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1

Basic Principles of Ultrasound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

2

BASIC ELECTRICAL CONNECTION PRINCIPLES  

E-print Network

involving aluminum conductors than those encountered in copper to copper connections. CREEP (COLD FLOW is the conductor as compared to copper, since its creep rate is many times that of copper. Effect of Creep: FigureBURNDY Reference BASIC ELECTRICAL CONNECTION PRINCIPLES Basic Factors: The basic factors which

Johnson, Eric E.

3

Writing in the Sciences The basic principles of good writing apply just as well to the sciences as they do to the humanities  

E-print Network

Writing in the Sciences The basic principles of good writing apply just as well to the sciences focuses on the features of science writing that distinguish it from other, non-scientific genres. Since that are common to most areas of science. Understanding how the distinctive features of science writing reflect

Kronzucker, Herbert J.

4

Basic Comfort Heating Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

Dempster, Chalmer T.

5

Philadelphia University Faculty of Science Department of Basic Sciences  

E-print Network

Philadelphia University Faculty of Science Department of Basic Sciences First Semester 2012 Academic rank: Assistant Professor Office: Faculty of Science (1018) My office hours and schedule: 09, normality and weight percent calculations (4)Calibration methods (5)Principle of and application

6

Reflections on Basic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

:After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research—free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts—and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I

Joram Piatigorsky

2010-01-01

7

Reflections on Basic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research—free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts—and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I

Joram Piatigorsky

2010-01-01

8

5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 ...Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY...General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time spent by an...

2010-01-01

9

Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds.

Su Wang; Xiufeng Liu; Yandong Zhao

2012-01-01

10

Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

2005-01-01

11

Basic principles of variable speed drives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An understanding of the principles which govern variable speed drive operation is discussed for successful drive application. The fundamental factors of torque, speed ratio, and power as they relate to drive selection are discussed. The basic types of variable speed drives, their operating characteristics and their applications are also presented.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1973-01-01

12

JAMA Patient Page: Basic Science Research  

MedlinePLUS

... of Health and Human Services VALUE OF BASIC SCIENCE RESEARCH Basic science research can help in a ... dedicated to basic science and translational research. Basic Science Research JAMA PATIENT PAGE The JAMA Patient Page ...

13

Basic Space Science  

E-print Network

was assigned the responsibility for implementing decisions of the Committee, its Legal Subcommittee and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee related to the promotion of international cooperation in outer space matters. Among the primary tasks carried out by the Committee is the development of international treaties, conventions or legal principles governing the activities of Member States in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space

Hans J. Haubold; Willem Wamsteker

1997-01-01

14

INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL Principles of Plant Science  

E-print Network

. Plants as Industries 5 Chapter 4. The Sciences of Plants 8 Basics of Plant Growth and Development Chapter 5. Introduction to Plant Growth and Development 10 Chapter 6. An Overview of Photosynthesis and Respiration 12 Chapter 7. Plant Hormones 15 Chapter 8. Some Ecological Principles in Plant Growth

Decoteau, Dennis R.

15

Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

Mumzhiu, Alex M.

1998-10-01

16

Basic principles of molecular effects of irradiation.  

PubMed

In order to understand the consequences of radiation a thorough understanding of the radiobiological mechanisms of the molecular up to the clinical level is of importance. Radiobiology therefore combines the basic principles of physics as well as biology and medicine and is concerned with the action of radiation from the subcellular level up to the living organism. Topics of interest and relevance are covered in much more broadness as is possible in the short following article in the literature to which the interested reader is referred to. Classical books in this field were written by Steel et al. (1989) as well as by Hall (1994). Topics usually covered by radiobiological reviews are the classification of different types of radiation, cell cycle dependency of radiation effects, types of radiation damage and cell death, dose response curves, measurement of radiation damage, the oxygen effect, relative biological effectiveness, the influence of dose rate, and several other important research areas. This short overview will concentrate on a subset of radiobiological topics of high importance and relative novelty. PMID:22476592

Selzer, Edgar; Hebar, Alexandra

2012-02-01

17

Tutorial on seismic interferometry: Part 1 --Basic principles and applications  

E-print Network

Tutorial on seismic interferometry: Part 1 -- Basic principles and applications Kees Wapenaar1 of the actual sources. INTRODUCTION In this two-part tutorial, we give an overview of the basic princi- ples

Snieder, Roel

18

Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

Beder, Hal

1986-01-01

19

Basic Principles for Managing Intellectual Property in the Digital Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines 10 basic principles for managing intellectual property in a digital environment. Expands upon each principle and provides specific examples of how and where these principles might be applied. Briefly discusses the history of electronic documentation, recent changes, and how these impact on the world of scholarly communication. (MJP)

PS: Political Science and Politics, 1997

1997-01-01

20

Sustainable Education: Basic Principles and Strategic Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the guiding principles of sustainable education. It starts from the observation that many education systems around the world have launched ambitious programs aiming to raise academic standards and to reconcile concerns for excellence with concerns for equity. However, many of these programs have failed to reach their…

Van den Branden, Kris

2012-01-01

21

Basic principles of variable speed drives.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic available types of variable speed drive systems are described in terms of operating characteristics and typical applications. The fundamental factors of torque, speed ratio, and power are discussed as they relate to drive selection, and the use of a systems approach is urged in the choice and development of a variable speed drive train.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1973-01-01

22

Nutritional toxicology: basic principles and actual problems.  

PubMed

Nutritional toxicology is a specialty that combines the backgrounds and research approaches of nutrition and toxicology. Many problems of substantial importance to health and food safety involve interactions of nutrition process and requirement with the effects of toxicological impact. Solution of these problems requires research that meets the procedural and design criteria of experimental nutrition and these of experimental toxicology. The relationships may be described in three basic categories: (1) influence of nutrition on toxicities; (2) influence of toxicants on nutrition; and (3) toxicities of nutrients. Trypsin inhibitor research, an example of diet impacting on toxicological response, illustrates the necessity of controlling nutritional composition aspects that can confound the results. Prolonged acetaminophen administration provides an example of the effects of toxicants on nutritional requirement and function which could be important for persons with marginal sulphur amino acid intake. PMID:2262017

Hathcock, J N

1990-01-01

23

Mechanics of smart dielectric elastomer structures: basic principles and applications  

E-print Network

Mechanics of smart dielectric elastomer structures: basic principles and applications Massimiliano Summer School on SMART STRUCTURES Trento, 3-7 September, 2012 DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER ACTUATORS: THE BASIC CONFIGURATIONS OF DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER ACTUATORS from Carpi et al., 2008 GIANT DEFORMATIONS AND SNAP THROUGH

24

Bibliography of Basic Textbooks on Information Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Textbooks currently in use in courses on information science are listed in this bibliography under the following headings: Information storage and retrieval, Information systems, Information theory, Behavioral sciences, and Basic books. Some of the entrie...

J. Belzer

1972-01-01

25

Monte-Carlo Planning: Basic Principles and Recent Progress  

E-print Network

/ Video games Go / RTS In many cases Monte-Carlo techniques yield state-of-the-art performance. Even1 Monte-Carlo Planning: Basic Principles and Recent Progress Alan Fern School of EECS Oregon State University #12;2 Outline Preliminaries: Markov Decision Processes What is Monte-Carlo Planning? Uniform Monte-Carlo

26

Medical oncology: Basic principles and clinical management of cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book consists of three section, each containing several papers. The sections are: Basic Principles, Specific Neoplasmas, and Supportive Care. Some of the paper titles are: Pharmacology of Antineoplastic Agents, Hodgkin's Disease, Myeloma, Melanoma, Neoplasms of the Lung, Sarcomas, Pediatric Neoplasms, Infectious Consideration in Cancer, Nursing Considerations in Cancer, and Rehabilitation of the Patient with Cancer.

Calabresi, P.; Schein, P.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

1985-01-01

27

Transdermal drug delivery: Basic principles for the veterinarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of topical pharmaceutical formulations is increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. A potential concern is that not all formulations are registered for the intended species, yet current knowledge strongly suggests that simple extrapolation of transdermal drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between species, including humans, cannot be done. In this review, an overview is provided of the underlying basic principles determining

P. C. Mills; S. E. Cross

2006-01-01

28

Undergraduate basic science preparation for dental school.  

PubMed

In the Institute of Medicines report Dental Education at the Crossroads, it was suggested that dental schools across the country move toward integrated basic science education for dental and medical students in their curricula. To do so, dental school admission requirements and recommendations must be closely reviewed to ensure that students are adequately prepared for this coursework. The purpose of our study was twofold: 1) to identify student dentists' perceptions of their predental preparation as it relates to course content, and 2) to track student dentists' undergraduate basic science course preparation and relate that to DAT performance, basic science course performance in dental school, and Part I and Part II National Board performance. In the first part of the research, a total of ninety student dentists (forty-five from each class) from the entering classes of 1996 and 1997 were asked to respond to a survey. The survey instrument was distributed to each class of students after each completed the largest basic science class given in their second-year curriculum. The survey investigated the area of undergraduate major, a checklist of courses completed in their undergraduate preparation, the relevance of the undergraduate classes to the block basic science courses, and the strength of requiring or recommending the listed undergraduate courses as a part of admission to dental school. Results of the survey, using frequency analysis, indicate that students felt that the following classes should be required, not recommended, for admission to dental school: Microbiology 70 percent, Biochemistry 54.4 percent, Immunology 57.78 percent, Anatomy 50 percent, Physiology 58.89 percent, and Cell Biology 50 percent. The second part of the research involved anonymously tracking undergraduate basic science preparation of the same students with DAT scores, the grade received in a representative large basic science course, and Part I and Part II National Board performance. Using T-test analysis correlations, results indicate that having completed multiple undergraduate basic science courses (as reported by AADSAS BCP hours) did not significantly (p < .05) enhance student performance in any of these parameters. Based on these results, we conclude that student dentists with undergraduate preparation in science and nonscience majors can successfully negotiate the dental school curriculum, even though the students themselves would increase admission requirements to include more basic science courses than commonly required. Basically, the students' recommendations for required undergraduate basic science courses would replicate the standard basic science coursework found in most dental schools: anatomy, histology, biochemistry, microbiology, physiology, and immunology plus the universal foundation course of biology. PMID:12484677

Humphrey, Sue P; Mathews, Robert E; Kaplan, Alan L; Beeman, Cynthia S

2002-11-01

29

Basic Sciences KEVIN R. CARMAN  

E-print Network

education as well as knowledge of the structure of science. Students in the college may also choose curric. ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS Students who contemplate entering this college should give special attention to enter prior to completing their initial registration. Students will be admitted to the college when they

Harms, Kyle E.

30

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure

Joseph John Bevelacqua

2010-01-01

31

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-01-01

32

Climate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation  

E-print Network

Climate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation with a Family Forest Perspective Baylor Science Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased are due primarily to fossil fuel use and land use change, while those of methane and nitrous oxide

Fox-Kemper, Baylor

33

Principles of Science Principles of Biology Reference Edition  

E-print Network

a mature understanding of scientific concepts. Our unique interactive design turns students into active the publishers of Nature and Scientific American. The Principles of Biology Reference Edition includes in science related courses · High academic achievement for all learning styles at all levels of education

Cai, Long

34

Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science, by John W. Moore, Conrad L. Stanitski, Peter C. Jurs published by Brooks/Cole, 2009.

35

How Has Basic Science Research Improved Treatment For Lung Diseases?  

MedlinePLUS

... Series ©2011 American Thoracic Society What is basic science research? Basic science research: Is conducted to better understand what causes ... of several examples of the application of basic science research being used to guide treatment and improve ...

36

The basic principles of geometrization of the quantum mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic principles of the quantum mechanics in the K-field formalism (see author's papers) are stated in the paper. K-field formalism arises from geometric generalization of de Broglie postulate. So, the quantum theory equations (including well-known Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and quadratic Dirac equations) are obtained as the free wave equations on a manifold metrizing force interactions of particles. In this paper,

K. B. Korotchenko

2000-01-01

37

The basic principles of geometrization of the quantum mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic principles of the quantum mechanics in the K-field formalism (see\\u000aauthor's papers) are stated in the paper. K-field formalism arises from\\u000ageometric generalization of de Broglie postulate. So, the quantum theory\\u000aequations (including well-known Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and quadratic Dirac\\u000aequations) are obtained as the free wave equations on a manifold metrizing\\u000aforce interactions of particles. In this paper,

K. B. Korotchenko

2000-01-01

38

A Collaborative Strategy for Reciprocal Integration of Basic and Clinical Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geriatric patient cases are ideal for use by basic science educators who seek to link key principles and concepts with clinical medicine. However, access to geriatric educators and geriatric patients able to highlight the evolution of a particular disease\\/condition, limits the basic science educator's ability to easily incorporate clinical cases into their teaching. To address this resource limitation, we developed

Edmund H. Duthie; Deborah Simpson; Karen Marcdante; Diana Kerwin; Kathryn Denson; Mary Cohan

39

The basic principles of geometrization of the quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

The basic principles of the quantum mechanics in the K-field formalism (see author's papers) are stated in the paper. K-field formalism arises from geometric generalization of de Broglie postulate. So, the quantum theory equations (including well-known Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and quadratic Dirac equations) are obtained as the free wave equations on a manifold metrizing force interactions of particles. In this paper, describing wave properties of particles we will restricted ourself with construction special geometric formulation of force interactions.

Korotchenko, K B

2000-01-01

40

The basic principles of geometrization of the quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

The basic principles of the quantum mechanics in the K-field formalism (see author's papers) are stated in the paper. K-field formalism arises from geometric generalization of de Broglie postulate. So, the quantum theory equations (including well-known Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and quadratic Dirac equations) are obtained as the free wave equations on a manifold metrizing force interactions of particles. In this paper, describing wave properties of particles we will restricted ourself with construction special geometric formulation of force interactions.

K. B. Korotchenko

2000-01-11

41

[Basic principles and clinical application of retinal laser therapy].  

PubMed

The scientific background of laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus was studied extensively by several investigators in the 1970 s and 1980 s. The basic principles were successfully resolved during that time and clinical consequences for proper application of the laser photocoagulation for various diseases were deduced. The present paper gives an overview about the physical basics of laser-tissue interactions during and after retinal laser treatment and the particular laser strategies in the treatment of different retinal diseases. Thus, it addresses the issue of the impact on tissue of laser parameters as wavelength, spot size, pulse duration and laser power. Additionally, the different biological tissue reactions after laser treatment are presented, such as, e. g., for retinopexia or macular treatments as well as for diabetic retinopathies. Specific laser strategies such as the selective laser treatment of the RPE (SRT) or the transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) are presented and discussed. PMID:18401791

Framme, C; Roider, J; Brinkmann, R; Birngruber, R; Gabel, V-P

2008-04-01

42

The basic science of anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the basic science of climate change upon which our concern of possible anthropogenic interference with the climate system is based. Where possible, those aspects of particular relevance to the study of climate change impact assessment will be highlighted to set the scene for the remaining articles in this issue, which focus on the effects of climate change

Kathy Maskell

1995-01-01

43

Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

2012-01-01

44

Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

Gralla, Edward J.

1976-01-01

45

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-05-01

46

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI were held in Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. The International Center for Space Weather Science and Education at Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 9www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/index_e.html), was established through the basic space science initiative in 2012. Similar research and education centres were also established in Nigeria(www.cbssonline.com/aboutus.html) and India (www.cmsintl.org). Activities of basic space science initiative were also coordinated with the Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, affiliated to the United Nations (www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/centres/index.html). Prospective future directions of the initiative will be discussed in this paper.

Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

2014-05-01

47

LeChâtelier's Principle in the Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LeChâtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium is actually a very general statement about systems in equilibrium and their behavior when subjected to external force or stress. Although one almost never finds mention of his name or law in other sciences, analogous principles and concepts do exist. In this note we examine some of the similar forms taken by this chemical principle in the fields of physics, geology, biology, and economics. Lenz's law in physics is an example of electromagnetic equilibrium and the geological principle of isostatic uplift concerns mechanical equilibrium. Both are strictly consequences of conservation of energy. LeChâtelier's principle deals with thermodynamic equilibrium and involves both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The concept of homeostasis in biology and the economic law of supply and demand are both equilibrium-like principles, but involve systems in the steady state. However, all these principles involve the stability of the system under consideration and the analogies presented may be useful in the teaching of LeChâtelier's principle.

Thomsen, Volker B. E.

2000-02-01

48

Tissue engineering and stem cells: basic principles and applications in urology.  

PubMed

To overcome problems of damaged urinary tract tissues and complications of current procedures, tissue engineering (TE) techniques and stem cell (SC) research have achieved great progress. Although diversity of techniques is used, urologists should know the basics. We carried out a literature review regarding the basic principles and applications of TE and SC technologies in the genitourinary tract. We carried out MEDLINE/PubMed searches for English articles until March 2010 using a combination of the following keywords: bladder, erectile dysfunction, kidney, prostate, Peyronie's disease, stem cells, stress urinary incontinence, testis, tissue engineering, ureter, urethra and urinary tract. Retrieved abstracts were checked, and full versions of relevant articles were obtained. Scientists have achieved great advances in basic science research. This is obvious by the tremendous increase in the number of publications. We divided this review in two topics; the first discusses basic science principles of TE and SC, whereas the second part delineates current clinical applications and advances in urological literature. TE and SC applications represent an alternative resource for treating complicated urological diseases. Despite the paucity of clinical trials, the promising results of animal models and continuous work represents the hope of treating various urological disorders with this technology. PMID:20969644

Shokeir, Ahmed A; Harraz, Ahmed M; El-Din, Ahmed B Shehab

2010-12-01

49

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2014-07-01

50

CEST: From basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed.

Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A. Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E.

2013-04-01

51

Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine  

PubMed Central

New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease. PMID:19918069

Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

2010-01-01

52

Basic Science Considerations in Primary Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Total Hip Replacement is one of the most common operations performed in the developed world today. An increasingly ageing population means that the numbers of people undergoing this operation is set to rise. There are a numerous number of prosthesis on the market and it is often difficult to choose between them. It is therefore necessary to have a good understanding of the basic scientific principles in Total Hip Replacement and the evidence base underpinning them. This paper reviews the relevant anatomical and biomechanical principles in THA. It goes on to elaborate on the structural properties of materials used in modern implants and looks at the evidence base for different types of fixation including cemented and uncemented components. Modern bearing surfaces are discussed in addition to the scientific basis of various surface engineering modifications in THA prostheses. The basic science considerations in component alignment and abductor tension are also discussed. A brief discussion on modular and custom designs of THR is also included. This article reviews basic science concepts and the rationale underpinning the use of the femoral and acetabular component in total hip replacement. PMID:20582240

Mirza, Saqeb B; Dunlop, Douglas G; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Naqvi, Syed G; Gangoo, Shafat; Salih, Saif

2010-01-01

53

The precautionary principle in environmental science.  

PubMed Central

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy. PMID:11673114

Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

2001-01-01

54

Limitations on diversity in basic science departments.  

PubMed

It has been over 30 years since the beginning of efforts to improve diversity in academia. We can identify four major stages: (1) early and continuing efforts to diversify the pipeline by increasing numbers of women and minorities getting advanced degrees, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); (2) requiring academic institutions to develop their own "affirmative action plans" for hiring and promotion; (3) introducing mentoring programs and coping strategies to help women and minorities deal with faculty practices from an earlier era; (4) asking academic institutions to rethink their practices and policies with an eye toward enabling more faculty diversity, a process known as institutional transformation. The thesis of this article is that research-intensive basic science departments of highly ranked U.S. medical schools are stuck at stage 3, resulting in a less diverse tenured and tenure-track faculty than seen in well-funded science departments of major universities. A review of Web-based records of research-intensive departments in universities with both medical school and nonmedical school departments indicates that the proportion of women and Black faculty in science departments of medical schools is lower than the proportion in similarly research-intensive university science departments. Expectations for faculty productivity in research-intensive medical school departments versus university-based departments may lead to these differences in faculty diversity. PMID:22775445

Leboy, Phoebe S; Madden, Janice F

2012-08-01

55

Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

Horton, Linda

2010-03-01

56

75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy...Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463...Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852....

2010-07-19

57

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01

58

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01

59

Evolutionary kinship therapy: basic principles and treatment implications.  

PubMed

The idiom of kinship is a powerful one that stretches across many levels of social behaviour (van den Berghe, 1979), and Daly, Salmon & Wilson (1997) recently outlined the basic principles of a comprehensive, evolution-based kinship psychology. Their approach merges traditional kinship theory, Hamilton's inclusive fitness model and the broader realm of evolutionary psychology into an exciting and provocative call to arms. They address biological, psychological (viz. fictive kinship) and kin-like levels of analysis, and they argue for a relationship-specific kinship psychology that deals with the particular demands of being a mother, father, mate, offspring or grandparent. Our particular approach to kinship psychology has focused primarily on the distinction between biological kinship and psychological kinship (Bailey, 1988; Bailey & Wood, 1993; Nava & Bailey, 1991), and more recently on the role of kin-like relations in psychotherapy and other social contexts (Bailey, 1997a; Wood, 1997). The kin-like category is especially noteworthy in modern industrialized countries where acquaintanceships and stranger-to-stranger interactions often predominate over biological and psychological kinships (Ahern & Bailey, 1997). PMID:9875959

Bailey, K G; Wood, H E

1998-12-01

60

Gyroscope precession in special and general relativity from basic principles  

E-print Network

In special relativity a gyroscope that is suspended in a torque-free manner will precess as it is moved along a curved path relative to an inertial frame S. We explain this effect, which is known as Thomas precession, by considering a real grid that moves along with the gyroscope, and that by definition is not rotating as observed from its own momentary inertial rest frame. From the basic properties of the Lorentz transformation we deduce how the form and rotation of the grid (and hence the gyroscope) will evolve relative to S. As an intermediate step we consider how the grid would appear if it were not length contracted along the direction of motion. We show that the uncontracted grid obeys a simple law of rotation. This law simplifies the analysis of spin precession compared to more traditional approaches based on Fermi transport. We also consider gyroscope precession relative to an accelerated reference frame and show that there are extra precession effects that can be explained in a way analogous to the Thomas precession. Although fully relativistically correct, the entire analysis is carried out using three-vectors. By using the equivalence principle the formalism can also be applied to static spacetimes in general relativity. As an example, we calculate the precession of a gyroscope orbiting a static black hole. In an addendum the general reasoning is extended to include also rotating reference frames.

Rickard Jonsson

2007-08-18

61

Basic science research in pediatric radiology - how to empower the leading edge of our field.  

PubMed

Basic science research aims to explore, understand and predict phenomena in the natural world. It spurs the discovery of fundamentally new principles and leads to new knowledge and new concepts. By comparison, applied research employs basic science knowledge toward practical applications. In the clinical realm, basic science research and applied research should be closely connected. Basic science discoveries can build the foundation for a broad range of practical applications and thereby bring major benefits to human health, education, environment and economy. This article explains how basic science research impacts our field, it describes examples of new research directions in pediatric imaging and it outlines current challenges that we need to overcome in order to enable the next groundbreaking discovery. PMID:25060618

Daldrup-Link, Heike E

2014-08-01

62

Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1991-12-01

63

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels  

E-print Network

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels Kathryn C. Haering Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Table of Contents Soil formation and soil horizons................................................................................................................... 33 Soil composition by volume

Kaye, Jason P.

64

Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we…

Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

2012-01-01

65

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Interpretive Research in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the derivative notions of interdeterminacy, uncertainty, precision, and observer-observed interaction are discussed and their applications to social science research examined. Implications are drawn for research in science education. (PR)

Roth, Wolff-Michael

1993-01-01

66

Cartilage Restoration, Part 1Basic Science, Historical Perspective, Patient Evaluation, and Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical procedures designed to treat focal chondral lesions are evolving and are supported by basic science principles of cartilage physiology and known responses to injury. Selecting the proper treatment algorithm for a particular patient depends on careful patient evaluation, including the recognition of comorbidities such as ligamentous instability, deficient menisci, or malalignment of the mechanical limb axis or extensor mechanism.

J. Winslow Alford; Brian J. Cole

2005-01-01

67

Basic Principles--Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The priorities for sustaining life--air, shelter, water, and food--are the subjects of this module designed to give junior and senior high school students the foundation for safe, rewarding experiences in the outdoors. Five 50-minute lesson plans cover the basic need in order of priority: air (3 minutes to survive without it), shelter (3 hours, in…

Deaton, Don

68

Internet Basics for the Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why use web-based resources to teach science? This question has many answers. One is that web-based resources expand your students' access to science topics or problems. Other reasons for using web-based resources lie closer to the core teaching practice. When you use this technology to teach science, your students develop greater understanding by making connections between hands-on science investigations in your classroom and current science information gathered from online resources. This free selection taken from How to...Weave the Web Into K-8 Science includes the Table of Contents and Introduction for the book.

Wetzel, David R.

2005-01-01

69

An overture to basic science aspects of nerve injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the lack of improvement in surgical treatment of nerve injury despite thousands of years of research disturb you? Do you think that basic science has not really contributed to any advancement in the treatment of nerve injury? Have you contributed? Do you think that new molecular biology knowledge in nerve injury and repair is important? Knowing from basic science

T. Carlstedt

2011-01-01

70

Attendance at Basic Sciences Lectures: A Student Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors that may affect a medical student's decision to attend basic science lectures were investigated. Basic science faculty members and administrators' views on student lecture attendance were elicited to construct a questionnaire. A total of 103 first-year and 75 second-year medical students attending a Puerto Rican medical school responded to…

Mendez, Antonio; Ramos, Gilberto

71

Shoulder arthroscopy: basic principles of positioning, anesthesia, and portal anatomy.  

PubMed

Advances in modern arthroscopy have contributed significantly to greater flexibility and efficacy in addressing shoulder pathology. Advantages of arthroscopy include less invasive approaches, improved visualization, decreased risk of many postoperative complications, and faster recovery. As a result, arthroscopy is often preferred by both orthopaedic surgeons and patients. Common shoulder conditions that can be managed arthroscopically include rotator cuff tears, shoulder instability, and labral pathology. A thorough understanding of anatomic principles in conjunction with proper patient positioning and portal selection and placement are essential for successful arthroscopic shoulder surgery. PMID:23728958

Paxton, E Scott; Backus, Jonathan; Keener, Jay; Brophy, Robert H

2013-06-01

72

Basic principles of forest fuel reduction treatments James K. Agee a,*, Carl N. Skinner b  

E-print Network

Basic principles of forest fuel reduction treatments James K. Agee a,*, Carl N. Skinner b a College, Colorado, 2002; and the Cone fire, California, 2002. Applying treatments at an appropriate landscape scale

California at Berkeley, University of

73

41 CFR 102-85.25 - What is the basic principle governing OAs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL...What is the basic principle governing OAs...the private sector practice of capturing in...

2010-07-01

74

Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the relevance of basic science knowledge in the determination of patient assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is critical to good medical practice. One method often used to direct students in the fundamental process of integrating basic science and clinical information is problem-based learning (PBL). The faculty facilitated small…

DiLullo, Camille; Morris, Harry J.; Kriebel, Richard M.

2009-01-01

75

Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation. PMID:23133449

Shin, Ji Hoon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Ha, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong Hyun

2012-01-01

76

TEACHING PHYSICS: Visual Basic science simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are exploring the use of science simulation\\/modelling programs for teaching a variety of science concepts across the age range. The programs have been converted from the original RMBasic thanks to technological advances in equipment. We find that the programs complement practical work and allow in-depth analysis using multi-tasking with other programs.

