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1

Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

2

Basic Principles of Ultrasound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

3

Using "Basic Principles" to Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical and physical properties of nicotine and its carboxylic acid salts found in tobacco provided as an interesting example to understand basic principles of complex science. The result showed that the experimental data used were inconsistent to the conclusion made, and the transfer of nicotine smoke from tobacco to smoke cannot be…

Seeman, Jeffrey I.

2005-01-01

4

Basic principle of superconductivity  

E-print Network

The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

Tian De Cao

2009-11-10

5

Basic Principles of Genetics. [Aids to Individualize the Teaching of Science, Mini-Course Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series developed by the Frederick County Board of Education, Frederick, Maryland, provides an instruction module for an individualized or flexible approach to secondary science teaching. Subjects and activities in this series of booklets are designed to supplement a basic curriculum or to form a total curriculum, and relate…

Sheffield, Sharon

6

Basic Comfort Heating Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

Dempster, Chalmer T.

7

Basic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

8

Three basic principles of success.  

PubMed

Basic business principles all but ensure success when they are followed consistently. Putting strategies, objectives and tactics in place is the first step toward being able to document systems, initiate scripting and improve staff training. Without the basic steps, systems, scripting and training the practice for performance would be hit or miss, at best. More importantly, applying business principles ensures that limited practice resources are dedicated to the achievement of the strategy. By following this simple, three-step process, a dental practice can significantly enhance both financial success and dentist and staff satisfaction. PMID:12839415

Levin, Roger

2003-06-01

9

Basic space science  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on the following topics: basic space science; a challenge and opportunity; solar-terrestrial interaction; solar system science; space astronomy; and astrophysics. The individual paper have been cataloged separately. (LSP)

Haubold, H.J. [United Nations, New York, NY (USA); Khanna, R.K. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [eds.

1992-05-01

10

Basic space science  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on the following topics: basic space science; a challenge and opportunity; solar-terrestrial interaction; solar system science; space astronomy; and astrophysics. The individual paper have been cataloged separately. (LSP)

Haubold, H.J. (United Nations, New York, NY (USA)); Khanna, R.K. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry) (eds.)

1992-01-01

11

Basic Science Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

Brummel, Clete

12

Appendix - Basic principles of optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provided Appendix has the objective to introduce readers having little familiarity with optics to some of the basic concepts and devices referred to in the book. Attention is given to the nature and propagation of light, light rays, wavefronts, optical paths, polarization, absorption, scattering of light, interference effects, Fraunhofer diffraction, the zone plate, prisms, simple lenses, compound lenses, and spherical mirrors. A compound microscope is considered along with telescopes, the Doppler effect, and properties of the gas laser.

Luxmoore, A. R.

13

Genetic Algorithms: Basic principles and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic Algorithms are a part of Soft Computing Techniques that deal with function optimization. The basic principles of Genetic Algorithms are stated. Its stochastic nature and various genetic operators are discussed. Some basic issues (e.g., convergence) related to these algorithms are also discussed.

C. A. Murthy

2012-01-01

14

Basic photovoltaic principles and methods  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

1982-02-01

15

Reflections on basic science.  

PubMed

After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research-free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts-and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I never would have considered if I were conducting translational research. My investigations ranged from jellyfish to mice and resulted in the gene-sharing concept, which showed that the same protein can have distinct molecular functions depending upon its expression pattern and, conversely, that different proteins can serve similar functional roles. This essay portrays basic science as a creative narrative, comparable to literary and artistic endeavors. Preserving the autonomy of open-ended basic research and recognizing its artistic, narrative qualities will accelerate the development of innovative concepts, create a rich resource of information feeding translational research, and have a positive impact by attracting creative individuals to science. PMID:21037410

Piatigorsky, Joram

2010-01-01

16

Basic principles of the ILAE syndrome classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic principles of the ILAE syndrome classification can be summarised as: clear definitions; reference to the seizure classification; expert consensus based on literature research; providing a taxonomy rather than a diagnostic manual; use of the dichotomies generalised versus localisation-related and idiopathic versus symptomatic; openness for the incorporation of new findings; and promotion of nosological thought. In fact, the publication

Peter Wolf

2006-01-01

17

WCDMA enhanced uplink - principles and basic operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WCDMA uplink has recently been enhanced with hybrid ARQ, scheduling, and shorter TTI to provide improved performance for packet data services in terms of reduced delays, improved availability of high data rates, and increased capacity. This paper gives an overview of the design targets, the basic principles, and how they are integrated into WCDMA.

Stefan Parkvall; Janne Peisa; Johan Torsner; Mats Sågfors; Peter Malm

2005-01-01

18

Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How Can They Predict Students' Understanding of Basic Science Concepts and Principles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science

Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

2012-01-01

19

JAMA Patient Page: Basic Science Research  

MedlinePLUS

... of Health and Human Services VALUE OF BASIC SCIENCE RESEARCH Basic science research can help in a ... dedicated to basic science and translational research. Basic Science Research JAMA PATIENT PAGE The JAMA Patient Page ...

20

Basic principles of the Stirling cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic principles of the Stirling cycle are outlined. From an elementary theory the general properties of the cycle are derived with a discussion of the most important losses. The performance of the fundamental and ideal (isothermal) cycle are described. The actual cycle, which differs from the ideal one by the occurrence of losses is also described. In the ideal Stirling cycle, the cold is produced by the reversible expansion of a gas. The gas performs a closed cycle, during which it is alternately compressed at ambient temperature in a compression space and expanded at the desired low temperature in an expansion space, thereby reciprocating between these spaces through one connecting duct, wherein a regenerator provides for the heat exchange between the outgoing and the returning gas flow. The problem of how to minimize the total sum of the losses is examined.

1983-03-01

21

Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

Mumzhiu, Alex M.

1998-10-01

22

Basic Hydrologic Sciences Course Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief presentation provides an overview of the COMET Basic Hydrologic Sciences course including: goal and target audiences, structure of the course and adapting it to your needs, and a brief description of course components.

2014-09-14

23

Basic Principles of Information Technology Organization in Health Care Institutions  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper focuses on the basic principles of information technology (IT) organization within health sciences centers. The paper considers the placement of the leader of the IT effort within the health sciences administrative structure and the organization of the IT unit. A case study of the University of Missouri—Columbia Health Sciences Center demonstrates how a role-based organizational model for IT support can be effective for determining the boundary between centralized and decentralized organizations. The conclusions are that the IT leader needs to be positioned with other institutional leaders who are making strategic decisions, and that the internal IT structure needs to be a role-based hybrid of centralized and decentralized units. The IT leader needs to understand the mission of the organization and actively use change-management techniques. PMID:9067885

Mitchell, Joyce A.

1997-01-01

24

INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL Principles of Plant Science  

E-print Network

and Respiration 12 Chapter 7. Plant Hormones 15 Chapter 8. Some Ecological Principles in Plant Growth. Plants as Industries 5 Chapter 4. The Sciences of Plants 8 Basics of Plant Growth and Development Chapter 5. Introduction to Plant Growth and Development 10 Chapter 6. An Overview of Photosynthesis

Decoteau, Dennis R.

25

Writing in the Sciences The basic principles of good writing apply just as well to the sciences as they do to the humanities  

E-print Network

from a fourth-year geology paper on competing theories about the extinction of the dinosaurs focuses on the features of science writing that distinguish it from other, non-scientific genres. Since the activities and goals of science will help you become a more proficient writer of scientific prose. Audience

Kronzucker, Herbert J.

26

Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A school that adopts a curriculum, that aims for a holistic understanding of technology, does so because it produces a better educated person than a curriculum which does not. How do we know when we are teaching technology holistically and why must we do so? Increasingly, more is asked of technology educators to be holistic in the understanding conveyed to learners of technology itself in order to make better informed technical and design decisions in a wider range of applied settings. The ability of the learner to naturally consider social and environmental factors, for example, when seeking solutions is seen by some State education systems in Australia as fundamental to a genuine education in technology (New South Wales Board of Studies, 2000 & 2002). In philosophy, the holist position asserts that to understand the particular one must understand its relation to the whole and that only through reflection of one's sensation based applications can genuine knowledge be critically affirmed (Matthews, 1980, p.87 & p.93). The combined apparently independent paths of the State and the Holist positions set a compelling scene not only for the socio-economic necessity for holistic technology education in the curriculum but also for Technology's status as a key curriculum agent in the knowledge formation process of educated individuals. This paper asserts that the general elements of Applied Setting (including Time), Human (as Agent), Tool and Environment are well placed to be the necessary basics to any holistic human technological activity. How and why these elements work together, their schema, will be referred to in this paper as the 'Basic Principles'. The paper presents the thesis that Technology cannot be reduced to less than these general elements and as such, Technology is their product. We therefore may need to understand and teach these elements and their relations to each other explicitly, in ways that reveal the utility of such understanding when making technical choices and design decisions for all the genres of technology and at all their scales of application and discovery. The case is made for technology to not merely be a 'know how' learning experience, but necessarily also a holistic 'know why' learning experience essential for developing and transferring technological knowledge.

Seeman, Kurt

27

Basic Space Sciences in Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to summarize the activities and research projects of Basic Space Sciences (Astronomy and Space Sciences (AASS)) in the following Jordanian organizations and Institutions: 1. Jordanian Astronomical Society (JAS). 2. Universities {Mainly Al al-Bayt University}. Institute of Astronomy and Space Sciences (IAASS). Maragha Astronomical Observatory (MAO). 3. Arab Union for Astronomy and Space Sciences (AUASS). 4. ICOP Activities: Islamic Crescent Observational Program. The paper summarizes also other activities in some Jordanian organizations and the future expectation, for AASS in Jordan.

Al-Naimy, H. M. K.; Konsul, Khalil

28

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

1990-04-01

29

Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

Beder, Hal

1986-01-01

30

Basic Space Sciences in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to summarize the activities and research projects of Basic Space Sciences (Astronomy and Space Sciences\\u000a (AASS)) in the following Jordanian organizations and Institutions:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a Jordanian Astronomical Society (JAS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a Universities Mainly Al al-Bayt University. Institute of Astronomy and Space Sciences (IAASS). Maragha Astronomical Observatory\\u000a (MAO).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a Arab Union for Astronomy and Space Sciences (AUASS).

H. M. K. Al-Naimy; Khalil Konsul

2004-01-01

31

Basic Science and The NIH  

PubMed Central

The following is an edited version of the Keynote Speech delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology by Harold Varmus, Director of the National Institutes of Health. The address, entitled Basic Science and the NIH, was given at the opening of the meeting in New Orleans on December 11, 1993. It was Varmus' first public policy talk as NIH Director. PMID:8049519

Varmus, Harold

1994-01-01

32

ACID PRECIPITATION: BASIC PRINCIPLES AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Forest productivity is emphasized in this review of the long-term beneficial and harmful effects of acid precipitation, as currently understood. The article summarizes principles about acid precipitation and its biological consequences which concern everyone in the pulp and paper...

33

Basic principles of agroecology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the final analysis, sustainable agriculture must derive from applied ecology, especially the principle of the regulation of the abundance and distribution of species (and, secondarily, their activities) in space and time. Interspecific competition in natural ecosystems has its counterparts in agriculture, designed to divert greater amounts of energy, nutrients, and water into crops. Whereas natural ecosystems select for a

V. G. Thomas; P. G. Kevan

1993-01-01

34

Sustainable education: basic principles and strategic recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the guiding principles of sustainable education. It starts from the observation that many education systems around the world have launched ambitious programs aiming to raise academic standards and to reconcile concerns for excellence with concerns for equity. However, many of these programs have failed to reach their ambitious goals. Meanwhile, the rapid changes taking place in the

Kris Van den Branden

2012-01-01

35

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK CLASSIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author attempts to formulate a system of classification of sedimentary rocks according to genetic criteria. After reviewing earlier attempts at classification based on such criteria and noting their deficiencies, the author presents what in his judgment constitute the primary requirements for such a system of classification. Basic genetic classes of sedimentary rocks are defined on the

M. S. Shvetsov

1962-01-01

36

Immune responses in the lung: Basic principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic elements which regulate immunomodulation at the lung level and the constituents of in situ pulmonary host defense\\u000a mechanisms that recognize, destroy, and remove potentially harmful inhaled antigenic materials are discussed. The relevance\\u000a of these processes in term of pathogenesis of some lung disorders is briefly exemplified.

Carlo Agostini; Gianpietro Semenzato

1990-01-01

37

Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

Moreira, M. A. (principal investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

1984-01-01

38

Earth Science Literacy Principles Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI), funded by the National Science Foundation, has gathered and codified the underlying understandings of Earth sciences into a succinct document that will have broad-reaching applications in both public and private arenas. It establishes the "Big Ideas" and supporting concepts that all Americans should know about Earth sciences. The primary outcome of the Earth Science Literacy Initiative is a community-based document that clearly and succinctly states the underlying principles and ideas of Earth science across a wide variety of research fields that are funded through the NSF-EAR program, including Geobiology and Low-Temperature Geochemistry, Geomorphology and Land-Use Dynamics, Geophysics, Hydrologic Sciences, Petrology and Geochemistry, Sedimentary Geology and Paleobiology, and Tectonics.

2009-01-01

39

[Bone substitutes - basic principles and clinical applications].  

PubMed

Treatment of bone defects and non-unions frequently requires the transplantation of autologous bone. As an alternative, different kinds of bone substitutes have been used more often during the past years. These bone substitutes include synthetic materials, just as well as processed materials from human donors (allogen) or animals (xenogen). The relatively low hurdles in the approval process, compared to pharmaceutical drugs, have led to an almost unmanageable amount of different kinds of bone substitutes. Due to sparse clinical studies, evidence-based decisions for a specific product or a specific indication are hardly possible. Therefore, a deeper knowledge about basic properties of different bone substitutes is needed for a rational clinical decision. The present review aims to clarify the sometimes confusing nomenclature of bone substitutes and discuss their different biological properties. Generally, bone substitutes can be discriminated in osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive materials. The great majority of bone substitutes and especially synthetic materials serve as a matrix for bone growth and therefore possess mainly osteoconductive properties. The combination of these osteoconductive materials with osteogenic cells or osteoinductive growth factors, leads to composite materials with higher bone forming potential. Clinically, the quality and vitality of the recipient bone defect is of great importance. As a prerequisite for successful transplantation of bone substitutes or autologous bone, the recipient bone defect should be mechanically stable, free of infection with vital bone ends and intact soft tissue coverage. Bone defects in the spine, methaphyseal defects after trauma/tumour and diaphyseal segmental defects are typical indications for the application of bone substitutes. Unfortunately, the current literature does not allow concrete recommendations for specific bone substitutes or specific clinical indications. However, this review aims to discuss clinical benefits and limitations of bone substitutes for frequent indications to help clinicians in their decision making process. PMID:24760455

Garcia, P; Franz, D; Raschke, M

2014-04-01

40

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY (Invited Review)  

E-print Network

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY (Invited Review) C. LINDSEY and D. C. BRAUN, Solar Physics Research Corporation, 4720 Calle Desecada, Tucson, AZ 85718, U.S.A. (e-mails: lindsey@sprc.com; dbraun@solar.stanford.edu) (Received 5 October 1999; accepted 2 February 2000) Abstract. We summarize

Braun, Douglas C.

41

Medical oncology: Basic principles and clinical management of cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book consists of three section, each containing several papers. The sections are: Basic Principles, Specific Neoplasmas, and Supportive Care. Some of the paper titles are: Pharmacology of Antineoplastic Agents, Hodgkin's Disease, Myeloma, Melanoma, Neoplasms of the Lung, Sarcomas, Pediatric Neoplasms, Infectious Consideration in Cancer, Nursing Considerations in Cancer, and Rehabilitation of the Patient with Cancer.

Calabresi, P.; Schein, P.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

1985-01-01

42

Transdermal drug delivery: Basic principles for the veterinarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of topical pharmaceutical formulations is increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. A potential concern is that not all formulations are registered for the intended species, yet current knowledge strongly suggests that simple extrapolation of transdermal drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between species, including humans, cannot be done. In this review, an overview is provided of the underlying basic principles determining

P. C. Mills; S. E. Cross

2006-01-01

43

Basic principles of the surface harmonics method: Flat geometry  

SciTech Connect

The basic principles of the surface harmonics method are described. A one-dimensional problem is used to exemplify the specific features of the method and the algorithms for construction of finite-difference equations. The objective of this study is to popularize the surface harmonics method among specialists.

Kovalishin, A. A., E-mail: kaa@adis.vver.kiae.ru [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

44

Basic Sciences Instruction, The Columbia University Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The redesign of basic science curriculum at the Columbia University (New York) dental school is outlined. Goals included development of a medical continuum allowing students to apply basic science to patient care; decompression of crowded second-year content; and facilitation of student pursuit of research and other biomedical interests in third…

Formicola, Allan J.; Kahn, Norman

1992-01-01

45

Fitting and Altering Ready-to-Wear: Basic Principles.  

E-print Network

)oe TA245.7 S73 ).1295 1 I 8-1295 Fitting and Altering Ready-to-Wear Basic Principles Texas Agricultural Extension Service The Texas A&M University System Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director College Station, Texas Becky Saunders* Good fit.... Since fitting and altering ready-to-wear is done mainly through existing seams, darts and other design details, recommended tech niques often differ from those used in making a garment or in altering a pattern. Basic sewing skills are helpful...

Saunders, Becky

1980-01-01

46

Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

1988-01-01

47

Basic principles of management for cervical spine trauma  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the basic principles of management of cervical trauma. The technique and critical importance of careful assessment is described. Instability is defined, and the incidence of a second injury is highlighted. The concept of spinal clearance is discussed. Early reduction and stabilisation techniques are described, and the indications, and approach for surgery reviewed. The importance of the role of post-injury rehabilitation is identified. PMID:19701655

2009-01-01

48

Basic principles of management for cervical spine trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the basic principles of management of cervical trauma. The technique and critical importance of careful\\u000a assessment is described. Instability is defined, and the incidence of a second injury is highlighted. The concept of spinal\\u000a clearance is discussed. Early reduction and stabilisation techniques are described, and the indications, and approach for\\u000a surgery reviewed. The importance of the role

J. K. O’Dowd

2010-01-01

49

Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences DOE/EERE Hydrogen Storage  

E-print Network

Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences DOE/EERE Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting, June 19, 2003 Report on Hydrogen Storage Panel Findings inReport on Hydrogen Storage Panel Findings,Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and UseStorage and Use A follow-on workshop to BESAC

50

PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF BASIC SCIENCES  

E-print Network

1 PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF BASIC SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK your stay as a Mathematics major at Philadelphia University will be an enjoyable and fruitful academic a more detailed rules and regulations for all Philadelphia University students. Handbooks issued

51

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-01-01

52

Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring: Basic Principles and Recent Update  

PubMed Central

The recent developments of new devices and advances in anesthesiology have greatly improved the utility and accuracy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM). Herein, we review the basic principles of the electrophysiological methods employed under IOM in the operating room. These include motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, electroencephalography, electromyography, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and visual evoked potentials. Most of these techniques have certain limitations and their utility is still being debated. In this review, we also discuss the optimal stimulation/recording method for each of these modalities during individual surgeries as well as the diverse criteria for alarm signs. PMID:24015028

Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Seung Hyun; Seo, Dae-Won

2013-01-01

53

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.

Wheelock, T.D.

1994-07-01

54

Basic energy sciences: Summary of accomplishments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than four decades, the Department of Energy, including its predecessor agencies, has supported a program of basic research in nuclear- and energy related sciences, known as Basic Energy Sciences. The purpose of the program is to explore fundamental phenomena, create scientific knowledge, and provide unique user facilities necessary for conducting basic research. Its technical interests span the range of scientific disciplines: physical and biological sciences, geological sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences. Its products and facilities are essential to technology development in many of the more applied areas of the Department's energy, science, and national defense missions. The accomplishments of Basic Energy Sciences research are numerous and significant. Not only have they contributed to Departmental missions, but have aided significantly the development of technologies which now serve modern society daily in business, industry, science, and medicine. In a series of stories, this report highlights 22 accomplishments, selected because of their particularly noteworthy contributions to modern society. A full accounting of all the accomplishments would be voluminous. Detailed documentation of the research results can be found in many thousands of articles published in peer-reviewed technical literature.

1990-05-01

55

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2013-07-01

56

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2014-07-01

57

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2012-07-01

58

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2011-07-01

59

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2010-07-01

60

[Basic principles for the development of biomarkers in oncology].  

PubMed

The accelerated expansion of the knowledge of genetic and molecular basics of cancer, together with the recent development of molecular biology techniques, have had a significant impact in the field of oncology, among other medical disciplines. So, over the last few years, we are crossing from an empiricism-based model to an evidence-based model in which drugs are adapted depending of the molecular alterations which result crucial for tumor development (both for carcinogenesis and acquisition of an aggressive phenotype leading to tumor invasion and resistance to therapy). The molecular alterations /variations offer the possibility of being detected and used as biomarkers in clinical practice. Biomarkers may have multiple applications in the field of oncology, from determining the risk to suffer the disease to prediction of response to therapy, including diagnosis, prognosis and disease monitoring, with the final aim of performing a more personalized medicine and achieving greater efficacy for the therapies selected, diminishing each therapy's own adverse events. Considering the importance biomarkers may get to have in clinical decision making, it is basic that their development is performed under straight evaluation and validation rules. In this article we review the various types of biomarkers and the basic methodological principles for their development, validation and subsequent clinical application. PMID:23793760

Seijas, Raquel; Herranz, Jesús; Malats, Nuria

2013-06-01

61

Science-based neurorehabilitation: recommendations for neurorehabilitation from basic science.  

PubMed

Neuroscience has fundamentally changed the understanding of learning and memory within recent years. Here, the authors discuss a number of specific areas where they believe new understanding of the CNS from basic science is having a fundamental impact on neurorehabilitation and is leading to new therapeutic approaches. These areas have constituted a basis for development of some basic principles for neurorehabilitation: Optimal rehabilitation should involve (a) active (patient) participation in the training, (b) training that does not only involve many repetitions, but also continues to challenge the skill of the training person, (c) motivation and reward, (d) intensive training and practice over a long time, (e) careful organization of the training in relation to other activities, and (f) incorporation of other potentially beneficial parameters such as sleep and diet. It should in this relation also be pointed out that albeit neurorehabilitation may be predicted to have the most optimal effect early in life and as soon after injury as possible, there is no reason to believe that beneficial effects of training may not be obtained late in life or several years after injury. PMID:25575219

Nielsen, Jens Bo; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Christiansen, Lasse; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Lorentzen, Jakob

2015-01-01

62

Transdermal iontophoresis. Part I: Basic principles and considerations.  

PubMed

The skin has increasingly become a route for the delivery of drugs with a range of compounds being considered for transdermal delivery generating a great deal of interest in this area of research. The passive delivery of most compounds across the skin is limited due to the barrier properties afforded by stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. Transdermal iontophoresis is an effective technique for physically facilitating the transport of permeants across the skin by using electromotive force. It is being extensively explored as a potential means for delivery of hydrophilic, large and charged molecules and is also believed to be a future method of choice for peptides and proteins. In this context, this review focuses mainly on the basic principles and considerations of transdermal iontophoresis with particular emphasis on modeling, devices and parameters influencing transdermal iontophoresis. PMID:10327395

Nair, V; Pillai, O; Poduri, R; Panchagnula, R

1999-03-01

63

FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

Samara, G.A.

1996-02-01

64

Degenerative disc and vertebral disease – basic sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the pathophysiology of spinal degeneration from a mechanistic basic sciences viewpoint, emphasizing the interdependence of discs and vertebrae. Intervertebral disc degeneration differs from normal ageing by involving physical disruption, typically in the form of annular fissures, prolapse or endplate fracture. Frustrated attempts to heal this large avascular tissue give rise to the typical biological features of disc

Michael A. Adams

2009-01-01

65

PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF BASIC SCIENCES  

E-print Network

PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF BASIC SCIENCES Module: Modern Euclidean Geometry Paper: Final Geometry (b) Hyperbolic Geometry only (c) Euclidean Geometry only (d) Euclidean and Hyperbolic Geometries Axiom 3 is (a) true (b) false. 10. This model satisfies the parallel postulate of (a) Euclidean geometry

66

Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

2012-01-01

67

Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

Gralla, Edward J.

1976-01-01

68

2013 Pain Day Poster Competition Basic Science  

E-print Network

2013 Pain Day Poster Competition Basic Science: Light-Induced Nociception: Remote Optogenetic Control Of Peripheral Pain Pathways In Freely Moving Mice Ihab Daou, Alexander H. Tuttle, Geraldine Longo/or inhibition of pain perception in vivo. Due to its high spatio-temporal precision, optogenetics is a powerful

Volesky, Bohumil

69

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-05-01

70

Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science, by John W. Moore, Conrad L. Stanitski, Peter C. Jurs published by Brooks/Cole, 2009.

71

76 FR 48147 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the Director, Office of Science concerning the Basic Energy Sciences program. Additionally, the renewal of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee has been...mission and to be in the public interest in connection with the...

2011-08-08

72

78 FR 47677 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...given that the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (BESAC...recommendations to the Office of Science on the Basic Energy Sciences program. Additionally, the...and to be the in the public interest in connection with the...

2013-08-06

73

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI were held in Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. The International Center for Space Weather Science and Education at Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 9www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/index_e.html), was established through the basic space science initiative in 2012. Similar research and education centres were also established in Nigeria(www.cbssonline.com/aboutus.html) and India (www.cmsintl.org). Activities of basic space science initiative were also coordinated with the Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, affiliated to the United Nations (www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/centres/index.html). Prospective future directions of the initiative will be discussed in this paper.

Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

2014-05-01

74

Gyroscope precession in special and general relativity from basic principles  

E-print Network

In special relativity a gyroscope that is suspended in a torque-free manner will precess as it is moved along a curved path relative to an inertial frame S. We explain this effect, which is known as Thomas precession, by considering a real grid that moves along with the gyroscope, and that by definition is not rotating as observed from its own momentary inertial rest frame. From the basic properties of the Lorentz transformation we deduce how the form and rotation of the grid (and hence the gyroscope) will evolve relative to S. As an intermediate step we consider how the grid would appear if it were not length contracted along the direction of motion. We show that the uncontracted grid obeys a simple law of rotation. This law simplifies the analysis of spin precession compared to more traditional approaches based on Fermi transport. We also consider gyroscope precession relative to an accelerated reference frame and show that there are extra precession effects that can be explained in a way analogous to the Thomas precession. Although fully relativistically correct, the entire analysis is carried out using three-vectors. By using the equivalence principle the formalism can also be applied to static spacetimes in general relativity. As an example, we calculate the precession of a gyroscope orbiting a static black hole. In an addendum the general reasoning is extended to include also rotating reference frames.

Rickard Jonsson

2007-08-18

75

The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine ``big ideas''

M. E. Wysession; D. A. Budd; K. M. Campbell; M. H. Conklin; E. S. Kappel; N. Ladue; G. Lewis; R. Raynolds; R. W. Ridky; R. M. Ross; J. Taber; B. J. Tewksbury; P. Tuddenham

2009-01-01

76

Hot-melt extrusion--basic principles and pharmaceutical applications.  

PubMed

Originally adapted from the plastics industry, the use of hot-melt extrusion has gained favor in drug delivery applications both in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Several commercial products made by hot-melt extrusion have been approved by the FDA, demonstrating its commercial feasibility for pharmaceutical processing. A significant number of research articles have reported on advances made regarding the pharmaceutical applications of the hot-melt extrusion processing; however, only limited articles have been focused on general principles regarding formulation and process development. This review provides an in-depth analysis and discussion of the formulation and processing aspects of hot-melt extrusion. The impact of physicochemical properties of drug substances and excipients on formulation development using a hot-melt extrusion process is discussed from a material science point of view. Hot-melt extrusion process development, scale-up, and the interplay of formulation and process attributes are also discussed. Finally, recent applications of hot-melt extrusion to a variety of dosage forms and drug substances have also been addressed. PMID:24520867

Lang, Bo; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

2014-09-01

77

77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown Building...respect to the basic energy sciences research program...from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences [ssquf] Future of ARPA-E [ssquf] Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) update...

2012-07-13

78

Department of Basic Sciences Philadelphia University Module Syllabus  

E-print Network

Department of Basic Sciences ­ Philadelphia University Module Syllabus: Course Title: Abstract---these notes are required and available for free download from http://www.philadelphia, Second Edition 1975, Wiley. Online Resources: · Basic Sciences Department: http://www.philadelphia

79

Basic Science Living Skills for Today's World. Teacher's Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a teacher's edition of a basic skills curriculum in science for adult basic education (ABE) students. The course consists of 25 lessons on basic science concepts, designed to give students a good understanding of the biological and physical sciences. Suggested activities and experiments that the student can do are also included.…

Zellers (Robert W.) Educational Services, Johnstown, PA.

80

The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions  

PubMed Central

The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to ‘prove’ the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today. PMID:20368251

Martyushev, Leonid M.

2010-01-01

81

Limitations on diversity in basic science departments.  

PubMed

It has been over 30 years since the beginning of efforts to improve diversity in academia. We can identify four major stages: (1) early and continuing efforts to diversify the pipeline by increasing numbers of women and minorities getting advanced degrees, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); (2) requiring academic institutions to develop their own "affirmative action plans" for hiring and promotion; (3) introducing mentoring programs and coping strategies to help women and minorities deal with faculty practices from an earlier era; (4) asking academic institutions to rethink their practices and policies with an eye toward enabling more faculty diversity, a process known as institutional transformation. The thesis of this article is that research-intensive basic science departments of highly ranked U.S. medical schools are stuck at stage 3, resulting in a less diverse tenured and tenure-track faculty than seen in well-funded science departments of major universities. A review of Web-based records of research-intensive departments in universities with both medical school and nonmedical school departments indicates that the proportion of women and Black faculty in science departments of medical schools is lower than the proportion in similarly research-intensive university science departments. Expectations for faculty productivity in research-intensive medical school departments versus university-based departments may lead to these differences in faculty diversity. PMID:22775445

Leboy, Phoebe S; Madden, Janice F

2012-08-01

82

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01

83

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01

84

The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to assist in areas such as the creation of educational products and standards and the setting of relevant government policy. In order to increase the reach of the ESLI Principles, the document has been translated into Spanish, and other languages are also being considered. The document will undergo annual updating in response to growth and change in the scientific understandings of Earth science.

Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

2009-12-01

85

Integration of basic sciences in health's courses.  

PubMed

Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and compares failure rate, global final grade, approved student final grade, grade distribution and students' satisfaction with teacher conduction between integrated curriculum and traditional learning in health courses from Anhembi Morumbi University-a private institution from Brazil. Comparison between integrated and traditional curriculum was based on students' records obtained from first-year health sciences students. A total of 1,697 records from 2005 to 2007 (nonintegrated curriculum) and 785 records from 2008 (integrated curriculum) were selected for this study and they were necessary to get information about students' grades. Moreover, a questionnaire was applied in order to cover student's satisfaction with teacher conduction. The data presented in this study indicated that the integrated curriculum based on PBL was related to an improvement in student's grades and satisfaction compared with traditional teaching. We believe that the effectiveness in health education will be a combination of "classical" presentation of contents associated to actively involved students in the educational process and methodology based on problems in order to create the stimulus for the undergraduates continue to integrate basic and clinical investigation. PMID:22615229

Azzalis, L A; Giavarotti, L; Sato, S N; Barros, N M T; Junqueira, V B C; Fonseca, F L A

2012-01-01

86

The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

Golen, Steven

1981-01-01

87

The precautionary principle in environmental science.  

PubMed Central

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy. PMID:11673114

Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

2001-01-01

88

Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1991-12-01

89

Informal Learning at School. Science Fairs in Basic Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work herein reports on the implementation of science fairs in a systematic way in basic schools. In particular we will present the second edition of the annual Science Fair at basic school Externato Maria Auxiliadora, in Viana do Castelo, Portugal, focusing on the evolution advised by the evaluation of the previous edition of the science fair. We will stress

Zita Esteves; Andreia Cabral; Manuel F. M. Costa

90

Basic Principles--Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The priorities for sustaining life--air, shelter, water, and food--are the subjects of this module designed to give junior and senior high school students the foundation for safe, rewarding experiences in the outdoors. Five 50-minute lesson plans cover the basic need in order of priority: air (3 minutes to survive without it), shelter (3 hours, in…

Deaton, Don

91

Challenges for translational psychopharmacology research—some basic principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce below several principles that recur in the discussion of translating preclinical findings to clinical applications,\\u000a and conversely, developing animal models of human disorders:\\u000a \\u000a 1. The translation of preclinical data to clinical concerns is more successful when the scope of experimental models is restricted\\u000a to a core symptom of a psychiatric disorder.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. Preclinical experimental models gain in clinical

Klaus A. Miczek; Harriet de Wit

2008-01-01

92

Remote sensing applied to agriculture: Basic principles, methodology, and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general principles of remote sensing techniques as applied to agriculture and the methods of data analysis are described. the theoretical spectral responses of crops; reflectance, transmittance, and absorbtance of plants; interactions of plants and soils with reflectance energy; leaf morphology; and factors which affect the reflectance of vegetation cover are dicussed. The methodologies of visual and computer-aided analyses of LANDSAT data are presented. Finally, a case study wherein infrared film was used to detect crop anomalies and other data applications are described.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

1981-01-01

93

FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Materials Science program at Sandia Albuquerque has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia's expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials-processing science to produce new classes of tailorable materials for the US energy industry, the electronics industry and for defense needs. Current research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, high-temperature and organic superconductors, tailored surfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, strained-layer semiconductors, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures and boron-rich very high temperature semiconductors. A new start just getting underway deals with the atomic level science of interfacial adhesion. Our interdisciplinary program utilizes a broad array of sophisticated, state-of-the-art experimental capabilities provided by other programs. The major capabilities include several molecular-beam epitaxy and chemical-vapor-deposition facilities, electron- and ion-beam accelerators, laser-based diagnostics, advanced surface spectroscopies, unique combined high-pressure, low-temperature, high-magnetic-field facilities, and the soon to be added scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopies.

Vook, F. L.; Samara, G. A.

1990-02-01

94

Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

95

New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

2008-01-01

96

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels  

E-print Network

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels Kathryn C. Haering Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Table of Contents Soil formation and soil horizons................................................................................................................... 33 Soil composition by volume

Kaye, Jason P.

97

New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from use of such a tool: students are often taught a list of concepts and a separate list of parameters for mathematical equations. The link between the two can be elusive. While wet-lab experimentation is the proven approach to developing this link, in silico simulation can provide a means of acquiring important insight and understanding within a time frame and at a cost that cannot be achieved otherwise. We suggest that simulations and their representation of laboratory experiments in the classroom can become a key component in student achievement by helping to develop a student's positive attitude towards science and his or her creativity in scientific inquiry. We present results of two simulation experiments that validate against data taken from current literature. We follow with a classroom example demonstrating how this tool can be seamlessly integrated within the traditional pharmacology learning experience.

Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

2008-08-01

98

Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods  

PubMed Central

Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

2012-01-01

99

Department of Basic Sciences Philadelphia University Module Syllabus  

E-print Network

Department of Basic Sciences ­ Philadelphia University Module Syllabus: Course Title: Abstract. Supporting Websites: · Basic Sciences Department- http://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/math · Abstract Algebra Course Website- http://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/math/witno/250342.htm · Amin Witno Website- http

100

Department of Basic Sciences Philadelphia University Module Syllabus  

E-print Network

Department of Basic Sciences ­ Philadelphia University Module Syllabus: Course Title: Computational download from the web site: http://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/math/witno/notes.htm Textbook: No textbook, Springer 1980. Web sites: · Basic Sciences Department: http://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/math · Amin Witno Web

101

Neutron spin manipulation optics: basic principles and possible applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of basic elements for neutron spin manipulation optics (NSMO) based on Larmor and non-Larmor (quantum) precessions under reflection are considered. It is concluded that transition to 3D in neutron polarization optics may bring additional instrumental possibilities. New neutron optical devices will include spin turners (particularly, ?/2-turners and ?- turners, or flippers), spin precessors and antiprecessors, 3D-polarizers, 3D-analyzers, 3D- rotators, spin manipulators, hyper-polarizers. The innovative neutron optics is directly applicable to developing 3D polarization and polarimetry techniques, such as reflectometry with 3D- polarimetry, Neutron optical Spin Echo (NoSE), including compact NoSE and TOF NoSE schemes. A hyper-polarizer is a device which not only separates neutrons with the opposite spins, but also flips the 'wrong' spins. Thus, hyper-polarizers can double the intensity of polarized neutron beams, although a gain in the intensity can be achieved only with the increase either in the angular divergence or in the width of the beam, in full accordance with the Liouville theorem. The tasks to be solved for implementation of the NSMO concepts are discussed.

Pleshanov, N. K.

2014-07-01

102

Basic Principles of Synaptic Physiology Illustrated by a Computer Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer model is described that simulates many basic aspects of chemical synapse physiology. The model consists of two displays, the first being a pictorial diagram of the anatomical connections between two presynaptic neurons and one postsynaptic neuron. Either or both of the presynaptic cells can be stimulated from a control panel with variable control of the number of pulses and firing rate; the resulting presynaptic action potentials are animated. The second display plots the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell versus time following presynaptic stimulation. The model accurately simulates temporal and spatial summation when the presynaptic cells are arranged and stimulated in parallel and simulates presynaptic inhibition when they are arranged and stimulated in series. Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials can be demonstrated by altering the nature of the ionic conductance change occurring on the postsynaptic cell. The effects on summation of changing length constant or time constant of the postsynaptic cell can also be illustrated. The model is useful for teaching these concepts to medical, graduate, or undergraduate students and can also be used as a self-directed computer laboratory exercise. It is available for free download from the internet.

PhD Michael J. Davis (Texas A& M University Dept. of Medical Physiology)

2001-03-01

103

How Clouds Form-Understanding the Basic Principles of Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this investigation is to understand the change that takes place when water condenses from a gas to a liquid, and how a change in pressure affects this transformation. Materials needed for the experiment include a large (2L) soda bottle, a squeeze bottle with a plastic hose, parking pens, construction paper, wooden matches, and tap water. The resource includes background information, a pre-activity exploration for students, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is the chapter 12 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

104

[Tissue engineering in urology. Basic principles and application].  

PubMed

Tissue engineering is a rather new field of science. Despite this fact, some experimental investigations have already been applied in clinical studies. Compared to other medical fields, tissue engineering in urology is well established. Tissue-engineered bulking agents and tissue-engineered bladder augments are being investigated in clinical trials. Even though the knowledge gained in recent years is promising, the results of cellular therapies need to be critically judged before being finally applied in patients. Genetic engineering and stem cell research (adult undifferentiated cells) have had major impact on the field of tissue engineering over the past 2 years. By using the technology of genetic engineering, biochemical and functional qualities of tissues may be modified. Adult stem cells may help to substitute lost tissue in an autologous fashion by isolating undifferentiated cells from the body and by differentiating them into a desired cell type. These cells may be used to form native functional tissue to replace a diseased organ or organ part. PMID:12671769

Bartsch, G; Atala, A

2003-03-01

105

Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

Ward, Janet

2004-01-01

106

Teaching Basic Communication Science Concepts Through a Guided Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory classes in communication research methodology are told several basic concepts; science is cumulative; science is self-correcting; empirical controversies are resolvable; and science is creative and exciting. However, unless evidence in the form of empirical data is presented to support these assertions, most students fail…

Hocking, John E.; Miller, M. Mark

107

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Interpretive Research in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the derivative notions of interdeterminacy, uncertainty, precision, and observer-observed interaction are discussed and their applications to social science research examined. Implications are drawn for research in science education. (PR)

Roth, Wolff-Michael

1993-01-01

108

The Relevance of Basic Medical Science to Medical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author believes the Council of Academic Societies is in a unique position to bring together concerned experts to formulate new patterns of representation of basic medical science in modern medical centers. (Editor)

Tosteson, D. C.

1970-01-01

109

OPTICAL AND INFRARED DETECTORS FOR Basic principles to state-of-the-art  

E-print Network

OPTICAL AND INFRARED DETECTORS FOR ASTRONOMY Basic principles to state-of-the-art James W. Beletic Detectors play a key role in an astronomical observatory. In astronomy, the role of the telescope detector systems. In many ways, today's optical and infrared detectors are nearly perfect, with high

Masci, Frank

110

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis: Basic principles and applications in radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a widely accepted method for analyzing and comparing the diagnostic accuracy of radiological tests. In this paper we will explain the basic principles underlying ROC analysis and provide practical information on the use and interpretation of ROC curves. The major applications of ROC analysis will be discussed and their limitations will be addressed.

Arian R van Erkel; Peter M. Th Pattynama

1998-01-01

111

Principles of Science Principles of Biology Reference Edition  

E-print Network

topics such as cancer, climate change and ocean health #12;How can the Principles of Biology Reference for scientists and students · Articles on scientific research that affects our day to day lives on current hot · animal physiology · plant physiology · biodiversity · chemistry · ecology To learn more about

Cai, Long

112

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2005  

E-print Network

Introduction to chemistry, with emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. Introduction to the chemistry of ...

Ceyer, Sylvia Teresse

113

Application of Basic and Medical Sciences in the Dental Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical basis for the application of basic and medical sciences in the dental curriculum is presented. Current issues are examined and future perspectives in applying biological sciences to clinical dentistry are explored. Some ideas for consideration in developing a more responsive curriculum are provided. (MLW)

DePaola, Dominick P.

1981-01-01

114

Community responses to contaminants: using basic ecological principles to predict ecotoxicological effects.  

PubMed

Community ecotoxicology is defined as the study of the effects of contaminants on patterns of species abundance, diversity, community composition, and species interactions. Recent discoveries that species diversity is positively associated with ecosystem stability, recovery, and services have made a community-level perspective on ecotoxicology more important than ever. Community ecotoxicology must explicitly consider both present and impending global change and shift from a purely descriptive to a more predictive science. Greater consideration of the ecological factors and threshold responses that determine community resistance and resilience should improve our ability to predict how and when communities will respond to, and recover from, xenobiotics. A better understanding of pollution-induced community tolerance, and of the costs of this tolerance, should facilitate identifying contaminant-impacted communities, thus forecasting the ecological consequences of contaminant exposure and determining the restoration effectiveness. Given the vast complexity of community ecotoxicology, simplifying assumptions, such as the possibility that the approximately 100,000 registered chemicals could be reduced to a more manageable number of contaminant classes with similar modes of action, must be identified and validated. In addition to providing a framework for predicting contaminant fate and effects, food-web ecology can help to identify communities that are sensitive to contaminants, contaminants that are particularly insidious to communities, and species that are crucial for transmitting adverse effects across trophic levels. Integration of basic ecological principles into the design and implementation of ecotoxicological research is essential for predicting contaminant effects within the context of rapidly changing, global environmental conditions. PMID:19358627

Clements, William H; Rohr, Jason R

2009-09-01

115

SPH262: Principles of Environmental Health Sciences Unit Rationale  

E-print Network

SPH262: Principles of Environmental Health Sciences Fall 2010 CRN: 54018 Unit Rationale the environment is so broadly defined, the field of environmental health science is usually defined more, methods, and issues related to environmental health sciences. Programmatic learning objectives for UCD MPH

Leistikow, Bruce N.

116

Effectiveness of instructional computers in teaching basic medical sciences.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of computer-based PLATO IV basic medical science lessons. Effectiveness was operationalized in terms of increased performance on basic medical science examinations for those medical students who had used the lessons when compared to those students who had not. Usage of the PLATO lessons was quantified as 'minutes of use' of the relevant lessons. Data were gathered in 1976-77 from first-year medical students at two sites, both under the auspices of one college of medicine. Usage of PLATO lessons and subsequent performance on three subtests from three different examinations were analysed. The findings from the current study offer encouragement that use of PLATO basic medical science materials contribute to increased performance on subsequent examinations. PMID:384184

Essex, D L; Sorlie, W E

1979-05-01

117

Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.  

PubMed

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25326609

Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

2014-10-01

118

Basic research in computer science and software engineering at SKLCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Key Laboratory of Computer Science (SKLCS) is committed to basic research in computer science and software engineering.\\u000a The research topics of the laboratory include: concurrency theory, theory and algorithms for real-time systems, formal specifications\\u000a based on context-free grammars, semantics of programming languages, model checking, automated reasoning, logic programming,\\u000a software testing, software process improvement, middleware technology, parallel algorithms and

Jian Zhang; Wenhui Zhang; Naijun Zhan; Yidong Shen; Haiming Chen; Yunquan Zhang; Yongji Wang; Enhua Wu; Hongan Wang; Xueyang Zhu

2008-01-01

119

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a  

E-print Network

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Kim,1 MD, PhD, and Hyeon-Cheol Gwon,1* MD, PhD Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the curcumin-coating stent (CCS) on the inhibi- tion of restenosis in a rabbit iliac artery stent model. Background: Curcumin

Park, Jong-Sang

120

Department of Basic Sciences Philadelphia University Module Syllabus  

E-print Network

Department of Basic Sciences ­ Philadelphia University Module Syllabus: Course Title: Abstract to Galois---these notes are required and available for free download from http://www.philadelphia: http://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/math · Amin Witno Website:http://phi.witno.com AW140208 #12;

121

BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

CASSEL, RICHARD

122

Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first edition of Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications was published in 1985 to "...offer a comprehensive review of general concepts of nutrition as they pertain to pediatrics as well as relevant information on the nutritional management of specific disease states." A ...

123

Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Basic Energy Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers basic engineering science for understanding energy. Topics like force, energy, power, thermodynamics, the periodic table and stoichiometry are covered. A number of useful graphics are included to enhance the materials. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

124

Developing basic space science world wide: progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UN\\/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and

Hans J. Haubold; Willem Wamsteker

2004-01-01

125

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics PerformanceMetzger NetworkEngineeratESnet/LBNL #12;High Performance Networking · The · Soft failures are where basic connectivity functions, but high performance is not possible. · TCP

126

Dean's Column In this issue Translating Basic Science  

E-print Network

at the molecular and genetic level, and to effectively manipulate experimental animal populations and createDean's Column In this issue Translating Basic Science into Human and Animal Health Benefits By Herb discoveries into activities or resources with potential for life-changing advances in human and animal health

Gilbert, Matthew

127

BASIC SCIENCE Identification of 3 Phylogenetically Related HIV-1 BG  

E-print Network

BASIC SCIENCE Identification of 3 Phylogenetically Related HIV-1 BG Intersubtype Circulating Na´jera, MD, PhD* Summary: BG intersubtype recombinants represented 11.6% of HIV-1 isolates recombinant form, Cuba, HIV-1, subtype B, subtype G (J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45:151­160) HIV-1

Posada, David

128

Contributions of Basic Sciences to Science of Education. Studies in Educational Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The science of education has been influenced by the basic sciences to the extent that educational research now has been able to modernize its approach by accepting and using the basic scientific methodology and experimental techniques. Using primarily the same steps of scientific investigations, education today holds a place of much greater esteem…

Lall, Bernard M.

129

Basic Knowledge for Market Principle: Approaches to the Price Coordination Mechanism by Using Optimization Theory and Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.

Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Masuda, Kazuaki

130

Ultrasound elastography in the head and neck. Part I. Basic principles and practical aspects  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ultrasound elastography (USE) is a rapidly developing field of imaging that measures and displays tissue elasticity or stiffness properties using ultrasound. In recent years, real-time USE modes have appeared on commercially available clinical ultrasound machines, stimulating an explosion of research into potential oncologic and non-oncologic clinical applications of USE. Preliminary evidence suggests that USE can differentiate benign and malignant conditions accurately in several different tissues. This article presents an overview of the basic principles of different USE technologies that are currently under investigation in the head and neck region. In addition, more practical aspects pertaining to the optimal performance of USE at this site are discussed. PMID:23876352

Bhatia, Kunwar S.S.; Lee, Yolanda Y.P.; Yuen, Edmund H.Y.

2013-01-01

131

Guest Editorial: From neuroscience to neuro-rehabilitation: transferring basic neuroscientific principles from laboratory to bedside  

PubMed Central

Several new approaches for treatment of Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders are currently under investigation, including the use of rehabilitation training strategies, which are often combined with electrical and/or pharmacological modulation of spinal locomotor circuitries. While these approaches show great promise in the laboratory setting, there still exists a large gap in knowledge on how to transfer these treatments to daily clinical use. This thematic series presents a cross section of cutting edge approaches with the goal of transferring basic neuroscience principles from the laboratory to the proverbial "bedside". PMID:23336967

2013-01-01

132

The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, pro- posed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking pre- ventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of

David Kriebel; Joel Tickner; Paul Epstein; John Lemons; Richard Levins; Edward L. Loechler; Margaret Quinn; Ruthann Rudel; Ted Schettler; Michael Stoto

133

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

134

PROJECT MANAGEMENT BASICS This course provides an overview of the ten knowledge-based principles for managing  

E-print Network

PROJECT MANAGEMENT COURSES PROJECT MANAGEMENT ­ BASICS This course provides an overview of the ten knowledge-based principles for managing successful projects: scope, integration, communication, time, cost, procurement, risk management, quality control, human resources, and project stakeholder management

Hutcheon, James M.

135

FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

2006-07-01

136

Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity  

E-print Network

Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable, Interpreting of quantum physics, Berry phase, three dimensional time, unified theory

Xiaodong Chen

2005-10-03

137

Evaluating student performance in a decentralized basic science program.  

PubMed

The results of the evaluation of the basic science curriculum in a regionalized medical education program in the states of Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho (WAMI) are presented and discussed. The hypothesis that students taking the first quarter of basic science at universities remote from the Unversity of Washington School of Medicine (UWSM) will be no different in academic performance from those who remain at the UWSM is tested. The variables considered were student performance on (a) common tests in Anatomy/Histology, Biochemistry, Mechanisms of Physiology, and Epidemiology; (b) subsequent course work at the UWSM; and (c) the mini-tests and Part I of the examinations of the National Board of Medical Examiners. The developement of the common tests is described. Analysis of variance indicates that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected at the .05 level. PMID:1271439

Cullen, T J; Dohner, C W; Striker, G E; Schwarz, M R

1976-06-01

138

Current Tumor Ablation Technologies: Basic Science and Device Review  

PubMed Central

Image-guided tumor ablation is an increasingly utilized tool to treat focal malignancy. Tumor ablation can be divided into two large categories, thermal and chemical ablation. The authors provide an overview of the current methods used to achieve thermal and chemical ablation of tumors, specifically addressing the basic science behind the ablation methods as well as providing a brief synopsis of the commercial devices currently available for use in the United States. PMID:22550363

Saldanha, David F.; Khiatani, Vishal L.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Yap, Felix Y.; Bui, James T.; Knuttinen, M. Grace; Owens, Charles A.; Gaba, Ron C.

2010-01-01

139

Developing basic space science world wide: progress report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Germany (1996), France (2000), Mauritius (2001), and Argentina (2002) emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a world wide basis. Since 1996, the workshops are contributing to the development of the World Space Observatory (WSO/UV) concept. Achievements of the series of workshops are briefly summarized in this report.

Haubold, Hans J.; Wamsteker, Willem

2004-01-01

140

Clinical competencies and the basic sciences: an online case tutorial paradigm for delivery of integrated clinical and basic science content.  

