Science.gov

Sample records for basic science principles

  1. Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

  2. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  3. Using "Basic Principles" to Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of nicotine and its carboxylic acid salts found in tobacco provided as an interesting example to understand basic principles of complex science. The result showed that the experimental data used were inconsistent to the conclusion made, and the transfer of nicotine smoke from tobacco to smoke cannot be…

  4. Using "Basic Principles" to Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of nicotine and its carboxylic acid salts found in tobacco provided as an interesting example to understand basic principles of complex science. The result showed that the experimental data used were inconsistent to the conclusion made, and the transfer of nicotine smoke from tobacco to smoke cannot be

  5. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  6. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  7. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  8. Three basic principles of success.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2003-06-01

    Basic business principles all but ensure success when they are followed consistently. Putting strategies, objectives and tactics in place is the first step toward being able to document systems, initiate scripting and improve staff training. Without the basic steps, systems, scripting and training the practice for performance would be hit or miss, at best. More importantly, applying business principles ensures that limited practice resources are dedicated to the achievement of the strategy. By following this simple, three-step process, a dental practice can significantly enhance both financial success and dentist and staff satisfaction. PMID:12839415

  9. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  10. [Basic science and applied science].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html PMID:11547597

  11. Basic principles of flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J Philip

    2002-04-01

    Although the basic principles of flow cytometry have changed little in the past quarter century, the applications of this technology have evolved substantially. As in the past, cytometers interrogate individual cells or particles in a stream with a laser as the cells move past a set of stationary detectors. Increasingly, more colors of fluorescence are being detected by cytometers, faster analysis and sorting rates are becoming possible, cytometers capable of multidirectional sorting are being marketed, and more reagents are becoming available for a wide variety of applications. Furthermore, flow cytometry has not stopped evolving. The development of narrow spectrum flourescent probes, the integration of molecular biologic techniques with flow cytometry, and the evaluation of cell-free markers such as cytokines will be key components in the continuing evolution of flow cytometry. PMID:12094472

  12. Reflections on basic science.

    PubMed

    Piatigorsky, Joram

    2010-01-01

    After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research-free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts-and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I never would have considered if I were conducting translational research. My investigations ranged from jellyfish to mice and resulted in the gene-sharing concept, which showed that the same protein can have distinct molecular functions depending upon its expression pattern and, conversely, that different proteins can serve similar functional roles. This essay portrays basic science as a creative narrative, comparable to literary and artistic endeavors. Preserving the autonomy of open-ended basic research and recognizing its artistic, narrative qualities will accelerate the development of innovative concepts, create a rich resource of information feeding translational research, and have a positive impact by attracting creative individuals to science. PMID:21037410

  13. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time spent by an employee performing...

  14. Basic Scientific Principles of Diving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Don

    1976-01-01

    Described are some of the physical and physiological scientific principles related to diving. The article is written as supplementary information for a teacher and includes suggested activities, a keyed test, and a bibliography. This article complements one on Sea Lab II in the same issue. (MA)

  15. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How Can They Predict Students' Understanding of Basic Science Concepts and Principles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-01-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science…

  16. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  17. Photovoltaics: Basic Design Principles and Components

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This publication will introduce you to the basic design principles and components of PV systems. It will also help you discuss these systems knowledgeably with an equipment supplier or system installer.

  18. [Neuroprotection. Models and basic principles].

    PubMed

    Kempski, O S

    1994-11-01

    This review describes recently recognized pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for brain damage during ischemia and reperfusion and new therapeutic concepts developed on a rational basis. Mediators of secondary damage include excitotoxins such as glutamate, acidosis, free radicals, and the disturbance of the microcirculation seen in the early phase of recirculation. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter, which may turn neurotoxic when the energy supply is limited. Tissue acidosis down to pH 6.0 develops regularly in cerebral ischemia and disturbs a variety of neuronal functions, causing glial swelling and neuronal death. Free radicals attack brain lipids, the cell membrane and myelin in particular, and are produced during reperfusion. Disturbance of the microcirculation aggravates ischemic damage. Suggested therapeutic approaches include glutamate antagonists, normalization of tissue acidosis, and use of new diuretics to reduce glial swelling, protection of the brain by free radical scavengers such as 21-aminosteroids, tocopherol, allopurinol or superoxide dismutase, and hypothermia. Ways of ensuring fast reperfusion, including hypervolemic hemodilution and blood pressure stabilization, are suggested for resuscitation or early stroke. All data available indicate that the combination of several successful therapeutic principles will significantly improve outcome. PMID:7840411

  19. Basic principles of variable speed drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    An understanding of the principles which govern variable speed drive operation is discussed for successful drive application. The fundamental factors of torque, speed ratio, and power as they relate to drive selection are discussed. The basic types of variable speed drives, their operating characteristics and their applications are also presented.

  20. Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

    2005-01-01

    This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

  1. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor... determine an employee's entitlement to minimum wages or overtime pay under the Act, and shall not be used...

  2. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor... determine an employee's entitlement to minimum wages or overtime pay under the Act, and shall not be used...

  3. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor... determine an employee's entitlement to minimum wages or overtime pay under the Act, and shall not be used...

  4. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor... determine an employee's entitlement to minimum wages or overtime pay under the Act, and shall not be used...

  5. Some basic principles of a "LISA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinet, Jean-Yves

    2013-04-01

    A Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a concept studied and developed since a few decades both by European and American teams. Its aim is to study the gravitational wave signals emitted by astrophysical sources such as supermassive black hole (SMBH) coalescences, captures of compact objects by SMBHs, compact galactic binaries, etc. The LISA mission has been first an ESA/NASA mission (1998-2011), then became an ESA mission under the name of NGO (2012): it could hopefully be proposed for selection in 2013. The very basic principles of such a mission still deserve a presentation, being quite generic: this is the aim of the present article.

  6. Basic Science and The NIH

    PubMed Central

    Varmus, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following is an edited version of the Keynote Speech delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology by Harold Varmus, Director of the National Institutes of Health. The address, entitled Basic Science and the NIH, was given at the opening of the meeting in New Orleans on December 11, 1993. It was Varmus' first public policy talk as NIH Director. PMID:8049519

  7. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  8. Predicting microbial nitrogen pathways from basic principles.

    PubMed

    van de Leemput, Ingrid A; Veraart, Annelies J; Dakos, Vasilis; de Klein, Jeroen J M; Strous, Marc; Scheffer, Marten

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen compounds are transformed by a complicated network of competing geochemical processes or microbial pathways, each performed by a different ecological guild of microorganisms. Complete experimental unravelling of this network requires a prohibitive experimental effort. Here we present a simple model that predicts relative rates of hypothetical nitrogen pathways, based only on the stoichiometry and energy yield of the performed redox reaction, assuming competition for resources between alternative pathways. Simulating competing pathways in hypothetical freshwater and marine sediment situations, we surprisingly found that much of the variation observed in nature can simply be predicted from these basic principles. Investigating discrepancies between observations and predictions led to two important biochemical factors that may create barriers for the viability of pathways: enzymatic costs for long pathways and high ammonium activation energy. We hypothesize that some discrepancies can be explained by non-equilibrium dynamics. The model predicted a pathway that has not been discovered in nature yet: the dismutation of nitrite to the level of nitrate and dinitrogen gas. PMID:21429064

  9. Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology: basic science.

    PubMed

    Grundy, David; Al-Chaer, Elie D; Aziz, Qasim; Collins, Stephen M; Ke, Meiyun; Taché, Yvette; Wood, Jackie D

    2006-04-01

    The focus of neurogastroenterology in Rome II was the enteric nervous system (ENS). To avoid duplication with Rome II, only advances in ENS neurobiology after Rome II are reviewed together with stronger emphasis on interactions of the brain, spinal cord, and the gut in terms of relevance for abdominal pain and disordered gastrointestinal function. A committee with expertise in selective aspects of neurogastroenterology was invited to evaluate the literature and provide a consensus overview of the Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology textbook as they relate to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review is an abbreviated version of a fuller account that appears in the forthcoming book, Rome III. This report reviews current basic science understanding of visceral sensation and its modulation by inflammation and stress and advances in the neurophysiology of the ENS. Many of the concepts are derived from animal studies in which the physiologic mechanisms underlying visceral sensitivity and neural control of motility, secretion, and blood flow are examined. Impact of inflammation and stress in experimental models relative to FGIDs is reviewed as is human brain imaging, which provides a means for translating basic science to understanding FGID symptoms. Investigative evidence and emerging concepts implicate dysfunction in the nervous system as a significant factor underlying patient symptoms in FGIDs. Continued focus on neurogastroenterologic factors that underlie the development of symptoms will lead to mechanistic understanding that is expected to directly benefit the large contingent of patients and care-givers who deal with FGIDs. PMID:16678554

  10. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  11. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  12. Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…

  13. The Basic Principle of the Near-Field Superlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungsik

    To overcome the diffraction limit in the optical imaging, the superlens with superresolution are developed using negative index materials. In this part, the basic principle of the near-field superlens is explained in details.

  14. Developments in physical chemistry and basic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, H.Y. )

    1992-04-01

    The metallurgical industry faces challenges in the development and production of new products in response to rapidly changing technologies that demand materials with widely different properties and increasingly stringent quality control. Such materials include semiconductors, ultrahigh-purity metals, chemical-vapor-deposited metallic films, high-performance intermetallics, metallic superconductors, and metal-based composites. In view of this, the author propounded the establishment of value-addition metallurgy as a subdiscipline of extractive and process metallurgy. Such a subdiscipline would cover the principles and practice involved in the production of these value-added advanced materials based on metals. In this respect, this annual review article now includes a section covering papers concerned with these topics.

  15. One Man's Approach to a Basic Course in Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents a twofold approach to teaching basic geology based on five principles to make science accessible to students who think they are bored with or afraid of the subject. The approach focuses on: appealing to the mind (to attack boredom) and appealing to the emotions (to attack fear). (BC)

  16. Ergonomic principles basic to hand tool design.

    PubMed

    Tichauer, E R; Gage, H

    1977-11-01

    A survey of those features of hand tools relevant to the physical interaction between the implement and the human operator. Concepts basics to the optimization of forces are mentioned, followed by a description of some of the more common physiological problems and musculoskeletal complaints associated with improper hand tool and design and usage. An account of the distribution of contact pressures and possible consequences, if these are excessive, is followed by a description of the role of working gloves as related to ergonomic problems and their possible relationships to occupational diseases of the hand and wrist. Some aspects of anatomy and anthropometry pertinent to the optimization of posture, motion patterns and tool size precede a list of desirable features for power tools. A glossary is included as an aid to the reader. The concepts and situations described are applicable to the design and use of the vast majority of hand tools. PMID:930811

  17. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  18. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently. PMID:23851585

  19. GOCE: Its principles and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R.; Gruber, T.; Albertella, W.; Yi, A.

    2012-12-01

    GOCE is the first satellite mission with a gravity gradiometer. It is very successful in delivering the global geoid and gravity anomaly field with rather high spatial resolution. The gradiometer measurements are based on the principle of differential accelerometry. It is the centre piece of a sensor system comprising in addition GPS, star tracking, angular control by magnetic torquing, drag free control in flight direction by ion thrusting and calibration via shaking with cold gas thrusters. Gravity field sensitivity is enhanced by the satellite's extremely low orbit altitude of only 265 km. GOCE science and application is primarily about "dynamic topography". In geophysics dynamic topography is referred to as that part of surface deformation which is not in isostatic balance but supported by vertical stresses at the base of the lithosphere. Gravity and geoid anomalies reflect the gravitational effect of dynamic topography. In oceanography dynamic topography is the deviation of the actual mean ocean surface, as measured by satellite altimetry, from the geoid which is the hypothetical ocean surface at rest. The uses of mean dynamic ocean topography range from ocean circulation studies via mass and heat transport in the oceans to the unification of height systems and levelling by GPS. Full exploitation of GOCE requires its combination with GRACE and with satellite laser ranging and GPS. The considered measurements and techniques must all refer consistently to the same set of geodetic standards such as those defined by the IERS.

  20. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous

  1. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

  2. Basic energy sciences: Summary of accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-05-01

    For more than four decades, the Department of Energy, including its predecessor agencies, has supported a program of basic research in nuclear- and energy related sciences, known as Basic Energy Sciences. The purpose of the program is to explore fundamental phenomena, create scientific knowledge, and provide unique user facilities necessary for conducting basic research. Its technical interests span the range of scientific disciplines: physical and biological sciences, geological sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences. Its products and facilities are essential to technology development in many of the more applied areas of the Department's energy, science, and national defense missions. The accomplishments of Basic Energy Sciences research are numerous and significant. Not only have they contributed to Departmental missions, but have aided significantly the development of technologies which now serve modern society daily in business, industry, science, and medicine. In a series of stories, this report highlights 22 accomplishments, selected because of their particularly noteworthy contributions to modern society. A full accounting of all the accomplishments would be voluminous. Detailed documentation of the research results can be found in many thousands of articles published in peer-reviewed technical literature.

  3. Basic Energy Sciences: Summary of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1990-05-01

    For more than four decades, the Department of Energy, including its predecessor agencies, has supported a program of basic research in nuclear- and energy-related sciences, known as Basic Energy Sciences. The purpose of the program is to explore fundamental phenomena, create scientific knowledge, and provide unique user'' facilities necessary for conducting basic research. Its technical interests span the range of scientific disciplines: physical and biological sciences, geological sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences. Its products and facilities are essential to technology development in many of the more applied areas of the Department's energy, science, and national defense missions. The accomplishments of Basic Energy Sciences research are numerous and significant. Not only have they contributed to Departmental missions, but have aided significantly the development of technologies which now serve modern society daily in business, industry, science, and medicine. In a series of stories, this report highlights 22 accomplishments, selected because of their particularly noteworthy contributions to modern society. A full accounting of all the accomplishments would be voluminous. Detailed documentation of the research results can be found in many thousands of articles published in peer-reviewed technical literature.

  4. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  5. Basic principles of the surface harmonics method: Flat geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalishin, A. A.

    2011-12-15

    The basic principles of the surface harmonics method are described. A one-dimensional problem is used to exemplify the specific features of the method and the algorithms for construction of finite-difference equations. The objective of this study is to popularize the surface harmonics method among specialists.

  6. Medical oncology: Basic principles and clinical management of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Calabresi, P.; Schein, P.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of three section, each containing several papers. The sections are: Basic Principles, Specific Neoplasmas, and Supportive Care. Some of the paper titles are: Pharmacology of Antineoplastic Agents, Hodgkin's Disease, Myeloma, Melanoma, Neoplasms of the Lung, Sarcomas, Pediatric Neoplasms, Infectious Consideration in Cancer, Nursing Considerations in Cancer, and Rehabilitation of the Patient with Cancer.

  7. Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  8. Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralla, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

  9. Preparation of Basic and Clinical Sciences Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of basic and clinical science teaching in optometry in the next decade looks at the changing role of primary care and specialist optometrists, the training needs of current and future faculty, recommended curriculum changes, and decision making about delivery of this training. The roles of graduate training, residencies, and

  10. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-05-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

  11. Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

  12. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI were held in Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. The International Center for Space Weather Science and Education at Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 9www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/index_e.html), was established through the basic space science initiative in 2012. Similar research and education centres were also established in Nigeria(www.cbssonline.com/aboutus.html) and India (www.cmsintl.org). Activities of basic space science initiative were also coordinated with the Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, affiliated to the United Nations (www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/centres/index.html). Prospective future directions of the initiative will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

    2010-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease. PMID:19918069

  14. Basic science research in urology training.

    PubMed

    Eberli, D; Atala, A

    2009-04-01

    The role of basic science exposure during urology training is a timely topic that is relevant to urologic health and to the training of new physician scientists. Today, researchers are needed for the advancement of this specialty, and involvement in basic research will foster understanding of basic scientific concepts and the development of critical thinking skills, which will, in turn, improve clinical performance. If research education is not included in urology training, future urologists may not be as likely to contribute to scientific discoveries.Currently, only a minority of urologists in training are currently exposed to significant research experience. In addition, the number of physician-scientists in urology has been decreasing over the last two decades, as fewer physicians are willing to undertake a career in academics and perform basic research. However, to ensure that the field of urology is driving forward and bringing novel techniques to patients, it is clear that more research-trained urologists are needed. In this article we will analyse the current status of basic research in urology training and discuss the importance of and obstacles to successful addition of research into the medical training curricula. Further, we will highlight different opportunities for trainees to obtain significant research exposure in urology. PMID:19672351

  15. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1994-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.

  16. Basics, principles, techniques and modern methods in paediatric ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Riccabona, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay of paediatric Radiology. This review aims at revisiting basic US principles, to list specific needs throughout childhood, and to discuss the application of new and modern US methods. The various sections elude to basic US physics, technical requisites and tips for handling, diagnostically valuable applications of modern techniques, and how to properly address hazards, risks and limitations. In conclusion, US holds vast potential throughout childhood in almost all body regions and many childhood specific queries - helping to reduce the need for or to optimize more invasive or irradiating imaging. Make the most of US and offerings a dedicated paediatric US service throughout the day, the week and the year thus is and will stay a major task of Paediatric Radiology. PMID:24932845

  17. The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to assist in areas such as the creation of educational products and standards and the setting of relevant government policy. In order to increase the reach of the ESLI Principles, the document has been translated into Spanish, and other languages are also being considered. The document will undergo annual updating in response to growth and change in the scientific understandings of Earth science.

  18. Bernoulli's Principle: Science as a Human Endeavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    What do the ideas of Daniel Bernoulli--an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, natural scientist, and professor--and your students' next landing of the space shuttle via computer simulation have in common? Because of his contribution, referred in physical science as Bernoulli's principle, modern flight is possible. The mini learning-cycle

  19. Bernoulli's Principle: Science as a Human Endeavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    What do the ideas of Daniel Bernoulli--an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, natural scientist, and professor--and your students' next landing of the space shuttle via computer simulation have in common? Because of his contribution, referred in physical science as Bernoulli's principle, modern flight is possible. The mini learning-cycle…

  20. Basic Science Considerations in Primary Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Saqeb B; Dunlop, Douglas G; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Naqvi, Syed G; Gangoo, Shafat; Salih, Saif

    2010-01-01

    Total Hip Replacement is one of the most common operations performed in the developed world today. An increasingly ageing population means that the numbers of people undergoing this operation is set to rise. There are a numerous number of prosthesis on the market and it is often difficult to choose between them. It is therefore necessary to have a good understanding of the basic scientific principles in Total Hip Replacement and the evidence base underpinning them. This paper reviews the relevant anatomical and biomechanical principles in THA. It goes on to elaborate on the structural properties of materials used in modern implants and looks at the evidence base for different types of fixation including cemented and uncemented components. Modern bearing surfaces are discussed in addition to the scientific basis of various surface engineering modifications in THA prostheses. The basic science considerations in component alignment and abductor tension are also discussed. A brief discussion on modular and custom designs of THR is also included. This article reviews basic science concepts and the rationale underpinning the use of the femoral and acetabular component in total hip replacement. PMID:20582240

  1. Limitations on diversity in basic science departments.

    PubMed

    Leboy, Phoebe S; Madden, Janice F

    2012-08-01

    It has been over 30 years since the beginning of efforts to improve diversity in academia. We can identify four major stages: (1) early and continuing efforts to diversify the pipeline by increasing numbers of women and minorities getting advanced degrees, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); (2) requiring academic institutions to develop their own "affirmative action plans" for hiring and promotion; (3) introducing mentoring programs and coping strategies to help women and minorities deal with faculty practices from an earlier era; (4) asking academic institutions to rethink their practices and policies with an eye toward enabling more faculty diversity, a process known as institutional transformation. The thesis of this article is that research-intensive basic science departments of highly ranked U.S. medical schools are stuck at stage 3, resulting in a less diverse tenured and tenure-track faculty than seen in well-funded science departments of major universities. A review of Web-based records of research-intensive departments in universities with both medical school and nonmedical school departments indicates that the proportion of women and Black faculty in science departments of medical schools is lower than the proportion in similarly research-intensive university science departments. Expectations for faculty productivity in research-intensive medical school departments versus university-based departments may lead to these differences in faculty diversity. PMID:22775445

  2. Basic principles and molecular mechanisms of olfactory axon pathfinding.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Y; Mori, K

    1997-11-01

    The present review describes several lines of recent evidence providing new insights into the basic principles and mechanisms of axon projection from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Olfactory sensory neurons are classified into approximately 1000 subtypes according to the expression of specific odorant receptors. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor are distributed within one zone out of the four circumscribed zones of the olfactory epithelium and send their axons to the corresponding zone of the olfactory bulb: the principle of zone-to-zone projection. We discuss possible functions of a novel cell adhesion molecule, viz., OCAM, in the formation and maintenance of zone-to-zone projection of both olfactory and vomeronasal axons. Furthermore, olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor converge their axons onto only two topographically fixed glomeruli among the 1500-3000 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb: the principle of glomerular convergence. These axonal connection patterns give rise to the response specificity of the second-order neurons, viz., the mitral/tufted cells, to a particular range of odor molecules. In the process of glomerular convergence, combinatorial functions of axon-associated cell adhesion molecules and odorant receptor proteins may be required for the establishment of the precise targeting of olfactory axons to the appropriate glomeruli. PMID:9321710

  3. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  4. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  5. The precautionary principle in environmental science.

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

    2001-01-01

    Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy. PMID:11673114

  6. Basic Science Living Skills for Today's World. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers (Robert W.) Educational Services, Johnstown, PA.

    This document is a teacher's edition of a basic skills curriculum in science for adult basic education (ABE) students. The course consists of 25 lessons on basic science concepts, designed to give students a good understanding of the biological and physical sciences. Suggested activities and experiments that the student can do are also included.…

  7. Introduction of BASIC (Beijing Advanced Sciences and Innovation Centre)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong

    2014-03-01

    In this talk I will review the goal, planning, and current status of Beijing Advanced Sciences and Innovation Centre (BASIC), which will become the first multidisciplinary basic science laboratory within Chinese Academy of Sciences. I will mainly focus on some of large-scale scientific facilities which may be built inside BASIC in the near future.

  8. 77 FR 5246 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory... Perine; Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building,...

  9. 75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee...; Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, 1000 Independence...

  10. 78 FR 6088 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy; SC-22/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  11. Agricultural Mechanics and Basic Plant Science. Agricultural Mechanics and Basic Animal Science. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This basic instructional guide for the first two years of instruction in agricultural education is one in a series of such guides. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for two courses: agricultural science and basic plant science and agricultural science and basic animal…

  12. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  13. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  14. 78 FR 47677 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... Sciences Advisory Committee's (BESAC) charter will be renewed for a two-year period. The Committee will provide advice and recommendations to the Office of Science on the Basic Energy Sciences...

  15. CEST: from basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed. PMID:23273841

  16. [Basic principles of mass screening of patients with asbestosis].

    PubMed

    Gladkova, E V

    1989-01-01

    Complex hygienic, clinical and epidemiologic studies were carried out at 2 enterprises producing asbestos-technical products. It was established that the workers engaged in the production of such products were exposed to relatively low levels of asbestos-containing dust. The course, complications and outcome of asbestos-associated fibrosis were studied in 110 patients. The study revealed that asbestosis was characterized by its slowly progressing development. Asbestosis complications included lung tuberculosis, chronic intersticial pneumonia, and lung cancer. Proceesing from the epidemiologic survey higher risk of malignant neoplasms of the lungs was established in patients with asbestosis in comparison with those exposed to asbestos-associated fibrosis were studied in 110 patients. The study revealed that asbestosis was characterized by its slowly progressing development. Asbestosis complications included lung tuberculosis, chronic intersticial pneumonia, and lung cancer. Processing from the epidemiologic survey higher risk of malignant neoplasms of the lungs was established in patients with asbestosis in comparison with those exposed to asbestos-containing dust but having no occupational disease. The study findings were used for the substantiation of dispensarization principles for patients with asbestosis. The number of follow-up, laboratory and other examinations along with basic curative and preventive measures were pointed out. PMID:2526066

  17. 75 FR 6369 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  18. 78 FR 38696 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  19. 76 FR 48147 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of...

  20. 77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  1. 76 FR 41234 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  2. Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamsteker, W.; Albrecht, Rudolf; Haubold, Hans J.

    2004-03-01

    When the first United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop for Basic Space Science was planned to be held in Bangalore, India (1991) on the invitation of ISRO, few of those involved could expect that a unique forum was going to be created for scientific dialogue between scientists from developing and industrialized nations. As the format of the first workshop was on purpose left free with time for presentations, working sessions, and plenary discussions, the workshop was left to find its own dynamics. After a decade of UN/ESA Workshops, this book brings together the historical activities, the plans which have been developed over the past decade in the different nations, and the results which have materialized during this time in different developing nations. It aims to achieve for development agencies to be assisted in ways to find more effective tools for the application of development aid. The last section of the book contains a guide for teachers to introduce astrophysics into university physics courses. This will be of use to teachers in many nations. Everything described in this book is the result of a truly collective effort from all involved in all UN/ESA workshops. The mutual support from the participants has helped significantly to implement some of the accomplishments described in the book. Rather than organizing this book in a subject driven way, it is essentially organized according to the common economic regions of the world, as defined by the United Nations (Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Western Asia). This allows better recognition of the importance of a regional (and at times) global approach to basic space science for the developing nation's world wide. It highlights very specific scientific investigations which have been completed successfully in the various developing nations. The book supplements the published ten volumes of workshop proceedings containing scientific papers presented in the workshops from 1991 to 2002. Information on the workshops is also available at http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/index.html http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/SAP/bss/index.html http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/SAP/centres/centres.html

  3. Hot-melt extrusion--basic principles and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Lang, Bo; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    Originally adapted from the plastics industry, the use of hot-melt extrusion has gained favor in drug delivery applications both in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Several commercial products made by hot-melt extrusion have been approved by the FDA, demonstrating its commercial feasibility for pharmaceutical processing. A significant number of research articles have reported on advances made regarding the pharmaceutical applications of the hot-melt extrusion processing; however, only limited articles have been focused on general principles regarding formulation and process development. This review provides an in-depth analysis and discussion of the formulation and processing aspects of hot-melt extrusion. The impact of physicochemical properties of drug substances and excipients on formulation development using a hot-melt extrusion process is discussed from a material science point of view. Hot-melt extrusion process development, scale-up, and the interplay of formulation and process attributes are also discussed. Finally, recent applications of hot-melt extrusion to a variety of dosage forms and drug substances have also been addressed. PMID:24520867

  4. 76 FR 8358 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue,...

  5. The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions

    PubMed Central

    Martyushev, Leonid M.

    2010-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to ‘prove’ the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today. PMID:20368251

  6. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  7. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"

  8. Attendance at Basic Sciences Lectures: A Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Antonio; Ramos, Gilberto

    Factors that may affect a medical student's decision to attend basic science lectures were investigated. Basic science faculty members and administrators' views on student lecture attendance were elicited to construct a questionnaire. A total of 103 first-year and 75 second-year medical students attending a Puerto Rican medical school responded to…

  9. The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golen, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

  10. Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLullo, Camille; Morris, Harry J.; Kriebel, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the relevance of basic science knowledge in the determination of patient assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is critical to good medical practice. One method often used to direct students in the fundamental process of integrating basic science and clinical information is problem-based learning (PBL). The faculty facilitated small…

  11. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Interpretive Research in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1993-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the derivative notions of interdeterminacy, uncertainty, precision, and observer-observed interaction are discussed and their applications to social science research examined. Implications are drawn for research in science education. (PR)

  12. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we…

  13. Basic nursing principles of caring for patients with a tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Dan

    This one-part unit outlines background information to complement a series of Practical Procedures articles, starting in next week's issue, on caring for patients with a tracheostomy. This article outlines general principles of tracheostomy care, while the series details specific procedures such as suction, inner tube change and dressing. PMID:19248371

  14. The Basic Principles of FDG-PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Hess, Søren; Nielsen Braad, Poul-Erik; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Inglev, Signe; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) forms the basis of molecular imaging. FDG-PET imaging is a multidisciplinary undertaking that requires close interdisciplinary collaboration in a broad team comprising physicians, technologists, secretaries, radio-chemists, hospital physicists, molecular biologists, engineers, and cyclotron technicians. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of important basic issues and considerations pivotal to successful patient examinations, including basic physics, instrumentation, radiochemistry, molecular and cell biology, patient preparation, normal distribution of tracer, and potential interpretive pitfalls. PMID:26050942

  15. Sensitization as a Basic Principle of Vestibular Adaptation to Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Eberhard R.

    2008-06-01

    The analysis of basic mechanisms of physiological adaptation to weightlessness suffers (1) on the rare flight opportunities, and (2) on the collection of data with a rough time resolution. The comparative approach using data from animal and human research might be helpful to overcome these problems even for human research. The advantage of the comparative approach became obvious for vestibular adaptation to microgravity. Neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, behavioural and psychophysical studies in snails, fish, amphibian, rodents, monkey and men clearly revealed vestibular sensitization as a basic mechanism of adaptation to weightlessness.