J. G. Evans

2000-01-01

77

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF LIGHTNING ROTECTION PERTAINING TO A FACTORY ENVIRONMENT  

E-print Network

In the industrial and administrative environment the installed base of distributed controls, measurement devices, and data networks, that utilise sophisticated electronics, has increased greatly over the past decade. Factories have become more reliant on electronic instruments and controls for efficient operation. The equipment used is interconnected via a web of communication, control and power cables. These cables often radiate out to remote locations such as weighbridges and pump stations, and act as receptors of surges caused by indirect lightning strikes, thus endangering the control system. On the administration side, offices contain a plethora of equipment such as computers, printers, scanners and telephone systems, usually connected via copper cable networks. Although this equipment may not be in use in control functions, it plays a vital role in the operational system. All electrical and electronic equipment is susceptible to disruption by lightning electromagnetic pulses, by electrostatic discharges, and by switching electromagnetic pulses. This paper describes how progressive protection can minimise lightning and other surges entering electronic systems, and the importance of choosing the right protection. The holistic view taken considers three areas of protection. These are the building, where practical, the co-ordination of surge protection devices within the building, and the correct earthing principles.

F Calboutin

78

Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods.  

PubMed

Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students' acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students' personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students' potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

2012-12-01

79

Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods  

PubMed Central

Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

2012-01-01

80

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2005  

E-print Network

Introduction to chemistry, with emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. Introduction to the chemistry of ...

Ceyer, Sylvia Teresse

81

How Clouds Form-Understanding the Basic Principles of Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this investigation is to understand the change that takes place when water condenses from a gas to a liquid, and how a change in pressure affects this transformation. Materials needed for the experiment include a large (2L) soda bottle, a squeeze bottle with a plastic hose, parking pens, construction paper, wooden matches, and tap water. The resource includes background information, a pre-activity exploration for students, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is the chapter 12 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

82

Neutron spin manipulation optics: basic principles and possible applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of basic elements for neutron spin manipulation optics (NSMO) based on Larmor and non-Larmor (quantum) precessions under reflection are considered. It is concluded that transition to 3D in neutron polarization optics may bring additional instrumental possibilities. New neutron optical devices will include spin turners (particularly, ?/2-turners and ?- turners, or flippers), spin precessors and antiprecessors, 3D-polarizers, 3D-analyzers, 3D- rotators, spin manipulators, hyper-polarizers. The innovative neutron optics is directly applicable to developing 3D polarization and polarimetry techniques, such as reflectometry with 3D- polarimetry, Neutron optical Spin Echo (NoSE), including compact NoSE and TOF NoSE schemes. A hyper-polarizer is a device which not only separates neutrons with the opposite spins, but also flips the 'wrong' spins. Thus, hyper-polarizers can double the intensity of polarized neutron beams, although a gain in the intensity can be achieved only with the increase either in the angular divergence or in the width of the beam, in full accordance with the Liouville theorem. The tasks to be solved for implementation of the NSMO concepts are discussed.

Pleshanov, N. K.

2014-07-01

83

Basic principles of synaptic physiology illustrated by a computer model.  

PubMed

A computer model is described that simulates many basic aspects of chemical synapse physiology. The model consists of two displays, the first being a pictorial diagram of the anatomical connections between two presynaptic neurons and one postsynaptic neuron. Either or both of the presynaptic cells can be stimulated from a control panel with variable control of the number of pulses and firing rate; the resulting presynaptic action potentials are animated. The second display plots the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell versus time following presynaptic stimulation. The model accurately simulates temporal and spatial summation when the presynaptic cells are arranged and stimulated in parallel and simulates presynaptic inhibition when they are arranged and stimulated in series. Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials can be demonstrated by altering the nature of the ionic conductance change occurring on the postsynaptic cell. The effects on summation of changing length constant or time constant of the postsynaptic cell can also be illustrated. The model is useful for teaching these concepts to medical, graduate, or undergraduate students and can also be used as a self-directed computer laboratory exercise. It is available for free download from the internet. PMID:11824184

Davis, M J

2001-12-01

84

Basic Principles of Synaptic Physiology Illustrated by a Computer Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer model is described that simulates many basic aspects of chemical synapse physiology. The model consists of two displays, the first being a pictorial diagram of the anatomical connections between two presynaptic neurons and one postsynaptic neuron. Either or both of the presynaptic cells can be stimulated from a control panel with variable control of the number of pulses and firing rate; the resulting presynaptic action potentials are animated. The second display plots the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell versus time following presynaptic stimulation. The model accurately simulates temporal and spatial summation when the presynaptic cells are arranged and stimulated in parallel and simulates presynaptic inhibition when they are arranged and stimulated in series. Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials can be demonstrated by altering the nature of the ionic conductance change occurring on the postsynaptic cell. The effects on summation of changing length constant or time constant of the postsynaptic cell can also be illustrated. The model is useful for teaching these concepts to medical, graduate, or undergraduate students and can also be used as a self-directed computer laboratory exercise. It is available for free download from the internet.

PhD Michael J. Davis (Texas A&M University Dept. of Medical Physiology)

2001-03-01

85

Quantum mechanics in the K-Field formalism: the basic principles of geometrization  

E-print Network

The basic principles of the quantum mechanics in the K-field formalism are stated in the paper. The basic distinction of this theory arises from that the quantum theory equations (including well-known Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and quadratic Dirac equations) are obtained from de Broglie postulate geometric generalization. Rather, they are obtained as the free wave equations on a manifold metrizing force interactions of particles. Such view on the quantum theory basic equations allows one to use semiclassical models for the quantum system simulation. The quantization principle modifies as well. Namely, quantum system stationary conditions are such conditions, at which test particles motion is Lyapunov stable.

K. B. Korotchenko

1999-05-27

86

Quantum mechanics in the K-Field formalism the basic principles of geometrization  

E-print Network

The basic principles of the quantum mechanics in the K-field formalism are stated in the paper. The basic distinction of this theory arises from that the quantum theory equations (including well-known Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and quadratic Dirac equations) are obtained from de Broglie postulate geometric generalization. Rather, they are obtained as the free wave equations on a manifold metrizing force interactions of particles. Such view on the quantum theory basic equations allows one to use semiclassical models for the quantum system simulation. The quantization principle modifies as well. Namely, quantum system stationary conditions are such conditions, at which test particles motion is Lyapunov stable.

Korotchenko, K B

1999-01-01

87

Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.  

PubMed

We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

2014-09-01

88

Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

Not Available

1990-10-01

89

BESAC Subcommittee Workshop Report 20-Year Basic Energy Sciences  

E-print Network

, San Diego February 22-24, 2003 Doubletree Hotel and Executive Meeting Center 1750 Rockville Pike of the future. This Subcommittee of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee has completed this study

Knowles, David William

90

Resident's morning report: an opportunity to reinforce principles of biomedical science in a clinical context.  

PubMed

The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a faculty member for discussion. This venue provides an opportunity to illustrate how basic biomedical principles facilitate an understanding of the clinical presentation, the relevant pathophysiology, and the rationale for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A discussion of biochemical principles can easily be incorporated into these case discussions, with the potential to reinforce these concepts and to illustrate their application to clinical decision making. This approach maintains the effort to teach basic biomedical sciences in the context of clinical application across the educational continuum. PMID:24019184

Brass, Eric P

2013-01-01

91

Professional Ethics for Computer Science Lecture 1: Motivation and Basics  

E-print Network

and Internet access monitoring by employers · peer-to-peer networks used for music downloads implies violationProfessional Ethics for Computer Science Lecture 1: Motivation and Basics Jie Gao Computer Science Is NOT About: #12;What This Course IS REALLY About Ethics in general: · the set of beliefs about right

Gao, Jie

92

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research · Basic Energy Sciences · Biological and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics ESnet Network · Support adhoc network measurements for troubleshooting and infrastructure verification. ­ By ESnet Staff

93

The Basic Mathematics of Astronomy: A Sourcebook for Science Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt was made in this study to determine if there was a need for a sourcebook of the basic mathematics of astronomy for secondary school science teachers. Science teachers involved and interested in the teaching of astronomy were located through letters to the superintendents of the 400 largest school districts in the United States. Names…

Therkelsen, Edward Robert

94

The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books contains books received for the museum's 13th annual children's science book fair. Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; environment/conservation;…

Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

95

75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network...and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network...Background: The Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity...

2010-10-22

96

Assessment of the basic energy sciences program. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A list of experts reviewing the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program and their organizations are given. The assessment plan is explained; the program examined the following: quality of science being conducted in the program, quality of performers supported by the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, and the impact of the research on mission oriented needs. The intent of the assessment is to provide an indication of general status relative to these questions for the BES divisions. The approach to the assessment is described. The sampling plan which was used as a guide in determining the sample size and selecting the sample to evaluate the research program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are discussed. Special analyses were conducted on the dispersion of reviewers' ratings, the ratings of the lower funded projects, and the amount of time the principal investigator devoted to the project. These are presented in the final appendix together with histograms for individual rating variables for each program area. (MCW)

Not Available

1982-03-01

97

Quantum mechanics in the K-Field formalism: the basic principles of geometrization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic principles of the quantum mechanics in the K-field formalism are stated in the paper. The basic distinction of this theory arises from that the quantum theory equations (including well-known Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and quadratic Dirac equations) are obtained from de Broglie postulate geometric generalization. Rather, they are obtained as the free wave equations on a manifold metrizing force interactions

K. B. Korotchenko

1999-01-01

98

Quantum mechanics in the K-Field formalism: the basic principles of geometrization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic principles of the quantum mechanics in the K-field formalism are\\u000astated in the paper. The basic distinction of this theory arises from that the\\u000aquantum theory equations (including well-known Schrodinger, Klein-Gordon and\\u000aquadratic Dirac equations) are obtained from de Broglie postulate geometric\\u000ageneralization. Rather, they are obtained as the free wave equations on a\\u000amanifold metrizing force interactions

K. B. Korotchenko

1999-01-01

99

The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, pro- posed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking pre- ventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of

David Kriebel; Joel Tickner; Paul Epstein; John Lemons; Richard Levins; Edward L. Loechler; Margaret Quinn; Ruthann Rudel; Ted Schettler; Michael Stoto

100

A Delphi study of the basic principles and corresponding care goals of holistic nursing practice.  

PubMed

This descriptive, non-experimental study using the Delphi survey process identified basic holistic health principles for which holistic nurse practitioners agreed guide their healing practice. Seventeen expert holistic nurse practitioners (and AHNA leaders) comprised the respondent group. On the average these practitioners have been nurses for 25 years and holistic practitioners for 11 years. Seventy percent of the group completed all three Delphi rounds indicating their agreement regarding 25 principles of holistic health, their applicability to practice, and care goals related to each principle. A high level of consensus was reached regarding 17 principles. In addition to affirming principles related to unity, interdependence, evolution, energy fields, and interactions, the AHNA expert nurse practitioners strongly emphasized spirituality. The group addressed reality as a unified whole, not limited by the material universe, supporting a practice model based on holographic perspectives. PMID:7722279

Estby, S N; Freel, M I; Hart, L K; Reese, J L; Clow, T J

1994-12-01

101

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis: Basic principles and applications in radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a widely accepted method for analyzing and comparing the diagnostic accuracy of radiological tests. In this paper we will explain the basic principles underlying ROC analysis and provide practical information on the use and interpretation of ROC curves. The major applications of ROC analysis will be discussed and their limitations will be addressed.

Arian R van Erkel; Peter M. Th Pattynama

1998-01-01

102

Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging: Basic principles and pharmaceutical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging are fast and nondestructive analytical techniques that provide chemical and physical information of virtually any matrix. In combination with multivariate data analysis these two methods open many interesting perspectives for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This review focuses on recent pharmaceutical NIR applications and covers (1) basic principles of NIR techniques including chemometric data processing,

Gabriele Reich

2005-01-01

103

New Principles and Basic Approaches for the Curricula of Engineering Degree Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents new principles and basic approaches for the curricula of engineering degree courses. The accentuated evolution of engineering, the fast technological transformations and, still, the impact provoked by government regulations in the field of education in Brazil have called attention to these issues. Following these changes, it…

Gargione, Luiz Antonio

104

The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the second annual supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984. In this supplement, children's science books are listed under the headings of animals, astronomy, aviation and space, biography, earth sciences, encyclopedias and reference books, environment and conservation, fiction,…

Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

105

Speaking of food: Connecting basic and applied plant science.  

PubMed

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25326609

Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

2014-10-01

106

Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design.  

PubMed

The relationship between basic science research and product design/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition of a medical device is broad and varied. This paper is aimed towards those devices which interact with tissue and are rooted in the tenets of science. Both the scientific method and the design process are compared with similarities and opposites identified. The paper concludes identifying fundamental principles of medical device development and highlights the importance of both entities. PMID:19964135

Privitera, Mary Beth; Design, M; Johnson, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

107

The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

Bybee, Rodger W.

108

How Do Scientists Respond to Anomalies? Different Strategies Used in Basic and Applied Science  

E-print Network

How Do Scientists Respond to Anomalies? Different Strategies Used in Basic and Applied Science found that the basic scientists used mental simulation to resolve an anomaly, whereas applied science theoretical, problems. The goals of such applied science are different from those of basic science. In basic

Zhao, Yuxiao

109

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a  

E-print Network

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Kim,1 MD, PhD, and Hyeon-Cheol Gwon,1* MD, PhD Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the curcumin-coating stent (CCS) on the inhibi- tion of restenosis in a rabbit iliac artery stent model. Background: Curcumin

Park, Jong-Sang

110

Developing basic space science world wide: progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UN\\/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and

Hans J. Haubold; Willem Wamsteker

2004-01-01

111

Dean's Column In this issue Translating Basic Science  

E-print Network

at the molecular and genetic level, and to effectively manipulate experimental animal populations and createDean's Column In this issue Translating Basic Science into Human and Animal Health Benefits By Herb discoveries into activities or resources with potential for life-changing advances in human and animal health

Gilbert, Matthew

112

Economics of New Faculty Hires in Basic Science  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the streams of expenses and revenues associated with investment in a cohort of basic science investigators at the University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry over seven years. Method The authors evaluated a medical school's financial investment in 25 basic science faculty who were hired between 1999 and 2004 to expand basic science research. The authors compared direct and indirect costs with the extramural grant support generated by these investigators through 2006. To facilitate a comparison of investments made and grants generated, the authors calculated present value (in 2006 dollars) of revenues and expenses using the school's approximate cost of capital. Results Of the 25 faculty members hired, 24 (96%) remained at the school through 2006. From 1999 to 2006, the school invested a total of $69.0 million ($33.1 million in start-up costs and $35.9 million in indirect costs) to support the faculty members. Through 2006, these faculty members generated $99.7 million in extramural grant revenue ($70.7 million in direct grant revenue and $29.1 million in indirect grant revenue). While the faculty generated $1.45 in total grant revenue per dollar invested, start-up expenses and incomplete recovery of indirect costs required the school to add 40 cents to every grant dollar generated to achieve financial equilibrium. Conclusions Investments in basic science research, even when successful, may require significant financial subsidies from academic health centers. PMID:19116473

Dorsey, E. Ray; Van Wuyckhuyse, Brian C.; Beck, Christopher A.; Passalacqua, William P.; Guzick, David S.

2009-01-01

113

BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

CASSEL, RICHARD

114

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: the TRIPOD concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990, the United Nations is annually holding a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities through the Official Development Assistance (ODA) of Japan. Teaching material, hands-on astrophysics material,

Masatoshi Kitamura; Don Wentzel; Arne Henden; Jeffrey Bennett; H. M. K. Al-Naimiy; A. M. Mathai; Nat Gopalswamy; Joseph Davila; Barbara Thompson; David Webb; Hans Haubold

2007-01-01

115

The use of high pressure in basic and materials science  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are at least three important applications of the high pressure technique in basic and materials science: (1) to synthesize novel materials not accessible by other techniques, (2) to transform a given material from one phase to another, and (3) to uncover underlying systematics and critically test theoretical concepts. High pressure studies currently enjoy an increasing popularity which is fueled

James S. Schilling

1998-01-01

116

Conceptual approach to astronomy and basic science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is developed, in which the major dynamical and physical concepts of astronomy and basic space science are used, to build a scheme (prototype model)for their education on the undergraduate level. It has been shown a way to teach different theories and observational facts in which those concepts are built in or used; within the suggested educational scheme. The

M. Melek

2001-01-01

117

Principle and Basic Characteristics of Linear Synchronous Motor with Half-Wave Rectified Self Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents principle and basic characteristics of a novel linear synchronous motor based on “half-wave rectified self excitation principle”. The field winding is short circuited through a diode and the armature winding is conventional 3-pahase windings. If the amplitude of the balanced 3-phase currents is modulated by an alternating wave with bias frequency, the produced magnetomotive force pulsates at bias frequency and moves at synchronous velocity. This pulsating magnetomotive force induces the electromotive force with bias frequency in the field winding. The field excitation is obtained by rectifying the electromotive force with the diode of the field winding. In this paper, we design and build the experimental machine and confirm the basic characteristics. We also deduce the performance equations and investigate on the thrust ripple reduction.

Hirayama, Tadashi; Oyama, Jun; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Takashi

118

Principles of Population Health Science Population Health 795  

E-print Network

audio record lectures for their own personal use (i.e. not for distribution) with permission1 Principles of Population Health Science Population Health 795 A course in the Program in Population Health Fall 2011 University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health OVERVIEW

Sheridan, Jennifer

119

Principles of Population Health Science Population Health 795  

E-print Network

. Students may audio record lectures for their own personal use (i.e. not for distribution) with permission1 Principles of Population Health Science Population Health 795 A course in the Program in Population Health Fall 2012 University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health The lecture

Sheridan, Jennifer

120

Public Health Principles and Practice Population Health Sciences 780  

E-print Network

Public Health Principles and Practice Population Health Sciences 780 Fall 2011 This course examines population-based approaches to improve the health of the public. The focus will be on learning methods for community health improvement--from assessment to finding and implementing evidence based public health

Sheridan, Jennifer

121

SPH262: Principles of Environmental Health Sciences Unit Rationale  

E-print Network

, and risk communication are useful in understanding environmental health problems, and the strengthsSPH262: Principles of Environmental Health Sciences Fall 2010 CRN: 54018 Unit Rationale Environmental health is a part of public health where the primary goal is preventing disease and promoting

Leistikow, Bruce N.

122

5.3 The Pigeonhole Principle The basic form of the pigeonhole principle is that if pigeons are placed into kk + 1  

E-print Network

5.3 The Pigeonhole Principle The basic form of the pigeonhole principle is that if pigeons are placed into kk + 1 pigeonholes then at least one pigeonhole will contain at least two pigeons. Figure 5.3.1 Clearly, if all three of the pigeons of Figure 5.3.1 are placed into the two pigeonholes then one hole

DeMaio, Joe

123

Round Rocks: Teaching Principles of Earth Science and Paleontology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides teachers with a highly effective way of presenting paleontology and earth science principles with limited classroom time. The main idea is to emphasize the thought processes that paleontologists use in their work. By answering certain questions and learning certain principles, students are compelled to think about the process of scientific reasoning. The process consists of taking a rock (from anywhere) in the hand and asking a single, simple question: How did this rock come to be this way? This lesson provides teachers with an outline of the process, principles and questions that students should use and answer about their rocks in order to understand the way scientists think and develop hypotheses and conclusions.

Allmon, Warren; Griffing, David

124

Zebrafish housing systems: a review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality.  

PubMed

The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations. PMID:23382349

Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

2012-01-01

125

Pulse oximetry: understanding its basic principles facilitates appreciation of its limitations.  

PubMed

Pulse oximetry has revolutionized the ability to monitor oxygenation in a continuous, accurate, and non-invasive fashion. Despite its ubiquitous use, it is our impression and supported by studies that many providers do not know the basic principles behind its mechanism of function. This knowledge is important because it provides the conceptual basis of appreciating its limitations and recognizing when pulse oximeter readings may be erroneous. In this review, we discuss how pulse oximeters are able to distinguish oxygenated hemoglobin from deoxygenated hemoglobin and how they are able to recognize oxygen saturation only from the arterial compartment of blood. Based on these principles, we discuss the various conditions that can cause spurious readings and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23490227

Chan, Edward D; Chan, Michael M; Chan, Mallory M

2013-06-01

126

Ultrasound elastography in the head and neck. Part I. Basic principles and practical aspects  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ultrasound elastography (USE) is a rapidly developing field of imaging that measures and displays tissue elasticity or stiffness properties using ultrasound. In recent years, real-time USE modes have appeared on commercially available clinical ultrasound machines, stimulating an explosion of research into potential oncologic and non-oncologic clinical applications of USE. Preliminary evidence suggests that USE can differentiate benign and malignant conditions accurately in several different tissues. This article presents an overview of the basic principles of different USE technologies that are currently under investigation in the head and neck region. In addition, more practical aspects pertaining to the optimal performance of USE at this site are discussed. PMID:23876352

Bhatia, Kunwar S.S.; Lee, Yolanda Y.P.; Yuen, Edmund H.Y.

2013-01-01

127

Characteristics of physicians engaged in basic science: a questionnaire survey of physicians in basic science departments of a medical school in Japan.  

PubMed

The number of physicians engaged in basic science and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of physicians who are engaged in basic science in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire was distributed to all 30 physicians in the basic science departments of Juntendo University School of Medicine. Question items inquired about sex, years since graduation, years between graduation and time entering basic science, clinical experience, recommending the career to medical students, expected obstacles to students entering basic science, efforts to inspire students in research, increased number of lectures and practical training sessions on research, and career choice satisfaction. Correlations between the variables were examined using ?(2) tests. Overall, 26 physicians, including 7 female physicians, returned the questionnaire (response rate 86.7%). Most physicians were satisfied with their career choice. Medical students were deemed not to choose basic science as their future career, because they aimed to become clinicians and because they were concerned about salary. Women physicians in basic science departments were younger than men. Women physicians also considered themselves to make more efforts in inspiring medical students to be interested in research. Moreover, physicians who became basic scientists earlier in their career wanted more research-related lectures in medical education. Improving physicians' salaries in basic science is important to securing talent. In addition, basic science may be a good career path for women physicians to follow. PMID:22976453

Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

2012-01-01

128

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

129

Some aspects of basic geochemistry in coal science  

SciTech Connect

Several instances of the use of basic geochemistry in coal science are given, using Australian bituminous coals as examples. The mode of occurrence of manganese is related to associations with siderite and calcite, the reason being cation replacement. High concentrations of boron, arsenic, phosphorus and other elements in deposits found in some boilers were due to the presence of boron phosphate and boron arsenate, two compounds that have not been found in nature. The proportions of soil/rock and flyash particles in atmospheric particulates deposited near a power station have been estimated by using the marked differences in germanium concentrations.

Swaine, D.J. [CSIRO Division of Coal and Energy Technology, North Ryde (Australia)

1994-12-31

130

Current status of leprosy: epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives.  

PubMed

Leprosy has affected humans for millennia and remains an important health problem worldwide, as evidenced by nearly 250?000 new cases detected every year. It is a chronic infectious disorder, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, that primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. Recent advances in basic science have improved our knowledge of the disease. Variation in the cellular immune response is the basis of a range of clinical manifestations. The introduction of multidrug therapy has significantly contributed to a decrease in the prevalence of the disease. However, leprosy control activities, including monitoring and prevention programs, must be maintained. PMID:21973237

Suzuki, Koichi; Akama, Takeshi; Kawashima, Akira; Yoshihara, Aya; Yotsu, Rie R; Ishii, Norihisa

2012-02-01

131

The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Dichotomy Principle” and the classical “Golden Section Principle” are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of “Harmony Mathematics”, a new proposed mathematical direction.

A. P. Stakhov

2005-01-01

132

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative for IHY 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations, in cooperation with national and international space-related agencies and organizations, has been organizing annual workshops since 1990 on basic space science, particularly for the benefit of scientists and engineers from developing nations. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, through the IHY Secretariat and the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) will assist scientists and engineers from all over the world in participating in the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007. A major thrust of the IHY/UNBSSI program is to deploy arrays of small, inexpensive instruments such as magnetometers, radio telescopes, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, etc. around the world to provide global measurements of ionospheric and heliospheric phenomena. The small instrument program is envisioned as a partnership between instrument providers, and instrument hosts in developing countries. The lead scientist will provide the instruments (or fabrication plans for instruments) in the array; the host country will provide manpower, facilities, and operational support to obtain data with the instrument typically at a local university. Funds are not available through the IHY to build the instruments; these must be obtained through the normal proposal channels. However all instrument operational support for local scientists, facilities, data acquisition, etc will be provided by the host nation. It is our hope that the IHY/UNBSSI program can facilitate the deployment of several of these networks world wide. Existing data bases and relevant software tools that can will be identified to promote space science activities in developing countries. Extensive data on space science have been accumulated by a number of space missions. Similarly, long-term data bases are available from ground based observations. These data can be utilized in ways different from originally intended for understanding the heliophysical processes. This paper provides an overview of the IHY/UNBSS program, its achievements and future plans.

Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; Thompson, B. J.; Haubold, H.

2006-08-01

133

Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences  

SciTech Connect

New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

2005-01-11

134

Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

Eiseman, Elisa

2001-03-01

135

BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases. PMID:20109968

Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Bluml, Stefan

2010-01-01

136

Transfer printing methods for flexible thin film solar cells: basic concepts and working principles.  

PubMed

Fabricating thin film solar cells (TFSCs) on flexible substrates will not only broaden the applications of solar cells, but also potentially reduce the installation cost. However, a critical challenge for fabricating flexible TFSCs on flexible substrates is the incompatibility issues between the thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of these substrates and the fabrication conditions. Transfer printing methods, which use conventional substrates for the fabrication and then deliver the TFSCs onto flexible substrates, play a key role to overcome these challenges. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and working principles of four major transfer printing methods associated with (1) transfer by sacrificial layers, (2) transfer by porous Si layer, (3) transfer by controlled crack, and (4) transfer by water-assisted thin film delamination. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for implementing these methods for practical solar cell manufacture. PMID:25184987

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

2014-09-23

137

Basic Principles of Electrical Network Reliability Optimization in Liberalised Electricity Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.

Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.

2008-01-01

138

Quality initiatives: Quality improvement in radiology: basic principles and tools required to achieve success.  

PubMed

All imaging departments are expected to establish and maintain effective quality, safety, and performance improvement programs. Essential components of such programs include adherence to the basic principles of quality management and appropriate utilization of quality tools. The initial step is the gathering of relevant information, followed by the collection and analysis of quality and performance data; analysis and ranking of causes that likely contributed to a process failure, error, or adverse event; and prioritization and local implementation of solutions, with careful monitoring of newly implemented processes and wider dissemination of the tools when a process proves to be successful. Quality improvement requires a careful, dedicated, and continuously planned effort by a number of skilled and committed team members, with the goal being to do the right thing in a timely fashion in every case. This process can be sustained by offering rewards and celebrating successes, with all lessons learned disseminated throughout the department or organization. PMID:21997978

Kruskal, Jonathan B; Eisenberg, Ronald; Sosna, Jacob; Yam, Chun Sham; Kruskal, Joshua D; Boiselle, Phillip M

2011-10-01

139

Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and maintenance. We proposed that some software engineering principles can be incorporated into the introductory-level of the computer science curriculum. Our vision is to give community college students a broader exposure to the software development lifecycle. For those students who plan to transfer to a baccalaureate program subsequent to their community college education, our vision is to prepare them sufficiently to move seamlessly into mainstream computer science and software engineering degrees. For those students who plan to move from the community college to a programming career, our vision is to equip them with the foundational knowledge and skills required by the software industry. To accomplish our goals, we developed curriculum modules for teaching seven of the software engineering knowledge areas within current computer science introductory-level courses. Each module was designed to be self-supported with suggested learning objectives, teaching outline, software tool support, teaching activities, and other material to assist the instructor in using it.

Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

140

Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.  

PubMed

It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the major clenching theoretical and experimental findings. These findings will remove the last trace of uncertainty about the total disproof of the membrane theory. In addition, I have also included an introduction of the association-induction hypothesis, which is the one and only unifying theory of the living cell that has survived and unwaveringly grown more comprehensive and powerful after more than half of a century of worldwide testing. PMID:21970156

Ling, Gilbert N

2011-01-01

141

Spinal cord injury I: A synopsis of the basic science  

PubMed Central

Substantial knowledge has been gained in the pathological findings following naturally occurring spinal cord injury (SCI) in dogs and cats. The molecular mechanisms involved in failure of neural regeneration within the central nervous system, potential therapeutics including cellular transplantation therapy, neural plasticity, and prognostic indicators of recovery from SCI have been studied. This 2-part review summarizes 1) basic science perspectives regarding treating and curing spinal cord injury, 2) recent studies that shed light on prognosis and recovery from SCI, 3) current thinking regarding standards of care for dogs with SCI, 4) experimental approaches in the laboratory setting, and 5) current clinical trials being conducted in veterinary medicine. Part I presents timely information on the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury, challenges associated with promoting regeneration of neurons of the central nervous system, and experimental approaches aimed at developing treatments for spinal cord injury. PMID:20676289

Webb, Aubrey A.; Ngan, Sybil; Fowler, J. David

2010-01-01

142

Corneal Gene Therapy: Basic Science and Translational Perspective  

PubMed Central

Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. Gene therapy is an emerging technology for corneal blindness due to the accessibility and immune-privileged nature of the cornea, ease of vector administration and visual monitoring, and ability to perform frequent noninvasive corneal assessment. Vision restoration by gene therapy is contingent upon vector and mode of therapeutic gene introduction into targeted cells/tissues. Numerous efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches have evolved in last decade for developing gene-based interventions for corneal diseases. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. This review describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various ocular surface disorders and diseases. PMID:23838017

Mohan, Rajiv R.; Rodier, Jason T.; Sharma, Ajay

2013-01-01

143

The (mis)Alignment of the Earth Science Literacy Principles to the National Science Education Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiative to develop the Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) was an effort to encourage community consensus about the Big Ideas in the Earth Sciences, especially in the solid-earth and hydrologic geosciences. The Principles have been aligned to the National Science Education Standards (NSES) in order to make them more useable for curriculum developers, textbook writers and K-12 educators. The alignment demonstrates that much of the content that is highly valued in the NSES involving Earth and Space Science is not related to the fundamental concepts in the ESLP. Surprisingly, the greatest alignment of concepts in the ESLP is to standards related to Personal and Societal Perspectives in the NSES. Analysis of the alignment demonstrates the highly interdisciplinary nature of the Earth sciences in addressing standards related to Physical Science, Life Science, and Science and Technology in addition to those previously mentioned. An in-depth analysis will follow to examine content valued by the NSES that has been left out of the ESLP, as well as the converse.

Ladue, N.; Clark, S.; Thompson, J.; Beckendorf, K.; Wysession, M. E.

2009-12-01

144

An interdisciplinary course in women's health integrating basic and clinical sciences: Clinical anatomy and women's health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, undergraduate medical education is divided into preclinical and clinical years, with basic sciences taught during the first years and clinical sciences taught during the latter years. In an effort to better integrate the basic and clinical sciences in undergraduate medical education, and focus on women's health, we have developed a new interdisciplinary fourth-year elective at the University of Michigan

Caren M. Stalburg; Tamara A. Stein

2002-01-01

145

Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

1982-01-01

146

Linear and non-linear spectroscopy of microparticles: basic principles, new techniques and promising applications.  

PubMed

In the introduction a brief recollection is made of how one of us (RKC), accidentally, got into this field of linear and nonlinear spectroscopy of a dielectric micro-particle that can be treated as a micro-cavity or a micro-resonator. The basic principles of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and their relationship with electromagnetic theory are presented. To simplify the mathematics, we only discuss an example from a 2-d case of light illumination perpendicular to the fiber axis. This 2-d example has relevance to semiconductor circular disk lasers, nonlinear optics in torroids, fibers and spheres at the tip of a fiber. The internal and near-field distribution of a WGM are graphically plotted to give the reader a chance to get a physical understanding of the spatial distribution as well as spectral distribution of WGMs. Several new techniques that enable the measurements of: (1) nanometer changes in the cladding diameter over a centimeter length of fiber; (2) some aspects of the morphology of micro-particles by elastic scattering; and (3) biochemical reactions at the interface of liquid media with a sphere at the end of a fiber. A few interesting nonlinear optical experimental results pertaining to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) are touched upon. We present some preliminary results for promising applications in the area of bioaerosols. These include ambient aerosol characterization and identification with elastic scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and other optical and/or biochemical identifiers. PMID:18214095

Chang, Richard K; Pan, Yong-Le

2008-01-01

147

Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Instrumentation and basic principles.  

PubMed

A micro-electromembrane extraction (?-EME) technique using electrically induced transfer of charged analytes across free liquid membranes (FLMs) was presented. A disposable extraction unit was proposed and it was made of a short segment of transparent perfluoroalkoxy tubing, which was successively filled with three liquid plugs serving as acceptor solution, FLM and donor solution. These plugs formed a three-phase extraction system, which was precisely defined, that was stable and required ?L to sub-?L volumes of all respective solutions. Basic instrumental set-up and extraction principles of ?-EME were examined using an anionic and a cationic dye, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(p-sulfophenylazo)-2,7-naphthalene disulfonic acid trisodium salt (SPADNS) and crystal violet, respectively. Transfers of the charged dyes from donor into acceptor solutions across FLMs consisting of 1-pentanol were visualized by a microscope camera and quantitative measurements were performed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The effects of operational parameters of ?-EME system were comprehensively investigated and experimental measurements were accompanied with theoretical calculations. Extraction recoveries above 60% were achieved for 5min ?-EME of 1mM SPADNS at 100V with repeatability values below 5%. Selectivity of FLMs was additionally examined by capillary electrophoretic analyses of acceptor solutions and the potential of FLMs for ?-EME pretreatment of samples with artificial complex matrices was demonstrated. PMID:24792701

Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2014-06-13

148

GENERATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL EFFECTS ON BASIC U.S. ADULT CIVIC SCIENCE LITERACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most countries emphasize an effective science education, in part with the expectation that science-literate adults will understand, and often participate more fully in science-related policy decisions. However, in assessing adult basic civic science literacy over time, many factors change simultaneously, making definitive conclusions about educational effects difficult. For example, more recent generations often have more formal education and more exposure

Susan Carol Losh

149

Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

150

Development and Testing of Simulation (Game) to Illustrate Basic Principles of Integrated Project Delivery and Target Value Design: A First Run Study  

E-print Network

This research is focused on developing a simulation (game) that will help explain the basic principles of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Target Value Design (TVD). The transfer of knowledge about Lean principles is currently limited...

Munankami, Manish 1972-

2012-12-07

151

Chemical carcinogens: a review of the science and its associated principles. U.S. Interagency Staff Group on Carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

In order to articulate a view of chemical carcinogenesis that scientists generally hold in common today and to draw upon this understanding to compose guiding principles that can be used as a bases for the efforts of the regulatory agencies to establish guidelines for assessing carcinogenic risk to meet the specific requirements of the legislative acts they are charged to implement, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office, the White House drew on the expertise of a number of regulatory agencies to elucidate present scientific views in critical areas of the major disciplines important to the process of risk assessment. The document is composed of two major sections, Principles and the State-of-the-Science. The latter consists of subsections on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, short-term and long-term testing, and epidemiology, which are important components in the risk assessment step of hazard identification. These subsections are followed by one on exposure assessment, and a final section which includes analyses of dose-response (hazard) assessment and risk characterization. The principles are derived from considerations in each of the subsections. Because of present gaps in understanding, the principles contain judgmental (science policy) decisions on major unresolved issues as well as statements of what is generally accepted as fact. These judgments are basically assumptions which are responsible for much of the uncertainty in the process of risk assessment. There was an attempt to clearly distinguish policy and fact. The subsections of the State-of-the-Science portion provide the underlying support to the principles articulated, and to read the "Principles" section without a full appreciation of the State-of-the-Science section is to invite oversimplification and misinterpretation. Finally, suggestions are made for future research efforts which will improve the process of risk assessment. PMID:3530737

1986-01-01

152

Update on Keloid Management: Clinical and Basic Science Advances  

PubMed Central

Background Keloids are benign, fibroproliferative lesions that represent abnormal healing resulting in excessive fibrosis. They are composed of mainly type III (early) or type I (late) collagen. Some of the symptoms include pruritus, tenderness, and pain. Often, they are very difficult to treat and prevent from recurrence. In contrast to hypertrophic scars, keloids extend beyond the margin of the wound. The Problem There is very limited evidence on the best wound management for minimizing scarring. Multiple available therapeutic modalities have been used for the treatment of keloids; however, high-recurrence rates continue to be reported. Unsuccessful treatment of keloids leads to psychological impact on the patients and increased economic burden. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Currently, there are biological and antineoplastic agents that can potentially treat and prevent excessive scar formation. Some of them have been used as "off label" therapies, and others are still in the experimental phase such as interferon alpha (IFN-?), imiquimod, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1). The use of IFN-?2b showed 18% recurrence rate when applied to postsurgical excised keloids. Imiquimod 5% can lower recurrence rate on postshaved keloids to 37.5% at 6-month and to 0% at a 12-month follow-up period. TGF-?1 oligonucleotides have shown effective and long-lasting inhibition of TGF-?-mediated scarring in vitro as well as in animal models. Daily injections of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-?1 and -?2 have shown successful reductions in scarring. Conclusion Latest discoveries in the use of novel agents suggest therapeutic alternatives for the prevention of recurrences of hypertrophic scars and postexcision keloid lesions. PMID:24527306

Viera, Martha H.; Vivas, Alejandra C.; Berman, Brian

2012-01-01

153

The Meniscus: Review of Basic Principles With Application to Surgery and Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review basic meniscal anatomy, histology, and biomechanical principles as they apply to surgery and rehabilitation. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL for the years 1960–1999 using the terms meniscus, surgery, rehabilitation, meniscal repair, and arthroscopy. Data Synthesis: Injuries to a healthy meniscus are usually produced by a compressive force coupled with transverse-plane tibiofemoral rotation as the knee moves from flexion to extension during rapid cutting or pivoting. The goal of meniscal surgery is to restore a functional meniscus to prevent the development of degenerative osteoarthritis in the involved knee. The goal of rehabilitation is to restore patient function based on individual needs, considering the type of surgical procedure, which meniscus was repaired, the presence of coexisting knee pathology (particularly ligamentous laxity or articular cartilage degeneration), the type of meniscal tear, the patient's age, preoperative knee status (including time between injury and surgery), decreased range of motion or strength, and the patient's athletic expectations and motivations. Progressive weight bearing and joint stress are necessary to enhance the functionality of the meniscal repair; however, excessive shear forces may be disruptive. Prolonged knee immobilization after surgery can result in the rapid development of muscular atrophy and greater delays in functional recovery. Conclusions/Recommendations: Accelerated joint mobility and weight-bearing components of rehabilitation protocols represent the confidence placed in innovative surgical fixation methods. After wound healing, an aquatic therapy environment may be ideal during all phases of rehabilitation after meniscal surgery (regardless of the exact procedure), providing the advantages of controlled weight bearing and mobility progressions. Well-designed, controlled, longitudinal outcome studies for patients who have undergone meniscectomy, meniscal repair, or meniscal reconstruction are lacking. PMID:16558666

Brindle, Timothy; Johnson, Darren L.

2001-01-01

154

Basic Regulatory Principles of Escherichia coli's Electron Transport Chain for Varying Oxygen Conditions  

PubMed Central

For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25268772

Henkel, Sebastian G.; Beek, Alexander Ter; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M. Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

2014-01-01

155

The melting pot of automated discovery: principles for a new science  

E-print Network

The melting pot of automated discovery: principles for a new science Jan M. _Zytkow Computer been made, or the discovery contradicted the accepted beliefs. Machine discoverers are a new class of Sciences zytkow@uncc.edu Abstract. After two decades of research on automated discovery, many principles

Ras, Zbigniew W.

156

PRINCIPLES OF WEED SCIENCE -PLS 4601c INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT PLS 5632c  

E-print Network

1 PRINCIPLES OF WEED SCIENCE - PLS 4601c INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ­ PLS 5632c Department Description: An introduction to the principles of weed science. Lecture topics will include: weed biology and ecology, an introduction to weed management techniques and methodologies, factors affecting weed control

Watson, Craig A.

157

Translating Basic Science into Commercial Opportunities the vitality of thought is in adventure  

E-print Network

Translating Basic Science into Commercial Opportunities the vitality of thought is in adventure #12 by utilizing the vast intellectual and physical resources of Stony Brook University and Brookhaven National universities participate in the translation of basic science into life enhancing technologies. We ask for your

Ge, Qiaode Jeff

158

Asthma: Addressing consistency in results from basic science, clinical trials, and observational experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic science understanding of the pathophysiology of a disease often serves as the basis for clinical investigations. This knowledge is used to propose new directions in care and confirm initial concepts. The basic science of asthma demonstrates that the most comprehensive management of inflammation appears to be associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids and proposes a mechanism for

Joseph Spahn; Ronina Covar; David A. Stempel

2002-01-01

159

Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences Examination as a Predictor of Student Performance during Clinical Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences Examination (BPSE) results with student performance evaluations in core clerkships, institutional and community externships, didactic and clinical courses, and related basic science coursework revealed the BPSE does not predict student performance during clinical instruction. (MSE)

Fassett, William E.; Campbell, William H.

1984-01-01

160

Teachers' Involvement in Implementing the Basic Science and Technology Curriculum of the Nine-Year Basic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated teachers' involvement in implementing the basic science and technology curriculum in primary schools in WSLGA (Warri South Local Government Area) of Delta State. It sought to identify the availability of the document in primary schools and teachers' knowledge of the objectives and activities specified in the curriculum.…

Odili, John Nwanibeze; Ebisine, Sele Sylvester; Ajuar, Helen Nwakaife

2011-01-01

161

Setting the Scene: Basic Rules for a Safer Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six classes, six teachers--just navigating middle school is a voyage of discovery for early adolescents. We offer them a confusing array of choices, many in science. Sometimes it seems we spend too much science class time teaching organization, caution, and control. But these skills--critical to making science experiences exciting and safe--are also important science processes. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreword, Introduction, and References.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2003-01-01

162

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research ...continuity and stability of support. Individual basic...laboratories to defense systems in the field. However...when making investment decisions, both to avoid unintended overlapping of support and to leverage...

2011-07-01

163

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research ...continuity and stability of support. Individual basic...laboratories to defense systems in the field. However...when making investment decisions, both to avoid unintended overlapping of support and to leverage...

2010-07-01

164

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p < 0.05, ?2 = 0.59 between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre-to-post assessment with an effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-08-01

165

Basic principles of flight test instrumentation engineering, volume 1, issue 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 1 of the AG 300 series on 'Flight Test Instrumentation' gives a general introduction to the basic principles of flight test instrumentation. The other volumes in the series provide more detailed treatments of selected topics on flight test instrumentation. Volume 1, first published in 1974, has been used extensively as an introduction for instrumentation courses and symposia, as well as being a reference work on the desk of most flight test and instrumentation engineers. It is hoped that this second edition, fully revised, will be used with as much enthusiasm as the first edition. In this edition a flight test system is considered to include both the data collection and data processing systems. In order to obtain an optimal data flow, the overall design of these two subsystems must be carefully matched; the detail development and the operation may have to be done by separate groups of specialists. The main emphasis is on the large automated instrumentation systems used for the initial flight testing of modern military and civil aircraft. This is done because there, many of the problems, which are discussed here, are more critical. It does not imply, however, that smaller systems with manual data processing are no longer used. In general, the systems should be designed to provide the required results at the lowest possible cost. For many tests which require only a few parameters, relatively simple systems are justified, especially if no complex equipment is available to the user. Although many of the aspects discussed in this volume apply to both small and large systems, aspects of the smaller systems are mentioned only when they are of special interest. The volume has been divided into three main parts. Part 1 defines the main starting points for the design of a flight test instrumentation system, as seen from the points of view of the flight test engineer and the instrumentation engineer. In Part 2 the discussion is concentrated on those aspects which apply to each individual measuring channel, and in Part 3 the main emphasis is on the integration of the individual data channels into one data collection system and on those aspects of the data processing which apply to the complete system.

Borek, Robert W., Sr. (editor); Pool, A. (editor)

1994-01-01

166

[Basic principles of diagnosis and treatment of secondary peritonitis - recommendations of experts with the support of SIS].  

PubMed

Secondary peritonitis is the most common cause of inflammatory acute abdomen treated at general surgery departments. Only early and correct diagnosis may improve the prognosis of these patients. The authors compiled an interdisciplinary review of the basic principles of diagnosis and treatment of secondary peritonitis, which reflects current findings supported by evidence-based medicine. The work is based on published international literature but also shares opinions and experiences of the selected specialists. The presented work in its extent is not meant to substitute an in-depth study of the issue, but to allow a basic and quick review of the topic. PMID:25047975

Gürlich, R; Adámková, V; Ulrych, J; Balík, M; Ferko, A; Havel, E; Jabor, A; Janík, V; Kala, Z; Klementa, I; Kolá?, M; Krška, Z; Kysela, P; Lischke, R; Neoral, C; Vyhnánek, F; Zajak, J; Zbo?il, P; T?eška, V

2014-06-01

167

Systems and Variables. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide is for an elementary school science unit designed for use with third grade (or older) children in the schools of the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation…

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

168

A CAL program to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering—a change from the traditional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. The pro-gram makes extensive use of colour, graphics, and animation and is aimed at A-level students of biology. Students select, from a menu, to investigate one of a number of identified processes involved in the overall production of a protein,

D. G. Dewhurst; A. S. Meehan; A. Williams; D. Woods

1989-01-01

169

Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy  

SciTech Connect

This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

1990-11-01

170

Basic Research: Behavioral and Social Sciences. 1984 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second annual report of the Army Research Institute's (ARI) basic research program. It describes the current focus of the program and the individual research efforts sponsored within each of the four principal thrust areas: ability assessment; instructional technology; cognitive processing limitations; and intelligent systems. In…

Army Research Inst. for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.

171

Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

Schubert, Nancy A.

172

Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation  

E-print Network

Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

2007-01-01

173

Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often…

Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

2011-01-01

174

Potential Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Savings in the Basic Science Building at UTMB  

E-print Network

This report presents the results of a study of the potential energy savings due to optimizing the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) operation schedule in the Basic Science Building at University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB...

Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Claridge, D. E.; Reddy, T. A.; Haberl, J. S.

1993-01-01

175

Guiding Principles for Mathematics and Science Education Research Methods: Report of a Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a brief review of research methods employed in recent studies and proposes a number of guiding principles for designing and evaluating future research proposals in the area of mathematics and science education.

Suter, Larry E.; Frechtling, Joy; Foundation, National S.

176

Basic Science Reasoning and Clinical Reasoning Intertwined: Epistemological Analysis and Consequences for Medical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to emphasize the distinction between basic medical science (and reasoning) and clinical science (and\\u000a reasoning) in order to illuminate some basic philosophical and cognitive issues in medical education. The Kunhian concept\\u000a of exemplar refers to the field of growth of scientific knowledge and in this sense is related to the “anti-theoretical” emphasis\\u000a on problem

Lorenzo Magnani

1997-01-01

177

Medical student culture: Note?taking cooperatives in basic science curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines an aspect of contemporary medical education in the basic sciences—student note?taking cooperatives that produce written versions of faculty lectures. The phenomenon is analyzed in the context of the educational milieu of the basic science years as described in several recently published first?person accounts of medical training. Faculty and student perspectives are delineated along with relevant research findings.

Dorthea Juul

1992-01-01

178

Setting Priorities for Basic Brain & Behavioral Science at NIMH Final Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup  

E-print Network

#12;Setting Priorities for Basic Brain & Behavioral Science at NIMH Final Report of the National within the Division of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science. Within the division, three branches be dysregulated in psychiatric disease. The Basic Behavioral Science branch supports research that delineates

Baker, Chris I.

179

Grant Title: TRANSLATING BASIC BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCOVERIES INTO INTERVENTIONS TO IMPROVE HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIORS (R01)  

E-print Network

Grant Title: TRANSLATING BASIC BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCOVERIES INTO INTERVENTIONS of Research: Support interdisciplinary teams of basic and applied biological, behavioral and/or social science discoveries in basic behavioral and/or social science research by developing and refining novel health

Farritor, Shane

180

BASICS  

E-print Network

BASICS (Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention of College Students) is a selective or indicated alcohol abuse prevention program for college students. Program Targets BASICS is aimed at college students 18-24 years old who drink alcohol heavily and have experienced or are at risk for alcohol-related problems such as academic failure, social conflicts, accidents, sexual assault, or violence. The program was not designed to treat alcohol dependence and is unlikely to resolve the disorders of students who are severely alcohol dependent, but can be used for those students in a stepped-care model that provides them with a comprehensive assessment, feedback, advice and referral to specialty care. Program Content BASICS is conducted over the course of two structured interviews and is delivered using motivational interviewing, a counseling modality that is empathetic and accepting rather than confrontational or judgmental. Before or after the first interview, the student completes a self-report questionnaire usually online. From the questionnaire and the assessment interview, information is gathered about the student’s: 1) typical alcohol consumption and peak drinking episodes, 2) beliefs about the drinking habits of other college students 3) number and type of alcohol-related negative consequences, 4) indices of alcohol dependence, 5) family history of alcohol problems, 6) alcohol outcome expectancies, and 7) perceived level of risk for developing a drinking problem. The second interview, which occurs 1-2 weeks after the initial interview, provides the student with personalized feedback about each piece of information gathered in the assessment session. Feedback to the student is accompanied by challenges to myths about alcohol’s effects, ways to reduce future risks associated with alcohol use, a menu of options to assist in making changes and may also include stepped-care options such as a follow-up session or referral to on or off campus mental health and substance abuse treatment services. www.colorado.edu/cspv

unknown authors

181

Teaching the New Basic Skills. Principles for Educating Children To Thrive in a Changing Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book proposes restructuring the education system using the principles and practices used by successful businesses during the past 15 years of rapid change. It suggests that the skills taught by schools today, even if test scores measure them as improving, are not sufficient for high school graduates in an increasingly-changing, challenging…

Murnane, Richard J.; Levy, Frank

182

First Place, Basic Science Research Mario A. Sheilds, MPhil  

E-print Network

: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study Second Place, Clinical Science Research Maintenance of High Physical Activity Levels Over 20 Years and Changes in Body Mass Index Among Young Adults Factor Prevalence, Awareness, and Control: Findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young

Chisholm, Rex L.

183

Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

2006-01-01

184

Basic and Translational Science Effect of Combined Locally  

E-print Network

appear to increase the number of microcanals. UROLOGY 79: 967.e1­967.e4, 2012. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. I n of Urology, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Experimental Thera- peutics, Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City: Moshe Wald, M.D., Department of Urology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, 3 RCP, Iowa City, IA

Salem, Aliasger K.

185

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

resources ­ Computing centers ­ Facilities ­ Major instruments (e.g. LHC) · Fundamental to the conduct to security incidents ­ Relatively low bandwidth (100s of Mbps) unless there are a lot of users and Science Networks #12;· "Soft Failures" are network problems that don't result in total loss

186

Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries  

PubMed Central

Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

2011-01-01

187

BASIC SCIENCE EDUCATION IN PAKISTANI MEDICAL CURRICULA: ROLE OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan, the traditional science-oriented MBBS curriculum pertaining to basic sciences up to early seventies was loaded with the teaching of anatomy and physiology with less emphasis on biochemis- try and molecular biology. Although, there has been a significant change since then, yet the role of cell and molecular biology in the curriculum has remained less than desirable. With the

M. Perwaiz Iqbal

188

Selecting Students for Medical School: What Predicts Success during Basic Science Studies? A Cognitive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study with 503 applicants to the University of Helsinki (Finland) medical school compared the predictive validity of multiple-choice science tests and a "learning-from-text" test (LFT) designed to measure deep-level text processing. Results indicated the LFT was the best predictor of student academic progress in basic science courses. (MSE)

Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; And Others

1996-01-01

189

Basics of Inertial Confinement Fusion NIF and Photon Science Directorate Chief Scientist  

E-print Network

Basics of Inertial Confinement Fusion John Lindl NIF and Photon Science Directorate Chief Scientist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy - Boston #12;#12;Outline · The challenge of Inertial Confinement Fusion · Development of the science basis

190

Tumor immunology: multidisciplinary science driving basic and clinical advances.  

PubMed

The fourth AACR Special Conference "Tumor Immunology: Basic and Clinical Advances" was held in Miami, FL in December 2012. The overall objective of this meeting was to discuss emerging concepts in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. The key findings that emerged from this meeting included: (i) multiple immune checkpoints should be inhibited to increase effective T-cell therapy, (ii) successful adoptive T-cell therapy will rely on obtaining the proper T-cell phenotype, (iii) chimeric antigen receptors have shown promise in treating some B-cell malignancies, and (iv) multiple pathways of inflammation within the tumor microenvironment are immunotherapy targets. PMID:24409447

Keenan, Bridget P; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Armstrong, Todd D

2013-07-01

191

What are Groups About? Basic Principles of Group Work for Health-Related Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines basic group processes such as norms, roles, social support, and the developmental phases of a group, and applies them to physical activity groups. Three kinds of groups are differentiated: (1) on-the-spot information; (2) physical activity; (3) interactive promotional groups. Interactive promotional groups help people adopt health-related…

Toropainen, Erja; Rinne, Marjo

1998-01-01

192

Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Research Under Controlled Conditions: Basic Principles and Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern agriculture, use of essential plant nutrients in adequate amounts and proper balance is one of the key components in increasing crop yields. Further, in developing crop production technologies, research work under field and controlled conditions is necessary to generate basic and applied information. In addition, research is very dynamic and complex due to variation in climatic, soil, and

N. K. Fageria

2005-01-01

193

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-01-01

194

DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). The goal of the Material Sciences projects is to study the structural, optical, electrical, and defect properties of semiconductors and related materials using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Specific projects involving PV include: ordering in III-V semiconductors, isoelectronic co-doping, doping bottlenecks in semiconductors, solid-state theory, and computational science. The goal of the Chemical Sciences projects is to advance the fundamental understanding of the relevant science involving materials, photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, nanoscale chemistry, and catalysis that support solar photochemical conversion technologies. Specific projects relating to PV include: dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, semiconductor nanostructures, and molecular semiconductors. This presentation will give an overview of some of the major accomplishments of these projects.

