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1

Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

2

Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

Nunes, A. C., Jr.

2010-01-01

3

Using "Basic Principles" to Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical and physical properties of nicotine and its carboxylic acid salts found in tobacco provided as an interesting example to understand basic principles of complex science. The result showed that the experimental data used were inconsistent to the conclusion made, and the transfer of nicotine smoke from tobacco to smoke cannot be…

Seeman, Jeffrey I.

2005-01-01

4

Basic Principles of Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

5

Basic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

6

Muscle, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field science research.  

PubMed

The design, implementation, evaluation, interpretation and report of research is a key important for the science. The research required minimize the uncertainty, therefore we encourage all authors of respect how much can possible the contents in this official editorial also in order to stimulate interest and debate about constructive change in the use of statistics in our disciplines1,2. Authors are required to confirm that these standards and laws have been adhered to by formally citing this editorial within the methods section of their own manuscript. PMID:24596686

Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola

2013-10-01

7

Muscle, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field science research  

PubMed Central

Summary The design, implementation, evaluation, interpretation and report of research is a key important for the science. The research required minimize the uncertainty, therefore we encourage all authors of respect how much can possible the contents in this official editorial also in order to stimulate interest and debate about constructive change in the use of statistics in our disciplines1,2. Authors are required to confirm that these standards and laws have been adhered to by formally citing this editorial within the methods section of their own manuscript.

Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola

2013-01-01

8

Basic Science Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

Brummel, Clete

9

Basic Nuclear Science Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory contains an overview of the basic concepts in nuclear science. Nuclear structure, particle decay, nuclear reactions, and cosmic rays are briefly discussed. The page also contains helpful pictures to illustrate the concepts.

2009-10-30

10

Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How Can They Predict Students' Understanding of Basic Science Concepts and Principles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science

Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

2012-01-01

11

Basic Photovoltaic Principles and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal...

P. Hersch K. Zweibel

1982-01-01

12

Basic photovoltaic principles and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible

P. Hersch; K. Zweibel

1982-01-01

13

Basic Principles of Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief overview of the basic principles of underground coal gasification is presented, with special emphasis given to the Soviet technology. However when applicable, information is drawn from other sources as well. This overview is divided into three sec...

D. W. Gregg D. U. Olness

1976-01-01

14

Basic Sciences - Pathogenetics  

Cancer.gov

The aim of the Pathogenetics Unit is to investigate genetic alterations underlying tumor development and progression. Emphasis is placed on the study of human cancer as it occurs in vivo, and on the integration of basic research, clinical information, and developing technologies.

15

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: Basic principles  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the complicated physics of magnetic resonance imaging and explains the basic principles of data acquisition and image reconstruction techniques. The MR imaging photographs are provided with explanation and there are samples of images literally from head to toe. In this book, the author uses many analogies to more familiar physical phenomena, such as sound waves, to help explain NMR, and these are often ingenious and effective.

Young, S.W.

1985-01-01

16

Earth Science Literacy Principles Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI), funded by the National Science Foundation, has gathered and codified the underlying understandings of Earth sciences into a succinct document that will have broad-reaching applications in both public and private arenas. It establishes the "Big Ideas" and supporting concepts that all Americans should know about Earth sciences. The primary outcome of the Earth Science Literacy Initiative is a community-based document that clearly and succinctly states the underlying principles and ideas of Earth science across a wide variety of research fields that are funded through the NSF-EAR program, including Geobiology and Low-Temperature Geochemistry, Geomorphology and Land-Use Dynamics, Geophysics, Hydrologic Sciences, Petrology and Geochemistry, Sedimentary Geology and Paleobiology, and Tectonics.

2009-01-01

17

Some basic principles of a "LISA"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a concept studied and developed since a few decades both by European and American teams. Its aim is to study the gravitational wave signals emitted by astrophysical sources such as supermassive black hole (SMBH) coalescences, captures of compact objects by SMBHs, compact galactic binaries, etc. The LISA mission has been first an ESA/NASA mission (1998-2011), then became an ESA mission under the name of NGO (2012): it could hopefully be proposed for selection in 2013. The very basic principles of such a mission still deserve a presentation, being quite generic: this is the aim of the present article.

Vinet, Jean-Yves

2013-04-01

18

Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

Mumzhiu, Alex M.

1998-10-01

19

Basic principles of molecular effects of irradiation.  

PubMed

In order to understand the consequences of radiation a thorough understanding of the radiobiological mechanisms of the molecular up to the clinical level is of importance. Radiobiology therefore combines the basic principles of physics as well as biology and medicine and is concerned with the action of radiation from the subcellular level up to the living organism. Topics of interest and relevance are covered in much more broadness as is possible in the short following article in the literature to which the interested reader is referred to. Classical books in this field were written by Steel et al. (1989) as well as by Hall (1994). Topics usually covered by radiobiological reviews are the classification of different types of radiation, cell cycle dependency of radiation effects, types of radiation damage and cell death, dose response curves, measurement of radiation damage, the oxygen effect, relative biological effectiveness, the influence of dose rate, and several other important research areas. This short overview will concentrate on a subset of radiobiological topics of high importance and relative novelty. PMID:22476592

Selzer, Edgar; Hebar, Alexandra

2012-02-01

20

Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A school that adopts a curriculum, that aims for a holistic understanding of technology, does so because it produces a better educated person than a curriculum which does not. How do we know when we are teaching technology holistically and why must we do so? Increasingly, more is asked of technology educators to be holistic in the understanding conveyed to learners of technology itself in order to make better informed technical and design decisions in a wider range of applied settings. The ability of the learner to naturally consider social and environmental factors, for example, when seeking solutions is seen by some State education systems in Australia as fundamental to a genuine education in technology (New South Wales Board of Studies, 2000 & 2002). In philosophy, the holist position asserts that to understand the particular one must understand its relation to the whole and that only through reflection of one's sensation based applications can genuine knowledge be critically affirmed (Matthews, 1980, p.87 & p.93). The combined apparently independent paths of the State and the Holist positions set a compelling scene not only for the socio-economic necessity for holistic technology education in the curriculum but also for Technology's status as a key curriculum agent in the knowledge formation process of educated individuals. This paper asserts that the general elements of Applied Setting (including Time), Human (as Agent), Tool and Environment are well placed to be the necessary basics to any holistic human technological activity. How and why these elements work together, their schema, will be referred to in this paper as the 'Basic Principles'. The paper presents the thesis that Technology cannot be reduced to less than these general elements and as such, Technology is their product. We therefore may need to understand and teach these elements and their relations to each other explicitly, in ways that reveal the utility of such understanding when making technical choices and design decisions for all the genres of technology and at all their scales of application and discovery. The case is made for technology to not merely be a 'know how' learning experience, but necessarily also a holistic 'know why' learning experience essential for developing and transferring technological knowledge.

Seeman, Kurt

2009-10-14

21

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

1990-04-01

22

Bibliography of Basic Textbooks on Information Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Textbooks currently in use in courses on information science are listed in this bibliography under the following headings: Information storage and retrieval, Information systems, Information theory, Behavioral sciences, and Basic books. Some of the entrie...

J. Belzer

1972-01-01

23

Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

Beder, Hal

1986-01-01

24

Basic principles of microwave power heating  

SciTech Connect

The paper outlines the various parameters of the product which are employed in the design of a suitable microwave applicator as well as the physical principles of the microwave energy conversion process which underlie the optimization of energy consumption and product quality in real time.

Hamid, M.

1983-08-01

25

ACID PRECIPITATION: BASIC PRINCIPLES AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Forest productivity is emphasized in this review of the long-term beneficial and harmful effects of acid precipitation, as currently understood. The article summarizes principles about acid precipitation and its biological consequences which concern everyone in the pulp and paper...

26

Research-Based Principles for Adult Basic Education: Reading Instruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Partnership for Reading is pleased to present 'Research-Based Principles for Adult Basic Education Reading Instruction.' The Partnership, an initiative of the National Institute for Literacy, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Institute of...

J. Kruidenier

2002-01-01

27

[Polymerase chain reaction: basic principles and applications in molecular pathology].  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technology used for quick and easy amplifying DNA sequences, which is based on the principle of enzymatic replication of the nucleic acids. This method has in the field of molecular biology an irreplaceable role and constitutes one of the basic methods for DNA analysis. In the following article we describe the basic principles of PCR, and its importance especially in the field of pathology. PMID:23964908

Stan?k, Libor

2013-06-01

28

The Basic Principles of Collapse Therapy  

PubMed Central

Collapse therapy has a definite objective of resting and healing tuberculous lesions. It should be used, not so much as an independent means, but as a supplement to other established practices in the treatment of tuberculosis. The indications for each measure have changed over the years and are still changing, so that proper treatment can be given only by those having a knowledge of the changing trends, as well as of the disease and principles of treatment. Each case should be handled on its merits and the choice of procedure should depend generally upon the circumstances, such as the skill of the physician carrying it out, the facilities for the care of the patient, and the equipment for working. Above all, it should be recognized that knowledge, experience, and especially wisdom will go far towards achieving good results.

Sweany, Henry C.

1950-01-01

29

[Hip ultrasonography. Basic principles and current aspects].  

PubMed

Hip sonography is the subject of controversial discussion in several countries. This is because of the different demands made on the diagnosis. In principle the techniques described by Harke, Terjesen and Suzuki are satisfied by a differentiation of luxation from non-luxated joints. An evaluation of the hyalin cartilaginous preformed acetabular roof does not exist. Physiological variations dependent on age cannot be differentiated from real dysplasias by the techniques mentioned above. The sonographic examination technique in German-speaking countries evaluates the maturation of the joint and quantifies the cartilage and the bony acetabular roof. Additionally, this coverage is seen in relation to the age, and the deformation of the acetabulum in luxated joints is analysed. Physiological elastic deflection of the hyalin cartilaginous part of the acetabulum can be separated from real instability signs. Oblique positions of the probe during examination of the baby can lead to diagnostic errors, so special examination techniques have to be used. 3D-sonograms may improve the diagnostic possibilities. A general screening of newborns in use in Austria since 1992 has demonstrated that the rate of treatment can be decreased by about 50% and sonography, used correctly, can avoid overtreatment. PMID:9082298

Graf, R

1997-01-01

30

75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department...to the basic energy sciences research program. Tentative... News from Office of Science/DOE News from the...Sciences Computational Materials Science and...

2010-07-19

31

Science versus Basic Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One goal of basic research in education is to identify the variables of effective instruction. As this pursuit has been conceived, however, its theoretical problems make it unlikely that the effort will provide a clear picture of instructional variables, their interactions, or the kind of teacher training that is implied by instructional variables.

Engelmann, Siegfried

2008-01-01

32

The Cenaps model of relapse prevention: basic principles and procedures.  

PubMed

Nine basic principles that underlie the Cenaps relapse prevention planning process are described. Each principle is complemented with a procedure or clinical technique that can be used to operationalize that principle with patients: the first principle of self-regulation is operationalized with a procedure for physical, psychological, and social stabilization; the second principle of integration is operationalized by the technique of self-assessment; the third principle of understanding is operationalized by a relapse education procedure; the fourth principle of self-knowledge is operationalized with a procedure of relapse warning-sign identification; the fifth principle of coping skills is operationalized through a procedure of warning-sign management; the sixth principle of change is operationalized in a procedure for reviewing the recovery plan; the seventh principle of awareness is operationalized by a procedure of inventory training; the eighth principle of support is operationalized by the involvement of significant others; and the ninth principle is maintenance, which is operationalized by a comprehensive follow-up plan. PMID:2197389

Gorski, T T

1990-01-01

33

Learning Processes in a Basic Sciences Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine students' views of their experiences in studying the basic sciences in first year medical school. Emphasis was placed on the processes of learning employed. An instrument was developed consisting of verbs or phrases describing various behaviors performed by a scientist when doing science. Such activities…

Sheehan, T. Joseph

34

77 FR 5246 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...following: News from Office of Science/DOE. News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Basic Research Directions for User Science at the National Ignition Facility. Materials Sciences and Engineering...

2012-02-02

35

77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department...to the basic energy sciences research program. Tentative...News from Office of Science/DOE [ssquf] News...LCLS) update [ssquf] Materials Sciences and...

2012-07-13

36

Medical oncology: Basic principles and clinical management of cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book consists of three section, each containing several papers. The sections are: Basic Principles, Specific Neoplasmas, and Supportive Care. Some of the paper titles are: Pharmacology of Antineoplastic Agents, Hodgkin's Disease, Myeloma, Melanoma, Neoplasms of the Lung, Sarcomas, Pediatric Neoplasms, Infectious Consideration in Cancer, Nursing Considerations in Cancer, and Rehabilitation of the Patient with Cancer.

Calabresi, P.; Schein, P.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

1985-01-01

37

Basic principles of the surface harmonics method: Flat geometry  

SciTech Connect

The basic principles of the surface harmonics method are described. A one-dimensional problem is used to exemplify the specific features of the method and the algorithms for construction of finite-difference equations. The objective of this study is to popularize the surface harmonics method among specialists.

Kovalishin, A. A., E-mail: kaa@adis.vver.kiae.ru [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

38

Basic Hydrologic Sciences Distance Learning Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course consists of an orientation, eight foundation topics and two case study modules. The orientation provides an overview of all the components of the course. The introductory foundation topic provides a basic background on fundamental concepts in the hydrologic sciences. Other foundation topics focus on specific areas of the hydrologic sciences, covering terminology and assumptions as well as critical processes and considerations for hydrologic forecasters. Case study modules integrate foundation material into realistic forecast situations.

Spangler, Tim

1999-09-09

39

Basic science curriculum in vascular surgery residency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the importance of basic science teaching in surgical education, the leadership of the Association of Program Directors in Vascular Surgery (APDVS) appointed a panel to gather information and to present its findings at the 1999 annual fall meeting of the Apdvs. A questionnaire was distributed to the program directors present. In addition, information was gathered from the American Board

Anton N. Sidawy; Bauer Sumpio; Alexander W. Clowes; Robert S. Rhodes

2001-01-01

40

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research...

1993-01-01

41

The basic science of anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the basic science of climate change upon which our concern of possible anthropogenic interference with the climate system is based. Where possible, those aspects of particular relevance to the study of climate change impact assessment will be highlighted to set the scene for the remaining articles in this issue, which focus on the effects of climate change

Kathy Maskell

1995-01-01

42

Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

2012-01-01

43

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-05-01

44

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI were held in Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. The International Center for Space Weather Science and Education at Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 9www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/index_e.html), was established through the basic space science initiative in 2012. Similar research and education centres were also established in Nigeria(www.cbssonline.com/aboutus.html) and India (www.cmsintl.org). Activities of basic space science initiative were also coordinated with the Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, affiliated to the United Nations (www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/centres/index.html). Prospective future directions of the initiative will be discussed in this paper.

Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

2014-05-01

45

Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

1988-01-01

46

The precautionary principle in environmental science.  

PubMed Central

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy.

Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

2001-01-01

47

Basic Science Considerations in Primary Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Total Hip Replacement is one of the most common operations performed in the developed world today. An increasingly ageing population means that the numbers of people undergoing this operation is set to rise. There are a numerous number of prosthesis on the market and it is often difficult to choose between them. It is therefore necessary to have a good understanding of the basic scientific principles in Total Hip Replacement and the evidence base underpinning them. This paper reviews the relevant anatomical and biomechanical principles in THA. It goes on to elaborate on the structural properties of materials used in modern implants and looks at the evidence base for different types of fixation including cemented and uncemented components. Modern bearing surfaces are discussed in addition to the scientific basis of various surface engineering modifications in THA prostheses. The basic science considerations in component alignment and abductor tension are also discussed. A brief discussion on modular and custom designs of THR is also included. This article reviews basic science concepts and the rationale underpinning the use of the femoral and acetabular component in total hip replacement.

Mirza, Saqeb B; Dunlop, Douglas G; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Naqvi, Syed G; Gangoo, Shafat; Salih, Saif

2010-01-01

48

Limitations on diversity in basic science departments.  

PubMed

It has been over 30 years since the beginning of efforts to improve diversity in academia. We can identify four major stages: (1) early and continuing efforts to diversify the pipeline by increasing numbers of women and minorities getting advanced degrees, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); (2) requiring academic institutions to develop their own "affirmative action plans" for hiring and promotion; (3) introducing mentoring programs and coping strategies to help women and minorities deal with faculty practices from an earlier era; (4) asking academic institutions to rethink their practices and policies with an eye toward enabling more faculty diversity, a process known as institutional transformation. The thesis of this article is that research-intensive basic science departments of highly ranked U.S. medical schools are stuck at stage 3, resulting in a less diverse tenured and tenure-track faculty than seen in well-funded science departments of major universities. A review of Web-based records of research-intensive departments in universities with both medical school and nonmedical school departments indicates that the proportion of women and Black faculty in science departments of medical schools is lower than the proportion in similarly research-intensive university science departments. Expectations for faculty productivity in research-intensive medical school departments versus university-based departments may lead to these differences in faculty diversity. PMID:22775445

Leboy, Phoebe S; Madden, Janice F

2012-08-01

49

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pursuant to recommendations of the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), annual UN/ European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991. These workshops contribute to the development of astrophysics and space science, particularly in developing nations. Following a process of prioritization, the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field: (i) operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD, (ii) virtual observatories, (iii) astrophysical data systems, (iv) concurrent design capabilities for the development of international space missions, and (v) theoretical astrophysics such as applications of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Beginning in 2005, the workshops focus on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007). The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost, ground-based, world-wide instrument arrays as lead by the IHY secretariat. Wamsteker, W., Albrecht, R. and Haubold, H.J.: Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide: A Decade of UN/ESA Workshops. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2004. http://ihy2007.org http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html http://www.cbpf.br/GrupPesq/StatisticalPhys/biblio.htm

Haubold, H. J.

2006-08-01

50

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pursuant to recommendations of the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNISPACE III and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNCOPUOS annual UN European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991 These workshops contribute to the development of astrophysics and space science particularly in developing nations Following a process of prioritization the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field i operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD ii virtual observatories iii astrophysical data systems iv concurrent design capabilities for the development of international space missions and v theoretical astrophysics such as applications of nonextensive statistical mechanics Beginning in 2005 the workshops focus on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 IHY2007 The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost ground-based world-wide instrument arrays as lead by the IHY secretariat Further information Wamsteker W Albrecht R and Haubold H J Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide A Decade of UN ESA Workshops Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht 2004 http ihy2007 org http www oosa unvienna org SAP bss ihy2007 index html http www cbpf br GrupPesq StatisticalPhys biblio htm

Haubold, H. J.

51

Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

Horton, Linda

2010-03-01

52

Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring: Basic Principles and Recent Update  

PubMed Central

The recent developments of new devices and advances in anesthesiology have greatly improved the utility and accuracy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM). Herein, we review the basic principles of the electrophysiological methods employed under IOM in the operating room. These include motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, electroencephalography, electromyography, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and visual evoked potentials. Most of these techniques have certain limitations and their utility is still being debated. In this review, we also discuss the optimal stimulation/recording method for each of these modalities during individual surgeries as well as the diverse criteria for alarm signs.

Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Seung Hyun; Seo, Dae-Won

2013-01-01

53

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.

Wheelock, T.D.

1994-07-01

54

Basic science research in pediatric radiology - how to empower the leading edge of our field.  

PubMed

Basic science research aims to explore, understand and predict phenomena in the natural world. It spurs the discovery of fundamentally new principles and leads to new knowledge and new concepts. By comparison, applied research employs basic science knowledge toward practical applications. In the clinical realm, basic science research and applied research should be closely connected. Basic science discoveries can build the foundation for a broad range of practical applications and thereby bring major benefits to human health, education, environment and economy. This article explains how basic science research impacts our field, it describes examples of new research directions in pediatric imaging and it outlines current challenges that we need to overcome in order to enable the next groundbreaking discovery. PMID:25060618

Daldrup-Link, Heike E

2014-08-01

55

CEST: from basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed.

Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E

2012-01-01

56

CEST: From basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed.

Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A. Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E.

2013-04-01

57

Crown lengthening: basic principles, indications, techniques and clinical case reports.  

PubMed

Sometimes, in order to properly restore teeth, surgical intervention in the form of a crown-lengthening procedure is required. Crown lengthening is a periodontal resective procedure, aimed at removing supporting periodontal structures to gain sound tooth structure above the alveolar crest level. Periodontal health is of paramount importance for all teeth, both sound and restored. For the restorative dentist to utilize crown lengthening, it is important to understand the concept of biologic width, indications, techniques and other principles. This article reviews these basic concepts of clinical crown lengthening and presents four clinical cases utilizing crown lengthening as an integral part of treatments, to restore teeth and their surrounding tissues to health. PMID:15615335

Yeh, Simon; Andreana, Sebastiano

2004-11-01

58

Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation - basic principles and clinical evidence.  

PubMed

Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation has been the most widely used left ventricular assist device for nearly five decades. Due to diastolic inflation and systolic deflation, coronary blood flow is increased and afterload decreased translating into augmentation of oxygen supply and lowering of oxygen demand. However, IABP may be associated with serious complications, including major bleeding, stroke, local and systemic infections and vascular complications. These might counterbalance the potential beneficial hemodynamic effects. In clinical routine, IABP is mainly used in high-risk patients with acute myocardial infarction, especially when complicated by cardiogenic shock. Further, prophylactic IABP use is frequently performed in patients at high risk for hemodynamic instability undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Current evidence, however, does not fully support routine use of IABP in these settings. This review focuses on the basic principles of IABP and discusses current evidence. PMID:24380840

de Waha, Suzanne; Desch, Steffen; Eitel, Ingo; Fuernau, Georg; Lurz, Philipp; Sandri, Marcus; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger

2014-02-01

59

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2011-07-01

60

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2013-07-01

61

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2012-07-01

62

Dimensions, domains and principles of the new nutrition science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Following the agreed principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science, to elaborate its overall guiding principles, to propose some domains of its biological, social and environmental dimensions, and to propose a series of principles to govern and guide these dimensions and domains. This paper, part of The New Nutrition Science project, is initial work in progress towards

Claus Leitzmann; Geoffrey Cannon

2005-01-01

63

Informal Learning at School. Science Fairs in Basic Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work herein reports on the implementation of science fairs in a systematic way in basic schools. In particular we will present the second edition of the annual Science Fair at basic school Externato Maria Auxiliadora, in Viana do Castelo, Portugal, focusing on the evolution advised by the evaluation of the previous edition of the science fair. We will stress

Zita Esteves; Andreia Cabral; Manuel F. M. Costa

64

Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

Ward, Janet

2004-01-01

65

Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the first United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop for Basic Space Science was planned to be held in Bangalore, India (1991) on the invitation of ISRO, few of those involved could expect that a unique forum was going to be created for scientific dialogue between scientists from developing and industrialized nations. As the format of the first workshop was on purpose left free with time for presentations, working sessions, and plenary discussions, the workshop was left to find its own dynamics. After a decade of UN/ESA Workshops, this book brings together the historical activities, the plans which have been developed over the past decade in the different nations, and the results which have materialized during this time in different developing nations. It aims to achieve for development agencies to be assisted in ways to find more effective tools for the application of development aid. The last section of the book contains a guide for teachers to introduce astrophysics into university physics courses. This will be of use to teachers in many nations. Everything described in this book is the result of a truly collective effort from all involved in all UN/ESA workshops. The mutual support from the participants has helped significantly to implement some of the accomplishments described in the book. Rather than organizing this book in a subject driven way, it is essentially organized according to the common economic regions of the world, as defined by the United Nations (Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Western Asia). This allows better recognition of the importance of a regional (and at times) global approach to basic space science for the developing nation's world wide. It highlights very specific scientific investigations which have been completed successfully in the various developing nations. The book supplements the published ten volumes of workshop proceedings containing scientific papers presented in the workshops from 1991 to 2002. Information on the workshops is also available at http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/index.html http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/SAP/bss/index.html http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/SAP/centres/centres.html

Wamsteker, W.; Albrecht, Rudolf; Haubold, Hans J.

2004-03-01

66

The intraoperative gamma probe: basic principles and choices available.  

PubMed

By taking advantage of the proximity to radioactive sentinel nodes and occult tumors achievable in an operative setting, intraoperative probes are becoming increasingly important in the surgical management of cancer. This article begins with a discussion of the statistical limitations of radiation detection and measurement and of the key performance parameters (sensitivity, energy resolution, and spatial resolution) that characterize detectors. The basic design and operating principle of radiation detectors used in intraoperative probes, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, are then reviewed. Scintillation detector-based intraoperative probes, generally using a NaI(T1) or a CsI(T1) crystal connected to a photomultiplier tube by a fiberoptic cable, have the advantages of reliability, relatively low cost, and high sensitivity, especially for medium- to high-energy photons. Disadvantages include poor energy resolution and scatter rejection, and bulkiness. Semiconductor (CdZn, CdZnTe, HgI2)-based probes are compact and have excellent energy resolution and scatter rejection, but with complex energy spectra reflecting charge-carrier trapping. Their main disadvantage is lower sensitivity. The performance parameters of various commercially available intraoperative probes are then compared. The article concludes with a discussion of the practical considerations in selecting and using intraoperative probes, including ergonomic and other design features, as well as performance parameters. PMID:10656242

Zanzonico, P; Heller, S

2000-01-01

67

CEST: from basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed. PMID:23273841

Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E

2013-04-01

68

Internet Basics for the Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why use web-based resources to teach science? This question has many answers. One is that web-based resources expand your students' access to science topics or problems. Other reasons for using web-based resources lie closer to the core teaching practice. When you use this technology to teach science, your students develop greater understanding by making connections between hands-on science investigations in your classroom and current science information gathered from online resources. This free selection taken from How to...Weave the Web Into K-8 Science includes the Table of Contents and Introduction for the book.

Wetzel, David R.

2005-01-01

69

Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the relevance of basic science knowledge in the determination of patient assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is critical to good medical practice. One method often used to direct students in the fundamental process of integrating basic science and clinical information is problem-based learning (PBL). The faculty facilitated small…

DiLullo, Camille; Morris, Harry J.; Kriebel, Richard M.