  16. Basic Principles--Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Don

    The priorities for sustaining life--air, shelter, water, and food--are the subjects of this module designed to give junior and senior high school students the foundation for safe, rewarding experiences in the outdoors. Five 50-minute lesson plans cover the basic need in order of priority: air (3 minutes to survive without it), shelter (3 hours, in

  17. Basic Principles--Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Don

    The priorities for sustaining life--air, shelter, water, and food--are the subjects of this module designed to give junior and senior high school students the foundation for safe, rewarding experiences in the outdoors. Five 50-minute lesson plans cover the basic need in order of priority: air (3 minutes to survive without it), shelter (3 hours, in…

  18. Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

  19. Adult Basic Education Science Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This seven-part guide is intended for use in defining curricula for a wide clientele of adult learners in British Columbia who want to improve their knowledge, skills, and understanding in science. Part 1 explains the guide's place in the provincial curriculum development and articulation processes, defines the three purposes of the guide,

  20. Remote sensing applied to agriculture: Basic principles, methodology, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The general principles of remote sensing techniques as applied to agriculture and the methods of data analysis are described. the theoretical spectral responses of crops; reflectance, transmittance, and absorbtance of plants; interactions of plants and soils with reflectance energy; leaf morphology; and factors which affect the reflectance of vegetation cover are dicussed. The methodologies of visual and computer-aided analyses of LANDSAT data are presented. Finally, a case study wherein infrared film was used to detect crop anomalies and other data applications are described.

  1. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    This first supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books contains books received for the museum's 13th annual children's science book fair. Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; environment/conservation;…

  2. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    This first supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books contains books received for the museum's 13th annual children's science book fair. Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; environment/conservation;

  3. The Basic Mathematics of Astronomy: A Sourcebook for Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therkelsen, Edward Robert

    An attempt was made in this study to determine if there was a need for a sourcebook of the basic mathematics of astronomy for secondary school science teachers. Science teachers involved and interested in the teaching of astronomy were located through letters to the superintendents of the 400 largest school districts in the United States. Names…

  4. Health technology assessment for radiologists: basic principles and evaluation framework.

    PubMed

    Lim, Morgan E; O'Reilly, Daria; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Burke, Natasha; Ferrusi, Ilia L; Campbell, Kaitryn; Goeree, Ron

    2009-05-01

    Decision makers are faced with the task of allocating health resources to maximize patients' health under budget constraints. To offer structure to the complexity of the decision-making process, the field of health technology assessment (HTA) was developed. This paper offers an introduction to the fundamental aspects of HTA and acts as a guide to the conduct of HTA for radiologists. First, the authors define HTA and describe how it is linked to the field of diagnostics. Second, a basic 11-step framework for the conduct of an HTA is outlined. The framework begins with the identification of the problem and proceeds through to the dissemination and impact of an HTA. Third, the authors provide a real-world example of an HTA in the field of diagnostics. Last, they describe the challenges and barriers faced in HTA. PMID:19394570

  5. [Basic principles of vascular imaging with spiral CT].

    PubMed

    Kalender, W A; Wedding, K; Polacin, A; Prokop, M; Schaefer-Prokop, C; Galanski, M

    1994-11-01

    Vascular investigations by CT have experienced a decisive advance and found a high acceptance since the introduction of fast volume scanning (spiral CT). We have investigated the underlying physical foundations and optimized the operational aspects of the method now introduced as CT angiography (CTA). Investigations are carried out with a table feed of 1-10 mm/s. Images are reconstructed at 1-2 mm separations by use of algorithms which optimize the layer profile. The parameters must be adapted to the region being investigated. The diagnosis is generally made with interactive cine runs; for this the original images, multiplanar reformations, 3D surface shaded displays (SSD), and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images are used. The 3D representations are discussed in the context of the principle and illustrative examples. Important applications for CTA are the evaluation of aortic aneurysms and dissections, pulmonary vessels, renal arteries, and vessel stents. CTA is characterized by short examination times, low invasiveness, and relatively low cost; in typical cases it is associated with an effective dose of 2-10 mSv. The advantages and disadvantages of the new method are discussed in terms of diagnostic value, image quality, patient dose, contrast medium techniques, and practical aspects in comparison to other angiographic methods. PMID:7819289

  6. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods.

    PubMed

    Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2012-12-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students' acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students' personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students' potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

  7. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    PubMed Central

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

  8. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from use of such a tool: students are often taught a list of concepts and a separate list of parameters for mathematical equations. The link between the two can be elusive. While wet-lab experimentation is the proven approach to developing this link, in silico simulation can provide a means of acquiring important insight and understanding within a time frame and at a cost that cannot be achieved otherwise. We suggest that simulations and their representation of laboratory experiments in the classroom can become a key component in student achievement by helping to develop a student's positive attitude towards science and his or her creativity in scientific inquiry. We present results of two simulation experiments that validate against data taken from current literature. We follow with a classroom example demonstrating how this tool can be seamlessly integrated within the traditional pharmacology learning experience.

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272, App. A Appendix A...

  10. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

  11. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

  12. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from

  13. Basic principles of yeast genomics, a personal recollection.

    PubMed

    Dujon, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    The genomes of many yeast species or strain isolates have now been sequenced with an accelerating momentum that quickly relegates initial data to history, albeit that they are less than two decades old. Today, novel yeast genomes are entirely sequenced for a variety of reasons, often only to identify a few expected genes of specific interest, thus providing a wealth of data, heterogenous in quality and completion but informative about the origin and evolution of this heterogeneous collection of unicellular modern fungi. However, how many scientists fully appreciate the important conceptual and technological roles played by yeasts in the extraordinary development of today's genomics? Novel notions of general significance emerged from the very first eukaryote sequenced, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and were successively refined and extended over time. Tools with general applications were originally developed with this yeast; and surprises emerged from the results. Here, I have tried to recollect the gradual building up of knowledge as yeast genomics developed, and then briefly summarize our present views about the basic nature of yeast genomes, based on the most recent data. PMID:26071597

  14. Introduction to Circular Accelerators - Basic Science and Applied Research

    SciTech Connect

    Trubnikov, Grigory

    2010-01-05

    This paper gives an introduction to history and overview of circular particle accelerators, reviews acceleration methods and basic principles of: weak and strong focusing, transverse and longitudinal particle motion, optic elements operation. The classification of circular machines is given. Author overviews future projects and technological applied research of particle accelerators.

  15. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    Presented is the second annual supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984. In this supplement, children's science books are listed under the headings of animals, astronomy, aviation and space, biography, earth sciences, encyclopedias and reference books, environment and conservation, fiction,…

  16. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    Presented is the second annual supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984. In this supplement, children's science books are listed under the headings of animals, astronomy, aviation and space, biography, earth sciences, encyclopedias and reference books, environment and conservation, fiction,

  17. Contributions of Basic Sciences to Science of Education. Studies in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Bernard M.

    The science of education has been influenced by the basic sciences to the extent that educational research now has been able to modernize its approach by accepting and using the basic scientific methodology and experimental techniques. Using primarily the same steps of scientific investigations, education today holds a place of much greater esteem

  18. The Principles of Science Education in Today's Schools. A Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the dialogue from a roundtable discussion on the principles of science education in today's school held by "Pedagogika" in March 2004. Participants were as follows: from the Russian Academy of Education: V.P. Borisenkov, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, vice president of the Russian Academy of Education, and editor…

  19. The Principles of Science Education in Today's Schools. A Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the dialogue from a roundtable discussion on the principles of science education in today's school held by "Pedagogika" in March 2004. Participants were as follows: from the Russian Academy of Education: V.P. Borisenkov, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, vice president of the Russian Academy of Education, and editor

  20. Pima College Students' Knowledge of Selected Basic Physical Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    In 1989 a study was conducted at Pima Community College (PCC) to assess students' knowledge of basic physical science concepts. A three-part survey instrument was administered to students in a second semester sociology class, a first semester astronomy class, a second semester Spanish class, and a first semester physics class. The survey…

  1. Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first edition of Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications was published in 1985 to "...offer a comprehensive review of general concepts of nutrition as they pertain to pediatrics as well as relevant information on the nutritional management of specific disease states." A ...

  2. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Sheakley, Maria L.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Leighton, Kim; Hall, Maureen; Callender, Diana; Pederson, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (nl=515) and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066). Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4) that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%). USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003). Discussion Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum. PMID:27060102

  3. BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASSEL, RICHARD

    THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

  4. Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Mary Beth; Design, M; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between basic science research and product design/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition of a medical device is broad and varied. This paper is aimed towards those devices which interact with tissue and are rooted in the tenets of science. Both the scientific method and the design process are compared with similarities and opposites identified. The paper concludes identifying fundamental principles of medical device development and highlights the importance of both entities. PMID:19964135

  5. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  6. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  7. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  8. Opportunities for Computational Discovery in Basic Energy Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Mark

    2011-03-01

    An overview of the broad-ranging support of computational physics and computational science within the Department of Energy Office of Science will be provided. Computation as the third branch of physics is supported by all six offices (Advanced Scientific Computing, Basic Energy, Biological and Environmental, Fusion Energy, High-Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics). Support focuses on hardware, software and applications. Most opportunities within the fields of~condensed-matter physics, chemical-physics and materials sciences are supported by the Officeof Basic Energy Science (BES) or through partnerships between BES and the Office for Advanced Scientific Computing. Activities include radiation sciences, catalysis, combustion, materials in extreme environments, energy-storage materials, light-harvesting and photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and superconductivity.~ A summary of two recent reports by the computational materials and chemical communities on the role of computation during the next decade will be provided. ~In addition to materials and chemistry challenges specific to energy sciences, issues identified~include a focus on the role of the domain scientist in integrating, expanding and sustaining applications-oriented capabilities on evolving high-performance computing platforms and on the role of computation in accelerating the development of innovative technologies. ~~

  9. New Principles and Basic Approaches for the Curricula of Engineering Degree Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargione, Luiz Antonio

    This paper presents new principles and basic approaches for the curricula of engineering degree courses. The accentuated evolution of engineering, the fast technological transformations and, still, the impact provoked by government regulations in the field of education in Brazil have called attention to these issues. Following these changes, it…

  10. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272, App. A Appendix A to Part 272—Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic... investments as a portfolio, with assessments of program success based on aggregate returns. There should be...

  11. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound imaging: basic principles, glossary of terms, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Cogbill, Thomas H; Ziegelbein, Kurt J

    2011-02-01

    The basic principles underlying computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound are reviewed to promote better understanding of the properties and appropriate applications of these 3 common imaging modalities. A glossary of frequently used terms for each technique is appended for convenience. Risks to patient safety including contrast-induced nephropathy, radiation-induced malignancy, and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis are discussed. PMID:21184898

  12. 41 CFR 102-85.25 - What is the basic principle governing OAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the basic principle governing OAs? 102-85.25 Section 102-85.25 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY...

  13. Developing basic space science world wide: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.; Wamsteker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Germany (1996), France (2000), Mauritius (2001), and Argentina (2002) emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a world wide basis. Since 1996, the workshops are contributing to the development of the World Space Observatory (WSO/UV) concept. Achievements of the series of workshops are briefly summarized in this report.

  14. Applying Cognitive Science Principles to Improve Retention of Science Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Gooklasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether three student-centred strategies influenced retention of science vocabulary words among 7th grade students. Two of the strategies (drawing pictures and talking about the definition of the terms) were developed to involve the students in more constructive and interactive exercises when compared to the technique that was in…

  15. PROJECT SUCCESS: Marine Science. (Introductory Packet, Basic Marine Science Laboratory Techniques, Oceanographic Instruments, Individual Projects, Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Bryan

    Five packets comprise the marine science component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. Considered in the introductory section are identification (pre/post measure) procedures. Remaining packets address the following topics (subtopics in parentheses): basic marine science laboratory techniques (microscope techniques and metric…

  16. [Basic principles for setting acute reference dose, ARfD in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Midori; Suzuki, Daisetsu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shirota, Mariko; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Morita, Takeshi; Ono, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Basic principles for simulation of acute reference dose (ARfD) setting were defined based on the work of Solecki et al. (2005). The principles are: (1) Appearance of acute toxicity within 24 h after oral administration. (2) Rationale for setting toxicity that appears or could appear after single oral administration. (3) ARfD setting is assumed to be necessary for all pesticides. (4) ARfD setting is not necessary when the value is at or above the cutoff level. (5) The setting basically applies to the general population. (6) ARfD is set based on the lowest NOAEL among all the available study data concerning endpoints for acute effects. (7) Effects of exposure during critical periods should be considered as endpoints for ARfD setting. (8) The approach for the safety coefficient is the same as that for acceptable daily intake. (9) If available, human data are acceptable as an endpoint for ARfD setting. PMID:24025213

  17. Characteristics of physicians engaged in basic science: a questionnaire survey of physicians in basic science departments of a medical school in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    The number of physicians engaged in basic science and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of physicians who are engaged in basic science in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire was distributed to all 30 physicians in the basic science departments of Juntendo University School of Medicine. Question items inquired about sex, years since graduation, years between graduation and time entering basic science, clinical experience, recommending the career to medical students, expected obstacles to students entering basic science, efforts to inspire students in research, increased number of lectures and practical training sessions on research, and career choice satisfaction. Correlations between the variables were examined using χ(2) tests. Overall, 26 physicians, including 7 female physicians, returned the questionnaire (response rate 86.7%). Most physicians were satisfied with their career choice. Medical students were deemed not to choose basic science as their future career, because they aimed to become clinicians and because they were concerned about salary. Women physicians in basic science departments were younger than men. Women physicians also considered themselves to make more efforts in inspiring medical students to be interested in research. Moreover, physicians who became basic scientists earlier in their career wanted more research-related lectures in medical education. Improving physicians' salaries in basic science is important to securing talent. In addition, basic science may be a good career path for women physicians to follow. PMID:22976453

  18. Applying principles from safety science to improve child protection.

    PubMed

    Cull, Michael J; Rzepnicki, Tina L; O'Day, Kathryn; Epstein, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Child Protective Services Agencies (CPSAs) share many characteristics with other organizations operating in high-risk, high-profile industries. Over the past 50 years, industries as diverse as aviation, nuclear power, and healthcare have applied principles from safety science to improve practice. The current paper describes the rationale, characteristics, and challenges of applying concepts from the safety culture literature to CPSAs. Preliminary efforts to apply key principles aimed at improving child safety and well-being in two states are also presented. PMID:24199329

  19. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative for IHY 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; Thompson, B. J.; Haubold, H.

    2006-08-01

    The United Nations, in cooperation with national and international space-related agencies and organizations, has been organizing annual workshops since 1990 on basic space science, particularly for the benefit of scientists and engineers from developing nations. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, through the IHY Secretariat and the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) will assist scientists and engineers from all over the world in participating in the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007. A major thrust of the IHY/UNBSSI program is to deploy arrays of small, inexpensive instruments such as magnetometers, radio telescopes, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, etc. around the world to provide global measurements of ionospheric and heliospheric phenomena. The small instrument program is envisioned as a partnership between instrument providers, and instrument hosts in developing countries. The lead scientist will provide the instruments (or fabrication plans for instruments) in the array; the host country will provide manpower, facilities, and operational support to obtain data with the instrument typically at a local university. Funds are not available through the IHY to build the instruments; these must be obtained through the normal proposal channels. However all instrument operational support for local scientists, facilities, data acquisition, etc will be provided by the host nation. It is our hope that the IHY/UNBSSI program can facilitate the deployment of several of these networks world wide. Existing data bases and relevant software tools that can will be identified to promote space science activities in developing countries. Extensive data on space science have been accumulated by a number of space missions. Similarly, long-term data bases are available from ground based observations. These data can be utilized in ways different from originally intended for understanding the heliophysical processes. This paper provides an overview of the IHY/UNBSS program, its achievements and future plans.

  20. Computer animation and improved student comprehension of basic science concepts.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2006-01-01

    Many medical students have difficulty learning basic science, either because they find the material challenging to comprehend or because they believe it has limited clinical application. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)--ie, computer animation--can clarify instruction by allowing students to visualize complex, dynamic processes in an interesting presentation. At West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM) in Lewisburg, a series of computer animations have been developed to present concepts in molecular and cellular biology. The author conducted an investigation to compare the efficacy of one representative computer animation with that of traditional textbook material. The subjects were 22 students who had been admitted to WVSOM but who had not yet begun classes. The experimental design of the study consisted of a prelesson test, a lesson, and a postlesson test. The lesson explained the process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication using either a computer animation (n=12) or a chapter from a textbook (n=10). Lesson comprehension as measured by the tests was significantly higher for subjects who used the computer animation than for subjects who used the textbook (P<.01). Furthermore, reviewing the text after studying with the computer animation did not raise test scores, suggesting that the animation was sufficient for learning and the text was unnecessary. After the study, a majority of subjects indicated a preference for the animation over the text. These results demonstrate that CAI can be an effective tool for relating basic science to medical students by improving comprehension and eliciting interest in the lessons. PMID:16428683

  1. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-01-11

    New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

  2. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

  3. Research programs for Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    A chemical sciences review meeting was held in which research programs in chemistry were discussed. Major topics included: chemistry of actinides and fission products, interactions of solvents, solutes and surfaces in supercritical extraction, chemical and physical principles in multiphase separations, and chemical kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  4. Zebrafish housing systems: a review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations. PMID:23382349

  5. Zebrafish Housing Systems: A Review of Basic Operating Principles and Considerations for Design and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations. PMID:23382349

  6. Pulse oximetry: understanding its basic principles facilitates appreciation of its limitations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edward D; Chan, Michael M; Chan, Mallory M

    2013-06-01

    Pulse oximetry has revolutionized the ability to monitor oxygenation in a continuous, accurate, and non-invasive fashion. Despite its ubiquitous use, it is our impression and supported by studies that many providers do not know the basic principles behind its mechanism of function. This knowledge is important because it provides the conceptual basis of appreciating its limitations and recognizing when pulse oximeter readings may be erroneous. In this review, we discuss how pulse oximeters are able to distinguish oxygenated hemoglobin from deoxygenated hemoglobin and how they are able to recognize oxygen saturation only from the arterial compartment of blood. Based on these principles, we discuss the various conditions that can cause spurious readings and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23490227

  7. Integrating basic science without integrating basic scientists: reconsidering the place of individual teachers in curriculum reform.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robin; Pratt, Daniel; Bowen, Judith L; Regehr, Glenn

    2015-02-01

    The call for integration of the basic and clinical sciences plays prominently in recent conversations about curricular change in medical education; however, history shows that, like other concepts related to curricular reform, integration has been continually revisited, leading to incremental change but no meaningful transformation. To redress this cycle of "change without difference," the medical education community must reexamine the approach that dominates medical education reform efforts and explore alternative perspectives that may help to resolve the cyclical "problem" of recommending but not effecting integration. To provide a different perspective on implementing integration, the authors of this Perspective look to the domain of educational change as an approach to examining the transitions that occur within complex and evolving environments. This area of literature both acknowledges the multiple levels involved in change and emphasizes the need not only to address systemic structure but also to prioritize individuals during times of transition. The struggle to implement curricular integration in medical education may stem from the fact that reform efforts appear to focus largely on transformation at the level of curricular structure as opposed to considering what learning needs to occur at each level of change and highlighting the individual as the educational change literature suggests. To bring appropriate attention to the place of individual educators, especially basic scientists, the medical education community should explore how the mandate to integrate clinically relevant material may impact these faculty and the teaching of their domains. PMID:25140528

  8. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the major clenching theoretical and experimental findings. These findings will remove the last trace of uncertainty about the total disproof of the membrane theory. In addition, I have also included an introduction of the association-induction hypothesis, which is the one and only unifying theory of the living cell that has survived and unwaveringly grown more comprehensive and powerful after more than half of a century of worldwide testing. PMID:21970156

  9. Using educational games to engage students in veterinary basic sciences.

    PubMed

    Buur, Jennifer L; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barr, Margaret C

    2013-01-01

    Educational games are an example of an active learning teaching technique based on Kolb's learning cycle. We have designed multiple games to provide concrete experiences for social groups of learners in the basic sciences. "Antimicrobial Set" is a card game that illustrates global patterns in antimicrobial therapy. "SHOCK!" is a card game designed to enhance student understanding of the four types of hypersensitivity reactions. After each game is played, students undergo a structured debriefing session with faculty members to further enhance their self-reflective skills. "Foodborne Outbreak Clue" utilizes the famous Parker Brothers® board game as a means to practice skills associated with outbreak investigation and risk assessment. This game is used as a review activity and fun application of epidemiologic concepts. Anecdotal feedback from students suggests that they enjoyed the activities. Games such as these can be easily implemented in large- or small-group settings and can be adapted to other disciplines as needed. PMID:23975070

  10. Cryotherapy of cardiac arrhythmia: From basic science to the bedside.

    PubMed

    Avitall, Boaz; Kalinski, Arthur

    2015-10-01

    This review focuses on the basic science of cellular destruction by tissue freezing and application of transvenous cryocatheter technology to treat cardiac arrhythmia. Ideally, foci for arrhythmias are selectively ablated, arrhythmogenic tissues are destroyed, and reentry circuits are bisected in order to silence adverse electrical activity, with the goal of restoring normal sinus rhythm. The mechanism of ablation using cryotherapy results in distinct lesion qualities advantageous to radiofrequency (Khairy P, Chauvet M, Lehman J, et al. Lower incidence of thrombus formation with cryoenergy versus radiofrequency catheter ablation. Circulation 2003;107:2045-2050). This review is devoted to the mechanism of cryoablation, postablation histopathological changes, and how this information should be used by the clinicians to improve safety and maximize ablation success. PMID:26031374

  11. Learning basic science alongside veterinary students: creating an interactive classroom.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott A

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Scott Brown's dedication and contribution to the instructional programs of the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine have been exceptionally meritorious. In the last eight years, he has served with the leadership among faculty in the design and approval of a new curriculum, and as chair of the curriculum committee he led the College in its implementation. Throughout this period his research productivity, mentorship of professional and graduate students, and professional development continued. Dr. Brown instills energy, broadens learning experiences from personal and professional development to basic science, and, in all probability, provides positive, life-changing experiences for his students. I am very pleased that he was recognized in 2003 with the Carl J. Norden National Distinguished Teacher Award. PMID:15510346

  12. Basic science breaks through: New therapeutic advances in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brundin, Patrik; Atkin, Graham; Lamberts, Jennifer T

    2015-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease and is typically associated with progressive motor dysfunction, although PD patients also exhibit a variety of non-motor symptoms. The neuropathological hallmark of PD is intraneuronal inclusions containing primarily α-Synuclein (α-Syn), and several lines of evidence point to α-Syn as a key contributor to disease progression. Thus, basic research in the field of PD is largely focused on understanding the pathogenic properties of α-Syn. Over the past 2 y, these studies helped to identify several novel therapeutic strategies that have the potential to slow PD progression; such strategies include sequestration of extracellular α-Syn through immunotherapy, reduction of α-Syn multimerization or intracellular toxicity, and attenuation of the neuroinflammatory response. This review describes these and other putative therapeutic strategies, together with the basic science research that led to their identification. The current breadth of novel targets for the treatment of PD warrants cautious optimism in the fight against this devastating disease. PMID:26177603

  13. A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

  14. Basic Science Skills for Prospective Elementary Teachers: Measuring and Predicting Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Robert D.; Gabel, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates a new course for prospective elementary teachers entitled Basic Science Skills, designed to give students background in science, to show use of science materials and methods, and to promote positive attitudes toward science and science teaching. Math anxiety is suggested as a confounding factor in interpreting the results. (CS)

  15. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network... promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) initiative... Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) is a trans-NIH initiative to expand the...

  16. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an

  17. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  18. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

  19. Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2003-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

  20. The HelCat basic plasma science device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Desjardins, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; Watts, C.; Hsu, S. C.; Betts, S.; Kelly, R.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Helicon-Cathode(HelCat) device is a medium-size linear experiment suitable for a wide range of basic plasma science experiments in areas such as electrostatic turbulence and transport, magnetic relaxation, and high power microwave (HPM)-plasma interactions. The HelCat device is based on dual plasma sources located at opposite ends of the 4 m long vacuum chamber - an RF helicon source at one end and a thermionic cathode at the other. Thirteen coils provide an axial magnetic field B >= 0.220 T that can be configured individually to give various magnetic configurations (e.g. solenoid, mirror, cusp). Additional plasma sources, such as a compact coaxial plasma gun, are also utilized in some experiments, and can be located either along the chamber for perpendicular (to the background magnetic field) plasma injection, or at one of the ends for parallel injection. Using the multiple plasma sources, a wide range of plasma parameters can be obtained. Here, the HelCat device is described in detail and some examples of results from previous and ongoing experiments are given. Additionally, examples of planned experiments and device modifications are also discussed.

  1. Weighted network properties of Chinese nature science basic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Xuan, Zhao-Guo; Dang, Yan-Zhong; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Tuo

    2007-04-01

    Using the requisition papers of Chinese Nature Science Basic Research in management and information department, we construct the weighted network of research areas (WNRA). In WNRA, two research areas, which is represented by the subject codes, are considered to be connected if they have been filled in one or more requisition papers. The edge weight is defined as the number of requisition papers which have been filled in the same pairs of codes. The node strength is defined as the number of requisition papers which have been filled in this code, including the papers which have been filled in it alone. Here we study a variety of nonlocal statistics for WNRA, such as typical distance between research areas and measure of centrality such as betweenness. These statistical characteristics can illuminate the global development trend of Chinese scientific study. It is also helpful to adjust the code system to reflect the real status more accurately. Finally, we present a plausible model for the formation and structure of WNRA with the observed properties.

  2. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2015-05-15

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be. PMID:25911667

  3. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2016-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be. PMID:26729891

  4. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2015-12-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥ 6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼ 20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be. PMID:26607736

  5. Transfer printing methods for flexible thin film solar cells: basic concepts and working principles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-09-23

    Fabricating thin film solar cells (TFSCs) on flexible substrates will not only broaden the applications of solar cells, but also potentially reduce the installation cost. However, a critical challenge for fabricating flexible TFSCs on flexible substrates is the incompatibility issues between the thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of these substrates and the fabrication conditions. Transfer printing methods, which use conventional substrates for the fabrication and then deliver the TFSCs onto flexible substrates, play a key role to overcome these challenges. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and working principles of four major transfer printing methods associated with (1) transfer by sacrificial layers, (2) transfer by porous Si layer, (3) transfer by controlled crack, and (4) transfer by water-assisted thin film delamination. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for implementing these methods for practical solar cell manufacture. PMID:25184987

  6. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases. PMID:20109968

  7. Basic Principles of Electrical Network Reliability Optimization in Liberalised Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.

  8. Antihypertensive therapy: basic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles as applied to infants and children.

    PubMed

    Wells, Thomas G

    2002-02-01

    Increased attention has been paid to the study of antihypertensive agents in children following the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act. Many short-term studies of drug effectiveness and safety are underway or recently completed. Defining the disposition of antihypertensive agents in the pediatric population has become an important part of ongoing efforts to label antihypertensive agents for use in children. In comparison with larger trials done in the adult population, relatively few pediatric subjects will be studied. Hence, it is important to gather as much information as possible for each agent during pediatric trials. Appropriate study design is dependent not only on a working knowledge of the unique features of hypertension in children, but also on a practical assessment of factors that affect drug disposition in children. Basic principles of pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD modeling as applied to pediatric antihypertensive therapy are briefly considered. PMID:11866226

  9. [BASIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS TO THE USE IMMUNOMODULATING PREPARATIONS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: CLASSIFICATION, INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS].

    PubMed

    Sepiashvili, R

    2015-06-01

    This paper is devoted to one of the most pressing issues in modern clinical medicine, the problem of immunomodulators and immunotropic therapy. The materials presented are the logical sequel of the papers published by Revaz I. Sepiashvili in 2001-2015. In these articles, the author proposed the first classification of immunotropic preparations, a brief historical background and chronological emergence of the concept of therapies, as well as definition of immunomodulators. This paper presents an updated classification of immunomodulatory drugs which is valid for January 2015. The paper also outlines basic principles for therapies that allow the clinician not only to select a proper immunomodulator but also to develop strategy and tactics in treatment of the patient, taking into account his/her individual characteristics and the need to use in clinical practice only officially registered immunotropic preparations. PMID:26087723

  10. Basic Properties of Magnetic Shape-Memory Materials from First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entel, Peter; Dannenberg, Antje; Siewert, Mario; Herper, Heike C.; Gruner, Markus E.; Comtesse, Denis; Elmers, Hans-Joachim; Kallmayer, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The mutual influence of phase transformations, magnetism, and electronic properties of magnetic-shape memory Heusler materials is a basic issue of electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory. In this article, we show that these calculations can be pursued to finite temperatures, which allows to derive on a first-principles basis the temperature versus composition phase diagram of the pseudo-binary Ni-Mn-(Ga, In, Sn, Sb) system. The free energy calculations show that the phonon contribution stabilizes the body-centered-cubic (bcc)-like austenite structure at elevated temperatures, whereas magnetism favors the low-temperature martensite phase with body-centered-tetragonal (bct) or rather face-centered-tetragonal (fct) structure. The calculations also allow to make predictions of magnetostructural and magnetic field induced properties of other (new) magnetic Heusler alloys not based on NiMn such as Co-Ni-(Ga-Zn) and Fe-Co-Ni-(Ga-Zn) intermetallic compounds.