Deb, S. K.

2005-01-01

195

Moral Principles and the Life Sciences: Choices about Moral Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, more than at any other time in human history, biologists are or should be concerned about the morality of biological research and newly developed technologies. Two questions confront any scientist or science student concerned about morality and the life sciences. Is there some theoretical framework that might be used to assist in deciding…

Johnson, David; Brett, William

2005-01-01

196

The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; encyclopedias and reference books; environment and conservation; fiction; general science; life sciences; marine life; mathematics and computer science; medical and health sciences; physics and chemistry; plant…

Richter, Bernice; Wenzel, Duane

197

Design Principles for Creating Locally-Rooted National Science and Mathematics Curricula in Timor-Leste  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper articulates and illustrates design principles that guided the development of a set of hands-on teaching activities for the national science and mathematics curricula at junior-high and high-school level education in Timor-Leste, a small, low-income nation in Southeast Asia. A partnership between a university, an international science

Gabrielson, Curtis A.; Hsi, Sherry

2012-01-01

198

How WebQuests Can Enhance Science Learning Principles in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic…

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

2012-01-01

199

Science Curricula Design: Analysis of Authors' Ideological and Pedagogical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the Official Pedagogic Discourse of the curriculum for Portuguese middle schools contains the ideological and pedagogical principles of its authors. The research is epistemologically and sociologically grounded, placing particular emphasis on Bernstein theory of…

Ferreira, Silvia; Morais, Ana M.; Neves, Isabel P.

2011-01-01

200

Translating molecular medicine into clinical tools: doomed to fail by neglecting basic preanalytical principles  

PubMed Central

This commentary discusses a study on measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in serum of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients recently published in Journal of Molecular Medicine. This study can be considered the typical "obstacle" to effective translational medicine as previously documented in JTM journal. Although serum has been frequently proven as inappropriate sample for determining numerous circulating MMPs, among them MMP-9, there are over and over again studies, as in this case, that measure MMP-9 in serum. Comparative measurements in serum and plasma samples demonstrated higher concentrations for MMP-9 in serum due to the additional release from leukocytes and platelets following the coagulation/fibrinolysis process. From this example it can be concluded that translating basic research discoveries into clinical tools needs a more intensive exchange between basic biomedical research and clinical scientists already in an early stage. Otherwise a lost of translation, as discussed in JTM journal, seems to be inevitable. PMID:19828023

Jung, Klaus; Mannello, Ferdinando; Lein, Michael

2009-01-01

201

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology and Laboratory Science: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology provides students with the basic laboratory skills and knowledge to pursue a career in biotechnology. The manual, written by four biotechnology instructors with over 20 years of teaching experience, incorporates instruction, exercises, and laboratory activities that the authors have been using and perfecting for years. These exercises and activities serve to engage students and help them understand the fundamentals of working in a biotechnology laboratory. Building students' skills through an organized and systematic presentation of materials, procedures, and tasks, the manual will help students explore overarching themes that relate to all biotechnology workplaces. The fundamentals in this manual are critical to the success of research scientists, scientists who develop ideas into practical products, laboratory analysts who analyze samples in forensic, clinical, quality control, environmental, and other testing laboratories.

Brandner, Diana; Kraus, Mary E.; Mowery, Jeanette; Seidman, Lisa A.

2012-03-19

202

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic\\u000a electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers’ understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional\\u000a inquiry oriented investigation of the same

Janice Anderson; Michael Barnett

2011-01-01

203

The operating regimes and basic control principles of SNPS Topaz''. [Cs  

SciTech Connect

The basic operating regimes of space nuclear power system (SNPS) Topaz'' are considered. These regimes include: prelaunch preparation and launch into working orbit, SNPS start-up to obtain desired electric power, nominal regime, SNPS shutdown. The main requirements for SNPS at different regimes are given, and the control algorithms providing these requirements are described. The control algorithms were chosen on the basis of theoretical studies and ground power tests of the SNPS prototypes. Topaz'' successful ground and flight tests allow to conclude that for SNPS of this type control algorithm providing required thermal state of cesium vapor supply system and excluding any possibility of discharge processes in current conducting elements is the most expedient at the start-up regime. At the nominal regime required electric power should be provided by maintenance of reactor current and fast-acting voltage regulator utilization. The limitation of the outlet coolant temperature should be foreseen also.

Makarov, A.N.; Volberg, M.S.; Grayznov, G.M.; Zhabotinsky, E.E.; Serbin, V.I. (Scientific Production Unification Krasnaya Zvezda'' USSR, Moscow 115230 (SU))

1991-01-05

204

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION ECEV (0404B)  

E-print Network

Advanced Program (27 cr.) _______ SB 1 st Behavioral & Social Science Elective _______ SB 2 nd SB / IE of Ecology 3 BIOM301 Introduction to Biometrics OR 3 BSCI370 Principles of Evolution STAT400 Applied Cr Sem Gr Cr 4 BSCI330 Cell Biol. & Physiology w/Lab1 3 BSCI465 Behavioral Ecology 3 BSCI334

Gruner, Daniel S.

205

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION ECEV (0404B)  

E-print Network

Advanced Program (27 cr.) _______ SB 1 st Behavioral & Social Science Elective _______ SB 2 nd SB / IE of Ecology 3 BIOM301 Introduction to Biometrics OR 3 BSCI370 Principles of Evolution STAT400 Applied Cr Sem Gr Cr 4 BSCI330 Cell Biol. & Physiology w/Lab 3 BSCI465 Behavioral Ecology 3 BSCI334 Mammalogy

Gruner, Daniel S.

206

Principles versus Artifacts in Computer Science Curriculum Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer Science is a subject which has difficulty in marketing itself. Further, pinning down a standard curriculum is difficult--there are many preferences which are hard to accommodate. This paper argues the case that part of the problem is the fact that, unlike more established disciplines, the subject does not clearly distinguish the study of…

Machanick, Philip

2003-01-01

207

Collins Advanced Modular Sciences: Particles, Principles and Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is one of the series written to support the Northern Modular Science Scheme. The Physics Core book in the same series was reviewed by Jonathan Allday in the June 1996 issue of this journal, and his remarks about layout and overall approach apply equally here. Roughly speaking, the first half of the book relates to module Ph6 Particle

E Swinbank

1997-01-01

208

Lost in Translation—Basic Science in the Era of Translational Research ?  

PubMed Central

The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges. PMID:20038540

Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-01-01

209

Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles.  

PubMed

A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual's commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person's own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain's default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory consolidation. PMID:23874312

Klinger, Eric

2013-01-01

210

Implications of computer science principles for quantum physics  

E-print Network

The Church-Turing thesis is one of the pillars of computer science; it postulates that every classical system has equivalent computability power to the so-called Turing machine. While this thesis is crucial for our understanding of computing devices, its implications in other scientific fields have hardly been explored. Here we start this research programme in the context of quantum physics and show that computer science laws have profound implications for some of the most fundamental results of the theory. We first show how they question our knowledge on what a mixed quantum state is, as we identify situations in which ensembles of quantum states defining the same mixed state, indistinguishable according to the quantum postulates, do become distinguishable when prepared by a computer. We also show a new loophole for Bell-like experiments: if some of the parties in a Bell-like experiment use a computer to decide which measurements to make, then the computational resources of an eavesdropper have to be limited in order to have a proper observation of non-locality. Our work opens a new direction in the search for a framework unifying computer science and quantum physics.

Ariel Bendersky; Gonzalo de la Torre; Gabriel Senno; Santiago Figueira; Antonio Acin

2014-07-02

211

Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

2014-08-01

212

Science and public health principles used to reduce road deaths.  

PubMed

An editorial in a previous issue of this journal falsely claims that the US government's efforts to reduce road fatalities are not based on science. It says that, as a result, the United States has fallen behind other countries in road death prevention. A large body of research and evaluation informed federal and state safety programs from the outset. Evans's comparisons of death trends among countries without adjustment for changes in relevant risk factors or specification of the injury reduction policies among the countries tell us nothing about the causes of the declines or the effects of specific ameliorative efforts. PMID:25320900

Robertson, Leon S

2014-12-01

213

An Analysis of Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Achievement, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Cognitive Structure Outcomes After Learning Basic Atomic Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the interrelationships between students' general science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs, and cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

Tsai, Chin-Chung

1998-01-01

214

Long-Term Retention of Basic Science Knowledge: A Review Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently,…

Custers, Eugene J. F. M.

2010-01-01

215

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2013-01-01

216

The double macchiato years; awards for the best basic science and epidemiology papers in 2012.  

PubMed

It's increasingly difficult to get published in Thorax so we commend all those who managed it in 2012; and salute all those who tried and failed. We think that comparisons are invidious but our chief editors, with all their schoolboy charm, disagree so here are our awards for the best basic science and epidemiological manuscripts in the year of the London Olympics. PMID:23842817

Cullinan, Paul; Lloyd, Clare

2013-08-01

217

Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

Croen, Lila G.; And Others

1986-01-01

218

Basic Sciences Thrombin Mutant W215A/E217A Treatment Improves  

E-print Network

Basic Sciences Thrombin Mutant W215A/E217A Treatment Improves Neurological Outcome and Reduces thrombin mutant W215A/E217A (WE) is antithrombotic without hemostasis impairment in primates. Therefore, we for stroke treatment. (Stroke. 2011;42:1736-1741.) Key Words: antithrombotics ischemic stroke thrombin

Di Cera, Enrico

219

Research and Education in Basic Space Science The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency is holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countries of Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka),

Cynthia P. Celebre B; Khalil Chamcham C (morocco; H. S. Padmasiri De; Alwis D (sri Lanka; Alexis E. Troche

2000-01-01

220

Exploring Magnetism: Bringing The Sun-Earth Connection into the Classroom via Basic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E\\/PO programs of NASA missions often face the challenge of making complex science investigations relevant for the classroom. Magnetism is one of the basic topics taught in classrooms throughout the nation. It also has profound importance within a great variety of astrophysical systems. We have used the topic of magnetism to form the basis of a series of teacher's

B. J. Mendez; L. Peticolas; N. Craig; G. Holman

2005-01-01

221

The Department of Energy: Some Aspects of Basic Research in the Chemical Sciences, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the second of a two-part report requested by the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, with the primary purpose of assisting program and administrative officers of OBES in examining present and future plans for orienting and expa...

1981-01-01

222

Aligning library instruction with the needs of basic sciences graduate students: a case study  

PubMed Central

Question: How can an existing library instruction program be reconfigured to reach basic sciences graduate students and other patrons missed by curriculum-based instruction? Setting: The setting is an academic health sciences library that serves both the university and its affiliated teaching hospital. Methods: The existing program was redesigned to incorporate a series of seven workshops that encompassed the range of information literacy skills that graduate students in the basic sciences need. In developing the new model, the teaching librarians made changes in pedagogy, technology, marketing, and assessment strategies. Results: Total attendance at the sessions increased substantially in the first 2 years of the new model, increasing from an average of 20 per semester to an average of 124. Survey results provided insight about what patrons wanted to learn and how best to teach it. Conclusion: Modifying the program's content and structure resulted in a program that appealed to the target audience. PMID:23133328

O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

2012-01-01

223

PLS 3004C: Principles of Plant Science Credit: 3 Credit Hours  

E-print Network

) and interpret how they affect plant production. 3) Collect, analyze and interpret data related to plant growth and development. 4) Formulate hypotheses about the processes that impact plant growth and develop and proposePLS 3004C: Principles of Plant Science Credit: 3 Credit Hours Meeting Times: Tuesday 4, Thursdays 3

Watson, Craig A.

224

Lancaster University Faculty of Science and Technology The core principles of academic probationary agreements  

E-print Network

Lancaster University Faculty of Science and Technology The core principles of academic probationary the probationary period. 3. Probationers should be expected to show evidence of impact but the nature of that can All probationary agreements should be submitted within one month of commencement of employment

Meju, Max

225

Cognitive Science 26 (2002) 303343 A simplicity principle in unsupervised human  

E-print Network

Confronted with an unfamiliar sensory scene, such as a novel computer game, or material viewedCognitive Science 26 (2002) 303­343 A simplicity principle in unsupervised human categorization. These features of the simplicity model distinguish it from other models in unsupervised categorization (where

Chater, Nick

226

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments  

E-print Network

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications Available online 6 June 2006 Abstract Osmosis is a physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied of osmosis through natural materials, and from the 1960s, special attention has been given to osmosis through

227

A Structured Teaching Approach of a Science Principle Using a Programed-Instruction Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study that compares the achievement of seventh-, eighth-, and ninth-grade subjects who are presented a science principle with an instruction sequence of two programed-instruction films and two review booklets. Studied was the ability of students to (1) exclude irrelevant variables, (2) study rule learning given the opportunity to…

Adelman, Adrien, Jr.

228

Meaty Principles for Environmental Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that educated persons should be exposed to a body of conceptual knowledge which includes basic principles of the biological and physical sciences. Practical examples involving force, sound, light, waves, and density of water are cited. A lesson on animal tracks using principles of force and pressure is also described. (DH)

Rockcastle, V. N.

1985-01-01

229

Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes: from basic science to clinical therapy  

PubMed Central

New appreciation of the adaptive capabilities of the nervous system, recent recognition that most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, and progress in enabling regeneration are generating growing interest in novel rehabilitation therapies. Here we review the 35-year evolution of one promising new approach, operant conditioning of spinal reflexes. This work began in the late 1970’s as basic science; its purpose was to develop and exploit a uniquely accessible model for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple behavior in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The model was developed first in monkeys and then in rats, mice, and humans. Studies with it showed that the ostensibly simple behavior (i.e., a larger or smaller reflex) rests on a complex hierarchy of brain and spinal cord plasticity; and current investigations are delineating this plasticity and its interactions with the plasticity that supports other behaviors. In the last decade, the possible therapeutic uses of reflex conditioning have come under study, first in rats and then in humans. The initial results are very exciting, and they are spurring further studies. At the same time, the original basic science purpose and the new clinical purpose are enabling and illuminating each other in unexpected ways. The long course and current state of this work illustrate the practical importance of basic research and the valuable synergy that can develop between basic science questions and clinical needs. PMID:24672441

Thompson, Aiko K.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

2014-01-01

230

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag DisordersAn American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: This the first of two articles reviewing the scientific literature on the evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs), employing the methodology of evidence-based medicine. In this first part of this paper, the general principles of circadian biology that underlie clinical evaluation and treatment are reviewed. We then report on the accumulated evidence regarding the evaluation and treatment of shift work disorder (SWD) and jet lag disorder (JLD). Methods: A set of specific questions relevant to clinical practice were formulated, a systematic literature search was performed, and relevant articles were abstracted and graded. Results: A substantial body of literature has accumulated that provides a rational basis the evaluation and treatment of SWD and JLD. Physiological assessment has involved determination of circadian phase using core body temperature and the timing of melatonin secretion. Behavioral assessment has involved sleep logs, actigraphy and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Treatment interventions fall into three broad categories: 1) prescribed sleep scheduling, 2) circadian phase shifting (“resetting the clock”), and 3) symptomatic treatment using hypnotic and stimulant medications. Conclusion: Circadian rhythm science has also pointed the way to rational interventions for the SWD and JLD, and these treatments have been introduced into the practice of sleep medicine with varying degrees of success. More translational research is needed using subjects who meet current diagnostic criteria. Citation: Sack RL; Auckley D; Auger RR; Carskadon MA; Wright KP; Vitiello MV; Zhdanova IV. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: Part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1460-1483. PMID:18041480

Sack, Robert L; Auckley, Dennis; Auger, R. Robert; Carskadon, Mary A.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

2007-01-01

231

Exploring Magnetism: Bringing The Sun-Earth Connection into the Classroom via Basic Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The E/PO programs of NASA missions often face the challenge of making complex science investigations relevant for the classroom. Magnetism is one of the basic topics taught in classrooms throughout the nation. It also has profound importance within a great variety of astrophysical systems. We have used the topic of magnetism to form the basis of a series of teacher's lesson guides that connect the basic science concepts to the more complex systems being studied by scientists today. These guides use hands-on, inquiry based activities to teach concepts of magnetism for students of grades 6-9. The primary guide, Exploring Magnetism, examines the fundamental properties of magnetism and electromagnetism. Supplemental guides teach about current NASA investigations by connecting the basic science to the science being studied by these space missions. Currently, there are two supplemental guides: Exploring Magnetism in the Solar Wind, which explores how the STEREO mission uses a spacecraft boom to measure the magnetic field of the solar wind free from contamination of the spacecraft itself; and Exploring Magnetism in Solar Flares, which uses RHESSI observations to demonstrate how rapidly changing magnetic fields can unleash enormous amounts of energy.

Mendez, B. J.; Peticolas, L.; Craig, N.; Holman, G.

2005-05-01

232

Magnetoencephalography: Basic principles  

PubMed Central

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic field generated by the electrical activity of neurons. It is usually combined with a magnetic resonance imaging to get what is called magnetic source imaging. The technology that has helped record these minute magnetic fields is super-conducting quantum interference detector which is like a highly sensitive magnetic field meter. To attenuate the external magnetic noise the MEG is housed inside a magnetically shielded room. The actual sensors recording magnetic fields are magnetometers and/or gradiometers. MEG fields pass through the head without any distortion. This is a significant advantage of MEG over electroencephalography. MEG provides a high spatial and temporal resolution. The recording and identification information should be according to the American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society guidelines published in 2011. MEG currently has two approved indications in the United States, one is for pre-operative brain mapping and the other is for use in epilepsy surgery. MEG studies have shown functional brain tissue inside brain tumors. PMID:24791076

Singh, Sanjay P.

2014-01-01

233

Basic Economic Principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

Tideman, T. N.

1972-01-01

234

Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

Rusli, Aloysius

2012-06-01

235

Meeting report: "Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back"  

PubMed Central

In March, 2012 we held the first Mideast conference on “Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back”, at the University of Amman, Jordan. This event brought together both clinical and basic scientists with expertise in depression and anxiety spectrum disorders. The meeting took place in a large lecture hall at the University of Jordan Medical School. The audience included faculty, residents, and students. The Dean of the Medical School opened the meeting, welcoming the guest speakers and participants. PMID:23497694

2013-01-01

236

Ion-exchange chromatography: basic principles and application to the partial purification of soluble mammalian prolyl oligopeptidase.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions. By way of further illustration, we outline protocols necessary to partially purify a serine peptidase from bovine whole brain cytosolic fraction, covering crude tissue extract preparation through to partial purification of the target enzyme using anion-exchange chromatography. Protocols for assaying total protein and enzyme activity in both pre- and post-IEC fractions are also described. The target serine peptidase, prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC3.4.21.26), is an 80-kDa enzyme with endopeptidase activity towards peptide substrates of ?30 amino acids. POP is a ubiquitous post-proline cleaving enzyme with particularly high expression levels in the mammalian brain, where it participates in the metabolism of neuroactive peptides and peptide-like hormones (e.g. thyroliberin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone). PMID:20978968

Cummins, Philip M; Dowling, Oonagh; O'Connor, Brendan F

2011-01-01

237

Basic science curriculums in nuclear cardiology and cardiovascular imaging: evolving and emerging concepts.  

PubMed

The teaching of basic science with regard to physics, instrumentation, and radiation safety has been part of nuclear cardiology training since its inception. Although there are clear educational and quality rationale for such, regulations associated with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Subpart J of old 10 CFR section 35 (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 35) from the 1960s mandated such prescriptive instruction. Cardiovascular fellowship training programs now have a new opportunity to rethink their basic science imaging curriculums with the era of "revised 10 CFR section 35" and the growing implementation of multimodality imaging training and expertise. This review focuses on the history and the why, what, and how of such a curriculum arising in one city and suggests examples of future implementation in other locations. PMID:18674726

Van Decker, William A; Villafana, Theodore

2008-01-01

238

Long-term retention of basic science knowledge: a review study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention\\u000a of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are\\u000a employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently, first the results of\\u000a retention studies in

Eugène J. F. M. Custers

2010-01-01

239

Basic science in Parkinson’s disease: its impact on clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failures in clinical studies that were aimed to prove disease-modifying effects of treatments in Parkinson’s disease (PD)\\u000a raise the question as to whether basic sciences have had an impact in clinical practice. This question implies that despite\\u000a well-publicized results obtained by intensive genetic and pathogenetic research, e.g. the identification of mutations and\\u000a cellular biochemical pathways that underlie Parkinson-specific neurodegeneration, no

Jörg B. Schulz; Manfred Gerlach; Gabriele Gille; Wilfried Kuhn; Martina Müngersdorf; Peter Riederer; Martin Südmeyer; Albert Ludolph

2011-01-01

240

Basic science curriculums in nuclear cardiology and cardiovascular imaging: Evolving and emerging concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The teaching of basic science with regard to physics, instrumentation, and radiation safety has been part of nuclear cardiology\\u000a training since its inception. Although there are clear educational and quality rationale for such, regulations associated\\u000a with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Subpart J of old 10 CFR §35 (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 35) from the\\u000a 1960s mandated such

William A. Van Decker; Theodore Villafana

2008-01-01

241

MINIMAL POINTS, VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES, AND VARIABLE ...  

E-print Network

Basic principles, methods, and results of variational analysis are crucial in many ... was partially supported by the USA National Science Foundation under .... Next we recall the concept of Pareto efficiency, which can be formulated in terms of a.

2014-04-21

242

General medicine and surgery for dental practitioners: part 2. Medical emergencies in dental practice: the drug box, equipment and basic principles of management.  

PubMed

Dental practitioners need knowledge of the diagnosis and management of medical emergencies. This paper deals with the general aspects of emergency treatment including basic management principles which are applicable to all emergencies. The next paper in this series, part 3, deals with more specific aspects of medical emergency management. PMID:24923938

Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G

2014-06-13

243

A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE`s two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document.

Not Available

1993-09-01

244

Integrating Basic Analytical Methods and Computer-Interface Technology into an Environmental Science Water Quality Lab Improves Student Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate if integrating basic analytical methods and computer interface technology would result in a positive change in student attitude. Students' self-concept of science knowledge and skills (Capability), opinion towards science (Affect), and perceptions of the value of science (Value) were determined with…

Carvalho-Knighton, Kathleen M.; Smoak, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

245

The understanding levels of preservice teachers’ of basic science concepts’ measurement units and devices, their misconceptions and its causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study it is aimed to determine preservice science teachers’ and elementary teachers’ level of understanding about measurement units, and devices; and misconceptions about basic science concepts (mass, weight, density, heat, temperature, energy, specific heat etc.). The sample included 92 undergraduate students who are second year preservice elementary teacher; and first and second year elementary science teacher. In this

Özgül Keles; Hülya Ertas; Naim Uzun; Mustafa Cansiz

2010-01-01

246

Metallurgical principles of cryogenically treated tool steels—a review on the current state of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic treatment of tool steels has transformed over centuries from black art to science, but the metallurgical principles\\u000a responsible for increase in wear resistance, tensile strength, toughness, and stability are still disputed. Metallurgists\\u000a comprehend how tool steels respond to cryogenic treatment, but they also understand that for many years, the cryogenic treatment\\u000a of tool steels had the reputation of

Simranpreet Singh Gill; Jagdev Singh; Rupinder Singh; Harpreet Singh

2011-01-01

247

Guiding Principles for Mathematics and Science Education Research Methods: Report of a Workshop  

NSF Publications Database

The purpose of this report is to present a brief review of research methods employed in recent studies and to propose, for discussion purposes, a number of guiding principles for designing research studies and evaluating research proposals in the area of mathematics and science education. As the brief review of research funded by REC in the past few years showed, education research studies follow a wide variety of philosophical and research paradigms.

248

Using Basic Principles To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Henderson Hasselbalch equation calculates the equilibrium distribution of 50:50 for nicotine in its nonprotonated (free base form), relative to its monoprotonated form, at pH of 8 in dilute aqueous solution. This ratio has then been used in the literature to predict the effect of ammonia compounds in tobacco and in smoke on nicotine pyrolysis and smoke chemistry. Experiments demonstrate that neither the thermal chemistry of tobacco alkaloids nor the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke can be explained by the position of the nonprotonated versus monoprotonated form equilibrium in aqueous extracts of tobacco. The high thermal stability of nicotine in air allows nicotine salts to be converted to nonprotonated nicotine and volatilize during heating prior to any substantial decomposition of the nicotine moiety. In contrast, cocaine hydrochloride is thermally unstable and will rapidly decompose upon heating; cocaine hydrochloride must first be converted to its nonprotonated form prior to heating and volatilization.

Seeman, Jeffrey I.

2005-10-01

249

The impact of whole-plant instruction of preservice teachers' understanding of plant science principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to determine how an inquiry-based, whole-plant instructional strategy would affect preservice elementary teachers' understanding of plant science principles. This study probed: what preservice teachers know about plant biology concepts before and after instruction, their views of the interrelatedness of plant parts and the environment, how growing a plant affects preservice teachers' understanding, and which types of activity-rich plant themes studies, if any, affect preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The participants in the study were enrolled in two elementary science methods class sections at a state university. Each group was administered a preinstructional test at the beginning of the study. The treatment group participated in inquiry-based activities related to the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001), while the comparison group studied those same concepts through traditional instructional methods. A focus group was formed from the treatment group to participate in co-concept mapping sessions. The participants' understandings were assessed through artifacts from activities, a comparison of pre- and postinstructional tests, and the concept maps generated by the focus group. Results of the research indicated that the whole-plant, inquiry-based instructional strategy can be applied to teach preservice elementary teachers plant biology while modeling the human constructivist approach. The results further indicated that this approach enhanced their understanding of plant science content knowledge, as well as pedagogical knowledge. The results also showed that a whole-plant approach to teaching plant science concepts is an instructional strategy that is feasible for the elementary school. The theoretical framework for this study was Human Constructivist learning theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998). The content knowledge and instructional strategy was informed by the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001) and Botany for the Next Millennium (Botanical Society of America, 1995). As a result of this study, a better understanding of the factors that influence preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of plant science principles may benefit elementary science educator in preparing teachers that are "highly qualified."

Hypolite, Christine Collins

250

Archive of Second House Science Basic Research Subcommittee Hearing on Domain Names: September 30, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Democracy.Net, a joint project of the Center for Democracy and Technology and the Voters Telecommunications Watch, is providing coverage of two hearings before the US House Science Committee on Basic Research dealing with the Domain Name System, its current status, and future direction. The first hearing took place September 25, 1997 and the second takes place September 30. Witnesses are: Dr. Joseph Bordogna, National Science Foundation; Larry Irving, Assistant Secretary for Communication and Information, US Department of Commerce; Dr. Jonathan Postel, Director, Computer Networks Division; and Gabriel Battista, Network Solutions, Inc. The site is highlighted by RealPlayer coverage of the Hearings, selected written statements of the participants, photos, and background information.

Research., United S.

