581242

Murali, V; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Hamidin, Nasrul

2013-03-01

381

Real-time imaging of electrical signals with an infrared FDA-approved dye.  

PubMed

Clinical methods used to assess the electrical activity of excitable cells are often limited by their poor spatial resolution or their invasiveness. One promising solution to this problem is to optically measure membrane potential using a voltage-sensitive dye, but thus far, none of these dyes have been available for human use. Here we report that indocyanine green (ICG), an infrared fluorescent dye with FDA approval as an intravenously administered contrast agent, is voltage-sensitive. The fluorescence of ICG can follow action potentials in artificial neurons and cultured rat neurons and cardiomyocytes. ICG also visualized electrical activity induced in living explants of rat brain. In humans, ICG labels excitable cells and is routinely visualized transdermally with high spatial resolution. As an infrared voltage-sensitive dye with a low toxicity profile that can be readily imaged in deep tissues, ICG may have significant utility for clinical and basic research applications previously intractable for potentiometric dyes. PMID:25229155

Treger, Jeremy S; Priest, Michael F; Iezzi, Raymond; Bezanilla, Francisco

2014-09-16

382

Abatement of Azo Dye from Wastewater Using Bimetal-Chitosan  

PubMed Central

We introduce a new adsorbent, bimetallic chitosan particle (BCP) that is successfully synthesized and applied to remove the orange II dye from wastewater. The effects of pH, BCP quantity, and contact time are initially verified on the basis of the percentage of orange II removed from the wastewater. Experimental data reveal that the Cu/Mg bimetal and chitosan have a synergistic effect on the adsorption process of the adsorbate, where the dye adsorption by Cu/Mg bimetal, chitosan alone, and bimetal-chitosan is 10, 49, and 99.5%, respectively. The time required for the complete decolorization of orange II by 1?mg/L of BCP is 10?min. The Langmuir model is the best fit for the experimental data, which attains a maximum adsorption capacity of 384.6?mg/g. The consideration of the kinetic behavior indicates that the adsorption of orange II onto the BCP fits best with the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Further, the simulated azo dye wastewater can be effectively treated using a relatively low quantity of the adsorbent, 1?mg/L, within a short reaction time of 20?min. Overall, the use of BCP can be considered a promising method for eliminating the azo dye from wastewater effectively. PMID:24348163

Asgari, Ghorban; Farjadfard, Sima

2013-01-01

383

Different molecular complexity of linear-isomaltomegalosaccharides and ?-cyclodextrin on enhancing solubility of azo dye ethyl red: Towards dye biodegradation.  

PubMed

Intermolecular interaction of linear-type ?-(1?6)-glucosyl megalosaccharide rich (L-IMS) and water-insoluble anionic ethyl red was firstly characterized in a comparison with inclusion complexation by cyclodextrins (CDs) to overcome the problem of poor solubility and bioavailability. Phase solubility studies indicated an enhancement of 3- and 9-fold over the solubility in water upon the presence of L-IMS and ?-CD, respectively. (1)H NMR and circular dichrosim spectra revealed the dye forms consisted of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex within the ?-CD cavity, whereas they exhibited non-specific hydrophobic interaction, identified by solvent polarity changes, with L-IMS. The inclusion complex delivered by ?-CD showed an uncompetitive inhibitory-type effect to azoreductase, particularly with high water content that did not promote dye liberation. Addition of the solid dye dispersed into coupled-enzyme reaction system supplied by L-IMS as the dye solubilizer provided usual degradation rate. The dye intermission in series exhibited successful removal with at least 5 cycles was economically feasible. PMID:25087215

Lang, Weeranuch; Kumagai, Yuya; Sadahiro, Juri; Maneesan, Janjira; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Sakairi, Nobuo; Kimura, Atsuo

2014-10-01

384

Equilibrium uptake, sorption dynamics, process optimization, and column operations for the removal and recovery of malachite green from wastewater using activated carbon and activated slag  

SciTech Connect

The waste slurry generated in fertilizer plants and slag (blast furnace waste) have been converted into low-cost adsorbents, activated carbon and activated slag, respectively, and these are utilized for the removal of malachite green (a basic dye) from wastewater. In the batch experiments, parameters studied include the effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentration, temperature, and contact time. Kinetic studies have been performed to have an idea of the mechanistic aspects and to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of the process. The uptake of the dye is greater on carbonaceous material than on activated slag. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The presence of anionic surfactants does not affect the uptake of dye significantly. The mass transfer kinetic approach has been applied for the determination of various parameters necessary for the designing of fixed-bed contactors. Chemical regeneration has been achieved with acetone in order to recover the loaded dye and restore the column to its original capacity without dismantling the same.

Gupta, V.K.; Srivastava, S.K.; Mohan, D. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Chemistry Dept.] [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Chemistry Dept.

1997-06-01

385

Regeneration Research of Porous Magnetic Microspheres during Treatment of Wastewater Containing Cationic Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application feasibility of porous magnetic microspheres in the removal of cationic dyes from wastewater was investigated. Various desorption solutions were employed for the recovery of cationic dyes from absorbents and regeneration of porous magnetic microspheres. The results showed that 1 M NaCl or 1 M KCl in water\\/methanol co-solvent had excellent desorption ability for methyl violet. This fact was further demonstrated

Qingquan Liu; Li Wang; Anguo Xiao; Haojie Yu; Mårten Ericson

2010-01-01

386

Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions using Eichhornia crassipes.  

PubMed

Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using dried roots, stems, and leaves of Eichhornia crassipes biomass obtained from Lake Victoria was studied. Batch experimental results revealed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, E. crassipes particle size and aqueous solution temperature. The isotherm data fitted Freundlich mathematical models with maximum dye adsorption of 35.37 mg g(-1). Roots adsorbed over 99 % of the MB in <5 min. Sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. Results provide evidence that E. crassipes is an effective and inexpensive biomaterial for dye removal from aqueous dye solutions and industrial effluents. PMID:23839152

Wanyonyi, Wycliffe Chisutia; Onyari, John Mmari; Shiundu, Paul Mwanza

2013-09-01

387

Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis by adsorption.  