2009-01-01

70

Basic principles for evaluating an earthquake prediction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three year continuous sample of earthquake predictions based on the observation of Seismic Electric Signals in Greece was published by Varotsos and Lazaridou [1991]. Four independent studies analyzed this sample and concluded that the success rate of the predictions is far beyond chance. On the other hand, Mulargia and Gasperini [1992] (hereafter cited as MG) claim that these predictions can be ascribed to chance. In the present paper we examine the origin of this disagreement. Several serious problems in the study of MG are pointed out, such as: 1. The probability of a prediction's being successful by chance should be approximately considered as the product of three probabilities, PT, PE and PM, i.e., the probabilities with respect to time, epicenter and magnitude. In spite of their major importance, PE and PM were ignored by MG. The incorporation of PE decreases the probability for chancy success by more than a factor of 10 (when PE is taken into account it can be shown that the VAN predictions cannot be ascribed to chance). 2. MG grossly overestimated the number of earthquakes that should have been predicted, by taking different thresholds for earthquakes and predictions. With such an overestimation, MG's procedure can “reject” even an ideally perfect earthquake prediction method. 3. MG's procedure did not take into account that the predictions were based on three different types of electrical precursors with different lead-times. 4. MG applied a Poisson distribution to the time series of earthquakes but included a large number of aftershocks. 5. The backward time correlation between predictions and earthquakes claimed by MG is due to misinterpretation of the text of some predictions and an incorrect use of aftershocks. Although even the discussion of the first problem alone is enough to invalidate the claims of MG, we also discuss the other four problems because MG violated some basic principles even in the time domain alone. The results derived in this paper are of general use when examining whether a correlation between earthquakes and various geophysical phenomena is beyond chance or not.

Varotsos, P.; Eftaxias, K.; Vallianatos, F.; Lazaridou, M.

71

Environments. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a teacher's guide to an elementary science unit designed for use with fourth grade, or higher, students in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaption or edition of…

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

72

Basic Measurement and Evaluation of Science Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be used by preservice and in-service science teachers interested in assessing the outcomes of school science programs, this publication is aimed at helping teachers do a better job of developing tests and inventories specifically for their instructional programs and students. Material is presented in six chapters entitled: (1) Trends…

Doran, Rodney L.

73

BASIC STEPS IN DESIGNING SCIENCE LABORATORIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PLANNERS OF CURRENT UNIVERSITY LABORATORIES OFTEN MAKE THE SAME MISTAKES MADE BY INDUSTRIAL LABORATORIES 20 YEARS AGO. THIS CAN BE REMEDIED BY INCREASED COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SCIENTISTS AND DESIGNERS IN SEMINARS DEFINING THE BASIC NEEDS OF A PARTICULAR LABORATORY SITUATION. ELECTRONIC AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ACCOUNT FOR OVER 50 PER CENT OF TOTAL…

WHITNEY, FRANK L.

74

Definition of Some Basic Terms in Computer and Information Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of basic terms have been selected as the starting point for a project of defining terms which are important in communicating about computer and information science. (14 references) (Author/SJ)

Landry, B. C.; And Others

1973-01-01

75

The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This first supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books contains books received for the museum's 13th annual children's science book fair. Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; environment/conservation;…

Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

76

Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

Not Available

1990-10-01

77

Discussion strategies and learning science principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-Sputnik science curricula stress the importance of teaching science as scientists might practice it. This has been vividly illustrated in the laboratory-oriented curricula generated in the past ten years. Even more important has been the emphasis on applying learning theories to their construction. The American Association for the Advancement of Science has implemented the ideas of Robert Gagné in order

Miles A. Nelson

1973-01-01

78

Basic science and pathophysiology of Ocular allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular allergy includes several clinical subtypes ranging from the mild seasonal allergic conjunctivitis to the potentially\\u000a sight-threatening atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Current therapies, particularly for the severe forms of disease, need to be\\u000a more localized and with fewer side effects. For this to be achieved, it requires a better understanding of the basic mechanisms\\u000a involved. In this chapter, recent findings are discussed

Virginia L. Calder; Peter M. Lackie

2004-01-01

79

The Basic Mathematics of Astronomy: A Sourcebook for Science Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt was made in this study to determine if there was a need for a sourcebook of the basic mathematics of astronomy for secondary school science teachers. Science teachers involved and interested in the teaching of astronomy were located through letters to the superintendents of the 400 largest school districts in the United States. Names…

Therkelsen, Edward Robert

80

Challenges for translational psychopharmacology research—some basic principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce below several principles that recur in the discussion of translating preclinical findings to clinical applications,\\u000a and conversely, developing animal models of human disorders:\\u000a \\u000a 1. The translation of preclinical data to clinical concerns is more successful when the scope of experimental models is restricted\\u000a to a core symptom of a psychiatric disorder.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. Preclinical experimental models gain in clinical

Klaus A. Miczek; Harriet de Wit

2008-01-01

81

Investigation of the Basic Design Principles of the Flextensional Underwater Acoustic Transducer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic design principles of the flextensional underwater acoustic transducer are investigated by developing a mathematical model representation for this type of transducer system, and then establishing the effects that the various geometrical parameter...

L. H. Royster

1967-01-01

82

Resident's morning report: an opportunity to reinforce principles of biomedical science in a clinical context.  

PubMed

The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a faculty member for discussion. This venue provides an opportunity to illustrate how basic biomedical principles facilitate an understanding of the clinical presentation, the relevant pathophysiology, and the rationale for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A discussion of biochemical principles can easily be incorporated into these case discussions, with the potential to reinforce these concepts and to illustrate their application to clinical decision making. This approach maintains the effort to teach basic biomedical sciences in the context of clinical application across the educational continuum. PMID:24019184

Brass, Eric P

2013-01-01

83

The Principles of Science Education in Today's Schools. A Roundtable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the dialogue from a roundtable discussion on the principles of science education in today's school held by "Pedagogika" in March 2004. Participants were as follows: from the Russian Academy of Education: V.P. Borisenkov, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, vice president of the Russian Academy of Education, and editor…

Russian Education and Society, 2006

2006-01-01

84

The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the second annual supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984. In this supplement, children's science books are listed under the headings of animals, astronomy, aviation and space, biography, earth sciences, encyclopedias and reference books, environment and conservation, fiction,…

Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

85

The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, pro- posed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking pre- ventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of

David Kriebel; Joel Tickner; Paul Epstein; John Lemons; Richard Levins; Edward L. Loechler; Margaret Quinn; Ruthann Rudel; Ted Schettler; Michael Stoto

86

New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from use of such a tool: students are often taught a list of concepts and a separate list of parameters for mathematical equations. The link between the two can be elusive. While wet-lab experimentation is the proven approach to developing this link, in silico simulation can provide a means of acquiring important insight and understanding within a time frame and at a cost that cannot be achieved otherwise. We suggest that simulations and their representation of laboratory experiments in the classroom can become a key component in student achievement by helping to develop a student's positive attitude towards science and his or her creativity in scientific inquiry. We present results of two simulation experiments that validate against data taken from current literature. We follow with a classroom example demonstrating how this tool can be seamlessly integrated within the traditional pharmacology learning experience.

Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

2008-08-01

87

How Clouds Form-Understanding the Basic Principles of Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this investigation is to understand the change that takes place when water condenses from a gas to a liquid, and how a change in pressure affects this transformation. Materials needed for the experiment include a large (2L) soda bottle, a squeeze bottle with a plastic hose, parking pens, construction paper, wooden matches, and tap water. The resource includes background information, a pre-activity exploration for students, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is the chapter 12 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

88

Basic research in computer science and software engineering at SKLCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Key Laboratory of Computer Science (SKLCS) is committed to basic research in computer science and software engineering.\\u000a The research topics of the laboratory include: concurrency theory, theory and algorithms for real-time systems, formal specifications\\u000a based on context-free grammars, semantics of programming languages, model checking, automated reasoning, logic programming,\\u000a software testing, software process improvement, middleware technology, parallel algorithms and

Jian Zhang; Wenhui Zhang; Naijun Zhan; Yidong Shen; Haiming Chen; Yunquan Zhang; Yongji Wang; Enhua Wu; Hongan Wang; Xueyang Zhu

2008-01-01

89

Basic treatment principles for psychotic disorders in patients with epilepsy.  

PubMed

In patients with epilepsy, coexisting psychoses, either interictal (IIP) or postictal (PIP), are associated with serious disturbance in psychosocial function and well-being, and often require the care of a specialist. Unfortunately, evidence-based treatment systems for psychosis in patients with epilepsy have not yet been established. This article aims to propose concise and practical treatment procedures for IIP and PIP based on currently available data and international consensus statements, and primarily targeting nonpsychiatrist epileptologists who are often the first to be involved in the management of these complex patients. Accurate and early diagnosis of IIP and PIP and their staging in terms of acuity and severity form the essential first step in management. It is important to suspect the presence of psychosis whenever patients manifest unusual behavior. Knowledge of psychopathology and both individual and epilepsy-related vulnerabilities relevant to IIP and PIP facilitate early diagnosis. Treatment for IIP involves (1) obtaining consent to psychiatric treatment from the patient, whenever possible, (2) optimization of antiepileptic drugs, and (3) initiation of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy in line with symptom severity and severity of behavioral and functional disturbance. Basic psychosocial interventions will help reinforce adherence to treatment and should be made available. Due consideration must be given to patients' ability to provide informed consent to treatment in the short term, with the issue being revisited regularly over time. Given the often prolonged and recurrent nature of IIP, treatment frequently needs to be long-term. Treatment of PIP consists of two aspects, that is, acute protective measures and preventive procedures in repetitive episodes. Protective measures prioritize the management of risk in the early stages, and may involve sedation with or without the use of antipsychotic drugs, and the judicious application of local mental health legislation if appropriate. As for preventative procedures, optimizing seizure control by adjusting antiepileptic drugs or by surgical treatment is necessary. PMID:23458463

Adachi, Naoto; Kanemoto, Kousuke; de Toffol, Bertrand; Akanuma, Nozomi; Oshima, Tomohiro; Mohan, Adith; Sachdev, Perminder

2013-03-01

90

Connecting Science and Society: Basic Research in the Service of Social Objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flawed dichotomy of basic versus applied science (or of ``curiosity-driven'' vs. ``mission-oriented'' science) pervades today's thinking about science policy. This talk argues for the addition of a third mode of scientific research, called Jeffersonian science. Whereas basic science, as traditionally understood, is a quest for the unknown regardless of societal needs, and applied science is known science applied to

Gerhard Sonnert

2007-01-01

91

FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

2006-07-01

92

BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

CASSEL, RICHARD

93

Nuclear data for basic and applied science. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on nuclear data for basic and applied science. Topics considered at the conference included fast neutron interaction with niobium, new neutron cross sections for fusion materials studies, effect of fission dynamics on the spectra and multiplicities of prompt fission neutrons, and cold fragmentation in thermal neutron induced fission of /sup 235/U.

Young, P.G.; Brown, R.E.; Auchampaugh, G.E.; Lisowski, P.W.; Stewart, L.

1985-01-01

94

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: the TRIPOD concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1990, the United Nations is annually holding a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities through the Official Development Assistance (ODA) of Japan. Teaching material, hands-on astrophysics material, and variable star observing programmes had been developed for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in an university environment. This approach to astronomical telescope facility, observing programme, and teaching astronomy has become known as the basic space science TRIPOD concept. Currently, a similar TRIPOD concept is being developed for the International Heliophysical Year 2007, consisting of an instrument array, data taking and analysis, and teaching space science.

Kitamura, Masatoshi; Wentzel, Don; Henden, Arne; Bennett, Jeffrey; Al-Naimiy, H. M. K.; Mathai, A. M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph; Thompson, Barbara; Webb, David; Haubold, Hans

95

Application of Pascal Principle in Earth Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pascal experiment is interpreted and the chamber is roughly defined. Pascal experiment in relation to Pascal principle compared with a chamber in the earth crust. It is conclude that: 1: The pressure (P) inside the Pascal's cylinder is the combination of two pressure; the external pressure (P1) and the hydraulic pressure (P2). Pc=P1+P2 The direction of the force is from top to bottom. In the case of the chamber the pressure is Pch=P1-P2 and its positive direction is regarded to be from bottom to top. P1 is the external pressure, and is the maximum pressure applied to chamber .The external pressure creates a constant internal pressure throughout the chamber .The magnitude of the constant pressure is based on the litho static pressure of the bottom of the chamber; because it is the maximum pressure that the chamber is connected. P1=?1gH+?2gh Where H is the overburden thickness, h is the highness of the chamber, ?1 is the density of the overburden and ?2 is density of country rock. The hydrostatic pressure within the chamber is P2=?3gh. Also ?3 is the density of the chamber. So the pressure inside the chamber would be: Pch=P1-P2 then Pch=?1gH+(?2-?3)gh. The equation above means that, the chamber pressure equals to the overburden pressure plus Archimedes pressure. 2: The word squeezing which is a vulgar word has an important physical meaning that is ((Pascal principle driving movement)).In another word, almost all movements, related to chambers, within the earth are a squeezing event which's, driving force is the steady constant pressure mentioned above. Any change in this pressure depends on the rupturing of the chamber and the behavior of the movement of the chamber matter. 3: If we provide a safety valve on piston of the Pascal's cylinder and increase the load we see the safety valve bursts and the matter inside the cylinder squeeze out .The pressure is from top to bottom but the movement is from bottom to top. The direction of force has changed 180° degree. This is Pascal's miracle and displays the all movements that pierce the earth surface and let the matter squeeze out.

Samimi Namin, M.

2009-12-01

96

Opportunities for Computational Discovery in Basic Energy Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the broad-ranging support of computational physics and computational science within the Department of Energy Office of Science will be provided. Computation as the third branch of physics is supported by all six offices (Advanced Scientific Computing, Basic Energy, Biological and Environmental, Fusion Energy, High-Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics). Support focuses on hardware, software and applications. Most opportunities within the fields of condensed-matter physics, chemical-physics and materials sciences are supported by the Officeof Basic Energy Science (BES) or through partnerships between BES and the Office for Advanced Scientific Computing. Activities include radiation sciences, catalysis, combustion, materials in extreme environments, energy-storage materials, light-harvesting and photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and superconductivity. A summary of two recent reports by the computational materials and chemical communities on the role of computation during the next decade will be provided. In addition to materials and chemistry challenges specific to energy sciences, issues identified include a focus on the role of the domain scientist in integrating, expanding and sustaining applications-oriented capabilities on evolving high-performance computing platforms and on the role of computation in accelerating the development of innovative technologies.

Pederson, Mark

2011-03-01

97

Storytelling in Earth sciences: The eight basic plots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.

Phillips, Jonathan

2012-11-01

98

Cooperation in basic space science - Opportunities and impediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is made of benefits derivable from developing nations' participation in basic space sciences research activities. It is noted that the superior mathematics training obtained by young scientists in Latin American universities uniquely qualifies them for work in space plasma modeling and simulation studies, the application of sophisticated methods of statistical analysis and chaos, and the development of neural computer methods in pattern recognition applicable to the automated intelligent analysis of remote sensing images. Aggressive participation in current and planned international space science programs is recommended.

Roederer, Juan G.

99

Career Basics: Advice and Resources for Scientists from Science Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Struggling with your next career step? Science Careers' editorial team brings you "Career Basics: Advice and Resources for Scientists." The booklet provides advice and help on preparing CVs and resumes, writing grants and scientific papers, networking, and much more. Read each article in the booklet online, or download each chapter or the entire booklet as a PDF. All for free. It is one more tool Science Careers provides to help you jump-start your career, be it in academia or outside the ivory tower!

Science Careers and On Assignment Lab Support (;)

2007-01-01

100

Current tumor ablation technologies: basic science and device review.  

PubMed

Image-guided tumor ablation is an increasingly utilized tool to treat focal malignancy. Tumor ablation can be divided into two large categories, thermal and chemical ablation. The authors provide an overview of the current methods used to achieve thermal and chemical ablation of tumors, specifically addressing the basic science behind the ablation methods as well as providing a brief synopsis of the commercial devices currently available for use in the United States. PMID:22550363

Saldanha, David F; Khiatani, Vishal L; Carrillo, Tami C; Yap, Felix Y; Bui, James T; Knuttinen, M Grace; Owens, Charles A; Gaba, Ron C

2010-09-01

101

Nuclear data for basic and applied science. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on nuclear data for basic and applied science. Topics considered included: nuclear data needs for fusion reactors; fast-neutron interaction with niobium; neutronic analysis of fusion-fusion (hybrid) blankets; measurements of 14 MeV neutron activation cross sections; recent experimental data on sub-barrier fission of light actinides; and intermediate structure in the fission cross sections of the even curium isotopes.

Young, P.G.; Brown, R.E.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Lisowski, P.W.; Stewart, L.

1985-01-01

102

Current Tumor Ablation Technologies: Basic Science and Device Review  

PubMed Central

Image-guided tumor ablation is an increasingly utilized tool to treat focal malignancy. Tumor ablation can be divided into two large categories, thermal and chemical ablation. The authors provide an overview of the current methods used to achieve thermal and chemical ablation of tumors, specifically addressing the basic science behind the ablation methods as well as providing a brief synopsis of the commercial devices currently available for use in the United States.

Saldanha, David F.; Khiatani, Vishal L.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Yap, Felix Y.; Bui, James T.; Knuttinen, M. Grace; Owens, Charles A.; Gaba, Ron C.

2010-01-01

103

Developing basic space science world wide: progress report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Germany (1996), France (2000), Mauritius (2001), and Argentina (2002) emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a world wide basis. Since 1996, the workshops are contributing to the development of the World Space Observatory (WSO/UV) concept. Achievements of the series of workshops are briefly summarized in this report.

Haubold, Hans J.; Wamsteker, Willem

2004-01-01

104

Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging: Basic principles and pharmaceutical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging are fast and nondestructive analytical techniques that provide chemical and physical information of virtually any matrix. In combination with multivariate data analysis these two methods open many interesting perspectives for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This review focuses on recent pharmaceutical NIR applications and covers (1) basic principles of NIR techniques including chemometric data processing,

Gabriele Reich

2005-01-01

105

Clinical Decision Support Systems: Basic Principles and Applications in Diagnosis and Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the basic principles of clinical decision support (CDS) systems. CDS systems aim to codify and strategically manage biomedical knowledge to handle challenges in clinical practice using mathematical modelling tools, medical data processing techniques and Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods. CDS systems cover a wide range of applications, from diagnosis support to modelling the possibility of occurrence of various

Chapter XIV

106

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis: Basic principles and applications in radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a widely accepted method for analyzing and comparing the diagnostic accuracy of radiological tests. In this paper we will explain the basic principles underlying ROC analysis and provide practical information on the use and interpretation of ROC curves. The major applications of ROC analysis will be discussed and their limitations will be addressed.

Arian R van Erkel; Peter M. Th Pattynama

1998-01-01

107

Applying principles from safety science to improve child protection.  

PubMed

Child Protective Services Agencies (CPSAs) share many characteristics with other organizations operating in high-risk, high-profile industries. Over the past 50 years, industries as diverse as aviation, nuclear power, and healthcare have applied principles from safety science to improve practice. The current paper describes the rationale, characteristics, and challenges of applying concepts from the safety culture literature to CPSAs. Preliminary efforts to apply key principles aimed at improving child safety and well-being in two states are also presented. PMID:24199329

Cull, Michael J; Rzepnicki, Tina L; O'Day, Kathryn; Epstein, Richard A

2013-01-01

108

Round Rocks: Teaching Principles of Earth Science and Paleontology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides teachers with a highly effective way of presenting paleontology and earth science principles with limited classroom time. The main idea is to emphasize the thought processes that paleontologists use in their work. By answering certain questions and learning certain principles, students are compelled to think about the process of scientific reasoning. The process consists of taking a rock (from anywhere) in the hand and asking a single, simple question: How did this rock come to be this way? This lesson provides teachers with an outline of the process, principles and questions that students should use and answer about their rocks in order to understand the way scientists think and develop hypotheses and conclusions.

Allmon, Warren; Griffing, David

109

DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovo...

S. K. Deb

2005-01-01

110

Vitamin D in sepsis: from basic science to clinical impact  

PubMed Central

The growing basic and clinical investigations into the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D have revealed roles in the functioning of the immune system, generating interesting questions about this nutrient's connections to sepsis. This article briefly reviews the current science of the function of vitamin D in the immune system as well as the emerging clinical literature regarding its associations with respiratory infections, sepsis, and critical illness. Finally, we offer views on the potential future directions for research in the field by outlining potential relevant scenarios and outcomes.

2012-01-01

111

Application of basic principles of physics to head and neck MR angiography: troubleshooting for artifacts.  

PubMed

Neurovascular imaging studies are routinely used for the assessment of headaches and changes in mental status, stroke workup, and evaluation of the arteriovenous structures of the head and neck. These imaging studies are being performed with greater frequency as the aging population continues to increase. Magnetic resonance (MR) angiographic imaging techniques are helpful in this setting. However, mastering these techniques requires an in-depth understanding of the basic principles of physics, complex flow patterns, and the correlation of MR angiographic findings with conventional MR imaging findings. More than one imaging technique may be used to solve difficult cases, with each technique contributing unique information. Unfortunately, incorporating findings obtained with multiple imaging modalities may add to the diagnostic challenge. To ensure diagnostic accuracy, it is essential that the radiologist carefully evaluate the details provided by these modalities in light of basic physics principles, the fundamentals of various imaging techniques, and common neurovascular imaging pitfalls. PMID:23674781

Pandey, Shilpa; Hakky, Michael; Kwak, Ellie; Jara, Hernan; Geyer, Carl A; Erbay, Sami H

2013-05-01

112

Current Developments in Basic Space Science in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is important to developing African countries. In this paper, a brief review of the situation of astronomical research in Africa before 1991 is given. During that period only South Africa and Egypt were carrying out observational research in astronomy. In other African countries astronomy research was in its infancy, except the University of Nigeria Space Research Centre (UNNSRC) in theoretical areas. A summary of the important recommendations for Africa at the United Nations/ European Space Agency (UN/ESA) series of workshops on basic space science were itemized to help identify those which have now been accomplished. Additionally, UNNSRC has now embarked on further observational programmes through the establishment of strong collaborative ventures with two observatories in South Africa, the Hartesbeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (Hart RAO) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). UNNSRC has also made permanent arrangements with HartRAO, SAAO, and the Jodrell Bank for collaborations in data analysis. A new interest in astronomy appears to have awakened in Nigeria with three more universities joining this area of basic space science. It is recommended that the time has come for all African countries to contribute towards a common facility such as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The efforts of UN/ESA which resulted in tremendous achievements are commended.

Okeke, P. N.

113

Computer animation and improved student comprehension of basic science concepts.  

PubMed

Many medical students have difficulty learning basic science, either because they find the material challenging to comprehend or because they believe it has limited clinical application. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)--ie, computer animation--can clarify instruction by allowing students to visualize complex, dynamic processes in an interesting presentation. At West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM) in Lewisburg, a series of computer animations have been developed to present concepts in molecular and cellular biology. The author conducted an investigation to compare the efficacy of one representative computer animation with that of traditional textbook material. The subjects were 22 students who had been admitted to WVSOM but who had not yet begun classes. The experimental design of the study consisted of a prelesson test, a lesson, and a postlesson test. The lesson explained the process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication using either a computer animation (n=12) or a chapter from a textbook (n=10). Lesson comprehension as measured by the tests was significantly higher for subjects who used the computer animation than for subjects who used the textbook (P<.01). Furthermore, reviewing the text after studying with the computer animation did not raise test scores, suggesting that the animation was sufficient for learning and the text was unnecessary. After the study, a majority of subjects indicated a preference for the animation over the text. These results demonstrate that CAI can be an effective tool for relating basic science to medical students by improving comprehension and eliciting interest in the lessons. PMID:16428683

Thatcher, Jack D

2006-01-01

114

Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

Eiseman, Elisa

2001-03-01

115

Basic science research to support the nuclear material focus area  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

Boak, J. M. (Jeremy M.); Eller, P. Gary; Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.

2002-01-01

116

Basic Science Research to Support the Nuclear Materials Focus Area  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.; Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. G.

2002-02-26

117

Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.  

PubMed

It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the major clenching theoretical and experimental findings. These findings will remove the last trace of uncertainty about the total disproof of the membrane theory. In addition, I have also included an introduction of the association-induction hypothesis, which is the one and only unifying theory of the living cell that has survived and unwaveringly grown more comprehensive and powerful after more than half of a century of worldwide testing. PMID:21970156

Ling, Gilbert N

2011-01-01

118

Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and maintenance. We proposed that some software engineering principles can be incorporated into the introductory-level of the computer science curriculum. Our vision is to give community college students a broader exposure to the software development lifecycle. For those students who plan to transfer to a baccalaureate program subsequent to their community college education, our vision is to prepare them sufficiently to move seamlessly into mainstream computer science and software engineering degrees. For those students who plan to move from the community college to a programming career, our vision is to equip them with the foundational knowledge and skills required by the software industry. To accomplish our goals, we developed curriculum modules for teaching seven of the software engineering knowledge areas within current computer science introductory-level courses. Each module was designed to be self-supported with suggested learning objectives, teaching outline, software tool support, teaching activities, and other material to assist the instructor in using it.

Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

119

Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

Clancey, William J.

2003-01-01

120

Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

1982-01-01

121

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

122

Teaching aldosterone regulation and basic scientific principles using a classic paper by Dr. James O. Davis and colleagues.  

PubMed

Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th century. In this article, we discuss a classic paper from the laboratory of Dr. James O. Davis on the regulation of aldosterone synthesis from the adrenal zona glomerulosa cell. Dr. Davis has conducted much of the seminal research investigating the renin-angiotensin system and the regulation of aldosterone release by angiotensin II. In addition to a characterization of the effects of ACTH on aldosterone regulation, this study is useful for discussing the basic principles of negative feedback pathways of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. This study also provides examples of early bioassay techniques for the detection of angiotensin II and of the importance of quantitative measurements when investigating physiological responses. Three figures and one table are reproduced from the original article along with a series of discussion questions designed to facilitate discovery learning. PMID:17108240

Hanke, Craig J; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C

2006-12-01

123

NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering  

NSF Publications Database

... of Science/Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy are continuing in FY2006 the ... Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (SC/OFES) of the Department of Energy (DoE) are continuing in ...

124

Platelet rich concentrate: basic science and current clinical applications.  