PubMed

Understanding the relevance of basic science knowledge in the determination of patient assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is critical to good medical practice. One method often used to direct students in the fundamental process of integrating basic science and clinical information is problem-based learning (PBL). The faculty facilitated small group discussion format traditionally used for PBL is a significant challenge for faculty and facilities with a large class. To provide inductive learning to a large class early in the preclerkship curriculum, a series of online, case-based tutorials was created using the method of inquiry-based learning. The tutorial paradigm is designed to challenge students through a guided inquiry process in which clinical skills and basic science information are seamlessly joined. The psychosocial dimension of patient care is added to the documented case presentation of the tutorials in the form of patient/physician history taking and physical examination videos. These videos augment the written case with additional information providing the student with visual exposure in methods of patient communication and appropriate professional patient/physician interactions that address competencies of patient care, communication, and professionalism. The tutorials were made available via learning management system course sites. The study tracked usage of the tutorials by 270 first-year medical students. PMID:19670214

DiLullo, Camille; Morris, Harry J; Kriebel, Richard M

2009-10-01

141

The dual role of biomarkers for understanding basic principles and devising novel intervention strategies in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

There is great need for better control measures for tuberculosis (TB). High-throughput analyses, such as transcriptomic and metabolic profiling, offer a promising path toward clinically useful biosignatures. With the help of biomarkers, it will be possible not only to reliably perform diagnosis but also to gain a better understanding of the disease process and, in the future, even predict the onset of disease in infected individuals. Biomarkers based on transcriptomic and metabolic profiles as well as on cytokine composition provide important insights into the basic biological principles of TB and give an opportunity to reliably distinguish TB patients from healthy individuals. Use of biomarkers for point-of-care diagnosis, however, is still a distant goal, which to achieve will require extensive analysis of TB biosignatures across different cohorts and a combination of different platforms. PMID:23181737

Weiner, January; Maertzdorf, Jeroen; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

2013-04-01

142

Teaching Critical Literacy Principles to Math and Science Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the attitudes of math and science educators toward incorporating literacy activities into their teaching and offers suggestions for ways that teacher educators can encourage the integration of critical literacy principles into their lesson and unit planning. Emphases placed on textbooks, correct answers, multiple choice or other short answer forms of assessment, and an overall prioritizing of “covering

Jacqueline Darvin

2007-01-01

143

Teaching Critical Literacy Principles to Math and Science Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the attitudes of math and science educators toward incorporating literacy activities into their teaching and offers suggestions for ways that teacher educators can encourage the integration of critical literacy principles into their lesson and unit planning. Emphases placed on textbooks, correct answers, multiple choice or…

Darvin, Jacqueline

2007-01-01

144

BASIC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS for User Science at the National Ignition Facility  

E-print Network

BASIC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS for User Science at the National Ignition Facility Report on the National at the National Ignition Facility #12;#12;BASIC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR USER SCIENCE AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION on Basic Research Directions on User Science at the National Ignition Facility Chairs: John Sarrao, Los

Stewart, Sarah T.

145

Comparative Performance on National Board Basic Science and Clinical Science Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between performance on basic science (BS) and clinical science (CS) national board examinations in optometry because many students do well on CS while failing on BS. Results indicated a high correlation between scores on the tests, underscoring the importance of the BS examination and the test's predictive…

Gross, Leon J.

1991-01-01

146

Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle Basics of Probability  

E-print Network

Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle Topic 5 Combinations Pascal's Triangle Outline Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle 2 / 14 #12;Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal

Watkins, Joseph C.

147

Integrating basic science without integrating basic scientists: reconsidering the place of individual teachers in curriculum reform.  

PubMed

The call for integration of the basic and clinical sciences plays prominently in recent conversations about curricular change in medical education; however, history shows that, like other concepts related to curricular reform, integration has been continually revisited, leading to incremental change but no meaningful transformation. To redress this cycle of "change without difference," the medical education community must reexamine the approach that dominates medical education reform efforts and explore alternative perspectives that may help to resolve the cyclical "problem" of recommending but not effecting integration. To provide a different perspective on implementing integration, the authors of this Perspective look to the domain of educational change as an approach to examining the transitions that occur within complex and evolving environments. This area of literature both acknowledges the multiple levels involved in change and emphasizes the need not only to address systemic structure but also to prioritize individuals during times of transition. The struggle to implement curricular integration in medical education may stem from the fact that reform efforts appear to focus largely on transformation at the level of curricular structure as opposed to considering what learning needs to occur at each level of change and highlighting the individual as the educational change literature suggests. To bring appropriate attention to the place of individual educators, especially basic scientists, the medical education community should explore how the mandate to integrate clinically relevant material may impact these faculty and the teaching of their domains. PMID:25140528

Hopkins, Robin; Pratt, Daniel; Bowen, Judith L; Regehr, Glenn

2015-02-01

148

Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

2005-01-11

149

Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

Eiseman, Elisa

2001-03-01

150

Basic principles of Synchrotron Radiation-Induced X-Ray Fluorescence (SRXRF)  

SciTech Connect

The characteristic x rays can be used as powerful analytical tools for qualitative and quantitative determination of the major, minor and trace composition of materials. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques used for almost four decade to solve many problems in basic, applied science, and in industry. The XRF techniques that were developed initially used crystal spectrometers, and are referred to in literature as Wavelength Dispersive (WD) techniques. These WD techniques are still used in many fields and have the merit of a excellent energy resolution that allows for the analysis of many elements while avoiding the overlapping of some fluorescence peaks. They are also particularly useful in a matrix that produces copious quantities of a particular radiation. The principal disadvantages of a WD system are the low efficiency of crystal and the reduced energy region in which crystal spectrometer can be used. In the 1960's, Solid State Detectors (SSD) were developed with energy resolution such that the Energy Dispersive XRF techniques could be developed. These SSD's overcame some of the limitations of the WD techniques. The most attractive characteristics of the EDXRF techniques are in their intrinsic multielemental and non destructive capabilities. The development of the high intensity, high brilliance Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources have open the possibility to make microanalyses using the XRF techniques, increasing the interest of the scientific community for these techniques. In this paper the basic concepts of the XRF technique are reviewed taking in account the availability of the new sources of x rays. 32 refs., 7 figs.

Gigante, G.E. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica); Hanson, A.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1990-05-01

151

Round Rocks: Teaching Principles of Earth Science and Paleontology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides teachers with a highly effective way of presenting paleontology and earth science principles with limited classroom time. The main idea is to emphasize the thought processes that paleontologists use in their work. By answering certain questions and learning certain principles, students are compelled to think about the process of scientific reasoning. The process consists of taking a rock (from anywhere) in the hand and asking a single, simple question: How did this rock come to be this way? This lesson provides teachers with an outline of the process, principles and questions that students should use and answer about their rocks in order to understand the way scientists think and develop hypotheses and conclusions.

Warren Allmon

152

Development and Testing of Simulation (Game) to Illustrate Basic Principles of Integrated Project Delivery and Target Value Design: A First Run Study  

E-print Network

This research is focused on developing a simulation (game) that will help explain the basic principles of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Target Value Design (TVD). The transfer of knowledge about Lean principles is currently limited...

Munankami, Manish 1972-

2012-12-07

153

Basic Principles of Planar Chromatography and Its Potential for Hyphenated Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sample preparation, detection, identification, and quantitative determination of biomolecules are presented in this chapter. Advantages of planar chromatography and the basic principles (chambers, sample application, and chromatogram development) are also described. Rapid detection of biomolecules plays a strategical role in their investigation. Hyphenated techniques such as planar chromatography coupled to UV diode array detection and to mass spectrometry provide on-line extensive structural information on the metabolites prior to their isolation. In this chapter, the combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with biomolecules specific detection by diode array scanning (DAD), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TLC-FTIR) is discussed. In the last part of the chapter, the reader will gain useful information about a recent method of planar chromatography - multidimensional planar chromatography (MD-PC) and information on application of different modes of multidimensional planar chromatography and combination of this technique with diode array detection (MD-PC-DAD) and HPLC-DAD for separation, detection, and qualitative and quantitative determination of biomolecules. Planar chromatography as a pilot technique for HPLC is also described.

Tuzimski, Tomasz

154

The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Dichotomy Principle” and the classical “Golden Section Principle” are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of “Harmony Mathematics”, a new proposed mathematical direction.

A. P. Stakhov

2005-01-01

155

Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

156

Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part II: Coupling between ion mobility, electrolysis, and acidbase  

E-print Network

Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part II: Coupling on the web 7th July 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b906468k We present elements of electrolyte dynamics the coupling between acid­base equilibrium chemistry and electrophoretic mobilities of electrolytes, at both

Santiago, Juan G.

157

Research programs for Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

A chemical sciences review meeting was held in which research programs in chemistry were discussed. Major topics included: chemistry of actinides and fission products, interactions of solvents, solutes and surfaces in supercritical extraction, chemical and physical principles in multiphase separations, and chemical kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

Not Available

1988-01-01

158

The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

2003-01-01

159

Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.

Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

2006-10-01

160

Basic Regulatory Principles of Escherichia coli's Electron Transport Chain for Varying Oxygen Conditions  

PubMed Central

For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25268772

Henkel, Sebastian G.; Beek, Alexander Ter; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M. Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

2014-01-01

161

Basic and Applied Science Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, or LANSCE, is an accelerator-based national user facility for research in basic and applied science using four experimental areas. LANSCE has two areas that provide neutrons generated by the 800-MeV proton beam striking tungsten target systems. A third area uses the proton beam for radiography. The fourth area uses 100 MeV protons to produce medical radioisotopes. This paper describes the four LANSCE experimental areas, gives nuclear science highlights of the past operating period, and discusses plans for the future.

Lisowski, Paul W.

2005-05-01

162

PNNL Highlights for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (July 2013-July 2014)  

SciTech Connect

This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.

Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.

2014-08-13

163

The imaging fringe and flexure tracker of LINC-NIRVANA: basic opto-mechanical design and principle of operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LINC-NIRVANA is the interferometric near-infrared imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Being able to observe at wavelength bands from J to K (suppported by an adaptive optics system operating at visible light) LINC-NIRVANA will provide an unique and unprecedented combination of high angular resolution (~ 9 milliarcseconds at 1.25?m), wide field of view (~ 100 arcseconds2 at 1.25?m), and large collecting area (~ 100m2). One of the major contributions of the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne to this project is the development and provision of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS). In addition to the single-eye adaptive optics systems the FFTS is a crucial component to ensure a time-stable wavefront correction over the full aperture of the double-eye telescope, a mandatory pre-requisite for interferometric observations. Using a independent HAWAII 1 detector array at a combined focus close to the science detector, the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System analyses the complex two-dimensional interferometric point spread function (PSF) of a suitably bright reference source at frame rates of up to several hundred Hertz. By fitting a parameterised theoretical model PSF to the preprocessed image-data the FFTS determines the amount of pistonic phase difference and angular misalignment between the wavefronts of the two optical paths of LINC-NIRVANA. For every exposure the corrective parameters are derived in real-time and transmitted to a dedicated piezo-electric fast linear mirror for simple path lengths adjustments, and/or to the adaptive optics systems of the single-eye telescopes for more complicated corrections. In this paper we present the basic concept and currect status of the opto-mechanical design of the Fringe and Flexure Tracker, the operating principle of the fringe and flexure tracking loops, and the encouraging result of a laboratory test of the piston control loop.

Straubmeier, Christian; Bertram, Thomas; Eckart, Andreas; Rost, Steffen; Wang, Yeping; Herbst, Tom; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Weigelt, Gerd

2006-06-01

164

Back to the basic sciences: an innovative approach to teaching senior medical students how best to integrate basic science and clinical medicine.  

PubMed

Abraham Flexner persuaded the medical establishment of his time that teaching the sciences, from basic to clinical, should be a critical component of the medical student curriculum, thus giving rise to the "preclinical curriculum." However, students' retention of basic science material after the preclinical years is generally poor. The authors believe that revisiting the basic sciences in the fourth year can enhance understanding of clinical medicine and further students' understanding of how the two fields integrate. With this in mind, a return to the basic sciences during the fourth year of medical school may be highly beneficial. The purpose of this article is to (1) discuss efforts to integrate basic science into the clinical years of medical student education throughout the United States and Canada, and (2) describe the highly developed fourth-year basic science integration program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In their critical review of medical school curricula of 126 U.S. and 17 Canadian medical schools, the authors found that only 19% of U.S. medical schools and 24% of Canadian medical schools require basic science courses or experiences during the clinical years, a minor increase compared with 1985. Curricular methods ranged from simple lectures to integrated case studies with hands-on laboratory experience. The authors hope to advance the national discussion about the need to more fully integrate basic science teaching throughout all four years of the medical student curriculum by placing a curricular innovation in the context of similar efforts by other U.S. and Canadian medical schools. PMID:18580085

Spencer, Abby L; Brosenitsch, Teresa; Levine, Arthur S; Kanter, Steven L

2008-07-01

165

Basic principles of flight test instrumentation engineering, volume 1, issue 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 1 of the AG 300 series on 'Flight Test Instrumentation' gives a general introduction to the basic principles of flight test instrumentation. The other volumes in the series provide more detailed treatments of selected topics on flight test instrumentation. Volume 1, first published in 1974, has been used extensively as an introduction for instrumentation courses and symposia, as well as being a reference work on the desk of most flight test and instrumentation engineers. It is hoped that this second edition, fully revised, will be used with as much enthusiasm as the first edition. In this edition a flight test system is considered to include both the data collection and data processing systems. In order to obtain an optimal data flow, the overall design of these two subsystems must be carefully matched; the detail development and the operation may have to be done by separate groups of specialists. The main emphasis is on the large automated instrumentation systems used for the initial flight testing of modern military and civil aircraft. This is done because there, many of the problems, which are discussed here, are more critical. It does not imply, however, that smaller systems with manual data processing are no longer used. In general, the systems should be designed to provide the required results at the lowest possible cost. For many tests which require only a few parameters, relatively simple systems are justified, especially if no complex equipment is available to the user. Although many of the aspects discussed in this volume apply to both small and large systems, aspects of the smaller systems are mentioned only when they are of special interest. The volume has been divided into three main parts. Part 1 defines the main starting points for the design of a flight test instrumentation system, as seen from the points of view of the flight test engineer and the instrumentation engineer. In Part 2 the discussion is concentrated on those aspects which apply to each individual measuring channel, and in Part 3 the main emphasis is on the integration of the individual data channels into one data collection system and on those aspects of the data processing which apply to the complete system.

Borek, Robert W., Sr. (editor); Pool, A. (editor)

1994-01-01

166

Interstitial cells of Cajal: update on basic and clinical science.  

PubMed

The basic science and clinical interest in the networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) keep growing, and here, research from 2010 to mid-2013 is highlighted. High-resolution gastrointestinal manometry and spatiotemporal mapping are bringing exciting new insights into motor patterns, their function and their myogenic and neurogenic origins, as well as the role of ICC. Critically important knowledge is emerging on the partaking of PDGFR?+ cells in ICC pacemaker networks. Evidence is emerging that ICC and PDGFR?+ cells have unique direct roles in muscle innervation. Chronic constipation is associated with loss and injury to ICC, which is stimulating extensive research into maintenance and repair of ICC after injury. In gastroparesis, high-resolution electrical and mechanical studies are beginning to elucidate the pathophysiological role of ICC and the pacemaker system in this condition. Receptors and ion channels that play a role in ICC function are being discovered and characterized, which paves the way for pharmacological interventions in gut motility disorders through ICC. PMID:24408748

Huizinga, Jan D; Chen, Ji-Hong

2014-01-01

167

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p < 0.05, ?2 = 0.59 between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre-to-post assessment with an effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-08-01

168

First-Order Principles for College Teachers. Ten Basic Ways To Improve the Teaching Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the first order principles (FOPs) of college teaching and their role as the easiest route to working happily and successfully in the classroom. Part 1 lists the 10 principles: (1) moderate classroom incivilities with prosocial immediacies; (2) wait actively for the fruits of one's teaching efforts; (3) begin before feeling…

Boice, Robert

169

A CAL program to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering—a change from the traditional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. The pro-gram makes extensive use of colour, graphics, and animation and is aimed at A-level students of biology. Students select, from a menu, to investigate one of a number of identified processes involved in the overall production of a protein,

D. G. Dewhurst; A. S. Meehan; A. Williams; D. Woods

1989-01-01

170

Authorship patterns in life sciences, preclinical basic and clinical research papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper examines the multiple authorship in research papers in biomedical sciences from the more basic aspects to clinically oriented research. Seventeen journals were chosen for analysis — nine from the general and life sciences categories and eight from medical sciences group with clinical orientation. All these were high impact journals as per the Science Citation Index and come

K. Satyanarayana; K. V. Ratnakar

1989-01-01

171

May 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 5 BioScience 413 Principles of fluvial geomorphology have guided  

E-print Network

May 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 5 · BioScience 413 Articles Principles of fluvial geomorphology have guided river continuum concept (RCC;Vannote et al.1980).Based on early principles of fluvial geomorphology (e

172

A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

2009-01-01

173

A review of second law techniques applicable to basic thermal science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a review of second law analysis techniques which can contribute to basic research in the thermal sciences. The review demonstrated that second law analysis has a role in basic thermal science research. Unlike traditional techniques, second law analysis accurately identifies the sources and location of thermodynamic losses. This allows the development of innovative solutions

M. Kevin Drost; Joseph R. Zamorski

1988-01-01

174

Decision-Making in Basic Medical Sciences ExaminationsSingle versus Multiple Cutoff Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was prompted by concern that the criterion of an overall cutoff score on Basic Medical Sciences (BMS) examinations allows students to advance to their clinical training despite possible deficien cies in specific disciplines. To examine the validity of this concern, pass-fail decisions on four Basic Medical Sciences comprehensive examinations were compared with the passing criterion based on the

James Algina; Leon J. Gross

1979-01-01

175

Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

Clancey, William J.

2003-01-01

176

Update on Keloid Management: Clinical and Basic Science Advances  

PubMed Central

Background Keloids are benign, fibroproliferative lesions that represent abnormal healing resulting in excessive fibrosis. They are composed of mainly type III (early) or type I (late) collagen. Some of the symptoms include pruritus, tenderness, and pain. Often, they are very difficult to treat and prevent from recurrence. In contrast to hypertrophic scars, keloids extend beyond the margin of the wound. The Problem There is very limited evidence on the best wound management for minimizing scarring. Multiple available therapeutic modalities have been used for the treatment of keloids; however, high-recurrence rates continue to be reported. Unsuccessful treatment of keloids leads to psychological impact on the patients and increased economic burden. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Currently, there are biological and antineoplastic agents that can potentially treat and prevent excessive scar formation. Some of them have been used as "off label" therapies, and others are still in the experimental phase such as interferon alpha (IFN-?), imiquimod, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1). The use of IFN-?2b showed 18% recurrence rate when applied to postsurgical excised keloids. Imiquimod 5% can lower recurrence rate on postshaved keloids to 37.5% at 6-month and to 0% at a 12-month follow-up period. TGF-?1 oligonucleotides have shown effective and long-lasting inhibition of TGF-?-mediated scarring in vitro as well as in animal models. Daily injections of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-?1 and -?2 have shown successful reductions in scarring. Conclusion Latest discoveries in the use of novel agents suggest therapeutic alternatives for the prevention of recurrences of hypertrophic scars and postexcision keloid lesions. PMID:24527306

Viera, Martha H.; Vivas, Alejandra C.; Berman, Brian

2012-01-01

177

The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

2012-01-01

178

Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation  

E-print Network

Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

2007-01-01

179

Chemical carcinogens: a review of the science and its associated principles. U.S. Interagency Staff Group on Carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

In order to articulate a view of chemical carcinogenesis that scientists generally hold in common today and to draw upon this understanding to compose guiding principles that can be used as a bases for the efforts of the regulatory agencies to establish guidelines for assessing carcinogenic risk to meet the specific requirements of the legislative acts they are charged to implement, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office, the White House drew on the expertise of a number of regulatory agencies to elucidate present scientific views in critical areas of the major disciplines important to the process of risk assessment. The document is composed of two major sections, Principles and the State-of-the-Science. The latter consists of subsections on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, short-term and long-term testing, and epidemiology, which are important components in the risk assessment step of hazard identification. These subsections are followed by one on exposure assessment, and a final section which includes analyses of dose-response (hazard) assessment and risk characterization. The principles are derived from considerations in each of the subsections. Because of present gaps in understanding, the principles contain judgmental (science policy) decisions on major unresolved issues as well as statements of what is generally accepted as fact. These judgments are basically assumptions which are responsible for much of the uncertainty in the process of risk assessment. There was an attempt to clearly distinguish policy and fact. The subsections of the State-of-the-Science portion provide the underlying support to the principles articulated, and to read the "Principles" section without a full appreciation of the State-of-the-Science section is to invite oversimplification and misinterpretation. Finally, suggestions are made for future research efforts which will improve the process of risk assessment. PMID:3530737

1986-01-01

180

Setting the Scene: Basic Rules for a Safer Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six classes, six teachers--just navigating middle school is a voyage of discovery for early adolescents. We offer them a confusing array of choices, many in science. Sometimes it seems we spend too much science class time teaching organization, caution, and control. But these skills--critical to making science experiences exciting and safe--are also important science processes. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreword, Introduction, and References.

Juliana Texley

2003-01-01

181

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics Joe Burrescia ESnet collaborators: Research and Education institutions in the US, Europe, Asia Pacific, and elsewhere ­Full access collaborative science ­ Federated trust services with science oriented policy ­ Audio, video, and data

182

Back to Basics for Science Teachers in Rural India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how practical science can be taught using locally-collected junk materials and encourages a new approach to science teaching in rural India. Emphasizes science relevant to the villages to which children will return to when they leave school. (DDR)

Waldron, Nick

1998-01-01

183

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1985-01-01

184

The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)

Kabalevskii, Dmitrii

1988-01-01

185

Basic principles of STT-MRAM cell operation in memory arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For reliable operation, individual cells of an STT-MRAM memory array must meet specific requirements on their performance. In this work we review some of these requirements and discuss the fundamental physical principles of STT-MRAM operation, covering the range from device level to chip array performance, and methodology for its development.

Khvalkovskiy, A. V.; Apalkov, D.; Watts, S.; Chepulskii, R.; Beach, R. S.; Ong, A.; Tang, X.; Driskill-Smith, A.; Butler, W. H.; Visscher, P. B.; Lottis, D.; Chen, E.; Nikitin, V.; Krounbi, M.

2013-02-01

186

Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy  

SciTech Connect

This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

1990-11-01

187

LSUHSC Educational Program Objectives and Institutional Competencies Knowledge of Basic Principles  

E-print Network

providers, and utilization of resources. Professional Behavior 15. Students must maintain integrity, pharmacology, genetics, statistics and epidemiology. 2. Students must demonstrate knowledge of the basic disease processes in the clinical areas relevant to their degree programs. 3. Students must be able

188

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-01-01

189

Writing Good Tests for Student Grading or Research Purposes: Some Basic Precepts and Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic precepts for test development are described and explained as they are presented in measurement textbooks commonly used in the fields of education and psychology. The five building blocks discussed as the foundation of well-constructed tests are: (1) specification of purpose; (2) standard conditions; (3) consistency; (4) validity; and (5)…

Dodds, Jeffrey

190

Basic Principles and Ecological Consequences of Altered Flow Regimes for Aquatic Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wetland ecosystems. We\\u000a have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and\\u000a aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant\\u000a of physical habitat

STUART E. BUNN; ANGELA H. ARTHINGTON

2002-01-01

191

PRINCIPLES OF WEED SCIENCE -PLS 4601c INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT PLS 5632c  

E-print Network

1 PRINCIPLES OF WEED SCIENCE - PLS 4601c INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ­ PLS 5632c Department Description: An introduction to the principles of weed science. Lecture topics will include: weed biology and ecology, an introduction to weed management techniques and methodologies, factors affecting weed control

Watson, Craig A.

192

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science  

E-print Network

, diabetes, heart failure, stroke, etc) as a model for integrating an understanding of medical principles IMBS Training Program, directed by Ann Bonham, Executive Associate Dean for Research and Education and clinician-educators. The program will use cardiovascular disease broadly defined (to include obesity

Nguyen, Danh

193

Promoting group psychotherapy in managed care: basic economic principles for the clinical practitioner.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the basic economic factors underlying managed mental health care directly impacts the clinical practitioners' ability to make constructive changes in the system. To aid understanding this article introduces the managed care marketplace model, the interactive relationship between medical necessity and patient co-payment, and demand management economics. The author encourages practitioners to develop strategies to overcome specific economic obstacles that prevent the promotion of group psychotherapy. PMID:9314700

Gross, J M

1997-10-01

194

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic\\u000a electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers’ understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional\\u000a inquiry oriented investigation of the same

Janice Anderson; Michael Barnett

2011-01-01

195

United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) 1991-2012 and Beyond  

E-print Network

This paper contains an overview and summary on the achievements of the United Nations basic space science initiative in terms of donated and provided planetariums, astronomical telescopes, and space weather instruments, particularly operating in developing nations. This scientific equipment has been made available to respective host countries, particularly developing nations, through the series of twenty basic space science workshops, organized through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications since 1991. Organized by the United Nations, the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the basic space science workshops were organized as a series of workshops that focused on basic space science (1991-2004), the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (2005-2009), and the International Space Weather Initiative (2010-2012) proposed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac...

Mathai, A M; Balogh, W R

2015-01-01

196

Cancer in pregnancy. Part I: basic diagnostic and therapeutic principles and treatment of gynecological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Cancer in pregnancy is a rare circumstance. However, the coincidence of pregnancy and malignancy is supposed to increase due\\u000a to a general tendency of postponing childbearing to older age. To date, clinical guidelines are scarce and experience regarding\\u000a therapeutic management is limited to case reports.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This review focuses on general diagnostic and therapeutic principles including systemic therapy for malignancies in

Friederike Hoellen; Roland Reibke; Katrin Hornemann; Marc Thill; Doerte W. Luedders; Katharina Kelling; Amadeus Hornemann; Michael K. Bohlmann

197

Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

Schubert, Nancy A.