PubMed

The use of low-cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 7.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50 min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of malachite green followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 7 as 99.04% for adsorbent dose of 1 g 50 mL(-1) and 25 mg L(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from R. communis can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG. PMID:20303654

Santhi, T; Manonmani, S; Smitha, T

2010-07-15

388

High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-print Network

High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. KEYWORDS Solar cell, energy transfer, dye-sensitized dolar cell, energy relay dye, titania L ong range energy transfer has recently been

McGehee, Michael

389

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe. PMID:22476459

2012-01-01

390

Adsorbent Derived from Pinus pinaster Tannin for Cationic Surfactant Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinus tannin gel (PTG) has proven to be an effective adsorbent for removing various cationic pollutants including heavy metals, dyes, and surfactants. The form of obtaining these condensed tannins from Pinus pinaster bark was conventional aqueous extraction using 5.0% ethanol as additive. The present study focused on the removal of the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) from aqueous solutions using PTG.

J. Sánchez-Martín; J. Beltrán-Heredia; I. J. Seabra; M. E. M. Braga; H. C. de Sousa

2012-01-01

391

AN ENZYMATIC METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF PHENOL FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenols in an aqueous solution were removed after treatment with peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Phenols occur in wastewater of a number of industries, such as high temperature coal conversion, petroleum refining, resin and plastic, wood and dye industries, etc. It can be toxic when present at elevated levels and is known to be carcinogeneous. Thus, removal of

Naresh Singh; Jai Singh

2002-01-01

392

Studies on the utility of plant cellulose waste for the bioadsorption of crystal violet dye.  

PubMed

Several synthetic dyes employed in textile and food industries are discharged into aquatic environment. These visible pollutants in water damage environment, as they are carcinogenic and toxic to humans. The use of cost effective and ecofriendly plant cellulose based adsorbents have been studied in batch experiments as an alternative and effective substitution of activated carbon for the removal of toxic dyes from waste water. Adsorbents prepared from sugarcane baggase, were successfully used to remove certain textile dye such as crystal violet from an aqueous solution. The present investigation potentiate the use of sugarcane baggase, pretreated with formaldehyde (referred as Raw Baggase) and sulphuric acid (referred as Chemically Activated Baggase), for the removal of crystal violet dye from simulated waste water. Experiments were carried out at neutral pH with various parameters like dye concentration, temperature, contact time and adsorbent dosage. Efficiency of raw baggase was found better than chemically activated baggase for adsorption of crystal violet dye. The data obtained perfectly fits in the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. PMID:21046996

Mahesh, S; Kumar, G Vijay; Agrawal, Pushpa

2010-05-01

393

Modeling materials and processes in dye-sensitized solar cells: understanding the mechanism, improving the efficiency.  

PubMed

We present a review of recent first-principles computational modeling studies on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), focusing on the materials and processes modeling aspects which are key to the functioning of this promising class of photovoltaic devices. Crucial to the DSCs functioning is the photoinduced charge separation occurring at the heterointerface(s) between a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline, mesoporous metal oxide electrode and a redox shuttle. Theoretical and computational modeling of isolated cell components (e.g., dye, semiconductor nanoparticles, redox shuttle, etc…) as well as of combined dye/semiconductor/redox shuttle systems can successfully assist the experimental research by providing basic design rules of new sensitizers and a deeper comprehension of the fundamental chemical and physical processes governing the cell functioning and its performances. A computational approach to DSCs modeling can essentially be cast into a stepwise problem, whereby one first needs to simulate accurately the individual DSCs components to move to relevant pair (or higher order) interactions characterizing the device functioning. This information can contribute to enhancing further the target DSCs characteristics, such as temporal stability and optimization of device components. After presenting selected results for isolated dyes, including the computational design of new dyes, and model semiconductors, including realistic nanostructure models, we focus in the remainder of this review on the interaction between dye-sensitizers and semiconductor oxides, covering organic as well as metallorganic dyes. PMID:24682760

Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

2014-01-01

394

Full-field dye concentration measurement within saturated/unsaturated thin slabs of porous media  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a full-field dye concentration measurement technique that extends our experimental capabilities to the measurement of transient dye concentration fields within steady state flow fields under unsaturated or saturated conditions. Simple light absorption theory provides a basis for translating images into high resolution dye concentration fields. A series of dye pulse experiments that demonstrate the combined use of the full-field saturation and dye concentration techniques was conducted at four different degrees of saturation. Each of these experimental sequences was evaluated with respect to mass balance, the results being within 5% of the known dye mass input. An image windowing technique allowed us to see increased dispersion due to decreasing moisture content, tailing of concentration at the rear of the dye pulse and slight velocity changes of the dispersive front due to changes in moisture content. The exceptional resolution of dye concentration in space and time provided by this laboratory technique allows systematic experimentation for examining basic processes affecting solute transport within saturated/unsaturated porous media. Future challenges for this work will be to use these techniques to analyze more complex systems involving heterogeneities, scaling laws, and detailed investigations of the relationship between transverse and longitudinal dispersion in unsaturated media.

Norton, D.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology; Glass, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31

395

Response surface optimization of acid red 119 dye from simulated wastewater using Al based waterworks sludge and polyaluminium chloride as coagulant.  