PubMed

Improvements in resuscitation, dissemination of ATLS protocols, and growth of regional and local trauma centers has increased the survivability after severe traumatic injuries. Furthermore, advances in medical management have increased life expectancy and also patients with orthopaedic injuries. While mechanical stabilization has been a hallmark of orthopaedic fracture care, orthobiologics are playing an increasing role in the management of these patients with complex injuries. Platelet-rich concentrate is an autologous concentration of platelets and growth factors, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The enhancement of bone and soft tissue healing by the placement of supraphysiologic concentration of autologous platelets at the site of tissue injury or surgery is supported by basic science and clinical studies. Due to the increased concentration and release of these factors, platelet-rich plasma can potentially enhance the recruitment and proliferation of tenocytes, stem cells, and endothelial cells. A better understanding of platelet function and appropriate clinical use is essential in achieving the desired outcomes of platelet-rich concentrate in orthopaedic clinical applications. PMID:18594311

Mehta, Samir; Watson, J Tracy

2008-07-01

125

Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.

Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

2006-10-01

126

Japanese medical students' interest in basic sciences: a questionnaire survey of a medical school in Japan.  

PubMed

The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using ?(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent. PMID:23337622

Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

2013-01-01

127

[Digital luminescence radiography. Part 1: Basic principle, technical execution and clinical use].  

PubMed

Digital luminescence radiography (DLR) is a new technique in projection radiography, which enables the production of plain X-ray images and motion tomographies with high quality, and is suitable for digital image management. With this procedure the X-ray image produced by conventional roentgen devices is temporarily stored on a reusable photostimulable storage phosphor screen which is characterized by a wide dynamic range. A laser beam scans the exposed phosphor screen and recovers the stored X-ray information as photostimulated luminescence radiation. A photomultiplier converts the emitted light into electrical signals. After normalization and digitization the signals are transmitted to an image processor. The stored digital image can be individually processed and displayed, digitally archived or transferred to any location. The technique is described in two following papers. Part 1 covers the basic principle of the system and the technical implementation of the data acquisition with its advantages and disadvantages as compared with conventional film/screen radiography. PMID:1761263

Döhring, W; Urbach, D

1991-10-20

128

Back to Basics for Science Teachers in Rural India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how practical science can be taught using locally-collected junk materials and encourages a new approach to science teaching in rural India. Emphasizes science relevant to the villages to which children will return to when they leave school. (DDR)

Waldron, Nick

1998-01-01

129

A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

2009-01-01

130

Chemical carcinogens: a review of the science and its associated principles. U.S. Interagency Staff Group on Carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

In order to articulate a view of chemical carcinogenesis that scientists generally hold in common today and to draw upon this understanding to compose guiding principles that can be used as a bases for the efforts of the regulatory agencies to establish guidelines for assessing carcinogenic risk to meet the specific requirements of the legislative acts they are charged to implement, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office, the White House drew on the expertise of a number of regulatory agencies to elucidate present scientific views in critical areas of the major disciplines important to the process of risk assessment. The document is composed of two major sections, Principles and the State-of-the-Science. The latter consists of subsections on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, short-term and long-term testing, and epidemiology, which are important components in the risk assessment step of hazard identification. These subsections are followed by one on exposure assessment, and a final section which includes analyses of dose-response (hazard) assessment and risk characterization. The principles are derived from considerations in each of the subsections. Because of present gaps in understanding, the principles contain judgmental (science policy) decisions on major unresolved issues as well as statements of what is generally accepted as fact. These judgments are basically assumptions which are responsible for much of the uncertainty in the process of risk assessment. There was an attempt to clearly distinguish policy and fact. The subsections of the State-of-the-Science portion provide the underlying support to the principles articulated, and to read the "Principles" section without a full appreciation of the State-of-the-Science section is to invite oversimplification and misinterpretation. Finally, suggestions are made for future research efforts which will improve the process of risk assessment.

1986-01-01

131

Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: a model.  

PubMed

Cancer is a significant medical and societal problem. This reality arises from the fact that an exponential and an unrestricted cellular growth destabilizes human body as a system. From this perspective, cancer is a manifestation of a system-in-failing.A model of normal and abnormal cell cycle oscillations has been developed incorporating systems science, complexity, and chaos theories. Using this model, cancer expresses a failing subsystem and is characterized by a positive exponential growth taking place in the outer edge of chaos. The overall survival of human body as a system is threatened. This model suggests, however, that cancer's exponential cellular growth and disorganized complexity could be controlled through the process of induction of differentiation of cancer stem cells into cells of low and basic functionality. This concept would imply reorientation of current treatment principles from cellular killing (cyto-toxic therapies) to cellular retraining (cyto-education). PMID:17589568

Janecka, Ivo P

2007-01-01

132

The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

2012-01-01

133

Changes needed in basic biomedical sciences teaching in Cuban medical schools.  

PubMed

In the 20th century, the basic biomedical sciences (particularly anatomy, histology, embryology, physiology and biochemistry) were taught predominantly in the first semesters of Cuban medical education, with differing curricular connections between these and the clinical sciences. Establishment of the University Polyclinic Program in 2004 laid the foundation for integration of basic biomedical sciences into a transdisciplinary unit designated morphophysiology. This paper argues for improvements in this curricular unit and in its coordination with family medicine in the first semesters of medical training, complemented by integration of basic biomedical sciences into family medicine clinical courses throughout the remainder of the six-year curriculum. KEYWORDS Medical laboratory science, medical clinical science, medical education, curriculum, biological science disciplines, interdisciplinary communication, transfer of learning, Cuba. PMID:22869249

Pernas, Marta; Arencibia, Lourdes G; Garí, Mayra

2012-07-01

134

Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Instrumentation and basic principles.  

PubMed

A micro-electromembrane extraction (?-EME) technique using electrically induced transfer of charged analytes across free liquid membranes (FLMs) was presented. A disposable extraction unit was proposed and it was made of a short segment of transparent perfluoroalkoxy tubing, which was successively filled with three liquid plugs serving as acceptor solution, FLM and donor solution. These plugs formed a three-phase extraction system, which was precisely defined, that was stable and required ?L to sub-?L volumes of all respective solutions. Basic instrumental set-up and extraction principles of ?-EME were examined using an anionic and a cationic dye, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(p-sulfophenylazo)-2,7-naphthalene disulfonic acid trisodium salt (SPADNS) and crystal violet, respectively. Transfers of the charged dyes from donor into acceptor solutions across FLMs consisting of 1-pentanol were visualized by a microscope camera and quantitative measurements were performed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The effects of operational parameters of ?-EME system were comprehensively investigated and experimental measurements were accompanied with theoretical calculations. Extraction recoveries above 60% were achieved for 5min ?-EME of 1mM SPADNS at 100V with repeatability values below 5%. Selectivity of FLMs was additionally examined by capillary electrophoretic analyses of acceptor solutions and the potential of FLMs for ?-EME pretreatment of samples with artificial complex matrices was demonstrated. PMID:24792701

Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2014-06-13

135

Time reversal data communications on pipes using guided elastic waves: Part I. Basic principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric sensors that are embedded in large structures and are inter-connected as a sensor network can provide critical information regarding the integrity of the structures being monitored. A viable data communication scheme for sensor networks is needed to ensure effective transmission of messages regarding the structural heath conditions from sensor nodes to the central processing unit. In this paper we develop a time reversal based data communication scheme that utilizes guided elastic waves for structural health monitoring applications. Unlike conventional data communication technologies that use electromagnetic radio waves or acoustical waves, the proposed method utilize elastic waves as message carriers and steel pipes as transmission channels. However, the multi-modal and dispersive characteristics of guided waves make it difficult to interpret the channel responses or to transfer correctly the structural information data along pipes. In this paper, we present the basic principles of the proposed time reversal based pulse position modulation and demonstrate by simulation that this method can effectively overcome channel dispersion, achieve synchronization, and delivery information bits through steels pipes or pipe-like structures correctly.

Jin, Yuanwei; Zhao, Deshuang; Ying, Yujie

2011-03-01

136

Catalysis for Energy: Fundamental Science and Long-Term Impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences Catalysis Science Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an in-depth analysis of the investment in catalysis basic research by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Catalysis Science Program.1 Catalysis is essential to our ability to control chemical reac...

2009-01-01

137

Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

2014-05-01

138

Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

139

Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often…

Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

2011-01-01

140

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1985-01-01

141

Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

Schubert, Nancy A.

142

Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV\\/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological

Elisa Eiseman

2001-01-01

143

Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the various areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and the interrelationships between them so that a series of didactic and clinical experience alternatives might be identified ...

H. F. Kabat

1980-01-01

144

Chemical Engineering Division Basic Energy Sciences Research: July 1976--September 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies in basic energy science covered many different activities, nearly all of which were designed to gain information required for a better understanding of systems important to national needs in energy and environment. Studies of associating gases inc...

1978-01-01

145

The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; encyclopedias and reference books; environment and conservation; fiction; general science; life sciences; marine life; mathematics and computer science; medical and health sciences; physics and chemistry; plant…

Richter, Bernice; Wenzel, Duane

146

Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

2006-01-01

147

Teaching Aldosterone Regulation and Basic Scientific Principles Using a Classic Paper by Dr. James O. Davis and Colleagues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th…

Hanke, Craig J.; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.

2006-01-01

148

Guiding Principles for Mathematics and Science Education Research Methods: Report of a Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a brief review of research methods employed in recent studies and proposes a number of guiding principles for designing and evaluating future research proposals in the area of mathematics and science education.

Suter, Larry E.; Frechtling, Joy; Foundation, National S.

149

Basic research in space science: Meaningful collaboration with developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Air Force looks world-wide to bring cutting edge basic research into its portfolio. In years past, this research primarily came from Western Europe. Since the early 1990's, however, the Air Force has expanded its collaborations significantly, and works with countries made accessible following the Cold War; countries that have developed new world-class capabilities; and countries with new and

Mark S. Maurice; Stephanie C. Masoni; George York; Deanna C. Won

2009-01-01

150

Why our patients (and we) need basic science research  

PubMed Central

In times of fiscal austerity, the tendency is to seek instant, inexpensive gratification. In the case of biomedical research, this means the shortest path to practical clinical implementation. But fueling the translational pipeline with discovery depends critically on allowing the biomedical research community to follow their science where it takes them. Fiscal constraints carry with them the risk of squelching creativity and forfeiting the power of serendipity to provide the substrate for the translational engine in the future.

2013-01-01

151

Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries  

PubMed Central

Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century.

Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

2011-01-01

152

Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the addition of problem based learning (PBL) into the basic medical curriculum of a large course (270 students). The PBL was provided via a learning management system and attended to the following goals: visual exposure, patient/physician history, patient communication and interactions.

Camille DiLullo (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Anatomy); Harry Morris (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Family Medicine); Richard M Kriebel (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology)

2009-10-01

153

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with transitions directly from research laboratories to defense systems...the full benefits of basic research are not apparent until much later. Therefore, the DoD Components...planning and funding of basic research to the maximum possible...

2010-07-01

154

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with transitions directly from research laboratories to defense systems...the full benefits of basic research are not apparent until much later. Therefore, the DoD Components...planning and funding of basic research to the maximum possible...

2009-07-01

155

Socialist academies of sciences: the enforced orientation of basic research at user needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the former socialist societies, science was considered an instrument of socialist development and subjected to central planning procedures similar to those used in economic planning. Basic research, but also problem oriented and even some applied research was concentrated in the National Academy of Sciences. To ensure the orientation of academy research on user needs, and particularly on the needs

Renate Mayntz

1998-01-01

156

A Sampling of Basic Life Science Literacy in a College Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a basic life science literacy survey of 300 undergraduates with both science and nonscience interests found that many do not know elementary facts and that women outscored men on 6 of the 12 questions. The study shows that scientific literacy remains a serious problem in the United States. (KR)

Lord, Thomas R.; Rauscher, Clint

1991-01-01

157

Selecting Students for Medical School: What Predicts Success during Basic Science Studies? A Cognitive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study with 503 applicants to the University of Helsinki (Finland) medical school compared the predictive validity of multiple-choice science tests and a "learning-from-text" test (LFT) designed to measure deep-level text processing. Results indicated the LFT was the best predictor of student academic progress in basic science courses. (MSE)

Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; And Others

1996-01-01

158

Science and Nonscience Students' Ideas about Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for Elementary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 14-item questionnaire was given to 100 students in preservice training to become primary and secondary education faculty. Results showed that science and non-science majors held a series of misconceptions about several basic topics central to astronomy. The changes in astronomy misconceptions were analyzed by means of a written questionnaire…

Kalkan, Huseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim

2007-01-01

159

Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants

A. Longshore; K. Salgado

1995-01-01

160

A precautionary principle for dual use research in the life sciences.  

PubMed

Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges against the principle exist - for example that it stifles scientific development, lacks practical applicability and is poorly defined and vague - the analysis concludes that a Precautionary Principle is applicable to the field. Certain factors such as credibility of the threat, availability of information, clear prescriptive demands on responsibility and directives on how to act, determine the suitability and success of a Precautionary Principle. Moreover, policy-makers and researchers share a responsibility for providing and seeking information about potential sources of harm. A central conclusion is that the principle is meaningful and useful if applied as a context-dependent moral principle and allowed flexibility in its practical use. The principle may then inspire awareness-raising and the establishment of practical routines which appropriately reflect the fact that life science research may be misused for harmful purposes. PMID:19594724

Kuhlau, Frida; Höglund, Anna T; Evers, Kathinka; Eriksson, Stefan

2011-01-01

161

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p < 0.05, ?2 = 0.59 between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre-to-post assessment with an effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-08-01

162

Complex biomedical systems: from basic science to translation.  

PubMed

The Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) of the University of Southern California (BME@USC) has a longstanding tradition of advancing biomedicine through the development and application of novel engineering ideas. More than 80 primary and affiliated faculty members conduct cutting-edge research in a wide variety of areas, such as neuroengineering, biosystems and biosignal analysis, medical devices (including biomicroelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) and bionanotechnology), biomechanics, bioimaging, and imaging informatics. Currently, the department hosts six internationally recognized research centers: the Biomimetic MicroElectronic Systems Engineering Research Center (funded by the National Science Foundation), the Biomedical Simulations Resource [funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)], the Medical Ultrasonic Transducer Center (funded by NIH), the Center for Neural Engineering, the Center for Vision Science and Technology (funded by an NIH Bioengineering Research Partnership Grant), and the Center for Genomic and Phenomic Studies in Autism (funded by NIH). BME@USC ranks in the top tier of all U.S. BME departments in terms of research funding per faculty. PMID:22850833

Grzywacz, Norberto M

2012-07-01

163

Revealing the Mystery of the Galilean Principle of Relativity. Part I: Basic Assertions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Galileo has formulated, one cannot detect, once embarked in a uniform translational motion, and not receiving any information from the outside, how fast he is moving. Why? No one that we recall of, has worked out the answer of this question, although the Galilean Principle of Relativity ( GPR), constituted a major ingredient of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR). Thus, consider a quantum mechanical object of “ clock mass” M 0 ( which is just a mass), doing a “ clock motion”, such as rotation, vibration, etc., with a total energy E 0, in a space of size ?0. Previously we have established that, if the mass M 0 is multiplied by an arbitrary number ?, then through the relativistic or non-relativistic quantum mechanical description of the object ( which ever is appropriate to describe the case in hand), the size ?0 of it, shrinks as much, and the total energy E 0, concomitantly, increases as much. This quantum mechanical occurrence yields, at once, the invariance of the quantity E 0 M 0?{0/2} with regards to the mass change in question, the object being overall at rest; this latter quantity is, on the other hand, as induced by the quantum mechanical framework, necessarily strapped to h 2, the square of the Planck Constant. But this constant is already, dimension wise, Lorentz invariant. Thus, any quantity bearing the dimension of h 2, is Lorentz invariant, too. So is then, the quantity E 0 M 0?{0/2} ( no matter how the size of concern lies with respect to the direction of uniform translational motion) that would come into play. Thence, the quantum mechanical invariance of the quantity E 0 M 0?{0/2} with regards to an arbitrary mass change, comes to be identical to the Lorentz invariance of this quantity, were the object brought to a uniform translational motion. It is this prevalence, which displays, amazingly, the underlying mechanism, securing the end results of the STR, and this via quantum mechanics. The Lorentz invariant quantum mechanical architecture, E 0 M 0?{0/2}˜ h 2, more fundamentally, constitutes the answer of the mystery drawn by the GPR. In this article, we frame the basic assertions, which will be used in a subsequent article, to display the quantum mechanical machinery making the GPR, and to draw the bridge between the GPR and the architecture, we disclose.

Yarman, Tolga

2009-08-01

164

How WebQuests Can Enhance Science Learning Principles in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic…

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

2012-01-01

165

Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To protect fragile ecosystems and to build sustainable communities that are resilient to climate change-including extreme weather and climate events- a climate-literate citizenry is essential. This climate science literacy guide indentifies the essential ...

2009-01-01

166

Science Curricula Design: Analysis of Authors' Ideological and Pedagogical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the Official Pedagogic Discourse of the curriculum for Portuguese middle schools contains the ideological and pedagogical principles of its authors. The research is epistemologically and sociologically grounded, placing particular emphasis on Bernstein theory of…

Ferreira, Silvia; Morais, Ana M.; Neves, Isabel P.

2011-01-01

167

A CAL program to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering—a change from the traditional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. The pro-gram makes extensive use of colour, graphics, and animation and is aimed at A-level students of biology. Students select, from a menu, to investigate one of a number of identified processes involved in the overall production of a protein,

D. G. Dewhurst; A. S. Meehan; A. Williams; D. Woods

1989-01-01

168

Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law  

SciTech Connect

The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that '[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. By focusing on situations of scientific uncertainty where data are lacking, insufficient, or inconclusive, the principle introduced a shift from a neutral legal attitude towards science to a bias in favor of safety, and a shift from the paradigm of science certain and objective to the awareness that the legal regulation of science involves decisions about values and interests. Implementation of the precautionary principle is highly variable. A crucial question still needs to be answered regarding the assumption that scientific certainty is a 'normal' characteristic of scientific knowledge. The relationship between technoscience and society has moved into a situation where uncertain knowledge is the rule. From this perspective, a more general framework for a democratic governance of science is needed. In democratic society, science may still have a special authoritative voice, but it cannot be the ultimate word on decisions that only the broader society may make. Therefore, the precautionary model of scientific regulation needs to be informed by an 'extended participatory model' of the relationship between science and society.

Tallacchini, Mariachiara [Bioethics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 10, 20100 Milan (Italy) and Science Technology and Law, Law Faculty, University of Piacenza, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)]. E-mail: mariachiara.tallacchini@unimi.it

2005-09-01

169

Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science  

SciTech Connect

The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State University and Charles University in Prague. In this paper, we report neutron capture studies that are of particular interest to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In addition to determining neutron capture cross sections, we are also interested in the nuclear properties of the excited state compound nuclei created in the capture reactions. One model that describes the behavior of the nucleus is the statistical model. Our statistical studies included measuring the photon strength function, resonance parameters, level density and gamma-ray ({gamma}-ray) cascade multiplicity. The DANCE array allows the separation of cascades by the number of transitions (multiplicity) in the cascade, and this makes it possible to study detailed properties of the statistical cascade such as the relationship between multiplicity and energy distributions. The work reported here includes reaction on molybdenum targets, europium targets, gadolinium targets and the first americium-242m target. Our goal is to improve the accuracy and provide new measurements for stable and radioactive targets. We are especially interested in energy-dependent neutron capture cross sections. In all of our experiments, the photons emitted in the capture reactions are gamma rays, and they are detected by the barium fluoride crystal array named the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) shown in Fig. 1. The detector array is made of 160 crystals arranged in a sphere around the target. There are four different crystal shapes, each of which covers an equal solid angle. This array was specifically designed to measure neutron capture cross sections with targets that were milligram sized or smaller, including radioactive targets. The barium fluoride crystals are scintillation (light generating) detectors with very fast response time, and are therefore suitable for high count rate experiments. Actual neutron capture events must be reliably distinguished from background {gamma}-rays, which are always present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hyd

Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

2007-08-04

170

Advances in Science and Technology Challenge Constitution's Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores several of the issues raised by current and likely future scientific advances which may challenge the United States Constitution. Reports on the results of the "Science, Technology, and the Constitution in an Information Age" project. Focuses on the chemically related technological advancements that may challenge this nation's legal…

Seltzer, Richard J.

1987-01-01

171

Science in Writing: Learning Scientific Argument in Principle and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the processes of writing in science and in particular the "complex performance" of writing a scientific argument. The article explores in general terms the nature of scientific argumentation in which the author-scientist makes claims, provides evidence to support these claims, and develops chains of scientific…

Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bagley, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

172

The Challenge of the Humanities and Social Science Education Through the Basic Seminar (Science of Snow Sports)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Education Center of Chiba Institute of Technology is taking a new approach to the introduction of liberal arts subjects commonly included in the curriculum of all departments through a newly established basic seminar, the Science of Snow Sports. Each faculty member has been working on setting up classes that cross the conventional boundaries of fields and disciplines and which are targeted at students of all faculties and departments. This paper describes the potential for teaching liberal arts and social science subjects to engineering students through the medium of sports science, based on actual experience gained via this new approach.

Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Sugimoto, Taku; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Ikota, Masaru

173

Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) collaborative was formed to address basic science and engineering knowledge gaps relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. Many of the research activities fall between areas normally funded by different directorates at DOE and might be considered too applied for the basic science directorate and too basic in nature for other directorates. An executive committee

Lee Spangler; Alfred Cunningham; David Lageson; Jesse Melick; Mike Gardner; Laura Dobeck; Kevin Repasky; Joseph Shaw; Richard Bajura; B. Peter. McGrail; Curtis M. Oldenburg; Jeff Wagoner; Rajesh Pawar

2011-01-01

174

An interdisciplinary course in the basic sciences for senior medical and PhD students.  

PubMed

Integrating clinical and basic sciences throughout the medical school curriculum has become a major objective of various innovations in medical education. While early clinical exposure has evolved as an efficient means of introducing clinical studies in the preclinical years, interdisciplinary integration of basic sciences during the clinical years remains a challenge. The authors describe their three years of experience with an interdisciplinary course designed to demonstrate the continuum of medical information from the clinic to the basic sciences. In this course, sixth-year medical students are required to choose one of three to four different one-week programs, each of which requires them to conduct an in-depth investigation of a defined clinical topic. Program coordinators are encouraged to work in clinician-basic scientist teams and to use a variety of teaching methods, with an emphasis on tutored individual and group learning based on critical readings of original papers. Coordinators are also encouraged to enable graduate research students to participate. From 1998 to 2000, students participated in nine programs, seven of which were coordinated by interdisciplinary teams. Several clinical and basic science disciplines were represented in each program, and various teaching methods were used. Graduate students participated in two of the programs. Evaluation of the programs (a debriefing discussion as well as short written evaluations) indicated moderate to good achievement of the course objectives. PMID:11597853

Rudich, A; Bashan, N

2001-10-01

175

The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)

Kabalevskii, Dmitrii

1988-01-01

176

Basic Principles and Ecological Consequences of Altered Flow Regimes for Aquatic Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wetland ecosystems. We\\u000a have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and\\u000a aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant\\u000a of physical habitat

STUART E. BUNN; ANGELA H. ARTHINGTON

2002-01-01

177

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-01-01

178

Some aspects of metallurgical assessment of boiler tubes—Basic principles and case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural changes in boiler tubes during prolong operation at high temperature and pressure decrease load bearing capacity limiting their useful lives. When the load bearing capacity falls below a critical level depending on operating parameters and tube geometry, failure occurs. In order to avoid such failures mainly from the view point of economy and safety, this paper describes some basic

Satyabrata Chaudhuri

2006-01-01

179

An Analysis of Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Achievement, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Cognitive Structure Outcomes After Learning Basic Atomic Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the interrelationships between students' general science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs, and cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

Tsai, Chin-Chung

1998-01-01

180

The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in the Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and evolution of the UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science (BSS) is discussed. We highlight here the motivation and results in global terms. The various new insights in the role of BSS in a sustainable development are indicated.

Haubold, H. J.; Wamsteker, W.

181

The Department of Energy: Some Aspects of Basic Research in the Chemical Sciences, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the second of a two-part report requested by the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, with the primary purpose of assisting program and administrative officers of OBES in examining present and future plans for orienting and expa...

1981-01-01

182

Impact of the USMLE Step 1 on Teaching and Learning of the Basic Biomedical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the newly modified United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 reviews the test, phase-in plans, and potential impact on basic biomedical sciences education. It is recommended that medical schools not use the test as the sole criterion for promotion to the third year and carefully review other examination-related requirements…

Swanson, David B.; And Others

1992-01-01

183

Platelet-Rich PlasmaFrom Basic Science to Clinical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized in surgery for 2 decades; there has been a recent interest in the use of PRP for the treatment of sports-related injuries. PRP contains growth factors and bioactive proteins that influence the healing of tendon, ligament, muscle, and bone. This article examines the basic science of PRP, and it describes the current clinical applications

Timothy E. Foster; Brian L. Puskas; Bert R. Mandelbaum; Michael B. Gerhardt; Scott A. Rodeo

2009-01-01

184

A simulation for teaching the basic and clinical science of fluid therapy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical cases that, by nature, are diverse, change over time, and respond in unique ways to therapeutic interventions. We developed a dynamic model using STELLA software that simulates normal and abnormal fluid and electrolyte balance in the dog. Students interact, not with the underlying model, but with a user interface that provides sufficient data (skin turgor, chemistry panel, etc.) for the clinical assessment of patients and an opportunity for treatment. Students administer fluids and supplements, and the model responds in "real time," requiring regular reassessment and, potentially, adaptation of the treatment strategy. The level of success is determined by clinical outcome, including improvement, deterioration, or death. We expected that the simulated cases could be used to teach both the clinical and basic science of fluid therapy. The simulation provides exposure to a realistic clinical environment, and students tend to focus on this aspect of the simulation while, for the most part, ignoring an exploration of the underlying physiological basis for patient responses. We discuss how the instructor's expertise can provide sufficient support, feedback, and scaffolding so that students can extract maximum understanding of the basic science in the context of assessing and treating at the clinical level.

Richard E. Rawson (Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Biomedical Sciences)

2009-01-01

185

Manpower in Basic Neurologic and Communicative Sciences: Present Status and Future Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are now 7,500 scientists working in the basic neurobehavioral and communicative sciences areas, 89% in academic, and 11% in nonacademic settings. Sixty five percent have Ph.D.s, 23% have M.D.s, and 12% hold both degrees. The main source of neuroscie...

1977-01-01

186

Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services Project (DREAMS TM): clinical and Basic Science Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DREAMS clinical and basic science projects complement the digital EMS effort by investigating the mechanisms of tissue injury in order to minimize the mortality and mortality of trauma and 'natural' injuries such as heart attacks. We have a broad effort a...

W. Casscells

1999-01-01

187

Improving College Faculty Instruction in the Basic and Allied Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project to improve college instruction in the basic and allied health sciences at New York Chiropractic College and the New York Institute of Technology is described. Attention was directed to: the kinds of resources colleges and professional schools provide to improve instruction; motivation of faculty to explore innovative or strategic…

Washton, Nathan S.

188

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2013-01-01

189

Using a Database to Analyze Core Basic Science Content in a Problem-Based Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used computer analysis to examine distribution of basic science content in the 53 cases in the problem-based medical curriculum of Rush Medical College (Illinois) and compared it to application of that content by students and faculty. The method of analysis is recommended for reviewing curricula for omissions and redundancy. (Author/MSE)

Rosen, Robert L.; And Others

1992-01-01

190

Institutional operating figures in basic and applied sciences: Scientometric analysis of quantitative output benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Institutional operating figures and benchmarking systems are important features for the implementation of efficacy in basic and applied sciences. They are needed for research evaluation and funding policy. However, the current policy settings for research evaluation urgently need review since there may be imbalances present in many areas. METHODS: The present study assessed benchmarking of research output. By the

Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft; Cristian Scutaru; Carolin Kreiter; Silvana Kölzow; Axel Fischer; David Quarcoo

2008-01-01

191

Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin

Wout A. P. Breeman; Marion de Jong; Dik J. Kwekkeboom; Roelf Valkema; Willem H. Bakker; Peter P. Kooij; Theo J. Visser; Eric P. Krenning

2001-01-01

192

Anatomy of learning: instructional design principles for the anatomical sciences.  

PubMed

Teaching anatomy is becoming increasingly challenging due to the progressive evolution of university teaching missions, student populations, medical and undergraduate curricula, coupled with a paucity of empirically tested evidence-based instructional practices in the anatomical and medical education literature. As a mechanism to confront these pedagogical challenges, recent advances in educational psychology are analyzed for developing a framework to guide educational reform efforts. Extensive research in educational psychology over the last 100 years has resulted in four major theories on human learning that have facilitated a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered classrooms and are described here in temporal order of development: behavioral theory, information processing theory, metacognitive theory, and social constructivist theory. Each theory is analyzed in detail and is used to construct instructional design principles for enhancing anatomical education research and practice. An example of a cognitively based learning environment for an undergraduate anatomy course is presented. Preliminary results suggest that intentionally drawing on different theories of learning when making instructional decisions gave students the learning support they needed to be successful and nearly doubled the course's student retention rate over a 3-year period. PMID:17109426

Terrell, Mark

2006-11-01

193

The ABCs of risk assessment: Some basic principles can help people understand why controversies occur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment is a cornerstone of environmental decision making. Despite this role as the scientific foundation for most EPA regulatory actions, risk assessment means different things to different people and is thus a source of misunderstanding and controversy. Some points of controversy involve the interpretation of scientific studies. Others have to do with science policy issues. Still others center on

Patton

2009-01-01

194

General chemistry students' understanding of climate science principles relating to chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Science project, we are developing the chemistry of climate science inventory for use in general chemistry courses. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which integrates federal research on climate and global change, has set out a climate literacy framework, Climate Literacy: the Essential Principles of Climate Science (US Climate Change Science Program, 2009). Developed by collaboration among NOAA, NASA, AAAS, and a distinguished group of scientists and educators, this Framework defines a set of essential principles and scientific thinking skills that a climate literate person should understand. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry. We have interviewed 24 undergraduates to elicit their understanding of the Earth's energy system, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather. Our analysis and findings indicate that the fundamental science necessary to understand the Earth's energy system and climate change are not well understood by the undergraduates in this sample. Details of the interviews, analysis, and synthesis of findings will be shared.

Versprille, A. N.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L. C.; Kirchhoff, M.

2012-12-01

195

Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging  

SciTech Connect

This is a review of the most important milestones in the last ten years of development in the field of grating-based x-ray and neutron imaging. It provides a description of the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with x-rays and neutrons. Furthermore, it reviews the theory of grating-based quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.

Pfeiffer, Franz [Technical University Munich, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-07-31

196

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic\\u000a electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers’ understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional\\u000a inquiry oriented investigation of the same

Janice Anderson; Michael Barnett

2011-01-01

197

Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

SciTech Connect

This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the research that must be done. For example, the applied research programs in the DOE need a greater awareness of the user facilities and an understanding of how to use them to solve their unique problems. The discussions reinforced what all of the participants already knew: the issue of energy security is of major importance both for the U.S. and for the world. Furthermore, it is clear that major changes in the primary energy sources, in energy conversion, and in energy use, must be achieved within the next fifty years. This time scale is determined by two drivers: increasing world population and increasing expectations of that population. Much of the research and development currently being done are concerned with incremental improvements in what has been done in the immediate past; and it is necessary to take this path because improvements will be needed across the board. These advances extend the period before the radical changes have to be made; however, they will not solve the underlying, long-range problem. The Subpanel recommends that a major program be funded to conduct a multidisciplinary research program to address the issues to ensure a secure energy future for the U.S. It is necessary to recognize that this program must be ensured of a long-term stability. It is also necessary that a management and funding structure appropriate for such an approach be developed. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences is well positioned to support this initiative by enhancement of their already world-class scientific research programs and user facilities.

None

2003-02-01

198

Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his Republic and Timaeus; Martianus Capella in The Marriage of Mercury and Philology; Boethius in De institutione musica; Kepler in The Harmony of the Universe; and many oth- ers, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion within specific principles. These efforts

Richard England

199

Does the Modality Principle for Multimedia Learning Apply to Science Classrooms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrated that the modality principle applies to multimedia learning of regular science lessons in school settings. In the first field experiment, 27 Dutch secondary school students (age 16-17) received a self-paced, web-based multimedia lesson in biology. Students who received lessons containing illustrations and narration performed…

Harskamp, Egbert G.; Mayer, Richard E.; Suhre, Cor

2007-01-01

200

Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through…

Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate

2007-01-01

201

Immunology primer for neurosurgeons and neurologists part I: Basic principles of immunology  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge concerning the workings of the immune system has evolved considerably over the past 20 years, with great strides being made as regard to complex interactions and repertoire of effector reactions under a host of conditions. Many of our previous understandings have been challenged, especially concerning tumor immunology and autoimmunity. Also of critical importance is our understanding of how the immune system terminates its attacks and the mechanisms used to regulate the balance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mechanisms, so as to prevent excessive immune bystander damage. I will discuss in part I the basic physiology of innate immune function and the immune systems reactions to invasion by microorganisms.

Blaylock, Russell L.

2013-01-01

202

Design principles for clinical efficacy of cancer nanomedicine: a look into the basics.  

PubMed

With recent advances in cancer nanomedicine, there is an increasing expectation for clinical translation. However, what are the parameters of a nanomedicine that will define clinical success, which will be measured by increased efficacy and not just ease of delivery or reduction in toxicity? In this Perspective, we build on a fundamental study by Stefanick et al. on the significance of the design principles in the engineering of a nanomedicine, such as peptide-PEG-linker length and ligand density in cellular uptake of liposomal nanoparticles. We address additional design parameters that can potentially facilitate clinical translation as well as how emerging insights into tumor biology will inspire next-generation cancer nanomedicines. PMID:23607425

Sengupta, Shiladitya; Kulkarni, Ashish

2013-04-23

203

Design principles for clinical efficacy of cancer nanomedicine: a look into the basics  

PubMed Central

With the advances in cancer nanomedicine, there is an increasing expectation for clinical translation. However, what are the parameters of a nanomedicine that will define clinical success, which will be measured by increased efficacy and not just ease of delivery or reduction in toxicity? This perspective builds on a fundamental study by Stefanick et al on the significance of the right design principles in the engineering of a nanomedicine, such as peptide-PEG-linker length and ligand density in cellular uptake of liposomal nanoparticles. The perspective addresses additional design parameters that can potentially facilitate clinical translation as well as how emerging insights into tumor biology will inspire the next generation cancer nanomedicines. SUMMARY: As we rapidly race cancer nanomedicines towards the clinics, what are the fundamental design parameters that will influence outcome? What can we learn from antibody-drug conjugates that will facilitate nanomedicines passing the 'efficacy test'? This perspective addresses some of these questions.

Sengupta, Shiladitya; Kulkarni, Ashish

2013-01-01

204

Using Basic Ethical Principles to Evaluate Safety Efforts in Transfusion Medicine  

PubMed Central

Pursuit of pharmaceutical purity of the blood in the bag has led to a shrinking donor base and a significantly more expensive product. Decisions regarding new infectious marker testing and donor deferrals have typically been made emphasizing decreasing one specific risk without considering the effect the intervention will have on the overall safety and availability of blood transfusion. Regulations have been formulated by governmental agencies with limited input from the medical community. The decision making process has lacked risk benefit analyses and has not had the robustness associated with spirited discussions. Policies made in this manner may result in certain risks being decreased but can also have adverse unintended consequences. Being guided by the ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice, we need to evaluate our actions in the context of overall blood safety rather than narrowly focusing on any one area.

Brooks, Jay P.

2012-01-01

205

Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes: from basic science to clinical therapy  

PubMed Central

New appreciation of the adaptive capabilities of the nervous system, recent recognition that most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, and progress in enabling regeneration are generating growing interest in novel rehabilitation therapies. Here we review the 35-year evolution of one promising new approach, operant conditioning of spinal reflexes. This work began in the late 1970’s as basic science; its purpose was to develop and exploit a uniquely accessible model for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple behavior in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The model was developed first in monkeys and then in rats, mice, and humans. Studies with it showed that the ostensibly simple behavior (i.e., a larger or smaller reflex) rests on a complex hierarchy of brain and spinal cord plasticity; and current investigations are delineating this plasticity and its interactions with the plasticity that supports other behaviors. In the last decade, the possible therapeutic uses of reflex conditioning have come under study, first in rats and then in humans. The initial results are very exciting, and they are spurring further studies. At the same time, the original basic science purpose and the new clinical purpose are enabling and illuminating each other in unexpected ways. The long course and current state of this work illustrate the practical importance of basic research and the valuable synergy that can develop between basic science questions and clinical needs.

Thompson, Aiko K.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

2014-01-01

206

Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing learning activities that link ocean sciences with real-life issues relevant to employment, environment and economic concerns.

Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

2004-12-01

207

Program for Educational Mobility For Health Manpower (The Basic Sciences), December 28-December 31, 1970. Second Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To offer an integrated science curriculum that will provide sufficient depth, breadth, and lattice mobility as well as meet basic science needs upon which to build performance success for allied health professionals and technicians, several areas of concern, including basic philosophy, administrative support, faculty involvement, process and…

Coordinating Council for Education in the Health Sciences for San Diego and Imperial Counties, CA.

208

Meeting report: "Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back"  

PubMed Central

In March, 2012 we held the first Mideast conference on “Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back”, at the University of Amman, Jordan. This event brought together both clinical and basic scientists with expertise in depression and anxiety spectrum disorders. The meeting took place in a large lecture hall at the University of Jordan Medical School. The audience included faculty, residents, and students. The Dean of the Medical School opened the meeting, welcoming the guest speakers and participants.

2013-01-01

209

The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence  

PubMed Central

Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented.

Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

2006-01-01

210

Basic Principles and Emerging Concepts in the Redox Control of Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork of poorly connected findings. The article, therefore, reviews principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-?B), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms. Major conclusions are that (i) direct signaling by free radicals is restricted to O2•? and •NO and can be excluded for fast reacting radicals such as •OH, •OR, or Cl•; (ii) oxidant signals are H2O2, enzymatically generated lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite; (iii) free radical damage is sensed via generation of Michael acceptors; (iv) protein thiol oxidation/alkylation is the prominent mechanism to modulate function; (v) redox sensors must be thiol peroxidases by themselves or proteins with similarly reactive cysteine or selenocysteine (Sec) residues to kinetically compete with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)- and peroxiredoxin (Prx)-type peroxidases or glutathione-S-transferases, respectively, a postulate that still has to be verified for putative mammalian sensors. S-transferases and Prxs are considered for system complementation. The impact of NF-?B and Nrf2 on hormesis, management of inflammatory diseases, and cancer prevention is critically discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2335–2381.

Flohe, Leopold

2011-01-01

211

Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles  

PubMed Central

A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory consolidation.

Klinger, Eric

2013-01-01

212

Dynamics and Design Principles of a Basic Regulatory Architecture Controlling Metabolic Pathways  

PubMed Central

The dynamic features of a genetic network's response to environmental fluctuations represent essential functional specifications and thus may constrain the possible choices of network architecture and kinetic parameters. To explore the connection between dynamics and network design, we have analyzed a general regulatory architecture that is commonly found in many metabolic pathways. Such architecture is characterized by a dual control mechanism, with end product feedback inhibition and transcriptional regulation mediated by an intermediate metabolite. As a case study, we measured with high temporal resolution the induction profiles of the enzymes in the leucine biosynthetic pathway in response to leucine depletion, using an automated system for monitoring protein expression levels in single cells. All the genes in the pathway are known to be coregulated by the same transcription factors, but we observed drastically different dynamic responses for enzymes upstream and immediately downstream of the key control point—the intermediate metabolite ?-isopropylmalate (?IPM), which couples metabolic activity to transcriptional regulation. Analysis based on genetic perturbations suggests that the observed dynamics are due to differential regulation by the leucine branch-specific transcription factor Leu3, and that the downstream enzymes are strictly controlled and highly expressed only when ?IPM is available. These observations allow us to build a simplified mathematical model that accounts for the observed dynamics and can correctly predict the pathway's response to new perturbations. Our model also suggests that transient dynamics and steady state can be separately tuned and that the high induction levels of the downstream enzymes are necessary for fast leucine recovery. It is likely that principles emerging from this work can reveal how gene regulation has evolved to optimize performance in other metabolic pathways with similar architecture.

Jolly, Emmitt R; DeRisi, Joe; Li, Hao

2008-01-01

213

Interactome maps of mouse gene regulatory domains reveal basic principles of transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

A key finding of the ENCODE project is that the enhancer landscape of mammalian cells undergoes marked alterations during ontogeny. However, the nature and extent of these changes are unclear. As part of the NIH Mouse Regulome Project, we here combined DNaseI hypersensitivity, ChIP-seq, and ChIA-PET technologies to map the promoter-enhancer interactomes of pluripotent ES cells and differentiated B lymphocytes. We confirm that enhancer usage varies widely across tissues. Unexpectedly, we find that this feature extends to broadly transcribed genes, including Myc and Pim1 cell-cycle regulators, which associate with an entirely different set of enhancers in ES and B cells. By means of high-resolution CpG methylomes, genome editing, and digital footprinting, we show that these enhancers recruit lineage-determining factors. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the turning on and off of enhancers during development correlates with promoter activity. We propose that organisms rely on a dynamic enhancer landscape to control basic cellular functions in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24360274

Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Tang, Zhonghui; Mathe, Ewy; Qian, Jason; Sung, Myong-Hee; Li, Guoliang; Resch, Wolfgang; Baek, Songjoon; Pruett, Nathanael; Grøntved, Lars; Vian, Laura; Nelson, Steevenson; Zare, Hossein; Hakim, Ofir; Reyon, Deepak; Yamane, Arito; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Kovalchuk, Alexander L; Zou, Jizhong; Joung, J Keith; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Xiaoan; Hager, Gordon L; Ruan, Yijun; Casellas, Rafael

2013-12-19

214

Long-term retention of basic science knowledge: a review study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention\\u000a of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are\\u000a employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently, first the results of\\u000a retention studies in

Eugène J. F. M. Custers

2010-01-01

215

Introduction to the theory of forced equilibria: General principles, basic concepts, and definitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, only a small amount of work has been done to verify the constraints of using fundamental regularities of the exact sciences in geochemistry and mineralogy. As for the chemical thermodynamics, the most important problem is the inadequate presentation of the thermodynamic state of real mineral systems. Our contention is that this state cannot be rigorously referred to any conventional type, if examined by the traditional chemical thermodynamics, and must be analyzed in terms of forced-equilibrium theory. The forced equilibrium is defined as a specific thermodynamic state resulting from the action of forcing factors, that is, the conditions or constraints which restrict possible variations of principal or internal thermodynamic system parameters. The advantage of this approach is that it proceeds from the operative forcing factor to the actual type of equilibrium of the real system, whereas the traditional analysis usually postulates the type of equilibrium state without proof of adequacy. The equilibrium conditions for thermoelastic solids with a coherent interphase boundary are a good example of forced equilibrium. The numerical modelling of forced equilibria in some real mineral systems and the comparison of the results with experimental and natural data show that the actual thermodynamic states of mineral systems more often represent stable or metastable forced equilibria than kinetically depressed or metastable states in their traditional understanding.

Tauson, Vladimir L.; Akimov, Vladlen V.

1997-12-01

216

Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators play a central role in educating, inspiring, and guiding students to become responsible, scientifically literate citizens. Therefore, teachers of science must uphold the highest ethical standards of the profession to earn and maintain the respect, trust, and confidence of students, parents, school leaders, colleagues, and other…

National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

217

Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

1955-01-01

218

Magnetic nanoparticle heating and heat transfer on a microscale: Basic principles, realities and physical limitations of hyperthermia for tumour therapy.  

PubMed

In this review article we present basic principles of magnetically induced heat generation of magnetic nanoparticles for application in magnetic particle hyperthermia. After explanation of heating mechanisms, the role of particle-particle as well as particle-tissue interactions is discussed with respect to achievable heating power of the particles inside the tumour. On the basis of heat transfer theory at the micro-scale, the balance between generated and dissipated heat inside the tumour and the resulting damaging effects for biological tissue is examined. The heating behaviour as a function of tumour size is examined in combination with feasible field strength and frequency. Numerical calculations and experimental investigations are used to show the lower tumour size limit for tumour heating to therapeutically suitable temperatures. In summary, this article illuminates practical aspects, limitations, and the state of the art for the application of magnetic heating in magnetic particle hyperthermia as thermal treatment of small tumours. PMID:23968194

Dutz, Silvio; Hergt, Rudolf

2013-12-01

219

[Aspects of Vascular Physiology in Clinical and Vascular Surgical Practice: Basic Principles of Vascular Mechanics.  

PubMed

Background: To be able to evaluate properly a vascular problem, basic concepts of vascular physiology need to be considered, as they have been taught in physiology for a long time. This article deals with selected definitions and laws of passive vascular mechanics, subdivided into parameters of vascular filling and parameters of vascular flow.Parameters of vascular filling: During vascular filling the transmural pressure distends the vascular wall until it is balanced by the wall tension. The extent of this distension up to the point of balance depends on the elasticity of the wall. Transmural pressure, wall tension and elasticity are defined, and their respective importance is described by clinical examples, e.g. aneurysm and varix.Parameters of vascular flow: The vascular flow can be divided into stationary and pulsating components. Both components are relevant for the bloodstream. Since the blood flow is directed in the circuit, it can be understood in first approximation as stationary ("direct current").The direct current model uses only the average values of the pulsating variables. The great advantage of the direct current model is that it can be described with simple laws, which are not valid without reservation, but often allow a first theoretical approach to a vascular problem: Ohm's law, driving pressure, flow resistance, Hagen-Poiseuille law, wall shear stress, law of continuity, Bernoulli's equation and Reynold's number are described and associated with clinical examples.The heart is a pressure-suction pump and produces a pulsating flow, the pulse. The pulse runs with pulse wave velocity, which is much larger than the blood flow velocity, through the arterial vascular system. During propagation, the pulse has to overcome the wave resistance (impedance). Wherever the wave resistance changes, e.g., at vascular bifurcations and in the periphery, it comes to reflections. The incident (forward) and reflected (backward) waves are superimposed to yield the resulting pulse wave. This pulse wave allows one to distinguish pressure and flow pulse by measurement. Both are described separately, and their respective clinical meaning is illustrated by appropriate examples, e.g., arterial stiffness and pre-/postocclusive high/low resistance flow, respectively. PMID:23325520

Nocke, H; Meyer, F; Lessmann, V

2013-01-16

220

Metallurgical principles of cryogenically treated tool steels—a review on the current state of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic treatment of tool steels has transformed over centuries from black art to science, but the metallurgical principles\\u000a responsible for increase in wear resistance, tensile strength, toughness, and stability are still disputed. Metallurgists\\u000a comprehend how tool steels respond to cryogenic treatment, but they also understand that for many years, the cryogenic treatment\\u000a of tool steels had the reputation of

Simranpreet Singh Gill; Jagdev Singh; Rupinder Singh; Harpreet Singh

2011-01-01

221

It is time for a positive approach to dietary guidance using nutrient density as a basic principle.  

PubMed

The consumption of nutrient-dense foods and beverages, which would ultimately be identified by a scientifically validated nutrient density profiling system, should be instituted as a nutrition platform in the Dietary Guidelines as a part of a larger educational effort to help people choose more nutrient-dense foods and as the guiding principle for consumers to plan healthful diets. By consciously choosing more nutrient-dense foods and beverages, Americans will be in a better position to meet their nutrient requirements without overconsuming energy. An objective, science-based, and validated nutrient density profiling system is needed to characterize foods based on their nutrient composition and this concept should be integrated into the Dietary Guidelines. This article sets forth guiding principles for the development and implementation of a nutrient density profiling system based on the current knowledge of diet and health and recommends that the development of a nutrient density profiling system include testing for effectiveness against accepted measures of diet quality, such as the Healthy Eating Index, and measurable public health markers, such as blood lipids and blood pressure. PMID:19339707

Miller, Gregory D; Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor; Heaney, Robert P; King, Janet; Kennedy, Eileen

2009-06-01

222

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI): A Historical Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pursuant to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), annual UN/European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991. These workshops contributed to the development of astrophysics and space science, particularly in developing nations. Following a process of prioritization, the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field: (i) operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD, (ii) virtual observatories, (iii) astrophysical data systems, (iv) con-current design capabilities for the development of international space missions, and (v) theoretical astrophysics such as applications of non-extensive statistical mechanics. Beginning in 2005, the workshops are focusing on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007). The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost, ground-based, world- wide instrument arrays as led by the IHY secretariat. Wamsteker, W., Albrecht, R. and Haubold, H.J.: Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide: A Decade of UN/ESA Workshops: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2004. http://ihy2007.org http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html http://www.cbpf.br/GrupPesq/StatisticalPhys/biblio.htm

Haubold, H. J.

2006-11-01

223

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag DisordersAn American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: This the first of two articles reviewing the scientific literature on the evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs), employing the methodology of evidence-based medicine. In this first part of this paper, the general principles of circadian biology that underlie clinical evaluation and treatment are reviewed. We then report on the accumulated evidence regarding the evaluation and treatment of shift work disorder (SWD) and jet lag disorder (JLD). Methods: A set of specific questions relevant to clinical practice were formulated, a systematic literature search was performed, and relevant articles were abstracted and graded. Results: A substantial body of literature has accumulated that provides a rational basis the evaluation and treatment of SWD and JLD. Physiological assessment has involved determination of circadian phase using core body temperature and the timing of melatonin secretion. Behavioral assessment has involved sleep logs, actigraphy and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Treatment interventions fall into three broad categories: 1) prescribed sleep scheduling, 2) circadian phase shifting (“resetting the clock”), and 3) symptomatic treatment using hypnotic and stimulant medications. Conclusion: Circadian rhythm science has also pointed the way to rational interventions for the SWD and JLD, and these treatments have been introduced into the practice of sleep medicine with varying degrees of success. More translational research is needed using subjects who meet current diagnostic criteria. Citation: Sack RL; Auckley D; Auger RR; Carskadon MA; Wright KP; Vitiello MV; Zhdanova IV. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: Part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1460-1483.

Sack, Robert L; Auckley, Dennis; Auger, R. Robert; Carskadon, Mary A.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

2007-01-01

224

The impact of whole-plant instruction of preservice teachers' understanding of plant science principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to determine how an inquiry-based, whole-plant instructional strategy would affect preservice elementary teachers' understanding of plant science principles. This study probed: what preservice teachers know about plant biology concepts before and after instruction, their views of the interrelatedness of plant parts and the environment, how growing a plant affects preservice teachers' understanding, and which types of activity-rich plant themes studies, if any, affect preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The participants in the study were enrolled in two elementary science methods class sections at a state university. Each group was administered a preinstructional test at the beginning of the study. The treatment group participated in inquiry-based activities related to the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001), while the comparison group studied those same concepts through traditional instructional methods. A focus group was formed from the treatment group to participate in co-concept mapping sessions. The participants' understandings were assessed through artifacts from activities, a comparison of pre- and postinstructional tests, and the concept maps generated by the focus group. Results of the research indicated that the whole-plant, inquiry-based instructional strategy can be applied to teach preservice elementary teachers plant biology while modeling the human constructivist approach. The results further indicated that this approach enhanced their understanding of plant science content knowledge, as well as pedagogical knowledge. The results also showed that a whole-plant approach to teaching plant science concepts is an instructional strategy that is feasible for the elementary school. The theoretical framework for this study was Human Constructivist learning theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998). The content knowledge and instructional strategy was informed by the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001) and Botany for the Next Millennium (Botanical Society of America, 1995). As a result of this study, a better understanding of the factors that influence preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of plant science principles may benefit elementary science educator in preparing teachers that are "highly qualified."

Hypolite, Christine Collins

225

[Three-dimensional cell cultures. Applications in basic science and biotechnology].  