  11. Distortion of some of the basic principles of public health practice in India.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Debabar

    2006-01-01

    India's political leadership has chosen personnel from the Indian Administrative Service cadre of generalist administrators and from the clinician-dominated cadre of the Central Health Services to run the country's health service system. The personnel's inadequate or distorted understanding of some of the basic principles of public health practice--such as developing an epidemiological approach to solving community health problems, choice of appropriate technology, and optimization of health service systems--has had a very deleterious effect on the health service system. These administrators have become vulnerable to manipulation by personnel from international agencies, who also have questionable public health credentials, to create space for imposition of their technocentric, ill-conceived, and ill-designed agenda. To rationalize adoption of such an obviously faulty agenda, they have to be ahistorical, apolitical, and atheoretical and indulge in misinformation, disinformation, and suppression and manipulation of information. This amounts to what Navarro has termed "intellectual fascism." PMID:16981635

  12. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  13. PNNL Highlights for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (July 2013-July 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2014-08-13

    This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.

  14. Back to the basic sciences: an innovative approach to teaching senior medical students how best to integrate basic science and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Abby L; Brosenitsch, Teresa; Levine, Arthur S; Kanter, Steven L

    2008-07-01

    Abraham Flexner persuaded the medical establishment of his time that teaching the sciences, from basic to clinical, should be a critical component of the medical student curriculum, thus giving rise to the "preclinical curriculum." However, students' retention of basic science material after the preclinical years is generally poor. The authors believe that revisiting the basic sciences in the fourth year can enhance understanding of clinical medicine and further students' understanding of how the two fields integrate. With this in mind, a return to the basic sciences during the fourth year of medical school may be highly beneficial. The purpose of this article is to (1) discuss efforts to integrate basic science into the clinical years of medical student education throughout the United States and Canada, and (2) describe the highly developed fourth-year basic science integration program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In their critical review of medical school curricula of 126 U.S. and 17 Canadian medical schools, the authors found that only 19% of U.S. medical schools and 24% of Canadian medical schools require basic science courses or experiences during the clinical years, a minor increase compared with 1985. Curricular methods ranged from simple lectures to integrated case studies with hands-on laboratory experience. The authors hope to advance the national discussion about the need to more fully integrate basic science teaching throughout all four years of the medical student curriculum by placing a curricular innovation in the context of similar efforts by other U.S. and Canadian medical schools. PMID:18580085

  15. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.

  16. Basic principles of the KIV model and its application to the navigation problem.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Freeman, Walter J

    2003-06-01

    EEG measurements indicate the presence of common-mode, coherent oscillations shared by multiple cortical areas. In previous studies the KIII model has been introduced, which interprets the experimental observations as nonlinear, spatially distributed dynamical oscillations of locally coupled neural populations. KIII can account for the fast and robust classification and pattern recognition in sensory cortices. In order to describe selection of action, planning, and spatial orientation functions, in this paper we expand KIII into the KIV model. KIV approximates the operation of the corticostriatal-hippocampal system. KIV consists of three KI, eight KII and three KIII components, including sensory and cortical systems, as well as the hippocampus, amygdala, and the septum. KIV implements various types of dynamic neural activities. The neural activity patterns determine the emergence of global spatial encoding to implement the orientation function of a simulated animal. Our results indicate the mechanisms, which we believe support the generation of cognitive maps in the hippocampus based on the sensory input-based destabilization of cortical spatio-temporal patterns. In this paper, we describe the conceptual design of the KIV model. We outline the biological background and motivation of the basic principles that are applied to design the KIV computational model. We use the KIV model to explain how the hippocampal neural circuitry functions are constructed and controlled by the corticostriatal-hippocampal loops, supplemented with specific subcortical units. In the second part, we implement these principles using the example of the hippocampal formation as a KIII unit. We demonstrate the learning and navigation principles using the Evolving Multi-module Mobile Agent (EMMA) in 2D software environment. PMID:15011280

  17. New Trends in Integrated Science Teaching. Volume V. The Teaching of Basic Sciences, Integrated Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Judith, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Conference on Integrated Science Foundation Worldwide are provided in abbreviated form. The conference examined developments in integrated science education during the last ten years and discussed possible future trends. Chapters are based upon plenary papers and working groups. Some of the integrated science…

  18. Update on Keloid Management: Clinical and Basic Science Advances

    PubMed Central

    Viera, Martha H.; Vivas, Alejandra C.; Berman, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background Keloids are benign, fibroproliferative lesions that represent abnormal healing resulting in excessive fibrosis. They are composed of mainly type III (early) or type I (late) collagen. Some of the symptoms include pruritus, tenderness, and pain. Often, they are very difficult to treat and prevent from recurrence. In contrast to hypertrophic scars, keloids extend beyond the margin of the wound. The Problem There is very limited evidence on the best wound management for minimizing scarring. Multiple available therapeutic modalities have been used for the treatment of keloids; however, high-recurrence rates continue to be reported. Unsuccessful treatment of keloids leads to psychological impact on the patients and increased economic burden. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Currently, there are biological and antineoplastic agents that can potentially treat and prevent excessive scar formation. Some of them have been used as "off label" therapies, and others are still in the experimental phase such as interferon alpha (IFN-?), imiquimod, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1). The use of IFN-?2b showed 18% recurrence rate when applied to postsurgical excised keloids. Imiquimod 5% can lower recurrence rate on postshaved keloids to 37.5% at 6-month and to 0% at a 12-month follow-up period. TGF-?1 oligonucleotides have shown effective and long-lasting inhibition of TGF-?-mediated scarring in vitro as well as in animal models. Daily injections of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-?1 and -?2 have shown successful reductions in scarring. Conclusion Latest discoveries in the use of novel agents suggest therapeutic alternatives for the prevention of recurrences of hypertrophic scars and postexcision keloid lesions. PMID:24527306

  19. Japanese medical students' interest in basic sciences: a questionnaire survey of a medical school in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using χ(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent. PMID:23337622

  20. The Committee on Basic Research in Education: A Four Year Tryout of Basic Science Funding Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; Suppes, Patrick

    1974-01-01

    Describes a Committee on Basic Research in Education that was formed in 1968 and that worked for four years in cooperation with the U. S. Office of Education to identify problems to be attacked by basic research in education and to develop and try out plans and procedures for stimulating and supporting such research. (Author/JM)

  1. A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

    2009-01-01

    The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

  2. A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

    2009-01-01

    The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical

  3. Progress in the utilization of high-fidelity simulation in basic science education.

    PubMed

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-06-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress. PMID:27068987

  4. The Role of Basic Sciences in Patient Care and Clinical Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Raymond P.

    1986-01-01

    More can be done to incorporate basic biological science into clinical dental teaching, including increased early basic science instruction by clinical faculty, establishment of departments of oral biology, the grand rounds format, case presentation in clinical settings, and continuing education involving practicing dentists and dental students.…

  5. Basic principles of Synchrotron Radiation-Induced X-Ray Fluorescence (SRXRF)

    SciTech Connect

    Gigante, G.E. . Dipt. di Fisica); Hanson, A.L. )

    1990-05-01

    The characteristic x rays can be used as powerful analytical tools for qualitative and quantitative determination of the major, minor and trace composition of materials. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques used for almost four decade to solve many problems in basic, applied science, and in industry. The XRF techniques that were developed initially used crystal spectrometers, and are referred to in literature as Wavelength Dispersive (WD) techniques. These WD techniques are still used in many fields and have the merit of a excellent energy resolution that allows for the analysis of many elements while avoiding the overlapping of some fluorescence peaks. They are also particularly useful in a matrix that produces copious quantities of a particular radiation. The principal disadvantages of a WD system are the low efficiency of crystal and the reduced energy region in which crystal spectrometer can be used. In the 1960's, Solid State Detectors (SSD) were developed with energy resolution such that the Energy Dispersive XRF techniques could be developed. These SSD's overcame some of the limitations of the WD techniques. The most attractive characteristics of the EDXRF techniques are in their intrinsic multielemental and non destructive capabilities. The development of the high intensity, high brilliance Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources have open the possibility to make microanalyses using the XRF techniques, increasing the interest of the scientific community for these techniques. In this paper the basic concepts of the XRF technique are reviewed taking in account the availability of the new sources of x rays. 32 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Connecting Science and Society: Basic Research in the Service of Social Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    A flawed dichotomy of basic versus applied science (or of ``curiosity-driven'' vs. ``mission-oriented'' science) pervades today's thinking about science policy. This talk argues for the addition of a third mode of scientific research, called Jeffersonian science. Whereas basic science, as traditionally understood, is a quest for the unknown regardless of societal needs, and applied science is known science applied to known needs, Jeffersonian science is the quest for the unknown in the service of a known social need. It is research in an identified area of basic scientific ignorance that lies at the heart of a social problem. The talk discusses the conceptual foundations and then provides some case examples of Jeffersonian-type science initiatives, such as the Lewis and Clark Expedition, initiated by Thomas Jefferson (which led us to call this mode of research Jeffersonian), research conducted under the auspices of the National Institutes of Health, and a science policy project by President Jimmy Carter and his Science Adviser, Frank Press, in the late 1970s. Because the concept of Jeffersonian science explicitly ties basic research to the social good, one of the potential benefits of adding a Jeffersonian dimension to our thinking about science is that it might make science careers more attractive to women and underrepresented minorities.

  7. "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation": an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael

    2016-03-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general. PMID:26873898

  8. Basic principles and ecological consequences of changing water regimes on nitrogen cycling in fluvial systems.

    PubMed

    Pinay, Gilles; Clément, Jean Christophe; Naiman, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Understanding the environmental consequences of changing water regimes is a daunting challenge for both resource managers and ecologists. Balancing human demands for fresh water with the needs of the environment for water in appropriate amounts and at the appropriate times are shaping the ways by which this natural resource will be used in the future. Based on past decisions that have rendered many freshwater resources unsuitable for use, we argue that river systems have a fundamental need for appropriate amounts and timing of water to maintain their biophysical integrity. Biophysical integrity is fundamental for the formulation of future sustainable management strategies. This article addresses three basic ecological principles driving the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in river systems. These are (1) how the mode of nitrogen delivery affects river ecosystem functioning, (2) how increasing contact between water and soil or sediment increases nitrogen retention and processing, and (3) the role of floods and droughts as important natural events that strongly influence pathways of nitrogen cycling in fluvial systems. New challenges related to the cumulative impact of water regime change, the scale of appraisal of these impacts, and the determination of the impacts due to natural and human changes are discussed. It is suggested that cost of long-term and long-distance cumulative impacts of hydrological changes should be evaluated against short-term economic benefits to determine the real environmental costs. PMID:12481915

  9. Dual-Energy CT: Basic Principles, Technical Approaches, and Applications in Musculoskeletal Imaging (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Omoumi, Patrick; Becce, Fabio; Racine, Damien; Ott, Julien G; Andreisek, Gustav; Verdun, Francis R

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, technological advances have allowed manufacturers to implement dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) on clinical scanners. With its unique ability to differentiate basis materials by their atomic number, DECT has opened new perspectives in imaging. DECT has been used successfully in musculoskeletal imaging with applications ranging from detection, characterization, and quantification of crystal and iron deposits; to simulation of noncalcium (improving the visualization of bone marrow lesions) or noniodine images. Furthermore, the data acquired with DECT can be postprocessed to generate monoenergetic images of varying kiloelectron volts, providing new methods for image contrast optimization as well as metal artifact reduction. The first part of this article reviews the basic principles and technical aspects of DECT including radiation dose considerations. The second part focuses on applications of DECT to musculoskeletal imaging including gout and other crystal-induced arthropathies, virtual noncalcium images for the study of bone marrow lesions, the study of collagenous structures, applications in computed tomography arthrography, as well as the detection of hemosiderin and metal particles. PMID:26696081

  10. Dual-Energy CT: Basic Principles, Technical Approaches, and Applications in Musculoskeletal Imaging (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Omoumi, Patrick; Verdun, Francis R; Guggenberger, Roman; Andreisek, Gustav; Becce, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, technological advances have allowed manufacturers to implement dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) on clinical scanners. With its unique ability to differentiate basis materials by their atomic number, DECT has opened new perspectives in imaging. DECT has been successfully used in musculoskeletal imaging with applications ranging from detection, characterization, and quantification of crystal and iron deposits, to simulation of noncalcium (improving the visualization of bone marrow lesions) or noniodine images. Furthermore, the data acquired with DECT can be postprocessed to generate monoenergetic images of varying kiloelectron volts, providing new methods for image contrast optimization as well as metal artifact reduction. The first part of this article reviews the basic principles and technical aspects of DECT including radiation dose considerations. The second part focuses on applications of DECT to musculoskeletal imaging including gout and other crystal-induced arthropathies, virtual noncalcium images for the study of bone marrow lesions, the study of collagenous structures, applications in computed tomography arthrography, as well as the detection of hemosiderin and metal particles. PMID:26696082

  11. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging’s basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs. PMID:26807369

  12. Linear and non-linear spectroscopy of microparticles: basic principles, new techniques and promising applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Richard K; Pan, Yong-Le

    2008-01-01

    In the introduction a brief recollection is made of how one of us (RKC), accidentally, got into this field of linear and nonlinear spectroscopy of a dielectric micro-particle that can be treated as a micro-cavity or a micro-resonator. The basic principles of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and their relationship with electromagnetic theory are presented. To simplify the mathematics, we only discuss an example from a 2-d case of light illumination perpendicular to the fiber axis. This 2-d example has relevance to semiconductor circular disk lasers, nonlinear optics in torroids, fibers and spheres at the tip of a fiber. The internal and near-field distribution of a WGM are graphically plotted to give the reader a chance to get a physical understanding of the spatial distribution as well as spectral distribution of WGMs. Several new techniques that enable the measurements of: (1) nanometer changes in the cladding diameter over a centimeter length of fiber; (2) some aspects of the morphology of micro-particles by elastic scattering; and (3) biochemical reactions at the interface of liquid media with a sphere at the end of a fiber. A few interesting nonlinear optical experimental results pertaining to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) are touched upon. We present some preliminary results for promising applications in the area of bioaerosols. These include ambient aerosol characterization and identification with elastic scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and other optical and/or biochemical identifiers. PMID:18214095

  13. Basic Principles of Planar Chromatography and Its Potential for Hyphenated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    Sample preparation, detection, identification, and quantitative determination of biomolecules are presented in this chapter. Advantages of planar chromatography and the basic principles (chambers, sample application, and chromatogram development) are also described. Rapid detection of biomolecules plays a strategical role in their investigation. Hyphenated techniques such as planar chromatography coupled to UV diode array detection and to mass spectrometry provide on-line extensive structural information on the metabolites prior to their isolation. In this chapter, the combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with biomolecules specific detection by diode array scanning (DAD), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TLC-FTIR) is discussed. In the last part of the chapter, the reader will gain useful information about a recent method of planar chromatography - multidimensional planar chromatography (MD-PC) and information on application of different modes of multidimensional planar chromatography and combination of this technique with diode array detection (MD-PC-DAD) and HPLC-DAD for separation, detection, and qualitative and quantitative determination of biomolecules. Planar chromatography as a pilot technique for HPLC is also described.

  14. Principle and Basic Characteristics of a Hybrid Variable-Magnetic-Force Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Kuramochi, Satoru

    Reduction in the power consumed by motors is important for energy saving in the case of electrical appliances and electric vehicles (EVs). The motors used for operating these devices operate at variable speeds. Further, the motors operate with a small load in the stationary mode and a large load in the starting mode. A permanent magnet motor can be operated at the rated power with a high efficiency. However, the efficiency is low at a small load or at a high speed because the large constant magnetic force results in substantial core loss. Furthermore, the flux-weakening current that decreases the voltage at a high speed leads to significant copper loss and core loss. Therefore, we have developed a new technique for controlling the magnetic force of a permanent magnet on the basis of the load or speed of the motor. In this paper, we propose a novel motor that can vary the magnetic flux of a permanent magnet and clarify the principle and basic characteristics of the motor. The new motor has a permanent magnet that is magnetized by the magnetizing coil of the stator. The analysis results show that the magnetic flux linkage of the motor can be changed from 37% to 100% that a high torque can be produced.

  15. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent

  16. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  17. Growth in Turkish Positive Basic Sciences, 1933-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozinonu, A. Kemal

    This study collected data on the measurable qualities of Turkish science in terms of high level scientific manpower, scientific productivity, and scientific fertility from 1933 to 1966 and analyzed the data collected with the goal of providing a deeper understanding of the nature of Turkish science. Scientific personnel, including Turkish…

  18. The Impact of Hands-On-Approach on Student Academic Performance in Basic Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekwueme, Cecilia O.; Ekon, Esther E.; Ezenwa-Nebife, Dorothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Children can learn mathematics and sciences effectively even before being exposed to formal school curriculum if basic Mathematics and Sciences concepts are communicated to them early using activity oriented (Hands-on) method of teaching. Mathematics and Science are practical and activity oriented and can best be learnt through inquiry (Okebukola…

  19. Chemical carcinogens: a review of the science and its associated principles. U.S. Interagency Staff Group on Carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In order to articulate a view of chemical carcinogenesis that scientists generally hold in common today and to draw upon this understanding to compose guiding principles that can be used as a bases for the efforts of the regulatory agencies to establish guidelines for assessing carcinogenic risk to meet the specific requirements of the legislative acts they are charged to implement, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office, the White House drew on the expertise of a number of regulatory agencies to elucidate present scientific views in critical areas of the major disciplines important to the process of risk assessment. The document is composed of two major sections, Principles and the State-of-the-Science. The latter consists of subsections on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, short-term and long-term testing, and epidemiology, which are important components in the risk assessment step of hazard identification. These subsections are followed by one on exposure assessment, and a final section which includes analyses of dose-response (hazard) assessment and risk characterization. The principles are derived from considerations in each of the subsections. Because of present gaps in understanding, the principles contain judgmental (science policy) decisions on major unresolved issues as well as statements of what is generally accepted as fact. These judgments are basically assumptions which are responsible for much of the uncertainty in the process of risk assessment. There was an attempt to clearly distinguish policy and fact. The subsections of the State-of-the-Science portion provide the underlying support to the principles articulated, and to read the "Principles" section without a full appreciation of the State-of-the-Science section is to invite oversimplification and misinterpretation. Finally, suggestions are made for future research efforts which will improve the process of risk assessment. PMID:3530737

  20. Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: A model

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, Ivo P.

    2007-01-01

    Cancer is a significant medical and societal problem. This reality arises from the fact that an exponential and an unrestricted cellular growth destabilizes human body as a system. From this perspective, cancer is a manifestation of a system-in-failing. A model of normal and abnormal cell cycle oscillations has been developed incorporating systems science, complexity, and chaos theories. Using this model, cancer expresses a failing subsystem and is characterized by a positive exponential growth taking place in the outer edge of chaos. The overall survival of human body as a system is threatened. This model suggests, however, that cancer's exponential cellular growth and disorganized complexity could be controlled through the process of induction of differentiation of cancer stem cells into cells of low and basic functionality. This concept would imply reorientation of current treatment principles from cellular killing (cyto-toxic therapies) to cellular retraining (cyto-education). PMID:17589568

  1. Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic

  2. Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

  3. Expository-Deductive vs. Discovery-Inductive Programing of Physical Science Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Richard Thomas

    Principles of mechanics and simple machines were taught to 14 ninth-grade general science classes. Three treatments were used: (1) an Expository-Deductive program in which the subject reads the statement and explanation of a principle before working with example frames illustrating that principle; (2) a Discovery-Inductive program in which the

  4. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  5. International cooperation in basic space science, Western Asian countries and the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The world will never better develop and attain a global peace state, if it does not exist a world-wide cooperation, union of interests among all countries on planet Earth, respecting and understanding each other culture differences. So, if the countries interested in space science want to create or better develop this field, they need to firstly construct peace states and social cooperation, while scientific and technological cooperation will develop -among them. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations (UN)' Agenda 21 (UN UNCED, 1992), I propose four points that can lead to a practical and solid international cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, based on ground studies, with sustainable space programs in countries with social necessities, and to the construction of an avenue of peace states in those areas and in the world, 1) The creation of LINKS among the "developing" countries, among the "developed" ones and between them -with scientists, engineers, educators and administrative personnel. This can catalyze a self-sustainable scientific and technological production in the "developing" countries. Financial matters could be done through the World Bank in coopera-tion with UNESCO. 2) The administration of this difficult enterprise of international coopera-tion. With the increasing complexity of relationships among the aerospace-interested countries, it will be necessary the creation of a center capable to serve as an INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATOR CENTER FOR AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES. 3) CULTURE: in Western Asian countries there is a cultural habit that when somebody gives something valuable to a person, this person should give something back. Thus, the Western Asian countries receiving infor-mation on basic aerospace science and technology from the "developed" ones, those countries would probably feel they should give something in return. Western Asian countries could trans-mit their costumes, thinking ways, habits, persons' worries, thoughts and life knowledge, and music -culture -among themselves and to the "developed" countries. With this transmission of culture, principally among children, a better understanding among the countries could be created and the relationships among them could be very much easier for a sustainable inter-national cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, and for a sustainable better development and peace states for all Peoples and Nations on Earth. A cultural aspect which can highly increase children's interest in basic space science and technologies is by preparing the `terrain' of their minds, planting seeds of peace on them. It is known that if children live in countries with peace states their learning capacity is much better. So, I also propose (a neces-sity) to reeducate children -by teaching them about peace, showing them about Nations which have peace societies, redirecting children's mind for them to acquire knowledge of peace. So, they will grow into adults with more possibilities of developing science and technology (space research included) for peaceful purposes. We can extend our hands and actually help persons and Peoples with real necessities. By doing this way and keeping it constant we all can greatly grow together socially, and scientific-technologically, and real peace states will be achieved while sustainable space program will develop better -these two matters go 'hands-in-hands'. 4) The PARTICIPATION of the Western Asian countries in already programmed space missions, the participation in the astrobiology research, and in the transference of aerospace-related sci-entific and technical information to them. The better social development of the world (with sustainable space programs) with more union among the Peoples and Nations on Earth, within a protected environment, it is a goal we (a living species Homo sapiens, among others species, on this extremely rare unique special planet Earth) all need to achieve together.

  6. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  7. Basic Regulatory Principles of Escherichia coli's Electron Transport Chain for Varying Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Sebastian G.; Beek, Alexander Ter; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M. Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25268772

  8. The Meniscus: Review of Basic Principles With Application to Surgery and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Timothy; Johnson, Darren L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review basic meniscal anatomy, histology, and biomechanical principles as they apply to surgery and rehabilitation. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL for the years 1960–1999 using the terms meniscus, surgery, rehabilitation, meniscal repair, and arthroscopy. Data Synthesis: Injuries to a healthy meniscus are usually produced by a compressive force coupled with transverse-plane tibiofemoral rotation as the knee moves from flexion to extension during rapid cutting or pivoting. The goal of meniscal surgery is to restore a functional meniscus to prevent the development of degenerative osteoarthritis in the involved knee. The goal of rehabilitation is to restore patient function based on individual needs, considering the type of surgical procedure, which meniscus was repaired, the presence of coexisting knee pathology (particularly ligamentous laxity or articular cartilage degeneration), the type of meniscal tear, the patient's age, preoperative knee status (including time between injury and surgery), decreased range of motion or strength, and the patient's athletic expectations and motivations. Progressive weight bearing and joint stress are necessary to enhance the functionality of the meniscal repair; however, excessive shear forces may be disruptive. Prolonged knee immobilization after surgery can result in the rapid development of muscular atrophy and greater delays in functional recovery. Conclusions/Recommendations: Accelerated joint mobility and weight-bearing components of rehabilitation protocols represent the confidence placed in innovative surgical fixation methods. After wound healing, an aquatic therapy environment may be ideal during all phases of rehabilitation after meniscal surgery (regardless of the exact procedure), providing the advantages of controlled weight bearing and mobility progressions. Well-designed, controlled, longitudinal outcome studies for patients who have undergone meniscectomy, meniscal repair, or meniscal reconstruction are lacking. PMID:16558666

  9. Basic principle of a new measurement system of long measuring range of digital modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zeng-yao; Mao, Qian-min

    2006-11-01

    Usually a capacitive displacement transducer (CDT) is made by printed-circuit-board (PCB) technology, so the reduced pitches of electrodes are limited by PCB technology and lead wire design, and the increase of its resolution, too. If a line array source replaces the transmitting electrodes of the CDT, a scale grating replaces the scale electrodes and a detector replaces the pick-up electrode of the CDT and also increase its number of the subdivision, the solution could be greatly improved on condition that the mathematical model of the CDT is maintained. Grating technology is organically combined with CDT technology. The basic operation principle of the system is as follows: a linear array source has several groups and every group has 8 light cell (organic light-emitting diode (OLED), or Liquid Crystal on Silicon Display (LCoS). (these line array sources are required to determinate speed response). The pitch of the cells is w. Every cell emits a light signal if driven by a digital signal. The pitch of the scale grating is W (=8w). The transmission (or reflection) characteristic function of the scale grating is T i(x). After I i(t) passes through the scale grating and is modulated by the displacement x of the scale grating, the total intensity I(x,t) is obtained. The photoelectric detector receives I(x,t) and transforms it into an electric signal. Subsequently the signal is demodulated and filtered, thus the fundamental harmonic of I I(x,t) is obtained. It is obvious, that the phase of I I(x,t) has a linear relation with x. After processing the phase demodulation circuit and the MPU, the displacement x of the scale grating is obtained.

  10. The Integration of Nutrition Education in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, Isaias

    1977-01-01

    At the Center for Biomedical Education at the City University of New York, nutrition is integrated into the chemistry-biochemistry sequence of a six-year B.S.-M.D. program. Students perform an actual analysis of a sample of their own food, learning basic techniques and concepts, and also carry on experiments with rats on other diets. (Editor/LBH)

  11. Basic Research: Behavioral and Social Sciences. 1984 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Research Inst. for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.

    This is the second annual report of the Army Research Institute's (ARI) basic research program. It describes the current focus of the program and the individual research efforts sponsored within each of the four principal thrust areas: ability assessment; instructional technology; cognitive processing limitations; and intelligent systems. In…

  12. Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

  13. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  14. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Benjamin E; Goldenberg, Neil M; Fairn, Gregory D; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Lee, Warren L

    2016-02-01

    Explosive growth in our understanding of genomics and molecular biology have fueled calls for the pursuit of personalized medicine, the notion of harnessing biologic variability to provide patient-specific care. This vision will necessitate a deep understanding of the underlying pathophysiology in each patient. Medical journals play a pivotal role in the education of trainees and clinicians, yet we suspected that the amount of basic science in the top medical journals has been in decline. We conducted an automated search strategy in PubMed to identify basic science articles and calculated the proportion of articles dealing with basic science in the highest impact journals for 8 different medical specialties from 1994 to 2013. We observed a steep decline (40-60%) in such articles over time in almost all of the journals examined. This rapid decline in basic science from medical journals is likely to affect practitioners' understanding of and interest in the basic mechanisms of disease and therapy. In this Life Sciences Forum, we discuss why this decline may be occurring and what it means for the future of science and medicine.-Steinberg, B. E., Goldenberg, N. M., Fairn, G. D., Kuebler, W. M., Slutsky, A. S., Lee, W. L. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature. PMID:26467794

  15. Basic Rheology of Polymer Melts. An Introductory Polymer Science Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commereuc, S.

    1999-11-01

    A basic experiment is proposed to illustrate the rheological behavior of polymer melts. Viscoelastic properties are studied by means of dynamic mechanical testing. Time dependence and time-temperature correspondence are explored by building an experimental "master curve". Effects of molecular parameters such as molecular weight and molecular weight distribution are discussed for all viscoelastic quantities. Attention is focused on the rubbery plateau modulus, the Newtonian viscosity, and the cross-over point between the elastic and the viscous moduli.