PubMed

In this research, the performance of Polyaluminium Chloride (PAC) and Polyaluminium Chloride sludge (PACS) as coagulants for acid red 119 (AR119) dye removal from aqueous solutions were compared. The sample of PACS was collected from "Baba Sheikh Ali" water treatment plant (Isfahan, Iran) where PAC is used as a coagulant in the coagulation/flocculation process. A response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the simple and combined effects of the operating variables including initial pH, coagulant dosage and initial dye concentration and to optimize the operating conditions of the treatment process. Results reveal that the optimal conditions for dye removal were initial pH 3.42, coagulant dosage of 4.55 g dried PACS/L and initial dye concentration of 140 mg/L for PACS, while the optimal initial pH, coagulant dosage and initial dye concentration for PAC were 3.8, 57 mg/L and 140 mg/L, respectively. Under these optimal values of process parameters, the dye removal efficiency of 94.1% and 95.25% was observed for PACS and PAC, respectively. Although lower amount of PAC in comparison with PACS was needed for specific dye removal, the reuse of PACS as a low-cost material can offer some advantages such as high efficiency for AR119 dye removal and economic savings on overall water and wastewater treatment plant operation costs. PMID:21216522

Moghaddam, S Sadri; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Arami, M

2011-04-01

396

Biosorption of Basic Orange using dried A. filiculoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the biosorption of Basic Organic (BO) textile dye on dried Azolla filiculoides (A. filiculoides), batch experiments were conducted under various conditions. The results show that biosorption of BO on dried A. filiculoides was dependent on the initial solution pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time and the initial BO concentration. Using the Langmuir equation, the biosorption capacity (qm)

Cai-yun Tan; Gan Li; Xiao-Qiao Lu; Zu-liang Chen

2010-01-01

397

Removal of Rhodamine-B by biogas waste slurry from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of biogas waste slurry to adsorb a basic dye (Rhodamine-B) has been investigated. The parameters include agitation time, initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage. The rate controlling step is mainly intraparticle diffusion. The adsorption rate constant was found to be 2.9 × 10-2 min-1 at 20 mg L-1 initial dye concentration. The adsorption conforms with Freundlich isotherm.

C. Namasivayam; R. T. Yamuna

1992-01-01

398

Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes  

PubMed Central

Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively. PMID:22899898

Mogharabi, Mehdi; Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser; Bozorgi-Koushalshahi, Maryam; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Bagherzadeh, Ghodsieh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

399

Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

2013-01-01

400

Color removal from aqueous solution by biogas residual slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Brilliant Blue on biogas residual slurry has been investigated. The parameters studied include dye concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH. The equilibrium data fit well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption isotherm. Maximum removal of 99% was observed at pH 2.56. Desorption studies indicate that the dye is solubilised in 50%(v\\/v) acetic

R. T. Yamuna; C. Namasivayam

1993-01-01

401

Adsorption of allura red dye by cross-linked chitosan from shrimp waste.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the chitosan, which has been obtained by deacetylation of chitin, as a biosorbent. The chitin was isolated from fermented shrimp waste by an important local industrial food biopolymer. The aim of this work was the characterization of chitosan and preparation of cross-linked chitosan- tripolyphosphate (chitosan-TPP) beads for the removal of allura red food dye from aqueous solutions. Conditions of batch adsorption such as pH, time and adsorbent dose were examined. The effectiveness of cross-linked chitosan beads for dye removal was found to be higher for pH 2 (98%, percentage of dye removal) and tends to decrease at pHs of 3 to 11 (up to 49%). The values of percentage removal show that the adsorption capacity increases with time of contact and dosage of chitosan-TPP, but red dye adsorption is mainly influenced by pH level. The cross-linked chitosan-TPP beads can significantly adsorb allura red monoazo dye from aqueous solutions even at acidic pHs unlike raw chitosan beads that tend to dissolve in acidic solutions. Consequently, this modified chitosan has characteristics that allow minimization of environmental pollution and widening the valorization of shrimp waste. PMID:22277220

Sánchez-Duarte, Reyna G; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Correa-Murrieta, Ma A

2012-01-01

402

Competitive adsorption of dye metanil yellow and RB15 in acid solutions on chemically cross-linked chitosan beads.  

PubMed

One kind of adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity for anionic dyes was prepared using ionically and chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption behavior of one acid dye (MY, metanil yellow) and one reactive dye (RB15, reactive blue 15) in aqueous solutions by the cross-linked chitosan beads. The adsorption capacities was 3.56 mmol g(-1) (1334 mg g(-1)) for dye MY and 0.56 mmol g(-1) (722 mg g(-1)) for dye RB15 at pH4, 30 degrees C. The Langmuir model agreed very well with the experimental data (R(2)>0.996). The kinetics of adsorption for a single dye and the kinetics of removal of ADMI color value in mixture solutions at different initial dye concentrations were evaluated by the nonlinear first-order and second-order models. The first-order kinetic model fits well with the dynamical adsorption behavior of a single dye for lower initial dye concentrations, while the second-order kinetic model fits well for higher initial dye concentrations. The competitive adsorption favored the dye RB15 in the mixture solution (initial conc. (mM): MY=1.34; RB15=1.36); while it favored the dye MY in the mixture solution (initial conc. (mM): MY=3.00; RB15=1.34) and the adsorption kinetics for dye RB15 has the tendency to shift to a slower first order model. PMID:15967484

Chiou, Ming-Shen; Chuang, Guo-Syong

2006-02-01

403

Development of adsorbent from Teflon waste by radiation induced grafting: equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of dyes.  

PubMed

Mutual radiation grafting technique was employed to graft polyacrylic acid (PAA) onto Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) scrap using high energy gamma radiation. Polyacrylic acid-g-Teflon (PAA-g-Teflon) adsorbent was characterized by grafting extent measurement, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and wet ability & surface energy analysis. The PAA-g-Teflon adsorbent was studied for dye adsorption from aqueous solution of basic dyes, namely, Basic red 29 (BR29) and Basic yellow 11 (BY11). The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models, whereas, adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. Equilibrium adsorption of BR29 was better explained by Langmuir adsorption model, while that of BY11 by Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption capacity for BY11 was more than for BR29. Separation factor (R(L)) was found to be in the range 0 < R(L) < 1, indicating favorable adsorption of dyes. Higher coefficient of determination (r(2) > 0.99) and better agreement between the q(e,cal) and q(e,exp) values suggested that pseudo-second order kinetic model better represents the kinetic adsorption data. The non-linearity obtained for intra-particle diffusion plot indicated, more than one process is involved in the adsorption of basic dyes. The desorption studies showed that ~95% of the adsorbed dye could be eluted in suitable eluent. PMID:21855214

Goel, N K; Kumar, Virendra; Pahan, S; Bhardwaj, Y K; Sabharwal, S

2011-10-15

404

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

405

Removal of arsenic compounds by chemisorption filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on arsenic removal from water sources down to the residual concentration below 10 ?g\\/l are reported. The basic physico-chemical\\u000a parameters are set for arsenic removal by polystyrene modified by polymer polyHIPE granules, calcium alginate granules saturated\\u000a (coated) with iron hydroxide. Adsorption filtration is an efficient method of arsenic removal.