1997-01-01

251

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

252

Polymer fibre composites, basic types, principles of fabrication, and properties. Part 3. Basic types of polymer fibre composites, properties, and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic types of polymer composite materials (PCMM) made from different kinds of reinforcing fibre fillers: short-cut fibres,\\u000a paper, yarns, tow, sliver, fabrics, and nonwovens, and their properties and use are examined. Information on the fabrication\\u000a and properties of the different kinds of composites are reported: extruded fibre plastics, getinaxes, textolites, unidirectional\\u000a composites, honeycomb plastics, and others. New kinds of

K. E. Perepelkin

2006-01-01

253

Using WebCt to Implement a Basic Science Competency Education Course  

PubMed Central

Objective To implement a model of competency-based education in a basic science competency course using WebCT to improve doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' understanding and long-term retention of course materials. Methods An anatomy-cell biology course was broken down into 23 modules, and worksheets and mirrored examinations were created for each module. Students were allowed to take the proctored examinations using WebCT as many times as they wanted, with each subsequent test containing a new random subset of questions. Examination scores and the number of attempts required to obtain a passing score were analyzed. Results Student performance improved with the number of times a module examination was taken. Students who initially had low scores achieved final competency levels similar to those of students who initially had high scores. Score on module scores (didactic work) correlated with scores on practical work Conclusions Using WebCT to implement a model of competency-based education was effective in teaching foundational anatomy and cell biology to pharmacy students and could potentially be applied to other basic science courses. PMID:18483605

Gaasch, Julie A.; Borges, Karin; Ehlo, Alan; Smith, Quentin R.

2008-01-01

254

Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science  

SciTech Connect

On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

Logan, B.G.

1994-07-15

255

An elective course on the basic and clinical sciences aspects of vitamins and minerals.  

PubMed

Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students' knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products. PMID:23463149

Islam, Mohammed A

2013-02-12

256

The recommended food-buying principles of consumer educators: a behavioral science assessment of their feasibility for older consumers.  

PubMed

A content analysis recently identified twenty food-buying principles as the most commonly cited in consumer education textbooks of the 1980s. This study examines the behavior science literature in an effort to assess the ability of older consumers to practice these principles in American supermarkets. The study identifies three types of principles differing in the consumer behaviors they recommend as well as the nature and strength of the support they receive in the behavioral science literature. Implications of the study findings are drawn for gerontological research and educational practice. PMID:2391632

Friedman, M

1990-01-01

257

Opportunities for early intervention based on theory, basic neuroscience, and clinical science.  

PubMed

Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the "goal" of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented, along with theoretical principles, neuroscience, and other tissue science data concerning mechanisms that contribute to behavioral changes. One such opportunity is to increase the structured engagement of caregivers, guided by therapists, in administering well-defined activity intervention programs focused on the development of specific functional skills. Such an approach may be one of the few financially feasible options for generating sufficient therapy that adheres to principles for optimizing development of neuromotor control. PMID:20966210

Ulrich, Beverly D

2010-12-01

258

Opportunities for Early Intervention Based on Theory, Basic Neuroscience, and Clinical Science  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the “goal” of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented, along with theoretical principles, neuroscience, and other tissue science data concerning mechanisms that contribute to behavioral changes. One such opportunity is to increase the structured engagement of caregivers, guided by therapists, in administering well-defined activity intervention programs focused on the development of specific functional skills. Such an approach may be one of the few financially feasible options for generating sufficient therapy that adheres to principles for optimizing development of neuromotor control. PMID:20966210

2010-01-01

259

Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.  

PubMed

As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base. PMID:23740911

Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

2013-06-01

260

Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science  

SciTech Connect

Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

Bodnarczuk, M.

1993-03-01

261

Higher temperature reactor materials workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 18-21, 2002, the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop to identify needs and opportunities for materials research aimed at performance improvements of structural materials in higher temperature reactors. The workshop focused discussion around the reactor concepts proposed as part of the Generation

T. Allen; S. Bruemmer; M. Kassner; R. Odette; R. Stoller; W. Wolfer; S. Zinkle; J. Elmer; A. Motta

2002-01-01

262

The Anna Karenina principle: A mechanism for the explanation of success in science  

E-print Network

The first sentence of Leo Tolstoy's novel Anna Karenina is: "Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way". Here Tolstoy means that for a family to be happy, several key aspects must be given (such as good health of all family members, acceptable financial security, and mutual affection). If there is a deficiency in any one or more of these key aspects, the family will be unhappy. In this paper we introduce the Anna Karenina principle as a principle that can explain success in science. Here we will refer to three central areas in modern science in which scarce resources will most usually lead to failure: (1) peer review of research grant proposals and manuscripts (money and journal space as scarce resources), (2) citation of publications (reception as a scarce resource), and (3) new scientific discoveries (recognition as a scarce resource). If resources are scarce (journal space, funds, reception, and recognition), there can be success only when several key prerequisites for th...

Bornmann, Lutz

2011-01-01

263

The science of research: the principles underlying the discovery of cognitive and other biological mechanisms.  

PubMed

Studies of cognitive function include a wide spectrum of disciplines, with very diverse theoretical and practical frameworks. For example, in Behavioral Neuroscience cognitive mechanisms are mostly inferred from loss of function (lesion) experiments while in Cognitive Neuroscience these mechanisms are commonly deduced from brain activation patterns. Although neuroscientists acknowledge the limitations of deriving conclusions using a limited scope of approaches, there are no systematically studied, objective and explicit criteria for what is required to test a given hypothesis of cognitive function. This problem plagues every discipline in science: scientific research lacks objective, systematic studies that validate the principles underlying even its most elemental practices. For example, scientists decide what experiments are best suited to test key ideas in their field, which hypotheses have sufficient supporting evidence and which require further investigation, which studies are important and which are not, based on intuitions derived from experience, implicit principles learned from mentors and colleagues, traditions in their fields, etc. Philosophers have made numerous attempts to articulate and frame the principles that guide research and innovation, but these speculative ideas have remained untested and have had a minimal impact on the work of scientists. Here, I propose the development of methods for systematically and objectively studying and improving the modus operandi of research and development. This effort (the science of scientific research or S2) will benefit all aspects of science, from education of young scientists to research, publishing and funding, since it will provide explicit and systematically tested frameworks for practices in science. To illustrate its goals, I will introduce a hypothesis (the Convergent Four) derived from experimental practices common in molecular and cellular biology. This S2 hypothesis proposes that there are at least four fundamentally distinct strategies that scientists can use to test the connection between two phenomena of interest (A and B), and that to establish a compelling connection between A and B it is crucial to develop independently confirmed lines of convergent evidence in each of these four categories. The four categories include negative alteration (decrease probability of A or p(A) and determine p(B)), positive alteration (increase p(A) and determine p(B)), non-intervention (examine whether A precedes B) and integration (develop ideas about how to get from A to B and integrate those ideas with other available information about A and B). I will discuss both strategies to test this hypothesis and its implications for studies of cognitive function. PMID:18280120

Silva, Alcino J

2007-01-01

264

Cartilage repair: synthetics and scaffolds: basic science, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

Symptomatic articular cartilage lesions have gained attention and clinical interest in recent years and can be difficult to treat. Historically, various biologic surgical treatment options have yielded inconsistent results because of the inferior biomechanical properties associated with a variable healing response. Improving technology and surgical advances has generated considerable research in cartilage resurfacing and optimizing hyaline tissue restoration. Biologic innovation and tissue engineering in cartilage repair have used matrix scaffolds, autologous and allogenic chondrocytes, cartilage grafts, growth factors, stem cells, and genetic engineering. Numerous evolving technologies and surgical approaches have been introduced into the clinical setting. This review will discuss the basic science, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes of novel synthetic materials and scaffolds for articular cartilage repair. PMID:19011552

Kerker, Jordan T; Leo, Andrew J; Sgaglione, Nicholas A

2008-12-01

265

Research and Education in Basic Space Science: The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops  

E-print Network

Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency is holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countries of Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean (Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt, Jordan), and Europe (Germany, France). Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia, Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Uruguay. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to network these astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and education programmes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has been developed for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in an university environment.

H. M. K. Al-Naimiy; C. P. Celebre; K. Chamcham; H. S. P. de Alwis; M. C. P. de Carias; H. J. Haubold; A. E. Troche Boggino

2000-02-22

266

A Prescription that Addresses the Decline of Basic Science Education in Medical School.  

PubMed

Over 30 years ago a cry rang out through the proverbial halls of academia; "The clinician scientist is an endangered species." These prophetic words have been reverberated in the ears of every specialty and every general medical organization in deafening tones. Why is the role of the clinician scientist or clinician investigator so important that this phrase has been repeated subsequently in medical and educational journals? Simply put, the clinician scientist bridges the ravine between the ever-growing mountain of scientific knowledge and the demanding patient centered clinical care. Here, we describe the current educational model established by the University of Calgary, Leaders in Medicine Program. Our program seeks to train future physicians and clinician scientists by incorporating training in basic science, translational and clinical research with clinical and medical education in a longitudinal program to students of traditional MD/PhD, MD/MSc or MD/MBA stream as well as interested Doctor of Medicine students. PMID:25282135

Miller, Daniel; Thornton, Christina S; Keough, Michael B; Roberts, Jodie I; Yipp, Bryan; Hollenberg, Morley; Bau, Jason T; Peplowski, Michael A; Beck, Paul L

2014-01-01

267

Philadelphia University Faculty of Science  

E-print Network

-1- Philadelphia University Faculty of Science Department of Basic Sciences and Mathematics Course the students with the basic concepts, principles and methods of real analysis and its applications. The course the basic properties of real numbers. 5. Prove the fundamental theorems for continuity. 6. Apply the concept

268

Basic Principles of Marine Diesel Engines, 8-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of marine diesel engines is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to acquaint…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

269

International Space Science Programs: Basic Research with a High Public Purpose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of outer space, and the use of platforms in space to monitor the Earth, are increasingly international enterprises. The spacefaring nations of the world have programs to study the moon, the Sun, the other planets of the solar system, and the universe beyond. Space is also the domain from which navigation, communication, reconnaissance, and resource management functions are carried out by civilian and military agencies. Recent decades of experience have shown the immense benefits of international cooperation to pursue scientific research goals. In turn, the products of such basic research have immense potential to improve space situational awareness and to mitigate the effects of ''space weather'' on human technology. A key to future success of space exploration is to minimize the impacts of laws and regulations such as ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) that have already had a devastating effect on space commerce and basic space research. In this presentation I discuss the conduct of forefront science in the context of sensible, prudent international space policy and evolving governmental regulations.

Baker, D. N.

2009-04-01

270

Targeting as a Mode of Science Communication: Principles, Issues and a Practical Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's media landscape contains a rich and diverse range of communications opportunities. New media, such as the internet, blogosphere and social networks, are complementing, supplementing and also replacing the traditional mass media communications through print, radio and television. This diversification certainly contains pitfalls and difficulties as has been demonstrated in the Climategate affair. But there are also real opportunities for utilizing the diversity to provide targeted science communications that are framed in the context of the specific group of interest. That such targeting of audience attitudes and beliefs is an important key to effective science communications has been demonstrated by, for example, Leiserowitz, Maibach et al (2009). This approach does require an understanding of the audience and a careful framing of the message in terms familiar to the targeted group. Here many factors come into play, including: including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters. In this talk we shall elaborate on the principles, issues and opportunities. A practical example of working with the religious community on communicating the science of climate change will also be presented. This will include the approach adopted, progress to date and the lessons learnt.

Holland, G. J.; Vigh, J. L.

2011-12-01

271

An Integrated Course in Pain Management and Palliative Care Bridging the Basic Sciences and Pharmacy Practice  

PubMed Central

Objective. To describe the development of an integrated pain and palliative care course and to investigate the long-term effectiveness of the course during doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and in their practice after graduation. Design. Roseman University College of Pharmacy faculty developed a 3-week elective course in pain and palliative care by integrating relevant clinical and pharmaceutical sciences. Instructional strategies included lectures, team and individual activities, case studies, and student presentations. Assessment. Students who participated in the course in 2010 and 2011 were surveyed anonymously to gain their perception about the class as well as the utility of the course during their APPEs and in their everyday practice. Traditional and nontraditional assessment of students confirmed that the learning outcomes objectives were achieved. Conclusions. Students taking the integrated course on pain management and palliative care achieved mastery of the learning outcome objectives. Surveys of students and practicing pharmacists who completed the course showed that the learning experience as well as retention was improved with the integrated mode of teaching. Integrating basic and clinical sciences in therapeutic courses is an effective learning strategy. PMID:23966724

Kullgren, Justin; Unni, Elizabeth; Hanson, Eric

2013-01-01

272

Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.  

PubMed

Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

2014-08-01

273

Philadelphia University Faculty of Science  

E-print Network

Philadelphia University Faculty of Science Department of Basic Sciences and Mathematics Second with the basic concepts, principles and methods of functional analysis and its applications. The course covers Number "819" Tue. 11:00 ­ 12:00 Location Faculty of Science Wed. 11:15 ­ 12:45 E ­ mail hbadawi

274

EEL 4447 Laser Theory and Design 1. Catalog Description (3 credits) Study of lasers from basic principles to operational  

E-print Network

Modes #12;Weeks 2-3: Ray Tracing Ray Matrices Rays Analysis of Cavities Cavity Stability Weeks 4EEL 4447 Laser Theory and Design 1. Catalog Description ­ (3 credits) Study of lasers from basic-13-706666-x 13. Recommended Reading ­ None 14. Course Outline Weeks 1-2: Gaussian Beams TEM Modes Higher Order

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

275

High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

2014-04-01

276

Bridging Science and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colleges of Engineering and Education at Penn State University have collaborated to design and deliver an engineering course for education and other nonscience majors. In this course, students integrate basic principles of applied physical science and

Taylor, Joseph A.; Tasar, Mehmet F.; Dana, Thomas M.; Lunetta, Vincent N.

2002-03-01

277

An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.  

PubMed

An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century. PMID:22383409

Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

2012-03-01

278

Basic Warehousing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on basic warehousing is designed to provide Marines with Military Occupation Speciality 3051 in the rank of private through corporal with instruction in those basic principles, methods, and procedures that can be applied to any warehousing or storage…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

279

Physical principles of the preglow effect and scaling of its basic parameters for electron cyclotron resonance sources of multicharged ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of pulsed mode operation of modern ECR ion sources has clearly demonstrated the reality of an unexpected transient current peak, occurring at the very beginning of the plasma breakdown. This regime was named the preglow, as an explicit reference to the afterglow occurring at the microwave pulse end. After the transient preglow peak, the plasma regime relaxes to the classical steady state one. During last three years, a lot of experimental data together with first theoretical interpretations were published. The present paper is a continuation of previous investigations by the authors and contains full description of the preglow effect physical principles. Analysis of preglow parameters dependences on properties of microwave radiation used for plasma heating is presented. Some kind of preglow scaling for ECRIS is proposed.

Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Zorin, V.; Sidorov, A.

2012-02-01

280

An analysis of Taiwanese eighth graders' science achievement, scientific epistemoiogical beliefs and cognitive structure outcomes after learning basic atomic theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the interrelationships between students’ general science achievement, scientific epistemoiogical beliefs and their cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Research data were mainly gathered from 48 Taiwanese eighth graders’ questionnaire responses and their recalled scientific information about the atomic model, analysed by a flow map technique as evidence of their cognitive structures. This study

1998-01-01

281

UN\\/ESA workshops on basic space science: an initiative in the world-wide development of astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of seven of these Workshops and their follow-up

Hans J. Haubold

1998-01-01

282

A CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF STUDENTS' SCORES IN BASIC SCIENCE THEORY AND PRACTICAL SUBJECTS IN KWARA STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an attempt was made to investigate the relationship between the students theory and practical scores of the basic Science subjects of students of the Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin. The sample consisted of 110 students (28; Chemistry, 17; Physics, 65; Biology). Using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, the Coefficient of Correlation obtained are 0.41, 0.56,

D. O. K. Omole; S. O. Ajayi

283

The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

2010-01-01

284

Basic science and translational research in female pelvic floor disorders: Proceedings of an NIH-sponsored meeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To report the ¢ndings of a multidisciplinary group of scientists focusing on issues in basic science and translational research related to female pelvic £oor disorders, and to produce recom- mendations for a research agenda for investigators studying female pelvic £oor disorders. Methods: A National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored meeting was held on November 14 ^ 15, 2002, bringing together

Anne M. Weber; Gunhilde M. Buchsbaum; Bertha Chen; Amanda L. Clark; Margot S. Damaser; Firouz Daneshgari; Gary Davis; John DeLancey; Kimberly Kenton; Alison C. Weidner; R. Ann Word

2004-01-01

285

Exploration of an E-Learning Model to Foster Critical Thinking on Basic Science Concepts during Work Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We designed an e-learning model to promote critical thinking about basic science topics in online communities of students during work placements in higher education. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the model we explored the online discussions in two case studies. We evaluated the quantity of the interactions by looking at…

de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Jobsis, Rijn; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

2009-01-01

286

A Case Based Multimedia Tool for Integrating Basic Science Concepts with Clinical Case Data in Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a computer case-study template for integrating basic science concepts with clinical problem-solving processes in medical education; multimedia and interactive resources of Macintosh HyperCard software were used. Discusses design considerations and how the format works for the author and the student. (AEF)

Johnson, Dan F.

1995-01-01

287

Exploration of an e-learning model to foster critical thinking on basic science concepts during work placements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed an e-learning model to promote critical thinking about basic science topics in online communities of students during work placements in higher education. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the model we explored the online discussions in two case studies. We evaluated the quantity of the interactions by looking at quantitative data of the discussion ‘threads’ and we

Bas A. De Leng; Diana H. J. M. Dolmans; Rijn Jöbsis; Arno M. M. Muijtjens; Cees P. M. Van Der Vleuten

2009-01-01

288

Worldwide Development of Astronomy: The Story of a Decade of UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science  

E-print Network

In 1990 the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of these Workshops and their follow-up projects.

Hans J. Haubold; Willem Wamsteker

1997-05-21

289

Assessment of basic medical sciences in an integrated systems-based curriculum.  

PubMed

Basic medical sciences at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) are taught in a systems-based curriculum. During the development of the courses different formats have been used for the written examinations and also different types of questions. This paper compares students' performance in relation to examination format and to types of questions used. The formats were non-coordinated (NCAs), each discipline having a separate paper; coordinated (CAs), questions from various disciplines being given in the same paper but with separate sections for each discipline; and integrated assessments (IAs), questions being grouped under structure, function, and problem-based integrated long essays. The types of questions used were multiple choice (MCQs), short essays (SEQs), and structured integrated long essays (SILEQs). Students performed better in SEQs than in MCQs. Our analyses also show that SILEQs measure skills similar to those of MCQs and SEQs combined. Students performed best in NCAs. In CAs, students concentrated on those disciplines carrying most weight in the final grade. Currently we use IAs consisting of two parts: part I, comprising MCQs and SEQs, and part II, comprising SILEQs. To date, students are performing better in part II than in part I. We suggest that it is prudent to use different types of questions to measure students' knowledge and skills when IAs are used for systems-based courses. PMID:7712326

Moqattash, S; Harris, P F; Gumaa, K A; Abu-Hijleh, M F

1995-01-01

290

Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students. PMID:24639820

Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

2014-01-01

291

Care for child development: basic science rationale and effects of interventions.  

PubMed

The past few years have witnessed increasing interest in devising programs to enhance early childhood development. We review current understandings of brain development, recent advances in this field, and their implications for clinical interventions. An expanding body of basic science laboratory data demonstrates that several interventions, including environmental enrichment, level of parental interaction, erythropoietin, antidepressants, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, hypothermia, nutritional supplements, and stem cells, can enhance cerebral plasticity. Emerging clinical data, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and clinical evaluations, also support the hypothesis that clinical interventions can increase the developmental potential of children, rather than merely allowing the child to achieve an already predetermined potential. Such interventions include early developmental enrichment programs, which have improved cognitive function; high-energy and high-protein diets, which have increased brain growth in infants with perinatal brain damage; constraint-induced movement therapy, which has improved motor function in patients with stroke, cerebral palsy, and cerebral hemispherectomy; and transcranial magnetic stimulation, which has improved motor function in stroke patients. PMID:21397164

Holt, Rebecca L; Mikati, Mohamad A

2011-04-01

292

Translating Basic Science Research to Clinical Application: Models and Strategies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Preclinical stroke models provide insights into mechanisms of cellular injury and potential therapeutic targets. Renewed efforts to standardize preclinical practices and adopt more rigorous approaches reflect the assumption that a better class of compounds will translate into clinical efficacy. While the need for novel therapeutics is clear, it is also critical that diagnostics be improved to allow for more rapid treatment upon hospital admission. Advances in imaging techniques have aided in the diagnosis of stroke, yet current limitations and expenses demonstrate the need for new and complementary approaches. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) exhibits the highest mortality rate, displays unique pathology and requires specialized treatment strategies relative to other forms of stroke. The aggressive nature and severe consequences of ICH underscore the need for novel therapeutic approaches as well as accurate and expeditious diagnostic tools. The use of experimental models will continue to aid in addressing these important issues as the field attempts to translate basic science findings into the clinical setting. Several preclinical models of ICH have been developed and are widely used to recapitulate human pathology. Because each model has limitations, the burden lies with the investigator to clearly define the question being asked and select the model system that is most relevant to that question. It may also be necessary to optimize and refine pre-existing paradigms, or generate new paradigms, as the future success of translational research is dependent upon the ability to mimic human sequelae and assess clinically relevant outcome measures as means to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22661966

Leonardo, Christopher C.; Robbins, Sean; Dore, Sylvain

2012-01-01

293

A Pilot Common Reading Experience to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences in Pharmacy Education  

PubMed Central

Objective. To use a common reading experience that engages students in academic discourse both before and during a PharmD degree program and introduces students to basic science and ethical foundations in health care. Design. First-year (P1) pharmacy students were assigned a nonfiction text to read during the summer prior to admission to be followed by facilitated discussions. Activities using the text were integrated into the first-year curriculum. Pre-experience and post-experience student and faculty survey instruments were administered. Assessment. Students and faculty members reported that 3 first-year courses used the text. Students noted that the text's historical perspective enhanced their understanding of both healthcare delivery and clinical research. Most students (78%) recommended continuation of the common reading experience activity. Conclusion. Students and participating faculty members found the common reading experience, which provided a hub for discussion around issues such as health literacy and ethical treatment of patients, to be a positive addition to the curriculum. Future intentions for this project include expansion across all healthcare colleges at the university. PMID:22438597

Policastri, Anne; Garces, Helen; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Romanelli, Frank

2012-01-01

294

Weaving basic and social sciences into a case-based, clinically oriented medical curriculum: one school's approach.  

PubMed

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine recently completed its fourth year of a resource-session-enhanced, case-based, tutor-group-oriented curriculum. As an example of a curricular unit, the authors describe the implementation of the basic and clinical sciences in one of the four units in year one, and detail that unit's organization, logistics, content, rationale, and other characteristics. The Sensorimotor Systems and Behavior (SSB) unit is preceded by a cardio-respiratory-renal unit and is followed by an endocrine-reproductive-gastrointestinal unit. A Doctoring unit temporally spans each of these three units. The SSB unit is allotted an 11.5-week period that includes an aggregate of 2.5 weeks of available clinical time, 1.5 weeks for examinations and exam study time, and approximately 8.5 weeks for tutor-group sessions, mandatory laboratory sessions, and self-directed learning. Optional resource sessions are offered during a two- to four-hour block on a single morning each week. Clinical training in the SSB unit augments self-directed, laboratory, and tutor-group learning of neuroscience, gross anatomy, cell biology, physiology, biochemistry, behavioral and social science, embryology, limited pharmacology and genetics, and basic clinical neurology for first-year students. Although it is fast-paced and places heavy responsibility for independent learning on the students, the SSB unit culminates in significant achievement in the basic and clinical sciences. The unit provides substantial clinical training and practical experience in physical and neurological examinations that directly integrate with basic science knowledge. The unit reduces lecture-based instruction, demands self-determination, and promotes experience in team effort, professionalism, peer interaction, empathy in clinical medicine, and practical use of basic science knowledge. PMID:15504774

Clough, Rich W; Shea, Sandra L; Hamilton, William R; Estavillo, Jaime A; Rupp, Gerald; Browning, Ronald A; Lal, Sumeer

2004-11-01

295

Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ? 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I), hypothesis generation (Exam II), choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III), measuring scientific thought (Exam IV). The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Results Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p < 0.001). The scatter plot of the data showed a linear correlation between the score for each exam and the total final score. This meant that students with a higher final score were able to perform better in each exam through having drawn up a meaningful concept map. The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770), (p < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between each exam score and the average grade (p < 0.001). The highest correlation was observed between Exam I (R = 0.7708) and the average grade. This means students with higher average grades had better grades in each exam, especially in drawing the concept map. Conclusions We hope that this competition will encourage medical schools to integrate theory and practice, analyze data, and read research articles. Our findings relate to a selected population, and our data may not be applicable to all medical students. Therefore, further studies are required to validate our results. PMID:22270104

2012-01-01

296

Retention of knowledge and perceived relevance of basic sciences in an integrated case-based learning (CBL) curriculum  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge and understanding of basic biomedical sciences remain essential to medical practice, particularly when faced with the continual advancement of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Evidence suggests, however, that retention tends to atrophy across the span of an average medical course and into the early postgraduate years, as preoccupation with clinical medicine predominates. We postulated that perceived relevance demonstrated through applicability to clinical situations may assist in retention of basic science knowledge. Methods To test this hypothesis in our own medical student cohort, we administered a paper-based 50 MCQ assessment to a sample of students from Years 2 through 5. Covariates pertaining to demographics, prior educational experience, and the perceived clinical relevance of each question were also collected. Results A total of 232 students (Years 2–5, response rate 50%) undertook the assessment task. This sample had comparable demographic and performance characteristics to the whole medical school cohort. In general, discipline-specific and overall scores were better for students in the latter years of the course compared to those in Year 2; male students and domestic students tended to perform better than their respective counterparts in certain disciplines. In the clinical years, perceived clinical relevance was significantly and positively correlated with item performance. Conclusions This study suggests that perceived clinical relevance is a contributing factor to the retention of basic science knowledge and behoves curriculum planners to make clinical relevance a more explicit component of applied science teaching throughout the medical course. PMID:24099045

2013-01-01

297

Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice, Executive Summary and Final Report, October 1, 1978 - March 15, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…

Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

298

Knowledge and beliefs, roles, and guiding principles of two exemplary high school science teachers and a model for teacher reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was a qualitative investigation of the knowledge and beliefs, roles, and guiding principles of two exemplary high school science teachers. The process of the teachers' guided reflection on their knowledge and beliefs, roles, and guiding principles was also investigated. The design was an emergent case study using interpretive methodology. The primary data source was interviews. Open-ended interviews were followed by card sorting interviews, in which the teachers organized knowledge, beliefs, or roles they had previously stated. The findings of the study are summarized in the following assertions. Assertion 1. The important knowledge and beliefs of each teacher are best represented as one cluster of teaching principles. Assertion 2. Each teacher has multiple teaching roles, with each role described by a different role metaphor. Assertion 3. The teaching roles of each teacher are consistent with his or her cluster of teaching principles. Assertion 4. Each teacher has guiding principles that are overlying and constant. Assertion 5. Knowledge and beliefs, roles, and guiding principles are related in the same way for each teacher. Assertion 6. Each teacher was positive about the guided reflection process. Assertion 7. Each teacher benefited from the guided reflection process. Assertion 8. The card sorting procedure is easy to understand and use, and it provides structure and focus to otherwise open-ended interviews. The teaching roles of both teachers were found to be consistent with the teaching strategies of exemplary science teachers identified in previous studies. In this study the knowledge and beliefs driving the teachers' actions were also determined. A relationship was determined for the first time between teachers' knowledge and beliefs, roles, and overlying guiding principles. This relationship was the same for both teachers. A guided reflection model is now proposed for teacher reflection. The model is cyclical and is to be implemented by pairs of teachers through teacher-teacher conversations and card sorting.