198

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science  

E-print Network

. The program will use cardiovascular disease broadly defined (to include obesity, diabetes, heart failure Program, directed by Ann Bonham, Executive Associate Dean for Research and Education in the School opportunities and courses with medical students, basic scientists, clinician scientists and clinician-educators

Nguyen, Danh

199

Basic Research: Behavioral and Social Sciences. 1984 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second annual report of the Army Research Institute's (ARI) basic research program. It describes the current focus of the program and the individual research efforts sponsored within each of the four principal thrust areas: ability assessment; instructional technology; cognitive processing limitations; and intelligent systems. In…

Army Research Inst. for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.

200

Basic principles and uniform terminology for the head-neck junction in hip replacement.  

PubMed

Recent problems with large head metal on metal hip replacements have spiked renewed interest in the head-neck junction. A thorough knowledge of the principles of the locking mechanism, the assembly technique and affecting factors on the strength of this junction is needed. Currently a confusing variability in terms is used to describe this junction. This overcomplicates an already complex issue. The purpose of this literature review is to collect and list the different terms used and to propose a uniform terminology. Two authors independently searched the electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL and MEDLINE with specific key words and combinations according to the PRISMA guidelines. The initial search yielded a total of 518 articles with ultimately 53 articles included in the present analysis. No consensus for a uniform term for the 2 sides of the head-stem junction was found. Since there is already pronounced variability in taper designs between different manufacturers (even so similarly named, e.g. "12/14"), a uniform terminology could be the first step to simplify the situation. "Male" and "female taper" is proposed as the appropriate terminology for the stem and head junction in hip replacement, respectively. The importance of the assembly technique understanding the principles of the locking mechanism is emphasised. PMID:25362881

Werner, Paul H; Ettema, Harmen B; Witt, Florian; Morlock, Michael M; Verheyen, Cees C P M

2015-04-20

201

[Basic principles of physics in optical imaging of the human eye].  

PubMed

Creation of a real picture of the observed object on the retina by optical system of the eye is the primary physical condition of the visual perception. Absorption of the light energy initiates the sequence of further physicochemical, biochemical and psychophysiological events partially taking place already in the retina but mostly in the higher cerebral and spinal centres. So the visual perception and its final evaluation is the result of a complicated complex of processes where the optical imaging itself plays the role of the starting factor. In the publication particularly the physical substance of the optical imaging on refraction surfaces between media with different refraction index has been accentuated. The laws of reflection and refraction and their origin are derived in the terms of the physical (Maxwell equations) and geometrical (Fermat principle, principle of the mutual independence of light beams) optics. In the adequate extent the development and structure of the eye and the whole visual complex, the bases of the quantification of the visual perception and contemporary opinions on mechanisms of the colour vision (trichromatic theory) have been described. The publication is completed by a mathematical appendix explaining some relations usually absent in the biomedical literature. PMID:11413677

Vodicka, I

2000-01-01

202

Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Research Under Field Conditions: Basic Principles and Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the agricultural science, soil fertility and plant nutrition have played an important role during the 20th century in increasing crop yields. In the 21st century, importance of this field is still expanding due to the limitations of natural resources (land and water), sustainable agriculture, and concern about environmental pollution. In this context, increasing crop yields will be associated with

N. K. Fageria

2007-01-01

203

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics DNSSEC Implementa) look-alike that understands DNSSEC better #12;Progress and Problems · Signer appliances installed end

204

Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients’ social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course. PMID:25755935

Grande, Joseph P.

2015-01-01

205

Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making.  

PubMed

Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients' social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course. PMID:25755935

Peacock, Justin G; Grande, Joseph P

2015-01-01

206

Fractals in the Neurosciences, Part I: General Principles and Basic Neurosciences.  

PubMed

The natural complexity of the brain, its hierarchical structure, and the sophisticated topological architecture of the neurons organized in micronetworks and macronetworks are all factors contributing to the limits of the application of Euclidean geometry and linear dynamics to the neurosciences. The introduction of fractal geometry for the quantitative analysis and description of the geometric complexity of natural systems has been a major paradigm shift in the last decades. Nowadays, modern neurosciences admit the prevalence of fractal properties such as self-similarity in the brain at various levels of observation, from the microscale to the macroscale, in molecular, anatomic, functional, and pathological perspectives. Fractal geometry is a mathematical model that offers a universal language for the quantitative description of neurons and glial cells as well as the brain as a whole, with its complex three-dimensional structure, in all its physiopathological spectrums. For a holistic view of fractal geometry of the brain, we review here the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences. PMID:24362815

Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Jelinek, Herbert; Pellionisz, Andras J; Losa, Gabriele Angelo

2013-12-20

207

Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

2014-05-01

208

Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the addition of problem based learning (PBL) into the basic medical curriculum of a large course (270 students). The PBL was provided via a learning management system and attended to the following goals: visual exposure, patient/physician history, patient communication and interactions.

Camille DiLullo (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Anatomy)

2009-10-01

209

The operating regimes and basic control principles of SNPS Topaz''. [Cs  

SciTech Connect

The basic operating regimes of space nuclear power system (SNPS) Topaz'' are considered. These regimes include: prelaunch preparation and launch into working orbit, SNPS start-up to obtain desired electric power, nominal regime, SNPS shutdown. The main requirements for SNPS at different regimes are given, and the control algorithms providing these requirements are described. The control algorithms were chosen on the basis of theoretical studies and ground power tests of the SNPS prototypes. Topaz'' successful ground and flight tests allow to conclude that for SNPS of this type control algorithm providing required thermal state of cesium vapor supply system and excluding any possibility of discharge processes in current conducting elements is the most expedient at the start-up regime. At the nominal regime required electric power should be provided by maintenance of reactor current and fast-acting voltage regulator utilization. The limitation of the outlet coolant temperature should be foreseen also.

Makarov, A.N.; Volberg, M.S.; Grayznov, G.M.; Zhabotinsky, E.E.; Serbin, V.I. (Scientific Production Unification Krasnaya Zvezda'' USSR, Moscow 115230 (SU))

1991-01-05

210

Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

2006-01-01

211

Basic and Translational Science Effect of Combined Locally  

E-print Network

appear to increase the number of microcanals. UROLOGY 79: 967.e1­967.e4, 2012. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. I n of Urology, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Experimental Thera- peutics, Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City: Moshe Wald, M.D., Department of Urology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, 3 RCP, Iowa City, IA

Salem, Aliasger K.

212

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics IPv6 SNMP Network 1994 #12;2/2/10 IPv6 Information Example Router IPv6 address table IPv6 model/polling address #12: creation by IPv6 address #12;2/2/10 Monitoring OSCARS MPLS LSPs OSCARS LSP Auto-discovery Hop by Hop LSP

213

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics The ARRA ANI Network Testbed ­ANI 100G network connecting Magellan resources #12;Relation to the Magellan Project · High Goals · Enable network, middleware and application end-to-end R&D at 100G · Configurable · Breakable

214

Pros and cons of vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum: examples and experiences from Linköping, Sweden.  

PubMed

Problem-based learning (PBL), combined with early patient contact, multiprofessional education and emphasis on development of communications skills, has become the basis for the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping (FHS), Sweden, which was started in 1986. Important elements in the curriculum are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science parts of the curriculum and horizontal integration between different subject areas. This article discusses the importance of vertical integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to experiences from the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping, and also give examples on how it has been implemented during the latest 15 years. Results and views put forward in published articles concerning vertical integration within undergraduate medical education are discussed in relation to the experiences in Linköping. Vertical integration between basic sciences and clinical medicine in a PBL setting has been found to stimulate profound rather than superficial learning, and thereby stimulates better understanding of important biomedical principles. Integration probably leads to better retention of knowledge and the ability to apply basic science principles in the appropriate clinical context. Integration throughout the whole curriculum entails a lot of time and work in respect of planning, organization and execution. The teachers have to be deeply involved and enthusiastic and have to cooperate over departmental borders, which may produce positive spin-off effects in teaching and research but also conflicts that have to be resolved. The authors believe vertical integration supports PBL and stimulates deep and lifelong learning. PMID:12098414

Dahle, L O; Brynhildsen, J; Behrbohm Fallsberg, M; Rundquist, I; Hammar, M

2002-05-01

215

Basic Principles and Emerging Concepts in the Redox Control of Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork of poorly connected findings. The article, therefore, reviews principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-?B), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms. Major conclusions are that (i) direct signaling by free radicals is restricted to O2•? and •NO and can be excluded for fast reacting radicals such as •OH, •OR, or Cl•; (ii) oxidant signals are H2O2, enzymatically generated lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite; (iii) free radical damage is sensed via generation of Michael acceptors; (iv) protein thiol oxidation/alkylation is the prominent mechanism to modulate function; (v) redox sensors must be thiol peroxidases by themselves or proteins with similarly reactive cysteine or selenocysteine (Sec) residues to kinetically compete with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)- and peroxiredoxin (Prx)-type peroxidases or glutathione-S-transferases, respectively, a postulate that still has to be verified for putative mammalian sensors. S-transferases and Prxs are considered for system complementation. The impact of NF-?B and Nrf2 on hormesis, management of inflammatory diseases, and cancer prevention is critically discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2335–2381. PMID:21194351

Flohé, Leopold

2011-01-01

216

The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence  

PubMed Central

Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented. PMID:16674820

Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

2006-01-01

217

How do microbubbles and ultrasound interact? Basic physical, dynamic and engineering principles.  

PubMed

Ultrasound contrast agents consisting of gas microbubbles stabilised by a polymer or surfactant coating have been in clinical use for several decades. Research into the biomedical uses of microbubbles, however, remains a highly active and growing field. This is largely due to their considerable versatility and the wide range of applications for which they have demonstrated potential benefits. In addition to contrast enhancement, diagnostic applications include: perfusion mapping and quantification and molecular imaging. In drug and gene therapy microbubbles can be used as vehicles which are inherently traceable in vivo and can provide both targeted and controlled release. In addition, the dynamic behaviour of the microbubbles in response to ultrasound excitation contributes to the therapeutic process. At low intensities microbubbles have been shown to mediate reversible enhancement of cell and endothelial permeability, including temporary opening of the blood brain barrier. At higher intensities they have been used as means of increasing the efficiency of thrombolysis, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery and lithotripsy. The aim of this review is to describe the key physical principles which determine how microbubbles and ultrasound interact and the implications for their design, preparation and exploitation in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:22352768

Azmin, Mehrdad; Harfield, Caroline; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Stride, Eleanor

2012-01-01

218

DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). The goal of the Material Sciences projects is to study the structural, optical, electrical, and defect properties of semiconductors and related materials using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Specific projects involving PV include: ordering in III-V semiconductors, isoelectronic co-doping, doping bottlenecks in semiconductors, solid-state theory, and computational science. The goal of the Chemical Sciences projects is to advance the fundamental understanding of the relevant science involving materials, photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, nanoscale chemistry, and catalysis that support solar photochemical conversion technologies. Specific projects relating to PV include: dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, semiconductor nanostructures, and molecular semiconductors. This presentation will give an overview of some of the major accomplishments of these projects.

Deb, S. K.

2005-01-01

219

Interactome maps of mouse gene regulatory domains reveal basic principles of transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

A key finding of the ENCODE project is that the enhancer landscape of mammalian cells undergoes marked alterations during ontogeny. However, the nature and extent of these changes are unclear. As part of the NIH Mouse Regulome Project, we here combined DNaseI hypersensitivity, ChIP-seq, and ChIA-PET technologies to map the promoter-enhancer interactomes of pluripotent ES cells and differentiated B lymphocytes. We confirm that enhancer usage varies widely across tissues. Unexpectedly, we find that this feature extends to broadly transcribed genes, including Myc and Pim1 cell-cycle regulators, which associate with an entirely different set of enhancers in ES and B cells. By means of high-resolution CpG methylomes, genome editing, and digital footprinting, we show that these enhancers recruit lineage-determining factors. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the turning on and off of enhancers during development correlates with promoter activity. We propose that organisms rely on a dynamic enhancer landscape to control basic cellular functions in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24360274

Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Tang, Zhonghui; Mathe, Ewy; Qian, Jason; Sung, Myong-Hee; Li, Guoliang; Resch, Wolfgang; Baek, Songjoon; Pruett, Nathanael; Grøntved, Lars; Vian, Laura; Nelson, Steevenson; Zare, Hossein; Hakim, Ofir; Reyon, Deepak; Yamane, Arito; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Kovalchuk, Alexander L; Zou, Jizhong; Joung, J Keith; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Xiaoan; Hager, Gordon L; Ruan, Yijun; Casellas, Rafael

2013-12-19

220

Interactome maps of mouse gene regulatory domains reveal basic principles of transcriptional regulation  

PubMed Central

A key finding of the ENCODE project is that the enhancer landscape of mammalian cells undergoes marked alterations during ontogeny. However, the nature and extent of these changes are unclear. As part of the NIH Mouse Regulome Project, we here combined DNaseI hypersensitivity, ChIP-Seq, and ChIA-PET technologies to map the promoter-enhancer interactomes of pluripotent ES cells and differentiated B lymphocytes. We confirm that enhancer usage varies widely across tissues. Unexpectedly, we find that this feature extends to broadly-transcribed genes, including Myc and Pim1 cell cycle regulators, which associate with an entirely different set of enhancers in ES and B cells. By means of high-resolution CpG methylomes, genome editing, and digital footprinting we show that these enhancers recruit lineage-determining factors. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the turning on and off of enhancers during development correlates with promoter activity. We propose that organisms rely on a dynamic enhancer landscape to control basic cellular functions in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24360274

Kwon, Kyong-Rim Kieffer; Tang, Zhonghui; Mathe, Ewy; Qian, Jason; Sung, Myong-Hee; Li, Guoliang; Resch, Wolfgang; Baek, Songjoon; Pruett, Nathanael; Grøntved, Lars; Vian, Laura; Nelson, Steevenson; Zare, Hossein; Hakim, Ofir; Reyon, Deepak; Yamane, Arito; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Kovalchuk, Alexander L.; Zou, Jizhong; Joung, J. Keith; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Xiaoan; Hager, Gordon L.; Ruan, Yijun; Casellas, Rafael

2014-01-01

221

Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.  

PubMed

A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses. PMID:19639918

Cesario, Sandra K

2009-06-01

222

Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

1955-01-01

223

Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ? 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ? 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR phenomenology and weaken the status of the Planck scale hypothesis. Another crucial observation is that, already before incorporating standard matter and relativity, the SST geometry naturally yields a H t = 1 law where t is the age of the Universe and H the ratio between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale. As standard cosmology is not required to get such a fundamental result, the need for a conventional Planck scale is far from obvious and the study of UHECR can potentially yield evidence for an alternative approach including new physics and new ultimate constituents of matter. UHECR may in particular allow to explore the possible indications of the existence of a transition scale at very high energy where the standard laws would start becoming less and less dominant and new physics would replace the conventional fundamental principles. We discuss prospects of searches for potential signatures of such a phenomenon.

Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

2014-04-01

224

Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles  

PubMed Central

A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory consolidation. PMID:23874312

Klinger, Eric

2013-01-01

225

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology and Laboratory Science: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology provides students with the basic laboratory skills and knowledge to pursue a career in biotechnology. The manual, written by four biotechnology instructors with over 20 years of teaching experience, incorporates instruction, exercises, and laboratory activities that the authors have been using and perfecting for years. These exercises and activities serve to engage students and help them understand the fundamentals of working in a biotechnology laboratory. Building students' skills through an organized and systematic presentation of materials, procedures, and tasks, the manual will help students explore overarching themes that relate to all biotechnology workplaces. The fundamentals in this manual are critical to the success of research scientists, scientists who develop ideas into practical products, laboratory analysts who analyze samples in forensic, clinical, quality control, environmental, and other testing laboratories.

Brandner, Diana

226

Guiding Principles for Mathematics and Science Education Research Methods: Report of a Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a brief review of research methods employed in recent studies and proposes a number of guiding principles for designing and evaluating future research proposals in the area of mathematics and science education.

Larry E. Suter

227

A PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE FOR DUAL USE RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTMost life science research entails dual?use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of

FRIDA KUHLAU; ANNA T. HÖGLUND; KATHINKA EVERS; STEFAN ERIKSSON

2011-01-01

228

The basic science of peri-implant bone healing  

PubMed Central

Given the popularity of cementless orthopedic implants, it is imperative for orthopedic surgeons to have a basic understanding of the process of peri-implant bone healing. Contact and distance osteogenesis have been used to explain peri-implant bone healing. In contact osteogenesis, de novo bone forms on the implant surface, while in distance osteogenesis, the bone grows from the old bone surface toward the implant surface in an appositional manner. Contact osteogenesis may lead to bone bonding if the surface of the implant displays the appropriate surface topography. The early stage of peri-implant bone healing is very important and involves the body’s initial response to a foreign material: protein adsorption, platelet activation, coagulation, and inflammation. This results in the formation of a stable fibrin clot that is a depot for growth factors and allows for osteoconduction. Osteoconduction is the migration and differentiation of osteogenic cells, such as pericytes, into osteoblasts. Osteoconduction allows for contact osteogenesis to occur at the implant surface. The late stage of healing involves the remodeling of this woven bone. In many respects, this process is similar to the bone healing occurring at a fracture site. PMID:21430864

Kuzyk, Paul RT; Schemitsch, Emil H

2011-01-01

229

Communicating and advocating for science and medicine: beyond the basics.  

PubMed

I have discussed several advocacy strategies to improve effective communications for those motivated to do the necessary work to make a difference in policy decisions involving science and health care. I encourage you to get involved personally with members of Congress, their key “staffers,” and to contribute financially to their election efforts. Other suggestions are self-evident, for example, think strategically, only advocate for important policies and do not “over promise” or “under deliver.” If you “get to yes,” stop negotiating and leave gratefully. Remember, you are operating in a high stakes arena and while you understand the intended consequences, you may misjudge unintended consequences that could diminish success. But if you want to make a difference, you must become a “player in the policy and political game.” And if you “get in the game,” you should play to win! PMID:25291339

Feussner, John R

2015-02-01

230

Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

Amara, Francis

231

Lost in translation--basic science in the era of translational research.  

PubMed

The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges. PMID:20038540

Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-02-01

232

Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often…

Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

2011-01-01

233

Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries  

PubMed Central

Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

2011-01-01

234

Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science  

SciTech Connect

The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State University and Charles University in Prague. In this paper, we report neutron capture studies that are of particular interest to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In addition to determining neutron capture cross sections, we are also interested in the nuclear properties of the excited state compound nuclei created in the capture reactions. One model that describes the behavior of the nucleus is the statistical model. Our statistical studies included measuring the photon strength function, resonance parameters, level density and gamma-ray ({gamma}-ray) cascade multiplicity. The DANCE array allows the separation of cascades by the number of transitions (multiplicity) in the cascade, and this makes it possible to study detailed properties of the statistical cascade such as the relationship between multiplicity and energy distributions. The work reported here includes reaction on molybdenum targets, europium targets, gadolinium targets and the first americium-242m target. Our goal is to improve the accuracy and provide new measurements for stable and radioactive targets. We are especially interested in energy-dependent neutron capture cross sections. In all of our experiments, the photons emitted in the capture reactions are gamma rays, and they are detected by the barium fluoride crystal array named the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) shown in Fig. 1. The detector array is made of 160 crystals arranged in a sphere around the target. There are four different crystal shapes, each of which covers an equal solid angle. This array was specifically designed to measure neutron capture cross sections with targets that were milligram sized or smaller, including radioactive targets. The barium fluoride crystals are scintillation (light generating) detectors with very fast response time, and are therefore suitable for high count rate experiments. Actual neutron capture events must be reliably distinguished from background {gamma}-rays, which are always present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hyd

Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

2007-08-04

235

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag DisordersAn American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: This the first of two articles reviewing the scientific literature on the evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs), employing the methodology of evidence-based medicine. In this first part of this paper, the general principles of circadian biology that underlie clinical evaluation and treatment are reviewed. We then report on the accumulated evidence regarding the evaluation and treatment of shift work disorder (SWD) and jet lag disorder (JLD). Methods: A set of specific questions relevant to clinical practice were formulated, a systematic literature search was performed, and relevant articles were abstracted and graded. Results: A substantial body of literature has accumulated that provides a rational basis the evaluation and treatment of SWD and JLD. Physiological assessment has involved determination of circadian phase using core body temperature and the timing of melatonin secretion. Behavioral assessment has involved sleep logs, actigraphy and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Treatment interventions fall into three broad categories: 1) prescribed sleep scheduling, 2) circadian phase shifting (“resetting the clock”), and 3) symptomatic treatment using hypnotic and stimulant medications. Conclusion: Circadian rhythm science has also pointed the way to rational interventions for the SWD and JLD, and these treatments have been introduced into the practice of sleep medicine with varying degrees of success. More translational research is needed using subjects who meet current diagnostic criteria. Citation: Sack RL; Auckley D; Auger RR; Carskadon MA; Wright KP; Vitiello MV; Zhdanova IV. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: Part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1460-1483. PMID:18041480

Sack, Robert L; Auckley, Dennis; Auger, R. Robert; Carskadon, Mary A.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

2007-01-01

236

Promoting research and education in basic space science: the approach of the UN\\/ESA workshops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations\\/European Space Agency workshops on basic space science are a long-term effort for the development of astrophysics and space science and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world-wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India (1991), Costa Rica and Colombia (1992), Nigeria (1993), Egypt (1994)) explored the status of

Hans J. Haubold

2003-01-01

237

How WebQuests Can Enhance Science Learning Principles in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic…

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

2012-01-01

238

Introducing Computer Science Undergraduates to Principles of Programming Through a Functional Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses experience, over a three year period, at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Cyprus, in introducing undergraduate students in Computer Science to principles of programming (modularity, abstraction, genericity) through a functional language, and more specifically the language Miranda. The viability of this approach as well as the consequences for other courses in the curriculum,

Elpida T. Keravnou

1995-01-01

239

Design Principles for Creating Locally-Rooted National Science and Mathematics Curricula in Timor-Leste  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper articulates and illustrates design principles that guided the development of a set of hands-on teaching activities for the national science and mathematics curricula at junior-high and high-school level education in Timor-Leste, a small, low-income nation in Southeast Asia. A partnership between a university, an international science

Gabrielson, Curtis A.; Hsi, Sherry

2012-01-01

240

Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

SciTech Connect

This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the research that must be done. For example, the applied research programs in the DOE need a greater awareness of the user facilities and an understanding of how to use them to solve their unique problems. The discussions reinforced what all of the participants already knew: the issue of energy security is of major importance both for the U.S. and for the world. Furthermore, it is clear that major changes in the primary energy sources, in energy conversion, and in energy use, must be achieved within the next fifty years. This time scale is determined by two drivers: increasing world population and increasing expectations of that population. Much of the research and development currently being done are concerned with incremental improvements in what has been done in the immediate past; and it is necessary to take this path because improvements will be needed across the board. These advances extend the period before the radical changes have to be made; however, they will not solve the underlying, long-range problem. The Subpanel recommends that a major program be funded to conduct a multidisciplinary research program to address the issues to ensure a secure energy future for the U.S. It is necessary to recognize that this program must be ensured of a long-term stability. It is also necessary that a management and funding structure appropriate for such an approach be developed. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences is well positioned to support this initiative by enhancement of their already world-class scientific research programs and user facilities.

None

2003-02-01

241

Basic Economic Principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

Tideman, T. N.

1972-01-01

242

Magnetoencephalography: Basic principles  

PubMed Central

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic field generated by the electrical activity of neurons. It is usually combined with a magnetic resonance imaging to get what is called magnetic source imaging. The technology that has helped record these minute magnetic fields is super-conducting quantum interference detector which is like a highly sensitive magnetic field meter. To attenuate the external magnetic noise the MEG is housed inside a magnetically shielded room. The actual sensors recording magnetic fields are magnetometers and/or gradiometers. MEG fields pass through the head without any distortion. This is a significant advantage of MEG over electroencephalography. MEG provides a high spatial and temporal resolution. The recording and identification information should be according to the American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society guidelines published in 2011. MEG currently has two approved indications in the United States, one is for pre-operative brain mapping and the other is for use in epilepsy surgery. MEG studies have shown functional brain tissue inside brain tumors. PMID:24791076

Singh, Sanjay P.

2014-01-01

243

3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/13 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 8/13 1  

E-print Network

3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/13 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 8/13 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 152 Computer Science I Using Java 3. Java basics 1. Higher-level languages and compilation 2. Java programs and statements 3. Program documentation

Keil, David M.

244

3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/14 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 6/14 1  

E-print Network

3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/14 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 6/14 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 152 Computer Science I Using Java 3. Java basics 1. Higher-level languages and compilation 2. Java programs and statements 3. Program documentation

Keil, David M.

245

Ion-exchange chromatography: basic principles and application to the partial purification of soluble mammalian prolyl oligopeptidase.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions. By way of further illustration, we outline protocols necessary to partially purify a serine peptidase from bovine whole brain cytosolic fraction, covering crude tissue extract preparation through to partial purification of the target enzyme using anion-exchange chromatography. Protocols for assaying total protein and enzyme activity in both pre- and post-IEC fractions are also described. The target serine peptidase, prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC3.4.21.26), is an 80-kDa enzyme with endopeptidase activity towards peptide substrates of ?30 amino acids. POP is a ubiquitous post-proline cleaving enzyme with particularly high expression levels in the mammalian brain, where it participates in the metabolism of neuroactive peptides and peptide-like hormones (e.g. thyroliberin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone). PMID:20978968

Cummins, Philip M; Dowling, Oonagh; O'Connor, Brendan F

2011-01-01

246

A Hybrid Model of Mathematics Support for Science Students Emphasizing Basic Skills and Discipline Relevance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of students entering university lacking basic mathematical skills is a critical issue in the Australian higher-education sector and relevant globally. The Maths Skills programme at La Trobe University has been developed to address under preparation in the first-year science cohort in the absence of an institutional mathematics support…

Jackson, Deborah C.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

2013-01-01

247

`Leaning in' to Support Sex Differences in Basic Science and Clinical Research  

E-print Network

`Leaning in' to Support Sex Differences in Basic Science and Clinical Research Teresa K. Woodruff the relevance of sex differences in neuroscience re- search: Huang and Woolley (2012) reported a sex published evidence from worms to humans confirms structural and functional sex differences throughout

Chisholm, Rex L.