P. M. Solozhenkin; A. I. Zouboulis; I. A. Katsoyiannis

2007-01-01

406

Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and mechanism of methylene blue adsorption on perlite have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as initial dye concentration, temperature and pH on the adsorption rate were investigated. Adsorption measurements show that the process is very fast and physical in nature. The extent of the dye removal increased with increase in the initial concentration of

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan; Ayd?n Türkyilmaz; Yasemin Özdemir

2004-01-01

407

Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton cellulose using a new reactive dye.  

PubMed

Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric using a new antibacterial reactive dye having a modified chemical structure to the commercial reactive dye CI Reactive Red 198 were studied. This modification was carried out by replacing metanilic acid in the commercial dye with 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (sulfadimidine). Optimum exhaustion and fixation values were achieved at 60 g/l sodium sulphate and 20 g/l sodium carbonate for both dyes. The modified dye exhibited higher substantivity, exhaustion and fixation efficiency compared to the commercial dye. Antibacterial activities of the dyed samples at different concentrations of both dyes were studied against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The cotton dyed with the modified dye shows higher antibacterial efficacy compared to the dyed cotton fabric using the commercial dye, especially on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. All the reactive dyeings also exhibited high fastness properties. PMID:23769529

Farouk, R; Gaffer, H E

2013-08-14

408

Novel fluoranthene dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three, novel, fluoranthene-based dyes, 2-cyano-3-(5-(7,12-diphenylbenzo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylic acid, 2-(5-((5-(7,12-diphenylben-zo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)thiophen-2-yl)methylene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid and 2-cyano-3-(4-(2-(7,12-diphenylbenzo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)ethynyl) phenyl) acrylic acid, were synthesized for application as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. In each dye, the 7,12-diphenyl-benzo[k]fluoranthene moiety acted as electron donor with phenyl and thiophene units as electron spacers and carboxylic acid as electron acceptor. Tuning of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels was conveniently accomplished by changing

Xuemei Ma; Wenjun Wu; Qiong Zhang; Fuling Guo; Fanshun Meng; Jianli Hua

2009-01-01

409

Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

De Laat, F.

1966-01-01

410

Studies on degradation of reactive textile dyes solution by electrochemical method.  

PubMed

The indirect electrochemical degradation of industrial effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. This paper deals with the electrochemical degradation of Novacron Deep Red C-D (NDRCD) and Novacron Orange C-RN (NOCRN) reactive azo dyes from aqueous solution using graphite carbon electrodes. The results indicated that initial pH, current density and supporting electrolytes were played an important role in the degradation of dyes. Electrochemical behavior of reactive azo dyes has been studied with cyclic voltammetry in acidic medium using pencil graphite as working electrode. The potentials selected for the two dyes were in the range +1.0 to -0.4V and +0.5 to -0.2V, respectively. The CV, UV-Vis and chemical oxygen demand (COD) studies were selected to evaluate the degradation efficiency. The maximum colour removal efficiency of 99% and 97% and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 88% and 82% could be achieved for CDRCD and COCRN, respectively at 7 g L(-1) of NaCl concentration. The LC-MS study revealed the degradation of both the dyes and confirmed that the azo groups and aromatic rings were destroyed. The results revealed the suitability of the present process for the effective degradation of dye effluents. PMID:21536376

Kariyajjanavar, Prakash; Jogttappa, Narayana; Nayaka, Yanjerappa Arthoba

2011-06-15

411

Chitosan beads as barriers to the transport of azo dye in soil column.  

PubMed

The development of chitosan-based materials as useful adsorbent polymeric matrices is an expanding field in the area of adsorption science. Although chitosan has been successfully used for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions, no consideration is given to the removal of dyes from contaminated soils. Therefore this study focuses on the potential use of chitosan as an in situ remediation technology. The chitosan beads were used as barriers to the transport of a reactive dye (Reactive Black 5, RB5) in soil column experiments. Batch sorption experiments, kinetic and equilibrium, were performed to estimate the sorption behavior of both chitosan and soil. The chitosan beads were prepared in accordance with published literature and a synthetic soil was prepared by mixing quantities of sand, silt and clay. The synthetic soil was classified according to British Standards. Calcium chloride was used as tracer to define transport rates and other physical experimental parameters. Dye transport reaction parameters were determined by fitting dye breakthrough curves (BTCs) to the HYDRUS-1D version 4.xx software. Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to reveal the sorption mechanism. The study showed that chitosan exhibited a high sorption capacity (S(max)=238 mg/g) and pseudo-first sorption rate (k(1)=1.02 h(-1)) coupled with low swelling and increased retardation for the azo dye tested. Thus it has potential as a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) for containment and remediation of contaminated sites. PMID:19740603

Lazaridis, Nikolaos K; Keenan, Helen

2010-01-15

412

Color removal from textile effluents by electrochemical destruction  

SciTech Connect

In this work, aqueous solutions of three azo dyes and a waste water sample taking from a local textile plant have been studied. Effect of several factors such as color, pH, presence of NaCl, applied potential, initial dye concentration and solution flow rate on the removal rate has been investigated. Energy consumption values have been calculated for different initial dye concentrations and flow rates, and shown as the function of applied potential. Removal rates of 98%, 86% and 85% have been achieved with energy consumption values of 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1], 0.106 kWhg[sup [minus]1] and 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1] for Ostazin Rod H3B, Ostazin Black HN and Ostazin Olive HG respectively. Removal rate of 82% with energy consumption value of 2 kWhm[sup [minus]3] has been observed for textile effluent. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Oeguetveren, U.B.; Koparal, S. (Anadolu Ueniversitesi, Eskisehir (Turkey))

1994-01-01

413

Tick removal  

MedlinePLUS

... are small, insect-like creatures that live in woods and fields. They attach to you as you ... your clothes and skin often while in the woods. After returning home: Remove your clothes. Look closely ...