  16. Top Liberal Arts Colleges Need More Money for Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1986-01-01

    Discusses findings from report "Maintaining America's Scientific Productivity: The Necessity of the Liberal Arts Colleges" produced at Oberlin College. Characterizes science majors, faculty, and state of facilities at such schools, and speculates on needed financial support to maintain and enhance their current position. (JM)

  17. Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

  18. Science: A Practical View. Volume III. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific principles of…

  19. Teaching Aldosterone Regulation and Basic Scientific Principles Using a Classic Paper by Dr. James O. Davis and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanke, Craig J.; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th…

  20. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.59 between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre-to-post assessment with an effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  1. Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often

  2. Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often…

  3. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice; Wenzel, Duane

    Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; encyclopedias and reference books; environment and conservation; fiction; general science; life sciences; marine life; mathematics and computer science; medical and health sciences; physics and chemistry; plant…

  4. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice; Wenzel, Duane

    Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; encyclopedias and reference books; environment and conservation; fiction; general science; life sciences; marine life; mathematics and computer science; medical and health sciences; physics and chemistry; plant

  5. Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Justin G; Grande, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients' social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course. PMID:25755935

  6. Science and Nonscience Students' Ideas about Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Huseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2007-01-01

    A 14-item questionnaire was given to 100 students in preservice training to become primary and secondary education faculty. Results showed that science and non-science majors held a series of misconceptions about several basic topics central to astronomy. The changes in astronomy misconceptions were analyzed by means of a written questionnaire…

  7. Development and Validation of a Project Package for Junior Secondary School Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udofia, Nsikak-Abasi

    2014-01-01

    This was a Research and Developmental study designed to develop and validate projects for Junior Secondary School Basic Science instruction and evaluation. The projects were developed using the project blueprint and sent for validation by experts in science education and measurement and evaluation; using a project validation scale. They were to…

  8. DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). The goal of the Material Sciences projects is to study the structural, optical, electrical, and defect properties of semiconductors and related materials using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Specific projects involving PV include: ordering in III-V semiconductors, isoelectronic co-doping, doping bottlenecks in semiconductors, solid-state theory, and computational science. The goal of the Chemical Sciences projects is to advance the fundamental understanding of the relevant science involving materials, photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, nanoscale chemistry, and catalysis that support solar photochemical conversion technologies. Specific projects relating to PV include: dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, semiconductor nanostructures, and molecular semiconductors. This presentation will give an overview of some of the major accomplishments of these projects.

  9. Complex biomedical systems: from basic science to translation.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) of the University of Southern California (BME@USC) has a longstanding tradition of advancing biomedicine through the development and application of novel engineering ideas. More than 80 primary and affiliated faculty members conduct cutting-edge research in a wide variety of areas, such as neuroengineering, biosystems and biosignal analysis, medical devices (including biomicroelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) and bionanotechnology), biomechanics, bioimaging, and imaging informatics. Currently, the department hosts six internationally recognized research centers: the Biomimetic MicroElectronic Systems Engineering Research Center (funded by the National Science Foundation), the Biomedical Simulations Resource [funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)], the Medical Ultrasonic Transducer Center (funded by NIH), the Center for Neural Engineering, the Center for Vision Science and Technology (funded by an NIH Bioengineering Research Partnership Grant), and the Center for Genomic and Phenomic Studies in Autism (funded by NIH). BME@USC ranks in the top tier of all U.S. BME departments in terms of research funding per faculty. PMID:22850833

  10. Moral Principles and the Life Sciences: Choices about Moral Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David; Brett, William

    2005-01-01

    Today, more than at any other time in human history, biologists are or should be concerned about the morality of biological research and newly developed technologies. Two questions confront any scientist or science student concerned about morality and the life sciences. Is there some theoretical framework that might be used to assist in deciding…

  11. Basic science for the clinician 54: CD5.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Leonard H

    2012-03-01

    The full story of what surface markers mean about the cells on which they reside twists and turns as the days go by, with previously accepted "truth" changing in light of new findings. Such is the case with CD5, a surface marker on most murine T cells, many thymocytes, and a subset of B cells. The precise role of CD5 in the murine and human immune responses has been a matter of intense speculation for many years. Recent work suggests that CD5 may have a fine-tuning or suppressive effect on signaling through the antigen receptors on both B and T cells. These CD5 B cells were initially thought to be a major source of autoantibodies and/or "natural antibodies," targeting broad arrays of carbohydrate and protein antigens. More recent studies support the latter contention-CD5 B cells do produce "natural antibodies," but the former is far from true-CD5 B cells are not the major source of autoantibodies. In fact, CD5 may be a major negative influence on antigen receptor driven-B-cell function and may serve to control autoimmunity rather than encourage it. Furthermore, another subset of CD5 B cells may represent a distinct regulatory population. CD5 expression is noted on more than three fourths of all T-cell lymphomas. CD5 may be a receptor of pathogen-associated molecular patterns; CD5 may be a marker of decreased dependence of B cells on certain circulating factors. Elevated levels of CD5 are found in a number of autoimmune disorders. Thus, although the precise mechanism is unclear, there is at the very least circumstantial evidence of a role for CD5 in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and perhaps T cell-derived lymphoid malignancy. New findings put old claims to rest and open up new avenues for research, both basic and clinical, with therapeutic applications not far behind. PMID:22334268

  12. Communicating and advocating for science and medicine: beyond the basics.

    PubMed

    Feussner, John R

    2015-02-01

    I have discussed several advocacy strategies to improve effective communications for those motivated to do the necessary work to make a difference in policy decisions involving science and health care. I encourage you to get involved personally with members of Congress, their key “staffers,” and to contribute financially to their election efforts. Other suggestions are self-evident, for example, think strategically, only advocate for important policies and do not “over promise” or “under deliver.” If you “get to yes,” stop negotiating and leave gratefully. Remember, you are operating in a high stakes arena and while you understand the intended consequences, you may misjudge unintended consequences that could diminish success. But if you want to make a difference, you must become a “player in the policy and political game.” And if you “get in the game,” you should play to win! PMID:25291339

  13. What's hot, what's new at WTC--basic science.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, J S

    2015-02-01

    The World Transplant Congress of 2014 presented a broad swath of science that touched on many disparate aspects of cell and organ transplantation, molecular and cellular immunology, systems biology, development, technology and translation into humans. A number of themes emerged this year. B cell biology and antibody chemistry were prominent, as they have been for several years. T cells, co-stimulatory blockade and regulatory T cells continue to dominate many aspects of immune research. Many new aspects of monocyte, macrophage, NK cell and NK T cell development, biology and regulation are now being explored. Diverse aspects of organ injury and the acute and chronic responses to injury are being investigated with new techniques, new targets and a resurgent vigor. Novel advances in xenotransplantation and experimental tolerance garnered much attention. Newer investigations in microbiota and nanotechnology promise significant gains in the near future. Lastly the 'omics of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, bacteria and enzyme actions promise new understanding in biological systems and how to control those systems. PMID:25612488

  14. Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

  15. Science Curricula Design: Analysis of Authors' Ideological and Pedagogical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Silvia; Morais, Ana M.; Neves, Isabel P.

    2011-01-01

    The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the Official Pedagogic Discourse of the curriculum for Portuguese middle schools contains the ideological and pedagogical principles of its authors. The research is epistemologically and sociologically grounded, placing particular emphasis on Bernstein theory of

  16. Science Curricula Design: Analysis of Authors' Ideological and Pedagogical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Silvia; Morais, Ana M.; Neves, Isabel P.

    2011-01-01

    The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the Official Pedagogic Discourse of the curriculum for Portuguese middle schools contains the ideological and pedagogical principles of its authors. The research is epistemologically and sociologically grounded, placing particular emphasis on Bernstein theory of…

  17. The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabalevskii, Dmitrii

    1988-01-01

    Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)

  18. Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amara, Francis

    Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

  19. How WebQuests Can Enhance Science Learning Principles in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic…

  20. Lost in Translation—Basic Science in the Era of Translational Research ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges. PMID:20038540

  1. Incorporating Systems Science Principles into the Development of Obesity Prevention Interventions: Principles, Benefits, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Mui, Yeeli; Adam, Atif; Lin, Sen; Kharmats, Anna; Igusa, Takeru; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-06-01

    Systems modeling represents an innovative approach for addressing the obesity epidemic at the community level. We developed an agent-based model of the Baltimore City food environment that permits us to assess the relative impact of different programs and policies, alone and in combination, and potential unexpected consequences. Based on this experience, and a review of literature, we have identified a set of principles, potential benefits, and challenges. Some of the key principles include the importance of early and multilevel engagement with the community prior to initiating model development and continued engagement and testing with community stakeholders. Important benefits include improving community stakeholder understanding of the system, testing of interventions before implementation, and identification of unexpected consequences. Challenges in these models include deciding on the most important, yet parsimonious factors to consider, how to model food source and food selection behavior in a realistic yet transferable manner, and identifying the appropriate outcomes and limitations of the model. PMID:26069864

  2. Temperament: Theory and Practice. Brunner/Mazel Basic Principles into Practice Series, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chess, Stella; Thomas, Alexander

    This book outlines the basic tenets and applications of the theory of temperament based on the findings of the New York Longitudinal Study begun in 1956. It describes the concept and definition of temperament, reviews studies that support and expand on the definition, and explores temperament and its impact across various practice settings and…

  3. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

  4. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who

  5. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Laura L.; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. Results: The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Conclusions: Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository. PMID:20098658

  6. The Challenge of the Humanities and Social Science Education Through the Basic Seminar (Science of Snow Sports)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Sugimoto, Taku; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Ikota, Masaru

    The Education Center of Chiba Institute of Technology is taking a new approach to the introduction of liberal arts subjects commonly included in the curriculum of all departments through a newly established basic seminar, the Science of Snow Sports. Each faculty member has been working on setting up classes that cross the conventional boundaries of fields and disciplines and which are targeted at students of all faculties and departments. This paper describes the potential for teaching liberal arts and social science subjects to engineering students through the medium of sports science, based on actual experience gained via this new approach.

  7. Science in Writing: Learning Scientific Argument in Principle and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bagley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the processes of writing in science and in particular the "complex performance" of writing a scientific argument. The article explores in general terms the nature of scientific argumentation in which the author-scientist makes claims, provides evidence to support these claims, and develops chains of scientific

  8. Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

    2012-01-01

    Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and

  9. Science in Writing: Learning Scientific Argument in Principle and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bagley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the processes of writing in science and in particular the "complex performance" of writing a scientific argument. The article explores in general terms the nature of scientific argumentation in which the author-scientist makes claims, provides evidence to support these claims, and develops chains of scientific…

  10. Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

    2012-01-01

    Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and…

  11. Principles versus Artifacts in Computer Science Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machanick, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Computer Science is a subject which has difficulty in marketing itself. Further, pinning down a standard curriculum is difficult--there are many preferences which are hard to accommodate. This paper argues the case that part of the problem is the fact that, unlike more established disciplines, the subject does not clearly distinguish the study of…

  12. Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-31

    This is a review of the most important milestones in the last ten years of development in the field of grating-based x-ray and neutron imaging. It provides a description of the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with x-rays and neutrons. Furthermore, it reviews the theory of grating-based quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.

  13. Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law

    SciTech Connect

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara . E-mail: mariachiara.tallacchini@unimi.it

    2005-09-01

    The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that '[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. By focusing on situations of scientific uncertainty where data are lacking, insufficient, or inconclusive, the principle introduced a shift from a neutral legal attitude towards science to a bias in favor of safety, and a shift from the paradigm of science certain and objective to the awareness that the legal regulation of science involves decisions about values and interests. Implementation of the precautionary principle is highly variable. A crucial question still needs to be answered regarding the assumption that scientific certainty is a 'normal' characteristic of scientific knowledge. The relationship between technoscience and society has moved into a situation where uncertain knowledge is the rule. From this perspective, a more general framework for a democratic governance of science is needed. In democratic society, science may still have a special authoritative voice, but it cannot be the ultimate word on decisions that only the broader society may make. Therefore, the precautionary model of scientific regulation needs to be informed by an 'extended participatory model' of the relationship between science and society.

  14. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

  15. [Basic principles of physics in optical imaging of the human eye].

    PubMed

    Vodicka, I

    2000-01-01

    Creation of a real picture of the observed object on the retina by optical system of the eye is the primary physical condition of the visual perception. Absorption of the light energy initiates the sequence of further physicochemical, biochemical and psychophysiological events partially taking place already in the retina but mostly in the higher cerebral and spinal centres. So the visual perception and its final evaluation is the result of a complicated complex of processes where the optical imaging itself plays the role of the starting factor. In the publication particularly the physical substance of the optical imaging on refraction surfaces between media with different refraction index has been accentuated. The laws of reflection and refraction and their origin are derived in the terms of the physical (Maxwell equations) and geometrical (Fermat principle, principle of the mutual independence of light beams) optics. In the adequate extent the development and structure of the eye and the whole visual complex, the bases of the quantification of the visual perception and contemporary opinions on mechanisms of the colour vision (trichromatic theory) have been described. The publication is completed by a mathematical appendix explaining some relations usually absent in the biomedical literature. PMID:11413677

  16. Immunology primer for neurosurgeons and neurologists part I: Basic principles of immunology

    PubMed Central

    Blaylock, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the workings of the immune system has evolved considerably over the past 20 years, with great strides being made as regard to complex interactions and repertoire of effector reactions under a host of conditions. Many of our previous understandings have been challenged, especially concerning tumor immunology and autoimmunity. Also of critical importance is our understanding of how the immune system terminates its attacks and the mechanisms used to regulate the balance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mechanisms, so as to prevent excessive immune bystander damage. I will discuss in part I the basic physiology of innate immune function and the immune systems reactions to invasion by microorganisms. PMID:23493579

  17. A Problem-Oriented Independent Studies Programme in Basic Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    An independent studies program (ISP) in the basic medical sciences developed at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry involves 16 students as a learning team working with 10 medical teachers as a teaching team. The program offers an alternative to the lecture-laboratory-conference traditional format. (Author/LBH)

  18. Long-Term Retention of Basic Science Knowledge: A Review Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custers, Eugene J. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently,…

  19. A Role for Clinical Case Simulations in Basic Medical Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchaer, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations can help students apply basic science knowledge (which they are acquiring concurrently) to the identification and management of the physiological, metabolic, and/or anatomic problem(s) underlying the signs and the symptoms of a specific "simulated patient." The design, development, and production of these simulations are described. (JN)

  20. The double macchiato years; awards for the best basic science and epidemiology papers in 2012.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Paul; Lloyd, Clare

    2013-08-01

    It's increasingly difficult to get published in Thorax so we commend all those who managed it in 2012; and salute all those who tried and failed. We think that comparisons are invidious but our chief editors, with all their schoolboy charm, disagree so here are our awards for the best basic science and epidemiological manuscripts in the year of the London Olympics. PMID:23842817

  1. Effect of Self Regulated Learning Approach on Junior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwafor, Chika E.; Obodo, Abigail Chikaodinaka; Okafor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effect of self-regulated learning approach on junior secondary school students' achievement in basic science. Quasi-experimental design was used for the study.Two co-educational schools were drawn for the study through simple random sampling technique. One school was assigned to the treatment group while the other was…

  2. Decision-Making in Basic Medical Sciences Examinations: Single versus Multiple Cutoff Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Gross, Leon J.

    1979-01-01

    To examine the premise that an overall cutting score on Basic Medical Sciences (BMS) tests allows medical students to enter clinical training despite deficiencies in certain subjects, cutting scores on four BMS tests were compared with those of discipline subtests. The original premise was not supported. (MH)

  3. Pharmacy Student Perception of Characteristics and Activities of Pharmacy Faculty; Basic Science Compared with Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Paul L.; House, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    Student attitudes toward pharmacy faculty were measured. Areas of inquiry included faculty characteristics such as age, sex, academic rank, education, licensure, experience, teaching, research, service and credibility. Analysis of data involved a comparision of student answers for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty. (Author/MLW)

  4. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease

  5. Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lila G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

  6. Improving College Faculty Instruction in the Basic and Allied Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washton, Nathan S.

    A project to improve college instruction in the basic and allied health sciences at New York Chiropractic College and the New York Institute of Technology is described. Attention was directed to: the kinds of resources colleges and professional schools provide to improve instruction; motivation of faculty to explore innovative or strategic…

  7. Impact of the USMLE Step 1 on Teaching and Learning of the Basic Biomedical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, David B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the newly modified United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 reviews the test, phase-in plans, and potential impact on basic biomedical sciences education. It is recommended that medical schools not use the test as the sole criterion for promotion to the third year and carefully review other examination-related requirements…

  8. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  9. An Analysis of Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Achievement, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Cognitive Structure Outcomes After Learning Basic Atomic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1998-01-01

    Explores the interrelationships between students' general science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs, and cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  10. Fractals in the Neurosciences, Part I: General Principles and Basic Neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Jelinek, Herbert; Pellionisz, Andras J; Losa, Gabriele Angelo

    2013-12-20

    The natural complexity of the brain, its hierarchical structure, and the sophisticated topological architecture of the neurons organized in micronetworks and macronetworks are all factors contributing to the limits of the application of Euclidean geometry and linear dynamics to the neurosciences. The introduction of fractal geometry for the quantitative analysis and description of the geometric complexity of natural systems has been a major paradigm shift in the last decades. Nowadays, modern neurosciences admit the prevalence of fractal properties such as self-similarity in the brain at various levels of observation, from the microscale to the macroscale, in molecular, anatomic, functional, and pathological perspectives. Fractal geometry is a mathematical model that offers a universal language for the quantitative description of neurons and glial cells as well as the brain as a whole, with its complex three-dimensional structure, in all its physiopathological spectrums. For a holistic view of fractal geometry of the brain, we review here the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences. PMID:24362815

  11. Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the research that must be done. For example, the applied research programs in the DOE need a greater awareness of the user facilities and an understanding of how to use them to solve their unique problems. The discussions reinforced what all of the participants already knew: the issue of energy security is of major importance both for the U.S. and for the world. Furthermore, it is clear that major changes in the primary energy sources, in energy conversion, and in energy use, must be achieved within the next fifty years. This time scale is determined by two drivers: increasing world population and increasing expectations of that population. Much of the research and development currently being done are concerned with incremental improvements in what has been done in the immediate past; and it is necessary to take this path because improvements will be needed across the board. These advances extend the period before the radical changes have to be made; however, they will not solve the underlying, long-range problem. The Subpanel recommends that a major program be funded to conduct a multidisciplinary research program to address the issues to ensure a secure energy future for the U.S. It is necessary to recognize that this program must be ensured of a long-term stability. It is also necessary that a management and funding structure appropriate for such an approach be developed. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences is well positioned to support this initiative by enhancement of their already world-class scientific research programs and user facilities.

  12. Using Basic Ethical Principles to Evaluate Safety Efforts in Transfusion Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuit of pharmaceutical purity of the blood in the bag has led to a shrinking donor base and a significantly more expensive product. Decisions regarding new infectious marker testing and donor deferrals have typically been made emphasizing decreasing one specific risk without considering the effect the intervention will have on the overall safety and availability of blood transfusion. Regulations have been formulated by governmental agencies with limited input from the medical community. The decision making process has lacked risk benefit analyses and has not had the robustness associated with spirited discussions. Policies made in this manner may result in certain risks being decreased but can also have adverse unintended consequences. Being guided by the ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice, we need to evaluate our actions in the context of overall blood safety rather than narrowly focusing on any one area. PMID:24089647

  13. Design principles for clinical efficacy of cancer nanomedicine: a look into the basics

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Shiladitya; Kulkarni, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    With the advances in cancer nanomedicine, there is an increasing expectation for clinical translation. However, what are the parameters of a nanomedicine that will define clinical success, which will be measured by increased efficacy and not just ease of delivery or reduction in toxicity? This perspective builds on a fundamental study by Stefanick et al on the significance of the right design principles in the engineering of a nanomedicine, such as peptide-PEG-linker length and ligand density in cellular uptake of liposomal nanoparticles. The perspective addresses additional design parameters that can potentially facilitate clinical translation as well as how emerging insights into tumor biology will inspire the next generation cancer nanomedicines. SUMMARY: As we rapidly race cancer nanomedicines towards the clinics, what are the fundamental design parameters that will influence outcome? What can we learn from antibody-drug conjugates that will facilitate nanomedicines passing the 'efficacy test'? This perspective addresses some of these questions. PMID:23607425

  14. Principle and Basic Characteristics of Variable-Magnetic-Force Memory Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Yuki, Kazuaki; Hashiba, Yutaka; Takahashi, Norio; Yasui, Kazuya; Kovudhikulrungsri, Lilit

    A reduction in the power consumed by motors is required for energy saving in the case of electrical appliances and electric vehicles (EV). The motors used for operating these apparatus operate at variable speeds. Further, the motors operate with small load in stationary mode and with large load in start-up mode. A permanent magnet motor can operate at the rated power with a high efficiency. However, the efficiency is lower at small load or high speed because the large constant magnetic force results in substantial core loss. Furthermore, the flux-weakening current that depresses voltage at high speed leads to significant copper loss. Therefore, we have developed a new technique for controlling the magnetic force of permanent magnet on the basis of the load or speed of the motor. In this paper, we propose the novel motor that can vary magnetic flux and we clarify the principle.

  15. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica andColombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  16. Aligning library instruction with the needs of basic sciences graduate students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Question: How can an existing library instruction program be reconfigured to reach basic sciences graduate students and other patrons missed by curriculum-based instruction? Setting: The setting is an academic health sciences library that serves both the university and its affiliated teaching hospital. Methods: The existing program was redesigned to incorporate a series of seven workshops that encompassed the range of information literacy skills that graduate students in the basic sciences need. In developing the new model, the teaching librarians made changes in pedagogy, technology, marketing, and assessment strategies. Results: Total attendance at the sessions increased substantially in the first 2 years of the new model, increasing from an average of 20 per semester to an average of 124. Survey results provided insight about what patrons wanted to learn and how best to teach it. Conclusion: Modifying the program's content and structure resulted in a program that appealed to the target audience. PMID:23133328

  17. Iron and Malaria Interactions: Research Needs From Basic Science to Global Policy12

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    The resurgence in interest and concern regarding the potentially malign interactions between iron administration and malaria infections, especially in young children and pregnant women, has generated a research agenda that is both broad and deep. This paper highlights some of the key questions under 5 headings: basic science; clinical science and epidemiology; technological developments; country level planning; and global policy. At a time of unparalleled progress in basic science, which is illuminating the mechanisms by which iron interacts with infectious organisms, it is concluded that there are good medium-term prospects for achieving policy breakthroughs based on a secure foundation of disease-nutrient interactions. However, it is also stressed that there is much that can be done in the interim, especially in relation to health systems and implementation research that can empower systems to integrate iron interventions with programs for malaria prevention, surveillance, and treatment. PMID:22797996

  18. The operating regimes and basic control principles of SNPS Topaz''. [Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A.N.; Volberg, M.S.; Grayznov, G.M.; Zhabotinsky, E.E.; Serbin, V.I. )

    1991-01-05

    The basic operating regimes of space nuclear power system (SNPS) Topaz'' are considered. These regimes include: prelaunch preparation and launch into working orbit, SNPS start-up to obtain desired electric power, nominal regime, SNPS shutdown. The main requirements for SNPS at different regimes are given, and the control algorithms providing these requirements are described. The control algorithms were chosen on the basis of theoretical studies and ground power tests of the SNPS prototypes. Topaz'' successful ground and flight tests allow to conclude that for SNPS of this type control algorithm providing required thermal state of cesium vapor supply system and excluding any possibility of discharge processes in current conducting elements is the most expedient at the start-up regime. At the nominal regime required electric power should be provided by maintenance of reactor current and fast-acting voltage regulator utilization. The limitation of the outlet coolant temperature should be foreseen also.

  19. From basic network principles to neural architecture: emergence of orientation-selective cells.

    PubMed Central

    Linsker, R

    1986-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series of three that explores the emergence of several prominent features of the functional architecture of visual cortex, in a "modular self-adaptive network" containing several layers of cells with parallel feedforward connections whose strengths develop according to a Hebb-type correlation-rewarding rule. In the present paper I show that orientation-selective cells, similar to the "simple" cortical cells of Hubel and Wiesel [Hubel, D. H. & Wiesel, T. N. (1962) J. Physiol. 160, 106-154], emerge in such a network. No orientation preference is specified to the system at any stage, the orientation-selective cell layer emerges even in the absence of environmental input to the system, and none of the basic developmental rules is specific to visual processing. PMID:3464958

  20. Basic Research in the Mission Agencies: Agency Perspectives on the Conduct and Support of Basic Research. Report of the National Science Board, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    A survey was conducted by the National Science Board of the basic research supported by executive branch agencies of the federal government. Most of the data came from information solicited by the Board from federal agencies involved in science. Fourteen mission agencies and two agencies not so classified and 20 subunits of these responded.…

  1. The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

    2006-01-01

    Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented. PMID:16674820

  2. Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2012-06-01

    Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

  3. From Basic Network Principles to Neural Architecture: Emergence of Spatial-Opponent Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsker, Ralph

    1986-10-01

    The functional architecture of mammalian visual cortex has been elucidated in impressive detail by experimental work of the past 20-25 years. The origin of many of the salient features of this architecture, however, has remained unexplained. This paper is the first of three (the others will appear in subsequent issues of these Proceedings) that address the origin and organization of feature-analyzing (spatial-opponent and orientation-selective) cells in simple systems governed by biologically plusible development rules. I analyze the progressive maturation of a system composed of a few layers of cells, with connections that develop according to a simple set of rules (including Hebb-type modification). To understand the prenatal origin of orientation-selective cells in certain primates, I consider the case in which there is no external input, with the first layer exhibiting random spontaneous electrical activity. No orientation preference is specified to the system at any stage, and none of the basic developmental rules is specific to visual processing. Here I introduce the theory of ``modular self-adaptive networks,'' of which this system is an example, and explicitly demonstrate the emergence of a layer of spatial-opponent cells. This sets the stage for the emergence, in succeeding layers, of an orientation-selective cell population.

  4. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2014-04-01

    It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR phenomenology and weaken the status of the Planck scale hypothesis. Another crucial observation is that, already before incorporating standard matter and relativity, the SST geometry naturally yields a H t = 1 law where t is the age of the Universe and H the ratio between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale. As standard cosmology is not required to get such a fundamental result, the need for a conventional Planck scale is far from obvious and the study of UHECR can potentially yield evidence for an alternative approach including new physics and new ultimate constituents of matter. UHECR may in particular allow to explore the possible indications of the existence of a transition scale at very high energy where the standard laws would start becoming less and less dominant and new physics would replace the conventional fundamental principles. We discuss prospects of searches for potential signatures of such a phenomenon.

  5. Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory consolidation. PMID:23874312

  6. Body diffusion kurtosis imaging: Basic principles, applications, and considerations for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Padhani, Anwar R; Chenevert, Thomas L; Koh, Dow-Mu; De Keyzer, Frederik; Taouli, Bachir; Le Bihan, Denis

    2015-11-01

    Technologic advances enable performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at ultrahigh b-values, where standard monoexponential model analysis may not apply. Rather, non-Gaussian water diffusion properties emerge, which in cellular tissues are, in part, influenced by the intracellular environment that is not well evaluated by conventional DWI. The novel technique, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), enables characterization of non-Gaussian water diffusion behavior. More advanced mathematical curve fitting of the signal intensity decay curve using the DKI model provides an additional parameter Kapp that presumably reflects heterogeneity and irregularity of cellular microstructure, as well as the amount of interfaces within cellular tissues. Although largely applied for neural applications over the past decade, a small number of studies have recently explored DKI outside the brain. The most investigated organ is the prostate, with preliminary studies suggesting improved tumor detection and grading using DKI. Although still largely in the research phase, DKI is being explored in wider clinical settings. When assessing extracranial applications of DKI, careful attention to details with which body radiologists may currently be unfamiliar is important to ensure reliable results. Accordingly, a robust understanding of DKI is necessary for radiologists to better understand the meaning of DKI-derived metrics in the context of different tumors and how these metrics vary between tumor types and in response to treatment. In this review, we outline DKI principles, propose biostructural basis for observations, provide a comparison with standard monoexponential fitting and the apparent diffusion coefficient, report on extracranial clinical investigations to date, and recommend technical considerations for implementation in body imaging. PMID:26119267

  7. Basic Principles and Emerging Concepts in the Redox Control of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Flohé, Leopold

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork of poorly connected findings. The article, therefore, reviews principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-κB), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms. Major conclusions are that (i) direct signaling by free radicals is restricted to O2•− and •NO and can be excluded for fast reacting radicals such as •OH, •OR, or Cl•; (ii) oxidant signals are H2O2, enzymatically generated lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite; (iii) free radical damage is sensed via generation of Michael acceptors; (iv) protein thiol oxidation/alkylation is the prominent mechanism to modulate function; (v) redox sensors must be thiol peroxidases by themselves or proteins with similarly reactive cysteine or selenocysteine (Sec) residues to kinetically compete with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)- and peroxiredoxin (Prx)-type peroxidases or glutathione-S-transferases, respectively, a postulate that still has to be verified for putative mammalian sensors. S-transferases and Prxs are considered for system complementation. The impact of NF-κB and Nrf2 on hormesis, management of inflammatory diseases, and cancer prevention is critically discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2335–2381. PMID:21194351

  8. FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

  9. Introduction to the theory of forced equilibria: General principles, basic concepts, and definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauson, Vladimir L.; Akimov, Vladlen V.

    1997-12-01

    Until now, only a small amount of work has been done to verify the constraints of using fundamental regularities of the exact sciences in geochemistry and mineralogy. As for the chemical thermodynamics, the most important problem is the inadequate presentation of the thermodynamic state of real mineral systems. Our contention is that this state cannot be rigorously referred to any conventional type, if examined by the traditional chemical thermodynamics, and must be analyzed in terms of forced-equilibrium theory. The forced equilibrium is defined as a specific thermodynamic state resulting from the action of forcing factors, that is, the conditions or constraints which restrict possible variations of principal or internal thermodynamic system parameters. The advantage of this approach is that it proceeds from the operative forcing factor to the actual type of equilibrium of the real system, whereas the traditional analysis usually postulates the type of equilibrium state without proof of adequacy. The equilibrium conditions for thermoelastic solids with a coherent interphase boundary are a good example of forced equilibrium. The numerical modelling of forced equilibria in some real mineral systems and the comparison of the results with experimental and natural data show that the actual thermodynamic states of mineral systems more often represent stable or metastable forced equilibria than kinetically depressed or metastable states in their traditional understanding.

  10. General chemistry students' understanding of climate science principles relating to chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A. N.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L. C.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Science project, we are developing the chemistry of climate science inventory for use in general chemistry courses. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which integrates federal research on climate and global change, has set out a climate literacy framework, Climate Literacy: the Essential Principles of Climate Science (US Climate Change Science Program, 2009). Developed by collaboration among NOAA, NASA, AAAS, and a distinguished group of scientists and educators, this Framework defines a set of essential principles and scientific thinking skills that a climate literate person should understand. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry. We have interviewed 24 undergraduates to elicit their understanding of the Earth's energy system, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather. Our analysis and findings indicate that the fundamental science necessary to understand the Earth's energy system and climate change are not well understood by the undergraduates in this sample. Details of the interviews, analysis, and synthesis of findings will be shared.

  11. The Changing Biomedical Research and Health Care Environments: Implications for Basic Science Graduate Education and Research in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williard, Renee

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that changes in the biomedical research environment and health care system call for reexamination of the mission and value of research and graduate education programs in basic sciences in pharmacy schools. Trends in research funding and graduate-level basic sciences are noted though contributions of these efforts to the field are…

  12. Program for Educational Mobility For Health Manpower (The Basic Sciences), December 28-December 31, 1970. Second Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordinating Council for Education in the Health Sciences for San Diego and Imperial Counties, CA.

    To offer an integrated science curriculum that will provide sufficient depth, breadth, and lattice mobility as well as meet basic science needs upon which to build performance success for allied health professionals and technicians, several areas of concern, including basic philosophy, administrative support, faculty involvement, process and…

  13. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  14. U.S. National Science Foundation Budget Proposal Focuses on Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2008-03-01

    The budget request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 focuses attention on basic research, establishes and supports several cross-foundation investment projects designed to have a transformative impact across science and engineering, and puts foundation activities back on track to double their research budgets by the next decade. The foundation's total proposed budget is US$6.85 billion, an increase of 13% over that enacted for FY 2008. Most of this funding increase goes to NSF's Research and Related Activities (R&RA) account, which, at $5.59 billion, is $772.5 million above the FY 2008 enacted amount.

  15. Learning Effects of a Science Textbook Designed with Adapted Cognitive Process Principles on Grade 5 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ming-Chang; Chou, Pei-I; Wang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chih-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the illustrations in a science textbook, with their design modified according to cognitive process principles, affected students' learning performance. The quasi-experimental design recruited two Grade 5 groups (N?=?58) as the research participants. The treatment group (n?=?30) used the modified version of the textbook,…

  16. Principled Improvement in Science: Forces and Proportional Relations in Early Secondary-School Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Ilie, Sonia; Guardia, Paula; Hofmann, Riikka; Mercer, Neil; Riga, Fran

    2015-01-01

    In response to continuing concerns about student attainment and participation in science and mathematics, the "epiSTEMe" project took a novel approach to pedagogy in these two disciplines. Using principles identified as effective in the research literature (and combining these in a fashion not previously attempted), the project developed…

  17. Does the Modality Principle for Multimedia Learning Apply to Science Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harskamp, Egbert G.; Mayer, Richard E.; Suhre, Cor

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrated that the modality principle applies to multimedia learning of regular science lessons in school settings. In the first field experiment, 27 Dutch secondary school students (age 16-17) received a self-paced, web-based multimedia lesson in biology. Students who received lessons containing illustrations and narration performed…

  18. Integration of Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Principles in the Home Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This resource book was developed to help home economics teachers reinforce academic principles in mathematics; science, and language arts while teaching essential home economics content. Separate sections of the book are written for each academic area. Each section begins with an overview and update of the academic area based on a review of…

  19. Principled Improvement in Science: Forces and Proportional Relations in Early Secondary-School Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Ilie, Sonia; Guardia, Paula; Hofmann, Riikka; Mercer, Neil; Riga, Fran

    2015-01-01

    In response to continuing concerns about student attainment and participation in science and mathematics, the "epiSTEMe" project took a novel approach to pedagogy in these two disciplines. Using principles identified as effective in the research literature (and combining these in a fashion not previously attempted), the project developed

  20. Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through…

  1. Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through

  2. Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development

  3. Translating basic science insight into public health action for multidrug- and extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Nicholas D.; Strong, Michael; Belknap, Robert; Ordway, Diane J.; Daley, Charles L.; Chan, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug (MDR)- and extensively drug resistant (XDR) -tuberculosis (TB) impose a heavy toll of human suffering and social costs. Controlling drug-resistant-TB is a complex global public health challenge. Basic science advances including elucidation of the genetic basis of resistance have enabled development of new assays which are transforming the diagnosis of MDR-TB. Molecular epidemiologic approaches have provided new insights into the natural history of TB with important implications for drug resistance. In the future, progress in understanding M. tuberculosis strain-specific human immune responses, integration of systems biology approaches with traditional epidemiology and insight into the biology of mycobacterial persistence have potential to be translated into new tools for diagnosis and treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB. We review recent basic sciences developments which have contributed or may contribute to improved public health response. PMID:22458269

  4. Agent-based computer simulation and sirs: building a bridge between basic science and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    An, G

    2001-10-01

    The management of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)/Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) remains the greatest challenge in the field of critical care. There has been uniform difficulty in translating the results of basic science research into effective therapeutic regimes. We propose that this is due in part to a failure to account for the complex, nonlinear nature of the inflammatory process of which SIRS/MOF represents a disordered state. Attempts to manipulate this process without an understanding of the dynamics of the system may potentially produce unintended consequences. Agent-Based Computer Simulation (ABCS) provides a means to synthesize the information acquired from the linear analysis of basic science into a model that preserves the complexity of the inflammatory system. We have constructed an abstracted version of the inflammatory process using an ABCS that is based at the cellular level. Despite its abstraction, the simulation produces non-linear behavior and reproduces the dynamic structure of the inflammatory response. Furthermore, adjustment of the simulation to model one of the unsuccessful initial anti-inflammatory trials of the 1990's demonstrates the adverse outcome that was observed in those clinical trials. It must be emphasized that the current model is extremely abstract and simplified. However, it is hoped that future ABCSs of sufficient sophistication eventually may provide an important bridging tool to translate basic science discoveries into clinical applications. Creating these simulations will require a large collaborative effort, and it is hoped that this paper will stimulate interest in this form of analysis. PMID:11580108

  5. Chemistry for Health-Science Students: What Is an Appropriate Balance between Basic Chemical Concepts and Health-Related Applications?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genyea, Julien; Callewaert, Denis M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry content for a two-semester, health-related, chemistry course sequence. Indicates that basic principles should be emphasized and that (when appropriate) these principles should be discussed with applications to health care. Other issues related to chemistry for health-related programs…

  6. A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE`s two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document.

  7. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid out a broad view of the basic and grand challenge science needs for the development of future clean energy technologies in a series of comprehensive 'Basic Research Needs' workshops and reports (inside front cover and http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html) and has structured its programs and launched initiatives to address the challenges. The basic science needs of industry, however, are often more narrowly focused on solving specific nearer-term roadblocks to progress in existing and emerging clean energy technologies. To better define these issues and identify specific barriers to progress, the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) sponsored the Workshop on Science for Energy Technology, January 18-21, 2010. A wide cross-section of scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories delineated the basic science Priority Research Directions most urgently needed to address the roadblocks and accelerate the innovation of clean energy technologies. These Priority Research Directions address the scientific understanding underlying performance limitations in existing but still immature technologies. Resolving these performance limitations can dramatically improve the commercial penetration of clean energy technologies. A key conclusion of the Workshop is that in addition to the decadal challenges defined in the 'Basic Research Needs' reports, specific research directions addressing industry roadblocks are ripe for further emphasis. Another key conclusion is that identifying and focusing on specific scientific challenges and translating the results to industry requires more direct feedback and communication and collaboration between industrial and BES-supported scientists. BES-supported scientists need to be better informed of the detailed scientific issues facing industry, and industry more aware of BES capabilities and how to utilize them. An important capability is the suite of BES scientific user facilities, which are seen as playing a key role in advancing the science of clean energy technology. Working together, industry and BES-supported scientists can achieve the required understanding and control of the performance limitations of clean energy technology, accelerate innovation in its development, and help build the workforce needed to implement the growing clean energy economy.

  8. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

  9. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    PubMed

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline. PMID:22765213

  10. Integrating Basic Analytical Methods and Computer-Interface Technology into an Environmental Science Water Quality Lab Improves Student Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho-Knighton, Kathleen M.; Smoak, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if integrating basic analytical methods and computer interface technology would result in a positive change in student attitude. Students' self-concept of science knowledge and skills (Capability), opinion towards science (Affect), and perceptions of the value of science (Value) were determined with…

  11. Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Science educators play a central role in educating, inspiring, and guiding students to become responsible, scientifically literate citizens. Therefore, teachers of science must uphold the highest ethical standards of the profession to earn and maintain the respect, trust, and confidence of students, parents, school leaders, colleagues, and other…

  12. Basic Economic Principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tideman, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

  13. Milestones and Basic Principles.

    PubMed

    Moukarzel, Maroun; Chalouhy, Charbel; Kallas Chemaly, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Current shortage in organ donors led to the expansion of criteria for organ donation placing organ preservation as one cornerstone for successful transplant, graft function and survival. The historical work of Belzer and Collins paved the way for key descriptions of physiopathology of cell ischemia and protection (cytokines roles, oxidative stress, energy shift to lactic acidosis and perfusion pressure changes). Good preservation means immediate recovery of function and prevention of chronic rejection. Two cooling approaches are available: static (SCS: simple cold storage) suitable for all organs, and dynamic (HMP: hypothermic machines perfusion) designed for kidneys and liver. A thorough discussion of historically manufactured and widely sold preservation solutions e.g. EuroCollins, UW solution (Viaspan®) as well as current used solutions e.g. Custodiol® and the new Celsior is available in this review. Obviously, every single organ exhibits different tolerance to warm and cold ischemia depending on its nature and demands after transplant. Future perspectives of organ preservation may be hidden in hibernators which may hold the enigmas of perfect human organ preservation. PMID:26591191

  14. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag DisordersAn American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Robert L; Auckley, Dennis; Auger, R. Robert; Carskadon, Mary A.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This the first of two articles reviewing the scientific literature on the evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs), employing the methodology of evidence-based medicine. In this first part of this paper, the general principles of circadian biology that underlie clinical evaluation and treatment are reviewed. We then report on the accumulated evidence regarding the evaluation and treatment of shift work disorder (SWD) and jet lag disorder (JLD). Methods: A set of specific questions relevant to clinical practice were formulated, a systematic literature search was performed, and relevant articles were abstracted and graded. Results: A substantial body of literature has accumulated that provides a rational basis the evaluation and treatment of SWD and JLD. Physiological assessment has involved determination of circadian phase using core body temperature and the timing of melatonin secretion. Behavioral assessment has involved sleep logs, actigraphy and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Treatment interventions fall into three broad categories: 1) prescribed sleep scheduling, 2) circadian phase shifting (“resetting the clock”), and 3) symptomatic treatment using hypnotic and stimulant medications. Conclusion: Circadian rhythm science has also pointed the way to rational interventions for the SWD and JLD, and these treatments have been introduced into the practice of sleep medicine with varying degrees of success. More translational research is needed using subjects who meet current diagnostic criteria. Citation: Sack RL; Auckley D; Auger RR; Carskadon MA; Wright KP; Vitiello MV; Zhdanova IV. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: Part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1460-1483. PMID:18041480

  15. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI): A Historical Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H. J.

    2006-11-01

    Pursuant to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), annual UN/European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991. These workshops contributed to the development of astrophysics and space science, particularly in developing nations. Following a process of prioritization, the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field: (i) operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD, (ii) virtual observatories, (iii) astrophysical data systems, (iv) con-current design capabilities for the development of international space missions, and (v) theoretical astrophysics such as applications of non-extensive statistical mechanics. Beginning in 2005, the workshops are focusing on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007). The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost, ground-based, world- wide instrument arrays as led by the IHY secretariat. Wamsteker, W., Albrecht, R. and Haubold, H.J.: Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide: A Decade of UN/ESA Workshops: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2004. http://ihy2007.org http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html http://www.cbpf.br/GrupPesq/StatisticalPhys/biblio.htm

  16. The relationship between immediate relevant basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge: physiology knowledge and transthoracic echocardiography image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-10-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent research has implied that a more complex relationship between the two knowledge bases exists. In this study, we explore the relationship between immediate relevant basic science (physiology) and clinical knowledge within a specific domain of medicine (echocardiography). Twenty eight medical students in their 3rd year and 45 physicians (15 interns, 15 cardiology residents and 15 cardiology consultants) took a multiple-choice test of physiology knowledge. The physicians also viewed images of a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination and completed a checklist of possible pathologies found. A total score for each participant was calculated for the physiology test, and for all physicians also for the TTE checklist. Consultants scored significantly higher on the physiology test than did medical students and interns. A significant correlation between physiology test scores and TTE checklist scores was found for the cardiology residents only. Basic science knowledge of immediate relevance for daily clinical work expands with increased work experience within a specific domain. Consultants showed no relationship between physiology knowledge and TTE interpretation indicating that experts do not use basic science knowledge in routine daily practice, but knowledge of immediate relevance remains ready for use. PMID:21952688

  17. [The Stem-Cell Application in Ischemic Heart Disease: Basic Principles, Specifics and Practical Experience from Clinical Studies].

    PubMed

    Banović, Marko; Obradović, Slobodan; Beleslin, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Longer life duration, different clinical presentations of coronary disease, as well as high incidence of comorbidity in patients with ischemic heart disease have led to an increase in the incidence of ischemic heart failure. Despite numerous and new treatment methods that act on different pathophysiological mechanisms that cause heart failure, and whose aim is to slowdown or stop the progression of this devastating disease, morbidity and mortality in these patients remain high. These facts have firstly led to the introduction of the experimental, and then clinical studies with the application of stem cells in patients with ischemic heart disease. Previous studies have shown that the application of stem cells is a feasible and safe method in patients with acute coronary syndrome, as well as in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, but the efficacy of these methods in both of the abovementioned clinical syndromes has yet to be established.This review paper outlines the basic principles of treatment of ischemic heart disease with stem cells, as well as the experience and knowledge gained in previous clinical studies. PMID:26506764

  18. Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Techniques for Basic Science Research: Application to Cellular Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Wesley D.; Kraitchman, Dara L.

    2010-01-01

    Cell therapy continues to be an active area of basic science research with early promise in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many unknowns including the mechanisms by which they work, the most useful cell types, the most efficient delivery strategies, and their safety. Noninvasive imaging provides a wide array of tools to quantitatively address many of these unknowns. This article reviews echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography in the context of imaging cellular therapeutics to demonstrate how these modalities are being used to answer some of these questions. PMID:19706247

  19. A unique approach to multi-state networking: BHSL (Basic Health Sciences Network).

    PubMed

    Friedman, L; Kazen, C; Moeller, K A; Regenberg, P; Cohn, J S; Kell, K V

    1994-01-01

    Development of a reciprocal multi-state shared resources network is described. The Basic Health Sciences Library Network (BHSL) is one the largest interlibrary loan networks free of direct charges to participants and any direct federal or state funding. Established in June 1986, BHSL started with 132 member libraries from three northeastern states. Current membership is 460 libraries in 10 states. Interlibrary loan activity for 1992 resulted in a collective cost savings of $592,672. This model of resource sharing can be applied to any group of libraries that access a common locator tool. PMID:10137267

  20. Using Basic Principles To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2005-10-01

    The Henderson Hasselbalch equation calculates the equilibrium distribution of 50:50 for nicotine in its nonprotonated (free base form), relative to its monoprotonated form, at pH of 8 in dilute aqueous solution. This ratio has then been used in the literature to predict the effect of ammonia compounds in tobacco and in smoke on nicotine pyrolysis and smoke chemistry. Experiments demonstrate that neither the thermal chemistry of tobacco alkaloids nor the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke can be explained by the position of the nonprotonated versus monoprotonated form equilibrium in aqueous extracts of tobacco. The high thermal stability of nicotine in air allows nicotine salts to be converted to nonprotonated nicotine and volatilize during heating prior to any substantial decomposition of the nicotine moiety. In contrast, cocaine hydrochloride is thermally unstable and will rapidly decompose upon heating; cocaine hydrochloride must first be converted to its nonprotonated form prior to heating and volatilization.

  1. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, Concept: Water that Comes Down as Rain Is Used Over and Over Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Provides directions for basic science experiments which demonstrate the rain cycle, fundamentals of cloud formation, and testing for the presence of acidity in local rainwater. Describes materials required, step-by-step instructions, and discussion topics. (NEC)

  2. Meaty Principles for Environmental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockcastle, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that educated persons should be exposed to a body of conceptual knowledge which includes basic principles of the biological and physical sciences. Practical examples involving force, sound, light, waves, and density of water are cited. A lesson on animal tracks using principles of force and pressure is also described. (DH)

  3. STATE OF THE SCIENCE OF MATERNAL-INFANT BONDING: A PRINCIPLE-BASED CONCEPT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. Design Principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. Setting Literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. Measurement and Findings After brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioral or biological components was limited; (2) the concept is clearly operationalized in the affective domain; and (3) maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. Key Conclusion Despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. Implications for Practice Nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. PMID:23452661

  4. Coherent Teaching and Need-Based Learning in Science: An Approach to Teach Engineering Students in Basic Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki-Suonio, T.; Hakola, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose an alternative, based on constructivism, to the conventional way of teaching basic physics courses at the university level. We call this approach "coherent teaching" and the underlying philosophy of teaching science and engineering "need-based learning". We have been applying this philosophy in practice in a basic

  5. [United Nations Resolutions. Resolution on Prison Education. Resolution on Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners. Resolution on Criminal Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    This document contains three United Nations resolutions that emphasize the role and practice of prison education. The three resolutions were adopted in 1990: (1) the Economic and Social Council Resolution 1990/20 on prison education; (2) the General Assembly Resolution 45/111 on basic principles for the treatment of prisoners; and (3) General…

  6. Stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia: from basic science to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Abe, Koji; Yamashita, Toru; Takizawa, Shunya; Kuroda, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobutaka

    2012-07-01

    Recent stem cell technology provides a strong therapeutic potential not only for acute ischemic stroke but also for chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with neuroregenerative neural cell replenishment and replacement. In addition to resident neural stem cell activation in the brain by neurotrophic factors, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can be mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for homing into the brain for both neurorepair and neuroregeneration in acute stroke and neurodegenerative diseases in both basic science and clinical settings. Exogenous stem cell transplantation is also emerging into a clinical scene from bench side experiments. Early clinical trials of intravenous transplantation of autologous BMSCs are showing safe and effective results in stroke patients. Further basic sciences of stem cell therapy on a neurovascular unit and neuroregeneration, and further clinical advancements on scaffold technology for supporting stem cells and stem cell tracking technology such as magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography or optical imaging with near-infrared could allow stem cell therapy to be applied in daily clinical applications in the near future. PMID:22252239

  7. Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-07-15

    On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

  8. What's hot, what's new in basic science: report from the American Transplant Congress 2015.

    PubMed

    Heeger, P S

    2015-11-01

    Research reports presented at the American Transplant Congress 2015 provided an array of basic science findings of relevance to the transplant community. Among key themes is the concept that ischemia-reperfusion injury and early posttransplantation inflammation is linked to adaptive alloimmunity and transplant injury. Molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to these interactions were highlighted. The relevance of understanding how blocking costimulation, including CD40/CD154 interactions, affects various aspects of the alloimmune response was enhanced by the description of preclinical studies demonstrating efficacy of a unique, blocking anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody that could potentially be used in humans. The identification of mechanisms underlying interactions among T cell subsets and B cells, including follicular helper T cells, regulatory T cells, effector B cells, and regulatory B cells, provides multiple previously unrecognized targets for future therapeutic interventions. Additional reports of interest include novel insights into effects of the gut microbiome on graft survival and the ability to differentiate insulin-secreting, islet-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells. Overall, the reported basic science findings from American Transplant Congress 2015 add to the fundamental understanding of innate and adaptive alloimmunity and provide novel and testable hypotheses that have the potential to be translated into improved clinical care of transplant patients. PMID:26460718

  9. Establishing a Successful Basic Science Research Program in Colon and Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Ira; Wick, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    Although at first glance, the surgeon-scientist appears to be a rare breed in today's clinical revenue-driven world, with careful planning and mentorship this is still a vibrant career path. If one is considering this avenue, it is important to seize even small opportunities to pursue laboratory work during training—summers in college and medical school, rotation blocks, and dedicated time in the middle of residency. Publications and small grants during these times will lay the ground work for future success. When considering a faculty position, it is essential to identify a mentorship environment that has a track record for success—either in the department of surgery or anywhere in the university. Ensuring adequate support from the department of surgery chair and division leader is essential. Basic science careers take years for the return in investment to be manifested! Also critical is to secure extramural funding early in the faculty stint—first foundation grants and then National Institutes of Health–mentored scientist funding. Surgeons provide a unique perspective in basic science work and it is critical that we continue to support young surgeons in this career path. PMID:25067919

  10. An Elective Course on the Basic and Clinical Sciences Aspects of Vitamins and Minerals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students’ knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products. PMID:23463149

  11. The impact of whole-plant instruction of preservice teachers' understanding of plant science principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hypolite, Christine Collins

    The purpose of this research was to determine how an inquiry-based, whole-plant instructional strategy would affect preservice elementary teachers' understanding of plant science principles. This study probed: what preservice teachers know about plant biology concepts before and after instruction, their views of the interrelatedness of plant parts and the environment, how growing a plant affects preservice teachers' understanding, and which types of activity-rich plant themes studies, if any, affect preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The participants in the study were enrolled in two elementary science methods class sections at a state university. Each group was administered a preinstructional test at the beginning of the study. The treatment group participated in inquiry-based activities related to the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001), while the comparison group studied those same concepts through traditional instructional methods. A focus group was formed from the treatment group to participate in co-concept mapping sessions. The participants' understandings were assessed through artifacts from activities, a comparison of pre- and postinstructional tests, and the concept maps generated by the focus group. Results of the research indicated that the whole-plant, inquiry-based instructional strategy can be applied to teach preservice elementary teachers plant biology while modeling the human constructivist approach. The results further indicated that this approach enhanced their understanding of plant science content knowledge, as well as pedagogical knowledge. The results also showed that a whole-plant approach to teaching plant science concepts is an instructional strategy that is feasible for the elementary school. The theoretical framework for this study was Human Constructivist learning theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998). The content knowledge and instructional strategy was informed by the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001) and Botany for the Next Millennium (Botanical Society of America, 1995). As a result of this study, a better understanding of the factors that influence preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of plant science principles may benefit elementary science educator in preparing teachers that are "highly qualified."

  12. Basic principles of static proton low-resolution spin diffusion NMR in nanophase-separated materials with mobility contrast.

    PubMed

    Schäler, Kerstin; Roos, Matthias; Micke, Peter; Golitsyn, Yury; Seidlitz, Anne; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Schneider, Horst; Hempel, Günter; Saalwächter, Kay

    2015-11-01

    We review basic principles of low-resolution proton NMR spin diffusion experiments, relying on mobility differences in nm-sized phases of inhomogeneous organic materials such as block-co- or semicrystalline polymers. They are of use for estimates of domain sizes and insights into nanometric dynamic inhomogeneities. Experimental procedures and limitations of mobility-based signal decomposition/filtering prior to spin diffusion are addressed on the example of as yet unpublished data on semicrystalline poly(ϵ-caprolactone), PCL. Specifically, we discuss technical aspects of the quantitative, dead-time free detection of rigid-domain signals by aid of the magic-sandwich echo (MSE), and magic-and-polarization-echo (MAPE) and double-quantum (DQ) magnetization filters to select rigid and mobile components, respectively. Such filters are of general use in reliable fitting approaches for phase composition determinations. Spin diffusion studies at low field using benchtop instruments are challenged by rather short (1)H T1 relaxation times, which calls for simulation-based analyses. Applying these, in combination with domain sizes as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, we have determined spin diffusion coefficients D for PCL (0.34, 0.19 and 0.032nm(2)/ms for crystalline, interphase and amorphous parts, respectively). We further address thermal-history effects related to secondary crystallization. Finally, the state of knowledge concerning the connection between D values determined locally at the atomic level, using (13)C detection and CP- or REDOR-based "(1)H hole burning" procedures, and those obtained by calibration experiments, is summarized. Specifically, the non-trivial dependence of D on the magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequency, with a minimum under static and a local maximum under moderate-MAS conditions, is highlighted. PMID:26404771

  13. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J; Rhyne, James J; Lewis, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  14. Conceiving "personality": Psychologist's challenges and basic fundamentals of the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana

    2015-09-01

    Scientists exploring individuals, as such scientists are individuals themselves and thus not independent from their objects of research, encounter profound challenges; in particular, high risks for anthropo-, ethno- and ego-centric biases and various fallacies in reasoning. The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) aims to tackle these challenges by exploring and making explicit the philosophical presuppositions that are being made and the metatheories and methodologies that are used in the field. This article introduces basic fundamentals of the TPS-Paradigm including the epistemological principle of complementarity and metatheoretical concepts for exploring individuals as living organisms. Centrally, the TPS-Paradigm considers three metatheoretical properties (spatial location in relation to individuals' bodies, temporal extension, and physicality versus "non-physicality") that can be conceived in different forms for various kinds of phenomena explored in individuals (morphology, physiology, behaviour, the psyche, semiotic representations, artificially modified outer appearances and contexts). These properties, as they determine the phenomena's accessibility in everyday life and research, are used to elaborate philosophy-of-science foundations and to derive general methodological implications for the elementary problem of phenomenon-methodology matching and for scientific quantification of the various kinds of phenomena studied. On the basis of these foundations, the article explores the metatheories and methodologies that are used or needed to empirically study each given kind of phenomenon in individuals in general. Building on these general implications, the article derives special implications for exploring individuals' "personality", which the TPS-Paradigm conceives of as individual-specificity in all of the various kinds of phenomena studied in individuals. PMID:25281293

  15. Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1993-03-01

    Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

  16. The Cognitive Outcome in the Physical Games at the College of Students of the Basic Science in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salameh, Ibrahim A. M.; Al-Maharmeh, Yaseen A. M.; Oudat, Mo'een A.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at reconnoitering the cognitive outcome in the physical games at students of the college of basic science in the World Islamic Science and Education University. The descriptive method was employed, where the sample was randomly chosen, and amounted to (16) students (males & females) from the faculty. The sample discussed five…

  17. Dissemination of an innovative mastery learning curriculum grounded in implementation science principles: a case study.