248

The Dilemma of Medical Curriculum Innovation for the University Basic Science Departments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his address to the Council of Academic Societies at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Medical Colleges in Cincinnati, Ohio, November 1969, author re-examines the advantages and disadvantages of a basic science department that is exclusively a medical school department. (IR)

Weil, William B., Jr.

1970-01-01

249

Improving College Faculty Instruction in the Basic and Allied Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project to improve college instruction in the basic and allied health sciences at New York Chiropractic College and the New York Institute of Technology is described. Attention was directed to: the kinds of resources colleges and professional schools provide to improve instruction; motivation of faculty to explore innovative or strategic…

Washton, Nathan S.

250

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2013-01-01

251

Impact of the USMLE Step 1 on Teaching and Learning of the Basic Biomedical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the newly modified United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 reviews the test, phase-in plans, and potential impact on basic biomedical sciences education. It is recommended that medical schools not use the test as the sole criterion for promotion to the third year and carefully review other examination-related requirements…

Swanson, David B.; And Others

1992-01-01

252

A simulation for teaching the basic and clinical science of fluid therapy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical cases that, by nature, are diverse, change over time, and respond in unique ways to therapeutic interventions. We developed a dynamic model using STELLA software that simulates normal and abnormal fluid and electrolyte balance in the dog. Students interact, not with the underlying model, but with a user interface that provides sufficient data (skin turgor, chemistry panel, etc.) for the clinical assessment of patients and an opportunity for treatment. Students administer fluids and supplements, and the model responds in "real time," requiring regular reassessment and, potentially, adaptation of the treatment strategy. The level of success is determined by clinical outcome, including improvement, deterioration, or death. We expected that the simulated cases could be used to teach both the clinical and basic science of fluid therapy. The simulation provides exposure to a realistic clinical environment, and students tend to focus on this aspect of the simulation while, for the most part, ignoring an exploration of the underlying physiological basis for patient responses. We discuss how the instructor's expertise can provide sufficient support, feedback, and scaffolding so that students can extract maximum understanding of the basic science in the context of assessing and treating at the clinical level.

Richard E. Rawson (Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Biomedical Sciences)

2009-01-01

253

Platelet-Rich PlasmaFrom Basic Science to Clinical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized in surgery for 2 decades; there has been a recent interest in the use of PRP for the treatment of sports-related injuries. PRP contains growth factors and bioactive proteins that influence the healing of tendon, ligament, muscle, and bone. This article examines the basic science of PRP, and it describes the current clinical applications

Timothy E. Foster; Brian L. Puskas; Bert R. Mandelbaum; Michael B. Gerhardt; Scott A. Rodeo

2009-01-01

254

Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

Croen, Lila G.; And Others

1986-01-01

255

Basic Sciences in Clinical Glaucoma How Does Nonpenetrating Glaucoma Surgery Work?  

E-print Network

Basic Sciences in Clinical Glaucoma How Does Nonpenetrating Glaucoma Surgery Work? Aqueous Outflow Resistance and Glaucoma Surgery Douglas H. Johnson, MD, and *Mark Johnson, PhD Department of Ophthalmology the abnormal trabecular meshwork of glaucoma address the pathologic problem of the disease. Surgeries

Ottino, Julio M.

256

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE MICROBIOLOGY MICB (0404D)  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE MICROBIOLOGY MICB (0404D) A minimum Physiology & Neurobiology Ecology & Evolution Microbiology Individualized Studies NOTES: Student name MICROBIOLOGY 0404D Grade of C- or better required in each course 27 minimum required credits Advanced Program

Gruner, Daniel S.

257

Long-Term Retention of Basic Science Knowledge: A Review Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently,…

Custers, Eugene J. F. M.

2010-01-01

258

A Problem-Oriented Independent Studies Programme in Basic Medical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An independent studies program (ISP) in the basic medical sciences developed at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry involves 16 students as a learning team working with 10 medical teachers as a teaching team. The program offers an alternative to the lecture-laboratory-conference traditional format. (Author/LBH)

Morgan, H. R.

1977-01-01

259

Decision-Making in Basic Medical Sciences Examinations: Single versus Multiple Cutoff Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the premise that an overall cutting score on Basic Medical Sciences (BMS) tests allows medical students to enter clinical training despite deficiencies in certain subjects, cutting scores on four BMS tests were compared with those of discipline subtests. The original premise was not supported. (MH)

Algina, James; Gross, Leon J.

1979-01-01

260

An Academic Career in a Basic Medical Science Department of Physiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of opportunities and the development of an academic career in a physiology department within a medical school or basic science department by graduates and postgraduates who intend to participate in physiology on a full-time basis are discussed, emphasizing typical background and job responsibilities. (Author/DC)

Saba, Thomas M.

1981-01-01

261

[United Nations Resolutions. Resolution on Prison Education. Resolution on Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners. Resolution on Criminal Justice Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three United Nations resolutions that emphasize the role and practice of prison education. The three resolutions were adopted in 1990: (1) the Economic and Social Council Resolution 1990/20 on prison education; (2) the General Assembly Resolution 45/111 on basic principles for the treatment of prisoners; and (3) General…

United Nations, New York, NY.

262

Basic principle From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simpson's_paradox Suppose 5 men and 5 women apply to two different departments in a school.  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;Basic principle From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simpson sex bias case (From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simpson's_paradox) One of the best known real life examples of Simpson's paradox occurred when the University of California, Berkeley was sued

Murphy, Susan A.

263

General medicine and surgery for dental practitioners: part 2. Medical emergencies in dental practice: the drug box, equipment and basic principles of management.  

PubMed

Dental practitioners need knowledge of the diagnosis and management of medical emergencies. This paper deals with the general aspects of emergency treatment including basic management principles which are applicable to all emergencies. The next paper in this series, part 3, deals with more specific aspects of medical emergency management. PMID:24923938

Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G

2014-06-13

264

The Challenge of the Humanities and Social Science Education Through the Basic Seminar (Science of Snow Sports)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Education Center of Chiba Institute of Technology is taking a new approach to the introduction of liberal arts subjects commonly included in the curriculum of all departments through a newly established basic seminar, the Science of Snow Sports. Each faculty member has been working on setting up classes that cross the conventional boundaries of fields and disciplines and which are targeted at students of all faculties and departments. This paper describes the potential for teaching liberal arts and social science subjects to engineering students through the medium of sports science, based on actual experience gained via this new approach.

Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Sugimoto, Taku; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Ikota, Masaru

265

United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica andColombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

1995-01-01

266

Aligning library instruction with the needs of basic sciences graduate students: a case study  

PubMed Central

Question: How can an existing library instruction program be reconfigured to reach basic sciences graduate students and other patrons missed by curriculum-based instruction? Setting: The setting is an academic health sciences library that serves both the university and its affiliated teaching hospital. Methods: The existing program was redesigned to incorporate a series of seven workshops that encompassed the range of information literacy skills that graduate students in the basic sciences need. In developing the new model, the teaching librarians made changes in pedagogy, technology, marketing, and assessment strategies. Results: Total attendance at the sessions increased substantially in the first 2 years of the new model, increasing from an average of 20 per semester to an average of 124. Survey results provided insight about what patrons wanted to learn and how best to teach it. Conclusion: Modifying the program's content and structure resulted in a program that appealed to the target audience. PMID:23133328

O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

2012-01-01

267

Exploring Magnetism: Bringing The Sun-Earth Connection into the Classroom via Basic Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The E/PO programs of NASA missions often face the challenge of making complex science investigations relevant for the classroom. Magnetism is one of the basic topics taught in classrooms throughout the nation. It also has profound importance within a great variety of astrophysical systems. We have used the topic of magnetism to form the basis of a series of teacher's lesson guides that connect the basic science concepts to the more complex systems being studied by scientists today. These guides use hands-on, inquiry based activities to teach concepts of magnetism for students of grades 6-9. The primary guide, Exploring Magnetism, examines the fundamental properties of magnetism and electromagnetism. Supplemental guides teach about current NASA investigations by connecting the basic science to the science being studied by these space missions. Currently, there are two supplemental guides: Exploring Magnetism in the Solar Wind, which explores how the STEREO mission uses a spacecraft boom to measure the magnetic field of the solar wind free from contamination of the spacecraft itself; and Exploring Magnetism in Solar Flares, which uses RHESSI observations to demonstrate how rapidly changing magnetic fields can unleash enormous amounts of energy.

Mendez, B. J.; Peticolas, L. M.; Craig, N.; Holman, G.

2005-05-01

268

The application of Gestalt principles in a middle school science classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is an initial step in creating an educational philosophy for a private, affiliated school through the application of Gestalt principles. Middle school science students were given a pre-test for measuring their critical thinking skills which were defined by Gestalt principles (Blosser 1973) and modeled on real life science fair project scenarios. After taking the pre-test, the students were assigned science fair projects. Simultaneously they were informally assessed by a rubric. Finally, the students took a post-test to see if their critical thinking skills improved as a result of being guided to think along the lines of the Gestalt learning theory. As a result of completing the procedure, the researcher found that the students' critical thinking skills were improved as evidenced by the higher test scores on the post-test. The pilot study was successful and Gestalt Principles could be successfully implemented as part of the private school curriculum.

Akbar, Salma

269

Principles versus Artifacts in Computer Science Curriculum Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer Science is a subject which has difficulty in marketing itself. Further, pinning down a standard curriculum is difficult--there are many preferences which are hard to accommodate. This paper argues the case that part of the problem is the fact that, unlike more established disciplines, the subject does not clearly distinguish the study of…

Machanick, Philip

2003-01-01

270

Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and…

Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

2012-01-01

271

Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing learning activities that link ocean sciences with real-life issues relevant to employment, environment and economic concerns.

Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

2004-12-01

272

Translating basic science insight into public health action for multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Multidrug (MDR)- and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) impose a heavy toll of human suffering and social costs. Controlling drug-resistant TB is a complex global public health challenge. Basic science advances including elucidation of the genetic basis of resistance have enabled development of new assays that are transforming the diagnosis of MDR-TB. Molecular epidemiological approaches have provided new insights into the natural history of TB with important implications for drug resistance. In the future, progress in understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain-specific human immune responses, integration of systems biology approaches with traditional epidemiology and insight into the biology of mycobacterial persistence have potential to be translated into new tools for diagnosis and treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB. We review recent basic sciences developments that have contributed or may contribute to improved public health response. PMID:22458269

Walter, Nicholas D; Strong, Michael; Belknap, Robert; Ordway, Diane J; Daley, Charles L; Chan, Edward D

2012-07-01

273

Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science  

SciTech Connect

Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Adekola, Aderemi S [ORNL; Allen, J. [Rutgers University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee; Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Erikson, Luke [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Gaddis, A. L. [Furman University; Harlin, Christopher W [ORNL; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Howard, Joshua A [ORNL; Jandel, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Johnson, Micah [ORNL; Kapler, R. [University of Tennessee; Krolas, W. [University of Warsaw; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL; Ma, Zhanwen [ORNL; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Matthews, C. [Rutgers University; Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O'Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Patterson, N. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Paulauskas, Stanley [University of Tennessee; Pelham, T. [University of Surrey, UK; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Radford, David C [ORNL; Rogers, J. [Tennessee Technological University; Schmitt, Kyle [University of Tennessee; Shapira, Dan [ORNL; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Sissom, D. J. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Swan, T. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilhelmy, J. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilson, Gemma L [ORNL

2009-04-01

274

Quick Facts for MD/PhD Students Medical School; Basic Science (Years 1 -2)  

E-print Network

Quick Facts for MD/PhD Students Medical School; Basic Science (Years 1 - 2) A. Core curriculum MD/Ph://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu/honorsprogram/. C. MD/PhD program involvement All MD/PhD students are highly encouraged to perform at a high level for the exam at this time. While medical school classmates complete the 3rd and 4th years of medical school, MD/Ph

275

Implications of computer science principles for quantum physics  

E-print Network

The Church-Turing thesis is one of the pillars of computer science; it postulates that every classical system has equivalent computability power to the so-called Turing machine. While this thesis is crucial for our understanding of computing devices, its implications in other scientific fields have hardly been explored. Here we start this research programme in the context of quantum physics and show that computer science laws have profound implications for some of the most fundamental results of the theory. We first show how they question our knowledge on what a mixed quantum state is, as we identify situations in which ensembles of quantum states defining the same mixed state, indistinguishable according to the quantum postulates, do become distinguishable when prepared by a computer. We also show a new loophole for Bell-like experiments: if some of the parties in a Bell-like experiment use a computer to decide which measurements to make, then the computational resources of an eavesdropper have to be limited in order to have a proper observation of non-locality. Our work opens a new direction in the search for a framework unifying computer science and quantum physics.

Ariel Bendersky; Gonzalo de la Torre; Gabriel Senno; Santiago Figueira; Antonio Acin

2014-07-02

276

Agent-based computer simulation and sirs: building a bridge between basic science and clinical trials.  

PubMed

The management of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)/Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) remains the greatest challenge in the field of critical care. There has been uniform difficulty in translating the results of basic science research into effective therapeutic regimes. We propose that this is due in part to a failure to account for the complex, nonlinear nature of the inflammatory process of which SIRS/MOF represents a disordered state. Attempts to manipulate this process without an understanding of the dynamics of the system may potentially produce unintended consequences. Agent-Based Computer Simulation (ABCS) provides a means to synthesize the information acquired from the linear analysis of basic science into a model that preserves the complexity of the inflammatory system. We have constructed an abstracted version of the inflammatory process using an ABCS that is based at the cellular level. Despite its abstraction, the simulation produces non-linear behavior and reproduces the dynamic structure of the inflammatory response. Furthermore, adjustment of the simulation to model one of the unsuccessful initial anti-inflammatory trials of the 1990's demonstrates the adverse outcome that was observed in those clinical trials. It must be emphasized that the current model is extremely abstract and simplified. However, it is hoped that future ABCSs of sufficient sophistication eventually may provide an important bridging tool to translate basic science discoveries into clinical applications. Creating these simulations will require a large collaborative effort, and it is hoped that this paper will stimulate interest in this form of analysis. PMID:11580108

An, G

2001-10-01

277

Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

Rusli, Aloysius

2012-06-01

278

A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE`s two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document.

Not Available

1993-09-01

279

Science and public health principles used to reduce road deaths.  

PubMed

An editorial in a previous issue of this journal falsely claims that the US government's efforts to reduce road fatalities are not based on science. It says that, as a result, the United States has fallen behind other countries in road death prevention. A large body of research and evaluation informed federal and state safety programs from the outset. Evans's comparisons of death trends among countries without adjustment for changes in relevant risk factors or specification of the injury reduction policies among the countries tell us nothing about the causes of the declines or the effects of specific ameliorative efforts. PMID:25320900

Robertson, Leon S

2014-12-01

280

Orientation and Characteristics of Subject Service in Basic Natural Science Based on the Investigation in Wuhan University, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After investigating service requirements in basic natural science disciplines in Wuhan University, China, we analyze the characteristics according to the survey results, then provide the service strategies suitable for the science subject service. Five colleges in Wuhan University, including physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, and environment, were investigated. The questionnaires include the frequency of science users using the library or the

Hu Yongsheng

2012-01-01

281

Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development…

Cassel, Russell N.

1987-01-01

282

Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through…

Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate

2007-01-01

283

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments  

E-print Network

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications Available online 6 June 2006 Abstract Osmosis is a physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied of osmosis through natural materials, and from the 1960s, special attention has been given to osmosis through

284

Principled Improvement in Science: Forces and Proportional Relations in Early Secondary-School Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to continuing concerns about student attainment and participation in science and mathematics, the "epiSTEMe" project took a novel approach to pedagogy in these two disciplines. Using principles identified as effective in the research literature (and combining these in a fashion not previously attempted), the project developed…

Howe, Christine; Ilie, Sonia; Guardia, Paula; Hofmann, Riikka; Mercer, Neil; Riga, Fran

2015-01-01

285

Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.  

PubMed

The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline. PMID:22765213

Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

2012-08-01

286

FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)  

SciTech Connect

The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

Samara, G.A.

1997-05-01

287

The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Methods of the study and outcomes are discussed.

Dr. Mohammed K Khalil (Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine Biomedical Sciences)

2010-09-01

288

Using Basic Principles To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Henderson Hasselbalch equation calculates the equilibrium distribution of 50:50 for nicotine in its nonprotonated (free base form), relative to its monoprotonated form, at pH of 8 in dilute aqueous solution. This ratio has then been used in the literature to predict the effect of ammonia compounds in tobacco and in smoke on nicotine pyrolysis and smoke chemistry. Experiments demonstrate that neither the thermal chemistry of tobacco alkaloids nor the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke can be explained by the position of the nonprotonated versus monoprotonated form equilibrium in aqueous extracts of tobacco. The high thermal stability of nicotine in air allows nicotine salts to be converted to nonprotonated nicotine and volatilize during heating prior to any substantial decomposition of the nicotine moiety. In contrast, cocaine hydrochloride is thermally unstable and will rapidly decompose upon heating; cocaine hydrochloride must first be converted to its nonprotonated form prior to heating and volatilization.

Seeman, Jeffrey I.

2005-10-01

289

Teaching future teachers basic astronomy concepts - seasonal changes - at a time of reform in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases, Sun and Moon eclipses, and others. The activities and results concerning the cause of seasonal changes are reported. Both the experimental class and the control groups improved their grasp of basic astronomy concepts statistically significantly, although the experimental class made the most impressive progress of all. Regarding subjects relevant to this study (seasonal changes), only the experimental class showed a statistically significant improvement, which justifies the constructivist approach. We conclude that in implementing a reform in the science curriculum, the change has to include the subjects taught and also the way they are taught.

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-11-01

290

Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences

Doluisio, James T.

1980-01-01

291

Archive of Second House Science Basic Research Subcommittee Hearing on Domain Names: September 30, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Democracy.Net, a joint project of the Center for Democracy and Technology and the Voters Telecommunications Watch, is providing coverage of two hearings before the US House Science Committee on Basic Research dealing with the Domain Name System, its current status, and future direction. The first hearing took place September 25, 1997 and the second takes place September 30. Witnesses are: Dr. Joseph Bordogna, National Science Foundation; Larry Irving, Assistant Secretary for Communication and Information, US Department of Commerce; Dr. Jonathan Postel, Director, Computer Networks Division; and Gabriel Battista, Network Solutions, Inc. The site is highlighted by RealPlayer coverage of the Hearings, selected written statements of the participants, photos, and background information.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Basic Research.

1997-01-01

292

Archive of First House Science Basic Research Subcommittee Hearing on Domain Names: September 25, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Democracy.Net, a joint project of the Center for Democracy and Technology and the Voters Telecommunications Watch, is providing coverage of two hearings before the US House Science Committee on Basic Research dealing with the Domain Name System, its current status, and future direction. The first hearing took place September 25, 1997 and the second takes place September 30. Witnesses are: Dr. Joseph Bordogna, National Science Foundation; Larry Irving, Assistant Secretary for Communication and Information, US Department of Commerce; Dr. Jonathan Postel, Director, Computer Networks Division; and Gabriel Battista, Network Solutions, Inc. The site is highlighted by RealPlayer coverage of the Hearings, selected written statements of the participants, photos, and background information.

293

Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

Not Available

1980-09-01

294

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTONOMOUS MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 1, NO. 2, AUGUST 2009 1 Some Basic Principles of Developmental Robotics  

E-print Network

of au- tonomous tool use in robots. Index Terms-- Artificial intelligence, developmental robotics, in of this field is that "true intelligence in natural and (possibly) artificial systems presupposes three crucial- telligent robots, learning systems, principles, psychology, robots, robot programming. I. INTRODUCTION

Meeden, Lisa A.

295

InSAR of the future: seeing through the lens of basic science, math, and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in geophysical research enabled by InSAR methods has been tightly linked both to basic math and physics and to technological advances throughout InSAR's 30 year history. Here we examine significant scientific achievements using InSAR against the improved understanding of basic science and the technological developments that have permitted new geophysical applications. Abstract mathematical and physical constructs such as network flow and a more complete understanding of radar scattering have led to new algorithms such as phase unwrapping and persistent scattering analysis. Fundamental advancements in technology, including digital data acquisition and processing, multichannel radar systems, and the huge increase in computational power, have led to the ever-increasing set of questions that can be addressed by InSAR remote sensing. Because of the long lead times required to put radar satellites in space, current technological trends provide a good indication of the capabilities of future radar spacecraft for the foreseeable future. On the other hand, predicting which existing analysis methods now used commonly in other branches of science will cross over to geophysical applications and lead to scientific breakthroughs is nearly impossible, and thus we can only predict here that many exciting results will follow as data from these spacecraft flow to ever-increasing numbers of scientists.

Zebker, H. A.

2005-12-01

296

Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science  

SciTech Connect

On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

Logan, B.G.

1994-07-15

297

Conducting correlation seminars in basic sciences at KIST Medical College, Nepal.  

PubMed

KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal. In Nepal, six basic science subjects are taught together in an integrated organ system-based manner with early clinical exposure and community medicine. Correlation seminars are conducted at the end of covering each organ system. The topics are decided by the core academic group (consisting of members from each basic science department, the Department of Community Medicine, the academic director, and the clinical and program coordinators) considering the public health importance of the condition and its ability to include learning objectives from a maximum number of subjects. The learning objectives are decided by individual departments and finalized after the meeting of the core group. There are two student coordinators for each seminar and an evaluation group evaluates each seminar and presenter. Correlation seminars help students revise the organ system covered and understand its clinical importance, promote teamwork and organization, and supports active learning. Correlation seminars should be considered as a learning modality by other medical schools. PMID:22066033

Shankar, P Ravi

2011-01-01

298

Conducting correlation seminars in basic sciences at KIST Medical College, Nepal  

PubMed Central

KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal. In Nepal, six basic science subjects are taught together in an integrated organ system-based manner with early clinical exposure and community medicine. Correlation seminars are conducted at the end of covering each organ system. The topics are decided by the core academic group (consisting of members from each basic science department, the Department of Community Medicine, the academic director, and the clinical and program coordinators) considering the public health importance of the condition and its ability to include learning objectives from a maximum number of subjects. The learning objectives are decided by individual departments and finalized after the meeting of the core group. There are two student coordinators for each seminar and an evaluation group evaluates each seminar and presenter. Correlation seminars help students revise the organ system covered and understand its clinical importance, promote teamwork and organization, and supports active learning. Correlation seminars should be considered as a learning modality by other medical schools. PMID:22066033

2011-01-01

299

Conceiving "personality": Psychologist's challenges and basic fundamentals of the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals.  

PubMed

Scientists exploring individuals, as such scientists are individuals themselves and thus not independent from their objects of research, encounter profound challenges; in particular, high risks for anthropo-, ethno- and ego-centric biases and various fallacies in reasoning. The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) aims to tackle these challenges by exploring and making explicit the philosophical presuppositions that are being made and the metatheories and methodologies that are used in the field. This article introduces basic fundamentals of the TPS-Paradigm including the epistemological principle of complementarity and metatheoretical concepts for exploring individuals as living organisms. Centrally, the TPS-Paradigm considers three metatheoretical properties (spatial location in relation to individuals' bodies, temporal extension, and physicality versus "non-physicality") that can be conceived in different forms for various kinds of phenomena explored in individuals (morphology, physiology, behaviour, the psyche, semiotic representations, artificially modified outer appearances and contexts). These properties, as they determine the phenomena's accessibility in everyday life and research, are used to elaborate philosophy-of-science foundations and to derive general methodological implications for the elementary problem of phenomenon-methodology matching and for scientific quantification of the various kinds of phenomena studied. On the basis of these foundations, the article explores the metatheories and methodologies that are used or needed to empirically study each given kind of phenomenon in individuals in general. Building on these general implications, the article derives special implications for exploring individuals' "personality", which the TPS-Paradigm conceives of as individual-specificity in all of the various kinds of phenomena studied in individuals. PMID:25281293

Uher, Jana

2014-10-01

300

A Plan for the Evaluation of a Project to Develop Basic Medical Sciences Lessons on PLATO IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project to introduce PLATO IV computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in medical sciences education for health professionals was implemented at the School of Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Illinois. This paper describes the plan for evaluation of the project. Using a student questionnaire and additional general questions, the…

Jones, Les A.; And Others

301

Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.  

PubMed

As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base. PMID:23740911

Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

2013-06-01

302

Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009  

SciTech Connect

The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

303

The impact of whole-plant instruction of preservice teachers' understanding of plant science principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to determine how an inquiry-based, whole-plant instructional strategy would affect preservice elementary teachers' understanding of plant science principles. This study probed: what preservice teachers know about plant biology concepts before and after instruction, their views of the interrelatedness of plant parts and the environment, how growing a plant affects preservice teachers' understanding, and which types of activity-rich plant themes studies, if any, affect preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The participants in the study were enrolled in two elementary science methods class sections at a state university. Each group was administered a preinstructional test at the beginning of the study. The treatment group participated in inquiry-based activities related to the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001), while the comparison group studied those same concepts through traditional instructional methods. A focus group was formed from the treatment group to participate in co-concept mapping sessions. The participants' understandings were assessed through artifacts from activities, a comparison of pre- and postinstructional tests, and the concept maps generated by the focus group. Results of the research indicated that the whole-plant, inquiry-based instructional strategy can be applied to teach preservice elementary teachers plant biology while modeling the human constructivist approach. The results further indicated that this approach enhanced their understanding of plant science content knowledge, as well as pedagogical knowledge. The results also showed that a whole-plant approach to teaching plant science concepts is an instructional strategy that is feasible for the elementary school. The theoretical framework for this study was Human Constructivist learning theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998). The content knowledge and instructional strategy was informed by the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001) and Botany for the Next Millennium (Botanical Society of America, 1995). As a result of this study, a better understanding of the factors that influence preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of plant science principles may benefit elementary science educator in preparing teachers that are "highly qualified."

Hypolite, Christine Collins

304

Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science  

SciTech Connect

Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

Bodnarczuk, M.

1993-03-01

305

High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

2014-04-01

306

Basic principles for the development of a common standardised method for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials.  

PubMed

Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

2012-04-01

307

Higher temperature reactor materials workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 18-21, 2002, the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop to identify needs and opportunities for materials research aimed at performance improvements of structural materials in higher temperature reactors. The workshop focused discussion around the reactor concepts proposed as part of the Generation

T. Allen; S. Bruemmer; M. Kassner; R. Odette; R. Stoller; W. Wolfer; S. Zinkle; J. Elmer; A. Motta

2002-01-01

308

Regenerative dentistry: translating advancements in basic science research to the dental practice.  

PubMed

Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. This review provides an assessment of how tissue engineering, stem cell, genetic transfer, biomaterial and growth factor therapies can be integrated into clinical dental therapies to restore and regenerate oral tissues. In parallel to the creation of a new field in general medicine called "regenerative medicine," we call this field "regenerative dentistry." While the problems of introducing regenerative therapies are substantial, the potential benefits to patients and the profession are equally ground-breaking. In this review, we outline a few areas of interest for the future of oral and dental medicine in which advancements in basic science have already been adapted to fit the goals of 21st century dentistry. PMID:21755797

Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Murray, Peter

2010-01-01

309

The cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase (Ngly1)-basic science encounters a human genetic disorder.  

PubMed

Peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) is a de-N-glycosylating enzyme that cleaves intact N-glycans from glycoproteins/glycopeptides. The activity of the cytoplasmic PNGase in several mammalian-derived cultured cells was first reported in 1993, and 7 years later, the gene encoding the enzyme was identified in budding yeast. Although the gene-PNG1 in budding yeast and NGLY1/Ngly1 in mammalian cells-appears to be well conserved throughout eukaryotes, the biological significance of this enzyme has remained elusive until recently. However, discovery of a human genetic disorder involving the NGLY1 gene clearly indicates that this enzyme plays a critical role in human biology. This review summarizes the research history of cytoplasmic PNGase. The importance of curiosity-driven, pure 'basic science' will also be discussed. PMID:25398991

Suzuki, Tadashi

2015-01-01

310

Research and Education in Basic Space Science: The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops  

E-print Network

Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency is holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countries of Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean (Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt, Jordan), and Europe (Germany, France). Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia, Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Uruguay. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to network these astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and education programmes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has been developed for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in an university environment.

H. M. K. Al-Naimiy; C. P. Celebre; K. Chamcham; H. S. P. de Alwis; M. C. P. de Carias; H. J. Haubold; A. E. Troche Boggino

2000-02-22

311

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p<0.002, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.22–2.27), controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking and age. Conclusions The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2012-01-01

312

International Space Science Programs: Basic Research with a High Public Purpose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of outer space, and the use of platforms in space to monitor the Earth, are increasingly international enterprises. The spacefaring nations of the world have programs to study the moon, the Sun, the other planets of the solar system, and the universe beyond. Space is also the domain from which navigation, communication, reconnaissance, and resource management functions are carried out by civilian and military agencies. Recent decades of experience have shown the immense benefits of international cooperation to pursue scientific research goals. In turn, the products of such basic research have immense potential to improve space situational awareness and to mitigate the effects of ''space weather'' on human technology. A key to future success of space exploration is to minimize the impacts of laws and regulations such as ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) that have already had a devastating effect on space commerce and basic space research. In this presentation I discuss the conduct of forefront science in the context of sensible, prudent international space policy and evolving governmental regulations.

Baker, D. N.

2009-04-01

313

Basic principles and applications of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in oral and maxillofacial imaging: A pictorial essay.  

PubMed

A combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) and computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) has increasingly become a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of head and neck cancer. On the basis of both recent literature and our professional experience, we present a set of principles with pictorial illustrations and clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation and management planning of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We feel that this paper will be of interest and will aid the learning of oral and maxillofacial radiology trainees and practitioners. PMID:25473642

Omami, Galal; Tamimi, Dania; Branstetter, Barton F

2014-12-01

314

Basic principles and applications of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in oral and maxillofacial imaging: A pictorial essay  

PubMed Central

A combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has increasingly become a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of head and neck cancer. On the basis of both recent literature and our professional experience, we present a set of principles with pictorial illustrations and clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation and management planning of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We feel that this paper will be of interest and will aid the learning of oral and maxillofacial radiology trainees and practitioners. PMID:25473642

Tamimi, Dania; Branstetter, Barton F.

2014-01-01

315

An Integrated Course in Pain Management and Palliative Care Bridging the Basic Sciences and Pharmacy Practice  

PubMed Central

Objective. To describe the development of an integrated pain and palliative care course and to investigate the long-term effectiveness of the course during doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and in their practice after graduation. Design. Roseman University College of Pharmacy faculty developed a 3-week elective course in pain and palliative care by integrating relevant clinical and pharmaceutical sciences. Instructional strategies included lectures, team and individual activities, case studies, and student presentations. Assessment. Students who participated in the course in 2010 and 2011 were surveyed anonymously to gain their perception about the class as well as the utility of the course during their APPEs and in their everyday practice. Traditional and nontraditional assessment of students confirmed that the learning outcomes objectives were achieved. Conclusions. Students taking the integrated course on pain management and palliative care achieved mastery of the learning outcome objectives. Surveys of students and practicing pharmacists who completed the course showed that the learning experience as well as retention was improved with the integrated mode of teaching. Integrating basic and clinical sciences in therapeutic courses is an effective learning strategy. PMID:23966724

Kullgren, Justin; Unni, Elizabeth; Hanson, Eric

2013-01-01

316

Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.  

PubMed

Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

2014-08-01

317

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

318

Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a brief summary of those relevant to issues raised by researchers at the workshop.

Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

2011-03-31

319

Energy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demos and activities in this lesson are intended to illustrate the basic concepts of energy science—work, force, energy, power etc., and the relationships among them. The "lecture" portion of the lesson includes many demonstrations to keep students engaged, yet has high expectations for students to perform energy-related calculations and convert units. A homework assignment and quiz are provided to reinforce and assess these basic engineering science concepts.

2014-09-18

320

The Frog Vestibular System as a Model for Lesion-Induced Plasticity: Basic Neural Principles and Implications for Posture Control  

PubMed Central

Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the central nervous system (CNS) to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the CNS include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims toward a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of vestibular function. PMID:22518109

Lambert, François M.; Straka, Hans

2011-01-01

321

Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science  

PubMed Central

An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher – every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians’ instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual’s capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive ‘channels’ for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218

Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David

2014-01-01

322

The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

2010-01-01

323

Exploration of an E-Learning Model to Foster Critical Thinking on Basic Science Concepts during Work Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We designed an e-learning model to promote critical thinking about basic science topics in online communities of students during work placements in higher education. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the model we explored the online discussions in two case studies. We evaluated the quantity of the interactions by looking at…

de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Jobsis, Rijn; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

2009-01-01

324

Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(12): 3122-3126, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178  

E-print Network

Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(12): 3122-3126, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178 Corresponding Author: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Philadelphia University, Faculty of Nursing Amman, Jordan. E-Monim Batiha and 2 Belal Batiha 1 Philadelphia University, Faculty of Nursing Amman, Jordan. 2 Higher Colleges

325

Setting Priorities for Basic Brain & Behavioral Science at NIMH Final Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup  

E-print Network

Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental illness and behavioral disorders through of mental illnesses. It also supports research on finding optimal ways of providing the best treatment Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup on Basic Sciences ­ May 2004 PREFACE The mission of the National

Baker, Chris I.

326

Worldwide Development of Astronomy: The Story of a Decade of UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science  

E-print Network

In 1990 the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of these Workshops and their follow-up projects.

Hans J. Haubold; Willem Wamsteker

1997-05-21

327

The unexpected evolution of basic science studies about cyclic nucleotide action into a treatment for erectile dysfunction.  

PubMed

In these Reflections, I describe my perceived role in discoveries made in the cyclic nucleotide field that culminated in the advent of PDE5 inhibitors that treat erectile dysfunction, such as Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis. The discoveries emphasize the critical role of basic science, which often evolves in unpredictable and circuitous paths, in improving human health. PMID:25505249

Corbin, Jackie

2015-01-16

328

Bridging Science and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colleges of Engineering and Education at Penn State University have collaborated to design and deliver an engineering course for education and other nonscience majors. In this course, students integrate basic principles of applied physical science and

Joseph A. Taylor

2002-03-01

329

Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

1981-01-01

330

The use of shock waves in medicine--a tool of the modern OR: an overview of basic physical principles, history and research.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal-generated shock waves were first used in medical therapy, to disintegrate kidney stones, approximately 20 years ago. Since this time, shock waves have changed the treatment of urolithiasis substantially and are now the first-choice treatment for kidney and ureteral stones. First clinical investigations of the shock-wave treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica (IPP) are showing promising results. Shock waves have also been used in orthopaedics and traumatology, to treat insertion tendinitis, non-unions or delayed unions, avascular necrosis of the head of femur and other necrotic bone alterations. Shock-wave application has also been used in the treatment of horse tendons, ligaments and bones in veterinary medicine. The theory of shock-wave therapy for orthopaedic diseases involves the stimulation of healing processes in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a completely different approach from that of urology, where shock waves are used for disintegration. This paper gives an overview of the basic physical principles of shock waves, and the history and basic research behind shock-wave use in medicine. PMID:20156022

Thiel, M; Nieswand, M; Dörffel, M

2000-01-01

331

Design Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Design Principles for Interactive Texts is a fun-to-use interactive text on the effective design of interactive texts for education. It summarizes basic principles of interface design from studies in psychology, skills-training, education, art & design, and other sources, illustrating the principles with many examples. The text should be of interest to anyone designing presentations, computer-based reading materials, student computer labs, or educational Web sites.

Jacobs, Julie

332

Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.  

PubMed

Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education. PMID:22002858

Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

2012-10-01

333

From ischemic conditioning to 'hyperconditioning': clinical phenomenon and basic science opportunity.  

PubMed

Thousands of articles have been published on the topic of ischemic conditioning. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has been given to assessment of conditioning's dose-response characteristics. Specifically, the consequences of multiple conditioning episodes, what we will term "hyperconditioning", have seldom been examined. We propose that hyperconditioning warrants investigation because it; (1) may be of clinical importance, (2) could provide insight into conditioning mechanisms, and (3) might result in development of novel models of human disease. The prevalence of angina pectoris and intermittent claudication is sufficiently high and the potential for daily ischemia-reperfusion episodes sufficiently large that hyperconditioning is a clinically relevant phenomenon. In basic science, attenuation of conditioning-mediated infarct size reduction found in some studies after hyperconditioning offers a possible means to facilitate further discernment of cardioprotective signaling pathways. Moreover, hyperconditioning's impact extends beyond cytoprotection to tissue structural elements. Several studies demonstrate that hyperconditioning produces collagen injury (primarily fiber breakage). Such structural impairment could have adverse clinical consequences; however, in laboratory studies, selective collagen damage could provide the basis for models of cardiac rupture and dilated cardiomyopathy. Accordingly, we propose that hyperconditioning represents the dark, but potentially illuminating, side of ischemic conditioning - a paradigm that merits attention and prospective evaluation. PMID:25552962

Whittaker, Peter; Przyklenk, Karin

2014-12-01

334

Developmental defects of enamel and dentine: challenges for basic science research and clinical management.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of enamel and dentine are caused by a variety of interacting factors ranging from genetic defects to environmental insults. The genetic changes associated with some types of enamel and dentine defects have been mapped, and many environmental influences, including medical illnesses that can damage enamel and dentine have been identified. Developmental enamel defects may present as enamel hypoplasia or hypomineralization while dentine defects frequently demonstrate aberrant calcifications and abnormalities of the dentine-pulp complex. Clinically, developmental enamel defects often present with problems of discolouration and aesthetics, tooth sensitivity, and susceptibility to caries, wear and erosion. In contrast, dentine defects are a risk for endodontic complications resulting from dentine hypomineralization and pulpal abnormalities. The main goals of managing developmental abnormalities of enamel and dentine are early diagnosis and improvement of appearance and function by preserving the dentition and preventing complications. However, despite major advances in scientific knowledge regarding the causes of enamel and dentine defects, further research is required in order to translate the knowledge gained in the basic sciences research to accurate clinical diagnosis and successful treatment of the defects. PMID:24164394

Seow, W K

2014-06-01

335

From Ischemic Conditioning to ‘Hyperconditioning’: Clinical Phenomenon and Basic Science Opportunity  

PubMed Central

Thousands of articles have been published on the topic of ischemic conditioning. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has been given to assessment of conditioning’s dose-response characteristics. Specifically, the consequences of multiple conditioning episodes, what we will term “hyperconditioning”, have seldom been examined. We propose that hyperconditioning warrants investigation because it; (1) may be of clinical importance, (2) could provide insight into conditioning mechanisms, and (3) might result in development of novel models of human disease. The prevalence of angina pectoris and intermittent claudication is sufficiently high and the potential for daily ischemia-reperfusion episodes sufficiently large that hyperconditioning is a clinically relevant phenomenon. In basic science, attenuation of conditioning-mediated infarct size reduction found in some studies after hyperconditioning offers a possible means to facilitate further discernment of cardioprotective signaling pathways. Moreover, hyperconditioning’s impact extends beyond cytoprotection to tissue structural elements. Several studies demonstrate that hyperconditioning produces collagen injury (primarily fiber breakage). Such structural impairment could have adverse clinical consequences; however, in laboratory studies, selective collagen damage could provide the basis for models of cardiac rupture and dilated cardiomyopathy. Accordingly, we propose that hyperconditioning represents the dark, but potentially illuminating, side of ischemic conditioning - a paradigm that merits attention and prospective evaluation. PMID:25552962

Whittaker, Peter; Przyklenk, Karin

2014-01-01

336

College of Public Health & Health Professions Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health  

E-print Network

to epidemiology for students majoring in any aspect of the health sciences. The principles and methods of epidemiologic reports 6. Apply basic infectious and chronic disease methods and data 7. Identify the principlesCollege of Public Health & Health Professions PHC 6001 Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health

Kane, Andrew S.

337

Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ? 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I), hypothesis generation (Exam II), choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III), measuring scientific thought (Exam IV). The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Results Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p < 0.001). The scatter plot of the data showed a linear correlation between the score for each exam and the total final score. This meant that students with a higher final score were able to perform better in each exam through having drawn up a meaningful concept map. The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770), (p < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between each exam score and the average grade (p < 0.001). The highest correlation was observed between Exam I (R = 0.7708) and the average grade. This means students with higher average grades had better grades in each exam, especially in drawing the concept map. Conclusions We hope that this competition will encourage medical schools to integrate theory and practice, analyze data, and read research articles. Our findings relate to a selected population, and our data may not be applicable to all medical students. Therefore, further studies are required to validate our results. PMID:22270104

2012-01-01

338

General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.  

PubMed

In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. PMID:23899406

Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

2013-10-01

339

Nonrheumatic calcific aortic stenosis: an overview from basic science to pharmacological prevention.  

PubMed

Calcific aortic stenosis is a frequent degenerative disease, which represents the most common indication for adult heart valve surgery, and carries substantial morbidity and mortality. Due to ageing populations in western countries, its prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years. Basic science studies suggest that the progression of aortic valve stenosis involves an active biological process, and that the molecular mechanisms promoting this development resemble those of atherosclerosis, as stenotic aortic valves are characterized by complex histological lesions, consisting of activated inflammatory cells, lipid deposits, extracellular matrix remodeling, calcific nodules, and bone tissue. This has led to the hypothesis that drugs effective in delaying atherosclerosis progression (e.g. statins) might also be able to prevent the progression of calcific aortic valve stenosis. The potential benefit of statin therapy, however, is controversial and widely debated, as recent randomized studies done in patients with moderate to severe degrees of aortic stenosis failed to consistently show substantial benefits of this class of drugs. This review focuses on various aspects of molecular mechanisms underlying calcific aortic valve stenosis and discusses recent experimental and clinical studies that address the potential benefit of targeted drug therapies. Taken together, current evidence suggests that the progression of calcific aortic stenosis is a multi-factorial process; the multitude of the mechanisms potentially involved in aortic valve stenosis indicates that drug therapy aimed at reducing its progression is necessarily multi-factorial and should address the earliest stages of the disease, as it is now evident that pharmacological treatment administered in more advanced stages of the disease may be ineffective or, at best, much less effective. PMID:19162497

Parolari, Alessandro; Loardi, Claudia; Mussoni, Luciana; Cavallotti, Laura; Camera, Marina; Biglioli, Paolo; Tremoli, Elena; Alamanni, Francesco

2009-03-01

340

UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science: An Initiative in the Worl dwide Development of Astronomy  

E-print Network

In 1990, the United Nations, in cooperation with the European Space Agency, initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin American and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of these Workshops (1991-1998) and their follow-up projects with a view to enhance the worldwide development of astronomy and space science. The Workshops are being considered unique and a model for such an endeavor.

H. J. Haubold

1998-09-26

341

Basic Principles of Stochastic Transport  

SciTech Connect

Transport in stochastic magnetic fields is reviewed. In the first part, the topic is motivated by commenting on the intricatenesses of known (nonlinear) transport theories. In the second part, non-integrable magnetic field line systems, their generation and Hamiltonian description are discussed. The symplectic mapping is introduced as the adequate tool for the analysis of the statistics of magnetic field lines. Transport along the unstable and stable manifolds of hyperbolic fixed points is an effective mechanism for heat transfer from the hot core to the plasma boundary. The third part deals with anomalous test particle transport theories starting from stochastic Liouville-type models. Several theories are based on the V-Langevin equation in the guiding center limit. In fusion devices, the mean magnetic fields are sufficiently strong to support the small gyro-radii assumption over a broad area, at least for the electrons. The question remains in what way finite Larmor radii influence the transport, especially in regions where the guiding center assumption fails. Indeed, in tokamaks such areas can be found, e.g. in the vicinity of hyperbolic points. Then, the more general A-Langevin equation has to be used. Based on the latter description, first for small Kubo numbers, the well known transport coefficients (formulated by Rechester and Rosenbluth, Kadomtsev and Pogutse, and others) are recovered. Second, for large Kubo numbers, new transport regimes are identified.

Spatschek, K. H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

2008-05-14

342

[Basic principles of infection surveillance].  

PubMed

This paper reviews the ideas of Robert Koch in the context of infection surveillance of typhoid fever in Trier in 1902 and the actual epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in the world. The plan of the EC Commission for a network for surveillance and control of infectious diseases after the treaty Maastricht is presented. Definition, aim and critical points of infectious surveillance are discussed. Problem deficits in Germany associated with infection surveillance are also dealt with. PMID:9483833

Exner, M

1997-12-01

343

The cochlear implant; basic principles.  

PubMed

In recent years the cochlear implant has been a subject of much discussion and controversy. The clinician has often been confused by the conflicting reports of success and failure. In this paper the development of the cochlear implant is reviewed and its present status summarized. It is hoped that the clinician may thereby gain an understanding of this device so that he can better evaluate its present and future status. Selection of Patients for Cochlear Implantation. The cochlear implant will benefit only those patients with hair cell loss who have remaining viable auditory neurons. In order to determine whether viable neurons remain, an electric current is passed through a small needle which is place into the promontory through the tympanic membrane. If patients experience an auditory sensation as a result of this electrical stimulation, it is felt that they are suitable candidates for a cochlear implant. Feasibility of Long-Term VIIIth Nerve Stimulation. Many questions have been raised regarding the feasibility of long-term stimulation of the auditory nerve. The first question raised was whether the auditory nerve would survive severe hair cell degeneration. Studies have shown that in most cases at least a few auditory neurons remain. The next question was whether the cochlear implant itself would destroy the remaining auditory neurons. Preliminary studies have shown that the nerve will survive the placement of electrodes both into the modiolus and the scala tympani. Several electrode materials and insulation have been found to be well tolerated, and there has been minimal damage from thermal or electrolytic processes; therefore, it appears feasible to stimulate the auditory nerve over a long period. Information Transfer by Electrical Stimulation. Single-channel stimulation produces only periodicity pitch, and information transfer is insufficient for speech discrimination. Experience to date indicates that it will be possible to produce both place and volley pitch by electrical stimulation with multiple electrodes in the scala tympani. These findings give promise for the feasibility of producing a device which will transfer sufficient information to produce speech discrimination. Present Status of the Cochlear Implant. To the present time 15 patients have been implanted with a unipolar electrode under the direction of the Ear Research Institute. These patients have all benefited from their devices. They are able to perceive background sounds and receive a cadence or rhythm to speech which makes the device helpful in lipreading. None of the patients have developed significant speech discrimination. PMID:1256212

Brackmann, D E

1976-03-01

344

Basic Principles of Cancer Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cancer results from the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations within a cell. These alterations lead to abnormal proliferation\\u000a and clonal expansion, and ultimately to invasion of surrounding tissues and metastasis to distant sites. Genetic abnormalities\\u000a providing a selective advantage are maintained and ultimately become dominant within the population. The accumulation of genetic\\u000a abnormalities, which in most cases occurs over a

Leif W. Ellisen; Daniel A. Haber

345

Basic principles of superfund litigation  

SciTech Connect

Many legal aspects of the 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, known as CERCLA, pose problems for industry and the general public. The legal issues are developing and many of the numerous problems will require future resolution in the courts. A plea is made for a cooperative effort by lawyers, regulators, and courts to analyze and solve these problems from a proper perspective.

Russell, J.H.

1985-03-01

346

The Basic Principle of Calculus?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

Hardy, Michael

2011-01-01

347

[The basic principles of leadership].  

PubMed

This overview of leadership research provides insights into the different leadership concepts. Early research on leadership focused on personality traits and leadership behaviour as determinants of good leadership. The recognition of leadership as a complex phenomenon resulted in concepts that examined leader characteristics and behaviour in the context of situational conditions. Modern cognitive approaches concentrated on the perception of leaders by followers and the perception of followers by leaders and the cognitive biases involved. There is a tendency in leadership research to integrate the three central aspects of leadership--person, situation and cognition--into a single framework. PMID:19545079

Pfaff, Holger; Neumann, Melanie; Kuch, Christine; Hammer, Antje; Janssen, Christian; Brinkmann, Anne; Ommen, Oliver

2009-01-01

348

Magnetic resonance imaging: Basic principles  

SciTech Connect

This book has been revised to reflect the past three years' technological developments and to meet the everyday needs of radiologists and clinicians who use MRI in routine practice. Among the new features are a lucid explanation of the gray scale and its significance; a complete atlas of normal MRI anatomy; and head-to-foot illustrations of pathologic MRI findings.

Young, S.W.

1987-01-01

349

Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

2014-01-01

350

Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are planned. "Other Research" includes: BUNDLE (Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrite in a Liquid Experiment) activities (primarily crucible development), vibrational float-zone processing (with Vanderbilt University), use of ultrasonics in materials processing (with UAH), rotational effects on microstructural development, and application of magnetic fields for mixing.

2003-01-01

351

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005  

SciTech Connect

World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

2005-04-21

352

More Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available March 2010. Overwhelmed by orbitals? Terrified of thermodynamics? Agitated by acids and bases? Have no fear! This follow-up to the award-winning Chemistry Basics will clear up your chemistry woes. In More Chemistry Ba

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2010-03-01

353

Syllabus for PHYS 0174 Basic Physics for Science and Engineering 1  

E-print Network

's Three Laws of Motion · Newton's Law of Gravitation · Work and Conservation of Energy · Linear Momentum the principles of · Measurement and vectors · Motion in one dimension · Motion in three dimensions · Newton · Rotational Motion · Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves · Thermodynamics Physics 0174 has three components

Budny, Daniel

354

Basic Science Process Skills. An Inservice Workshop Kit: Outlines and Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…

Rowland, Paul; And Others

355

Keynote Lecture: Basic Science and the NIH: American Society for Cell Biology Meeting  

Cancer.gov

Let me tell you briefly how it happened. Just a few years ago, my interests in the politics of science were barely noticeable. Like most of you, I was reasonably content, and often very happy, to be doing science in this remarkably exciting era in biology. Then, seemingly all at once, a number of things happened.

356

Making space law relevant to basic space science in the commercial space age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space science has been at the heart of humanity's activity in space, a fact reflected in the body of space law set up to regulate such activity. The increase in commercial utilisation of space may threaten the conduct of space science; reform of space law, however, could alleviate this situation. Using the examples of radio and light interference, and space

Sriram Swaminathan

2005-01-01

357

Science: A Practical View. Volume II. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The guide is divided into three components. The first component helps students…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

358

BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes I and II. Biology, Earth Science, Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer programs which teach concepts and processes related to biology, earth science, and chemistry are presented. The seven biology problems deal with aspects of genetics, evolution and natural selection, gametogenesis, enzymes, photosynthesis, and the transport of material across a membrane. Four earth science problems concern climates, the…

Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

359

Multimedia Bootcamp: a health sciences library provides basic training to promote faculty technology integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a backlash against the enthusiastic promotion of technological solutions as replacements for traditional educational content delivery. Many institutions, including the University of Virginia, have committed staff and resources to supporting state-of-the-art, showpiece educational technology projects. However, the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library has taken the approach of helping Health Sciences faculty be more comfortable using

Ellen C Ramsey

2006-01-01

360

The Development of a Basic Social Science Course for Undergraduate Students in the Natural Sciences and Engineering. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a 4-year project was undertaken to restructure the sophomore elective course in social science for natural science and engineering students. The restructured course emphasized an objective, rigorous, and exact approach to social phenomena. Readings were designed to carry the student step by step from…

Pool, Ithiel de Sola; Angell, George W., Jr.

361

Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

2010-01-01

362

Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries.  

PubMed

Modern fishery science, which began in 1957 with Beverton and Holt, is ca. 50 years old. At its inception, fishery science was limited by a nineteenth century mechanistic worldview and by computational technology; thus, the relatively simple equations of population ecology became the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. The time has come for this to change and for community ecology to become the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. This point will be illustrated with two examples. First, when viewed from a community perspective, excess production must be considered in the context of biomass left for predators. We argue that this is a better measure of the effects of fisheries than spawning biomass per recruit. Second, we shall analyse a simple, but still multi-species, model for fishery management that considers the alternatives of harvest regulations, inshore marine protected areas and offshore marine protected areas. Population or community perspectives lead to very different predictions about the efficacy of reserves. PMID:15713590

Mangel, Marc; Levin, Phillip S

2005-01-29

363

Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries  

PubMed Central

Modern fishery science, which began in 1957 with Beverton and Holt, is ca. 50 years old. At its inception, fishery science was limited by a nineteenth century mechanistic worldview and by computational technology; thus, the relatively simple equations of population ecology became the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. The time has come for this to change and for community ecology to become the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. This point will be illustrated with two examples. First, when viewed from a community perspective, excess production must be considered in the context of biomass left for predators. We argue that this is a better measure of the effects of fisheries than spawning biomass per recruit. Second, we shall analyse a simple, but still multi-species, model for fishery management that considers the alternatives of harvest regulations, inshore marine protected areas and offshore marine protected areas. Population or community perspectives lead to very different predictions about the efficacy of reserves. PMID:15713590

Mangel, Marc; Levin, Phillip S.

2005-01-01

364

Reproducibility in science: improving the standard for basic and preclinical research.  

PubMed

Medical and scientific advances are predicated on new knowledge that is robust and reliable and that serves as a solid foundation on which further advances can be built. In biomedical research, we are in the midst of a revolution with the generation of new data and scientific publications at a previously unprecedented rate. However, unfortunately, there is compelling evidence that the majority of these discoveries will not stand the test of time. To a large extent, this reproducibility crisis in basic and preclinical research may be as a result of failure to adhere to good scientific practice and the desperation to publish or perish. This is a multifaceted, multistakeholder problem. No single party is solely responsible, and no single solution will suffice. Here we review the reproducibility problems in basic and preclinical biomedical research, highlight some of the complexities, and discuss potential solutions that may help improve research quality and reproducibility. PMID:25552691

Begley, C Glenn; Ioannidis, John P A

2015-01-01

365

Database search services as a basic service in academic health sciences libraries.  

PubMed

Mediated search services, usually offered for a fee, are commonplace in academic health sciences libraries. At the same time, users of these services have numerous self-service options available to them; for example, CD-ROMs and locally mounted databases. In keeping with its philosophy of access to rather than ownership of information, the University of Washington Health Sciences Library and Information Center (HSLIC) changed its policy from charging clients for mediated searching to offering mediated searches as an essential service of the library. By taking this step, HSLIC moved closer to becoming a true "library without walls." This paper describes HSLIC's experience with changing its policy and examines the issues surrounding use of the collection budget to subsidize access to online information in academic health sciences libraries. PMID:7841905

Jankowski, T A; Martin, E R

1994-10-01

366

Review of advantages of Joel-Cohen surgical abdominal incision in caesarean section: a basic science perspective.  

PubMed

Caesarean section is a common operation and the best postoperative outcomes are desired. Surgical techniques have been devised or modified to reduce operative and post operative discomfort. Many studies have evaluated or compared the Joel-Cohen abdominal incision with Pfannenstiel incision and found the former to be superior for various reasons such as less postoperative febrile morbidity, less analgesia requirements, shorter operating time, less intra operative blood loss and adhesion formation, reduction in hospital stay and wound infection in the group undergoing Caesarean section by this technique. This study is to find whether better postoperative outcomes of the Joel-Cohen incision group can be justified by the explanations of fundamentals of the basic sciences. Literature was reviewed for randomized clinical trials and review articles comparing the different kinds of abdominal incisions for Caesarean section. The study revealed that the Joel-Cohen method was beneficial. The fundamentals of basic sciences were studied to try to find an explanation to the enumerated advantages of the Joel-Cohen procedure; attributing to the differences in the techniques used. PMID:21939169

Karanth, K L; Sathish, N

2010-09-01

367

Threading secure coding principles and risk analysis into the undergraduate computer science and information systems curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer security issues can be attributed to software vulnerabilities. The number of software vulnerabilities continues to increase. Building secure systems requires incorporating security principles early and throughout the software development life cycle. Education of current and future software developers must include secure coding and design principles. Towson University, as a designated National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Security

Blair Taylor; Shiva Azadegan

2006-01-01

368

What Type of Faculty and Training Are Required for a Successful Basic Sciences Program?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education for optometry must go beyond therapeutic patient management to more preparation for biologically based care. Optometry faculty should be involved in research driven by specific patient problems and should prepare professionals to address patient quality-of-life and daily living needs. Interdisciplinary collaboration is needed.…

Adams, Anthony

1992-01-01

369

Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

Albracht, James, Ed.

370

Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

Mowery, Donald R.

371

Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

372

Integrating the Dimensions of Sex and Gender into Basic Life Sciences Research: Methodologic and Ethical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The research process from study design and selecting a species and its husbandry, through the experiment, analysis, peer review, and publication is rarely subject to questions about sex or gender differences in mainstream life sciences research. However, the impact of sex and gender on these processes is important in explaining biological variations and presentation of symptoms and diseases.Objective: This

Anita Holdcroft

2007-01-01

373

Chemical Nanotechnology: A Liberal Arts Approach to a Basic Course in Emerging Interdisciplinary Science and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nanotechnology degree programs initiated at various institutions provided an excellent way of learning to look at the amazing opportunities that arise when various disciplines of science interact. The enrolled students were actively engaged in the subject matter and also expressed greater confidence in their ability to consider technology with…

Porter, Lon A., Jr.

2007-01-01

374

Laser-Polarized Noble Gases: From Basic Science to Medical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gases, whose nuclei have been polarized by spin exchange with optically pumped alkali-metal atoms, provide valuable research opportunities. The polarization process itself involves a rich host of phenomena which even after many years is still providing surprises. The applications of polarized noble gases, both in basic research and in applied areas, are growing in number. For instance, polarized ^3He targets, used in accelerator experiments, have been instrumental in elucidating the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Also, since the mid 1990's, polarized ^3He and ^129Xe have been used in a new type of magnetic resonance imaging in which the patient breaths the noble gas, and the magnetization of the nuclei is used to produce images of the gas space of the lungs. The technique has moved from early demonstration experiments into the process of commercialization. The talk will begin by describing the basic physics of spin-exchange optical pumping, and will proceed to cover various applications. Particular emphasis will be given to noble-gas imaging, the process of its commercialization, and the accompanying issues that face a university researcher.

Cates, Gordon D.

2002-03-01

375

Multimedia Bootcamp: a health sciences library provides basic training to promote faculty technology integration  

PubMed Central

Background Recent research has shown a backlash against the enthusiastic promotion of technological solutions as replacements for traditional educational content delivery. Many institutions, including the University of Virginia, have committed staff and resources to supporting state-of-the-art, showpiece educational technology projects. However, the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library has taken the approach of helping Health Sciences faculty be more comfortable using technology in incremental ways for instruction and research presentations. In July 2004, to raise awareness of self-service multimedia resources for instructional and professional development needs, the Library conducted a "Multimedia Bootcamp" for nine Health Sciences faculty and fellows. Methods Case study. Results Program stewardship by a single Library faculty member contributed to the delivery of an integrated learning experience. The amount of time required to attend the sessions and complete homework was the maximum fellows had to devote to such pursuits. The benefit of introducing technology unfamiliar to most fellows allowed program instructors to start everyone at the same baseline while not appearing to pass judgment on the technology literacy skills of faculty. The combination of wrapping the program in the trappings of a fellowship and selecting fellows who could commit to a majority of scheduled sessions yielded strong commitment from participants as evidenced by high attendance and a 100% rate of assignment completion. Response rates to follow-up evaluation requests, as well as continued use of Media Studio resources and Library expertise for projects begun or conceived during Bootcamp, bode well for the long-term success of this program. Conclusion An incremental approach to integrating technology with current practices in instruction and presentation provided a supportive yet energizing environment for Health Sciences faculty. Keys to this program were its faculty focus, traditional hands-on instruction, unrestricted access to technology tools and support, and inclusion of criteria for evaluating when multimedia can augment pedagogical aims. PMID:16638140

Ramsey, Ellen C

2006-01-01

376

Basic Biomedical Sciences and the Future of Medical Education: Implications for Internal Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic model of medical education in the United States is facing substantial challenges. Apprenticeship experiences\\u000a with clinical faculty are increasingly important in most medical schools and residency programs. This trend threatens to separate\\u000a clinical education from the scientific foundations of medical practice. Paradoxically, this devaluation of biomedical science\\u000a is occurring as the ability to use new discoveries to rationalize

Eric P. Brass; David Geffen

2009-01-01

377

Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

2013-12-01

378

Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.; Graham, J.; Hoggan, J. C.

2011-12-01

379

ERBB receptors: From oncogene discovery to basic science to mechanism-based cancer therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Summary ERBB receptors were linked to human cancer pathogenesis approximately three decades ago. Biomedical investigators have since developed substantial understanding of the biology underlying the dependence of cancers on aberrant ERBB receptor signaling. An array of cancer-associated genetic alterations in ERBB receptors has also been identified. These findings have led to the discovery and development of mechanism-based therapies targeting ERBB receptors that have improved outcome for many cancer patients. In this Perspective, we discuss current paradigms of targeting ERBB receptors with cancer therapeutics and our understanding of mechanisms of action and resistance to these drugs. As current strategies still have limitations, we also discuss challenges and opportunities that lie ahead as basic scientists and clinical investigators work toward more breakthroughs. PMID:24651011

Arteaga, Carlos L.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

380

A Critical Review of mTOR Inhibitors and Epilepsy: from Basic Science to Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Summary Present medications for epilepsy have substantial limitations, such as medical intractability in many patients and lack of antiepileptogenic properties to prevent epilepsy. Drugs with novel mechanisms of action are needed to overcome these limitations. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has emerged as a possible therapeutic target for epilepsy. Preliminary clinical trials suggest that mTOR inhibitors reduce seizures in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients with intractable epilepsy. Furthermore, mTOR inhibitors have antiepileptogenic properties in preventing epilepsy in animal models of TSC. Besides TSC, accumulating preclinical data suggest that mTOR inhibitors may have antiseizure or antiepileptogenic actions in other types of epilepsy, including infantile spasms, neonatal hypoxic seizures, absence epilepsy, and acquired temporal lobe epilepsy following brain injury, but these effects depend on a number of conditions. Future clinical and basic research is needed to establish whether mTOR inhibitors are an effective treatment for epilepsy. PMID:23739003

Wong, Michael

2013-01-01

381

Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach it  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the words "periodic table" send chills down your spine? Are you anxious about atomic structure? Confounded by chemical equations? Relax! The cure for chemistry confusion is within reach, courtesy of this newly available book in the Stop Faking It! series. Best-selling author Bill Robertson takes a fresh approach to chemistry fundamentals by helping you understand them from the ground up. Instead of hounding you to memorize the characteristics of atoms and the periodic table, Chemistry Basics will help you see those characteristics as a natural consequence of our understanding of atomic structure. You will learn not just that atoms behave in certain ways, but why they behave in that way. You will learn not just how to balance chemical equations, but why in the world you would want to! You will also learn not just that carbon is a building block of thousands of organic compounds, but why carbon is suited for this purpose.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

382

Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach it (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the words "periodic table" send chills down your spine? Are you anxious about atomic structure? Confounded by chemical equations? Relax! The cure for chemistry confusion is within reach, courtesy of this newly available book in the Stop Faking It! series. Best-selling author Bill Robertson takes a fresh approach to chemistry fundamentals by helping you understand them from the ground up. Instead of hounding you to memorize the characteristics of atoms and the periodic table, Chemistry Basics will help you see those characteristics as a natural consequence of our understanding of atomic structure. You will learn not just that atoms behave in certain ways, but why they behave in that way. You will learn not just how to balance chemical equations, but why in the world you would want to! You will also learn not just that carbon is a building block of thousands of organic compounds, but why carbon is suited for this purpose.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

383

Stem cells therapies in basic science and translational medicine: current status and treatment monitoring strategies.  

PubMed

Stem-cell technology is a major area within cell therapy that promises significant therapeutic outcome. The plasticity and self-renewal capabilities of stem cells make them valuable tools for potential application in regenerative medicine and tissue replacement following injury or disease. Here, we discuss the different types of stem cells currently used in research, preclinical and early clinical development, their potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications, and current barriers to translating basic research into clinical therapies. Biomedical imaging is increasingly being used to monitor the fate of transplanted stem cells, including their survival, proliferation, differentiation and homing to targeted organs and tissues. We discuss different imaging modalities currently utilized to track stem calls, the advantages and challenges, and future implications in clinical applications. PMID:21342107

Banerjee, Chaitali

2011-04-01

384

``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite all these efforts, one can’t help noticing an asymmetric level of scientific exploitation in the realm of X-ray astronomy between developing and developed countries. The latter have traditionally enjoyed the comparative advantage of deeper know-how, deriving from direct experience in hardware and mission development. The XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre’s efforts act to alleviate this situation through, for example, increasing the usage of the web for data and information dissemination, as well as by supporting actively such initiatives as the COSPAR Capacity-Building Workshops, specifically designed to create long-lasting bridges between researchers in developing and developed countries.

Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

2006-12-01

385

Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Incorporting Science, Technology, Fairness, and Accountability in Environmental, Health and Safety Decisions  

E-print Network

The precautionary principle is in sharp political focus today because (1) the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing and (2) there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on allegedly more "rational" ...

Ashford, Nicholas

2005-01-01

386

PLS 3004C: Principles of Plant Science Credit: 3 Credit Hours  

E-print Network

to discuss something. Course Catalog Description: Introduction to the principles and practices of plant production systems. An overview of plant evolution, anatomy, physiology, improvement, pest, water anatomy, genetics, physiology, soils, plant diseases and production practices of various crops. Upon

Watson, Craig A.

387

Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

1970-01-01

388

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

389

Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute.  

PubMed

A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein. PMID:24593507

Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

2014-02-01

390

Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

2014-02-01

391

Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute  

SciTech Connect

A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

Park, Jin Yong [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of) [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mswon@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung Chul [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15

392

Study of the impacts of patient-educators on the course of basic sciences in dental studies.  

PubMed

Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients. PMID:24628743

Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C

2015-02-01

393

The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT), to provide a snapshot of podiatry students' basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n = 247) correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n = 7) incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times) or the navicular (6 times). Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies. PMID:25110712

Castillo-López, José Manuel; Díaz-Mancha, Juan Antonio; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María; Polo-Padillo, Juan; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Munuera, Pedro V.

2014-01-01

394

Ascending monoaminergic systems alterations in Alzheimer's disease. translating basic science into clinical care.  

PubMed

Extensive neuropathological studies have established a compelling link between abnormalities in structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic (MA-ergic) systems and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main cell populations of these systems including the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the tuberomamillary nucleus undergo significant degeneration in AD, thereby depriving the hippocampal and cortical neurons from their critical modulatory influence. These studies have been complemented by genome wide association studies linking polymorphisms in key genes involved in the MA-ergic systems and particular behavioral abnormalities in AD. Importantly, several recent studies have shown that improvement of the MA-ergic systems can both restore cognitive function and reduce AD-related pathology in animal models of neurodegeneration. This review aims to explore the link between abnormalities in the MA-ergic systems and AD symptomatology as well as the therapeutic strategies targeting these systems. Furthermore, we will examine possible mechanisms behind basic vulnerability of MA-ergic neurons in AD. PMID:23707776

Trillo, Ludwig; Das, Devsmita; Hsieh, Wayne; Medina, Brian; Moghadam, Sarah; Lin, Bill; Dang, Van; Sanchez, Martha Millan; De Miguel, Zurine; Ashford, J Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad

2013-09-01

395

Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

NONE

1995-12-31

396

Basic Electronics I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

Robertson, L. Paul

397

Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source  

E-print Network

We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

Schönlein, R W; Alivisatos, A P; Belkacem, A; Berrah, N; Bozek, J; Bressler, C; Cavalleri, A; Chang, Z; Chergui, M; Falcone, R W; Glover, T E; Heimann, P A; Hepburn, J; Larsson, J; Lee, R W; McCusker, J; Padmore, H A; Pattison, P; Pratt, S T; Robin, D W; Schlüter, Ross D; Shank, C V; Wark, J; Zholents, A A; Zolotorev, M S

2001-01-01

398

Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

2001-12-12

399

Pages 6-15 In: J. Wu, X. Han and J. Huang (eds), Lectures in Modern Ecology (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science and Technology Press, Beijing.  

E-print Network

Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science and Technology Press, Beijing. 1 #12;Pages 6-15 In: J. Wu, X. Han and J. Huang (eds), Lectures in Modern Ecology (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science and Technology Press, Beijing. 3 #12;Pages 6

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

400

Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

2008-09-24

401

Training the Translational Research Teams of the Future: UC Davis - HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science Program  

PubMed Central

There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This article outlines the HHMI-IMBS program’s logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of pre-doctoral students. PMID:24127920

Knowlton, Anne A.; Rainwater, Julie A.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C.; Robbins, John A.; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J.

2013-01-01

402

Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.  

PubMed

There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students. PMID:24127920

Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

2013-10-01

403

Contour Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contour Basics is an exercise designed to introduce students to contour plots. The Contour Activity is a great on-line resource that starts slowly and increases in difficulty. It teaches students basic techniques for generating contours, introduces students to the subtleties of generating contour plots with sparse data, provides many opportunities for students to assess their own progress and understanding and has complete on-line drawing capabilities. The exercise is geared toward atmospheric and oceanic sciences but is beneficial for all geoscience students. In addition to the exercise, this site includes information on teaching materials, teaching notes and tips, assessment suggestions and additional references. This activity is part of the Starting Point Collection: http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/

Ackerman, Steve

404

United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2010 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004) Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, Ro Korea 2009) Starting in 2010, the workshops focus on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as recommended in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of UNCOPUOS (www.iswi-secretariat.org/). Workshops on the ISWI have been scheduled to be hosted by Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently, fourteen IHY/ISWI instrument arrays with more than five hundred instruments are operational in ninety countries.

Gadimova, S.; Haubold, H. J.; Danov, D.; Georgieva, K.; Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Davila, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.

2011-11-01

405

PLS 3004C: Principles of Plant Science Credit: 3 Credit Hours  

E-print Network

and increase the sustainability of agriculture. #12;3) Evaluate the role of agriculture production in food to the principles and practices of plant production systems. An overview of plant evolution, anatomy, physiology, improvement, pest, water and nutrient management as applied to a variety of plant production systems. Course

Watson, Craig A.

406

Lab 8 -Counting and The Pigeonhole Principle Computer Science 1FC3  

E-print Network

the number of possible rows if no two people of the same sex stand adjacent. 7. Find the number of integers birthdays in the same month. Solution. We have 13 people but only 12 months, so at least two of them must have birthdays in the same month. (End of Solution.) Theorem 2: (The Generalized Pigeonhole Principle

Carette, Jacques

407

Investigating the Relationship between STEM Learning Principles and Student Achievement in Math and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) advocates commonly emphasize an interdisciplinary, authentic, project-based, and technology-based approach to learning, though the strength of prior research varies. This study examines the association between a range of classroom activities and academic performance gains in math and science. Using…

Hansen, Michael; Gonzalez, Thomas

2014-01-01

408

Multimedia Design Principles in the Psychomotor Domain: The Effect of Multimedia and Spatial Contiguity on Students' Learning of Basic Life Support with Task Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…

Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel

2012-01-01

409

Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How personal and academic characteristics of pre-service science teachers compare with their understandings of basic chemical ideas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 150 pre?service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11–16?year?olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by questionnaire, indicate that despite all PSTs being regarded technically as ‘academically well?qualified’ for science teaching,

Vanessa Kind; Per Morten Kind

2011-01-01

410

The utilization of the seven principles for good practices of full-time and adjunct faculty in teaching health & science in community colleges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which undergraduate full-time and adjunct faculty members in the health and science programs at community colleges in Southern California utilize the seven principles of good practice as measured by the Faculty Inventory of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. A second purpose was to compare degree of utilization for gender and class size. Methodology. This is a quantitative study wherein there exists a systematic and mathematical assessment of data gathered through the use of a Likert scale survey to process and determine the mathematical model of the use of the principles by the target population of both full-time and adjunct faculty of health/science programs of community colleges in Southern California. Findings. Examination of the data revealed that both full-time and adjunct faculty members of Southern California community colleges perceive themselves a high degree of utilization of the seven principles of good practice. There was no statistically significant data to suggest a discrepancy between full-time and adjunct professors' perceptions among the utilization of the seven principles. Overall, male faculty members perceived themselves as utilizing the principles to a greater degree than female faculty. Data suggest that faculty with class size 60 or larger showed to utilize the seven principles more frequently than the professors with smaller class sizes. Conclusions. Full-time and adjunct professors of the health and sciences in Southern California community colleges perceive themselves as utilizing the seven principles of good practice to a high degree. Recommendations. This study suggests many recommendations for future research, including the degree to which negative economic factors such as budget cuts and demands affect the utilization of the seven principles. Also recommended is a study comparing students' perceptions of faculty's utilization of the seven principles of good practice in the classroom with faculty's self-perception.

Musaitif, Linda M.

411

Design principles for effective physics instruction: A case from physics and everyday thinking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although several successful inquiry-based physics and physical science curricula have been developed, little has been published that describes the development of these curricula in terms of their basic design principles. We describe the research-based design principles used in the development of one such curriculum and how these principles are reflected in its pedagogical structure. A case study drawn from an early pilot implementation illustrates how the design principles play out in a practical classroom setting. Extensive evaluation has shown that this curriculum enhances students' conceptual understanding and improves students' attitudes about science.

Goldberg, Fred; Otero, Valerie; Robinson, Stephen

2010-12-01

412

PRINCIPLES OF POPULATION MEDICINE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY POP HLTH 717  

E-print Network

of epidemiology as a basic science for medical research, evidence-based clinical practice, and public health as a means to present students with currently relevant topics in clinical research, population research to both the conduct and the interpretation of clinical and public health research. The principles

Sheridan, Jennifer

413

Citizen Science 2.0: Data Management Principles to Harness the Power of the Crowd  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Citizen science refers to voluntary participation by the general public in scientific endeavors. Although citizen science\\u000a has a long tradition, the rise of online communities and user-generated web content has the potential to greatly expand its\\u000a scope and contributions. Citizens spread across a large area will collect more information than an individual researcher can.\\u000a Because citizen scientists tend to make

Roman Lukyanenko; Jeffrey Parsons; Yolanda Wiersma

2011-01-01

414

Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

2015-01-01

415

Use of the NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Examination as a Progress Test in the Preclerkship Curriculum of a New Medical School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we describe the innovative use of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) as a progress test during the preclerkship medical curriculum. The main aim of this study was to provide external validation of internally developed multiple-choice assessments in a new medical…

Johnson, Teresa R.; Khalil, Mohammed K.; Peppler, Richard D.; Davey, Diane D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

2014-01-01

416

Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How Personal and Academic Characteristics of Pre-Service Science Teachers Compare with Their Understandings of Basic Chemical Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Around 150 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11-16-year-olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by…

Kind, Vanessa; Kind, Per Morten

2011-01-01

417

Prevention Science 513 Research Methods in Prevention Science  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12; Prevention Science 513 Research Methods in Prevention Science Fall with a theoretical and practical foundation for understanding research methods, especially as they pertain This course is designed to: 1) Increase students' understanding of basic principles of research methods

Collins, Gary S.

418

Higher temperature reactor materials workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES).  

SciTech Connect

On March 18-21, 2002, the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop to identify needs and opportunities for materials research aimed at performance improvements of structural materials in higher temperature reactors. The workshop focused discussion around the reactor concepts proposed as part of the Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Roadmap. The goal of the Generation IV initiative is to make revolutionary improvements in nuclear energy system design in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability. The Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Roadmap working groups have identified operation at higher temperature as an important step in improving economic performance and providing a means for nuclear energy to support thermochemical production of hydrogen. However, the move to higher operating temperatures will require the development and qualification of advanced materials to perform in the more challenging environment. As part of the process of developing advanced materials for these reactor concepts, a fundamental understanding of materials behavior must be established and the data-base defining critical performance limitations of these materials under irradiation must be developed. This workshop reviewed potential reactor designs and operating regimes, potential materials for application in high-temperature reactor environments, anticipated degradation mechanisms, and research necessary to understand and develop reactor materials capable of satisfactory performance while subject to irradiation damage at high temperature. The workshop brought together experts from the reactor materials and fundamental materials science communities to identify research and development needs and opportunities to provide optimum high temperature nuclear energy system structural materials.

Allen, T.; Bruemmer, S.; Kassner, M.; Odette, R.; Stoller, R.; Was, G.; Wolfer, W.; Zinkle, S.; Elmer, J.; Motta, A.

2002-08-12

419

More Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overwhelmed by orbitals? Terrified of thermodynamics? Agitated by acids and bases? Have no fear! This follow-up to the award-winning Chemistry Basics will clear up your chemistry woes. In More Chemistry Basics , the ninth book i

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2010-06-10

420

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-01-01

421

Group Work in Elementary Science: Towards Organisational Principles for Supporting Pupil Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group work has been promoted in many countries as a key component of elementary science. However, little guidance is given as to how group work should be organized, and because previous research has seldom been conducted in authentic classrooms, its message is merely indicative. A study is reported, which attempts to address these limitations.…

Howe, Christine; Tolmie, Andy; Thurston, Allen; Topping, Keith; Christie, Donald; Livingston, Kay; Jessiman, Emma; Donaldson, Caroline

2007-01-01

422

Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

England, Richard

2009-01-01

423

Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

2010-01-01

424

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

Busch, Phylliss

1987-01-01

425

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1984-01-01

426

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why earthworms are fascinating and important animals whose study should be expanded. Describes how to collect earthworms and their castings and how to demonstrate their tunneling activity. Stresses animal's uniqueness and how it is interrelated with other animals, plants, and non-living parts of the world. (NEC)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1986-01-01

427

The common principles established to expert's preparation by a remote methods in the Earth sciences field, and their decision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern socially economic situation in the country and in an education system is those, that traditional forms of getting education and training model cannot satisfy all needs for the educational services usually concentrated in the big cities, and so - the increased interest to new, progressive specialities has received the development in electronic - training systems. The attitude to education on the part of the states, the governments, societies has changed also. Education began to be considered as the major factor of economic growth and social development of the countries, the decision of some global problems connected to survival of mankind. In this connection, recently development and practical introduction of technologies of remote and open education are conducted in the different countries, the especial attention is given to the systems, capable to comprise, transfer and analyze huge streams of information. The experience which has been saved up by foreign colleagues, shows, that the sanction of this technological conflict lays, generally, in sphere of creation of a wide network of remote training, and, in narrow, both quality and quantity of a substantial part, also it is necessary not to forget about a choice of electronic-training systems with their reference to various areas. And an occurrence of the computer equipment in the user's end, development of existing ways and means of data transmission, functional expansion of already existing and creation of absolutely new hardware-software complexes, and many other things has begun occurrence of new scientific directions in such basic area of sciences as the Earth - science. (These are geoinformation systems, research of natural resources by space methods, organization and technology of data protection in geoinformation systems etc.) Clearly, that new specialities impose the certain conditions for preparation of experts, and, carrying out the analysis of already existing electronic training systems in the field of geoinformation systems, there have been revealed a number of lacks which do not allow to prepare highly skilled experts at a high level in the given area. The output consists in use of electronic-training systems, but even here, there is a number of problems, decision of which lays in the process of remote training of the Earth sciences. Classification of the systems engaged in the field of the Earth sciences training has revealed a number of lacks and has allowed to develop the certain methodological aspects, necessary to take into account creating them. One of such of electronic training systems basic lacks is that the trained itself is kind of "torn off" from modern hardware-software complexes, that is basic in the training the given scientific direction, in connection with that, the practical part is inseparable from theoretical, and student cannot use saved up experience in practice, knowing only the theory. Teaching of a material in the majority of systems goes with group at once. (Individual interests "are absorbed" by desire of the majority, and, accordingly, the user of system sometimes cannot receive answers to many questions). Impossibility of allocation of the concrete user for his training under more or less strong separate program or his reception of additional knowledge on adjacent areas. Many systems do not support on (off) -- line conferences or don't support the huge streams of the information transfer, that in training of the Earth sciences -- is the one of the basic criteria, (because the various territorially distributed users of system could exchange their experience, could share impressions about use of the certain hardware-software complexes, participate in conferences spent by the various centers, to communicate with the tutors not only in the form of various forums, but also operatively (it is possible even visually, by means of use of system of Web- videotranslations) to receive answers to arising questions, etc.). And introduction of such opportunities as ``daily planning'' and ``reminder'' to the system -

Kudzh, S.; Trofimov, S.

428

[Gene transfer in cruciate ligament surgery. Natural science-based principles and possible clinical applications].  

PubMed

Current challenges in anterior cruciate ligament surgery include graft remodeling and tendon-to-bone healing. The development over the past few decades of methods for delivering genes to musculoskeletal tissues has stimulated interest in its application for orthopedic problems, including anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Despite substantial progress, a number of technical issues need to be addressed before gene transfer might be considered as an approach to improve the structural and functional properties of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. The aim of this review is to illustrate the principles of somatic gene transfer and to apply them to the cells that constitute the anterior cruciate ligament. Special characteristics that dictate the experimental strategies will be outlined. PMID:12426759

Madry, H

2002-08-01

429

Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

2006-05-24

430

Barometer Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experimental activity is designed to develop a basic understanding of the interrelationship between temperature and pressure and the structure of a device made to examine this relationship. Resources needed to conduct this activity include two canning jars, two large rubber balloons, a heat lamp or lamp with 150 watt bulb, and access to freezer or water and ice. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 5 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

2012-08-03

431

High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP) for studies of basic nuclear science relevant to Stellar and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear processes have been explored traditionally by means of conventional accelerator experiments, which are difficult to execute at conditions relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis. Thus, nuclear reactions at stellar energies are often studied through extrapolations from higher-energy data or in low-background underground experiments. Even when measurements are possible using accelerators at relevant energies, thermonuclear reaction rates in stars are inherently different from those in accelerator experiments. The fusing nuclei are surrounded by bound electrons in accelerator experiments, whereas electrons occupy mainly continuum states in a stellar environment. Nuclear astrophysics research will therefore benefit from an enlarged toolkit for studies of nuclear reactions. In this presentation, we report on the first use of High Energy Density Plasmas for studies of nuclear reactions relevant to basic nuclear science, stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility at University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in which spherical capsules were irradiated with powerful lasers to compress and heat the fuel to high enough temperatures and densities for nuclear reactions to occur. Four experiments will be highlighted in this presentation. In the first experiment, the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-T) scattering at 14.1 MeV was measured with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in accelerator experiments. In the second experiment, the T(t,2n)4He reaction, a mirror reaction to the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction that plays an important role in the proton-proton chain that transforms hydrogen into ordinary 4He in stars like our Sun, was studied at energies in the range 15-40 keV. In the third experiment, the 3He+3He solar fusion reaction was studied directly, and in the fourth experiment, we probed the T+3He reaction, possibly relevant to Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Frenje, Johan

2014-06-01

432

Basic Stamp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Parallax, Inc. gives some information about basic stamp microcontrollers. A Basic-Stamp microcontroller is a single-board computer. Parallax makes a variety of controllers; the BASIC Stamp II uses a PIC16C57microchip.

433

Beware of agents when flying aircraft: Basic principles behind a generic methodology for the evaluation and certification of advanced aviation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is currently a growing interest in the aeronautical community to assess the effects of the increasing levels of automation on pilots' performance and overall safety. The first effect of automation is the change in the nature of the pilot's role on the flight deck. Pilots have become supervisors who monitor aircraft systems in usual situations and intervene only when unanticipated events occur. Instead of 'hand flying' the airplane, pilots contribute to the control of aircraft by acting as mediators, instructions given to the automation. By eliminating the need for manually controlling normal situations, such a role division has reduced the opportunities for the pilot to acquire experience and skills necessary to safely cope with abnormal events. Difficulties in assessing the state and behavior of automation arise mainly from four factors: (1) the complexity of current systems and consequence mode-related problems; (2) the intrinsic autonomy of automation which is able to fire mode transitions without explicit commands from the pilots; (3) the bad quality of feed-back from the control systems displays and interfaces to the pilots; and (4) the fact that the automation currently has no explicit representation of the current pilots' intentions and strategy. Assuming certification has among its major goals to guarantee the passengers' and pilots' safety and the airplane integrity under normal and abnormal operational conditions, the authors suggest it would be particularly fruitful to come up with a conceptual reference system providing the certification authorities both with a theoretical framework and a list of principles usable for assessing the quality of the equipment and designs under examination. This is precisely the scope of this paper. However, the authors recognize that the conceptual presented is still under development and would thus be best considered as a source of reflection for the design, evaluation and certification processes of advanced aviation technologies.

Javaux, Denis; Masson, Michel; Dekeyser, Veronique

1994-01-01

434

Precis of the Government Response to the IUS Select Committee Report 6. The allocation of the CSR07 science budget has been consistent with the Haldane Principle.  

E-print Network

Precis of the Government Response to the IUS Select Committee Report 6. The allocation of the CSR07 science budget has been consistent with the Haldane Principle. 10. The Government understands how those whose work is not funded may well question those who gave it a lower priority. 11. The Government

Crowther, Paul

435

Using Basic Science to Design a Clinical Trial: Baseline Characteristics of Women Enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational and epidemiological studies suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD)\\u000a risk. However, results from prospective trials showed neutral or adverse effects most likely due to differences in participant\\u000a demographics, such as age, timing of initiation of treatment, and preexisting cardiovascular disease, which reflected in part\\u000a the lack of basic science information on mechanisms of action of

V. M. Miller; D. M. Black; E. A. Brinton; M. J. Budoff; M. I. Cedars; H. N. Hodis; R. A. Lobo; J. E. Manson; G. R. Merriam; F. Naftolin; N. Santoro; H. S. Taylor; S. M. Harman

2009-01-01

436

Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy (“Pre-RT-MRI examination”) and at the time of BT (“BT MRI examination”) with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring procedure. Choice of imaging parameters and BT equipment is made after taking into account aspects of interaction between imaging and applicator reconstruction, as well as those between imaging, geometry and dose calculation. In a prospective clinical context, to implement 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy and to take advantage of its full potential, it is essential to successfully meet the MR imaging criteria described in the present recommendations of the GYN GEC-ESTRO working group. PMID:22296748

Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M.; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

2012-01-01

437

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

438

Human Systems. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Seven separate units…

Echaore, Susan D.; Bartavian, John

439

Electricity. Physical Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of physical science. Seven separate units…

Katz, Elaine; And Others

440

Energy. Physical Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of physical science. Six separate units…

Sneider, Cary I.; Piccotto, Henri

441

Psychosomatic Principles  

PubMed Central

There are four lines of development that might be called psychosomatic principles. The first represents the work initiated by Claude Bernard, Cannon, and others, in neurophysiology and endocrinology in relationship to stress. The second is the application of psychoanalytic formulations to the understanding of illness. The third is in the development of the social sciences, particularly anthropology, social psychology and sociology with respect to the emotional life of man, and, fourth, there is an increased application of epidemiological techniques to the understanding and incidence of disease and its causes. These principles can be applied to the concepts of comprehensive medicine and they bid fair to be unifying and helpful in its study. This means that future practitioners, as well as those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine, are going to have to have a much more precise knowledge of the influence of emotions on bodily processes. PMID:14259334

Cleghorn, R. A.

1965-01-01

442

Configuration of the Hemoglobin Oxygen Dissociation Curve Demystified: A Basic Mathematical Proof for Medical and Biological Sciences Undergraduates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussion of illustrating in simple mathematics the fundamental reason for the crucial sigmoidal configuration of the ODC such that the medical and bioscience undergraduates can readily appreciate it, which is the objective of this basic dissertation.

Melvin Khee-Shing Leow (National University of Singapore Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medicine)

2007-06-01

443

Food Science. Content Modules for Food Science Featuring Problem-Solving Activities in Family and Consumer Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food science course developed in Missouri combines basic scientific and mathematics principles in a hands-on instructional format as a part of the family and consumer sciences education curriculum. Throughout the course, students conduct controlled experiments and use scientific laboratory techniques and information to explore the biological…

Roff, Lori; Stringer, Lola

444

JOHN D. NORTON SCIENCE AND CERTAINTY 1  

E-print Network

to the basic principles of a mature science and this certainty is said to be based on experimental evidence. IJOHN D. NORTON SCIENCE AND CERTAINTY 1 In common scientific practice, near certainty is accorded evidence play in the acceptance of new scientific theories and in the reaffirmation of old theories? Two

445

BEYOND BARBOUR OR BACK TO BASICS? THE FUTURE OF SCIENCE-AND-RELIGION AND THE QUEST FOR UNITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflecting on the future of the field of science-and-reli- gion, I focus on three aspects. First, I describe the history of the reli- gion-and-science dialogue and argue that the emergence of the field was largely contingent on social-cultural factors in Western theology, especially in the United States. Next, I focus on the enormous influ- ence of science on Western society

Taede A. Smedes

2008-01-01

446

Perceptions of D.M.D. student readiness for basic science courses in the United States: can online review modules help?  

PubMed

There can be a disconnect between the level of content covered in undergraduate coursework and the expectations of professional-level faculty of their incoming students. Some basic science faculty members may assume that students have a good knowledge base in the material and neglect to appropriately review, whilst others may spend too much class time reviewing basic material. It was hypothesised that the replacement of introductory didactic physiology lectures with interactive online modules could improve student preparedness prior to lectures. These modules would also allow faculty members to analyse incoming student abilities and save valuable face-to-face class time for alternative teaching strategies. Results indicated that the performance levels of incoming U.S. students were poor (57% average on a pre-test), and students often under-predicted their abilities (by 13% on average). Faculty expectations varied greatly between the different content areas and did not appear to correlate with the actual student performance. Three review modules were created which produced a statistically significant increase in post-test scores (46% increase, P < 0.0001, n = 114-115). The positive results of this study suggest a need to incorporate online review units in the basic science dental school courses and revise introductory material tailored to students' strengths and needs. PMID:25756103

Miller, C J; Aiken, S A; Metz, M J

2015-02-01

447

Harnessing the Use of Open Learning Exchange to Support Basic Education in Science and Mathematics in the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…

Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.

2013-01-01

448

Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01

449

Epigenetics and child health: basic principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic mechanisms are believed to play an important role in disease, development and ageing with early life representing a window of particular epigenomic plasticity. The knowledge upon which these claims are based is beginning to expand. This review summarises evidence pointing to the determinants of epigenetic patterns, their juxtaposition at the interface of the environment, their influence on gene function

A. Groom; H. R. Elliott; N. D. Embleton; C. L. Relton

2011-01-01

450

Basic Principles of Learning Bayesian Logic Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian logic programs tightly integrate definite logic programs with Bayesian networks in order to incorporate the notions\\u000a of objects and relations into Bayesian networks. They establish a one-to-one mapping between ground atoms and random variables,\\u000a and between the immediate consequence operator and the directly influenced by relation. In doing so, they nicely separate the qualitative (i.e. logical) component from the

Kristian Kersting; Luc De Raedt

2008-01-01

451

Electrosurgery: part I. Basics and principles.  

PubMed

The term electrosurgery (also called radiofrequency surgery) refers to the passage of high-frequency alternating electrical current through the tissue in order to achieve a specific surgical effect. Although the mechanism behind electrosurgery is not completely understood, heat production and thermal tissue damage is responsible for at least the majority--if not all--of the tissue effects in electrosurgery. Adjacent to the active electrode, tissue resistance to the passage of current converts electrical energy to heat. The only variable that determines the final tissue effects of a current is the depth and the rate at which heat is produced. Electrocoagulation occurs when tissue is heated below the boiling point and undergoes thermal denaturation. An additional slow increase in temperature leads to vaporization of the water content in the coagulated tissue and tissue drying, a process called desiccation. A sudden increase in tissue temperature above the boiling point causes rapid explosive vaporization of the water content in the tissue adjacent to the electrode, which leads to tissue fragmentation and cutting. PMID:24629361

Taheri, Arash; Mansoori, Parisa; Sandoval, Laura F; Feldman, Steven R; Pearce, Daniel; Williford, Phillip M

2014-04-01

452

Principles and basic concepts of molecular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced knowledge in molecular biology and new technological developments in imaging modalities and contrast agents calls\\u000a for molecular imaging (MI) to play a major role in the near future in many human diseases (Weissleder and Mahmood Radiology\\u000a 219:316–333, 2001). Imaging systems are providing higher signal-to-noise ratio and higher spatial and\\/or temporal resolution. New specific\\u000a contrast agents offer the opportunity to

Nicolas Grenier; Peter Brader

2011-01-01

453

Basic Chemical Principles 1: Reaction Kinetics  

E-print Network

of reactants ! mobility (masses) and density { Di#11;usion-controlled reactions: prefactor A is the most that Oxygen atom and molecule O 2 are ground state triplets. #15; Important fact: Quantum mechanics tell us: Spin forbidden #15; Consequence: Reactions with ground state Oxygen are slow #15; Molecules can

Schofield, Jeremy

454

Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

1995-01-01

455

Scope and Basic Principles of Insect Pathology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects are the dominant animals in the world with more than one million described species. The vast majority of insects are innocuous or beneficial to humans, but a small percentage are pests that require a significant amount of our time, effort and funds to reduce their negative effects on food pr...

456

What's Basic About Basic Emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

1990-01-01

457

YES Mag: Science Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Parents, are you looking for a way to excite your children about science? This website developed by YES Mag, Canada's science magazine for kids, may just have the answer. Users can find numerous fun science activities addressing many of the basic science principles and phenomena including Newton's third law, lightening, wind, and chromatography. Each activity includes pictures to assist in the implementation of the project as well as a convenient printable version. With over thirty-five activities, children are sure to have a fun learning experience.

458

Improving graduate education to support a branching career pipeline: recommendations based on a survey of doctoral students in the basic biomedical sciences.  

PubMed

Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of doctoral students in the basic biomedical sciences at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Midway through graduate training, UCSF students are already considering a broad range of career options, with one-third intending to pursue a non-research career path. To better support this branching career pipeline, we recommend that national standards for training and mentoring include emphasis on career planning and professional skills development to ensure the success of PhD-level scientists as they contribute to a broadly defined global scientific enterprise. PMID:21885820

Fuhrmann, C N; Halme, D G; O'Sullivan, P S; Lindstaedt, B

2011-01-01

459

Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of doctoral students in the basic biomedical sciences at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Midway through graduate training, UCSF students are already considering a broad range of career options, with one-third intending to pursue a non–research career path. To better support this branching career pipeline, we recommend that national standards for training and mentoring include emphasis on career planning and professional skills development to ensure the success of PhD-level scientists as they contribute to a broadly defined global scientific enterprise. PMID:21885820

Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O’Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

2011-01-01

460

Basic solutions to carbon/carbon oxidation: Science and technology. Annual technical report, 15 April 1993-14 April 1994  

SciTech Connect

The attached report addresses the first year of a program aimed at developing basic solutions to carbon/carbon composite oxidation. In particular, one primary thrust is the development of boron containing carbons through pyrolysis of boron containing polymers. Additionally, a basic understanding of the oxidation mechanisms in carbons and boron containing carbons is being sought. Several new boron containing precursors have been synthesized, which can be converted to B/C materials after pyrolysis. In particular, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been copolymerized with a boron-containing monomer (vinylcatecholborane.) Approximately 68% of the original boron is retained after pyrolysis yielding a product with 3.4% boron. 1,4-polybutadiene (PBD) has been hydroborated to contain large amounts of boron. Model compounds have been used to prepare polydiyne with considerable amounts of boron. In the latter two cases, direct analysis for % boron is not yet available. Preliminary TGA data suggests that PBD containing boron results in a more stable structure.

Harrison, T.R.; Chung, T.; Radovic, L.; Pantano, C.; Thrower, P.A.

1994-05-13

461

Biology of mucosally transmitted sexual infection-translating the basic science into novel HIV intervention: a workshop summary.  

PubMed

A group of over 200 international scientists came together on April 15 in Sydney, Australia just before the 2012 International Microbicides Conference as a part of a workshop to address the basic concepts and factors that modulate HIV infection at the mucosal surface. The meeting focused on defining the interaction between virus, prevailing host physiology, microbiota, and innate and adaptive immune responses and how they combine to impact the outcome at the moment of potential viral transmission. Speakers examined the biology of HIV entry during transmission, innate and natural antiviral mechanisms at the mucosa, microbicide efficacy, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamics, animal models, and opportunities for combining HIV prevention strategies. Other viral infection models both in vivo and in vitro were considered for the insights they provided into HIV transmission events. The workshop raised important questions that we need to answer to further our basic understanding of host and viral factors influencing HIV transmission to inform the development of novel prevention strategies. PMID:22966898

Purcell, Damian; Cunningham, Anthony; Turville, Stuart; Tachedjian, Gilda; Landay, Alan

2012-11-01

462

On the Application of Formal Principles to Life Science Data: a Case Study in the Gene Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal principles governing best practices in classification and definition have for too long been neglected in the construction of biomedical ontologies, in ways which have important negative consequences for data integration and ontology alignment. We argue that the use of such principles in ontology construction can serve as a valuable tool in error-detection and also in supporting reliable manual curation.

Barry Smith; Jacob Köhler; Anand Kumar

2004-01-01

463

Resident's Morning Report: An Opportunity to Reinforce Principles of Biomedical Science in a Clinical Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a…

Brass, Eric P.

2013-01-01

464

Using technology to promote science as a basic subject for literacy: A precollege/college/industry/government collaboration  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to ensure that All students have the opportunity to learn science, and it is being accomplished through a unique working model program that: (1) changes the way that teaching and learning take place; (2) incorporates the advanced technology of microscopy directly into the K-12 curriculum; and (3) develops R & D teacher specialists. We conducted three in-service science courses, a Summer Science Microscopy Camp, and a staff development program (the latter funded by a NYS Education Department grant) in which science professors, industrial engineers and scientists interacted with teachers and students to explore the world using high technology. This year, all 5th and 7th graders in the district (200 students) and about 1,000 high school science students are having experiences as active researchers, solving real-life, multi-step problems using all levels of microscopy, including scanning tunneling. Students develop a chronological portfolio, using multimedia formats. Our 1993 Summer Microscopy Camp attendance record was 98%, compared to the typical 75% for other programs.

Redmond, B.L. [Microscopy Facility, New Paltz, NY (United States); Saturnelli, A.M. [Newburgh Free Academy, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

465

Principles in Remote Sensing: Image Processing and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced, interactive tutorial, learners encounter basic concepts in remote sensing via satellites, and investigate various techniques for manipulating and analyzing satellite images. Topics included include temporal resolution, weather forecasting, adjusting contrast for feature identification, Legrangian Animation, channel combination and color enhancement. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the third of three modules in the tutorial, Principles in Remote Sensing. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

2012-08-03

466

Student failures on first-year medical basic science courses and the USMLE step 1: A retrospective study over a 20-year period.  

PubMed

Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, solely or in combination, have previously been found to be predictors of achievement in the basic science years and/or on the Step 1. The purposes of this retrospective study were to: (1) determine if our statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between preadmission variables (MCAT, uGPA, and applicant pool size), and (2) study correlates of the number of failures in five M1 courses with those preadmission variables and failures on Step 1. Statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between all preadmission variables. Only one course, Microscopic Anatomy, demonstrated significant correlations with all variables studied including the Step 1 failures. Physiology correlated with three of the four variables studied, but not with the Step 1 failures. Analyses such as these provide a tool by which administrators will be able to identify what courses are or are not responding in appropriate ways to changes in the preadmissions variables that signal student performance on the Step 1. Anat Sci Educ 8: 120-125. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24827142

Burns, E Robert; Garrett, Judy

2015-03-01

467

Accepting Evolution or Discarding Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenging basic principles of constitutional law, advocates of intelligent design are undermining educators' ability to teach evolution in their science classrooms. Because US Supreme Court rulings now prohibit creationist accounts of the origin of life in schools, arguments favoring divine intervention, known as intelligent design, have emerged…

Sharpes, Donald K.; Peramas, Mary M.

2006-01-01

468

Science versus fiction: laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In science-fiction stories, ray guns are among the most used weapons. Since high power lasers are now commercially available, it would be interesting to know whether they may be used as weapons. In order to understand this point, the physical principles of laser-material interaction and of laser beam propagation are discussed. The basic equations are given. Then, orders of magnitude

M. Wautelet

1984-01-01

469

The Five Senses. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

Lobb, Nancy; Roderman, Winifred Ho

470

The Development of Group Achievement Tests for Two Basic Processes of AAAS Science--A Process Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the techniques used to develop tests for administration to groups of students who cannot read and write. Photographic transparencies coordinated with audio-tape are used. Tabulates reliability and other data for tests designed for the Science-A Process Approach program. (AL)

Beard, Jean

1971-01-01

471

Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

2011-03-31

472

books & arts The CanOn: The BeauTiful BasiCs Of sCienCe  

E-print Network

,033 to 2,025 per annum -- "an increase of almost two-hundred per cent" (200%, confirmed her busy backdrop and that rings all too true, the demarcation takes root early. When the author's sister had two small children, the family had memberships in their city's zoo and its science museum. When the children reached their teens

Loss, Daniel

473

Natural Sciences Publishing Cor. Perception of Physical Self-efficacy and Body Image among Omani Basic School Children  

E-print Network

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the perception of physical self-efficacy and body image amongst children in basic schools in Oman. Gender and grade level differences in perceptions of these two variables were also investigated. The sample comprised 359, children in the age range 12-18 years, M=15.01, SD=1.77), drawn randomly from two basic schools in Muscat Educational District in Muscat. The number of boys being 169 and the number of girls 190. Two questionnaires were administered: one on body image and the other on the perceived self-efficacy. These questionnaires have adequate reliability and validity. The results indicate significant correlation between perceived physical self-efficacy and body image for the whole sample and for boys and girls separately. No gender differences in the body image were found, but there was a difference in the perceived physical efficacy favoring boys. The results also indicate that for boys, age is positively correlated with body image and perceived physical self-efficacy; while for girls there was no significant correlation. The significance of the results was discussed in terms of objective of the study. Recommendation for future research was put forward.

Abdulqawi Salim Alzubaidi; Ali Mahdi Kazem

474

Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Benson, S.M.

1997-07-01

475

Basic Finance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

Vittek, J. F.

1972-01-01

476

The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

1976-01-01

477

Bernoulli's Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

Hewitt, Paul G.

2004-01-01

478

Pattern recognition principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

1974-01-01

479

Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

Schaars, Marvin A.

480

MICROBIOLOGY 301 PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGY  

E-print Network

MICROBIOLOGY 301 PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGY FALL 2014 LECTURE: Lawson Hall, Room 161, 9:00 a.m. M: Lecture: To develop a fundamental understanding of the basic principles of microbiology. Students with medical, agricultural and some other applied aspects of the field of microbiology. Laboratory: To acquire

Nickrent, Daniel L.