414

Adenoid removal  

MedlinePLUS

... tissue is used. Some surgeons use electricity to heat the tissue, remove it, and stop bleeding. This is called electrocautery. Another method uses radiofrequency (RF) energy to do the same thing. This is called ...

415

Tattoo removal.  

PubMed

Tattoos have been a part of costume, expression, and identification in various cultures for centuries. Although tattoos have become more popular in western culture, many people regret their tattoos in later years. In this situation, it is important to be aware of the mechanisms of tattoo removal methods available, as well as their potential short- and long-term effects. Among the myriad of options available, laser tattoo removal is the current treatment of choice, given its safety and efficacy. PMID:17697922

Burris, Katy; Kim, Karen

2007-01-01

416

Tattoo removal.  

PubMed

Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal. PMID:21865802

Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

2011-01-01

417

Evaluation of adsorption potential of adsorbents: a case of uptake of cationic dyes.  

PubMed

Adsorption potential of a commercial activated carbon (FS300) has been evaluated for the uptake of cationic dyes namely methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB). Though, there are numerous studies in literature which report the sorption of MB (more than 40 studies) and RB (more than 10), however none of these use a common parameter to report the capacity of the sorbent. A protocol, based on the equilibrium dye concentration has been proposed to measure the sorption potential of a sorbent. The Langmuir model can very well describe the experimental equilibrium data for both dyes (coefficient of correlation > 0.999). MB (Qm = 312.5 mg g(-1)) is more adsorbable than the RB (Qm = 144.9 mg g(-1)). Molecular weight and chemical structure of dye molecules seem to affect the dye uptake. The effect of pH on dye uptake has also been evaluated by varyingpH from 3 to 11. Uptake of MB increases with pH, wherein RB removal decreases with pH. Dyes could not be desorbed either by distilled water (0.06 and 0.11% for MB and RB respectively), or by 0.1 NHCl (0.136 and 3.0% for MB and RB respectively) indicating, chemical adsorption type of adsorbent-adsorbate interactions. PMID:18831328

Maurya, Nityanand Singh; Mittal, Atul Kumar; Cornel, Peter

2008-01-01

418

Dyeing behavior of low temperature plasma treated wool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment on the dyeing properties of the wool fiber were studied.\\u000a The wool fibers were treated with oxygen plasma and three types of dye that commonly used for wool dyeing, namely: (i) acid\\u000a dye, (ii) chrome dye and (iii) reactive dye, were used in the dyeing process. For acid dyeing,

C. W. Kan

2006-01-01

419

In vivo local dye electroporation for Ca2+ imaging and neuronal-circuit tracing.  

PubMed

A major technical challenge for using optical imaging to analyze neuronal circuit functions is how to effectively load synthetic Ca(2+) dyes or neural tracers into the brain. We introduce here a simple but versatile approach to label many neurons and clearly visualize their axonal and dendritic morphology. The method uses a large-tip patch pipette filled with dextran-conjugated Ca(2+) dyes or fluorescent tracers. By inserting the pipette into a targeted brain area and passing microampere current pulses, dyes or tracers are electroporated into dendrites and axons near the pipette tip. The dyes are then transported to reveal the entire cell morphology, suitable for both functional Ca(2+) imaging and neuronal circuit tracing. This process requires basic physiological equipment normally available in a physiological laboratory. PMID:25183821

Nagayama, Shin; Fletcher, Max L; Xiong, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun; Chen, Wei R

2014-01-01

420

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

421

TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

422

FATE OF COMMERCIAL DISPERSE DYES IN SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. he commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely used. eaction rates were fo...

423

New fluoranthene-based cyanine dye for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new fluoranthene-based unsymmetrical organic cyanine dye I and the corresponding cyanine dye II containing ethynyl unit for the purpose of comparison were designed and synthesized as sensitizers for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The absorption spectra, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of I and II were extensively investigated. The DSSCs based on the fluoranthene dye

Wenjun Wu; Fuling Guo; Jing Li; Jinxiang He; Jianli Hua

2010-01-01

424

Anaerobic\\/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass

S. Seshadri; P. L. Bishop; A. M. Agha

1994-01-01

425

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

426

Laser action of dyes in gelatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-gain directional stimulated emission has been observed for a number of dyes in gelatin with pumping by a nitrogen laser or a liquid dye laser. For some dyes the gel is made with water and gelatin; for others a detergent must be added or glycerin used instead of water.

T. Hansch; M. Pernier; A. Schawlow

1971-01-01

427

Microbial decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes and dyestuffs find use in a wide range of industries but are of primary importance to textile manufacturing. Wastewater from the textile industry can contain a variety of polluting substances including dyes. Increasingly, environmental legislation is being imposed to control the release of dyes, in particular azo-based compounds, into the environment. The ability of microorganisms to decolourise and metabolise

G. McMullan; C. Meehan; A. Conneely; N. Kirby; T. Robinson; P. Nigam; I. M. Banat; R. Marchant; W. F. Smyth

2001-01-01

428

Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.  

PubMed

The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name. PMID:23957706

Cooksey, C J

2014-02-01

429

Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of synthetic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial dyes are not uniformly susceptible to microbial attack in conventional aerobic treatment because of their unique and stable chemical structures. Three synthetic dyes with typical chromophores (anthraquinone, azo and indigo) were decolorized by a white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. The responsible enzyme for dye decomposition was laccase, an extracellular oxidase released by the fungus under the conditions of slow growth

Yuxing Wong; Jian Yu

1999-01-01

430

Removal of direct blue-86 from aqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel.  