    PubMed

    McGaghie, William C; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Kristopaitis, Theresa; Wayne, Diane B

    2015-11-01

    Dissemination of a medical education innovation, such as mastery learning, from a setting where it has been used successfully to a new and different medical education environment is not easy. This article describes the uneven yet successful dissemination of a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum on central venous catheter (CVC) insertion for internal medicine and emergency medicine residents across medical education settings. The dissemination program was grounded in implementation science principles. The article begins by describing implementation science which addresses the mechanisms of medical education and health care delivery. The authors then present a mastery learning case study in two phases: (1) the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SBML CVC curriculum at a tertiary care academic medical center; and (2) the dissemination of the SBML CVC curriculum to an academic community hospital setting. Contextual information about the drivers and barriers that affected the SBML CVC curriculum dissemination is presented. This work demonstrates that dissemination of mastery learning curricula, like all other medical education innovations, will fail without active educational leadership, personal contacts, dedication, hard work, rigorous measurement, and attention to implementation science principles. The article concludes by presenting a set of lessons learned about disseminating an SBML CVC curriculum across different medical education settings. PMID:26352761

  18. Opportunities for Early Intervention Based on Theory, Basic Neuroscience, and Clinical Science

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the “goal” of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented, along with theoretical principles, neuroscience, and other tissue science data concerning mechanisms that contribute to behavioral changes. One such opportunity is to increase the structured engagement of caregivers, guided by therapists, in administering well-defined activity intervention programs focused on the development of specific functional skills. Such an approach may be one of the few financially feasible options for generating sufficient therapy that adheres to principles for optimizing development of neuromotor control. PMID:20966210

  19. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker's review article on "Laser Acceleration and its future" [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],(1)) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  20. Development of Radio Astronomy at Centre for Basic Space Science Observatory, Nsukka Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliyu, Nasiru; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Lanre, Daniyan O.; Ezechi, Nwachukwu E.

    2015-08-01

    Radio telescopes for research, teaching and learning at Centre for Basic Space Science (CBSS) observatory are currently in place of development. A small parabolic radio telescope with diameter of 3.0 m working at 1420 MHz is already available for general purpose of radio astronomical observations. In addition, a Radio Jove telescope with dual dipole antenna working at 20 MHz and Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitor working at 24 KHz are also available. It is suitable to monitor daily solar burst, solar flares as well as Jupiter decametric emission. More over, CBSS radio interferometers are now under construction. It consists of non-tracking Radio Jove array and SID monitor as well as two radio telescope tracking interferometers. The latter is planned to utilize up to 4 antennas. Multi frequency receivers are made available at 24 KHz, 20 and 1420 MHz and will be used for VLBI in the near future.

  1. Some basic aspects of statistical methods and sample size determination in health science research

    PubMed Central

    Binu, V. S; Mayya, Shreemathi S.; Dhar, Murali

    2014-01-01

    A health science researcher may sometimes wonder “why statistical methods are so important in research?” Simple answer is that, statistical methods are used throughout a study that includes planning, designing, collecting data, analyzing and drawing meaningful interpretation and report the findings. Hence, it is important that a researcher knows the concepts of at least basic statistical methods used at various stages of a research study. This helps the researcher in the conduct of an appropriately well-designed study leading to valid and reliable results that can be generalized to the population. A well-designed study possesses fewer biases, which intern gives precise, valid and reliable results. There are many statistical methods and tests that are used at various stages of a research. In this communication, we discuss the overall importance of statistical considerations in medical research with the main emphasis on estimating minimum sample size for different study objectives. PMID:25558154

  2. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  3. A fellowship program to advance teaching of the basic sciences in foreign medical schools.

    PubMed

    Islami, A H; Steele, W W; Asper, S P

    1990-06-27

    Advancement in world health requires physicians who are well grounded in the basic medical sciences. To strengthen education in the biosciences in foreign medical schools, especially those in economically deprived countries, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates introduced a fellowship program in 1983. Awards are made annually to 12 to 14 foreign bioscience teachers who, under tutelage of preceptors in US medical schools, broaden their knowledge and enhance their pedagogical skills. To date, a total of 97 fellows from 69 schools in 32 countries have received awards to study under 69 preceptors in 52 US schools. Assurance that these foreign teachers return home after their 1-year fellowships has been addressed through a number of incentives and safeguards. Based on information from those who have completed their fellowships and from their foreign deans, this program is meeting its objectives. PMID:2348542

  4. Some basic aspects of statistical methods and sample size determination in health science research.

    PubMed

    Binu, V S; Mayya, Shreemathi S; Dhar, Murali

    2014-04-01

    A health science researcher may sometimes wonder "why statistical methods are so important in research?" Simple answer is that, statistical methods are used throughout a study that includes planning, designing, collecting data, analyzing and drawing meaningful interpretation and report the findings. Hence, it is important that a researcher knows the concepts of at least basic statistical methods used at various stages of a research study. This helps the researcher in the conduct of an appropriately well-designed study leading to valid and reliable results that can be generalized to the population. A well-designed study possesses fewer biases, which intern gives precise, valid and reliable results. There are many statistical methods and tests that are used at various stages of a research. In this communication, we discuss the overall importance of statistical considerations in medical research with the main emphasis on estimating minimum sample size for different study objectives. PMID:25558154

  5. Role of Basic Science in the Development of New Medicines: Examples from the Eicosanoid Field

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    The role of basic science in the development of health care has received more and more attention. In my own area of research involving the so-called eicosanoids, there are many examples of how studies of structure and function of small molecules, as well as proteins and genes, have led to new therapeutic agents for treatment of a variety of diseases. In most of the cases, the discoveries have resulted in the recognition of novel therapeutic targets amenable to modulation by small molecules. However, there are also examples in which the molecular mechanisms of actions of drugs, discovered by phenotypic screening, have been elucidated. The majority of the examples in this article consist of approved drugs; however, in some cases, ongoing developments of potential therapeutics are cited. PMID:22318727

  6. Basic science and spine literature document bone morphogenetic protein increases cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasingly, clinical articles document that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP/INFUSE: Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA) and its derivatives utilized in spinal surgery increase the risk of developing cancer. However, there is also a large body of basic science articles that also document that various types of BMP and other members of the TGF-Beta (transforming growth factor beta) family promote the growth of different types of cancers. Methods: This review looks at many clinical articles citing BMP/INFUSE's role, largely “off-label”, in contributing to complications encountered during spinal surgery. Next, however, specific attention is given to the clinical and basic science literature regarding how BMP and its derivatives (e.g. members of the TGF-beta family) may also impact the development of breast and other cancers. Results: Utilizing BMP/INFUSE in spine surgery increased the risk of cancers/new malignancy as documented in several studies. For example, Carragee et al. found that for single-level instrumented posterolateral fusions (PLF) using high-dose rhBMP-2 (239 patients) vs. autograft (control group; n = 224), the risks of new cancers at 2 and 5 years postoperatively were increased. In laboratory studies, BMP's along with other members of the TGF-Beta family also modulated/contributed to the proliferation/differentiation of breast cancer (e.g. bone formation/turnover, breast cancer-related solid tumors, and metastases), lung, adrenal, and colon cancer. Conclusions: BMP/INFUSE when utilized clinically in spinal fusion surgery appears to promote cancer at higher rates than observed in the overall population. Furthermore, BMP and TGF-beta are correlated with increased cancer growth both in the clinic and the laboratory. PMID:25593776

  7. International Space Science Programs: Basic Research with a High Public Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2009-04-01

    The exploration of outer space, and the use of platforms in space to monitor the Earth, are increasingly international enterprises. The spacefaring nations of the world have programs to study the moon, the Sun, the other planets of the solar system, and the universe beyond. Space is also the domain from which navigation, communication, reconnaissance, and resource management functions are carried out by civilian and military agencies. Recent decades of experience have shown the immense benefits of international cooperation to pursue scientific research goals. In turn, the products of such basic research have immense potential to improve space situational awareness and to mitigate the effects of ''space weather'' on human technology. A key to future success of space exploration is to minimize the impacts of laws and regulations such as ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) that have already had a devastating effect on space commerce and basic space research. In this presentation I discuss the conduct of forefront science in the context of sensible, prudent international space policy and evolving governmental regulations.

  8. The recommended food-buying principles of consumer educators: a behavioral science assessment of their feasibility for older consumers.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M

    1990-01-01

    A content analysis recently identified twenty food-buying principles as the most commonly cited in consumer education textbooks of the 1980s. This study examines the behavior science literature in an effort to assess the ability of older consumers to practice these principles in American supermarkets. The study identifies three types of principles differing in the consumer behaviors they recommend as well as the nature and strength of the support they receive in the behavioral science literature. Implications of the study findings are drawn for gerontological research and educational practice. PMID:2391632

  9. Looking forward in geriatric anxiety and depression: implications of basic science for the future.

    PubMed

    Gershenfeld, Howard K; Philibert, Robert A; Boehm, Gary W

    2005-12-01

    Major depression and anxiety are common psychiatric illnesses whose etiology remains incompletely understood. This review highlights progress in understanding the etiology of these illnesses through genetic strategies and looks forward to their impact on geriatric psychiatry. We briefly address three broad domains of progress, namely 1) genetic approaches to etiology, including linkage and association studies, pharmacogenetics ("personalized medicine"), and gene x environment interactions; 2) mechanisms of thyroid and testosterone action via nuclear receptors, given these hormones' status as possible augmenters of antidepressants; and 3) the role of the neuroimmune system as a contributor to the stress response. Genetic strategies offer one path for converting correlational findings into causal pathways while complementing studies of a gene's function at the molecular, cellular, network, and whole-organismal levels. Neuroendocrine supplementation (thyroid and testosterone) has a long history and tradition. A molecular understanding of nuclear receptor pathways and their coactivators, the mediator complex proteins, provides a rationale for improved targeting of hormonal action in a tissue-selective manner, yielding drugs with improved safety and efficacy. Neural-immune interactions in psychiatric illness remain tantalizing topics. Research suggests that cytokine pathways may contribute to the maintenance or susceptibility to stress, anxiety, and depressive disorders. The reciprocal and recursive interactions among basic science, drug discovery, and clinical science will continue to provide hopeful themes for improving the lives of patients with treatment-refractive psychiatric illness. PMID:16319295

  10. Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-08-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

  11. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a brief summary of those relevant to issues raised by researchers at the workshop.

  12. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    PubMed

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. PMID:26773561

  13. Which Basic Rules Underlie Social Judgments? Agency Follows a Zero-Sum Principle and Communion Follows a Non-Zero-Sum Principle.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Michael; Leising, Daniel; Gebauer, Jochen E

    2016-05-01

    How are people who generally see others positively evaluated themselves? We propose that the answer to this question crucially hinges on the content domain: We hypothesize that Agency follows a "zero-sum principle" and therefore people who see others ashighin Agency are perceived aslowin Agency themselves. In contrast, we hypothesize that Communion follows a "non-zero-sum principle" and therefore people who see others ashighin Communion are perceived ashighin Communion themselves. We tested these hypotheses in a round-robin and a half-block study. Perceiving others as agentic was indeed linked to being perceived as low in Agency. To the contrary, perceiving others as communal was linked to being perceived as high in Communion, but only when people directly interacted with each other. These results help to clarify the nature of Agency and Communion and offer explanations for divergent findings in the literature. PMID:27029579

  14. Motivating medical students to learn basic science concepts using chronic myeloid leukemia as an integration theme

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Sara Teresinha Olalla; Carvalho, Hernandes Faustino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report on the use of chronic myeloid leukemia as a theme of basic clinical integration for first year medical students to motivate and enable in-depth understanding of the basic sciences of the future physician. Methods During the past thirteen years we have reviewed and updated the curriculum of the medical school of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The main objective of the new curriculum is to teach the students how to learn to learn. Since then, a case of chronic myeloid leukemia has been introduced to first year medical students and discussed in horizontal integration with all themes taught during a molecular and cell biology course. Cell structure and components, protein, chromosomes, gene organization, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, signaling and so on are all themes approached during this course. At the end of every topic approached, the students prepare in advance the corresponding topic of clinical cases chosen randomly during the class, which are then presented by them. During the final class, a paper regarding mutations in the abl gene that cause resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is discussed. After each class, three tests are solved in an interactive evaluation. Results The course has been successful since its beginning, 13 years ago. Great motivation of those who participated in the course was observed. There were less than 20% absences in the classes. At least three (and as many as nine) students every year were interested in starting research training in the field of hematology. At the end of each class, an interactive evaluation was performed and more than 70% of the answers were correct in each evaluation. Moreover, for the final evaluation, the students summarized, in a written report, the molecular and therapeutic basis of chronic myeloid leukemia, with scores ranging from 0 to 10. Considering all 13 years, a median of 78% of the class scored above 5 (min 74%–max 85%), and a median of 67% scored above 7. Conclusion Chronic myeloid leukemia is an excellent example of a disease that can be used for clinical basic integration as this disorder involves well known protein, cytogenetic and cell function abnormalities, has well-defined diagnostic strategies and a target oriented therapy. PMID:25638771

  15. Integration of Basic-Clinical Sciences, PBL, CBL, and IPE in U.S. Dental Schools' Curricula and a Proposed Integrated Curriculum Model for the Future.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Venugopalan, Shankar Rengasamy; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Karimbux, Nadeem Y; Weistroffer, Paula; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2016-03-01

    The integration of basic and clinical sciences in dental curricula enhances the application of basic science principles to clinical decision making and improves students' critical thinking. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of U.S. dental schools' curricula with regard to level of course integration and degree of incorporation of problem-based and case-based learning. A second aim was to propose a dental curriculum that supports effective integration of courses and addresses some of the concerns facing academic dentistry. A survey was sent to 58 academic deans in U.S. dental schools. The survey included questions about integrating courses in the schools' curricula and major changes in curricular structure or teaching pedagogy that respondents anticipated in the immediate future. A total of 31 schools responded to the survey, for a 53.4% response rate. The results showed that three-quarters of the responding schools still teach basic and clinical sciences separately, although 61.3% reported having an integrated curriculum. Among the responding schools, 16 had a PBL component integrated into their curricula (two had integrated PBL in all courses and 14 used a hybrid PBL approach). Two schools had CBL integrated in all courses, and ten had CBL integrated in >75% of courses. Only slightly more than half agreed that their curricula foster students' thinking "outside the box." Faculty shortages and lack of protected time and resources were the most frequent reasons given for a lack of integrated courses. The integrated model proposed in this article has the potential to provide a low stress environment for students and to address important issues like faculty shortages. PMID:26933103

  16. Biomechanical evaluation of the athlete's knee: from basic science to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Alexis; Micheo, William

    2011-04-01

    Clinical screening to assess knee biomechanical dysfunctions and its comorbidities has been of interest for researchers and clinicians in recent years. Although research in the area of knee injury mechanics has elucidated some of the biomechanical predisposing factors that lead to knee injury, clinicians are still puzzled on how to translate these findings to their clinical practice. Highly instrumented, costly equipment and time-consuming data analyses are some of the difficulties of using 3-dimensional biomechanical analysis in the clinic. However, several biomechanical lower-extremity assessment tools are available and feasible to use in the clinic to guide proper clinical decision making that may impact prevention of knee injuries in the physically active population. The purpose of this article was to review screening techniques for assessment of lower extremity biomechanics and to translate these findings to clinical practice and to bridge the gap between basic science and clinical application. After reading this article, clinicians should be able to (1) identify lower-extremity factors related to knee injury, (2) appropriately select functional tasks to evaluate patients, and (3) make intervention recommendations or appropriate referral to address altered lower-extremity biomechanics related to knee injury. PMID:21497323

  17. Climate Risk Management in the Anthropocene: From Basic Science to Decisionmaking and Back.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    Burning fossil fuels imposes a complex mixture of benefits and risks on current and future generations. While enabling a tremendous growth in prosperity, the resulting greenhouse gas emissions also drive risks associated with anthropogenic climate change. Managing climate risks has already motivated local, national, and global actions: utilities replace coal-fired power plants with gas turbines, engineers design sea-walls for future climates, companies sequester carbon dioxide into geological reservoirs, and federally as well as privately funded research projects analyze potential geoengineering approaches. These actions raise the question: what are sustainable, scientifically sound, technologically feasible, economically efficient, and ethically defensible climate-risk management strategies? This presentation reviews current and suggests improved approaches to designing and analyzing climate risk management strategies. Choosing a strategy involves complex trade-offs across diverse objectives and risk management instruments. In addition, this problem is imbued with deep uncertainty, where decisionmakers disagree about the appropriate problem framing, model structure, parameter values, and objectives. Neglecting this deep uncertainty can lead to considerable biases in risk assessments. Furthermore, deep uncertainty can render the typically applied model of expected utility maximization a poor description of actual decisionmakers' preferences. Applying a robust decisionmaking framework can improve decision support, identify mission-critical basic science questions, simplify the integration of new scientific findings, and provide avenues to analyze coupled epistemic-ethical questions.

  18. Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students. PMID:24639820

  19. Translating Basic Science Research to Clinical Application: Models and Strategies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo, Christopher C.; Robbins, Sean; Doré, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical stroke models provide insights into mechanisms of cellular injury and potential therapeutic targets. Renewed efforts to standardize preclinical practices and adopt more rigorous approaches reflect the assumption that a better class of compounds will translate into clinical efficacy. While the need for novel therapeutics is clear, it is also critical that diagnostics be improved to allow for more rapid treatment upon hospital admission. Advances in imaging techniques have aided in the diagnosis of stroke, yet current limitations and expenses demonstrate the need for new and complementary approaches. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) exhibits the highest mortality rate, displays unique pathology and requires specialized treatment strategies relative to other forms of stroke. The aggressive nature and severe consequences of ICH underscore the need for novel therapeutic approaches as well as accurate and expeditious diagnostic tools. The use of experimental models will continue to aid in addressing these important issues as the field attempts to translate basic science findings into the clinical setting. Several preclinical models of ICH have been developed and are widely used to recapitulate human pathology. Because each model has limitations, the burden lies with the investigator to clearly define the question being asked and select the model system that is most relevant to that question. It may also be necessary to optimize and refine pre-existing paradigms, or generate new paradigms, as the future success of translational research is dependent upon the ability to mimic human sequelae and assess clinically relevant outcome measures as means to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22661966

  20. From Ischemic Conditioning to ‘Hyperconditioning’: Clinical Phenomenon and Basic Science Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Peter; Przyklenk, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of articles have been published on the topic of ischemic conditioning. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has been given to assessment of conditioning’s dose-response characteristics. Specifically, the consequences of multiple conditioning episodes, what we will term “hyperconditioning”, have seldom been examined. We propose that hyperconditioning warrants investigation because it; (1) may be of clinical importance, (2) could provide insight into conditioning mechanisms, and (3) might result in development of novel models of human disease. The prevalence of angina pectoris and intermittent claudication is sufficiently high and the potential for daily ischemia-reperfusion episodes sufficiently large that hyperconditioning is a clinically relevant phenomenon. In basic science, attenuation of conditioning-mediated infarct size reduction found in some studies after hyperconditioning offers a possible means to facilitate further discernment of cardioprotective signaling pathways. Moreover, hyperconditioning’s impact extends beyond cytoprotection to tissue structural elements. Several studies demonstrate that hyperconditioning produces collagen injury (primarily fiber breakage). Such structural impairment could have adverse clinical consequences; however, in laboratory studies, selective collagen damage could provide the basis for models of cardiac rupture and dilated cardiomyopathy. Accordingly, we propose that hyperconditioning represents the dark, but potentially illuminating, side of ischemic conditioning - a paradigm that merits attention and prospective evaluation. PMID:25552962

  1. Traumatic white matter injury and glial activation: from basic science to clinics.

    PubMed

    Kou, Zhifeng; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-11-01

    An improved understanding and characterization of glial activation and its relationship with white matter injury will likely serve as a novel treatment target to curb post injury inflammation and promote axonal remyelination after brain trauma. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public healthcare burden and a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Particularly, traumatic white matter (WM) injury or traumatic axonal injury has been reported as being associated with patients' poor outcomes. However, there is very limited data reporting the importance of glial activation after TBI and its interaction with WM injury. This article presents a systematic review of traumatic WM injury and the associated glial activation, from basic science to clinical diagnosis and prognosis, from advanced neuroimaging perspective. It concludes that there is a disconnection between WM injury research and the essential role of glia which serve to restore a healthy environment for axonal regeneration following WM injury. Particularly, there is a significant lack of non-invasive means to characterize the complex pathophysiology of WM injury and glial activation in both animal models and in humans. An improved understanding and characterization of the relationship between glia and WM injury will likely serve as a novel treatment target to curb post injury inflammation and promote axonal remyelination. PMID:24807544

  2. Arthroscopic contact Nd:YAG laser meniscectomy: basic science, surgical technique, and clinical follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Stephen J.; Fealy, Stephen V.; Gibney, Mary A.; Miller, Drew V.; Kelly, Anne M.

    1990-06-01

    Recent basic science studies (5) have provided a scientific foundation for the use of the Contact Nd:YAG Laser as an arthroscopic tool for xneniscal resection and acroxnioplasty of the shoulder in a saline medium. This study prospectively evaluates the results of a three stage laboratory investigation as well as the clinical results of arthroscopic xneniscal resection. Fifteen patients with meniscal tears underwent subtotal meniscectomies utilizing a Contact Nd:YAG Laser (Surgical Laser Technologies; Malvern, Pennsylvania) . This was done in a saline medium with an average laser wattage of 25 W, (range 20 W to 30 W). Patients were evaluated postoperatively with reference to subjective and objective parameters at one week and four weeks postoperatively. Patients were evaluated with regard to wound healing, intraarticular swelling and pain. Assessment of technical parameters such as ease of resection, time of resection and instrument access were compared to conventional instruments. All fifteen patients were rated as having clinically excellent results based on pain relief, wound healing and swelling. In addition, although there was increased time with setting up the laser and calibrating it, there was not an increase in time for meniscal resection. Little, or no, secondary "trimmuning" was necessary with the laser. Increased accessibility was noted due to the small size of the laser. Arthroscopic Contact Nd:YAG Laser surgery is a safe and effective tool for menisca]. resection and coagulation in arthroscopic acromioplasties. It provides significant advantages over conventional cutting instruments with regard to accessibility and reduced need for secondary instruments.

  3. The dopamine system and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia: a basic science perspective.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yukiori; Grace, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    The dopamine system has been a subject of intense investigation due to its role in a number of normal functions and its disruption in pathological conditions. Thus, the dopamine system has been shown to play a major role in cognitive, affective, and motor functions, and its disruption has been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of several major psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, drug abuse, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although these studies have continued to define the basic functional principles of the dopamine system in the mammalian brain, we are still at the initial stages in unraveling the complex role of this transmitter system in regulating behavioral processes. Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine modulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and moreover affects synaptic plasticity induced within the circuits of its target brain regions. It is this role in synaptic plasticity that has associated the dopamine system with aspects of cognitive function involving learning and memory. In this chapter, we summarize recent findings relevant to the role of the dopamine system in psychiatric disorders at cellular, anatomical, and functional levels. In particular, we will focus on the regulation of dopamine neuron activity states and how this impacts dopamine release in cortical and subcortical systems, and the physiological and behavioral impact of dopamine receptor stimulation in the postsynaptic targets of these neurons. A brief summary of recent findings regarding the development and maturation of DA system and how this relates to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders are given, and finally models of dopamine system disruption in schizophrenia and how therapeutic approaches impact on dopamine system dynamics is presented. PMID:17349857

  4. Changes in Study Strategies of Medical Students between Basic Science Courses and Clerkships Are Associated with Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, David C.; Hoyt, Amy E.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that medical students change their study strategies when transitioning from basic science courses to clerkships, and that their study practices are associated with performance scores. Factor scores for three approaches to studying (construction, rote, and review) generated from student (n = 150) responses to a…

  5. The Unexpected Evolution of Basic Science Studies about Cyclic Nucleotide Action into a Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    In these Reflections, I describe my perceived role in discoveries made in the cyclic nucleotide field that culminated in the advent of PDE5 inhibitors that treat erectile dysfunction, such as Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis. The discoveries emphasize the critical role of basic science, which often evolves in unpredictable and circuitous paths, in improving human health. PMID:25505249

  6. The unexpected evolution of basic science studies about cyclic nucleotide action into a treatment for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Jackie

    2015-01-16

    In these Reflections, I describe my perceived role in discoveries made in the cyclic nucleotide field that culminated in the advent of PDE5 inhibitors that treat erectile dysfunction, such as Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis. The discoveries emphasize the critical role of basic science, which often evolves in unpredictable and circuitous paths, in improving human health. PMID:25505249

  7. Coherent Teaching and Need-Based Learning in Science: An Approach to Teach Engineering Students in Basic Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki-Suonio, T.; Hakola, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose an alternative, based on constructivism, to the conventional way of teaching basic physics courses at the university level. We call this approach "coherent teaching" and the underlying philosophy of teaching science and engineering "need-based learning". We have been applying this philosophy in practice in a basic…

  8. A Case Based Multimedia Tool for Integrating Basic Science Concepts with Clinical Case Data in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dan F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of a computer case-study template for integrating basic science concepts with clinical problem-solving processes in medical education; multimedia and interactive resources of Macintosh HyperCard software were used. Discusses design considerations and how the format works for the author and the student. (AEF)

  9. Basic Principles of Marine Diesel Engines, 8-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of marine diesel engines is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to acquaint…

  10. Implementing the Precautionary Principle: incorporating science, technology, fairness, and accountability in environmental, health, and safety decisions.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Nicholas A

    2004-01-01

    The Precautionary Principle is in sharp political focus today because: 1) the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing, and 2) there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on more "rational" schemes, such as cost-benefit analysis and quantitative risk assessment, the former being an embodiment of "rational choice theory" promoted by the Chicago School of Law and Economics. The Precautionary Principle has been criticized as being both too vague and too arbitrary to form a basis for rational decision making. The assumption underlying this criticism is that any scheme not based on cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment is both irrational and without secure foundation in either science or economics. This paper contests that view and makes explicit the rational tenets of the Precautionary Principle within an analytical framework as rigorous as uncertainties permit, and one that mirrors democratic values embodied in regulatory, compensatory, and common law. Unlike other formulations that reject risk assessment, this paper argues that risk assessment can be used within the formalism of tradeoff analysis--a more appropriate alternative to traditional cost-benefit analysis and one that satisfies the need for well-grounded public policy decision making. This paper will argue that the precautionary approach is the most appropriate basis for policy, even when large uncertainties do not exist, especially where the fairness of the distributions of costs and benefits of hazardous activities and products are a concern. Furthermore, it will offer an approach to making decisions within an analytic framework, based on equity and justice, to replace the economic paradigm of utilitarian cost-benefit analysis. PMID:15212207

  11. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. PMID:23899406

  12. The Teaching of Sciences in African Universities. [Report of the Seminar on the Teaching of Basic Sciences in African Universities, Rabat, 13 to 22 December 1962].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Eighteen recommendations made by a 1962 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seminar on teaching the basic sciences in African universities introduce the conference report. A general summary of the conference proceedings, reported separately for pedagogic problems and difficulties of organization and…

  13. An Identification of Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the Junior High School Programs, and an Analysis of the Eighth Grade Alabama Textbooks in Terms of the Principles Contained Therein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

    The purpose of this study was to identify the earth science principles pertinent to current programs in general education at the junior high level, and to determine whether selected textbooks provide adequate representation of those principles. There were 121 principles identified as being essential to the understanding of these five earth science…

  14. TU-A-18A-01: Basic Principles of PET/CT, Calibration Methods and Contrast Recovery Across Multiple Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Kappadath, S; Nye, J

    2014-06-15

    This continuing education session will discuss the physical principles of PET/CT imaging and characterization of contrast recovery using accreditation phantoms. A detailed overview will be given on the physical principles of PET including positron decay physics, 2D and 3D data acquisition, time-of-flight, scatter correction, CT attenuation correction, and image reconstruction. Instrument quality control and calibration procedures will be discussed. Technical challenges, common image artifacts and strategies to mitigate these issues will also be discussed. Data will be presented on acquisition techniques and reconstruction parameters affecting contrast recovery. The discussion will emphasize the minimization of reconstruction differences in quantification metrics such as SUV and contrast recovery coefficients for the NEMA and ACR clinical trial phantoms. Data from new and older generation scanners will be shown including comparison of contrast recovery measurements to their analytical solutions. The goal of this session is to update attendees on the quality control and calibration of PET/CT scanners, on methods to establish a common calibration for PET/CT scanners to control for instrument variance across multiple sites. Learning Objectives: Review the physical principles of PET/CT, quality control and calibration Gain further understanding on how to apply techniques for improving quantitative agreement across multiple cameras Describe the differences between measured and expected contrast recovery for the NEMA and ACR PET phantoms.

  15. Basic Warehousing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on basic warehousing is designed to provide Marines with Military Occupation Speciality 3051 in the rank of private through corporal with instruction in those basic principles, methods, and procedures that can be applied to any warehousing or storage…

  16. Retention of knowledge and perceived relevance of basic sciences in an integrated case-based learning (CBL) curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge and understanding of basic biomedical sciences remain essential to medical practice, particularly when faced with the continual advancement of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Evidence suggests, however, that retention tends to atrophy across the span of an average medical course and into the early postgraduate years, as preoccupation with clinical medicine predominates. We postulated that perceived relevance demonstrated through applicability to clinical situations may assist in retention of basic science knowledge. Methods To test this hypothesis in our own medical student cohort, we administered a paper-based 50 MCQ assessment to a sample of students from Years 2 through 5. Covariates pertaining to demographics, prior educational experience, and the perceived clinical relevance of each question were also collected. Results A total of 232 students (Years 2–5, response rate 50%) undertook the assessment task. This sample had comparable demographic and performance characteristics to the whole medical school cohort. In general, discipline-specific and overall scores were better for students in the latter years of the course compared to those in Year 2; male students and domestic students tended to perform better than their respective counterparts in certain disciplines. In the clinical years, perceived clinical relevance was significantly and positively correlated with item performance. Conclusions This study suggests that perceived clinical relevance is a contributing factor to the retention of basic science knowledge and behoves curriculum planners to make clinical relevance a more explicit component of applied science teaching throughout the medical course. PMID:24099045

  17. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    2014-04-01

    With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  18. Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2008 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B.; Thompson, J.; Shuh, D.; Albrecht-Schmitt, T.; Gouder, T.