PubMed

The tissue culture technique is widely used in biochemical and molecular studies, offering accessibility to biological material, high reproducibility of results and high throughput format, comparing with organ cultures. However, traditional, two-dimensional cultures (2D cultures) poorly represent the microenvironment of a tissue, and they are gradually replaced with 3D cultures, that enable formation of intercellular contacts, signaling pathways and gene expression characteristic for tissue in vivo. This paper presents the biology of three-dimensional cultures (spheroids), their applications in basic science and biotechnology and methods of spheroids formation. PMID:24364213

Kitel, Rados?aw; Czarnecka, Joanna; Rusin, Aleksandra

2013-01-01

226

Magnetoencephalography: Basic principles  

PubMed Central

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic field generated by the electrical activity of neurons. It is usually combined with a magnetic resonance imaging to get what is called magnetic source imaging. The technology that has helped record these minute magnetic fields is super-conducting quantum interference detector which is like a highly sensitive magnetic field meter. To attenuate the external magnetic noise the MEG is housed inside a magnetically shielded room. The actual sensors recording magnetic fields are magnetometers and/or gradiometers. MEG fields pass through the head without any distortion. This is a significant advantage of MEG over electroencephalography. MEG provides a high spatial and temporal resolution. The recording and identification information should be according to the American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society guidelines published in 2011. MEG currently has two approved indications in the United States, one is for pre-operative brain mapping and the other is for use in epilepsy surgery. MEG studies have shown functional brain tissue inside brain tumors.

Singh, Sanjay P.

2014-01-01

227

Magnetoencephalography: Basic principles.  

PubMed

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic field generated by the electrical activity of neurons. It is usually combined with a magnetic resonance imaging to get what is called magnetic source imaging. The technology that has helped record these minute magnetic fields is super-conducting quantum interference detector which is like a highly sensitive magnetic field meter. To attenuate the external magnetic noise the MEG is housed inside a magnetically shielded room. The actual sensors recording magnetic fields are magnetometers and/or gradiometers. MEG fields pass through the head without any distortion. This is a significant advantage of MEG over electroencephalography. MEG provides a high spatial and temporal resolution. The recording and identification information should be according to the American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society guidelines published in 2011. MEG currently has two approved indications in the United States, one is for pre-operative brain mapping and the other is for use in epilepsy surgery. MEG studies have shown functional brain tissue inside brain tumors. PMID:24791076

Singh, Sanjay P

2014-03-01

228

Using Basic Principles To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Henderson Hasselbalch equation calculates the equilibrium distribution of 50:50 for nicotine in its nonprotonated (free base form), relative to its monoprotonated form, at pH of 8 in dilute aqueous solution. This ratio has then been used in the literature to predict the effect of ammonia compounds in tobacco and in smoke on nicotine pyrolysis and smoke chemistry. Experiments demonstrate that neither the thermal chemistry of tobacco alkaloids nor the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke can be explained by the position of the nonprotonated versus monoprotonated form equilibrium in aqueous extracts of tobacco. The high thermal stability of nicotine in air allows nicotine salts to be converted to nonprotonated nicotine and volatilize during heating prior to any substantial decomposition of the nicotine moiety. In contrast, cocaine hydrochloride is thermally unstable and will rapidly decompose upon heating; cocaine hydrochloride must first be converted to its nonprotonated form prior to heating and volatilization.

Seeman, Jeffrey I.

2005-10-01

229

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

230

Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences

Doluisio, James T.

1980-01-01

231

Coherent teaching and need-based learning in science: an approach to teach engineering students in basic physics courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we propose an alternative, based on constructivism, to the conventional way of teaching basic physics courses at the university level. We call this approach ‘coherent teaching’ and the underlying philosophy of teaching science and engineering ‘need-based learning’. We have been applying this philosophy in practice in a basic physics course at the Department of Engineering Physics

T. Kurki-Suonio; A. Hakola

2007-01-01

232

Coherent Teaching and Need-Based Learning in Science: An Approach to Teach Engineering Students in Basic Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present paper, we propose an alternative, based on constructivism, to the conventional way of teaching basic physics courses at the university level. We call this approach "coherent teaching" and the underlying philosophy of teaching science and engineering "need-based learning". We have been applying this philosophy in practice in a basic

Kurki-Suonio, T.; Hakola, A.

2007-01-01

233

An Elective Course on the Basic and Clinical Sciences Aspects of Vitamins and Minerals  

PubMed Central

Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students’ knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products.

2013-01-01

234

The need for basic sciences in the understanding and practice of anaesthesia.  

PubMed

We conducted a survey using an unstructured, then a structured, questionnaire to determine the attitudes of 78 postfellowship anaesthetists to the Basic Sciences component of the part I examination for the FRCA. Seventy-two per cent replied. These anaesthetists felt that about 65% of the basic science syllabus was essential to the understanding and practice of everyday anaesthesia, but there was varying opinion as to the importance of specific topics. Cardiovascular, respiratory, central nervous system and renal physiology were all regarded as essential, as was the pharmacology of anaesthetic drugs. Topics regarded as irrelevant included biochemistry, endocrinology, membrane theory and immunology. Paradoxically, there were many topics which anaesthetists regarded as essential but on which they were unable to give a tutorial. There was little difference between the responses of consultants and trainees. This survey may help to identify a core syllabus on which the majority of anaesthetists agree but also suggests that the current syllabus is overloaded with detail that has no place in clinical practice. PMID:9370834

Burnstein, R M; Jeevaratnam, R D; Jones, J G

1997-10-01

235

Stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia: from basic science to clinical applications  

PubMed Central

Recent stem cell technology provides a strong therapeutic potential not only for acute ischemic stroke but also for chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with neuroregenerative neural cell replenishment and replacement. In addition to resident neural stem cell activation in the brain by neurotrophic factors, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can be mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for homing into the brain for both neurorepair and neuroregeneration in acute stroke and neurodegenerative diseases in both basic science and clinical settings. Exogenous stem cell transplantation is also emerging into a clinical scene from bench side experiments. Early clinical trials of intravenous transplantation of autologous BMSCs are showing safe and effective results in stroke patients. Further basic sciences of stem cell therapy on a neurovascular unit and neuroregeneration, and further clinical advancements on scaffold technology for supporting stem cells and stem cell tracking technology such as magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography or optical imaging with near-infrared could allow stem cell therapy to be applied in daily clinical applications in the near future.

Abe, Koji; Yamashita, Toru; Takizawa, Shunya; Kuroda, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobutaka

2012-01-01

236

Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009  

SciTech Connect

The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

237

General medicine and surgery for dental practitioners: part 2. Medical emergencies in dental practice: the drug box, equipment and basic principles of management.  

PubMed

Dental practitioners need knowledge of the diagnosis and management of medical emergencies. This paper deals with the general aspects of emergency treatment including basic management principles which are applicable to all emergencies. The next paper in this series, part 3, deals with more specific aspects of medical emergency management. PMID:24923938

Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G

2014-06-13

238

[United Nations Resolutions. Resolution on Prison Education. Resolution on Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners. Resolution on Criminal Justice Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three United Nations resolutions that emphasize the role and practice of prison education. The three resolutions were adopted in 1990: (1) the Economic and Social Council Resolution 1990/20 on prison education; (2) the General Assembly Resolution 45/111 on basic principles for the treatment of prisoners; and (3) General…

United Nations, New York, NY.

239

Opportunities for Early Intervention Based on Theory, Basic Neuroscience, and Clinical Science  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the “goal” of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented, along with theoretical principles, neuroscience, and other tissue science data concerning mechanisms that contribute to behavioral changes. One such opportunity is to increase the structured engagement of caregivers, guided by therapists, in administering well-defined activity intervention programs focused on the development of specific functional skills. Such an approach may be one of the few financially feasible options for generating sufficient therapy that adheres to principles for optimizing development of neuromotor control.

2010-01-01

240

The basic science of platelet-rich plasma (PRP): what clinicians need to know.  

PubMed

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been advocated for the biological augmentation of tissue healing and regeneration through the local introduction of increased levels (above baseline) of platelets and their associated bioactive molecules. In theory, the increased levels of autologous growth factors and secretory proteins provided by the concentrated platelets may enhance the wound healing process, especially in degenerative tissues or biologically compromised individuals. Although PRP has been increasingly utilized in the treatment of a variety of sports-related injuries, improvements in healing and clinical outcomes have not been universally reported. One reason for this may be the fact that all PRP preparations are not the same. Variations in the volume of whole blood taken, the platelet recovery efficacy, the final volume of plasma in which the platelets are suspended, and the presence or absence of white blood cells, and the addition of exogenous thrombin to activate the platelets or calcium chloride to induce fibrin formation, can all affect the character and potential efficacy of the final PRP product. This article will review the basic principles involved in creating PRP and examine the potential basic scientific significance of the individual blood components contained in the various forms of PRP currently used in sports medicine. PMID:24212364

Arnoczky, Steven P; Shebani-Rad, Shahin

2013-12-01

241

Bioresorbable fracture fixation in orthopedics: a comprehensive review. Part I. Basic science and preclinical studies.  

PubMed

Metal alloys are currently the most popular materials for manufacture of fracture-fixation devices. Two major disadvantages of these materials are their extreme stiffness, which causes stress shielding of the underlying bone, and the necessity, in a significant number of cases, of removing metallic implants after fracture healing is complete. These shortcomings of metal alloys have led to the study of bioresorbable materials for use in fracture fixation. Currently, polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, and polydioxanone implants are available to the orthopedic surgeon for the fixation of small cancellous bone fractures. Part I of this article provides an overview of the basic science of bioresorbable materials and presents a comprehensive review of preclinical studies reported in the orthopedic literature. Clinical studies will be reviewed in Part II. PMID:9349887

Simon, J A; Ricci, J L; Di Cesare, P E

1997-10-01

242

International Space Science Programs: Basic Research with a High Public Purpose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of outer space, and the use of platforms in space to monitor the Earth, are increasingly international enterprises. The spacefaring nations of the world have programs to study the moon, the Sun, the other planets of the solar system, and the universe beyond. Space is also the domain from which navigation, communication, reconnaissance, and resource management functions are carried out by civilian and military agencies. Recent decades of experience have shown the immense benefits of international cooperation to pursue scientific research goals. In turn, the products of such basic research have immense potential to improve space situational awareness and to mitigate the effects of ''space weather'' on human technology. A key to future success of space exploration is to minimize the impacts of laws and regulations such as ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) that have already had a devastating effect on space commerce and basic space research. In this presentation I discuss the conduct of forefront science in the context of sensible, prudent international space policy and evolving governmental regulations.

Baker, D. N.

2009-04-01

243

Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in zambia.  

PubMed

Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools-two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

2014-08-01

244

An Integrated Course in Pain Management and Palliative Care Bridging the Basic Sciences and Pharmacy Practice  

PubMed Central

Objective. To describe the development of an integrated pain and palliative care course and to investigate the long-term effectiveness of the course during doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and in their practice after graduation. Design. Roseman University College of Pharmacy faculty developed a 3-week elective course in pain and palliative care by integrating relevant clinical and pharmaceutical sciences. Instructional strategies included lectures, team and individual activities, case studies, and student presentations. Assessment. Students who participated in the course in 2010 and 2011 were surveyed anonymously to gain their perception about the class as well as the utility of the course during their APPEs and in their everyday practice. Traditional and nontraditional assessment of students confirmed that the learning outcomes objectives were achieved. Conclusions. Students taking the integrated course on pain management and palliative care achieved mastery of the learning outcome objectives. Surveys of students and practicing pharmacists who completed the course showed that the learning experience as well as retention was improved with the integrated mode of teaching. Integrating basic and clinical sciences in therapeutic courses is an effective learning strategy.

Kullgren, Justin; Unni, Elizabeth; Hanson, Eric

2013-01-01

245

Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a brief summary of those relevant to issues raised by researchers at the workshop.

Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

2011-03-31

246

Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science.  

PubMed

An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher - every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians' instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual's capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive 'channels' for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218

Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David

2014-03-01

247

An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.  

PubMed

An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century. PMID:22383409

Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

2012-03-01

248

The role of basic oral care and good clinical practice principles in the management of oral mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Basic Oral Care Group is one of eight subcommittees functioning within the Mucositis Study Group Guidelines Panel of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and International Society for Oral Oncology (MASCC\\/ISOO). The Basic Oral Care Group, comprised of the four authors of this paper, represented the disciplines of nursing (DBM, JJ), dentistry (MEPC), and pediatric dentistry (PW).

Deborah B. McGuire; Maria Elvira P. Correa; Judith Johnson; Patricia Wienandts

2006-01-01

249

Polymeric fibre composites, basic types, principles of fabrication, and properties. Part 5. Effect of performance effects on polymeric fibre composites; safety\\/hazardousness characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of materials science of polymeric fibre composite materials (PFCM) containing different reinforcing fibrous\\u000a fillers (short-cut fibres, paper, yarn, tow, sliver, fabrics, and nonwoven materials) and different matrices (thermoplasts\\u000a and thermosets) are examined in an analytical review [Khim. Volokna, No. 4 and 5 (2005); No. 1, 4, and 6 (2006)]. The mutual\\u000a effect and reaction of the components of

K. E. Perepelkin

2006-01-01

250

The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

2010-01-01

251

An analysis of Taiwanese eighth graders' science achievement, scientific epistemoiogical beliefs and cognitive structure outcomes after learning basic atomic theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the interrelationships between students’ general science achievement, scientific epistemoiogical beliefs and their cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Research data were mainly gathered from 48 Taiwanese eighth graders’ questionnaire responses and their recalled scientific information about the atomic model, analysed by a flow map technique as evidence of their cognitive structures. This study

1998-01-01

252

Exploration of an E-Learning Model to Foster Critical Thinking on Basic Science Concepts during Work Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We designed an e-learning model to promote critical thinking about basic science topics in online communities of students during work placements in higher education. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the model we explored the online discussions in two case studies. We evaluated the quantity of the interactions by looking at…

de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Jobsis, Rijn; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

2009-01-01

253

How to capture value from linking to science-driven basic research: boundary crossing inventors and partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surprisingly little is known about the actual process of how firms engage in accessing and translating science-driven basic knowledge and turning this into improved applied research productivity. We study this process focused around a research corporation in the microelectronics and semiconductor industry. We show that firms which have a partnership with the research organization where at the same time inventors

Bruno Cassiman; Reinhilde Veugelers; Sam Arts

2011-01-01

254

How to capture value from linking to science-driven basic research: Boundary crossing inventors and partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surprisingly little is known about the actual process of how firms engage in accessing and translating science-driven basic knowledge and turning this into improved applied research productivity. We study this process focused around a research corporation in the microelectronics and semiconductor industry. We show that firms which have a partnership with the research organization where at the same time inventors

B Cassiman; R. Veugelers; S. Arts

2012-01-01

255

Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.  

PubMed

Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education. PMID:22002858

Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

2012-10-01

256

Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students.

Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

2014-01-01

257

Arthroscopic contact Nd:YAG laser meniscectomy: basic science, surgical technique, and clinical follow up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent basic science studies (5) have provided a scientific foundation for the use of the Contact Nd:YAG Laser as an arthroscopic tool for xneniscal resection and acroxnioplasty of the shoulder in a saline medium. This study prospectively evaluates the results of a three stage laboratory investigation as well as the clinical results of arthroscopic xneniscal resection. Fifteen patients with meniscal tears underwent subtotal meniscectomies utilizing a Contact Nd:YAG Laser (Surgical Laser Technologies; Malvern, Pennsylvania) . This was done in a saline medium with an average laser wattage of 25 W, (range 20 W to 30 W). Patients were evaluated postoperatively with reference to subjective and objective parameters at one week and four weeks postoperatively. Patients were evaluated with regard to wound healing, intraarticular swelling and pain. Assessment of technical parameters such as ease of resection, time of resection and instrument access were compared to conventional instruments. All fifteen patients were rated as having clinically excellent results based on pain relief, wound healing and swelling. In addition, although there was increased time with setting up the laser and calibrating it, there was not an increase in time for meniscal resection. Little, or no, secondary "trimmuning" was necessary with the laser. Increased accessibility was noted due to the small size of the laser. Arthroscopic Contact Nd:YAG Laser surgery is a safe and effective tool for menisca]. resection and coagulation in arthroscopic acromioplasties. It provides significant advantages over conventional cutting instruments with regard to accessibility and reduced need for secondary instruments.

O'Brien, Stephen J.; Fealy, Stephen V.; Gibney, Mary A.; Miller, Drew V.; Kelly, Anne M.

1990-06-01

258

Developmental defects of enamel and dentine: challenges for basic science research and clinical management.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of enamel and dentine are caused by a variety of interacting factors ranging from genetic defects to environmental insults. The genetic changes associated with some types of enamel and dentine defects have been mapped, and many environmental influences, including medical illnesses that can damage enamel and dentine have been identified. Developmental enamel defects may present as enamel hypoplasia or hypomineralization while dentine defects frequently demonstrate aberrant calcifications and abnormalities of the dentine-pulp complex. Clinically, developmental enamel defects often present with problems of discolouration and aesthetics, tooth sensitivity, and susceptibility to caries, wear and erosion. In contrast, dentine defects are a risk for endodontic complications resulting from dentine hypomineralization and pulpal abnormalities. The main goals of managing developmental abnormalities of enamel and dentine are early diagnosis and improvement of appearance and function by preserving the dentition and preventing complications. However, despite major advances in scientific knowledge regarding the causes of enamel and dentine defects, further research is required in order to translate the knowledge gained in the basic sciences research to accurate clinical diagnosis and successful treatment of the defects. PMID:24164394

Seow, W K

2014-06-01

259

Physiology education in north american dental schools: the basic science survey series.  

PubMed

As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education. PMID:24882774

Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

2014-06-01

260

Basic Principles of Marine Diesel Engines, 8-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of marine diesel engines is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to acquaint…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

261

Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ? 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I), hypothesis generation (Exam II), choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III), measuring scientific thought (Exam IV). The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Results Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p < 0.001). The scatter plot of the data showed a linear correlation between the score for each exam and the total final score. This meant that students with a higher final score were able to perform better in each exam through having drawn up a meaningful concept map. The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770), (p < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between each exam score and the average grade (p < 0.001). The highest correlation was observed between Exam I (R = 0.7708) and the average grade. This means students with higher average grades had better grades in each exam, especially in drawing the concept map. Conclusions We hope that this competition will encourage medical schools to integrate theory and practice, analyze data, and read research articles. Our findings relate to a selected population, and our data may not be applicable to all medical students. Therefore, further studies are required to validate our results.

2012-01-01

262

Nuclear tracks in solids: Principles and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of track etching are considered, taking into account the formation of particle tracks, the basics of track etching, and methods of nuclear particle identification. Earth and space sciences are discussed, giving attention to fission track dating, modern energetic particles in space, and ancient energetic particles in space. Aspects of nuclear science and technology are also investigated, taking into

R. L. Fleischer; P. B. Price; R. M. Walker

1975-01-01

263

Cannabinoid-Induced Hyperemesis: A Conundrum--From Clinical Recognition to Basic Science Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoids are used clinically on a subacute basis as prophylactic agonist antiemetics for the prevention of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapeutics. Cannabinoids prevent vomiting by inhibition of release of emetic neurotransmitters via stimulation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Cannabis-induced hyperemesis is a recently recognized syndrome associated with chronic cannabis use. It is characterized by repeated cyclical vomiting and learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior. Although considered rare, recent international publications of numerous case reports suggest the contrary. The syndrome appears to be a paradox and the pathophysiological mechanism(s) underlying the induced vomiting remains unknown. Although some traditional hypotheses have already been proposed, the present review critically explores the basic science of these explanations in the clinical setting and provides more current mechanisms for the induced hyperemesis. These encompass: (1) pharmacokinetic factors such as long half-life, chronic exposure, lipid solubility, individual variation in metabolism/excretion leading to accumulation of emetogenic cannabinoid metabolites, and/or cannabinoid withdrawal; and (2) pharmacodynamic factors including switching of the efficacy of ?9-THC from partial agonist to antagonist, differential interaction of ?9-THC with Gs and Gi signal transduction proteins, CB1 receptor desensitization or downregulation, alterations in tissue concentrations of endocannabinoid agonists/inverse agonists, ?9-THC-induced mobilization of emetogenic metabolites of the arachidonic acid cascade, brainstem versus enteric actions of ?9-THC, and/or hypothermic versus hyperthermic actions of ?9-THC. In addition, human and animal findings suggest that chronic exposure to cannabis may not be a prerequisite for the induction of vomiting but is required for the intensity of emesis.

Darmani, Nissar A.

2010-01-01

264

Retention of knowledge and perceived relevance of basic sciences in an integrated case-based learning (CBL) curriculum  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge and understanding of basic biomedical sciences remain essential to medical practice, particularly when faced with the continual advancement of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Evidence suggests, however, that retention tends to atrophy across the span of an average medical course and into the early postgraduate years, as preoccupation with clinical medicine predominates. We postulated that perceived relevance demonstrated through applicability to clinical situations may assist in retention of basic science knowledge. Methods To test this hypothesis in our own medical student cohort, we administered a paper-based 50 MCQ assessment to a sample of students from Years 2 through 5. Covariates pertaining to demographics, prior educational experience, and the perceived clinical relevance of each question were also collected. Results A total of 232 students (Years 2–5, response rate 50%) undertook the assessment task. This sample had comparable demographic and performance characteristics to the whole medical school cohort. In general, discipline-specific and overall scores were better for students in the latter years of the course compared to those in Year 2; male students and domestic students tended to perform better than their respective counterparts in certain disciplines. In the clinical years, perceived clinical relevance was significantly and positively correlated with item performance. Conclusions This study suggests that perceived clinical relevance is a contributing factor to the retention of basic science knowledge and behoves curriculum planners to make clinical relevance a more explicit component of applied science teaching throughout the medical course.

2013-01-01

265

Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2008 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology  

SciTech Connect

This volume brings together theorists, modelers and experimentalists working in the field of actinide science to present and discuss the latest breakthroughs in a field that spans materials science, condensed matter physics and chemistry.

Chung, B.; Thompson, J.; Shuh, D.; Albrecht-Schmitt, T.; Gouder, T. (eds.)

2008-07-01

266

Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice, Executive Summary and Final Report, October 1, 1978 - March 15, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…

Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

267

High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

2014-04-01

268

EFSUMB guidelines and recommendations on the clinical use of ultrasound elastography. Part 1: Basic principles and technology.  

PubMed

The technical part of these Guidelines and Recommendations, produced under the auspices of EFSUMB, provides an introduction to the physical principles and technology on which all forms of current commercially available ultrasound elastography are based. A difference in shear modulus is the common underlying physical mechanism that provides tissue contrast in all elastograms. The relationship between the alternative technologies is considered in terms of the method used to take advantage of this. The practical advantages and disadvantages associated with each of the techniques are described, and guidance is provided on optimisation of scanning technique, image display, image interpretation and some of the known image artefacts. PMID:23558397

Bamber, J; Cosgrove, D; Dietrich, C F; Fromageau, J; Bojunga, J; Calliada, F; Cantisani, V; Correas, J-M; D'Onofrio, M; Drakonaki, E E; Fink, M; Friedrich-Rust, M; Gilja, O H; Havre, R F; Jenssen, C; Klauser, A S; Ohlinger, R; Saftoiu, A; Schaefer, F; Sporea, I; Piscaglia, F

2013-04-01

269

Basic principles for the development of a common standardised method for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials.  

PubMed

Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

2012-04-01

270

Recent trends in publication of basic science and clinical research by United States investigators in anesthesia journals  

PubMed Central

Background United States anesthesia research production declined sharply from 1980-2005. Whether this trend has continued despite recent calls to improve output is unknown. We conducted an observational internet analysis to quantify American basic science and clinical anesthesia research output in 14 anesthesia journals with impact factors greater than one at three-year intervals during the past decade. Results American investigators published 1,486 (21.7%) of the total of 6,845 research articles identified in anesthesia journals in 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010. Approximately two-thirds of all US articles were published in Anesthesiology and Anesthesia and Analgesia. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.316; P = 0.036) between the number of articles published by American authors in each anesthesia journal and the corresponding journal's impact factor in 2010. Significantly (P < 0.05; Pearson's Chi-square) fewer basic science articles were published in 2007 and 2010 compared with 2001. US clinical research output also declined in 2007 (201; 15.7%) compared with 2001 (266; 19.1%) and 2004, but an increase occurred in 2010 (279; 21.8%, P < 0.05 versus 2007). Conclusions The results indicate that US anesthesia research output continued to decrease from 2001 to 2007. An increase in clinical but not basic science research was observed in 2010 compared with 2007, suggesting that a modest recovery in clinical research production may have begun.

2012-01-01

271

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants

C. A. Engelmann; W. I. Rose; J. E. Huntoon; M. F. Klawiter; K. Hungwe

2010-01-01

272

The attitudes and perceptions of medical students towards basic science subjects during their clinical years: A cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the conventional system of medical education, basic subjects are taught in the 1st year with least interdisciplinary interaction. The objective of this study was to explore the students’ perception about content, need and application of basic science subjects during the clinical years of their medical education. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed among students randomly after taking their written consent for participation in the study. About 265 completely filled questionnaires were received back and the response was analyzed. Results: Students identified anatomy as the subject with overloaded syllabus (75.4%) and also with maximum clinical application with 50.1% of them considering it the most important basic subject. Students were satisfied with the practical integration of subjects to impart clinical skills, but considered problem based learning a better method of teaching. According to 37%, 43.8% and 33.2% of respondents respectively; anatomy, biochemistry and physiology curriculum should only cover the general concepts to give the working knowledge of the subject. Approximately, 65% of the respondents were able to recall the knowledge of anatomy and physiology while biochemistry was retained by 40%. Conclusions: Overall, the attitudes of students toward basic science subjects were positive. The learning experience for them can be improved significantly by better clinical integration of the subjects.

Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Ashwani K; Verma, Minni; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Kamaljit

2014-01-01

273

Basic space science. Proceedings. 2. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop for Developing Countries, Bogotá (Colombia), 9 - 13 Nov 1992.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Astrophysics and Space Science contains invited contributions delivered at the Bogotá segment of the second UN/ESA Workshop on Basic Space Science for Developing Countries. The program of the meeting was divided in different sessions: cosmology, dark matter and formation of structure in the Universe, COBE: observations and theory, space missions in Astronomy, and education for space science.

Haubold, H. J.; Torres, S.