PubMed

The use of low-cost, easy obtained, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from orange peel for the removal of direct blue-86 (DB-86) (Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as approximately 2.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 30min after the beginning for every experiment. The adsorption of direct blue-86 followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit well Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations better than Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations. The maximum removal of direct blue-86 was obtained at pH 2 as 92% for adsorbent dose of 6gL(-1) and 100mgL(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 33.78mgg(-1). Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of DB-86 was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation (R2>0.99) with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Activated carbon developed from orange peel can be attractive options for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater show better removal percentage of DB-86. PMID:18455301

Nemr, Ahmed El; Abdelwahab, Ola; El-Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

2009-01-15

431

Electroenzymatic degradation of azo dye using an immobilized peroxidase enzyme.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are largely resistant to biodegradation and persist in conventional wastewater treatment processes. Combining enzymatic catalysis and the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an electroenzymatic process was developed, which is a potential alternative to traditional processes. In this study, an electroenzymatic method that uses an immobilized horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP), was investigated to degrade orange II (azo dye) within a two-compartment packed-bed flow reactor. To evaluate the electroenzymatic degradation of orange II, electrolytic experiments were carried out with 0.42 U/mL HRP at -0.5 V. It was found that removal of orange II was partly due to its adsorption to the graphite felt. The overall application of the electroenzymatic led to a greater degradation rate than the use of electrolysis alone. Also the by-products formed were found to consist primarily of an aromatic amine, sulfanilic acid, and unknown compounds. PMID:16084014

Kim, Gha-Young; Lee, Ki-Beom; Cho, Seung-Hee; Shim, Joonmok; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

2005-11-11

432

Deciphering simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization using Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This first-attempt study disclosed how and why electron-shuttling mediators were capable to stimulate bioelectricity-generating capabilities of dye-bearing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Proteus hauseri. Due to significant biotoxicity of 4-aminophenol (4AP) and the absence of electron-mediating potential of 3AP, only 2AP among all isomers could work as an exogenous mediator to stimulate bioelectricity generation of P. hauseri. Dye toxicity to cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs apparently affected the performance of simultaneous bioelectricity production and color removal (SBP&CR) in MFCs. Plus, dose-response analysis upon toxicity potency of reactive blue 160 revealed that cells on anodic biofilm in MFCs had a higher tolerance to reactive blue 160 than suspended cells. Apparently, augmentation of electron mediator(s) with low toxicity was a feasible means to facilitate bioelectricity-generating capability of SBP&CR. PMID:22178022

Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Yu-Min; Ng, I-Son; Liu, Shi-Qi; Hung, Jhao-Yin

2012-04-01

433

Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

434

Mac Basic Recording Mac Basic Recording  

E-print Network

Mac Basic Recording Mac Basic Recording The Panopto (My Pitt Video) Mac Recorder allows a lot/recording. Logging In Creators are able to log in to the Mac Recorder with their credentials and record video, audio and Password" the next time the Mac Recorder is launched it will automatically login. 4. Click Create New

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

435

Micelle dyeing with low liquor ratio for reactive dyes using dialkyl maleic acid ester surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micelle dyeing with low liquor ratio is novel fabric dyeing method for cleaner production. Preparation and interaction of dye-surfactant micelles using dibutyl maleic acid ester sodium sulfate surfactant were investigated by UV–Vis spectra. Dyeing properties of cellulose fabrics using micelle dyeing with low liquor ratio were discussed by color yields (K\\/S), color differences (?E), exhaustion (E), fixation (F) and reactivity

Kongliang Xie; Fangfang Cheng; Weiguo Zhao; Lei Xu

2011-01-01

436

Application of rare earth as mordant for the dyeing of ramie fabrics with natural dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting appropriate metallic compounds as mordants is essential for dyeing with natural dyes. This paper presents the application\\u000a of rare earth compounds as mordant for the dyeing of ramie fabrics with four kinds of natural dyes. The influences of pre-mordanting,\\u000a simultaneous mordanting, and post-mordanting on the dyeing effect were explored. The post-mordanting was proved to give rise\\u000a to the highest

Guang Hong Zheng; Hong Bin Fu; Guang Ping Liu

437

Dyeing properties and colour fastness of wool dyed with indicaxanthin natural dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work involves the dyeing of wool with indicaxanthin, a natural dye extracted from fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica. The optimal conditions for dye extraction were to mix 50g of Juice from cactus pears with 100mL of 80% aqueous ethanol as solvent for dye extraction. Liquid chromatography was applied for the separation. Two main dyes were obtained, which were identified

A. Guesmi; N. Ben Hamadi; N. Ladhari; F. Sakli

438

Development of an activated carbon-packed microbial bioelectrochemical system for azo dye degradation.  

PubMed

A microbial bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) was employed for the degradation of azo dyes without the use of an external electron donor, using activated carbon (GAC) as a redox mediator. Contribution of pH values, open circuit potential (OCP), dye concentration and applied current were individually studied. A batch system and an upflow fixed bed bioreactor were built for analyzing the effect of the applied current on biodegradation of the azo dye Reactive Red 272. The presence of GAC (20% w/v) regulated both pH and OCP values in solution and led to a removal efficiency of 98%. Cyclic voltammetry results indicate a dependence of the electron transfer mechanism with the concentration of the azo compound. With these results, a continuous flow reactor operating with J=0.045 mA cm(-2), led to removal rates of 95% (± 3.5%) in a half-residence time of 1 hour. PMID:23128299

Cardenas-Robles, Arely; Martinez, Eduardo; Rendon-Alcantar, Idelfonso; Frontana, Carlos; Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Linda

2013-01-01

439

pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Dyes: Are They Really pH-Sensitive in Cells?  