    2008-07-01

    This volume brings together theorists, modelers and experimentalists working in the field of actinide science to present and discuss the latest breakthroughs in a field that spans materials science, condensed matter physics and chemistry.

  19. The Relationship between Preservice Science Teachers' Attitude toward Astronomy and Their Understanding of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2016-01-01

    Turkish preservice science teachers have been taking a two-credit astronomy class during the last semester of their undergraduate program since 2010. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between preservice science teachers' astronomy misconceptions and their attitudes toward astronomy. Preservice science teachers were given an…

  20. Science: A Practical View. Volume I. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the first in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) ecology (what marine science

  1. The Relationship between Preservice Science Teachers' Attitude toward Astronomy and Their Understanding of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2016-01-01

    Turkish preservice science teachers have been taking a two-credit astronomy class during the last semester of their undergraduate program since 2010. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between preservice science teachers' astronomy misconceptions and their attitudes toward astronomy. Preservice science teachers were given an

  2. Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science

    PubMed Central

    Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David

    2014-01-01

    An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher – every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians’ instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual’s capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive ‘channels’ for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218

  3. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice, Executive Summary and Final Report, October 1, 1978 - March 15, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…

  4. Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

  5. Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    il, Emine; elik, Kevser; Main, Tuba; Demirbas, Glay; Gkimen, zlem

    2014-01-01

    Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the

  6. uSIMPK. An Excel for Windows-based simulation program for instruction of basic pharmacokinetics principles to pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Brocks, Dion R

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom. PMID:25934593

  7. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are planned. "Other Research" includes: BUNDLE (Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrite in a Liquid Experiment) activities (primarily crucible development), vibrational float-zone processing (with Vanderbilt University), use of ultrasonics in materials processing (with UAH), rotational effects on microstructural development, and application of magnetic fields for mixing.

  8. Basic principles and applications of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in oral and maxillofacial imaging: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Tamimi, Dania; Branstetter, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has increasingly become a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of head and neck cancer. On the basis of both recent literature and our professional experience, we present a set of principles with pictorial illustrations and clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation and management planning of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We feel that this paper will be of interest and will aid the learning of oral and maxillofacial radiology trainees and practitioners. PMID:25473642

  9. Basic science and clinical application of stem cells in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ribitsch, I; Burk, J; Delling, U; Geißler, C; Gittel, C; Jülke, H; Brehm, W

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.Embryonic stem (ES) cell research, for instance, is mainly performed in animals. Key feature of ES cells is their potential to contribute to any tissue type of the body (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215:329-336, 2008). ES cells are capable of self-renewal and thus have the inherent potential for exceptionally prolonged culture (up to 1-2 years). So far, ES cells have been recovered and maintained from non-human primate, mouse (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005) and horse blastocysts (Guest and Allen, Stem Cells Dev 16:789-796, 2007). In addition, bovine ES cells have been grown in primary culture and there are several reports of ES cells derived from mink, rat, rabbit, chicken and pigs (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005). However, clinical applications of ES cells are not possible yet, due to their in vivo teratogenic degeneration. The potential to form a teratoma consisting of tissues from all three germ lines even serves as a definitive in vivo test for ES cells.Stem cells obtained from any postnatal organism are defined as adult stem cells. Adult haematopoietic and MSCs, which can easily be recovered from extra embryonic or adult tissues, possess a more limited plasticity than their embryonic counterparts (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215:329-336, 2008). It is believed that these stem cells serve as cell source to maintain tissue and organ mass during normal cell turnover in adult individuals. Therefore, the focus of attention in veterinary science is currently drawn to adult stem cells and their potential in regenerative medicine. Also experience gained from the treatment of animal patients provides valuable information for human medicine and serves as precursor to future stem cell use in human medicine.Compared to human medicine, haematopoietic stem cells only play a minor role in veterinary medicine because medical conditions requiring myeloablative chemotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem cell induced recovery of the immune system are relatively rare and usually not being treated for monetary as well as animal welfare reasons.In contrast, regenerative medicine utilising MSCs for the treatment of acute injuries as well as chronic disorders is gradually turning into clinical routine. Therefore, MSCs from either extra embryonic or adult tissues are in the focus of attention in veterinary medicine and research. Hence the purpose of this chapter is to offer an overview on basic science and clinical application of MSCs in veterinary medicine. PMID:20309674

  10. Principles of dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, B.K.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper focuses on basic principles of the theory of dielectrics. Concentrates on fundamentals including relevant areas of electrostatics. Author takes a completely classical approach, avoiding quantum mechanics altogether. The electrostatic field in free space, multipole-moment fluctuations the generalized Kubo equation, the thermodynamics of electrostriction, and the incremental permittivity tensor are among the specific topics examined. Extensive appendices, specific journal references, and a general bibliography are included. Intended for advanced undergraduates in the physical sciences.

  11. Recent trends in publication of basic science and clinical research by United States investigators in anesthesia journals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background United States anesthesia research production declined sharply from 1980-2005. Whether this trend has continued despite recent calls to improve output is unknown. We conducted an observational internet analysis to quantify American basic science and clinical anesthesia research output in 14 anesthesia journals with impact factors greater than one at three-year intervals during the past decade. Results American investigators published 1,486 (21.7%) of the total of 6,845 research articles identified in anesthesia journals in 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010. Approximately two-thirds of all US articles were published in Anesthesiology and Anesthesia and Analgesia. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.316; P = 0.036) between the number of articles published by American authors in each anesthesia journal and the corresponding journal's impact factor in 2010. Significantly (P < 0.05; Pearson's Chi-square) fewer basic science articles were published in 2007 and 2010 compared with 2001. US clinical research output also declined in 2007 (201; 15.7%) compared with 2001 (266; 19.1%) and 2004, but an increase occurred in 2010 (279; 21.8%, P < 0.05 versus 2007). Conclusions The results indicate that US anesthesia research output continued to decrease from 2001 to 2007. An increase in clinical but not basic science research was observed in 2010 compared with 2007, suggesting that a modest recovery in clinical research production may have begun. PMID:22439884

  12. Principles of Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Max; Wolf, Emil

    1999-10-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

  13. Protein standardization III: Method optimization basic principles for quantitative determination of human serum proteins on automated instruments based on turbidimetry or nephelometry.

    PubMed

    Blirup-Jensen, S

    2001-11-01

    Quantitative protein determinations in routine laboratories are today most often carried out using automated instruments. However, slight variations in the assay principle, in the programming of the instrument or in the reagents may lead to different results. This has led to the prerequisite of method optimization and standardization. The basic principles of turbidimetry and nephelometry are discussed. The different reading principles are illustrated and investigated. Various problems are identified and a suggestion is made for an integrated, fast and convenient test system for the determination of a number of different proteins on the same instrument. An optimized test system for turbidimetry and nephelometry should comprise high-quality antibodies, calibrators, controls, and buffers and a protocol with detailed parameter settings in order to program the instrument correctly. A good user program takes full advantage of the optimal reading principles for the different instruments. This implies--for all suitable instruments--sample preincubation followed by real sample blanking, which automatically corrects for initial turbidity in the sample. Likewise it is recommended to measure the reagent blank, which represents any turbidity caused by the antibody itself. By correcting all signals with these two blank values the best possible signal is obtained for the specific analyte. An optimized test system should preferably offer a wide measuring range combined with a wide security range, which for the user means few re-runs and maximum security against antigen excess. A non-linear calibration curve based on six standards is obtained using a suitable mathematical fitting model, which normally is part of the instrument software. PMID:11831625

  14. Basic Concepts of the Educational Science Sub-Discipline of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kaethe

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual system is outlined for the educational science sub-discipline of adult education. Adults' attending instruction or not attending instruction is conceptually specified. Focusing as it does on a cardinal event of adult education, this represents a first step toward a system for the educational science sub-discipline of

  15. Basic Concepts in the Methodology of the Social Sciences. HSRC Studies in Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Johann, Ed.; Marais, H. C.

    Considerations of validity that are central to all disciplines in the social sciences are discussed, and concepts that are an essential part of the intellectual equipment of the social sciences researcher are systematically analyzed. Fundamental methodological concepts underlying decisions made in the research process are highlighted to encourage…

  16. Basic Science Process Skills. An Inservice Workshop Kit: Outlines and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Paul; And Others

    A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…

  17. Science: A Practical View. Volume II. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The guide is divided into three components. The first component helps students…

  18. BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes I and II. Biology, Earth Science, Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    Computer programs which teach concepts and processes related to biology, earth science, and chemistry are presented. The seven biology problems deal with aspects of genetics, evolution and natural selection, gametogenesis, enzymes, photosynthesis, and the transport of material across a membrane. Four earth science problems concern climates, the…

  19. The Frog Vestibular System as a Model for Lesion-Induced Plasticity: Basic Neural Principles and Implications for Posture Control

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Franois M.; Straka, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the central nervous system (CNS) to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the CNS include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims toward a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of vestibular function. PMID:22518109

  20. Chemical Frustration. A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2015-06-23

    Final technical report for "Chemical Frustration: A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases" funded by the Office of Science through the Materials Chemistry Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  2. Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Marc; Levin, Phillip S.

    2005-01-01

    Modern fishery science, which began in 1957 with Beverton and Holt, is ca. 50 years old. At its inception, fishery science was limited by a nineteenth century mechanistic worldview and by computational technology; thus, the relatively simple equations of population ecology became the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. The time has come for this to change and for community ecology to become the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. This point will be illustrated with two examples. First, when viewed from a community perspective, excess production must be considered in the context of biomass left for predators. We argue that this is a better measure of the effects of fisheries than spawning biomass per recruit. Second, we shall analyse a simple, but still multi-species, model for fishery management that considers the alternatives of harvest regulations, inshore marine protected areas and offshore marine protected areas. Population or community perspectives lead to very different predictions about the efficacy of reserves. PMID:15713590

  3. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

    2009-03-01

    In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy. PMID:19653516

  4. Basic science with pulsed power & some off-the-wall ideas

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    This paper discusses aspects of pulsed power for use in basic research, with a principal emphasis on ATLAS, a planned 36-MJ pulsed-power machine with a circular architechture designed primarily for z-pinch implosion of cylindrical foils. The objective of the paper is to give an overview and touch on subjects which might test the limits of this technology.

  5. Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching

  6. Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

  7. Basic laws of the processes and the principle of minimum energy consumption during pneumatic transport and distribution of pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leykin, V. Z.

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents analysis of the basic laws and a calculation-based investigation of processes related to the low-concentration pneumatic transport and the distribution of finely dispersed pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems of boiler units. Based on the principle of the minimum energy consumption, it is shown that, at high (standard) velocities of the turbulent gas flow—of 25-30 m/s, which is by 1.5-2 times higher than the critical speeds—the finely dispersed pulverized fuel can be transported simultaneously in the form of a low-concentration flow in pipelines and a concentrated, to 30% of the flow rate, thin layer on the pipeline walls with the height of the layer equal to 0.02-0.04 of the pipe radius. Consideration of this phenomenon is of great significance in terms of securing the efficient operation of pulverized fuel distribution units. The basic characteristics of the process have been determined and validated by test bench investigations using both model systems and pulverized fuel distribution systems of a number of power-generating units. The obtained results underlie a methodological approach to developing high-efficiency adjustable pulverized fuel distribution units. Also, results of industrial testing are presented that confirm the results of the analysis and of experimental studies.

  8. ``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

    2006-12-01

    XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite all these efforts, one can’t help noticing an asymmetric level of scientific exploitation in the realm of X-ray astronomy between developing and developed countries. The latter have traditionally enjoyed the comparative advantage of deeper know-how, deriving from direct experience in hardware and mission development. The XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre’s efforts act to alleviate this situation through, for example, increasing the usage of the web for data and information dissemination, as well as by supporting actively such initiatives as the COSPAR Capacity-Building Workshops, specifically designed to create long-lasting bridges between researchers in developing and developed countries.

  9. A Cross-College Age Study of Science and Nonscience Students' Conceptions of Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for High-School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    A questionnaire of 19 questions given to a total of 433 students in college preservice training for future high school teachers showed that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy. (Author)

  10. Integration of basic biological sciences and clinical dentistry in the dental curriculum. A clinically orientated approach to teaching oral and dental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gotjamanos, T

    1990-06-01

    Although dental curricula have undergone significant revision during the past three decades, the problem of linking basic science with clinical dentistry often remains an unmet challenge in dental education. This paper describes the content and method of presentation of a course in oral and dental anatomy which aims to integrate closely basic biological science and clinical dental practice. The course holds considerable promise for overcoming one of the major deficiencies of the horizontally structured curriculum by presenting basic science information and detailing its clinical relevance simultaneously. The academic background, clinical experience, and educational philosophy of the course co-ordinator and assisting teaching staff are undoubtedly important factors in determining the extent to which integration between basic and clinical science can be achieved. PMID:2393365

  11. Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowery, Donald R.

    This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

  12. Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of

  13. Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,

  14. Colloquium on Selected Topics in Behavioral Science Basic Research. (Alexandria, Virginia, April 23-25, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogami, Glenda Y., Ed.; And Others

    The 21 summaries of research programs, funded by the United States Army Research Institute (ARI) for the Behavioral and Social Sciences which are presented are grouped in five broad topic areas: computer-based systems; information processing; learning, memory and transfer; human relations; and related issues and trends. Papers presented include:…

  15. Chemical Nanotechnology: A Liberal Arts Approach to a Basic Course in Emerging Interdisciplinary Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lon A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The nanotechnology degree programs initiated at various institutions provided an excellent way of learning to look at the amazing opportunities that arise when various disciplines of science interact. The enrolled students were actively engaged in the subject matter and also expressed greater confidence in their ability to consider technology with…

  16. Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

  17. Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

  18. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

  19. What Type of Faculty and Training Are Required for a Successful Basic Sciences Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Science education for optometry must go beyond therapeutic patient management to more preparation for biologically based care. Optometry faculty should be involved in research driven by specific patient problems and should prepare professionals to address patient quality-of-life and daily living needs. Interdisciplinary collaboration is needed.…

  20. Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2006 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blobaum, Kerri J.M.; Chandler, Elaine A.; Havela, Ladislav; Maple, M. Brian; Neu, Mary P.

    2007-07-01

    These proceedings from the September 2006 symposium includes papers presented on experimental and modeling work with the intention of broadening understanding of the field of actinide research. Actinides have gained attention recently because of their roles in the threat of nuclear terrorism (e.g., 'dirty bombs') and the use of nuclear power to offset fossil fuel consumption. Actinide science is the study of the elements with atomic numbers in the range of 90 to 103, which includes uranium and plutonium. Beyond the well-known nuclear reactions of these heavy radioactive metals, the large electron clouds with 5f electrons in the outer shell yield fascinating and complex chemistries, crystal structures, and physical properties. Traditionally, actinide research has been divided among three scientific disciplines: chemistry (nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry); physics (condensed matter physics and electronic structure); and materials science (metallurgy). Modern actinide research, however, has become an interdisciplinary blend of these traditional fields, and it also incorporates developing fields such as environmental chemistry and superconductivity. Improved scientific understanding of actinides is needed for development of materials for actinide detection and nuclear fuels, and for safer management of nuclear waste. Recently, there has been a resurgence of actinide science at national laboratories and universities. The current multidisciplinary approach to actinide science lays the groundwork for understanding the connection between the 5f electronic structure and observed chemical reactions and physical properties such as structural phase transformations and novel ground states. This work provides many opportunities for new researchers in actinide science. These proceedings gather 25 selected papers among the 53 presentations given at this symposium.

  1. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. PMID:25244620

  2. Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

  3. Multimedia Bootcamp: a health sciences library provides basic training to promote faculty technology integration

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Ellen C

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown a backlash against the enthusiastic promotion of technological solutions as replacements for traditional educational content delivery. Many institutions, including the University of Virginia, have committed staff and resources to supporting state-of-the-art, showpiece educational technology projects. However, the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library has taken the approach of helping Health Sciences faculty be more comfortable using technology in incremental ways for instruction and research presentations. In July 2004, to raise awareness of self-service multimedia resources for instructional and professional development needs, the Library conducted a "Multimedia Bootcamp" for nine Health Sciences faculty and fellows. Methods Case study. Results Program stewardship by a single Library faculty member contributed to the delivery of an integrated learning experience. The amount of time required to attend the sessions and complete homework was the maximum fellows had to devote to such pursuits. The benefit of introducing technology unfamiliar to most fellows allowed program instructors to start everyone at the same baseline while not appearing to pass judgment on the technology literacy skills of faculty. The combination of wrapping the program in the trappings of a fellowship and selecting fellows who could commit to a majority of scheduled sessions yielded strong commitment from participants as evidenced by high attendance and a 100% rate of assignment completion. Response rates to follow-up evaluation requests, as well as continued use of Media Studio resources and Library expertise for projects begun or conceived during Bootcamp, bode well for the long-term success of this program. Conclusion An incremental approach to integrating technology with current practices in instruction and presentation provided a supportive yet energizing environment for Health Sciences faculty. Keys to this program were its faculty focus, traditional hands-on instruction, unrestricted access to technology tools and support, and inclusion of criteria for evaluating when multimedia can augment pedagogical aims. PMID:16638140

  4. LARGE ANIMAL MODELS OF HEART FAILURE: A CRITICAL LINK IN THE TRANSLATION OF BASIC SCIENCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Jennifer A.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2009-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome, with hallmarks of fatigue and dyspnea, which continues to be highly prevalent and morbid. Due to the growing burden of HF as the population ages, the need to develop new pharmacologic treatments and therapeutic interventions is of paramount importance. Common pathophysiologic features of HF include changes in left ventricle (LV) structure, function, and neurohormonal activation. The recapitulation of the HF phenotype in large animal models can allow for the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical therapies. Models of myocardial infarction/ischemia, ischemic cardiomyopathy, ventricular pressure and volume overload, and pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy have been created in dogs, pigs, and sheep for the investigation of HF and potential therapies. Large animal models recapitulating the clinical HF phenotype and translating basic science to clinical applications have successfully traveled the journey from bench to bedside. Undoubtedly, large animal models of HF will continue to play a crucial role in the elucidation of biologic pathways involved in HF and the development and refinement of HF therapies. PMID:19808348

  5. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-12-12

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  6. The Basic Principle of Calculus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

  7. Radioimmunoassay: review of basic principles.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, S J

    1975-04-01

    The development of radioimmunoassay by the late Solomon A. Berson and Rosalyn S. Yalow during the late 1950s represents a milestone in the history of the application of radionuclide methodology to biology and to medical investigation and practice. The method offers a technique to assay materials otherwise unmeasureable or detectable only with difficulty. Radioimmunoassay is based upon the competition between labeled and unlabeled antigen for specific antibody sites, forming antigen-antibody complexes. This reaction is described by the expression see journal for formula. At equilibirum, the radioactive complex (bound) is separated from the radioactive antigen (free). The B/F ratio is dependent upon the amount of nonradioactive antigen. Antigen concentration in unknown samples is determined by comparing the B/F ratio to the B/F ratios obtained by incubating varying amounts of known nonradioactive antigen with the same amount of antibody as in the unknown sample under similar assay conditions. Sensitivity of the order of 10-12 moles/liter may be achieved through the preparation and use of a labeled antigen of high specific activity and the production and selection of antisera with appropriately high affinity constants. Specificity is dependent upon the ability of the antiserum to recognize subtle structural features of the antigen molecule. The ability to conveniently assay large numbers of samples with good precision has led to the application of this technique to quantitate substances (such as steroids) already measurable but by more cumbersome methods. Since the initial description of competitive binding radioassay techniques, there have been numerous contributions to its further development, refinement, and application. This article reviews the conception and development of this invaluable contribution to our understanding of health and disease. PMID:164695

  8. The role of a science story, activities, and dialogue modeled on Philosophy for Children in teaching basic science process skills to fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Louise Brandes Moura

    This study was an application of Philosophy for Children pedagogy to science education. It was designed to answer the question, What roles do a science story (Harry Discovers Science), multi-sensorial activities designed to accompany the story, and classroom dialogue associated with the story---all modeled on the Philosophy for Children curriculum---play in the learning processes of a class of fifth graders with regard to the basic science process skills of classification, observation, and inference? To answer the question, I collected qualitative data as I carried out a participatory study in which I taught science to fifth graders at an international, bilingual private religious school in Brasilia, Brazil for a period of one semester. Twenty-one (n = 21) children participated in the study, 10 females and 11 males, who came from a predominantly middle and upper class social background. Data were collected through student interviews, student class reflection sheets, written learning assessments, audiotapes of all class sessions, including whole-class and small-class group discussions, and a videotape of one class session. Some of the key findings were that the story, activities and dialogue facilitated the children's learning in a number of ways. The story modeled the performance of classification, observation and inference skills for the children as well as reflection on the meaning of inference. The majority of the students identified with the fictional characters, particularly regarding traits such as cleverness and inquisitiveness, and with the learning context of the story. The multi-sensorial activities helped children learn observation and inference skills as well as dialogue. Dialogue also helped children self-correct and build upon each other's ideas. Some students developed theories about how ideal dialogue should work. In spite of the inherent limitations of qualitative and teacher research studies, as well as the limitations of this particular study, and despite the fact that there is a need for further research to confirm the transferability of findings, this study both supports and expands to the domain of basic science process skills the claim that Philosophy for Children helps students develop thinking skills.

  9. The Anatomy of Teacher Institutes: A Design for Professional Development. A Report on Mathematics and Science Institutes for Secondary School Teachers by the Council for Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Basic Education, Washington, DC.

    The Council for Basic Education cosponsored 11 mathematics and science institutes for secondary school teachers on college and university campuses in 9 American cities in 1984. This approach was a response to the national concern over the state of mathematics and science instruction and was facilitated through support of public and private…

  10. Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Current Therapy, Future Treatments, and Basic Science Frontiers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arabinda; Wallace, Gerald; Barry, John; Vertegel, Alexey A.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute and chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States is more than 10,000 per year, resulting in 720 cases per million persons enduring permanent disability each year. The economic impact of SCI is estimated to be more than 4 billion dollars annually. Preclinical studies, case reports, and small clinical trials suggest that early treatment may improve neurological recovery. To date, no proven therapeutic modality exists that has demonstrated a positive effect on neurological outcome. Emerging data from recent preclinical and clinical studies offer hope for this devastating condition. This review gives an overview of current basic research and clinical studies for the treatment of SCI. PMID:23462880

  11. From cell cycle regulation to angiogenesis: dialogue between the basic and clinical sciences.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, P; Lotan, R; Giordano, A

    1999-05-01

    Basic research in biological and medical disciplines has revealed fundamental aspects of the differentiation of single cells as well as the development of multicellular organisms. The combination of knowledge of intracellular and intercellular pathways controlling development and homeostasis in higher organisms is the key to understanding certain diseases that are associated with abnormalities in these pathways and developing strategies for fighting them. Today's high scientific output in a rapidly growing number of scientific journals requires great effort to keep up with the latest developments outside one's specialization. The tenth international conference of the International Society of Differentiation (ISD) therefore was a great opportunity for scientists of diverse fields of biological and medical research to learn about the latest developments in even remotely related branches of research and opening new perspectives. The authors have tried to conserve this spirit in reviewing main aspects of research presented at the conference. PMID:10199563

  12. A Critical Review of mTOR Inhibitors and Epilepsy: from Basic Science to Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Summary Present medications for epilepsy have substantial limitations, such as medical intractability in many patients and lack of antiepileptogenic properties to prevent epilepsy. Drugs with novel mechanisms of action are needed to overcome these limitations. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has emerged as a possible therapeutic target for epilepsy. Preliminary clinical trials suggest that mTOR inhibitors reduce seizures in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients with intractable epilepsy. Furthermore, mTOR inhibitors have antiepileptogenic properties in preventing epilepsy in animal models of TSC. Besides TSC, accumulating preclinical data suggest that mTOR inhibitors may have antiseizure or antiepileptogenic actions in other types of epilepsy, including infantile spasms, neonatal hypoxic seizures, absence epilepsy, and acquired temporal lobe epilepsy following brain injury, but these effects depend on a number of conditions. Future clinical and basic research is needed to establish whether mTOR inhibitors are an effective treatment for epilepsy. PMID:23739003

  13. ERBB receptors: From oncogene discovery to basic science to mechanism-based cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Carlos L.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary ERBB receptors were linked to human cancer pathogenesis approximately three decades ago. Biomedical investigators have since developed substantial understanding of the biology underlying the dependence of cancers on aberrant ERBB receptor signaling. An array of cancer-associated genetic alterations in ERBB receptors has also been identified. These findings have led to the discovery and development of mechanism-based therapies targeting ERBB receptors that have improved outcome for many cancer patients. In this Perspective, we discuss current paradigms of targeting ERBB receptors with cancer therapeutics and our understanding of mechanisms of action and resistance to these drugs. As current strategies still have limitations, we also discuss challenges and opportunities that lie ahead as basic scientists and clinical investigators work toward more breakthroughs. PMID:24651011

  14. An expanding universe of noncoding RNAs between the poles of basic science and clinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Weil, Patrick P; Hensel, Kai O; Weber, David; Postberg, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The Keystone Symposium 'MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer', Keystone, CO, USA, 7-12 June 2015 Since the discovery of RNAi, great efforts have been undertaken to unleash the potential biomedical applicability of small noncoding RNAs, mainly miRNAs, involving their use as biomarkers for personalized diagnostics or their usability as active agents or therapy targets. The research's focus on the noncoding RNA world is now slowly moving from a phase of basic discoveries into a new phase, where every single molecule out of many hundreds of cataloged noncoding RNAs becomes dissected in order to investigate these molecules' biomedical relevance. In addition, RNA classes neglected before, such as long noncoding RNAs or circular RNAs attract more attention. Numerous timely results and hypotheses were presented at the 2015 Keystone Symposium 'MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer'. PMID:26418087

  15. Investigating the Relationship between STEM Learning Principles and Student Achievement in Math and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michael; Gonzalez, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) advocates commonly emphasize an interdisciplinary, authentic, project-based, and technology-based approach to learning, though the strength of prior research varies. This study examines the association between a range of classroom activities and academic performance gains in math and science. Using…

  16. Investigating the Relationship between STEM Learning Principles and Student Achievement in Math and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michael; Gonzalez, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) advocates commonly emphasize an interdisciplinary, authentic, project-based, and technology-based approach to learning, though the strength of prior research varies. This study examines the association between a range of classroom activities and academic performance gains in math and science. Using

  17. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the (HIC) system, which incorporates augmented reality, virtual reality and cloud-classroom to teach basic materials science courses. The study followed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. A total of 92 students (aged 19-20 years), in a second-year undergraduate program, participated in this 18-week-long experiment. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (36 males and 10 females) was instructed utilizing the HIC system, while the control group (34 males and 12 females) was led through traditional teaching methods. Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were evaluated by multivariate analysis of covariance. The results indicated that participants in the experimental group who used the HIC system outperformed the control group, in the both posttest and delayed posttest, across three learning dimensions. Based on these results, the HIC system is recommended to be incorporated in formal materials science learning settings.

  18. Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

  19. Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.; Graham, J.; Hoggan, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

  20. Beyond the Flipped Classroom: A Highly Interactive Cloud-Classroom (HIC) Embedded into Basic Materials Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-02-01

    The present study compares the highly interactive cloud-classroom (HIC) system with traditional methods of teaching materials science that utilize crystal structure picture or real crystal structure model, in order to examine its learning effectiveness across three dimensions: knowledge, comprehension and application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the (HIC) system, which incorporates augmented reality, virtual reality and cloud-classroom to teach basic materials science courses. The study followed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. A total of 92 students (aged 19-20 years), in a second-year undergraduate program, participated in this 18-week-long experiment. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (36 males and 10 females) was instructed utilizing the HIC system, while the control group (34 males and 12 females) was led through traditional teaching methods. Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were evaluated by multivariate analysis of covariance. The results indicated that participants in the experimental group who used the HIC system outperformed the control group, in the both posttest and delayed posttest, across three learning dimensions. Based on these results, the HIC system is recommended to be incorporated in formal materials science learning settings.

  1. The Utilization of the Seven Principles for Good Practices of Full-Time and Adjunct Faculty in Teaching Health & Science in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musaitif, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which undergraduate full-time and adjunct faculty members in the health and science programs at community colleges in Southern California utilize the seven principles of good practice as measured by the Faculty Inventory of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate…

  2. A study of the academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Mohsen; Samouei, Rahele; Tayebani, Tayebeh; Kolahduz, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the increasing importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in different aspects of life, such as academic achievement, the present survey is aimed to predict academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences, according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status. Materials and Methods: The present survey is a descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study performed on the medical students of Isfahan, Tehran, and Mashhad Universities of Medical Sciences. Sampling the universities was performed randomly after which selecting the students was done, taking into consideration the limitation in their numbers. Based on the inclusion criteria, all the medical students, entrance of 2005, who had attended the comprehensive basic sciences examination in 2008, entered the study. The data collection tools included an Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (standardized in Isfahan), the average score of the first to fifth semesters, total average of each of the five semesters, and the grade of the comprehensive basic sciences examination. The data were analyzed through stepwise regression coefficient by SPSS software version 15. Results: The results indicated that the indicators of independence from an emotional intelligence test and average scores of the first and third academic semesters were significant in predicting the students’ academic performance in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the average scores of students, especially in the earlier semesters, as well as the indicators of independence and the self-esteem rate of students can influence their success in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. PMID:26430693

  3. Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

  4. INTEGRATING QA PRINCIPLES WITH BASIC ELEMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROGRAM PROMOTES QUALITY SCIENCE IN A NON-GLP RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the research conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL) located in Research Triangle Park, NC, involves "pilot" and small-scale acute toxicity assessments conducted over short periods of time. onsequently, the...

  5. Bridging basic science and clinical research: the EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Boettler, Tobias; Moradpour, Darius; Thimme, Robert; Zoulim, Fabien

    2014-09-01

    The EASL Monothematic Conference on Translational Research in Viral Hepatitis brought together a group of leading scientists and clinicians working on both, basic and clinical aspects of viral hepatitis, thereby building bridges from bench to bedside. This report recapitulates the presentations and discussions at the conference held in Lyon, France on November 29-30, 2013. In recent years, great advances have been made in the field of viral hepatitis, particularly in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The identification of IL28B genetic polymorphisms as a major determinant for spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance was a seminal discovery. Currently, hepatologists are at the doorstep of even greater advances, with the advent of a wealth of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV. Indeed, promising results have accumulated over the last months and few years, showing sustained virological response (SVR) rates of up to 100% with interferon-free DAA combination therapies. Thus, less than 25 years after its identification, HCV infection may soon be curable in the vast majority of patients, highlighting the great success of HCV research over the last decades. However, viral hepatitis and its clinical complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain major global challenges. New therapeutic strategies to tackle hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection are needed, as current therapies have undeniable limitations. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUC) can efficiently control HBV replication and reduce or even reverse liver damage. However, these drugs have to be given for indefinite periods in most patients to maintain virological and biochemical responses. Although sustained responses off treatment can be achieved by treatment with (pegylated) interferon-α, only about 10-30% of patients effectively resolve chronic hepatitis B. It was the goal of this conference to review the progress made over the last years in chronic viral hepatitis research and to identify key questions that need to be addressed in order to close the gap between basic and clinical research and to develop novel preventive and treatment approaches for this most common cause of liver cirrhosis and HCC. PMID:24845610

  6. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to apply basic science content to clinically important scenarios. PMID:26632300

  7. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-López, José Manuel; Díaz-Mancha, Juan Antonio; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María; Polo-Padillo, Juan; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Munuera, Pedro V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT), to provide a snapshot of podiatry students' basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n = 247) correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n = 7) incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times) or the navicular (6 times). Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies. PMID:25110712

  8. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. Methods We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Results Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. Conclusions A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required. PMID:21463516

  9. Advances in classification, basic mechanisms and clinical science in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P C; Benham, H

    2015-02-01

    The field of spondyloarthritis (SpA) has seen huge advances over the past 5 years. The classification of axial disease has been redefined by the axial SpA criteria that incorporate disease captured before radiographic damage is evident as well as established erosive sacroiliac joint disease. Our knowledge of genetics and basic immunological pathways has progressed significantly. In addition, revolutionary progress has been achieved with the availability of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors for treating patients with moderate to severe disease. In parallel, several of novel biomarkers have been identified that show significant promise for the future. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have helped define positive disease. We have identified that T1 and short tau inversion recovery sequences are best for the diagnosis of axial SpA, and gadolinium contrast is not additive for diagnosis. Progress has been made in identifying potential agents and strategies that reduce radiographic progression. Several referral strategies aimed at appropriate identification of patients have been trialled and found to be effective. There is still substantial work ahead, but the advances of the last 5 years have made a huge and tangible difference at the clinical coalface, and we suggest that this trend will continue. PMID:25132517

  10. Ascending monoaminergic systems alterations in Alzheimer's disease. translating basic science into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Trillo, Ludwig; Das, Devsmita; Hsieh, Wayne; Medina, Brian; Moghadam, Sarah; Lin, Bill; Dang, Van; Sanchez, Martha Millan; De Miguel, Zurine; Ashford, J Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Extensive neuropathological studies have established a compelling link between abnormalities in structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic (MA-ergic) systems and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main cell populations of these systems including the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the tuberomamillary nucleus undergo significant degeneration in AD, thereby depriving the hippocampal and cortical neurons from their critical modulatory influence. These studies have been complemented by genome wide association studies linking polymorphisms in key genes involved in the MA-ergic systems and particular behavioral abnormalities in AD. Importantly, several recent studies have shown that improvement of the MA-ergic systems can both restore cognitive function and reduce AD-related pathology in animal models of neurodegeneration. This review aims to explore the link between abnormalities in the MA-ergic systems and AD symptomatology as well as the therapeutic strategies targeting these systems. Furthermore, we will examine possible mechanisms behind basic vulnerability of MA-ergic neurons in AD. PMID:23707776

  11. Basic biomedical science and the destruction of the pathophysiologic bridge from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, A R

    1999-11-01

    Although formerly a prime intellectual focus of medical practice, research, and education, the pathophysiology of organs and organ systems has become increasingly deemphasized. The field of clinical investigation is thereby left without a sturdy bridge to connect epidemiologic studies of patients with cellular and molecular studies. The decline of pathophysiology has led to major defects in diagnostic reasoning and clinico-pathophysiologic correlations, to isolated accomplishments in molecular research, and to the neglect of many prominent scientific questions that can be asked and answered only at the level of organs and organ systems. An important intellectual source of the problem is the ideologic belief that scientific importance is inversely proportional to the size of the investigated entities. With this belief, the title of "basic" is excluded from fundamental scientific questions in any research that does not occur at the level of cells and molecules. Although recent changes in National Institutes of Health policy may augment the decreasing number of physician-investigators, the more serious intellectual problems of constrained scientific creativity will continue until the current ideology is revised. PMID:10569301

  12. Concurrent cervical and craniofacial pain. A review of empiric and basic science evidence.

    PubMed

    Browne, P A; Clark, G T; Kuboki, T; Adachi, N Y

    1998-12-01

    Because many patients present themselves for treatment with both craniofacial and craniocervical pain, 2 questions arise: (1) What are the sensory and motor consequences of dysfunction in either of these areas on the other? (2) Do craniofacial and craniocervical pain have a similar cause? These questions formed the impetus for this review article. The phenomenon of concurrent pain in craniofacial and cervical structures is considered, and clinical reports and opinions are presented regarding theories of cervical-to-craniofacial and craniofacial-to-cervical pain referral. Because pain referral between these 2 areas requires anatomic and functional connectivity between trigeminally and cervically innervated structures, basic neurophysiologic and neuroanatomic literature is reviewed. The published data clearly demonstrate neurophysiologic and structural convergence of cervical sensory and muscle afferent inputs onto trigeminal subnucleus caudalis nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons. Moreover, changes in metabolic activity and blood flow in the brainstem and cervical dorsal horn of the spinal cord in both monkeys and cats have been demonstrated after electric stimulation of the V1-innervated superior sagittal sinus. In conclusion, the animal experimental data support the findings of human empiric and experimental studies, which suggest that strong connectivity exists between trigeminal and cervical motor and sensory responses. PMID:9868716

  13. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Pusan National University, Busan ; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Byoung Chul; Ahn, Jung Keun

    2014-02-15

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  14. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2010 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadimova, S.; Haubold, H. J.; Danov, D.; Georgieva, K.; Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Davila, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2011-11-01

    The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004) Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, Ro Korea 2009) Starting in 2010, the workshops focus on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as recommended in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of UNCOPUOS (www.iswi-secretariat.org/). Workshops on the ISWI have been scheduled to be hosted by Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently, fourteen IHY/ISWI instrument arrays with more than five hundred instruments are operational in ninety countries.

  15. A SERLINE-based union list of serials for basic health sciences libraries: a detailed protocol.

    PubMed

    Bell, C L

    1982-10-01

    In March 1981 the Consortium for Information Resources (CIR) was chosen by the Massachusetts Health Sciences Library Network to develop and automate a statewide biomedical union list of serials. Employing a commercial processor, ANSI standard Z39.42-1980, and SERLINE, CIR consolidated the journal holdings of six Massachusetts health-related library consortia. SERLINE, with its unique identifier as the single control element, governed the form of entry and bibliographic data for each journal. Additionally, SERLINE enhanced the union list by providing "see references" and general notations to map users to main titles or special information. An original feature of this union list is the "rolled" holdings and location statements intended to encourage even distribution of interlibrary loan transactions. The resulting union list of serials includes the holdings of 116 Massachusetts libraries, 94 of which are hospital libraries. The list includes nearly 3,000 unique titles and 15,000 holdings statements; production costs averaged $1.35 per unique title and 27 per holdings statement. PMID:6758891

  16. Formally acknowledging donor-cadaver-patients in the basic and clinical science research arena.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion

    2013-10-01

    Historically, in the healthcare profession, cadaveric tissue has been predominantly used for teaching the architecture of the human body. It is respectful practice in scientific writing to acknowledge colleagues who have helped to collect/analyze data and prepare manuscripts; however, it appears that we have omitted to thank those that have donated themselves for any of these projects to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the formal acknowledgment thanking those who have given the amazing gift of themselves to science. A literature search was conducted on printed and electronic anatomical and clinical journals. Anatomical and clinical conferences were attended between 2008 and 2012; posters utilizing cadaveric tissue were examined for acknowledgment. University/private institutions were contacted to ascertain if memorial services were held. Literature revealed only one journal that required acknowledgment when donor-cadaver's (DC's) were used. Poster examination revealed very few acknowledgments of DC tissue at clinical conferences. While all university programs (n = 20) held memorial services, only 6 of 20 private procurement organizations had any such event. Our surgical anatomist forefathers faced awkward conditions because cadaveric tissue was not readily available. Contemporarily, anatomists and researchers have ready access to DC's. Socially, these donations are recognized as unparalleled educational tools and gifts, yet often they are not given the appropriate recognition and are overlooked in the publishing and scientific research arena. This research suggests editors, researchers, IRB committees, nonprofit body willed programs, and for-profit procurement organizations formally recognize and/or require recognition of those who donate their bodies for research. PMID:23716496

  17. Integrated Problem Based Learning for First Year Medical Students: Does It Teach Biochemical Principles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Charles L.; Guner, Gul; Arbogast, James; Salati, Lisa; Shumway, James M.; Connors, John; Beattie, Diana

    1997-01-01

    Describes an integrated problem-based learning experience for first-year medical students and assesses the effectiveness of the process in identifying basic science issues relevant to biochemical principles. (DDR)

  18. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  19. Training the Translational Research Teams of the Future: UC Davis - HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science Program

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Anne A.; Rainwater, Julie A.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C.; Robbins, John A.; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This article outlines the HHMI-IMBS program’s logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of pre-doctoral students. PMID:24127920

  20. Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students. PMID:24127920

  1. Chicago's Science Museum Adds Chemistry Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1984-01-01

    Describes the chemistry exhibit at Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry. Aimed at teaching the public the basic principles of chemistry, the museum features numerous video displays as well as several do-it-yourself experiments. (JN)

  2. Trends of Students of the College of Basic Science towards Teaching the Course of Athletics and Health by Using Computer Technology in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University (WISE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salameh, Ibrahim Abdul Ghani; Khawaldeh, Mohammad Falah Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Study aimed at identifying the trends of the students of basic sciences College in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University towards teaching health and sport course by using computer technology as a teaching method, and to identify also the impact of the variables of academic level and the gender on the students' trends. The study…

  3. Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

  4. Design Principles for High School Engineering Design Challenges: Experiences from High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    At the University of Pittsburgh, the author and his colleagues have been exploring a range of approaches to design challenges for implementation in high school science classrooms. In general, their approach has always involved students working during class time over the course of many weeks. So, their understanding of what works must be…

  5. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad

  6. Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

  7. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  8. Methodological Congruity in Principle and in Practice: A Dilemma in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Mike; Bentley, Di

    1986-01-01

    Science educators verge upon "sheer eclectic laziness." That is, there is a lack of congruence between classroom practices and the discernible assumptions that underwrite them. Examples are provided. What is needed is a thoughtful selection of models of teaching and learning matched to strategies for their achievement. (RM)

  9. Group Work in Elementary Science: Towards Organisational Principles for Supporting Pupil Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Tolmie, Andy; Thurston, Allen; Topping, Keith; Christie, Donald; Livingston, Kay; Jessiman, Emma; Donaldson, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Group work has been promoted in many countries as a key component of elementary science. However, little guidance is given as to how group work should be organized, and because previous research has seldom been conducted in authentic classrooms, its message is merely indicative. A study is reported, which attempts to address these limitations.…

  10. Group Work in Elementary Science: Towards Organisational Principles for Supporting Pupil Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Tolmie, Andy; Thurston, Allen; Topping, Keith; Christie, Donald; Livingston, Kay; Jessiman, Emma; Donaldson, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Group work has been promoted in many countries as a key component of elementary science. However, little guidance is given as to how group work should be organized, and because previous research has seldom been conducted in authentic classrooms, its message is merely indicative. A study is reported, which attempts to address these limitations.

  11. Ilizarov principles of deformity correction

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelberg, B; Parratt, T; Dheerendra, SK; Khan, WS; Jennings, R; Marsh, DR

    2010-01-01

    Ilizarov frames provide a versatile fixation system for the management of bony deformities, fractures and their complications. The frames give stability, soft tissue preservation, adjustability and functionality allowing bone to realise its full osteogenic potential. It is important that we have a clear and concise understanding of the Ilizarov principles of deformity correction to best make use of this fixation system. In this review article, the history of Ilizarov frame, the basic sciences behind it, the mechanical principles governing its use and the clinical use of the fixation system are discussed. PMID:20353638

  12. Higher temperature reactor materials workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.; Bruemmer, S.; Kassner, M.; Odette, R.; Stoller, R.; Was, G.; Wolfer, W.; Zinkle, S.; Elmer, J.; Motta, A.

    2002-08-12

    On March 18-21, 2002, the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop to identify needs and opportunities for materials research aimed at performance improvements of structural materials in higher temperature reactors. The workshop focused discussion around the reactor concepts proposed as part of the Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Roadmap. The goal of the Generation IV initiative is to make revolutionary improvements in nuclear energy system design in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability. The Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Roadmap working groups have identified operation at higher temperature as an important step in improving economic performance and providing a means for nuclear energy to support thermochemical production of hydrogen. However, the move to higher operating temperatures will require the development and qualification of advanced materials to perform in the more challenging environment. As part of the process of developing advanced materials for these reactor concepts, a fundamental understanding of materials behavior must be established and the data-base defining critical performance limitations of these materials under irradiation must be developed. This workshop reviewed potential reactor designs and operating regimes, potential materials for application in high-temperature reactor environments, anticipated degradation mechanisms, and research necessary to understand and develop reactor materials capable of satisfactory performance while subject to irradiation damage at high temperature. The workshop brought together experts from the reactor materials and fundamental materials science communities to identify research and development needs and opportunities to provide optimum high temperature nuclear energy system structural materials.

  13. The utilization of the seven principles for good practices of full-time and adjunct faculty in teaching health & science in community colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musaitif, Linda M.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which undergraduate full-time and adjunct faculty members in the health and science programs at community colleges in Southern California utilize the seven principles of good practice as measured by the Faculty Inventory of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. A second purpose was to compare degree of utilization for gender and class size. Methodology. This is a quantitative study wherein there exists a systematic and mathematical assessment of data gathered through the use of a Likert scale survey to process and determine the mathematical model of the use of the principles by the target population of both full-time and adjunct faculty of health/science programs of community colleges in Southern California. Findings. Examination of the data revealed that both full-time and adjunct faculty members of Southern California community colleges perceive themselves a high degree of utilization of the seven principles of good practice. There was no statistically significant data to suggest a discrepancy between full-time and adjunct professors' perceptions among the utilization of the seven principles. Overall, male faculty members perceived themselves as utilizing the principles to a greater degree than female faculty. Data suggest that faculty with class size 60 or larger showed to utilize the seven principles more frequently than the professors with smaller class sizes. Conclusions. Full-time and adjunct professors of the health and sciences in Southern California community colleges perceive themselves as utilizing the seven principles of good practice to a high degree. Recommendations. This study suggests many recommendations for future research, including the degree to which negative economic factors such as budget cuts and demands affect the utilization of the seven principles. Also recommended is a study comparing students' perceptions of faculty's utilization of the seven principles of good practice in the classroom with faculty's self-perception.

  14. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phylliss

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes

  15. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phylliss

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

  16. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1986-01-01

    Explains why earthworms are fascinating and important animals whose study should be expanded. Describes how to collect earthworms and their castings and how to demonstrate their tunneling activity. Stresses animal's uniqueness and how it is interrelated with other animals, plants, and non-living parts of the world. (NEC)

  17. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1984-01-01

    Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

  18. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  19. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. PMID:26541886

  20. Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar

    PubMed Central

    Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. Material and Methods: The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. Results: WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Conclusion: Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly. PMID:24379959

  1. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  2. Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How Personal and Academic Characteristics of Pre-Service Science Teachers Compare with Their Understandings of Basic Chemical Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Vanessa; Kind, Per Morten

    2011-01-01

    Around 150 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11-16-year-olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by

  3. Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How Personal and Academic Characteristics of Pre-Service Science Teachers Compare with Their Understandings of Basic Chemical Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Vanessa; Kind, Per Morten

    2011-01-01

    Around 150 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11-16-year-olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by…

  4. Use of the NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Examination as a Progress Test in the Preclerkship Curriculum of a New Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Teresa R.; Khalil, Mohammed K.; Peppler, Richard D.; Davey, Diane D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we describe the innovative use of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) as a progress test during the preclerkship medical curriculum. The main aim of this study was to provide external validation of internally developed multiple-choice assessments in a new medical…

  5. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  6. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission

  7. Linking the Two Worlds: Science and Art for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, James E.; Reiter, Wanda S.

    2004-01-01

    The second-year, shared experience curriculum for Iowa Wesleyan College, Mount Pleasant, Iowa is an Integrated Science course linking science and art. The Integrated Science Linking Science and Art promoted a better understanding of basic scientific principles and literacy, by initially showing linkages to art. As the course developed, it became…

  8. Report on the decade of un/esa workshops on basic space science: the international perspective from small astronomical telescopes to the world space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.; Wamsteker, W.

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observational programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). Elements of the Workshops, focusing on teaching, observing programmes, and the Japanese donation programme for small astronomical telescopes are briefly summarized in the first part of this paper. A report on the recent UN/ESA Workshop on Basic Space Science, held at CONAE of Argentina in 2002, and a full report on achievements of the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science for the period of time from 1991 to 2002 is contained in the second part of this paper. Since 1991, similar reports, issued for each of the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science, have been brought to the attention of UN Member States on an annual basis with the objective to gain more support for the world wide development of astronomy. WWW: http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/

  9. High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP) for studies of basic nuclear science relevant to Stellar and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear processes have been explored traditionally by means of conventional accelerator experiments, which are difficult to execute at conditions relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis. Thus, nuclear reactions at stellar energies are often studied through extrapolations from higher-energy data or in low-background underground experiments. Even when measurements are possible using accelerators at relevant energies, thermonuclear reaction rates in stars are inherently different from those in accelerator experiments. The fusing nuclei are surrounded by bound electrons in accelerator experiments, whereas electrons occupy mainly continuum states in a stellar environment. Nuclear astrophysics research will therefore benefit from an enlarged toolkit for studies of nuclear reactions. In this presentation, we report on the first use of High Energy Density Plasmas for studies of nuclear reactions relevant to basic nuclear science, stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility at University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in which spherical capsules were irradiated with powerful lasers to compress and heat the fuel to high enough temperatures and densities for nuclear reactions to occur. Four experiments will be highlighted in this presentation. In the first experiment, the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-T) scattering at 14.1 MeV was measured with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in accelerator experiments. In the second experiment, the T(t,2n)4He reaction, a mirror reaction to the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction that plays an important role in the proton-proton chain that transforms hydrogen into ordinary 4He in stars like our Sun, was studied at energies in the range 15-40 keV. In the third experiment, the 3He+3He solar fusion reaction was studied directly, and in the fourth experiment, we probed the T+3He reaction, possibly relevant to Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  10. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  11. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,

  12. THE REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE OF DEMONSTRATIONS IN TEACHING CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES IN SCIENCE, STUDIES IN TELEVISED INSTRUCTION, AND DIMENSIONS OF VISUAL REPRESENTATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROPPER, GEORGE L.; AND OTHERS

    TWO STUDIES CONCERNED WITH THE REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE OF DEMONSTRATIONS IN TEACHING CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF SCIENCE ARE REPORTED. THE TWO STUDIES WERE PERFORMED WITH DIMENSIONS OF VISUAL TV PRESENTATIONS VARIED IN THE CONTEXT OF PROGRAMED LESSONS. STUDY ONE COMPARES THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REALISTIC (LIVE) WITH NONREALISTIC (ANIMATED)…

  13. Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

    2006-05-24

    The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

  14. Evidence-based supervision: Tracking outcome and teaching principles of change in clinical supervision to bring science to integrative practice.

    PubMed

    Holt, Hannah; Beutler, Larry E; Kimpara, Satoko; Macias, Sandra; Haug, Nancy A; Shiloff, Nicole; Goldblum, Peter; Temkin, Rainey Sealey; Stein, Mickey

    2015-06-01

    Supervision is the primary way in which psychotherapy trainees develop the skills of applying interventions, conceptualizing cases, and practicing self-reflection. Although critical to professional development, the nature and objectives of supervision can vary widely among supervisors, depending on idiosyncratic differences and the orientation used. As clinical psychology moves toward integrating science and practice, the need to teach students evidence-based principles of therapeutic change and how to use outcome measures to enhance progress is paramount. Furthermore, with hundreds of "evidence-based" interventions and widely diverse supervisors, the fact that cross-cutting interventions and common factors carry the burden of most therapeutic change is frequently lost. In this article, we outline an experimental training system that is being tested as a means to teach student-therapists to use empirically established moderators (treatment factors) and mediators of change to tailor their interventions to client differences. This experimental approach is derived from Systematic Treatment Selection (Beutler, Clarkin, & Bongar, 2000), a cross-cutting system that can be used to aid individualized treatment planning as well as to track and use client outcomes in clinical supervision within a graduate-level training clinic. PMID:25985042

  15. Baking Soda Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  16. The common principles established to expert's preparation by a remote methods in the Earth sciences field, and their decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudzh, S.; Trofimov, S.

    Modern socially economic situation in the country and in an education system is those, that traditional forms of getting education and training model cannot satisfy all needs for the educational services usually concentrated in the big cities, and so - the increased interest to new, progressive specialities has received the development in electronic - training systems. The attitude to education on the part of the states, the governments, societies has changed also. Education began to be considered as the major factor of economic growth and social development of the countries, the decision of some global problems connected to survival of mankind. In this connection, recently development and practical introduction of technologies of remote and open education are conducted in the different countries, the especial attention is given to the systems, capable to comprise, transfer and analyze huge streams of information. The experience which has been saved up by foreign colleagues, shows, that the sanction of this technological conflict lays, generally, in sphere of creation of a wide network of remote training, and, in narrow, both quality and quantity of a substantial part, also it is necessary not to forget about a choice of electronic-training systems with their reference to various areas. And an occurrence of the computer equipment in the user's end, development of existing ways and means of data transmission, functional expansion of already existing and creation of absolutely new hardware-software complexes, and many other things has begun occurrence of new scientific directions in such basic area of sciences as the Earth - science. (These are geoinformation systems, research of natural resources by space methods, organization and technology of data protection in geoinformation systems etc.) Clearly, that new specialities impose the certain conditions for preparation of experts, and, carrying out the analysis of already existing electronic training systems in the field of geoinformation systems, there have been revealed a number of lacks which do not allow to prepare highly skilled experts at a high level in the given area. The output consists in use of electronic-training systems, but even here, there is a number of problems, decision of which lays in the process of remote training of the Earth sciences. Classification of the systems engaged in the field of the Earth sciences training has revealed a number of lacks and has allowed to develop the certain methodological aspects, necessary to take into account creating them. One of such of electronic training systems basic lacks is that the trained itself is kind of "torn off" from modern hardware-software complexes, that is basic in the training the given scientific direction, in connection with that, the practical part is inseparable from theoretical, and student cannot use saved up experience in practice, knowing only the theory. Teaching of a material in the majority of systems goes with group at once. (Individual interests "are absorbed" by desire of the majority, and, accordingly, the user of system sometimes cannot receive answers to many questions). Impossibility of allocation of the concrete user for his training under more or less strong separate program or his reception of additional knowledge on adjacent areas. Many systems do not support on (off) -- line conferences or don't support the huge streams of the information transfer, that in training of the Earth sciences -- is the one of the basic criteria, (because the various territorially distributed users of system could exchange their experience, could share impressions about use of the certain hardware-software complexes, participate in conferences spent by the various centers, to communicate with the tutors not only in the form of various forums, but also operatively (it is possible even visually, by means of use of system of Web- videotranslations) to receive answers to arising questions, etc.). And introduction of such opportunities as ``daily planning'' and ``reminder'' to the system - will not allow to forget about any action or not executed task, planning of the working day also teaches the discipline, and the user should have an opportunity to train the system (to carry out the elementary operations), to give system to plan and keep account of all accessible resources. Besides the set of problems which stand upon the Earth sciences professional training, it is necessary to note, that the user should have an opportunity to place on a server of the educational center some files which are necessary for him (because the trainee can get the higher education not only in the native city, but also behind his limits and different files or records are necessary for him) and as during studying the software products working in the given direction, it is necessary to work with files of huge size - it becomes more than actually, at the same time, it is necessary to provide an opportunity of presence of ``thin client'' on the user's workplace, so, in such network configuration all processing should conduct extremely on a server. The system should also allow to provide checking of trainee's knowledge. Not only in the test form (questions in tests should be not only one-alternative, but also multiple - when on 1 put question can be given all variants of answers which are entered into the system), but there should be an opportunity of the abstract answer to the question or a problem. Employment -- is a final stage of retraining or training, so in this connection it is necessary to provide an opportunity when the employer could: Pick up necessary experts by results of their training or to communicate to them up to the interview invitation; Place vacancy that will certainly be also help for those people who would like to change a place of work or is just going to find the place, and would also serve as the certain stimulus to deeper studying the given area; Put in system the certain inquiry, and the complex exclusively under his inquiry would find the certain people, capable to decide necessary tasks. Also, in connection with that `` the open system '' is used by development, the main complex was designed in such a manner that allows to connect at the completion stage other separate modules, written on different programming languages or at use of various software products. At the end of this clause it would be desirable to tell, that electronic-training system as one of forms of the Earth sciences education, can help to solve the problems facing to an education system on granting of accessible and qualitative education in the given area to wide layers of the population in modern socially and economic conditions of Russia, and the realization of the aspects which were described above will allow to prepare highly skilled experts in the Earth sciences.

  17. Report on findings from the industry and government co-sponsored workshop on pre-competitive research in the basic science of commercial light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.F.; Gough, A.B.; Waymouth, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    An industry and government co-sponsored workshop to develop strategies for pre-competitive research in the basic sciences of commercial light sources to achieve major breakthroughs in light source performance and efficiency was held in March 1995. Qualified researchers in the basic sciences related to light source technologies were brought together with world-wide experts now working in light source research to discuss, plan and prioritize the sustained research programs needed to achieve the major breakthrough. This paper highlights the findings and subsequent precompetitive research plans that have been developed by the sponsors group during 1995. The outcome of the workshop is expected to lead in 1996 and future years to multiple sourcing of funds for the targeted research from both private industries as well as from interested government agencies.

  18. Multimedia Design Principles in the Psychomotor Domain: The Effect of Multimedia and Spatial Contiguity on Students' Learning of Basic Life Support with Task Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…

  19. Harnessing the Use of Open Learning Exchange to Support Basic Education in Science and Mathematics in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…

  20. Basic Electronics I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…