Lloyd, Jeremy M.

299

UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science: An Initiative in the Worl dwide Development of Astronomy  

E-print Network

In 1990, the United Nations, in cooperation with the European Space Agency, initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin American and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of these Workshops (1991-1998) and their follow-up projects with a view to enhance the worldwide development of astronomy and space science. The Workshops are being considered unique and a model for such an endeavor.

H. J. Haubold

1998-09-26

300

Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

2014-01-01

301

Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are planned. "Other Research" includes: BUNDLE (Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrite in a Liquid Experiment) activities (primarily crucible development), vibrational float-zone processing (with Vanderbilt University), use of ultrasonics in materials processing (with UAH), rotational effects on microstructural development, and application of magnetic fields for mixing.

2003-01-01

302

The attitudes and perceptions of medical students towards basic science subjects during their clinical years: A cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the conventional system of medical education, basic subjects are taught in the 1st year with least interdisciplinary interaction. The objective of this study was to explore the students’ perception about content, need and application of basic science subjects during the clinical years of their medical education. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed among students randomly after taking their written consent for participation in the study. About 265 completely filled questionnaires were received back and the response was analyzed. Results: Students identified anatomy as the subject with overloaded syllabus (75.4%) and also with maximum clinical application with 50.1% of them considering it the most important basic subject. Students were satisfied with the practical integration of subjects to impart clinical skills, but considered problem based learning a better method of teaching. According to 37%, 43.8% and 33.2% of respondents respectively; anatomy, biochemistry and physiology curriculum should only cover the general concepts to give the working knowledge of the subject. Approximately, 65% of the respondents were able to recall the knowledge of anatomy and physiology while biochemistry was retained by 40%. Conclusions: Overall, the attitudes of students toward basic science subjects were positive. The learning experience for them can be improved significantly by better clinical integration of the subjects. PMID:24600572

Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Ashwani K; Verma, Minni; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Kamaljit

2014-01-01

303

HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES VERSUS WORKSHEETS IN REINFORCING PHYSICAL SCIENCE PRINCIPLES: EFFECTS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A posttest-only control group experimental design with a counter-balanced replication was used to determine the effects on cognitive achievement (both immediate and delayed) and attitude toward the subject matter of a hands-on activity versus a worksheet in reinforcing physical science principles. The experimental results were stable across both replications, regardless of the subject matter (Oh m 's Law or incline

Donald M. Johnson; George W. Wardlow; Timothy D. Franklin

1997-01-01

304

College of Public Health & Health Professions Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health  

E-print Network

to epidemiology for students majoring in any aspect of the health sciences. The principles and methods of epidemiologic reports 6. Apply basic infectious and chronic disease methods and data 7. Identify the principlesCollege of Public Health & Health Professions PHC 6001 Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health

Kane, Andrew S.

305

More Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available March 2010. Overwhelmed by orbitals? Terrified of thermodynamics? Agitated by acids and bases? Have no fear! This follow-up to the award-winning Chemistry Basics will clear up your chemistry woes. In More Chemistry Ba

Robertson, William C.

2010-03-01

306

Understanding drug resistance in malaria parasites: basic science for public health.  

PubMed

The worlds of basic scientists and those involved in treating patients and making public health decisions do not always intersect. Yet, assuring that when patients are treated, they are efficiently and completely cured, and that public health decisions are based on solid evidence requires a broad foundation of up to date basic research. Research on the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum provides a useful illustration of the role that basic scientific studies have played in the very long relationship between humans and this deadly parasite. Drugs have always been a principal tool in malaria treatment. The ongoing struggle between evolution of resistance to antimalarials by the parasite and public health responses is used here as an illustration of the key contributions of basic scientists to this long history. PMID:24927641

Sibley, Carol Hopkins

2014-07-01

307

Basic Science Process Skills. An Inservice Workshop Kit: Outlines and Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…

Rowland, Paul; And Others

308

Keynote Lecture: Basic Science and the NIH: American Society for Cell Biology Meeting  

Cancer.gov

Let me tell you briefly how it happened. Just a few years ago, my interests in the politics of science were barely noticeable. Like most of you, I was reasonably content, and often very happy, to be doing science in this remarkably exciting era in biology. Then, seemingly all at once, a number of things happened.

309

Making space law relevant to basic space science in the commercial space age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space science has been at the heart of humanity's activity in space, a fact reflected in the body of space law set up to regulate such activity. The increase in commercial utilisation of space may threaten the conduct of space science; reform of space law, however, could alleviate this situation. Using the examples of radio and light interference, and space

Sriram Swaminathan

2005-01-01

310

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005  

SciTech Connect

World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

2005-04-21

311

The Basic Principles of Networking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the factors to be considered when establishing a computer network. Considered are telecommunications, in general, along with channels, switching, packet switching, transmission, multiplexing, and local area networks (LANS). (TW)

Charp, Sylvia; Hines, I. J.

1988-01-01

312

[The basic principles of leadership].  

PubMed

This overview of leadership research provides insights into the different leadership concepts. Early research on leadership focused on personality traits and leadership behaviour as determinants of good leadership. The recognition of leadership as a complex phenomenon resulted in concepts that examined leader characteristics and behaviour in the context of situational conditions. Modern cognitive approaches concentrated on the perception of leaders by followers and the perception of followers by leaders and the cognitive biases involved. There is a tendency in leadership research to integrate the three central aspects of leadership--person, situation and cognition--into a single framework. PMID:19545079

Pfaff, Holger; Neumann, Melanie; Kuch, Christine; Hammer, Antje; Janssen, Christian; Brinkmann, Anne; Ommen, Oliver

2009-01-01

313

Basic Principles of Cancer Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cancer results from the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations within a cell. These alterations lead to abnormal proliferation\\u000a and clonal expansion, and ultimately to invasion of surrounding tissues and metastasis to distant sites. Genetic abnormalities\\u000a providing a selective advantage are maintained and ultimately become dominant within the population. The accumulation of genetic\\u000a abnormalities, which in most cases occurs over a

Leif W. Ellisen; Daniel A. Haber

314

Basic Principles of Stochastic Transport  

SciTech Connect

Transport in stochastic magnetic fields is reviewed. In the first part, the topic is motivated by commenting on the intricatenesses of known (nonlinear) transport theories. In the second part, non-integrable magnetic field line systems, their generation and Hamiltonian description are discussed. The symplectic mapping is introduced as the adequate tool for the analysis of the statistics of magnetic field lines. Transport along the unstable and stable manifolds of hyperbolic fixed points is an effective mechanism for heat transfer from the hot core to the plasma boundary. The third part deals with anomalous test particle transport theories starting from stochastic Liouville-type models. Several theories are based on the V-Langevin equation in the guiding center limit. In fusion devices, the mean magnetic fields are sufficiently strong to support the small gyro-radii assumption over a broad area, at least for the electrons. The question remains in what way finite Larmor radii influence the transport, especially in regions where the guiding center assumption fails. Indeed, in tokamaks such areas can be found, e.g. in the vicinity of hyperbolic points. Then, the more general A-Langevin equation has to be used. Based on the latter description, first for small Kubo numbers, the well known transport coefficients (formulated by Rechester and Rosenbluth, Kadomtsev and Pogutse, and others) are recovered. Second, for large Kubo numbers, new transport regimes are identified.

Spatschek, K. H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

2008-05-14

315

Syllabus for PHYS 0174 Basic Physics for Science and Engineering 1  

E-print Network

's Three Laws of Motion · Newton's Law of Gravitation · Work and Conservation of Energy · Linear Momentum the principles of · Measurement and vectors · Motion in one dimension · Motion in three dimensions · Newton · Rotational Motion · Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves · Thermodynamics Physics 0174 has three components

Budny, Daniel

316

Report of the joint ESOT and TTS basic science meeting 2013: current concepts and discoveries in translational transplantation.  

PubMed

A joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and The Transplantation (TTS) Societies for basic science research was organized in Paris, France, on November 7-9, 2013. Focused on new ideas and concepts in translational transplantation, the meeting served as a venue for state-of-the-art developments in basic transplantation immunology, such as the potential for tolerance induction through regulation of T-cell signaling. This meeting report summarizes important insights which were presented in Paris. It not only offers an overview of established aspects, such as the role of Tregs in transplantation, presented by Nobel laureate Rolf Zinkernagel, but also highlights novel facets in the field of transplantation, that is cell-therapy-based immunosuppression or composite tissue transplantation as presented by the emotional story given by Vasyly Rohovyy, who received two hand transplants. The ESOT/TTS joint meeting was an overall productive and enjoyable platform for basic science research in translational transplantation and fulfilled all expectations by giving a promising outlook for the future of research in the field of immunological transplantation research. PMID:24890468

Ebner, Susanne; Fabritius, Cornelia; Ritschl, Paul; Oberhuber, Rupert; Günther, Julia; Kotsch, Katja

2014-10-01

317

The IQWST Experience: Using Coherence as a Design Principle for a Middle School Science Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coherent curricula are needed to help students develop deep understanding of important ideas in science. Too often students experience curriculum that is piecemeal and lacks coordination and consistency across time, topics, and disciplines. Investigating and Questioning our World through Science and Technology (IQWST) is a middle school science

Shwartz, Yael; Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Krajcik, Joe; Reiser, Brian

2008-01-01

318

Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries  

PubMed Central

Modern fishery science, which began in 1957 with Beverton and Holt, is ca. 50 years old. At its inception, fishery science was limited by a nineteenth century mechanistic worldview and by computational technology; thus, the relatively simple equations of population ecology became the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. The time has come for this to change and for community ecology to become the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. This point will be illustrated with two examples. First, when viewed from a community perspective, excess production must be considered in the context of biomass left for predators. We argue that this is a better measure of the effects of fisheries than spawning biomass per recruit. Second, we shall analyse a simple, but still multi-species, model for fishery management that considers the alternatives of harvest regulations, inshore marine protected areas and offshore marine protected areas. Population or community perspectives lead to very different predictions about the efficacy of reserves. PMID:15713590

Mangel, Marc; Levin, Phillip S.

2005-01-01

319

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE GENERAL BIOLOGY GENB (0404C)  

E-print Network

Advanced Program (27 cr.) _______ SB 1 st Behavioral & Social Science Elective _______ SB 2 nd SB / IE from below 3 BIOM301 Introduction to Biometrics 4 BSCI474 Mathematical Biology w/Lab 3 STAT400 Applied

Gruner, Daniel S.

320

Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Incorporting Science, Technology, Fairness, and Accountability in Environmental, Health and Safety Decisions  

E-print Network

The precautionary principle is in sharp political focus today because (1) the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing and (2) there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on allegedly more "rational" ...

Ashford, Nicholas

2005-01-01

321

Basic science going clinical: molecularly targeted therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imatinib (STI571), a 2-phenylaminopyrimidine, specifically inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of Abl, Kit, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Clinical trials in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), characterized by the constitutively active Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, characterized by activating mutations of Kit, have shown excellent results. This success is proof of principle for the concept of molecularly targeted therapy:

Michael W. N. Deininger

2004-01-01

322

Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

2010-01-01

323

Articular cartilage repair: basic science and clinical progress. A review of the current status and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the basic scientific status of repair in articular cartilage tissue and to assess the efficiency of current clinical therapies instigated for the treatment of structural lesions generated therein as a result of trauma or during the course of various diseases, notably osteoarthritis (OA). Current scientific trends and possible directions for the future will also be discussed.Design A

E. B. Hunziker

2002-01-01

324

Cleft palate-craniofacial journal 50th anniversary editorial board commentary: anatomy, basic sciences, and genetics-then and now.  

PubMed

To celebrate the 50th year of the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal we look back to where we started in 1964 and where we are now, and we speculate about directions for the future in a "Then and Now" editorial series. This editorial examines changing trends and perspectives in anatomical, basic science, and genetic studies published in this 50-year interval. In volume 1 there were 45 total papers, seven (16%) of which were peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: four in anatomy, three in craniofacial biology, and none in genetics. In contrast, in volume 50, of 113 articles there were 47 (42%) peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: 30 in anatomy, five in craniofacial biology, and 12 in genetics. Topical analysis of published manuscripts then and now reveal that similar topics in anatomy and craniofacial biology are still being researched today (e.g., phenotypic variability, optimal timing of surgery, presurgical orthopedics, bone grafting); whereas, most of the more recent papers use advanced technology to address old questions. In contrast, genetic publications have clearly increased in frequency during the last 50 years, which parallels advances in the field during this time. However, all of us have noticed that the more "cutting-edge" papers in these areas are not being submitted for publication to the journal, but instead to discipline-specific journals. Concerted efforts are therefore indicated to attract and publish these cutting-edge papers in order to keep the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal in the forefront of orofacial cleft and craniofacial anomaly research and to provide a valuable service to American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members. PMID:24617328

Mooney, Mark P; Cooper, Gregory M; Marazita, Mary L

2014-05-01

325

A cross-college age study of science and nonscience students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts in preservice training for high-school teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to a total of 433 students in college preservice training for future high-school teachers showed that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, R.

326

Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

Mowery, Donald R.

327

Resource Handbook: The Earth. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; the earth. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is in three main parts: 1) atmosphere; 2) lithosphere; and 3) hydrosphere. Each section is subdivided into initiatory activities, developmental activities, evaluations, vocabulary, children's books, and films. The guide is mimeographed…

Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

328

Chemical Nanotechnology: A Liberal Arts Approach to a Basic Course in Emerging Interdisciplinary Science and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nanotechnology degree programs initiated at various institutions provided an excellent way of learning to look at the amazing opportunities that arise when various disciplines of science interact. The enrolled students were actively engaged in the subject matter and also expressed greater confidence in their ability to consider technology with…

Porter, Lon A., Jr.

2007-01-01

329

The organization of an integrated basic medical science curriculum at a new medical school, Nottingham.  

PubMed

The detailed organization of an integrated medical sciences curriculum from its initial planning to the final stage of "automatic" administration are described. Although some reduction in departmental autonomy results, this is outweighed by the advantages of a timetable and curriculum prepared, planned and carried out in a cooperative manner. Flexibility and scope for controlled change and experiment are retained. PMID:979713

Olson, I A

1976-09-01

330

Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2006 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings from the September 2006 symposium includes papers presented on experimental and modeling work with the intention of broadening understanding of the field of actinide research. Actinides have gained attention recently because of their roles in the threat of nuclear terrorism (e.g., 'dirty bombs') and the use of nuclear power to offset fossil fuel consumption. Actinide science is the

Kerri J. M. Blobaum; Elaine A. Chandler; Ladislav Havela; M. Brian Maple; Mary P. Neu

2007-01-01

331

Ha!: The Science of When We Laugh and Why Scott Weems Basic Books (2014)  

E-print Network

. Operation Paperclip united Nazi science and US cold-war interests, bringing 1,600 German technologists foreground to the building of the bombs that finished the Second World War, with Nesbit deftly capturing to the United States after the Second World War to work on intelligence and weapons research, despite protests

Cai, Long

332

Early Science Education: Exploring familiar contexts to improve the understanding of some basic scientific concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study rests on the belief that Science Education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced from the early years in formal schooling as a first step to a scientific culture for all. The question is to make clear what to learn and how to teach in a way that is both motivating for

Isabel P. Martins; Luisa Veiga

2001-01-01

333

Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

Albracht, James, Ed.

334

Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of II-VI semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

Calzonetti, F.

1993-03-01

335

Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of II-VI semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

Calzonetti, F.

1993-03-01

336

A PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING COURSE IN PHYSIOLOGY FOR UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE BASIC SCIENCE STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

n small-group problem-based learning (PBL), students work cooperatively to solve complex, real-world problems. The problems lead the students to learn basic concepts rather than being presented as applications of concepts they have already learned. The goals are for students to learn and be able to apply the disciplinary content, develop critical thinking abilities, and acquire skills of life-long learning, communication,

Sheella Mierson

337

The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.  

PubMed

The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25244620

Kleinman, Alan

2014-12-20

338

``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite all these efforts, one can’t help noticing an asymmetric level of scientific exploitation in the realm of X-ray astronomy between developing and developed countries. The latter have traditionally enjoyed the comparative advantage of deeper know-how, deriving from direct experience in hardware and mission development. The XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre’s efforts act to alleviate this situation through, for example, increasing the usage of the web for data and information dissemination, as well as by supporting actively such initiatives as the COSPAR Capacity-Building Workshops, specifically designed to create long-lasting bridges between researchers in developing and developed countries.

Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

2006-12-01

339

Energy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demos and activities in this lesson are intended to illustrate the basic concepts of energy scienceâwork, force, energy, power etc., and the relationships among them. The "lecture" portion of the lesson includes many demonstrations to keep students engaged, yet has high expectations for students to perform energy-related calculations and convert units. A homework assignment and quiz are provided to reinforce and assess these basic engineering science concepts.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

340

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

341

Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2006 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings from the September 2006 symposium includes papers presented on experimental and modeling work with the intention of broadening understanding of the field of actinide research. Actinides have gained attention recently because of their roles in the threat of nuclear terrorism (e.g., 'dirty bombs') and the use of nuclear power to offset fossil fuel consumption. Actinide science is the study of the elements with atomic numbers in the range of 90 to 103, which includes uranium and plutonium. Beyond the well-known nuclear reactions of these heavy radioactive metals, the large electron clouds with 5f electrons in the outer shell yield fascinating and complex chemistries, crystal structures, and physical properties. Traditionally, actinide research has been divided among three scientific disciplines: chemistry (nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry); physics (condensed matter physics and electronic structure); and materials science (metallurgy). Modern actinide research, however, has become an interdisciplinary blend of these traditional fields, and it also incorporates developing fields such as environmental chemistry and superconductivity. Improved scientific understanding of actinides is needed for development of materials for actinide detection and nuclear fuels, and for safer management of nuclear waste. Recently, there has been a resurgence of actinide science at national laboratories and universities. The current multidisciplinary approach to actinide science lays the groundwork for understanding the connection between the 5f electronic structure and observed chemical reactions and physical properties such as structural phase transformations and novel ground states. This work provides many opportunities for new researchers in actinide science. These proceedings gather 25 selected papers among the 53 presentations given at this symposium.

Blobaum, Kerri J.M. [ed. CMS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Chandler, Elaine A. [ed. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Havela, Ladislav [ed. Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Maple, M. Brian [ed. University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Neu, Mary P. [ed. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM (United States)

2007-07-01

342

Investigating the Relationship between STEM Learning Principles and Student Achievement in Math and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) advocates commonly emphasize an interdisciplinary, authentic, project-based, and technology-based approach to learning, though the strength of prior research varies. This study examines the association between a range of classroom activities and academic performance gains in math and science. Using…

Hansen, Michael; Gonzalez, Thomas

2014-01-01

343

Multimedia Bootcamp: a health sciences library provides basic training to promote faculty technology integration  

PubMed Central

Background Recent research has shown a backlash against the enthusiastic promotion of technological solutions as replacements for traditional educational content delivery. Many institutions, including the University of Virginia, have committed staff and resources to supporting state-of-the-art, showpiece educational technology projects. However, the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library has taken the approach of helping Health Sciences faculty be more comfortable using technology in incremental ways for instruction and research presentations. In July 2004, to raise awareness of self-service multimedia resources for instructional and professional development needs, the Library conducted a "Multimedia Bootcamp" for nine Health Sciences faculty and fellows. Methods Case study. Results Program stewardship by a single Library faculty member contributed to the delivery of an integrated learning experience. The amount of time required to attend the sessions and complete homework was the maximum fellows had to devote to such pursuits. The benefit of introducing technology unfamiliar to most fellows allowed program instructors to start everyone at the same baseline while not appearing to pass judgment on the technology literacy skills of faculty. The combination of wrapping the program in the trappings of a fellowship and selecting fellows who could commit to a majority of scheduled sessions yielded strong commitment from participants as evidenced by high attendance and a 100% rate of assignment completion. Response rates to follow-up evaluation requests, as well as continued use of Media Studio resources and Library expertise for projects begun or conceived during Bootcamp, bode well for the long-term success of this program. Conclusion An incremental approach to integrating technology with current practices in instruction and presentation provided a supportive yet energizing environment for Health Sciences faculty. Keys to this program were its faculty focus, traditional hands-on instruction, unrestricted access to technology tools and support, and inclusion of criteria for evaluating when multimedia can augment pedagogical aims. PMID:16638140

Ramsey, Ellen C

2006-01-01

344

INTEGRATING QA PRINCIPLES WITH BASIC ELEMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROGRAM PROMOTES QUALITY SCIENCE IN A NON-GLP RESEARCH LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Much of the research conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL) located in Research Triangle Park, NC, involves "pilot" and small-scale acute toxicity assessments conducted over short periods of time. onsequently, the...

345

Emergent Principles for the Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Cluster-Based Experiments in Social Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimentally designed research, many good reasons exist for assigning groups or clusters to treatments rather than individuals. This article discusses them. But cluster-level designs face some unique or exacerbated challenges. The article identifies them and offers some principles about them. One emphasizes how statistical power and sample size estimation depend on intraclass correlations, particularly after conditioning on the use

Thomas D. Cook

2005-01-01

346

The role of a science story, activities, and dialogue modeled on Philosophy for Children in teaching basic science process skills to fifth graders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was an application of Philosophy for Children pedagogy to science education. It was designed to answer the question, What roles do a science story (Harry Discovers Science), multi-sensorial activities designed to accompany the story, and classroom dialogue associated with the story---all modeled on the Philosophy for Children curriculum---play in the learning processes of a class of fifth graders with regard to the basic science process skills of classification, observation, and inference? To answer the question, I collected qualitative data as I carried out a participatory study in which I taught science to fifth graders at an international, bilingual private religious school in Brasilia, Brazil for a period of one semester. Twenty-one (n = 21) children participated in the study, 10 females and 11 males, who came from a predominantly middle and upper class social background. Data were collected through student interviews, student class reflection sheets, written learning assessments, audiotapes of all class sessions, including whole-class and small-class group discussions, and a videotape of one class session. Some of the key findings were that the story, activities and dialogue facilitated the children's learning in a number of ways. The story modeled the performance of classification, observation and inference skills for the children as well as reflection on the meaning of inference. The majority of the students identified with the fictional characters, particularly regarding traits such as cleverness and inquisitiveness, and with the learning context of the story. The multi-sensorial activities helped children learn observation and inference skills as well as dialogue. Dialogue also helped children self-correct and build upon each other's ideas. Some students developed theories about how ideal dialogue should work. In spite of the inherent limitations of qualitative and teacher research studies, as well as the limitations of this particular study, and despite the fact that there is a need for further research to confirm the transferability of findings, this study both supports and expands to the domain of basic science process skills the claim that Philosophy for Children helps students develop thinking skills.

Ferreira, Louise Brandes Moura

347

Basic Science Simulations Provide New Insights to Aid Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science  

SciTech Connect

Massive first-principles simulation provides insight into flame anchoring in a hydrogen-rich jet in cross-flow. When gas turbine designers want to use gasified biomass for stationary power generation, they are faced with a challenge: bio-derived syngas typically contains significant amounts of hydrogen, which is far more reactive than the methane that is the traditional gas turbine fuel. This reactivity leads to a safety design issue, because with hydrogen-rich fuels a flame may anchor in the fuel injection section of the combustor instead of the downstream design point. In collaboration with Jacqueline Chen of Sandia National Laboratories and Andrea Gruber of SINTEF, a Norwegian energy think tank, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is carrying out fundamental simulations to provide new insight into the physics of flame anchoring in canonical 'jet in cross-flow' configurations using hydrogen-rich fuels. To deal with the large amount and complexity of the data, the combustion scientists also teamed up with computer scientists from across the U.S. Department of Energy's laboratories to develop novel ways to analyze the data. These simulations have shown that fine-scale turbulence structures formed at the jet boundary provide particularly intense mixing between the fuel and air, which then enters a quiescent region formed downstream of the jet in a separate, larger turbulent structure. This insight explains the effect that reducing the wall-normal velocity of the fuel jet causes the flame to blow off; with the aid of the simulation, we now understand this counterintuitive result because reducing the wall-normal velocity would reduce the intensity of the mixing as well as move the quiescent region farther downstream. NREL and its research partners are conducting simulations that provide new insight into the physics of flame anchoring in canonical 'jet in cross-flow' configurations using hydrogen-rich fuels. Simulation results explain the mechanism behind flame blow-off occurring when a component in the cross-flow direction is progressively added to the jet velocity vector, thereby reducing the relative impact of its wall-normal velocity component. Understanding the mechanism for flame anchoring aids the design of fuel injection nozzles that meet safety requirements when using hydrogen-rich fuels.

Not Available

2011-11-01

348

Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

NONE

1995-12-31

349

United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2011 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative  

E-print Network

The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. One major recommendation that emanated from these workshops was the establishment of astronomical facilities in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level. Such workshops on BSS emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a worldwide basis. Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful ...

Gadimova, S; Danov, D; Georgieva, K; Maeda, G; Yumoto, K; Davila, J M; Gopalswami, N

2011-01-01

350

Organizational interventions employing principles of complexity science have improved outcomes for patients with Type II diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the development of several models of care delivery for patients with chronic illness, consistent improvements in outcomes have not been achieved. These inconsistent results may be less related to the content of the models themselves, but to their underlying conceptualization of clinical settings as linear, predictable systems. The science of complex adaptive systems (CAS), suggests that clinical settings

Luci K Leykum; Jacqueline Pugh; Valerie Lawrence; Michael Parchman; Polly H Noël; John Cornell; Reuben R McDaniel Jr

2007-01-01

351

Group Work in Elementary Science: Towards Organisational Principles for Supporting Pupil Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group work has been promoted in many countries as a key component of elementary science. However, little guidance is given as to how group work should be organized, and because previous research has seldom been conducted in authentic classrooms, its message is merely indicative. A study is reported, which attempts to address these limitations.…

Howe, Christine; Tolmie, Andy; Thurston, Allen; Topping, Keith; Christie, Donald; Livingston, Kay; Jessiman, Emma; Donaldson, Caroline

2007-01-01

352

Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

2010-01-01

353

Core principles and test item development for advanced high school and introductory university level food science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, Advanced Life Science: Foods (ALS: Foods) operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad based course assessments were in place

Claudine A. M Laing-Kean

2010-01-01

354

Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

England, Richard

2009-01-01

355

United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2010 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004) Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, Ro Korea 2009) Starting in 2010, the workshops focus on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as recommended in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of UNCOPUOS (www.iswi-secretariat.org/). Workshops on the ISWI have been scheduled to be hosted by Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently, fourteen IHY/ISWI instrument arrays with more than five hundred instruments are operational in ninety countries.

Gadimova, S.; Haubold, H. J.; Danov, D.; Georgieva, K.; Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Davila, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.

2011-11-01

356

Rocket Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site from the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project, the science and history of rocketry is explained. Visitors will find out how rocket principles illustrate Newton's Laws of Motion. There is a second page of this site, Practical Rocketry, which discusses the workings of rockets, including propellants, engine thrust control, stability and control systems, and mass.

2008-07-29

357

Formally acknowledging donor-cadaver-patients in the basic and clinical science research arena.  