PubMed Central

Chemically synthesized near-infrared (NIR) aza-BODIPY dyes displayed OFF/ON fluorescence at acidic pH (pKa = 6.2-6.6) through the suppression of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and/or internal charge transfer (ICT) process. The apparent pKas of the dyes were shifted well above physiological pH in hydrophobic microenvironment, which led to “turned-on” fluorescence in micelles and liposomes at neutral and basic pH. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) also activated the fluorescence, though to a much less extent. When these small molecular dyes entered cells, instead of being fluorescent only in acidic organelles, the whole cytoplasm exhibited fluorescence, with signal/background ratio as high as ?10 in no-wash live cell imaging. The dye 1 labeled cells remained highly fluorescent even after 3 days. Moreover, slight variations of the dye structure resulted in significantly different intracellular fluorescence behaviors, possibly due to their different cellular uptake and intracellular activation capabilities. After separation of cellular components, the fraction of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed the highest fluorescence, further confirming the fluorescence activation by membrane structures. The fluorescence intensity of these dyes at different intracellular pH (6.80 and 8.00) did not differ significantly, indicating that intracellular pH did not play a critical role. Altogether, we showed here for the first time that the fluorescence of pH-sensitive aza-BODIPY dyes were switched intracellularly not by acidic pH, but by intracellular membranes (and proteins as well). The excellent membrane permeability, ultra high fluorescence contrast ratio, persistent fluorescent signal, and minimum biological interference of dye 1 make it an ideal choice for live cell imaging and in vivo cell tracking. These findings also imply that the intracellular fluorescent properties of pH-sensitive dyes should be carefully examined before used as pH indicators. PMID:23464828

Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; Wang, Zhe; Yue, Xuyi; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2013-01-01

440

Optofluidic Ring Resonator Dye Microlasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss versatile, miniaturized optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers that can be operated regardless of the refractive index of the liquid. The OFRR is a piece of a thin-walled fused silica capillary that integrates the photonic ring resonator with microfluidics. In an OFRR dye laser, the active lasing materials (such as dyes) are passed through the capillary whereas the circular cross section forms a ring resonator and supports whispering gallery modes that provide optical feedback for lasing. Because of the high Q-factors extremely low lasing threshold is achieved (25 nJ/mm2). The operation wavelength can conveniently be changed by using different dyes and fine-tuned with solvent. The OFRR laser is excited through direct excitation or through efficient energy transfer. The laser can be efficiently out-coupled through a fiber taper in contact with the capillary, thus providing easy guiding for the laser emission. Theoretical analysis and experimental results for OFRR lasers are presented.

Shopova, Siyka I.; Lacey, Scott; White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

441

Optofluidic ring resonator dye microlasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of versatile, miniaturized optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers that can be operated regardless of the refractive index (RI) of the liquid. The OFRR is a piece of a thin-walled fused silica capillary that integrates the photonic ring resonator with microfluidics. In an OFRR dye laser, the active lasing materials (such as dye) are passed through the capillary whereas the circular cross section forms a ring resonator and supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that provide optical feedback for lasing. Due to the high Q-factors (> 10 9), extremely low lasing threshold can be achieved. The operation wavelength can conveniently be changed by using different dye and fine-tuned with solvent. The laser can be out-coupled through a fiber taper in touch with the capillary, thus providing an easy guiding for the laser emission. Our experiments demonstrate lasing through direct excitation and through efficient energy transfer (ET). Theoretical analysis and experimental results for OFRR lasers are presented.

Shopova, Siyka I.; Lacey, Scott; White, Ian M.; Sun, Yuze; Zhu, Hongying; Zhang, Po; Fan, Xudong

2008-02-01

442

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... who had used permanent dyes for longer durations (15 or more years). However, a case-control study in Italy found no association between ... associated with bladder cancer risk: evidence from a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2006; 15(9):1746–1749. [PubMed Abstract

443

Dust removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, presented on December 3, 1936, discusses dust removal installations. Four types of equipment which were used for this purpose were: (1) gravity separators, (2) centrifugal separators, (3) electrostatic separators, (4) molecular and frictional force separators. In use of the first three methods, dust particles left the steam of gas, while the filters operating in the fourth method depended

Geister

1947-01-01

444

REMOVING INORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

When EPA sets a regulation ( a maxim contaminant level) for a contaminant, it must also specify the "best available technology" (BAT) that can be used to remove the contaminant. ecause the regulations apply to community water systems, the technologies selected are ones that are c...

445

ARSENIC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

446

RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. uring the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium,...

447

Tattoo removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tattoos have been a part of costume, expression, and identification in various cultures for centuries. Although tattoos have become more popular in western culture, many people regret their tattoos in later years. In this situation, it is important to be aware of the mechanisms of tattoo removal methods available, as well as their potential short- and long-term effects. Among the

Katy Burris; Karen Kim

2007-01-01

448

Electronic and Optical Properties of Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Interfaces.  