1994-04-01

274

A Multi-Instructor, Team-Based, Active-Learning Exercise to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences Content  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Design. A team-based learning activity that involved pre-class reading assignments, individual-and team-answered multiple-choice questions, and evaluation and discussion of a clinical case, was designed, implemented, and moderated by 3 faculty members from the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacy practice departments. Assessment. Student performance was assessed using a multiple-choice examination, an individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), a team readiness assurance test (TRAT), and a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Student attitudes were assessed using a pre- and post-exercise survey instrument. Students’ understanding of possible correct treatment strategies for depression improved. Students were appreciative of this true integration of basic sciences knowledge in a pharmacotherapy course and to have faculty members from both disciplines present to answer questions. Mean student score on the on depression module for the examination was 80.4%, indicating mastery of the content. Conclusions. An exercise led by multiple instructors improved student perceptions of the importance of team-based teaching. Integrated teaching and learning may be achieved when instructors from multiple disciplines work together in the classroom using proven team-based, active-learning exercises.

Roesch, Darren M.; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha

2012-01-01

275

Development and assessment of specialized liaison librarian services: clinical vs. basic science in a veterinary medicine setting.  

PubMed

In 1998, the University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries (HSCL) developed and implemented a Liaison Librarian Program, dedicated to providing customized, subject-specific services to the faculty, students, clinicians, researchers, staff, and administrators of the six Health Science Center Colleges (Dentistry, Health Professions, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Veterinary Medicine). Subject- and role-specific (clinical vs. basic sciences) liaisons were assigned. This paper describes the HSCL liaison program, exemplified by the liaisons' work with the College of Veterinary Medicine. Preliminary program evaluation, a pilot project developed to discern the needs of the veterinary medicine clientele and facilitate awareness of liaison services, and subsequent re-evaluation of patron awareness and satisfaction are also discussed. PMID:12017013

Tennant, Michele R; Cataldo, Tara Tobin

2002-01-01

276

Keynote Lecture: Basic Science and the NIH: American Society for Cell Biology Meeting  

Cancer.gov

Let me tell you briefly how it happened. Just a few years ago, my interests in the politics of science were barely noticeable. Like most of you, I was reasonably content, and often very happy, to be doing science in this remarkably exciting era in biology. Then, seemingly all at once, a number of things happened.

277

Basic Science Process Skills. An Inservice Workshop Kit: Outlines and Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…

Rowland, Paul; And Others

278

Basic Concepts in the Methodology of the Social Sciences. HSRC Studies in Research Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerations of validity that are central to all disciplines in the social sciences are discussed, and concepts that are an essential part of the intellectual equipment of the social sciences researcher are systematically analyzed. Fundamental methodological concepts underlying decisions made in the research process are highlighted to encourage…

Mouton, Johann, Ed.; Marais, H. C.

279

The foundations: How education major influences basic science knowledge and pseudoscience beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many pseudoscience beliefs are popular, most American research examines creation\\/evoluti on among liberal arts majors, general public adults, or, infrequently, secondary school science teachers, thus truncating the range and the populations it studies It is especially critical to study future elementary educators because of the science interest \\

Susan Carol Losh; Brandon Nzekwe

2011-01-01

280

Applying basic principles of child passenger safety to improving transportation safety for children who travel while seated in wheelchairs.  

PubMed

Occupant restraint systems are designed based on knowledge of crash dynamics and the application of proven occupant-protection principles. For ambulatory children or children who use wheelchairs but can transfer out of their wheelchair when traveling in motor vehicles, there is a range of child safety seats that comply with federal safety standards and that therefore offer high levels of crash protection. For children who remain seated in wheelchairs for travel, the use of wheelchairs and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) that comply with voluntary industry standards significantly enhances safety. Revisions to the initial versions of these standards will further improve safety for smaller children who travel seated in wheelchairs by requiring wheelchairs for children between 13 and 22 kg (18 and 50 lb) to provide a five-point, wheelchair-integrated crash-tested harness similar to that used in forward-facing child safety seats. While wheelchair and tiedown/restraint manufacturers, van modifiers, transportation personnel, clinicians, and others involved with children who use wheelchairs have clearly defined responsibilities relative to providing these children with safe transportation, parents and caregivers should be knowledgeable about best-practice in wheelchair transportation safety and should use this knowledge to advocate for the safest transportation possible. PMID:22430620

Manary, Miriam A; Schneider, Lawrence W

2011-01-01

281

A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.  

PubMed

In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy. PMID:19653516

Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

2009-03-01

282

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

283

The IQWST Experience: Using Coherence as a Design Principle for a Middle School Science Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coherent curricula are needed to help students develop deep understanding of important ideas in science. Too often students experience curriculum that is piecemeal and lacks coordination and consistency across time, topics, and disciplines. Investigating and Questioning our World through Science and Technology (IQWST) is a middle school science

Shwartz, Yael; Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Krajcik, Joe; Reiser, Brian

2008-01-01

284

The Frog Vestibular System as a Model for Lesion-Induced Plasticity: Basic Neural Principles and Implications for Posture Control  

PubMed Central

Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the central nervous system (CNS) to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the CNS include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims toward a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of vestibular function.

Lambert, Francois M.; Straka, Hans

2011-01-01

285

Principles of sound ecotoxicology.  

PubMed

We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively. PMID:24512103

Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P

2014-03-18

286

Cleft palate-craniofacial journal 50th anniversary editorial board commentary: anatomy, basic sciences, and genetics-then and now.  

PubMed

To celebrate the 50th year of the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal we look back to where we started in 1964 and where we are now, and we speculate about directions for the future in a "Then and Now" editorial series. This editorial examines changing trends and perspectives in anatomical, basic science, and genetic studies published in this 50-year interval. In volume 1 there were 45 total papers, seven (16%) of which were peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: four in anatomy, three in craniofacial biology, and none in genetics. In contrast, in volume 50, of 113 articles there were 47 (42%) peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: 30 in anatomy, five in craniofacial biology, and 12 in genetics. Topical analysis of published manuscripts then and now reveal that similar topics in anatomy and craniofacial biology are still being researched today (e.g., phenotypic variability, optimal timing of surgery, presurgical orthopedics, bone grafting); whereas, most of the more recent papers use advanced technology to address old questions. In contrast, genetic publications have clearly increased in frequency during the last 50 years, which parallels advances in the field during this time. However, all of us have noticed that the more "cutting-edge" papers in these areas are not being submitted for publication to the journal, but instead to discipline-specific journals. Concerted efforts are therefore indicated to attract and publish these cutting-edge papers in order to keep the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal in the forefront of orofacial cleft and craniofacial anomaly research and to provide a valuable service to American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members. PMID:24617328

Mooney, Mark P; Cooper, Gregory M; Marazita, Mary L

2014-05-01

287

Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

2010-01-01

288

A New PhD Training Track: A Proposal To Improve Basic Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that a basic scientist with a background of integrative physiology, pharmacology, anatomy, and pathology, with a special emphasis on pathophysiology, would be very well qualified to practice medicine of the future. Proposes a Ph.D. training track with this objective and lists some advantages and disadvantages of such a program. (AIM)

Smith, James J.; And Others

1997-01-01

289

Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

1970-01-01

290

Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of 2-6 semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

Calzonetti, F.

1993-03-01

291

Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2006 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings from the September 2006 symposium includes papers presented on experimental and modeling work with the intention of broadening understanding of the field of actinide research. Actinides have gained attention recently because of their roles in the threat of nuclear terrorism (e.g., 'dirty bombs') and the use of nuclear power to offset fossil fuel consumption. Actinide science is the

Kerri J. M. Blobaum; Elaine A. Chandler; Ladislav Havela; M. Brian Maple; Mary P. Neu

2007-01-01

292

Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

293

Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

294

Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

Mowery, Donald R.

295

Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of II-VI semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

Calzonetti, F.

1993-03-01

296

Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of II-VI semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

Calzonetti, F.

1993-03-01

297

Integrating the Dimensions of Sex and Gender into Basic Life Sciences Research: Methodologic and Ethical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The research process from study design and selecting a species and its husbandry, through the experiment, analysis, peer review, and publication is rarely subject to questions about sex or gender differences in mainstream life sciences research. However, the impact of sex and gender on these processes is important in explaining biological variations and presentation of symptoms and diseases.Objective: This

Anita Holdcroft

2007-01-01

298

Chemical Nanotechnology: A Liberal Arts Approach to a Basic Course in Emerging Interdisciplinary Science and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nanotechnology degree programs initiated at various institutions provided an excellent way of learning to look at the amazing opportunities that arise when various disciplines of science interact. The enrolled students were actively engaged in the subject matter and also expressed greater confidence in their ability to consider technology with…

Porter, Lon A., Jr.

2007-01-01

299

The use of shock waves in medicine--a tool of the modern OR: an overview of basic physical principles, history and research.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal-generated shock waves were first used in medical therapy, to disintegrate kidney stones, approximately 20 years ago. Since this time, shock waves have changed the treatment of urolithiasis substantially and are now the first-choice treatment for kidney and ureteral stones. First clinical investigations of the shock-wave treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica (IPP) are showing promising results. Shock waves have also been used in orthopaedics and traumatology, to treat insertion tendinitis, non-unions or delayed unions, avascular necrosis of the head of femur and other necrotic bone alterations. Shock-wave application has also been used in the treatment of horse tendons, ligaments and bones in veterinary medicine. The theory of shock-wave therapy for orthopaedic diseases involves the stimulation of healing processes in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a completely different approach from that of urology, where shock waves are used for disintegration. This paper gives an overview of the basic physical principles of shock waves, and the history and basic research behind shock-wave use in medicine. PMID:20156022

Thiel, M; Nieswand, M; Dörffel, M

2000-01-01

300

Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED

S. Cowles; R. Collier; M. K. Torres

2004-01-01

301

Investigating the Relationship between STEM Learning Principles and Student Achievement in Math and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) advocates commonly emphasize an interdisciplinary, authentic, project-based, and technology-based approach to learning, though the strength of prior research varies. This study examines the association between a range of classroom activities and academic performance gains in math and science. Using…

Hansen, Michael; Gonzalez, Thomas

2014-01-01

302

Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

2001-12-12

303

LARGE ANIMAL MODELS OF HEART FAILURE: A CRITICAL LINK IN THE TRANSLATION OF BASIC SCIENCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE  

PubMed Central

Congestive heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome, with hallmarks of fatigue and dyspnea, which continues to be highly prevalent and morbid. Due to the growing burden of HF as the population ages, the need to develop new pharmacologic treatments and therapeutic interventions is of paramount importance. Common pathophysiologic features of HF include changes in left ventricle (LV) structure, function, and neurohormonal activation. The recapitulation of the HF phenotype in large animal models can allow for the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical therapies. Models of myocardial infarction/ischemia, ischemic cardiomyopathy, ventricular pressure and volume overload, and pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy have been created in dogs, pigs, and sheep for the investigation of HF and potential therapies. Large animal models recapitulating the clinical HF phenotype and translating basic science to clinical applications have successfully traveled the journey from bench to bedside. Undoubtedly, large animal models of HF will continue to play a crucial role in the elucidation of biologic pathways involved in HF and the development and refinement of HF therapies.

Dixon, Jennifer A.; Spinale, Francis G.

2009-01-01

304

The role of a science story, activities, and dialogue modeled on Philosophy for Children in teaching basic science process skills to fifth graders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was an application of Philosophy for Children pedagogy to science education. It was designed to answer the question, What roles do a science story (Harry Discovers Science), multi-sensorial activities designed to accompany the story, and classroom dialogue associated with the story---all modeled on the Philosophy for Children curriculum---play in the learning processes of a class of fifth graders with regard to the basic science process skills of classification, observation, and inference? To answer the question, I collected qualitative data as I carried out a participatory study in which I taught science to fifth graders at an international, bilingual private religious school in Brasilia, Brazil for a period of one semester. Twenty-one (n = 21) children participated in the study, 10 females and 11 males, who came from a predominantly middle and upper class social background. Data were collected through student interviews, student class reflection sheets, written learning assessments, audiotapes of all class sessions, including whole-class and small-class group discussions, and a videotape of one class session. Some of the key findings were that the story, activities and dialogue facilitated the children's learning in a number of ways. The story modeled the performance of classification, observation and inference skills for the children as well as reflection on the meaning of inference. The majority of the students identified with the fictional characters, particularly regarding traits such as cleverness and inquisitiveness, and with the learning context of the story. The multi-sensorial activities helped children learn observation and inference skills as well as dialogue. Dialogue also helped children self-correct and build upon each other's ideas. Some students developed theories about how ideal dialogue should work. In spite of the inherent limitations of qualitative and teacher research studies, as well as the limitations of this particular study, and despite the fact that there is a need for further research to confirm the transferability of findings, this study both supports and expands to the domain of basic science process skills the claim that Philosophy for Children helps students develop thinking skills.

Ferreira, Louise Brandes Moura

305

Analysis of changes in the federal funding trends to higher education for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences compared to government and industry: 1967-1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem addressed by this study is that the amount of federal funds allocated in higher education for conducting basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences appear to be declining relative to government and industry. To test this hypothesis, data were obtained from the National Science Foundation on the amounts of federal funds provided for research and development from

Veasey; C. Jr

1985-01-01

306

A Comparison of Concept and Principle Learning About Organic Evolution Between Tenth Grade Students in a Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Course Versus a Course in Traditional Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated were the effects of two different methods of instruction on concept and principle learning related to organic evaluation. Also investigated was the relationship between achievement and science aptitude. The sample was selected from tenth grade students in a high school in Arizona. They were randomly assigned to a Biological Sciences

Barrow, Wesley Charles

307

Tripodal mandibular subperiosteal implant: basic sciences, operational procedures, and clinical data.  

PubMed

A tripodal mandibular subperiosteal dental implant is a three piece cast metal framework that fits on the residual ridge beneath the periosteum and provides support for a dental prosthesis by means of posts or other mechanisms protruding through the oral mucosa. This implant is indicated in patients with advanced atrophy of the mandible where the unstable alveolar bone has completely disappeared, leaving in place the more stable basal bone with specific anatomical contours. The authors present their experience of 317 cases carried out in three different centers related to this implant modality and underline the importance of the basic anatomic, physiologic, and medical knowledge required to optimize the results. PMID:9759037

Linkow, L I; Wagner, J R; Chanavaz, M

1998-01-01

308

Citizen Science 2.0: Data Management Principles to Harness the Power of the Crowd  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Citizen science refers to voluntary participation by the general public in scientific endeavors. Although citizen science\\u000a has a long tradition, the rise of online communities and user-generated web content has the potential to greatly expand its\\u000a scope and contributions. Citizens spread across a large area will collect more information than an individual researcher can.\\u000a Because citizen scientists tend to make

Roman Lukyanenko; Jeffrey Parsons; Yolanda Wiersma

2011-01-01

309

Categorical principles, techniques and results for high-level-replacement systems in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to give an introduction how to use categorical methods in a specific field of computer science: The field of high-level-replacement systems has its roots in the well-established theories of formal languages, term rewriting, Petri nets, and graph grammars playing a fundamental role in computer science. More precisely, it is a generalization of the algebraic

Hartmut Ehrig; Michael Löwe

1993-01-01

310

Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.; Graham, J.; Hoggan, J. C.

2011-12-01

311

A Critical Review of mTOR Inhibitors and Epilepsy: from Basic Science to Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Summary Present medications for epilepsy have substantial limitations, such as medical intractability in many patients and lack of antiepileptogenic properties to prevent epilepsy. Drugs with novel mechanisms of action are needed to overcome these limitations. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has emerged as a possible therapeutic target for epilepsy. Preliminary clinical trials suggest that mTOR inhibitors reduce seizures in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients with intractable epilepsy. Furthermore, mTOR inhibitors have antiepileptogenic properties in preventing epilepsy in animal models of TSC. Besides TSC, accumulating preclinical data suggest that mTOR inhibitors may have antiseizure or antiepileptogenic actions in other types of epilepsy, including infantile spasms, neonatal hypoxic seizures, absence epilepsy, and acquired temporal lobe epilepsy following brain injury, but these effects depend on a number of conditions. Future clinical and basic research is needed to establish whether mTOR inhibitors are an effective treatment for epilepsy.

Wong, Michael

2013-01-01

312

ERBB receptors: from oncogene discovery to basic science to mechanism-based cancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

ERBB receptors were linked to human cancer pathogenesis approximately three decades ago. Biomedical investigators have since developed substantial understanding of the biology underlying the dependence of cancers on aberrant ERBB receptor signaling. An array of cancer-associated genetic alterations in ERBB receptors has also been identified. These findings have led to the discovery and development of mechanism-based therapies targeting ERBB receptors that have improved outcome for many cancer patients. In this Perspective, we discuss current paradigms of targeting ERBB receptors with cancer therapeutics and our understanding of mechanisms of action and resistance to these drugs. As current strategies still have limitations, we also discuss challenges and opportunities that lie ahead as basic scientists and clinical investigators work toward more breakthroughs. PMID:24651011

Arteaga, Carlos L; Engelman, Jeffrey A

2014-03-17

313

Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach it (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the words "periodic table" send chills down your spine? Are you anxious about atomic structure? Confounded by chemical equations? Relax! The cure for chemistry confusion is within reach, courtesy of this newly available book in the Stop Faking It! series. Best-selling author Bill Robertson takes a fresh approach to chemistry fundamentals by helping you understand them from the ground up. Instead of hounding you to memorize the characteristics of atoms and the periodic table, Chemistry Basics will help you see those characteristics as a natural consequence of our understanding of atomic structure. You will learn not just that atoms behave in certain ways, but why they behave in that way. You will learn not just how to balance chemical equations, but why in the world you would want to! You will also learn not just that carbon is a building block of thousands of organic compounds, but why carbon is suited for this purpose.

Robertson, William C.

2007-01-01

314

Basic principles of paediatric radiotherapy.  

PubMed

This article gives an introduction to the fundamentals of paediatric radiotherapy, describing the historical development of the speciality and its organisation in the UK, the clinical pathway (including issues around immobilisation) and an overview of indications for radiotherapy in the paediatric population. Late effects of radiotherapy, their mitigation and the role of the late effects clinic are summarised. PMID:23063320

Thorp, N

2013-01-01

315

[Basic principles of patient education].  

PubMed

The objective of therapeutic education is to enable patients to reconcile their life project, disease and treatment. To achieve this, it aims notably to make them autonomous in the management of their health. Often practised in a multi-disciplinary team, it is an essential component of the management of patients with chronic diseases. PMID:24427918

Thieffry, Eliane; Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

2013-12-01

316

Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

NONE

1995-12-31

317

A Science of Meaning: Can Behaviorism Bring Meaning to Psychological Science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An argument is presented for making meaning a central dependent variable in psychological science. Principles of operant psychology are then interpreted as providing a basic foundation for a science of meaning. The emphasis here is on the generality of basic operant concepts, where learning is a process of meaning making that is governed largely by natural contingencies; reinforcement is an

Richard J. DeGrandpre

2000-01-01

318

Ascending monoaminergic systems alterations in Alzheimer's disease. translating basic science into clinical care.  

PubMed

Extensive neuropathological studies have established a compelling link between abnormalities in structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic (MA-ergic) systems and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main cell populations of these systems including the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the tuberomamillary nucleus undergo significant degeneration in AD, thereby depriving the hippocampal and cortical neurons from their critical modulatory influence. These studies have been complemented by genome wide association studies linking polymorphisms in key genes involved in the MA-ergic systems and particular behavioral abnormalities in AD. Importantly, several recent studies have shown that improvement of the MA-ergic systems can both restore cognitive function and reduce AD-related pathology in animal models of neurodegeneration. This review aims to explore the link between abnormalities in the MA-ergic systems and AD symptomatology as well as the therapeutic strategies targeting these systems. Furthermore, we will examine possible mechanisms behind basic vulnerability of MA-ergic neurons in AD. PMID:23707776

Trillo, Ludwig; Das, Devsmita; Hsieh, Wayne; Medina, Brian; Moghadam, Sarah; Lin, Bill; Dang, Van; Sanchez, Martha Millan; De Miguel, Zurine; Ashford, J Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad

2013-09-01

319

Bio-electrospraying and cell electrospinning: progress and opportunities for basic biology and clinical sciences.  

PubMed

Engineering of functional tissues is a fascinating and fertile arena of research and development. This flourishing enterprise weaves together many areas of research to tackle the most complex question faced to date, namely how to design and reconstruct a synthetic three-dimensional fully functional tissue on demand. At present our healthcare is under threat by several social and economical issues together with those of a more scientific and clinical nature. One such issue arises from our increasing life expectancy, resulting in an ageing society. This steeply growing ageing society requires functional organotypic tissues on demand for repair, replacement, and rejuvenation (R(3) ). Several approaches are pioneered and developed to assist conventional tissue/organ transplantation. In this Progress Report, "non-contact jet-based" approaches for engineering functional tissues are introduced and bio-electrosprays and cell electrospinning, i.e., biotechniques that have demonstrated as being benign for directly handling living cells and whole organisms, are highlighted. These biotechniques possess the ability to directly handle heterogeneous cell populations as suspensions with a biopolymer and/or other micro/nanomaterials for directly forming three-dimensional functional living reconstructs. These discoveries and developments have provided a promising biotechnology platform with far-reaching ramifications for a wide range of applications in basic biological laboratories to their utility in the clinic. PMID:23184685

Poncelet, Denis; de Vos, Paul; Suter, Nicolai; Jayasinghe, Suwan N

2012-01-11

320

Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians  

PubMed Central

Background Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. Methods We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Results Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. Conclusions A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required.

2011-01-01

321

Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

Taber, Keith S.

2010-01-01

322

Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

2010-01-01

323

Linking the Two Worlds: Science and Art for Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second-year, shared experience curriculum for Iowa Wesleyan College, Mount Pleasant, Iowa is an Integrated Science course linking science and art. The Integrated Science Linking Science and Art promoted a better understanding of basic scientific principles and literacy, by initially showing linkages to art. As the course developed, it became…

Hollenbeck, James E.; Reiter, Wanda S.

2004-01-01

324

The utilization of the seven principles for good practices of full-time and adjunct faculty in teaching health & science in community colleges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which undergraduate full-time and adjunct faculty members in the health and science programs at community colleges in Southern California utilize the seven principles of good practice as measured by the Faculty Inventory of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. A second purpose was to compare degree of utilization for gender and class size. Methodology. This is a quantitative study wherein there exists a systematic and mathematical assessment of data gathered through the use of a Likert scale survey to process and determine the mathematical model of the use of the principles by the target population of both full-time and adjunct faculty of health/science programs of community colleges in Southern California. Findings. Examination of the data revealed that both full-time and adjunct faculty members of Southern California community colleges perceive themselves a high degree of utilization of the seven principles of good practice. There was no statistically significant data to suggest a discrepancy between full-time and adjunct professors' perceptions among the utilization of the seven principles. Overall, male faculty members perceived themselves as utilizing the principles to a greater degree than female faculty. Data suggest that faculty with class size 60 or larger showed to utilize the seven principles more frequently than the professors with smaller class sizes. Conclusions. Full-time and adjunct professors of the health and sciences in Southern California community colleges perceive themselves as utilizing the seven principles of good practice to a high degree. Recommendations. This study suggests many recommendations for future research, including the degree to which negative economic factors such as budget cuts and demands affect the utilization of the seven principles. Also recommended is a study comparing students' perceptions of faculty's utilization of the seven principles of good practice in the classroom with faculty's self-perception.

Musaitif, Linda M.

325

Ilizarov principles of deformity correction  

PubMed Central

Ilizarov frames provide a versatile fixation system for the management of bony deformities, fractures and their complications. The frames give stability, soft tissue preservation, adjustability and functionality allowing bone to realise its full osteogenic potential. It is important that we have a clear and concise understanding of the Ilizarov principles of deformity correction to best make use of this fixation system. In this review article, the history of Ilizarov frame, the basic sciences behind it, the mechanical principles governing its use and the clinical use of the fixation system are discussed.

Spiegelberg, B; Parratt, T; Dheerendra, SK; Khan, WS; Jennings, R; Marsh, DR

2010-01-01

326

Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.  

PubMed

There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students. PMID:24127920

Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

2013-10-01

327

Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

2008-09-24

328

12 Basic Principles for Incorporating Media Literacy into Any Curriculum. Project Look Sharp: Providing Support, Education, and Training To Help Teachers Prepare Students To Survive in a Media-Saturated World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Look Sharp is an initiative to promote and support the integration of media literacy into classroom curricula at all grade levels and instructional areas, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of media literacy education in the schools. It provides the following 12 guidelines as basic principles for incorporating media literacy into any…

Ithaca Coll., NY.

329

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-01-01

330

Organizational interventions employing principles of complexity science have improved outcomes for patients with Type II diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the development of several models of care delivery for patients with chronic illness, consistent improvements in outcomes have not been achieved. These inconsistent results may be less related to the content of the models themselves, but to their underlying conceptualization of clinical settings as linear, predictable systems. The science of complex adaptive systems (CAS), suggests that clinical settings are non-linear, and increasingly has been used as a framework for describing and understanding clinical systems. The purpose of this study is to broaden the conceptualization by examining the relationship between interventions that leverage CAS characteristics in intervention design and implementation, and effectiveness of reported outcomes for patients with Type II diabetes. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature on organizational interventions to improve care of Type II diabetes. For each study we recorded measured process and clinical outcomes of diabetic patients. Two independent reviewers gave each study a score that reflected whether organizational interventions reflected one or more characteristics of a complex adaptive system. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by standardizing the scoring of the results of each study as 0 (no effect), 0.5 (mixed effect), or 1.0 (effective). Results Out of 157 potentially eligible studies, 32 met our eligibility criteria. Most studies were felt to utilize at least one CAS characteristic in their intervention designs, and ninety-one percent were scored as either "mixed effect" or "effective." The number of CAS characteristics present in each intervention was associated with effectiveness (p = 0.002). Two individual CAS characteristics were associated with effectiveness: interconnections between participants and co-evolution. Conclusion The significant association between CAS characteristics and effectiveness of reported outcomes for patients with Type II diabetes suggests that complexity science may provide an effective framework for designing and implementing interventions that lead to improved patient outcomes.

Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline; Lawrence, Valerie; Parchman, Michael; Noel, Polly H; Cornell, John; McDaniel, Reuben R

2007-01-01

331

Principles of project management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

1982-01-01

332

Radar principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic operating principles, design, and applications of radars are discussed in an introductory text intended for first-year graduate students. Topics addressed include radar measurements, radar target cross sections, radar detection, ground effects, matched filters, ambiguity functions, coded radar signals, and radar measurement accuracy. Consideration is given to processing coherent pulse trains, moving-target indicators, CFAR, SAR, and monopulse antenna tracking.

Nadav Levanon

1988-01-01

333

A Cross-College Age Study of Science and Nonscience Students' Conceptions of Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for High-School Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article reports the results of a a questionaire that was given to 433 students in college preservice training for future high school teachers. Results indicated that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-07-17

334

Commentary: The Year in Basic Science: Update of Estrogen Plus Progestin Therapy for Menopausal Hormone Replacement Implicating Stem Cells in the Increased Breast Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This transcript is based on my The Year in Basic Science lecture at ENDO 2008. I reviewed current data surrounding hormone replacement therapy and the relationship between systemic estrogen plus progestin (EP) treatment and increased breast cancer risk, and I explored the hypothesis that women who develop breast cancer while on EP had occult, undiagnosed disease before they started therapy.

Kathryn B. Horwitz

2008-01-01

335

Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in

J. M. Phillips; P. E. Burrows; R. F. Davis; J. A. Simmons; G. G. Malliaras; F. So; J. A. Misewich; A. V. Nurmikko; D. L. Smith; J. Y. Tsao; H. Kung; M. H. Crawford; M. E. Coltrin; T. J. Fitzsimmons; A. Kini; C. Ashton; B. Herndon; S. Kitts; L. Shapard; P. W. Brittenham; M. P. Vittitow

2006-01-01

336

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

Busch, Phylliss

1987-01-01

337

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why earthworms are fascinating and important animals whose study should be expanded. Describes how to collect earthworms and their castings and how to demonstrate their tunneling activity. Stresses animal's uniqueness and how it is interrelated with other animals, plants, and non-living parts of the world. (NEC)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1986-01-01

338

Basic Sciences - Gene Regulation  

Cancer.gov

Currently, Dr. Levens's research is focusing on the transcriptional regulation of c-myc and the elucidation of the roles of conformation and topology-selective, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factors. The c-myc gene employs multiple cis-elements, upstream and downstream of its promoters, P1 and P2. The goal is to illuminate the mechanisms through which the input of multiple factors sets the expression level of this critical proto-oncogene.

339

Basic Sciences - Molecular Diagnostics  

Cancer.gov

The Hematopathology Section analyzes approximately 200 cases per month, integrates immunohistochemical and molecular diagnostic assays, and evaluates assays under translational testing for possible diagnostic or prognostic utility. Accessioned cases serve as source materials for research and training.

340

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1984-01-01

341

Basic Sciences - Surgical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

The Surgical Pathology Section provides expertise and diagnostic services in the field of Anatomic Pathology for Clinical Center patients and collaborates with the research staff in those investigations, which involve the use and study of human pathological material. Approximately 6,000 surgical specimens and biopsies (more than 60,000 slides which include routine and a variety of special stains) are accessioned each year. These include more than 2,000 fresh human tissues.

342

Basic Sciences - Cytopathology  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Abati is a graduate of the S.U.N.Y. Buffalo Medical School. She completed residencies in Anatomic Pathology and Neuropathology at the New York University Medical Center and fellowships in Surgical Pathology and Cytopathology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Prior to coming to the NCI, Dr. Abati was a staff pathologist at New York University Medical Center and the Baylor University Medical Center where she also completed a residency in Clinical Pathology.

343

Basic Sciences - Biochemical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of normal cell growth and differentiation and play essential roles in pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis and infection by pathogens. We are defining functions of adhesion molecules, their cell surface and matrix receptors, and the signal transduction pathways that regulate their activities in specific diseases. These studies will identify new molecular targets and could provide a basis for designing novel therapeutic agents.

344

Rocket Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site from the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project, the science and history of rocketry is explained. Visitors will find out how rocket principles illustrate Newton's Laws of Motion. There is a second page of this site, Practical Rocketry, which discusses the workings of rockets, including propellants, engine thrust control, stability and control systems, and mass.

2008-07-29

345

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

346

More Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overwhelmed by orbitals? Terrified of thermodynamics? Agitated by acids and bases? Have no fear! This follow-up to the award-winning Chemistry Basics will clear up your chemistry woes. In More Chemistry Basics , the ninth book i

Robertson, William C.

2010-06-10

347

High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP) for studies of basic nuclear science relevant to Stellar and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear processes have been explored traditionally by means of conventional accelerator experiments, which are difficult to execute at conditions relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis. Thus, nuclear reactions at stellar energies are often studied through extrapolations from higher-energy data or in low-background underground experiments. Even when measurements are possible using accelerators at relevant energies, thermonuclear reaction rates in stars are inherently different from those in accelerator experiments. The fusing nuclei are surrounded by bound electrons in accelerator experiments, whereas electrons occupy mainly continuum states in a stellar environment. Nuclear astrophysics research will therefore benefit from an enlarged toolkit for studies of nuclear reactions. In this presentation, we report on the first use of High Energy Density Plasmas for studies of nuclear reactions relevant to basic nuclear science, stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility at University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in which spherical capsules were irradiated with powerful lasers to compress and heat the fuel to high enough temperatures and densities for nuclear reactions to occur. Four experiments will be highlighted in this presentation. In the first experiment, the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-T) scattering at 14.1 MeV was measured with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in accelerator experiments. In the second experiment, the T(t,2n)4He reaction, a mirror reaction to the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction that plays an important role in the proton-proton chain that transforms hydrogen into ordinary 4He in stars like our Sun, was studied at energies in the range 15-40 keV. In the third experiment, the 3He+3He solar fusion reaction was studied directly, and in the fourth experiment, we probed the T+3He reaction, possibly relevant to Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Frenje, Johan

2014-06-01

348

Basic teaching methods in physics and social science classroom: Reality and upper secondary school students' expectations in Norway and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, there was a worldwide discussion about the decreasing interest in science and technology studies on all levels. Much research has been organised to clarify what might affect student motivation to study science and, in particular, physics. The answers to what might motivate students are typically sought by investigating their interests or attitudes to (i) science (or domains

Jari Lavonen; Carl Angell; Reijo Byman; Ellen Henriksen; Ismo Koponen

349

Animals. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

Roderman, Winifred Ho; Booth, Gerald

350

An ion-pair principle for enantioseparations of basic analytes by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis using the di-n-butyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as chiral selector.  

PubMed

A chiral recognition mechanism of ion-pair principle has been proposed in this study. It rationalized the enantioseparations of some basic analytes using the complex of di-n-butyl l-tartrate and boric acid as the chiral selector in methanolic background electrolytes (BGEs) by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). An approach of mass spectrometer (MS) directly confirmed that triethylamine promoted the formation of negatively charged di-n-butyl l-tartrate-boric acid complex chiral counter ion with a complex ratio of 2:1. And the negatively charged counter ion was the real chiral selector in the ion-pair principle enantioseparations. It was assumed that triethylamine should play its role by adjusting the apparent acidity (pH*) of the running buffer to a higher value. Consequently, the effects of various basic electrolytes including inorganic and organic ones on the enantioseparations in NACE were investigated. The results showed that most of the basic electrolytes tested were favorable for the enantioseparations of basic analytes using di-n-butyl l-tartrate-boric acid complex as the chiral ion-pair selector. PMID:23434083

Wang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Qie-Nan; Yang, Geng-Liang; Chen, Xing-Guo

2013-04-01

351

Radar principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic operating principles, design, and applications of radars are discussed in an introductory text intended for first-year graduate students. Topics addressed include radar measurements, radar target cross sections, radar detection, ground effects, matched filters, ambiguity functions, coded radar signals, and radar measurement accuracy. Consideration is given to processing coherent pulse trains, moving-target indicators, CFAR, SAR, and monopulse antenna tracking. Extensive diagrams and graphs are provided.

Levanon, Nadav

352

Analysis of changes in the federal funding trends to higher education for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences compared to government and industry: 1967-1985  

SciTech Connect

The problem addressed by this study is that the amount of federal funds allocated in higher education for conducting basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences appear to be declining relative to government and industry. To test this hypothesis, data were obtained from the National Science Foundation on the amounts of federal funds provided for research and development from fiscal years 1955 to 1985. The NSF data were organized into tables, presented, and analyzed to help determine what changes had occurred in the amounts of federal funds allocated to higher education, government, and industry for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences for fiscal years 1967 to 1985. The study provided six recommendations to augment declining federal funds for basic research. (1) Expand participation in applied research, (2) Develop and expand consortia arrangements with other academic institutions of higher education. (3) Pursue other funding sources such as alumni, private foundations, industry, and state and local government. (4) Develop and expand joint research with national and industrial laboratories. (5) Expand participation in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research to develop technological solutions to local, regional, and national problems. (6) Develop and expand programs of reciprocal internships, and sabbaticals with industrial and national laboratories.

Veasey, C. Jr.

1985-01-01

353

Basic Premises, Guiding Principles, and Competent Practices for a Positive Youth Development Approach to Working with Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths in Out-of-Home-Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the most effective way to help gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths in out-of-home care is to provide the same types of supports and services that all adolescents need. Explores a model, organized around five core premises that define the principles and practices of a positive youth development approach, for supporting development of…

Mallon, Gerald P.

1997-01-01

354

Harnessing the Use of Open Learning Exchange to Support Basic Education in Science and Mathematics in the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…

Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.

2013-01-01

355

Basic premises, guiding principles, and competent practices for a positive youth development approach to working with gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths in out-of home care.  

PubMed

The most effective way to help gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths in out-of-home care is to provide them with the same types of supports and services that all adolescents need. Organized around five core premises that define the principles and practices of a positive youth development approach, this article explores a model for supporting the development of these youths in out-of-home care. PMID:9308165

Mallon, G P

1997-01-01

356

Configuration of the Hemoglobin Oxygen Dissociation Curve Demystified: A Basic Mathematical Proof for Medical and Biological Sciences Undergraduates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussion of illustrating in simple mathematics the fundamental reason for the crucial sigmoidal configuration of the ODC such that the medical and bioscience undergraduates can readily appreciate it, which is the objective of this basic dissertation.

Melvin Khee-Shing Leow (National University of Singapore Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medicine)

2007-06-01

357

Resident's Morning Report: An Opportunity to Reinforce Principles of Biomedical Science in a Clinical Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a…

Brass, Eric P.

2013-01-01

358

Basic Principles, Concepts, and Issues. Part One, Educational Organization and Administration: Concepts, Practices, and Issues. Second Edition. Prentice-Hall Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behavioral sciences and findings from important research studies are used as the theoretical basis for describing many of the concepts, practices, and issues in educational administration. Seven chapters cover the following topics: (1) The system of education, (2) the legal basis for education, (3) the use of theory and research in educational…

Morphet, Edgar L.; And Others

359

Contour Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contour Basics is an exercise designed to introduce students to contour plots. The Contour Activity is a great on-line resource that starts slowly and increases in difficulty. It teaches students basic techniques for generating contours, introduces students to the subtleties of generating contour plots with sparse data, provides many opportunities for students to assess their own progress and understanding and has complete on-line drawing capabilities. The exercise is geared toward atmospheric and oceanic sciences but is beneficial for all geoscience students. In addition to the exercise, this site includes information on teaching materials, teaching notes and tips, assessment suggestions and additional references. This activity is part of the Starting Point Collection: http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/

Ackerman, Steve; Mackay, R. M.; Whittaker, Tom

2011-05-12

360

Principles of calcium-based biomineralization.  

PubMed

The chapter provides some basic information on the formation principles of calcium carbonate in biological systems in marine environment in the point of view of materials science in order to provide strategies for biomimetic design and preparation of new functional materials. Many researchers try to explain the principles of biomineralization and get some valuable conclusions. This chapter introduces some calcium-based biominerals in aquatic organisms which mainly include calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. Then it gives a presentation of the hierarchical structure of calcium carbonate-based and calcium phosphate-based biominerals, e.g., mollusc shell, pearl, carp otolith, tooth, and bone. Moreover, the chapter explains the principles of calcium carbonate mineralization from the aspects of the effects of additives and templates; it also gives some explanations to the principles of calcium phosphate mineralization. PMID:21877266

Feng, Qingling

2011-01-01

361

Background fluctuation limit of IR detection of thermal waves-basic principles and application to photothermal characterization of biological materials and living tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the principles of photon detection, the background fluctuation limit for IR detection of thermal wave has been derived and compared with the minimal thermal wave amplitudes, which have been measured with the help of a photoconductive MCT detector: ?T~44 ?K at 300 K average sample temperature, ?T~15 ?K at 400 K, and ?T~9 ?K at 500 K. Based on the formula for the background fluctuation limit, the detection limits and experimental conditions of photothermal characterization of biological materials are discussed.

Bein, B. K.; Bolte, J.; Haj-Daoud, A.; John, V.; Niebisch, F.

1999-03-01

362

Basic Electronics I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

Robertson, L. Paul

363

Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01

364

Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

2011-03-31

365

DC Motor Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explains the basic principles of dc motor operation by a progressive development of magnetic fields and shows how a current-carrying device acts when placed in these fields. Explains the positions of maximum and minimum torque.

1994-01-01

366

Beware of agents when flying aircraft: Basic principles behind a generic methodology for the evaluation and certification of advanced aviation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is currently a growing interest in the aeronautical community to assess the effects of the increasing levels of automation on pilots' performance and overall safety. The first effect of automation is the change in the nature of the pilot's role on the flight deck. Pilots have become supervisors who monitor aircraft systems in usual situations and intervene only when unanticipated events occur. Instead of 'hand flying' the airplane, pilots contribute to the control of aircraft by acting as mediators, instructions given to the automation. By eliminating the need for manually controlling normal situations, such a role division has reduced the opportunities for the pilot to acquire experience and skills necessary to safely cope with abnormal events. Difficulties in assessing the state and behavior of automation arise mainly from four factors: (1) the complexity of current systems and consequence mode-related problems; (2) the intrinsic autonomy of automation which is able to fire mode transitions without explicit commands from the pilots; (3) the bad quality of feed-back from the control systems displays and interfaces to the pilots; and (4) the fact that the automation currently has no explicit representation of the current pilots' intentions and strategy. Assuming certification has among its major goals to guarantee the passengers' and pilots' safety and the airplane integrity under normal and abnormal operational conditions, the authors suggest it would be particularly fruitful to come up with a conceptual reference system providing the certification authorities both with a theoretical framework and a list of principles usable for assessing the quality of the equipment and designs under examination. This is precisely the scope of this paper. However, the authors recognize that the conceptual presented is still under development and would thus be best considered as a source of reflection for the design, evaluation and certification processes of advanced aviation technologies.

Javaux, Denis; Masson, Michel; Dekeyser, Veronique

1994-01-01

367

The Principle of Conservation or Invariance and Its Relationship to Achievement in Science in the Junior High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three assumptions formed the basis for the study: that formal mental operations are expressed by the formation of concepts; that the psychological principle of conservation characterizes the final step in concept formation; and that the attainment of conservation enables the individual to perform the hypothetico-deductive reasoning required for…

Leon, Lionel Oscar

368

Science Education Research Using Web-based Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in collaboration with teachers and students has developed a variety of educational outreach activities to demonstrate basic physical science principles using a variety of instructive and entertaining science demonstrations at elementary, middle and high school levels. A new effort has been initiated to demonstrate this material using web based videos. This can be a resource

Lisa Tarman; Pamella Ferris; Dan Bruder; Nick Gilligan; James Morgan; John Delooper

2009-01-01

369

Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers was designed to address teachers' conceptual understanding of basic scientific principles, student misconceptions and how to deal with them, and observation and measurement techniques. For 4 weeks in summer and on 6 Saturdays during 2 academic years, 30 leaders among science teachers from the…

Meisner, Gerald W.; Lee, Ernest W.

370

Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy (“Pre-RT-MRI examination”) and at the time of BT (“BT MRI examination”) with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring procedure. Choice of imaging parameters and BT equipment is made after taking into account aspects of interaction between imaging and applicator reconstruction, as well as those between imaging, geometry and dose calculation. In a prospective clinical context, to implement 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy and to take advantage of its full potential, it is essential to successfully meet the MR imaging criteria described in the present recommendations of the GYN GEC-ESTRO working group.

Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M.; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Potter, Richard

2012-01-01

371

Barometer Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experimental activity is designed to develop a basic understanding of the interrelationship between temperature and pressure and the structure of a device made to examine this relationship. Resources needed to conduct this activity include two canning jars, two large rubber balloons, a heat lamp or lamp with 150 watt bulb, and access to freezer or water and ice. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 5 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

372

Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Benson, S.M.

1997-07-01

373

Understanding Basic Mechanics: Workbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workbook is designed to be used with the Understanding Basic Mechanics textbook in an introductory calculus-based physics course for science or engineering students. The text presents the basic subject matter, facilitating reference, while the workbook is used to ensure students have understood the reading, can interpret it appropriately, and can apply it to diverse situations.

Reif, Frederick

2006-07-22

374

Report of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENSFI): formulation and testing of principles to evaluate STR multiplexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a collaborative exercise organised under the auspices of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI). The purpose of this EU (European Union) funded group is to carry out research to enable STR loci to be compared between European laboratories, ultimately leading to the formation of a pan-European database. Accordingly, an exercise was designed to evaluate a

Peter Gill; Rebecca Sparkes; Lyn Fereday; David J. Werrett

2000-01-01

375

Hands-on Activities versus Worksheets in Reinforcing Physical Science Principles: Effects on Student Achievement and Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 132 agricultural science students were divided into an experimental group who completed hands-on activities on Ohm's Law and incline plane and a control group who completed worksheets. There were no significant differences in immediate or follow-up measures of achievement. Hands-on students had significantly more positive attitudes. (SK)

Johnson, Donald M.; Wardlow, George W.; Franklin, Timothy D.

1997-01-01

376

Risk communication basics  

SciTech Connect

In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

377

Lawrence Hall of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lawrence Hall of Science is a resource center for preschool through high school science and mathematics education, and a public science center with hands-on experiences for learners of all ages. Home of the William Knox Holt Planetarium, there is extensive educational programming centered on astronomy, including Planetarium Activities for Student Success kits for purchase that illustrate basic principles of astronomy. Earthquakes, erosion, wind and weather are the focus of the Forces that Shape the Bay exhibits, and there are also a number of exhibits highlighting math and physics. The website provides many online games and home activities available for download. The Lawrence Hall of Science Center for Curriculum Innovation creates instructional materials in mathematics and science for preschool through 12th graders for use by students, teachers and other educators, parents and families, and the website provides an array of information on the various programs. Title II funding for professional development is available.

378

Radiation Leukemogenesis: Applying Basic Science of Epidemiological Estimates of Low Dose Risks and Dose-Rate Effects  

SciTech Connect

The next stage of work has been to examine more closely the A-bomb leukemia data which provides the underpinnings of the risk estimation of CML in the above mentioned manuscript. The paper by Hoel and Li (Health Physics 75:241-50) shows how the linear-quadratic model has basic non-linearities at the low dose region for the leukemias including CML. Pierce et. al., (Radiation Research 123:275-84) have developed distributions for the uncertainty in the estimated exposures of the A-bomb cohort. Kellerer, et. al., (Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 36:73-83) has further considered possible errors in the estimated neutron values and with changing RBE values with dose and has hypothesized that the tumor response due to gamma may not be linear. We have incorporated his neutron model and have constricted new A-bomb doses based on his model adjustments. The Hoel and Li dose response analysis has also been applied using the Kellerer neutron dose adjustments for the leukemias. Finally, both Pierce's dose uncertainties and Kellerer neutron adjustments are combined as well as the varying RBE with dose as suggested by Rossi and Zaider and used for leukemia dose-response analysis. First the results of Hoel and Li showing a significantly improved fit of the linear-quadratic dose response by the inclusion of a threshold (i.e. low-dose nonlinearity) persisted. This work has been complete for both solid tumor as well as leukemia for both mortality as well as incidence data. The results are given in the manuscript described below which has been submitted to Health Physics.

Hoel, D. G.

1998-11-01

379

Dynamic sealing principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

Zuk, J.

1976-01-01

380

Experience of the creative Space-Astrophysics Education in Israeli Science-Educational Center "Blossoms of Science" - creative activity from mini-projects in basic school to ASTROTOP-projects for graduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 12 year experience of educational project in Space Astrophysics Environment field realized on the base of National Science-Educational Center Blossoms of Science of the Jordan Valley College Our approach is based on the natural curiosity of children as driver of their self-development from the first minutes of their life and even in adult state This approach shift center of the weight in educational process from direct lectures sermons explanation from teacher to children on own attempts of children to investigate problem what is interesting for them by themselves individually or in group Our approach includes four levels of the projects nano-projects for children garden and basic school up to 10-12 years micro-projects for intermediate school 12-16 years mini-projects for high school 16-18 years and macro-projects for the best graduates high schools and students of colleges 17-22 years These levels and projects are interconnected one with another and sometimes participants started on the micro-projects level in intermediate school continue their activity up to macro-projects of the graduate s diploma level For each level we organize courses for preparation of the teachers and instructors interested in the using of our receipts and published books and brochures for them The content of our activity for different levels a Level of kinder gardens-basic schools -- special software with interactive movie - - nano-projects b Level of intermediate school Days of Science in tens schools of Israel--

Pustil'Nik, L.; Pundak, D.

381

Science, Technology, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lecture notes cover the effects of science and technology on society and how our understanding of the basic structure and operating principles of the universe has affected human lives. Examples of beneficial technology are listed including agricultural genetics, disease control, and a case-study of the benefits of electricity. This is contrasted with technological excesses, but the irony is that without technology, fewer people would survive. Besides exploring some ethical questions and supporting technology, suggestions for science and technology policy are presented.

O'Connell, Robert W.

2009-07-06

382

Antioxidants: Basic principles, emerging concepts, and problems.  

PubMed

The radical scavenging antioxidants play an essential role in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases, and a thorough understanding of the action and capacity of antioxidants is critically important. Despite the assumption that antioxidants must exert beneficial effects against oxidative stress, many large-scale randomized controlled trials gave inconsistent and disappointing results on the prevention of chronic diseases. It is now generally accepted that there is no evidence to support the use of non-discriminative antioxidant supplements for prevention of diseases. On the other hand, recent data show that antioxidants may be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of diseases when the right antioxidant is given to the right subject at the right time for the right duration. Now it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as physiologically important signaling messengers as well as deleterious agents. The signaling ROS are produced in a subtly regulated manner, while many deleterious ROS are produced and react randomly. Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation products which, in contrast to enzymatic oxidation products, are produced by non-specific mechanisms cause oxidative damage, but may also induce adaptive response to enhance the expression of antioxidant enzymes and compounds. This has raised a question if removal of too many ROS by supplementation of antioxidants may upset the cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic diseases. However, it is unlikely that antioxidants impair physiologically essential signaling pathways. PMID:24923567

Niki, Etsuo

2014-01-01

383

Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

1995-01-01

384

[Basic principles in liquid electrolyte treatment].  

PubMed

Under normal physiological conditions, our body fluids and electrolytes are protected in complete balance in a wonderful, flawless design. Even small deviations occurring in this equilibrium may lead to impairments, which can end in death. Especially in fairly common sodium metabolism disorders, it is the responsibility of the clinician to determine, according to the patient's history and her physical examination of him, whether there is an excess or depletion of volume, and to arrange subsequent treatment. Serum sodium levels of 120, 140, or 150 mEq/L alone should be meaningless to the physician in relation to total body sodium and water content because either hyponatremia or hypernatremia can occur while the patient is hypovolemic, euvolemic, or hypervolemic. For example, administering hypertonic or isotonic saline treatment to a patient with hypervolemic hyponatremia in order to correct the sodium will clinically lead to both an increase in edema and a worsening of the hyponatremia. Treatment of hypo- and hypernatremia must be adjusted separately for each patient based on his age, presence of comorbid conditions, and the speed of development of the severity of clinical signs and symptoms. Adjustments either executed too slowly or too quickly will increase mortality or morbidity. For every patient presenting unexplained symptoms of the muscular, skeletal, or neurological systems, including confusion, making the first priority the conduction of electrolyte analyses and the correctly managed effective treatment of excesses or deficiencies may save lives and will certainly save time and money that would otherwise have been spent unnecessarily. PMID:23241335

Zümrütdal, Ay?egül

2013-03-01

385

Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note extends the quality concepts first articulated in 'A Software Quality Framework' (SQF) developed in the early 1980s for the Department of Defense (DoD) by Baker and colleagues. The original quality concepts of the SQF are extended beyo...

E. R. Baker L. Marino M. J. Fisher W. Goethert

2007-01-01

386

Bilingualism: Beyond Basic Principles. Multilingual Matters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers focuses on individual bilingualism and societal and educational phenomena. After "Introduction and Overview" (Jean-Marc Dewaele, Alex Housen, and Li Wei), 12 papers include: (1) "Who is Afraid of Bilingualism?" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); (2) "The Importance of being Bilingual" (John Edwards); (3) "Towards a More…

Dewaele, Jean-Marc, Ed.; Housen, Alex, Ed.; Wei, Li, Ed.

387

Basic principles of analytical flaw assessment methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical flaw assessment methods play an important role in the industrial realisation of fracture mechanics application. In the field of general as well as specific standards and guidelines there have been rapid developments in recent years. This paper gives a brief review of some of the more important methods, which have been developed over the last decades. Descriptions are given

U. Zerbst; R. A. Ainsworth; K.-H. Schwalbe

2000-01-01

388

Transit Passenger Shelters: Basic Design Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the problem of passenger shelter design with the object of maximizing user welfare while contending with the constraints of environmental fit and cost. Each element of welfare (comfort, safety, convenience) is considered separately in ...

F. Ehrenthal

1973-01-01

389

Social ontologySome basic principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends and develops a theory I began in my book, The Construction of Social Reality. Its aim is to explore social ontology in a way that will make it clear that social ontology is both created by human actions and attitudes but at the same time has an epistemically objective existence and is part of the natural world.

John R. Searle

2006-01-01

390

Electrosurgery: part I. Basics and principles.  

PubMed

The term electrosurgery (also called radiofrequency surgery) refers to the passage of high-frequency alternating electrical current through the tissue in order to achieve a specific surgical effect. Although the mechanism behind electrosurgery is not completely understood, heat production and thermal tissue damage is responsible for at least the majority--if not all--of the tissue effects in electrosurgery. Adjacent to the active electrode, tissue resistance to the passage of current converts electrical energy to heat. The only variable that determines the final tissue effects of a current is the depth and the rate at which heat is produced. Electrocoagulation occurs when tissue is heated below the boiling point and undergoes thermal denaturation. An additional slow increase in temperature leads to vaporization of the water content in the coagulated tissue and tissue drying, a process called desiccation. A sudden increase in tissue temperature above the boiling point causes rapid explosive vaporization of the water content in the tissue adjacent to the electrode, which leads to tissue fragmentation and cutting. PMID:24629361

Taheri, Arash; Mansoori, Parisa; Sandoval, Laura F; Feldman, Steven R; Pearce, Daniel; Williford, Phillip M

2014-04-01

391

The New Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To teach the New Basic Skills to all students, schools can adopt the five principles of high-performance firms: (1) develop clear goals; (2) provide opportunities to solve problems and the incentives to do so; (3) provide the training needed to pursue solutions effectively; (4) measure progress toward goals regularly; and (5) persevere and learn…

Murnane, Richard J.; Levy, Frank

1997-01-01

392

Principles in Remote Sensing: Image Processing and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced, interactive tutorial, learners encounter basic concepts in remote sensing via satellites, and investigate various techniques for manipulating and analyzing satellite images. Topics included include temporal resolution, weather forecasting, adjusting contrast for feature identification, Legrangian Animation, channel combination and color enhancement. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the third of three modules in the tutorial, Principles in Remote Sensing. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

393

Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences--an ongoing science and policy success story.  

PubMed

In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most, ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C. PMID:23858990

Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

2013-06-01

394

Basic Physics of Ultrasound Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents a history of ultrasound, explaining the principles of transducer design and operation. Focuses on the physics of sound, the basic interactions of sound and tissue, sound detection and imaging and imaging instruments. Primary audience: ultra-sound...

1994-01-01

395

Basic Research in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)

Handler, Philip

1979-01-01

396

Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment  

PubMed Central

Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.

Topaz, Moris

2012-01-01

397

Basic science of climate change  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are enhancing the natural greenhouse effect. There is almost universal agreement in the scientific community that this will lead to a warming of the lower atmosphere and of the earth's surface. However, the exact timing, magnitude, and regional distribution of this future warming are very uncertain. Merely taking account of changes in the global mean climate is not enough, especially when considering the impacts of climate change. Man also have to consider the rate and regional distribution of climate change and changes in the frequency of events. An increase in the frequency of extremes, such as droughts and storms, and rapid climate change are two factors which could have dramatic effects on human society and natural ecosystems. However, systems already under stress or close to their climate limits are likely to experience the greatest difficulty in adapting to change. Although human activity has been increasing greenhouse gas concentrations for a hundred years, man cannot yet detect unequivocally a greenhouse gas induced signal in climate records. However, increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are almost bound to continue and are likely to emerge as the dominant perturbation of the earth's climate in the coming decades.

Maskell, K.; Callander, B.A. (Hadley Centre, Bracknell (United Kingdom)); Mintzer, I.M. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1993-10-23

398

Basic Sciences - Biochemical Pathology Lab  

Cancer.gov

Overview of Candida Research Candidiasis is an increasingly common complication of cancer treatment with high morbidity and mortality. Candidemia now constitutes the third most common cause of positive blood cultures. Because clinical isolates are increasingly resistant to the available antifungal agents, new approaches are needed to prevent and treat these infections in cancer patients. Adhesion of C. albicans to host tissues is important for the transition from commensal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract to disseminated candidemia.

399

Basic Sciences - Embryonic Development Lab  

Cancer.gov

The major events of gastrulation include inductive interactions that establish and pattern the embryonic axis, and morphogenetic movements yielding the germ layers and shaping the embryo. We have isolated several novel homeobox and T-box genes involved in mesoderm formation during gastrulation, and we are exploring their roles in regulating mesodermal cell fate and behavior, with particular emphasis on the coordination of organized morphogenetic movements.

400

Basic science in digital imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This practical discussion reviews the current methods available for digital image storage and retrieval. The organization of digital images is important to allow easy retrieval of the data in the future. Examples of several software programs that will catalogue and retrieve the images are demonstrated.

Donald H. Johnson

2002-01-01

401

Basic science in digital imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss the different types of up-to-date tools available to understand multimedia and its applications, imaging manipulation, digital video, and new approaches to surgical planning, digital dynamic radiography, and patient education aided by digital technology.

Rafael Iñigo Pavlovich; Gonzalo Vazquez-Vela; Javier Lozano Pardinas; Jose Maria Bustos Villarreal; Eduardo Carriedo Rico; Gustavo de la Mora Behar

2002-01-01

402

Basic Hydrologic Sciences: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed for an international audience with a broad background, this course is designed to address the needs of non-hydrologists who work with hydrologic data, particularly in flood forecasting. The course provides an understanding of the complex interactions between the ground, waters and atmosphere, and will prepare the student for further study in hydrologic methods and forecasting. The course is based on materials originally developed for NOAA forecasters, but adapted so that the topics presented include a variety of hydrologic forecast methods applicable to a audiences in varied locations. All units are presented in the International System of Units (SI).

Smith, Andrea

1999-09-09

403

Understanding Basic Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text is designed for an introductory calculus-based physics course for science or engineering students. Combined with its workbook, it forms a coherent introduction to basic mechanics. The text presents the basic subject matter, facilitating reference and review, while the workbook actively engages students in their learning to ensure that they have understood the reading, can interpret it appropriately, and can apply it to diverse situations.

Reif, Frederick

2006-07-22

404

Epidemiology: An essential science for speech-language pathology and audiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces epidemiology as a health science that is essential as a complement to the basic laboratory and clinical sciences in speech-language pathology and audiology. A contemporary definition of epidemiology is presented. Principles of epidemiology, including causal criteria, and use and misuse of concepts such as incidence, prevalence, and risk are elaborated from the perspective of practitioners and researchers

Bobbie Boyd Lubker

1997-01-01

405

The Science Workbook of Student Research Projects in Food - Agriculture - Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook provides descriptions of research projects for high school and middle school science teachers and students. The projects can be used as demonstrations in the laboratory or classroom to help teachers illustrate the practical application of basic science principles. They can also be used by students, under the guidance of the teachers,…

Darrow, Edward E., Ed.

406

Online Courses: Montana State University NTEN: The Dirt on Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dirt on Soil Science is a 1 credit graduate course for K-6 elementary school teachers who are interested in understanding the basic principles of soil science. This online course lasts 6-weeks and includes conversing with your instructor and classmat

1900-01-01

407

Online Courses: MSU National Teachers Enhancement Network: The Dirt on Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dirt on Soil Science is a 1 credit graduate course for K-6 elementary school teachers who are interested in understanding the basic principles of soil science. This online course lasts 6-weeks and includes conversing with your instructor and classmat

1900-01-01

408

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many physics teachers have an unclear understanding of Bernoulli's principle, particularly when the principle is applied to aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it altogether. The following simplified treatment of the principle ignores most of the complexities of aerodynamics and hopefully will encourage teachers to bring Bernoulli back into the classroom.

Hewitt, Paul G.

2004-09-01

409

Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Magazine online. Access abstracts and full text articles updated weekly. Browse through the current issue or archived articles. Obtain information on magazine subscriptions and student, educator, and scientist awards. A wealth of science information is at your fingertips in all disciplines, particularly medicine. Links to other AAAS resources including extensive career information and the latest in HIV/AIDS and aging research.

410

Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

Roach, Linda E., Ed.

411

Thermodynamics of magnetic systems from first principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional calculations have proven to be a useful tool in the study of ground state properties of many materials. The investigation of finite temperature magnetism on the other hand has to rely usually on the usage of empirical models that allow the large number of evaluations of the system's Hamiltonian that are required to obtain the phase space sampling needed to obtain the free energy, specific heat, magnetization, susceptibility, and other quantities as function of temperature. We have demonstrated a solution to this problem that harnesses the computational power of today's large massively parallel computers by combining a classical Monte-Carlo calculations with our first principles multiple scattering electronic structure code (LSMS) for constrained magnetic states. Here we will present recent advances in our method that improve the convergence as well as applications to 3d element based ferromagnets. This research was performed at Oak Ridge National Lab and sponsored in parts by the Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Scientific User Facilities Division, the Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Science of

Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Gregory; Rusanu, Aurelian; Nicholson, Don M.

2012-02-01

412

What's Basic About Basic Emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

1990-01-01

413

The Basics of MRI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Basics of MRI is a hypertextbook by Dr. Joseph Hornak of the Rochester Institute of Technology that focuses on the mathematics and physics of magnetic resonance imaging. "Exponential Functions," "Differentials and Integrals," and "Coordinate Transformation" are just a few of the mathematical topics discussed. The physics behind MRI is broken down into the following chapters: "Spin Physics," "NMR Spectroscopy," "Fourier Transforms," "Imaging Principles," and "Fourier Transform Imaging Principles." Hornak has also included a multitude of information on imaging techniques, presentation, and hardware. Those concerned with what occurs during a MRI exam, rather than the math and physics of MRI, will want to consult the chapter entitled "Your MRI Exam."

Hornak, Joseph P.

1996-01-01

414

First-principles prediction of insertion potentials in Li-Mn oxides for secondary Li batteries  

SciTech Connect

First-principles methods have started to be widely used in materials science for the prediction of properties of metals, alloys, and compounds. In this study, the authors demonstrate how first-principles methods can be used to predict the average open-circuit voltage that can be obtained from a lithium battery with spinel or layered manganese oxides used as the cathode. For this purpose the authors combine a basic thermodynamical model with the ab initio pseudopotential method. The good agreement between the computed and experimental average output potentials suggests that first-principles methods can be an important tool to design novel battery materials.

Aydinol, M.K.; Ceder, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-11-01

415

Fiscal Year 1990 Department of Energy Authorization (Basic Energy Science and General Science and Research). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, February 23, 1989, Volume IV  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) national energy program's for basic and general energy technologies and research programs are presented by DOE officials. Information is provided by panels of Scientific and Technical experts, federal and state officials and academic institutions. A special status review is made of the Superconducting super collider project. Topics also include research in physics, chemistry, mathematics, biological and environmental science and climate research.

Not Available

1989-01-01

416

Food Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

Barkman, Susan J.

1996-01-01

417

Understanding Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of Understanding Science is to provide a fun, accessible, and free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works. The process of science is exciting, but standard explanations often miss its dynamic nature. Science affects us all everyday, but people often feel cut off from science. Science is an intensely human endeavor, but many portrayals gloss over the passion, curiosity, and even rivalries and pitfalls that characterize all human ventures. Understanding Science gives users an inside look at the general principles, methods, and motivations that underlie all of science.

2009-01-01

418

Principles of Applied Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course, presented by MIT and taught by professor Aslan Kasimov, describes basic principles of applied mathematics. Specifically, the material looks at mathematical analysis of continuum models of various natural phenomena. The course materials include student assignments and exams. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kasimov, Aslan

2010-12-09

419

Pattern recognition principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

1974-01-01

420

Machâs Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from Kyoto University, provides a discussion of Machâs Principle, a concept that played an important role in forming Einstein's theory of general relativity. Excerpts from Machâs original text are examined and discussed for his ideas that are closely related to this principle. The general ambiguity of Machâs Principle, and Einsteinâs interpretations of it are also presented.

Uchii, Soshichi

2007-10-10

421

Corrosion Basics  

SciTech Connect

Retaining much of the text of the Basic Corrosion Course, Corrosion Basics contains updated, and additional information on plastics, concrete, coatings, water, cracking phenomena, and design. Chapters were rearranged. The cross referenced index was retained and updated to facilitate the quick location of any topic throughout the text. This publication provides the general coverage of the field of corrosion.

Not Available

1985-01-01

422

Button Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary teachers of science are at a great advantage because observation--collecting information about the world using the five senses--and classification--sorting things by properties--come so naturally to children. Many examples of classification occur in science: Scientists, for example, group things starting with large categories, such as…

Carrier, Sarah J.; Thomas, Annie B.

2008-01-01

423

Reflection principles in computational logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of reflection principle as a knowledge representation paradigm in a computational logic setting. Reflection principles are expressed as certain kinds of logic schemata intended to capture the basic properties of the domain knowledge to be modelled. Reflection is then used to instantiate these schemata to answer specific queries about the domain. This differs from other approaches

Jonas Barklund; Pierangelo Dell'acqua; Stefania Costantini; Gaetano Aurelio Lanzarone

2000-01-01

424

In Support of Basic Research  

NSF Publications Database

... in understanding. Furthermore, by maintaining strength in a variety of basic research fields, we ... Growth A New Direction to Build Economic Strength. Washington, DC, 1993, p. 24 . 2National Science ...

425

Positron Emission Tomography: Principles, Technology, and Recent Developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technique for quantitative measurement of physiologic parameters in vivo (an overview of principles and applications can be found in [P.E. Valk, et al., eds. Positron Emission Tomography. Basic Science and Clinical Practice. 2003, Springer: Heidelberg]), based on the detection of small amounts of posi-tron-emitter-labelled biologic molecules. Various radiotracers are available for neuro-logical, cardiological, and oncological applications in the clinic and in research proto-cols. This overview describes the basic principles, technology, and recent develop-ments in PET, followed by a section on the development of a tomograph with ava-lanche photodiodes dedicated for small animal imaging as an example of efforts in the domain of high resolution tomographs.

Ziegler, Sibylle I.

2005-04-01

426

Higher Superstition. The Academic Left and Its Quarrels with Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book the authors raise serious questions about the growing criticism of science by humanists and social scientists on the "academic left," and explore the origins of this trend. They argue that when scientific texts are deconstructed and feminists make charges of scientific "patriarchy," the basic principles and practices that underlie 300…

Gross, Paul R.; Levitt, Norman

427

Basic HTML  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most web designers use an editor, it is a good idea to have a working knowledge of HTML code. It is useful to be able to go into the code and make adjustments that an editor will not do. knowing HTML will give you more control over the look and function of your web site. Remember that this is just the basics but will provide you with the tools to design great web sites. Assignment Instructions: Go through the HTML Goodies Primers. You will create some basic web pages in these primers. E-mail your instructor each primer assignment at tami.warnick@cmacademy.org Primer 1: Basic HTML: Introduction Instructions: Read through the primer and then send your instructor a breif summary of what you learned. Primer 2: Learn the Basic HTML Tags! Instructions: After ...

Warnick, Mrs.

2009-12-04

428

The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

1976-01-01

429

Dispersion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Webcast, Dr. Timothy Spangler (Director of the COMET Program and a former air quality consultant) provides a brief overview of the basics of atmospheric dispersion and how dispersion is modeled, particularly for accidental releases of hazardous materials. The lecture is presented in six sections and covers the effects of stability, turbulence, plume rise, and wind. Basic dispersion models are discussed, along with a brief summary of models used in special situations and factors that complicate their use.

Spangler, Tim

2002-11-01

430

Basic Electronics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The skills taught in these materials for a seven-unit course were those identified as necessary not only for entry-level electronic technicians but for those in other occupations as well, including appliance repair, heating and air conditioning, and auto mechanics. The seven units are on shop orientation and safety principles, introduction to…

Hartman, Lonnie; Huston, Jane, Ed.

431

La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen III. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume III. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

432

La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen II. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume II. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. This guide is divided into three components. The first component…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

433

La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen I. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume I. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the first in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) ecology (what…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

434

Basic Laboratory Methods in a Regulated Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biotechnology transforms knowledge that emerges from life science research into technology, the creation of products of value to people. Beginning biotechnology students therefore need to develop a strong foundation in laboratory science that is integrated with an understanding of product quality. This course provides students with a foundation in basic concepts and techniques necessary to work as effective professionals in a biotechnology laboratory or small scale production facility. The course emphasizes metrology (the study of measurements), solution preparation, performing assays, and basic biological separation methods. These fundamental laboratory techniques are essential for student success in later molecular biology, cell culture, bioprocessing, analytical, and other specialized courses. Throughout the course the principles of product quality systems (e.g., Good Manufacturing/Laboratory Practices and ISO 9000) are integrated as students explore documentation, calibration, accuracy and precision, error reduction, trouble-shooting, verification and validation of assays, and other quality concepts. Integrating a "quality-mindset" into their laboratory work is important both for students who plan to work in a biotechnology company and for students who some day aspire to generate meaningful results in a research environment.

Mowery, Jeanette; Seidman, Lisa A.

2011-11-21

435

Career Basics Booklet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Struggling with your next career step? Science Careers' editorial team brings you "Career Basics: Advice and Resources for Scientists." The booklet provides advice and help on preparing CVs and resumes, writing grants and scientific papers, networking, and much more. Read each article in the booklet online, or download each chapter or the entire booklet as a PDF. All for free. It is one more tool Science Careers provides to help you jump-start your career, be it in academia or outside the ivory tower!

Science Careers (Science)

2009-01-01

436

Teaching/learning principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

437

DOS basics  

SciTech Connect

DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

O`Connor, P.

1994-09-01

438

Pascal's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's Principle, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the principle include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.

Nave, Carl R.

2011-11-28

439

Buridan's Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

Lamport, Leslie

2012-08-01

440

Science Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-two activities are presented. Topics include: acid rain, microcomputers, fish farming, school-industry research projects, enzymes, equilibrium, assessment, science equipment, logic, Archimedes principle, electronics, optics, and statistics. (CW)

School Science Review, 1989

1989-01-01

441

Wishful science: the persistence of T. D. Lysenko's agrobiology in the politics of science.  

PubMed

The suppression of genetics in Soviet Russia was the big scandal of twentieth-century science. It was also a test case for the role of scientists in a liberal democracy. The intellectual's perennial dilemma between scientific truthfulness and political loyalty was sharpened by acute ideological conflicts. The central topic of this essay is how the conflict was played out in Soviet agricultural and biological science in the 1930s and 1940s. The account is focused on the role of the then current Soviet science policy and its basic epistemic principles, the "unity of theory and practice" and the "practice criterion of truth". PMID:18831321

Roll-Hansen, Nils

2008-01-01

442

Weather Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the basics of the Earth's weather. Concepts include fundamental causes of common weather phenomena such as temperature changes, wind, clouds, rain and snow. The different factors that affect the weather and the instruments that measure weather data are also addressed.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

443

Basic Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

Geer, Barbra Farabough

444

Science Fiction Aids Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cited are the experiences of the authors with a college-level course which used science fiction films to teach scientific principles. Included is a set of sample scientific concepts explored using the film "Forbidden Planet." (CW)

Dubeck, Leroy W.; And Others

1990-01-01

445

Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.

1985-01-01

446

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

447

Basic AC Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

reated by Tony R. Kuphaldt with help from Harvey Lew, Duane Damiano, Mark D. Zarella, John Symonds, and Jason Starck, this chapter of All About Circuit's second volume on Alternating Current describes the basic theory and principles at work. The chapter is divided into six sections: What is alternating current?, AC waveforms, Measurements of AC magnitude, Simple AC circuit calculations, AC phase, and Principles of radio. Each section has clear illustrations and a concise, bulleted review of what was covered at the end. There is also a link to the All About Circuits forums, where contributors and other visitors discuss the material presented. This is an excellent resource for educators in physics and electronic engineering classrooms to introduce lessons or units on alternating current.

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-15

448

Corrosion: Understanding the basics  

SciTech Connect

This new book presents a practical how to approach to understanding and solving the problems of corrosion of structural materials. Although it is written mainly for those having a limited technical background in corrosion, it also provides more experienced engineers with a useful overview of the principles of corrosion and can be used as a general guide for developing a corrosion-control program. Contents include: the effects and economic impact of corrosion; basic concepts important to corrosion; principles of aqueous corrosion; forms of corrosion: recognition and prevention; types of corrosive environments; corrosion characteristics of structural materials; corrosion control by proper design; corrosion control by materials selection; corrosion control by protective coatings and inhibitors; corrosion control by cathodic and anodic protection; corrosion testing and monitoring; techniques for diagnosis of corrosion failures; and glossary of corrosion-related terms.

Davis, J.R. [ed.

2000-07-01

449

Tremor (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... of Parkinson disease Overview of tremor Patient information: Fragile X syndrome (The Basics) Patient information: Myoclonus (The Basics) Patient ... Basics) Patient information: Myoclonus (The Basics) Patient information: Fragile X syndrome (The Basics) Beyond the Basics — Beyond the Basics ...

450

Core Principles Methodology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly published document from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank of International Settlements considers the methodology used in determining The Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision, "a global standard for prudential regulation and supervision," which has been endorsed by many countries worldwide. There are three sections to the report. The first chapter looks at the background for the core principles and "the preconditions for effective banking supervision." The second chapter "raises a few basic considerations regarding the conduct of an assessment and the compilation and presentation of the results," and the last chapter discusses each core principle individually. The 56-page document is available in .pdf format. A thumbnail map of each page, shown on the left, is the best way to navigate the report.

451

Basic Immunology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some individuals might blanch at the idea of a "basic" immunology overview, but Professor Vladimir V. Klimov provides just such a resource on this site. As the homepage notes, the site is designed to assist undergraduate students learning about the basics of immunology through essays, images, animations, quizzes, case histories, and external links. Visitors can begin by looking over the "Table of Contents" area, which includes seven complete chapters of information. These chapters include "The Immune Responses", "Effector Activity", and "Functional Organization of the Immune System". While some of the materials on the site require a paid subscription, there's enough free material here to get students on their way to learning more about this field of study.

Klimov, Vladimir V.

452

Education: The Basics. The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

Wood, Kay

2011-01-01

453

Forensic science – A true science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the US jurisprudence of the 1993 Daubert hearing requires judges to question not only the methodology behind, but also the principles governing, a body of knowledge to qualify it as scientific, can forensic science, based on Locard's and Kirk's Principles, pretend to this higher status in the courtroom? Moving away from the disputable American legal debate, this historical and

Frank Crispino; Olivier Ribaux; Max Houck; Pierre Margot

2011-01-01

454

Basic lubrication equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

455

The Principles of Flight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Principle's of Flight Web site is offered by the Pilot's Web Aviation Journal and contains an excellent introduction to the physics of flight. Topics include Newton's laws of motion and force, airfoils, lift and drag, forces acting on an airplane, speed, flight maneuvers, the effects of roll, and more. Each topic contains good illustrations, descriptions, and equations. Overall, the site is an interesting and informative look behind the science of flight.

2001-01-01

456

National Science Foundation programs in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel will discuss the various programs of the National Science Foundation dealing with Computer Science Education and Research. These include programs on basic research in computer science, research in computer science education and various programs designed to increase the quality of science education, especially where computers can plan a significant role in the educational process.

Bruce H. Barnes; Andrew R. Molnar; Lawrence H. Oliver; Robert F. Watson

1976-01-01

457

Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01

458

Analysing Cases in Technology and Design Education: How Could Designing and Making Technological Products Be a Vehicle for Enhancing Understanding of Natural Science Principles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Knowledge Promotion" is the recent curriculum for the Norwegian 10-year compulsory school. "Technology and Design" (ToD) is a new main subject area in Natural Science. ToD should be taught across the curriculum between Natural Science, Art and Crafts, and Mathematics. The main goal is that pupils should be able to plan, develop and make useful…

Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

2009-01-01

459

Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of structural materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations characterizing extended defects typically require millions of atoms. First principles calculations employed to understand these defect systems at an electronic level cannot, and should not deal with such large numbers of atoms. We present an efficient coarse graining (CG) approach to calculate local electronic properties of large MD-generated structures from the first principles. We used the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method for two types of iron defect structures 1) screw-dislocation dipoles and 2) radiation cascades. The multiple scattering equations are solved at fewer sites using the CG. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force field. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with first-principles based on full local structure information, while atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This CG approach reduces computational costs significantly and makes large-scale structures amenable to first principles study. Work is sponsored by the USDoE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, ``Center for Defect Physics,'' an Energy Frontier Research Center. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the ORNL, which is supported by the Office of Science of the USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don; Rusanu, Aurelian; Samolyuk, German; Wang, Yang; Stoller, Roger; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Stocks, George

2013-03-01

460

Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of structural materials  

SciTech Connect

Classical Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations characterizing extended defects typically require millions of atoms. First principles calculations employed to understand these defect systems at an electronic level cannot, and should not deal with such large numbers of atoms. We present an e cient coarse graining (CG) approach to calculate local electronic properties of large MD-generated structures from the rst principles. We used the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method for two types of iron defect structures 1) screw-dislocation dipoles and 2) radiation cascades. The multiple scattering equations are solved at fewer sites using the CG. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force eld. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with rst-principles based on full local structure information, while atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This CG approach reduces computational costs signi cantly and makes large-scale structures amenable to rst principles study. Work is sponsored by the USDoE, O ce of Basic Energy Sciences, Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the ORNL, which is supported by the O ce of Science of the USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Rusanu, Aurelian [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Wang, Yang [Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Zhang, X.-G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL

2013-01-01

461

Principles in Remote Sensing: Earth Observations from Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced, interactive tutorial, learners become familiar with basic concepts related to remote sensing of the Earth by satellites. Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, as well as different types of onboard sensors, are examined for their applicability to various real-world data collection and research applications. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Principles in Remote Sensing. (Note: requires Java plug-in).

462

Nursing research: understanding the basics.  

PubMed

Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed framework methods provide a foundation for research premises, ideas, and theories. This article provides a basic overview of the underlying principles and describes the benefits and limitations of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed framework research. Additional information is discussed to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for conducting research on critical thinking in nursing education. PMID:19528781

Palmer, Judy Akin

2009-01-01

463

Diagnostic Online Assessment of Basic IT Skills in 1st-Year Undergraduates in the Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude, experience and competence (broadly covered by the European Computer Driving Licence syllabus) in information technology (IT) were assessed in 846 1st-year Medical Sciences Division undergraduates (2003-06) at the start of their first term. Online assessments delivered during induction workshops were presented as an opportunity for…

Sieber, Vivien

2009-01-01

464

A Study to Determine the Basic Science and Mathematics Topics Most Needed by Engineering Technology Graduates of Wake Technical Institute in Performing Job Duties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 470 graduates of the six engineering technology programs at Wake Technical Institute--Architectural, Chemical, Civil Engineering, Computer, Electronic Engineering, and Industrial Engineering Technologies--and 227 of their employers was conducted in October, 1979, to determine the science and mathematics topics most needed by…

Edwards, Timothy I.; Roberson, Clarence E., Jr.

465

Communicating Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communicat