PubMed

Historically, in the healthcare profession, cadaveric tissue has been predominantly used for teaching the architecture of the human body. It is respectful practice in scientific writing to acknowledge colleagues who have helped to collect/analyze data and prepare manuscripts; however, it appears that we have omitted to thank those that have donated themselves for any of these projects to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the formal acknowledgment thanking those who have given the amazing gift of themselves to science. A literature search was conducted on printed and electronic anatomical and clinical journals. Anatomical and clinical conferences were attended between 2008 and 2012; posters utilizing cadaveric tissue were examined for acknowledgment. University/private institutions were contacted to ascertain if memorial services were held. Literature revealed only one journal that required acknowledgment when donor-cadaver's (DC's) were used. Poster examination revealed very few acknowledgments of DC tissue at clinical conferences. While all university programs (n?=?20) held memorial services, only 6 of 20 private procurement organizations had any such event. Our surgical anatomist forefathers faced awkward conditions because cadaveric tissue was not readily available. Contemporarily, anatomists and researchers have ready access to DC's. Socially, these donations are recognized as unparalleled educational tools and gifts, yet often they are not given the appropriate recognition and are overlooked in the publishing and scientific research arena. This research suggests editors, researchers, IRB committees, nonprofit body willed programs, and for-profit procurement organizations formally recognize and/or require recognition of those who donate their bodies for research. Clin. Anat. 26:810-813, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23716496

Benninger, Brion

2013-10-01

358

Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.  

PubMed

There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students. PMID:24127920

Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

2013-10-01

359

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE Ecology & Evolution ECEV (0404B) C or better required in all courses effective 9/2005  

E-print Network

Issues CORE (30 ­ 33) ______ SH Social / Political History SB 1 st Behavioral & Social Science Advanced BIOM301 Introduction to Biometrics OR 3 BSCI370 Principles of Evolution STAT400 Applied Probability Gr Cr 4 BSCI330 Cell Biol. & Physiology w/Lab 1 3 BSCI465 Behavioral Ecology 3 BSCI334 Mammalogy 4

Gruner, Daniel S.

360

Life Science Standards and Curriculum Development for 9-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a design for a life science curriculum following the National Research Council National Science Education Standards. The overarching theme is that science as inquiry should be recognized as a basic and controlling principle in the ultimate organization and experiences in students' science education. Six-week units include Matter, Energy,…

Speece, Susan P.; Andersen, Hans O.

1996-01-01

361

The Lujan Center is a national user facility funded by Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy which o ers capability for basic and applied neutron scattering  

E-print Network

of Energy which o ers capability for basic and applied neutron scattering relevant to national security are the domain of the low-Q scattering intrument, LQD. These well-established neutron techniques probe long Matter, Local Structure, and Nanomaterials The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center encompasses a set

362

Prevention Science 513 Research Methods in Prevention Science  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12; Prevention Science 513 Research Methods in Prevention Science Fall with a theoretical and practical foundation for understanding research methods, especially as they pertain This course is designed to: 1) Increase students' understanding of basic principles of research methods

Collins, Gary S.

363

Exploring Magnetism: from Standards-based physical science concepts to cutting edge NASA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing focus on educational standards in the K-12 classroom can appear to push out extra topics, like cutting-edge NASA science. But that need not be the case. All NASA science is rooted in basic physical science and mathematics concepts. Relating modern investigations to their basic principles is an effective way to not only insert these topics into classroom curricula,

B. J. Mendez; L. M. Peticolas

2008-01-01

364

Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in

J. M. Phillips; P. E. Burrows; R. F. Davis; J. A. Simmons; G. G. Malliaras; F. So; J. A. Misewich; A. V. Nurmikko; D. L. Smith; J. Y. Tsao; H. Kung; M. H. Crawford; M. E. Coltrin; T. J. Fitzsimmons; A. Kini; C. Ashton; B. Herndon; S. Kitts; L. Shapard; P. W. Brittenham; M. P. Vittitow

2006-01-01

365

THE REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE OF DEMONSTRATIONS IN TEACHING CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES IN SCIENCE, STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, AND DIMENSIONS OF VISUAL REPRESENTATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO STUDIES CONCERNED WITH THE REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE OF DEMONSTRATIONS IN TEACHING CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF SCIENCE ARE REPORTED. THE TWO STUDIES WERE PERFORMED WITH DIMENSIONS OF VISUAL TV PRESENTATIONS VARIED IN THE CONTEXT OF PROGRAMED LESSONS. STUDY ONE COMPARES THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REALISTIC (LIVE) WITH NONREALISTIC (ANIMATED)…

GROPPER, GEORGE L.; AND OTHERS

366

[Motivation and emotional disorders. A cognitive science approach. I: Principles, classification and diagnosis].  

PubMed

There are no generally accepted classification schemes for motivational and emotional disorders. One of the reasons is the difficulty in isolating motivational and emotional disorders from complex behaviors. Therefore, terms which characterize certain behaviors globally, such as clinical syndromes, are preferred in the clinical literature. Another, related reason is that within clinical psychology and the psychology of emotions are treated as two entirely separate fields with hardly any mutual influence. A third reason lies in the diversities of theories and schools of thought where the psychology of emotions as well as clinical psychology are concerned, thus, schemes, based on a general framework which is grounded in research in "Cognitiver Science" and general psychology, were developed which enable the comprehensive classification of motivational and emotional disorders, irrespective of individual therapeutic schools of thought or emotion-theoretic orientations. From the classification schemes, diagnostic criteria can be derived. This is the topic of Part I. In Part II it is demonstrated how these schemas can be applied to the comparison of different therapeutic schools with respect to theories of motivational and emotional disorders. Moreover, it is shown, how these ideas can be used to derive strategies for therapeutic interventions. PMID:2750246

Pfeifer, R; Leuzinger-Bohleber, M

1989-01-01

367

Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. Material and Methods: The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. Results: WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Conclusion: Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly. PMID:24379959

Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

2013-01-01

368

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1984-01-01

369

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why earthworms are fascinating and important animals whose study should be expanded. Describes how to collect earthworms and their castings and how to demonstrate their tunneling activity. Stresses animal's uniqueness and how it is interrelated with other animals, plants, and non-living parts of the world. (NEC)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1986-01-01

370

479Program of Medical Laboratory Sciences Undergraduate Catalogue 201314  

E-print Network

, antigens, antibodies, and complement system, as well as basic principles in blood banking and transfusion medicine. First semester. #12;480 Program of Medical Laboratory Sciences Undergraduate Catalogue 2013

Shihadeh, Alan

371

More Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overwhelmed by orbitals? Terrified of thermodynamics? Agitated by acids and bases? Have no fear! This follow-up to the award-winning Chemistry Basics will clear up your chemistry woes. In More Chemistry Basics , the ninth book i

Robertson, William C.

2010-06-10

372

Background fluctuation limit of IR detection of thermal waves—basic principles and application to photothermal characterization of biological materials and living tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the principles of photon detection, the background fluctuation limit for IR detection of thermal wave has been derived and compared with the minimal thermal wave amplitudes, which have been measured with the help of a photoconductive MCT detector: ?T?44 ?K at 300 K average sample temperature, ?T?15 ?K at 400 K, and ?T?9 ?K at 500 K. Based on the formula for the background fluctuation limit, the detection limits and experimental conditions of photothermal characterization of biological materials are discussed.

Bein, B. K.; Bolte, J.; Haj-Daoud, A.; John, V.; Niebisch, F.

1999-03-01

373

Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

2006-05-24

374

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

375

The U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box 5000, Upton NY 11973 631 344-2345 www.bnl.gov Basic Energy Sciences  

E-print Network

The U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory · P.O. Box 5000, Upton NY 11973.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences Facilities & Capabilities: · Thin film nanofabrication · 631 344-2345 · www.bnl.gov FACTS (09-12) Basic Energy Sciences The Center for Functional Nanomaterials

376

Basic Electronics I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

Robertson, L. Paul

377

Green Plants. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

Friedland, Mary

378

Animals. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

Roderman, Winifred Ho; Booth, Gerald

379

Basic research championed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

Friebele, Elaine

380

Food Science. Content Modules for Food Science Featuring Problem-Solving Activities in Family and Consumer Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food science course developed in Missouri combines basic scientific and mathematics principles in a hands-on instructional format as a part of the family and consumer sciences education curriculum. Throughout the course, students conduct controlled experiments and use scientific laboratory techniques and information to explore the biological…

Roff, Lori; Stringer, Lola

381

JOHN D. NORTON SCIENCE AND CERTAINTY 1  

E-print Network

JOHN D. NORTON SCIENCE AND CERTAINTY 1 In common scientific practice, near certainty is accorded to the basic principles of a mature science and this certainty is said to be based on experimental evidence. I Academic Publishers, Printed in the Netherlands. #12;4 JOHN D. NORTON Thus, under the accumulated weight

382

Basic model Basic model  

E-print Network

Spearman's (1904) seminal paper on the American Journal of Psychology entitled "General Inteligente, British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 48, 211-220. 3 / 66 #12;Early days Basic model that Spearman invented factor analysis but his almost exclusive concern with the notion of a general factor

Liu, I-Shih

383

Data Communication Principles Reliable Data Transfer  

E-print Network

Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer Data Communication Basics Mahalingam Ramkumar Mississippi State University, MS September 8, 2014 Ramkumar CSE 4153 / 6153 #12;Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer 1 Data Communication Principles Data Rate of a Communication

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

384

Harnessing the Use of Open Learning Exchange to Support Basic Education in Science and Mathematics in the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…

Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.

2013-01-01

385

Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy (“Pre-RT-MRI examination”) and at the time of BT (“BT MRI examination”) with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring procedure. Choice of imaging parameters and BT equipment is made after taking into account aspects of interaction between imaging and applicator reconstruction, as well as those between imaging, geometry and dose calculation. In a prospective clinical context, to implement 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy and to take advantage of its full potential, it is essential to successfully meet the MR imaging criteria described in the present recommendations of the GYN GEC-ESTRO working group. PMID:22296748

Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M.; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Potter, Richard

2012-01-01

386

Barometer Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experimental activity is designed to develop a basic understanding of the interrelationship between temperature and pressure and the structure of a device made to examine this relationship. Resources needed to conduct this activity include two canning jars, two large rubber balloons, a heat lamp or lamp with 150 watt bulb, and access to freezer or water and ice. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 5 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

387

Using technology to promote science as a basic subject for literacy: A precollege/college/industry/government collaboration  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to ensure that All students have the opportunity to learn science, and it is being accomplished through a unique working model program that: (1) changes the way that teaching and learning take place; (2) incorporates the advanced technology of microscopy directly into the K-12 curriculum; and (3) develops R & D teacher specialists. We conducted three in-service science courses, a Summer Science Microscopy Camp, and a staff development program (the latter funded by a NYS Education Department grant) in which science professors, industrial engineers and scientists interacted with teachers and students to explore the world using high technology. This year, all 5th and 7th graders in the district (200 students) and about 1,000 high school science students are having experiences as active researchers, solving real-life, multi-step problems using all levels of microscopy, including scanning tunneling. Students develop a chronological portfolio, using multimedia formats. Our 1993 Summer Microscopy Camp attendance record was 98%, compared to the typical 75% for other programs.

Redmond, B.L. [Microscopy Facility, New Paltz, NY (United States); Saturnelli, A.M. [Newburgh Free Academy, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

388

Transiting from school science to real engineering by employing materials science and engineering concepts within the school programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientific principles can be learnt by an understanding of materials behaviour in different physical, environmental and chemical situations. In the primary school these principles are often implemented by utilizing everyday materials for use in art or hobby applications. In the high school, as students learn some basic science and mathematics, they can apply this knowledge to analyze the behaviour

Aaron S Blicblau

389

Biology of Mucosally Transmitted Sexual Infection--Translating the Basic Science into Novel HIV Intervention: A Workshop Summary  

PubMed Central

Abstract A group of over 200 international scientists came together on April 15 in Sydney, Australia just before the 2012 International Microbicides Conference as a part of a workshop to address the basic concepts and factors that modulate HIV infection at the mucosal surface. The meeting focused on defining the interaction between virus, prevailing host physiology, microbiota, and innate and adaptive immune responses and how they combine to impact the outcome at the moment of potential viral transmission. Speakers examined the biology of HIV entry during transmission, innate and natural antiviral mechanisms at the mucosa, microbicide efficacy, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamics, animal models, and opportunities for combining HIV prevention strategies. Other viral infection models both in vivo and in vitro were considered for the insights they provided into HIV transmission events. The workshop raised important questions that we need to answer to further our basic understanding of host and viral factors influencing HIV transmission to inform the development of novel prevention strategies. PMID:22966898

Purcell, Damian; Cunningham, Anthony; Turville, Stuart; Tachedjian, Gilda

2012-01-01

390

Basic Stamp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Parallax, Inc. gives some information about basic stamp microcontrollers. A Basic-Stamp microcontroller is a single-board computer. Parallax makes a variety of controllers; the BASIC Stamp II uses a PIC16C57microchip.

2012-10-12

391

K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease  

E-print Network

K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in Agriculture and Linked Natural Systems Using Ecological Principles K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox Summary;K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture

Garrett, Karen A.

392

Machines. Physical Science in Action. Revised Edition. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of physical science. Seven separate units…

Echaore, Susan D.; Wentz, Budd

393

Electrosurgery: part I. Basics and principles.  

PubMed

The term electrosurgery (also called radiofrequency surgery) refers to the passage of high-frequency alternating electrical current through the tissue in order to achieve a specific surgical effect. Although the mechanism behind electrosurgery is not completely understood, heat production and thermal tissue damage is responsible for at least the majority--if not all--of the tissue effects in electrosurgery. Adjacent to the active electrode, tissue resistance to the passage of current converts electrical energy to heat. The only variable that determines the final tissue effects of a current is the depth and the rate at which heat is produced. Electrocoagulation occurs when tissue is heated below the boiling point and undergoes thermal denaturation. An additional slow increase in temperature leads to vaporization of the water content in the coagulated tissue and tissue drying, a process called desiccation. A sudden increase in tissue temperature above the boiling point causes rapid explosive vaporization of the water content in the tissue adjacent to the electrode, which leads to tissue fragmentation and cutting. PMID:24629361

Taheri, Arash; Mansoori, Parisa; Sandoval, Laura F; Feldman, Steven R; Pearce, Daniel; Williford, Phillip M

2014-04-01

394

Basic Chemical Principles 1: Reaction Kinetics  

E-print Network

with radiation can cause chemical events: bonds broken, molecules excited { Creation of radicals Molecular state: Lowest energy con#12;guration of electrons in orbitals #15; To form chemical bond, combine atomic, photo-chemical reactions are important: reactions initiated by light #12; { Interaction of matter

Schofield, Jeremy

395

Epigenetics and child health: basic principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic mechanisms are believed to play an important role in disease, development and ageing with early life representing a window of particular epigenomic plasticity. The knowledge upon which these claims are based is beginning to expand. This review summarises evidence pointing to the determinants of epigenetic patterns, their juxtaposition at the interface of the environment, their influence on gene function

A. Groom; H. R. Elliott; N. D. Embleton; C. L. Relton

2011-01-01

396

Ultrasonic Tests. Pt. 1. Basic Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nondestructive testing (NDT) plays an important part in the field of nuclear power plants operation. The report is concentrated to the primary loop components' ultrasonic NDT. It includes inspection techniques used during fabrication and in service. While...

K. Goebbels

1980-01-01

397

Bilingualism: Beyond Basic Principles. Multilingual Matters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers focuses on individual bilingualism and societal and educational phenomena. After "Introduction and Overview" (Jean-Marc Dewaele, Alex Housen, and Li Wei), 12 papers include: (1) "Who is Afraid of Bilingualism?" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); (2) "The Importance of being Bilingual" (John Edwards); (3) "Towards a More…

Dewaele, Jean-Marc, Ed.; Housen, Alex, Ed.; Wei, Li, Ed.

398

Antioxidants: basic principles, emerging concepts, and problems.  

PubMed

The radical scavenging antioxidants play an essential role in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases, and a thorough understanding of the action and capacity of antioxidants is critically important. Despite the assumption that antioxidants must exert beneficial effects against oxidative stress, many large-scale randomized controlled trials gave inconsistent and disappointing results on the prevention of chronic diseases. It is now generally accepted that there is no evidence to support the use of non-discriminative antioxidant supplements for prevention of diseases. On the other hand, recent data show that antioxidants may be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of diseases when the right antioxidant is given to the right subject at the right time for the right duration. Now it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as physiologically important signaling messengers as well as deleterious agents. The signaling ROS are produced in a subtly regulated manner, while many deleterious ROS are produced and react randomly. Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation products which, in contrast to enzymatic oxidation products, are produced by non-specific mechanisms cause oxidative damage, but may also induce adaptive response to enhance the expression of antioxidant enzymes and compounds. This has raised a question if removal of too many ROS by supplementation of antioxidants may upset the cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic diseases. However, it is unlikely that antioxidants impair physiologically essential signaling pathways. PMID:24923567

Niki, Etsuo

2014-01-01

399

Basic principles in preclinical cancer chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Anticancer agents so far available and their mechanisms of action suffer from the problem of their relatively low selectivity. Their insufficient clinical efficacy against the common, slowly growing solid tumors of the lung, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, urinary bladder, and brain remains disappointing. Recently the possibility has been discussed that the limited clinical activity of current anticancer drugs could result

Norbert Brock; Jiirg Pohl; Berthold Schneider

1990-01-01

400

5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.  

...work” under this part. (d) Time that is considered hours of...either in money or compensatory time off. (f) For the purpose...in a workweek under this part, time spent in a travel status is hours of work as...

2014-01-01

401

Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Benson, S.M.

1997-07-01

402

Models of natural fracture connectivity: Implications for Reservoir permeability. Final report for DOE Basic Energy Sciences, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Fluid flow through fracture networks in a rock mass de ends strongly on the nature of connections between fracture segments and between individual fractures. Therefore the objective of this research project is to develop three dimensional models for natural fracture connectivity using an integrated field, laboratory, and theoretical methodology. The geometric models we have developed are based on detailed field mapping and observations from outcrops of both massive and layered sedimentary rocks, typical of producing oil and gas reservoirs, or of aquifers. Furthermore, we have used computer simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for fracture connectivity (or lack thereof) as single and multiple sets of fractures evolve. The computer models are based on fracture mechanics principles and the laboratory experiments utilize layered composite materials analogous to sedimentary sequences. By identifying the physical mechanisms of connectivity we can relate the degree of connectivity to the geometry, state of stress, and material properties of the reservoir rocks and, in turn, be in a position to evaluate the influence of these factors on fracture permeability.

Pollard, D.D.; Aydin, A.

1995-06-01

403

Models of natural fracture connectivity: Implications for reservoir permeability. Annual report for DOE Basic Energy Sciences, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Fluid flow through fracture networks in a rock mass depends strongly on the nature of connections between fracture segments and between individual fractures. Therefore the objective of this research project is to develop three dimensional models for natural fracture connectivity using an integrated field, laboratory, and theoretical methodology. The geometric models we have developed are based on detailed field mapping and observations from outcrops of both massive and layered sedimentary rocks, typical of producing oil and gas reservoirs, or of aquifers. Furthermore, we have used computer simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for fracture connectivity (or lack thereof) as single and multiple sets of fractures evolve. The computer models are based on fracture mechanics principles and the laboratory experiments utilize layered composite materials analogous to sedimentary sequences. By identifying the physical mechanisms of connectivity we can relate the degree of connectivity to the geometry, state of stress, and material properties of the reservoir rocks and, in turn, be in a position to evaluate the influence of these factors on fracture permeability.

Pollard, D.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Earth Sciences; Aydin, A. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1995-06-01

404

Principles in Remote Sensing: Image Processing and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced, interactive tutorial, learners encounter basic concepts in remote sensing via satellites, and investigate various techniques for manipulating and analyzing satellite images. Topics included include temporal resolution, weather forecasting, adjusting contrast for feature identification, Legrangian Animation, channel combination and color enhancement. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the third of three modules in the tutorial, Principles in Remote Sensing. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

405

Applying Innovative Educational Principles when Classes Grow and Resources Are Limited: Biochemistry Experiences at Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching to large classes is often challenging particularly when the faculty and teaching resources are limited. Innovative, less staff intensive ways need to be explored to enhance teaching and to engage students. We describe our experience teaching biochemistry to 350 students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) under…

Omer, Selma; Hickson, Gilles; Tache, Stephanie; Blind, Raymond; Masters, Susan; Loeser, Helen; Souza, Kevin; Mkony, Charles; Debas, Haile; O'Sullivan, Patricia

2008-01-01

406

Visual Representations in Science Education: The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Cognitive Load Theory on Instructional Design Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual representations are essential for communicating ideas in the science classroom; however, the design of such representations is not always beneficial for learners. This paper presents instructional design considerations providing empirical evidence and integrating theoretical concepts related to cognitive load. Learners have a limited…

Cook, Michelle Patrick

2006-01-01

407

Bernoulli's Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

Hewitt, Paul G.

2004-01-01

408

Careers of an elite cohort of U.S. basic life science postdoctoral fellows and the influence of their mentor's citation record  

PubMed Central

Background There is general agreement that the number of U.S. science PhDs being trained far exceeds the number of future academic positions. One suggested approach to this problem is to significantly reduce the number of PhD positions. A counter argument is that students are aware of the limited academic positions but have chosen a PhD track because it opens other, non-academic, opportunities. The latter view requires that students have objective information about what careers options will be available for them. Methods The scientific careers of the 1992-94 cohort of NIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Kirchstein-NRSA F32 postdoctoral fellows (PD) was determined by following their publications (PubMed), grants (NIH and NSF), and faculty and industry positions through 2009. These basic life science PDs receive support through individual grant applications and represent the most successful class of NIH PDs as judged by academic careers and grants. The sex dependence of the career and grant success and the influence of the PD mentor's citation record were also determined Results Of the 439 1992-94 NIGMS F32 fellows, the careers of 417 could be determined. Although females had significantly higher rates of dropping out of science (22% females, 9% males) there was no significant difference in the fraction of females that ended up as associate or full professors at research universities (22.8% females, 29.1% for males). More males then females ended up in industry (34% males, 22% females). Although there was no significant correlation between male grant success and their mentor's publication record (h index, citations, publications), there was a significant correlation for females. Females whose mentor's h index was in the top quartile were nearly 3 times as likely to receive a major grant as those whose mentors were in the bottom quartile (38.7% versus 13.3%). Conclusions Sixteen years after starting their PD, only 9% of males had dropped out of science. More females (28%) have dropped out of science, primarily because fewer went into industry positions. The mentor's publication record does not affect the future grant success of males but it has a dramatic effect on female grant success. PMID:21078180

2010-01-01

409

Convergence of technologies: the print, web and multimedia united to deliver an integrated basic medical sciences course in a resource limited setting.  

PubMed

This mixed methodology study was conducted at Shifa College of Medicine to see if study guide, module website and multimedia compact disk can be used to deliver an integrated basic sciences course while introducing the concepts of evidence based medicine and how it translates in students' performance. The study guide focused on the management of learning, activities and provision of information. The website was used to introduce evidence based medicine while the multimedia disc provided pictures, videos and animations for organs of special senses. Feedback questionnaire and end of module result were used to evaluate the module and its learning tools. The students agreed that the study guide, module website and multimedia compact disc facilitated their learning experience. PMID:23930886

Tayyab, Ali; Naseem, Kamran

2013-08-01

410

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many physics teachers have an unclear understanding of Bernoulli's principle, particularly when the principle is applied to aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it altogether. The following simplified treatment of the principle ignores most of the complexities of aerodynamics and hopefully will encourage teachers to bring Bernoulli back into the classroom.

Hewitt, Paul G.

2004-09-01

411

Radiation Leukemogenesis: Applying Basic Science of Epidemiological Estimates of Low Dose Risks and Dose-Rate Effects  

SciTech Connect

The next stage of work has been to examine more closely the A-bomb leukemia data which provides the underpinnings of the risk estimation of CML in the above mentioned manuscript. The paper by Hoel and Li (Health Physics 75:241-50) shows how the linear-quadratic model has basic non-linearities at the low dose region for the leukemias including CML. Pierce et. al., (Radiation Research 123:275-84) have developed distributions for the uncertainty in the estimated exposures of the A-bomb cohort. Kellerer, et. al., (Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 36:73-83) has further considered possible errors in the estimated neutron values and with changing RBE values with dose and has hypothesized that the tumor response due to gamma may not be linear. We have incorporated his neutron model and have constricted new A-bomb doses based on his model adjustments. The Hoel and Li dose response analysis has also been applied using the Kellerer neutron dose adjustments for the leukemias. Finally, both Pierce's dose uncertainties and Kellerer neutron adjustments are combined as well as the varying RBE with dose as suggested by Rossi and Zaider and used for leukemia dose-response analysis. First the results of Hoel and Li showing a significantly improved fit of the linear-quadratic dose response by the inclusion of a threshold (i.e. low-dose nonlinearity) persisted. This work has been complete for both solid tumor as well as leukemia for both mortality as well as incidence data. The results are given in the manuscript described below which has been submitted to Health Physics.

Hoel, D. G.

1998-11-01

412

A Reasoning Concept Inventory for Computer Science Joan Krone, Joseph E. Hollingsworth, Murali Sitaraman, and Jason O. Hallstrom  

E-print Network

.clemson.edu ABSTRACT We identify a set of basic reasoning principles for computer science students that are essentialA Reasoning Concept Inventory for Computer Science Joan Krone, Joseph E. Hollingsworth, Murali. #12;1 A Reasoning Concept Inventory for Computer Science Joan Krone Denison University Mathematics

Hallstrom, Jason

413

How can the principles of complexity science be applied to improve the coordination of care for complex pediatric patients?  

PubMed

Clinical and technological advances in medicine have resulted in more patients requiring multidisciplinary care and coordination of services. This is particularly challenging in pediatrics, given the dependency of children. Coordination of care is a key ingredient of quality care; when suboptimal, clinical outcomes and satisfaction can suffer. In this article we view coordination of care through the lens of complexity science in an effort to find new solutions to this healthcare challenge. PMID:16585105

Matlow, A G; Wright, J G; Zimmerman, B; Thomson, K; Valente, M

2006-04-01

414

Goal: Understand some of the basic principles of the chemistry of earth science and envi- Knowledge necessary for solving current and emerging problems  

E-print Network

are chemical constituents of environment 2. How physical and chemical properties determine processes #15; Self-cleansing important in cleansing of atmosphere #15; Jet stream in upper troposphere important in chemical transport

Schofield, Jeremy

415

Reading to learn experimental practice: The role of text and firsthand experience in the acquisition of an abstract science principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the onset of schooling, texts are used as important educational tools. In the primary years, they are integral to learning how to decode and develop fluency. In the later elementary years, they are often essential to the acquisition of academic content. Unfortunately, many children experience difficulties with this process, which is due in large part to their unfamiliarity with the genre of academic texts. The articles presented in this dissertation share an underlying theme of how to develop children's ability to comprehend and learn from academic, and specifically, non-narrative texts. The first article reviews research on the development of non-narrative discourse to elucidate the linguistic precursors to non-narrative text comprehension. The second and third articles draw from an empirical study that investigated the best way to integrate text, manipulation, and first-hand experience for children's acquisition and application of an abstract scientific principle. The scientific principle introduced in the study was the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a fundamental idea underlying scientific reasoning and a strategy for designing unconfounded experiments. Eight grade 4 classes participated in the study (N = 129), in one of three conditions: (a) read procedural text and manipulate experimental materials, (b) listen to procedural text and manipulate experimental materials, or (c) read procedural text with no opportunity to manipulate experimental materials. Findings from the study indicate that children who had the opportunity to read and manipulate materials were most effective at applying the strategy to designing and justifying unconfounded experiments, and evaluating written and physical experimental designs; however, there was no effect of instructional condition on a written assessment of evaluating familiar and unfamiliar experimental designs one week after the intervention. These results suggest that the acquisition and application of an abstract principle is facilitated by the integration of first-hand experience (acquired from physical manipulation) with second-hand knowledge (acquired from reading text). The dissertation also draws on recent proposals that characterize the role of manipulatives, action, and first-hand experience in abstract learning. In addition, it contributes to a growing knowledge base on instructional approaches that facilitate the development of non-narrative discourse.

Richmond, Erica Kesin

416

S100A1 in cardiovascular health and disease: "Closing the gap between basic science and clinical therapy"  

PubMed Central

Calcium (Ca2+) signaling plays a major role in a wide range of physiological functions including control and regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance and vascular tone [1, 2]. As all Ca2+ signals require proteins to relay intracellular Ca2+ oscillations downstream to different signaling networks, a specific toolkit of Ca2+-sensor proteins involving members of the EF-hand S100 Ca2+ binding protein superfamily maintains the integrity of the Ca2+ signaling in a variety of cardiac and vascular cells, transmitting the message with great precision and in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner [3–6]. Indeed, the possibility that S100 proteins might contribute to heart and vascular diseases was first suggested by the discovery of distinctive patterns of S100 expression in healthy and diseased hearts and vasculature from humans and animal heart failure (HF) models [7–18]. Based on more elaborate genetic studies in mice and strategies to manipulate S100 protein expression in human cardiac, skeletal muscle and vascular cells, it is now apparent that the integrity of distinct S100 protein isoforms in striated muscle and vascular cells such as S100A1, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8/A9 or S100B is a basic requirement for normal cardiovascular and muscular development and function; loss of integrity would naturally lead to profound deregulation of the implicated Ca2+ signaling systems with detrimental consequences to cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular function [7–20]. The brief debate and discussion here are confined by design to the biological actions and pathophysiological relevance of the EF-hand Ca2+-sensor protein S100A1 in the heart, vasculature and skeletal muscle with a particular focus on current translational therapeutic strategies [4, 21, 22]. By virtue of its ability to modulate the activity of numerous key effector proteins that are essentially involved in the control of Ca2+- and NO-homeostasis in cardiac, sketelal muscle and vascular cells, S100A1 has been proven to play a critical role both in cardiac performance, blood pressure regulation and skeletal muscle function [4, 21, 23]. Given that deregulated S100A1 expression in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells has recently been linked to heart failure and hypertension [4, 21, 23], it is arguably a molecular target of considerable clinical interest as S100A1 targeted therapies have already been successfully investigated in preclinical translational studies. PMID:19538970

Kraus, Carolin; Rohde, David; Weidenhammer, Christian; Qiu, Gang; Pleger, Sven T.; Voelkers, Mirko; Boerries, Melanie; Remppis, Andrew; Katus, Hugo A.; Most, Patrick

2009-01-01

417

Policy Name: Coordinated Timetabling: Principles, Rules & Responsibilities  

E-print Network

Policy Name: Coordinated Timetabling: Principles, Rules & Responsibilities Originating-President (Students and Enrolment) and University Registrar Policy: Coordinated Timetabling Policies: i) Principles of Timetabling, ii) Basic Rules of Timetabling and iii) Academic Timetable Responsibilities ­ Chairs

Carleton University

418

Methodological principles of modern thermodynamics  

E-print Network

The article describes basic principles of the theory which unites thermodynamics of reversible and irreversible processes also extends them methods on processes of transfer and transformation of any forms of energy

V. A. Etkin

2014-01-02

419

GERSHON H. GORDON FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

of the disciplines of sociology and anthropology by systematically examining the basic principles of social structureGERSHON H. GORDON FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Applicants for the academic year 2013/14 must take, international economics, labor economics, and financial economics. 1041 Sociology and Anthropology (dm

Gefen, Amit

420

Machâs Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from Kyoto University, provides a discussion of Machâs Principle, a concept that played an important role in forming Einstein's theory of general relativity. Excerpts from Machâs original text are examined and discussed for his ideas that are closely related to this principle. The general ambiguity of Machâs Principle, and Einsteinâs interpretations of it are also presented.

Uchii, Soshichi

2007-10-10

421

Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences--an ongoing science and policy success story.  

PubMed

In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most, ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C. PMID:23858990

Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

2013-06-01

422

Science, Technology, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lecture notes cover the effects of science and technology on society and how our understanding of the basic structure and operating principles of the universe has affected human lives. Examples of beneficial technology are listed including agricultural genetics, disease control, and a case-study of the benefits of electricity. This is contrasted with technological excesses, but the irony is that without technology, fewer people would survive. Besides exploring some ethical questions and supporting technology, suggestions for science and technology policy are presented.

O'Connell, Robert W.

2009-07-06

423

Basic Equality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a three-part study and defense of the idea of basic human equality. (This is the idea that humans are basically one another's equals, as opposed to more derivative theories of the dimensions in which we ought to be equal or the particular implications that equality might have for public policy.) Part (1) of the paper examines the very

Jeremy Waldron

2008-01-01

424

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) consensus on science with treatment recommendations for pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic and advanced life support.  

PubMed

This publication contains the pediatric and neonatal sections of the 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations (COSTR). The consensus process that produced this document was sponsored by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). ILCOR was formed in 1993 and consists of representatives of resuscitation councils from all over the world. Its mission is to identify and review international science and knowledge relevant to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) and to generate consensus on treatment recommendations. ECC includes all responses necessary to treat life-threatening cardiovascular and respiratory events. The COSTR document presents international consensus statements on the science of resuscitation. ILCOR member organizations are each publishing resuscitation guidelines that are consistent with the science in this consensus document, but they also take into consideration geographic, economic, and system differences in practice and the regional availability of medical devices and drugs. The American Heart Association (AHA) pediatric and the American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA neonatal sections of the resuscitation guidelines are reprinted in this issue of Pediatrics (see pages e978-e988). The 2005 evidence evaluation process began shortly after publication of the 2000 International Guidelines for CPR and ECC. The process included topic identification, expert topic review, discussion and debate at 6 international meetings, further review, and debate within ILCOR member organizations and ultimate approval by the member organizations, an Editorial Board, and peer reviewers. The complete COSTR document was published simultaneously in Circulation (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation. 2005;112(suppl):73-90) and Resuscitation (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation. 2005;67:271-291). Readers are encouraged to review the 2005 COSTR document in its entirety. It can be accessed through the CPR and ECC link at the AHA Web site: www.americanheart.org. The complete publication represents the largest evaluation of resuscitation literature ever published and contains electronic links to more detailed information about the international collaborative process. To organize the evidence evaluation, ILCOR representatives established 6 task forces: basic life support, advanced life support, acute coronary syndromes, pediatric life support, neonatal life support, and an interdisciplinary task force to consider overlapping topics such as educational issues. The AHA established additional task forces on stroke and, in collaboration with the American Red Cross, a task force on first aid. Each task force identified topics requiring evaluation and appointed international experts to review them. A detailed worksheet template was created to help the experts document their literature review, evaluate studies, determine levels of evidence, develop treatment recommendations, and disclose conflicts of interest. Two evidence evaluation experts reviewed all worksheets and assisted the worksheet reviewers to ensure that the worksheets met a consistently high standard. A total of 281 experts completed 403 worksheets on 275 topics, reviewing more than 22000 published studies. In December 2004 the evidence review and summary portions of the evidence evaluation worksheets, with worksheet author conflict of interest statements, were posted on the Internet at www.C2005.org, where readers can continue to access them. Journal advertisements and e-mails invited public comment. Two hundred forty-nine worksheet authors (141 from the United States and 108 from 17 other countries) and addi

2006-05-01

425

A Faculty Development Program can result in an improvement of the quality and output in medical education, basic sciences and clinical research and patient care.  

PubMed

The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International.The traditional teacher- and discipline-centred curriculum was displaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum, which has been named Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem-Oriented Learning (DIPOL). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany.The students play a very important strategic role in all processes. They are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. The Faculty Development program, including a reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification, resulted in an improvement of the quality and output of medical education and was accompanied in an improvement of the quality and output of basic sciences and clinical research and interdisciplinary patient care. PMID:19288314

Dieter, Peter Erich

2009-07-01

426

Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment.  

PubMed

Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review. PMID:23162229

Topaz, Moris

2012-05-01

427

Health Instruction Packages: Basic Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in a set of nine learning modules designed to instruct nursing and allied health students in a variety of biological topics. The first module, by Barbara Cathey, discusses cell growth and the proliferation of cells in benign and malignant tumors. The second module, by Eugene Volz, describes the…

Cathey, Barbara; And Others

428

Basic Hydrologic Sciences: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed for an international audience with a broad background, this course is designed to address the needs of non-hydrologists who work with hydrologic data, particularly in flood forecasting. The course provides an understanding of the complex interactions between the ground, waters and atmosphere, and will prepare the student for further study in hydrologic methods and forecasting. The course is based on materials originally developed for NOAA forecasters, but adapted so that the topics presented include a variety of hydrologic forecast methods applicable to a audiences in varied locations. All units are presented in the International System of Units (SI).

Smith, Andrea

1999-09-09

429

Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology: Basic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of neurogastroenterology in Rome II was the enteric nervous system (ENS). To avoid duplication with Rome II, only advances in ENS neurobiology after Rome II are reviewed together with stronger emphasis on in- teractions of the brain, spinal cord, and the gut in terms of relevance for abdominal pain and disordered gastro- intestinal function. A committee with expertise

DAVID GRUNDY; ELIE D. AL-CHAER; QASIM AZIZ; STEPHEN M. COLLINS; MEIYUN KE; YVETTE TACHÉ; JACKIE D. WOOD

2006-01-01

430

Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: Science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist–practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive

Scott O. Lilienfeld; Rachel Ammirati; Michal David

431

Positron Emission Tomography: Principles, Technology, and Recent Developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technique for quantitative measurement of physiologic parameters in vivo (an overview of principles and applications can be found in [P.E. Valk, et al., eds. Positron Emission Tomography. Basic Science and Clinical Practice. 2003, Springer: Heidelberg]), based on the detection of small amounts of posi-tron-emitter-labelled biologic molecules. Various radiotracers are available for neuro-logical, cardiological, and oncological applications in the clinic and in research proto-cols. This overview describes the basic principles, technology, and recent develop-ments in PET, followed by a section on the development of a tomograph with ava-lanche photodiodes dedicated for small animal imaging as an example of efforts in the domain of high resolution tomographs.

Ziegler, Sibylle I.

2005-04-01

432

Basic HTML  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most web designers use an editor, it is a good idea to have a working knowledge of HTML code. It is useful to be able to go into the code and make adjustments that an editor will not do. knowing HTML will give you more control over the look and function of your web site. Remember that this is just the basics but will provide you with the tools to design great web sites. Assignment Instructions: Go through the HTML Goodies Primers. You will create some basic web pages in these primers. E-mail your instructor each primer assignment at tami.warnick@cmacademy.org Primer 1: Basic HTML: Introduction Instructions: Read through the primer and then send your instructor a breif summary of what you learned. Primer 2: Learn the Basic HTML Tags! Instructions: After ...

Warnick, Mrs.

2009-12-04

433

Basic Finance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

Vittek, J. F.

1972-01-01

434

The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

1976-01-01

435

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Baccalaureate Degree, Radiation Sciences  

E-print Network

: 027:053 Human Anatomy (3sh) 060:113 Human Anatomy Online (4sh) 060:099 Anatomy Physiology for Radiation Sciences (4sh) 060:110 Principles of Human Anatomy (3sh) AND one of the following: 029:008 Basic · Prerequisite Courses: - Rhetoric: 010:003 Accelerated Rhetoric (4 sh) - Natural Sciences: anatomy, one of these

436

Online Courses: MSU National Teachers Enhancement Network: The Dirt on Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dirt on Soil Science is a 1 credit graduate course for K-6 elementary school teachers who are interested in understanding the basic principles of soil science. This online course lasts 6-weeks and includes conversing with your instructor and classmat

1900-01-01

437

The Science Workbook of Student Research Projects in Food - Agriculture - Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook provides descriptions of research projects for high school and middle school science teachers and students. The projects can be used as demonstrations in the laboratory or classroom to help teachers illustrate the practical application of basic science principles. They can also be used by students, under the guidance of the teachers,…

Darrow, Edward E., Ed.

438

Principles of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This modern textbook provides a complete survey of the broad field of statistical mechanics. Based on a series of lectures, it adopts a special pedagogical approach. The authors, both excellent lecturers, clearly distinguish between general principles and their applications in solving problems. Analogies between phase transitions in fluids and magnets using continuum and spin models are emphasized, leading to a better understanding. Such special features as historical notes, summaries, problems, mathematical appendix, computer programs and order of magnitude estimations distinguish this volume from competing works. Due to its ambitious level and an extensive list of references for technical details on advanced topics, this is equally a must for researchers in condensed matter physics, materials science, polymer science, solid state physics, and astrophysics. From the contents Thermostatics: phase stability, phase equilibria, phase transitions; Statistical Mechanics: calculation, correlation functions, ideal classical gases, ideal quantum gases; Interacting Systems: models, computer simulation, mean-field approximation; Interacting Systems beyond Mean-field Theory: scaling and renormalization group, foundations of statistical mechanics "The present book, however, is unique that it both is written in a very pedagogic, easily comprehensible style, and, nevertheless, goes from the basic principles all the way to these modern topics, containing several chapters on the various approaches of mean field theory, and a chapter on computer simulation. A characteristic feature of this book is that often first some qualitative arguments are given, or a "pedestrians's approach", and then a more general and/or more rigorous derivation is presented as well. Particularly useful are also "supplementary notes", pointing out interesting applications and further developments of the subject, a detailed bibliography, problems and historical notes, and many pedagogic figures."

Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich

2000-09-01

439

Teaching/learning principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

440

Buridan's Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

Lamport, Leslie

2012-08-01

441

Pascal's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's Principle, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the principle include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.

Nave, Carl R.

2011-11-28

442

Thinking about Thinking and Emotion: The Metacognitive Approach to the Medical Humanities that Integrates the Humanities with the Basic and Clinical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma for medical educators. We can no longer expect students to continue memorizing this large body of increasingly complex knowledge. Instead, our efforts should be redirected at developing in students a competency as flexible thinkers and agile learners so they can adeptly deal with new knowledge, complexity, and uncertainty in a rapidly changing world. Such a competency would entail not only cognitive but also emotional skills essential for the holistic development of their professional identity. This article will argue that metacognition—“thinking about thinking (and emotion)”—offers the most viable path toward developing this competency. The overwhelming volume of medical knowledge has driven some medical schools to reduce the time allocated in their curricula to the “soft-option” humanities as they tend to consider them an expendable “luxury.” Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, has moved away from the traditional conception of the medical humanities as “the arts,” composed of art, music, and literature, toward an approach that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences, based on metacognition. This metacognitive approach to the humanities, described in this article, has three goals: 1) to develop students as flexible thinkers and agile learners and to provide them with essential cognitive and emotional skills for navigating medical complexity and uncertainty; 2) to elicit in students empathy and tolerance by making them aware of the immense diversity in human cognition (and emotion); and 3) to integrate the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences. Through this metacognitive approach, students come to understand their patterns of cognition and emotions, and in the group setting, they learn to mindfully calibrate their thinking and emotions. They gain a humbling appreciation of the fallibility of the human mind/brain and how cognitive biases and misperceptions can lead to medical error. They come to appreciate the complex interplay between cognition and emotion, and the importance of cognitive monitoring and emotional regulation. In the group setting, students also gain a sense of perspective of their thinking patterns and emotions in relation to those of their peers. Perspective taking and mindfulness engender tolerance and empathy, which ultimately serves as a platform for working collaboratively in teams as medical professionals. Students become aware of the social context in which thinking and learning occur, and this further shapes their professional identity. Thinking, learning, and interacting in the group setting ultimately induces a shift from self-preoccupation and an individualistic approach to knowledge toward an appreciation of collective cognition and empathy towards others. In this article, I describe the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and how it is designed to develop students as agile learners and flexible thinkers with the mindful capacity for cognitive and emotional monitoring and regulation. Thinking and learning in the group setting of the colloquium ultimately also fosters the student’s professional identity.

Eichbaum, Quentin G

2014-01-01

443

Basic Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by National Aerospace Technical Education Center (SpaceTEC), is centered on basic electricity. The presentation focuses on standards for SpaceTEC certification. Safety when using electricity is the focal point of the slides. Basic diagrams and charts illustrate the do and donâÂÂts when using electrical appliances. After the discussion of safety, the presentation shifts to the fundamental aspects of electricity. Such items as current, flow, voltage and other elements are discussed. Examples are used as representations of these basic processes. Overall, this is thorough presentation of this material. It totals nearly one-hundred twenty slides in length. Instructors could use this either as a presentation or simply to enhance existing curriculum.

2009-10-06

444

What basic–applied issue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Factors (HF) is the scientific discipline concerned with the interactions among humans and built systems. HF psychologists are often involved in a supposed tug-of-war between the basic and applied scientific research communities. We suggest, however, that there really is no meaningful distinction between basic and applied science. We provide historical examples, medieval, modern and contemporary, demonstrating that a fundamental

William S. Helton; Simon Kemp

2011-01-01

445

Basic Laboratory Methods in a Regulated Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biotechnology transforms knowledge that emerges from life science research into technology, the creation of products of value to people. Beginning biotechnology students therefore need to develop a strong foundation in laboratory science that is integrated with an understanding of product quality. This course provides students with a foundation in basic concepts and techniques necessary to work as effective professionals in a biotechnology laboratory or small scale production facility. The course emphasizes metrology (the study of measurements), solution preparation, performing assays, and basic biological separation methods. These fundamental laboratory techniques are essential for student success in later molecular biology, cell culture, bioprocessing, analytical, and other specialized courses. Throughout the course the principles of product quality systems (e.g., Good Manufacturing/Laboratory Practices and ISO 9000) are integrated as students explore documentation, calibration, accuracy and precision, error reduction, trouble-shooting, verification and validation of assays, and other quality concepts. Integrating a "quality-mindset" into their laboratory work is important both for students who plan to work in a biotechnology company and for students who some day aspire to generate meaningful results in a research environment.

Mowery, Jeanette; Seidman, Lisa A.

2011-11-21

446

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

447

Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.

1985-01-01

448

Basic cosmology  

E-print Network

Basic cosmology describes the universe as a Robertson-Walker model filled with black-body radiation and no barionic matter, and as observational data it uses only the value of the speed of light, the Hubble and deceleration parameters and the black-body temperature at the present epoch. It predicts the value of the next new parameter in the Hubble law.

Ll. Bel

2014-03-22

449

Dispersion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A webcast presentation by Dr. Timothy Spangler (Director of the COMET Program and a former air quality consultant). This 25-minute lecture provides an overview of the basics of dispersion, the effects of different atmospheric conditions on dispersion, and how dispersion is commonly modeled after an accidental release of a hazardous material.

Comet

2002-11-12

450

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-science Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments, worksheets, and interactive classroom learning techniques such as Peer Instruction (PI) and SCALE-UP.2 It was found that the new course showed an increase in students' class participation, attendance, and overall interest, with most rating their science experience as very positive.

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-12-01

451

Basic AC Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

reated by Tony R. Kuphaldt with help from Harvey Lew, Duane Damiano, Mark D. Zarella, John Symonds, and Jason Starck, this chapter of All About Circuit's second volume on Alternating Current describes the basic theory and principles at work. The chapter is divided into six sections: What is alternating current?, AC waveforms, Measurements of AC magnitude, Simple AC circuit calculations, AC phase, and Principles of radio. Each section has clear illustrations and a concise, bulleted review of what was covered at the end. There is also a link to the All About Circuits forums, where contributors and other visitors discuss the material presented. This is an excellent resource for educators in physics and electronic engineering classrooms to introduce lessons or units on alternating current.

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-15

452

Corrosion: Understanding the basics  

SciTech Connect

This new book presents a practical how to approach to understanding and solving the problems of corrosion of structural materials. Although it is written mainly for those having a limited technical background in corrosion, it also provides more experienced engineers with a useful overview of the principles of corrosion and can be used as a general guide for developing a corrosion-control program. Contents include: the effects and economic impact of corrosion; basic concepts important to corrosion; principles of aqueous corrosion; forms of corrosion: recognition and prevention; types of corrosive environments; corrosion characteristics of structural materials; corrosion control by proper design; corrosion control by materials selection; corrosion control by protective coatings and inhibitors; corrosion control by cathodic and anodic protection; corrosion testing and monitoring; techniques for diagnosis of corrosion failures; and glossary of corrosion-related terms.

Davis, J.R. [ed.

2000-07-01

453

Basic lubrication equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

454

Using ICT to Teach "Hard to Teach" Topics in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science is a wonderful subject to teach. Often characterised as "hard", it is a subject that has evolved constantly over the years by adopting new practices. In recent years, these have included many aspects of ICT, which was the starting point for the author and his team's project. The basic principles of the project were that: (1) subject…

Oakes, Malcolm

2009-01-01

455

Systems Science Approach to Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

456

PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY Faculty: Science  

E-print Network

PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY Faculty: Science Department: Basic Sciences 1 of 3 Pages Module Name of the basic concepts of mathematical modeling * Have an understanding of the topics of statistical modeling: Basic Sciences 2 of 3 Pages Module Outline: Subject Week Day (1) 08/10 ­12/10 Modeling basics (2) 15

457

GPS Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Aviation Administration maintains the graphically impressive Global Positioning System (GPS) Basics Web site. From the history of the global positioning system and how it works to governmental policy that controls its use, this site does a good job of explaining all facets of what GPS is about without being overly technical. Interested visitors can explore some of the other links that cover satellite navigation topics as well, such as GPS programs; a library of documents, fact sheets, press releases, and news; frequently asked questions; links; and more. Anyone interested in mapping, navigation, or similar subjects will enjoy exploring the interesting information provided on this well designed site.

458

Basic Laboratory Techniques in Cell Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a reference and instructional manual for the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Course Number 8270-C, 'Basic Laboratory Techniques in Cell Culture.' It covers pertinent cell biology, cell culture terminology and definitions, the principles and meth...

B. R. Bird, F. T. Forrester

1981-01-01

459

Principles in Remote Sensing: Earth Observations from Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced, interactive tutorial, learners become familiar with basic concepts related to remote sensing of the Earth by satellites. Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, as well as different types of onboard sensors, are examined for their applicability to various real-world data collection and research applications. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Principles in Remote Sensing. (Note: requires Java plug-in).

460

Science in Basic Functional Education: Philosophy, Approaches, Methods and Materials. Report of a Preparatory Working Group Meeting (Seoul, Rep. of Korea, July 7-12, 1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents papers delivered at a 1975 meeting on science education held in the Republic of Korea and attended by participants from India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, and Sri Lanka. The objectives of the meeting were: (1) to explore problems, issues, approaches, and strategies in science education at the…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

461

La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen I. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume I. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the first in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) ecology (what…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

462

La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen II. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume II. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. This guide is divided into three components. The first component…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

463

Science Sacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

Freudenberg, Kimberlee

2012-01-01

464

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

465

Can Science `explain' Consciousness ?  

E-print Network

Consciousness is the process by which one attributes `meaning' to the world. Considering F$\\phi$llesdal's definition of `meaning' as the joint product of all `evidence' that is available to those who `communicate', we conclude that science can, not only reduce all the {\\em evidence} to a Basic Entity (we call BE), but also can `explain' consciousness once a suitable definition for {\\em communication} is found that exploits the quantum superposition principle to incorporate the fuzzyness of our experience. Consciousness may be beyond `computability', but it is not beyond `communicability'.

M K Samal

2000-02-24

466

Project Earth Science: Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The forecast for learning meteorology is bright! With nineteen hands-on activities, ten readings, and a thorough resource guide, Project Earth Science: Meteorology brings the atmosphere right into the classroom. Designed for small budgets, Meteorology is teacher-written and classroom-tested, with ready-to-use, self-directed activities. These activities require students to make clouds and hail; build weather maps; and understand the causes of smog, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Whether it's exploring basic principles or following real-world examples, your students will agree--discovering how weather works was never this much fun!

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

467

Statistical learning methods: Basics, control and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition

J. Zimmermann

2006-01-01

468

Wave basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wave properties are the basis for many concepts in science. This activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to waves, wavelength, amplitude, and frequency. Here students can drag a chain of particles in any direction to simulate the resulting wave motion. Students can also manipulate the density of the fluid. Three pop-up boxes provide students with activities and explanations for amplitude, frequency, and wavelength. The amplitude activity enables students to vary and view the swing of a pendulum over time. Students study frequency by varying the period of a wave and watching the response graphed over time. The wavelength activity has students measure the wavelength of a wave. Students are informed when they have answered correctly. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

469

Principles of Semiconductor Devices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home page of an online and interactive textbook, Principles of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.

2011-06-13

470

Principles of traditional animation applied to 3D computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the basic principles of traditional 2D hand drawn animation and their application to 3D computer animation. After describing how these principles evolved, the individual principles are detailed, addressing their meanings in 2D hand drawn animation and their application to 3D computer animation. This should demonstrate the importance of these principles to quality 3D computer animation.

John Lasseter

1987-01-01

471

S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education. Commentary from the Scientific Grassroots. A White Paper on the Issues and Need for Public Funding of Basic Science and Engineering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the results of an ad hoc workshop called "S.E.E.ing the Future: Science Engineering and Education" Held at Dartmouth College in November of 2000 and sponsored by Dartmouth, the National Science Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company, and Science Service of Washington, DC. This transdisciplinary conference was one of a series…

Jemison, Mae C., Ed.

472

Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

Roach, Linda E., Ed.

473

A Basic Introduction to Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ecology is the science that studies the interactions and relationships that exist among living organisms with each other and their environment. This selection offers tools necessary to define ecology, while gaining a better understanding of its application to real world experiences. It offers instruction in basic ecological terms, while explaining the meaning of the biotic and abiotic factors within an environment and presents examples of those influences. You will also find information necessary to identify the basic factors necessary for living.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

474

Radar principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

475

Remote Sensing Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introduction to Earth observation includes definitions of several terms, examples taken from real situations, and questions, answers, and exercises. A simple example of traditional chorological mapping methods and is used to show some fundamental principles of satellite images. Histogram, pixel and classification are introduced. There are discussions about remote sensing, the history of Earth observation, and geostationary and solar synchronous orbits. In addition, the basic physical concepts underlying remote sensing are explained, with the help of some relatively simple viewgraphs. This site is also available in German, French, Italian and Spanish.

476

Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

477

Novel interpretation of synchro principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a now interpretation of synchro principles. Approximate equations for currant and torque in a synchro may be established directly from synchronous machine theory. However, this analysis is built up from fundamental laws in order to establish a theory especially adapted to synchros.The investigation centres on obtaining the basic mathematical relations governing the electro-mechanical operation of a

F. L. N-NAGY; B. D. McNULTY

1969-01-01

478

Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01