PubMed

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) represent a promising approach to the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy at low cost and high efficiency. DSCs are based on a film of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles covered by adsorbed molecular dyes and immersed in a liquid redox electrolyte. Upon photoexcitation of the chemisorbed dye, electrons are injected into the TiO2 conduction band and can travel across the nanostructured film to reach the counter-electrode, while the oxidized dye is regenerated by the redox electrolyte. In this review we present a summary of recent computational studies of the electronic and optical properties of dye-sensitized TiO2 interfaces, with the aim of providing the basic understanding of the operation principles of DSCs and establishing the conceptual basis for their design and optimization.We start with a discussion of isolated dyes in solution, focusing on the dye's atomic structure, ground and excited state oxidation potentials, and optical absorption spectra. We examine both Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes and organic "push-pull" dyes with a D-?-A structure, where the donor group (D) is an electron-rich unit, linked through a conjugated linker (?) to the electron-acceptor group (A). We show that a properly calibrated computational approach based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) combined with Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) can provide a good description of both the absorption spectra and ground and excited state oxidation potential values of the Ru(II) complexes. On the other hand, organic push-pull dyes are not well described by the standard DFT/TD-DFT approach. For these dyes, an excellent description of the electronic structure in gas phase can be obtained by the many body perturbation theory GW method, which has, however, a much higher computational cost.We next consider interacting dye/semiconductor systems. Key properties are the dye adsorption structure onto the semiconductor, the nature and localization of the dye@semiconductor excited states, and the alignment of ground and excited state energy levels at the dye/semiconductor heterointerface. These properties, along with an estimate of the electronic coupling, constitute the fundamental parameters that determine the electron injection and dye regeneration processes. For metallorganic dyes, standard DFT/TDDFT methods are again found to reproduce accurately most of the relevant electronic and optical properties. For highly conjugated organic dyes, characterized by a high degree of charge transfer excited states, instead, the problems associated to the charge-transfer nature of their excited states extend to their interaction with TiO2 and translate into an erroneous description of the relative energetics of dye/semiconductor excited states. A full description of push-pull organic dyes/semiconductor excited states, which is essential for modeling the key process of electron injection in DSCs, still represents a challenge which should be addressed by next generation DFT or post-DFT methods. PMID:24488437

Pastore, Mariachiara; Selloni, Annabella; Fantacci, Simona; De Angelis, Filippo

2014-01-01

449

Genotoxicity of industrial dyes under the inductive effect of ethanol on monooxygenase system in mice.  

PubMed

The genotoxic effects of triarylmethane (Acid Green 16, C.I.44025) and arylmonoazo (Basic Orange 28, developed by Boruta Pigment Plant, Poland, C.I. undisclosed) dyes, were evaluated in Balb/C mice. Animals were fed for 6 days nutritionally adequate Portagen liquid diet (1 kcal/ml) or isocaloric alcoholic diet containing 5% (w/v) ethanol (36% of total calories) in order to induce the cytochrome P-4502E1 monooxygenase. Dye compounds were administered intraperitoneally 30 h before the test at doses: 90 mg/kg of Acid Green 16 and 70 mg/kg of Basic Orange 28. Bone marrow micronucleus test was used for evaluation of genotoxicity of the dyes. Ethanol caused an increase of the level of cytochrome P-450 by 200% and activities of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) by 650%, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) by 460% and glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase by 60% in the liver. Both dyes exerted genotoxic effect as inferred from a 3-fold increase of frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow, and a further increase (2-fold) was caused by ethanol liquid diet combined with Acid Green 16 treatment. Basic Orange 28 genotoxicity remained unaffected by ethanol. It is concluded that: (1) enhancement of genotoxic effect of Acid Green 16 by ethanol is caused by induction of cytochrome P-4502E1 monooxygenases resulting in an increased bioactivation of the dye; (2) lack of enhancement of the genotoxic effect of Basic Orange 28 by ethanol probably results from the dye- and ethanol-mediated stimulation of GSH-S-transferase, bypassing the cytochrome P-4502E1 bioactivation step. PMID:9294022

Wro?ska-Nofer, T; Wi?niewska-Knypl, J; Wyszy?ska, K; Dziuba?towska, E

1997-08-14

450

Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL?03 secretes high titers of manganese peroxidase during decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL textile dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel indigenous strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL?03, with high manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was used for decolorization of a reactive textile dye, Drimarine Blue K2R, which is used extensively in textile units of Pakistan. The initial experiment was run for seven days with 0.01% (w\\/v) dye solution prepared in Kirk's basal nutrient medium. Samples were removed after every 24 h

Razia Noreen; Muhammad Asgher; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Shaheera Batool; Muhammad Javaid Asad

2011-01-01

451

In vivo and laccase-catalysed decolourization of xenobiotic azo dyes by a basidiomycetous fungus: characterization of its ligninolytic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation is considered a promising eco-efficient alternative for industrial wastewater treatment. Particular attention is currently being given to biological degradation of synthetic dyes and more specifically to colour removal by fungi. This work looks at the extracellular enzymatic system of strain Euc-1. Its ability to decolourize 14 xenobiotic azo dyes was evaluated and compared with the well-known species Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

Albino A. Dias; Rui M. Bezerra; Paula M. Lemos; A. Nazaré Pereira

2003-01-01

452

The Impact of Nitrogen Plasma Treatment upon the Physical-Chemical and Dyeing Properties of Wool Fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of wool fabric with low-temperature plasma (LTP) as an eco-friendly process was tested. The impact of plasma-treatment parameters on the surface morphology, physical-chemical, and dyeing properties of wool using anionic dyes were investigated. The LTP-treatment resulted in a dramatic improvement in fabric hydrophilicity and wettability, the removal of fiber surface material, and creation of new active sites along with

M. M. El-Zawahry; N. A. Ibrahim; M. A. Eid

2006-01-01

453

Separation and recovery of food coloring dyes using aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) and aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic (ABEC) resins are currently under investigation for their utility in the removal of color from textile plant wastes. The structures of several widely used food colorings, suggest that these dyes would also be retained on the resins. In work currently in progress, we have begun to investigate the retention and resolution

Jonathan G. Huddleston; Heather D. Willauer; Kathy R. Boaz; Robin D. Rogers

1998-01-01

454

Mechanisms of retention and flux decline for the nanofiltration of dye baths from the textile industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of dye compounds from colour baths used in the textile industry is a possible application of nanofiltration. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are not clearly understood and the practical application of the process is facing many problems such as fouling and flux decline. The mechanisms of retention and flux decline were examined using two different approaches. Firstly,

B. Van der Bruggen; B. Daems; D. Wilms; C. Vandecasteele

2001-01-01

455

BASIC Tools: Structured Programming Techniques in BASIC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structured programing is an attempt to formalize the logic and structure of computer programs. Examples of structured programing techniques in BASIC are provided. Two major disadvantages of this style of programing for the personal user are noted. (JN)

Moyer, Patrick C.

1985-01-01

456

Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow,