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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Basic Principles of Ultrasound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

2

Basic Principles of Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

3

Basic principles of stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the principles of degradation, as well as the statistical tools for measuring product stability, is essential to management of product quality. Key to this is management of vaccine potency. Vaccine shelf life is best managed through determination of a minimum potency release requirement, which helps assure adequate potency throughout expiry. Use of statistical tools such a least

William Egan; Timothy Schofield

2009-01-01

4

Basic principles of celestial navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celestial navigation is a technique for determining one's geographic position by the observation of identified stars, identified planets, the Sun, and the Moon. This subject has a multitude of refinements which, although valuable to a professional navigator, tend to obscure the basic principles. I describe these principles, give an analytical solution of the classical two-star-sight problem without any dependence on

James A. van Allen

2004-01-01

5

Basic Science Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

Brummel, Clete

6

Basic Science Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

Brummel, Clete

7

[Basic science and applied science].  

PubMed

A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html PMID:11547597

Pérez-Tamayo, R

8

Basic photovoltaic principles and methods  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

1982-02-01

9

Basic Sciences: An Alternative career?  

PubMed

Career selection is a crucial and a complex process which is also true for the medical profession. In the context of our country, due to the limited opportunity and proper guidance, migration of medical graduates to foreign countries is increasing. Though, clinical subjects have a huge attraction, basic science field has failed to impress our medical graduates. In current scenario, basic science field seems to be a dumping site for the incompetent as the candidates who have failed trying their luck elsewhere stumble upon basic science careers though it is not true for all. Moreover, a very few medical graduates are interested in developing their career as a basic scientist. Therefore, to motivate today's young medical graduates, there is a need of a good mentor along with a proper career guidance which can help them to understand the basic science field as an alternative career. PMID:23774420

Khatri, R

10

Basic principles of acoustic emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the basic principles of acoustic emission tomography. This method uses acoustic emission events as point sources and combines the usual iterative local- isation algorithm of acoustic emission testing with algorithms for travel time tomography like ART (algebraic reconstruction technique). The procedure is equivalent to the solution of the generalised inverse localisation problem in locally isotropic heterogeneous

Frank Schubert

2004-01-01

11

Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

2005-01-01

12

Basic science of pain.  

PubMed

The origin of the theory that the transmission of pain is through a single channel from the skin to the brain can be traced to the philosopher and scientist René Descartes. This simplified scheme of the reflex was the beginning of the development of the modern doctrine of reflexes. Unfortunately, Descartes' reflex theory directed both the study and treatment of pain for more than 330 years. It is still described in physiology and neuroscience textbooks as fact rather than theory. The gate control theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 rejuvenated the field of pain study and led to further investigation into the phenomena of spinal sensitization and central nervous system plasticity, which are the potential pathophysiologic correlates of chronic pain. The processing of pain takes place in an integrated matrix throughout the neuroaxis and occurs on at least three levels-at peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal sites. Basic strategies of pain control monopolize on this concept of integration by attenuation or blockade of pain through intervention at the periphery, by activation of inhibitory processes that gate pain at the spinal cord and brain, and by interference with the perception of pain. This article discusses each level of pain modulation and reviews the mechanisms of action of opioids and potential new analgesics. A brief description of animal models frames a discussion about recent advances regarding the role of glial cells and central nervous system neuroimmune activation and innate immunity in the etiology of chronic pain states. Future investigation into the discovery and development of novel, nonopioid drug therapy may provide needed options for the millions of patients who suffer from chronic pain syndromes, including syndromes in which the pain originates from peripheral nerve, nerve root, spinal cord, bone, muscle, and disc. PMID:16595445

DeLeo, Joyce A

2006-04-01

13

Earth Science Literacy Principles Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI), funded by the National Science Foundation, has gathered and codified the underlying understandings of Earth sciences into a succinct document that will have broad-reaching applications in both public and private arenas. It establishes the "Big Ideas" and supporting concepts that all Americans should know about Earth sciences. The primary outcome of the Earth Science Literacy Initiative is a community-based document that clearly and succinctly states the underlying principles and ideas of Earth science across a wide variety of research fields that are funded through the NSF-EAR program, including Geobiology and Low-Temperature Geochemistry, Geomorphology and Land-Use Dynamics, Geophysics, Hydrologic Sciences, Petrology and Geochemistry, Sedimentary Geology and Paleobiology, and Tectonics.

2009-01-01

14

Office of Basic Energy Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic research is an important investment in the future and will help the U.S. maintain and enhance its economic strength. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals (energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security) depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions. The program has two distinct interrelated parts: research and facilities operations and development. In the pursuit of forefront research results, BES designs, builds and operates certain large, complex advanced scientific facilities such as neutron sources and synchrotron radiation sources. These facilities not only provide BES with unique instruments, but these instruments are also made available to all qualified users, even those not supported by BES. Thus, the facilities actually leverage a great deal more research from the national effort. The BES program conducts basic research that will most likely help the Nation's long-term energy goals. BES implements a broad strategy for conducting basic research and contributes strongly towards national energy goals and to national goals of maintaining and enhancing scientific leadership, technological innovation, and economic strength.

1991-09-01

15

Predicting microbial nitrogen pathways from basic principles.  

PubMed

Nitrogen compounds are transformed by a complicated network of competing geochemical processes or microbial pathways, each performed by a different ecological guild of microorganisms. Complete experimental unravelling of this network requires a prohibitive experimental effort. Here we present a simple model that predicts relative rates of hypothetical nitrogen pathways, based only on the stoichiometry and energy yield of the performed redox reaction, assuming competition for resources between alternative pathways. Simulating competing pathways in hypothetical freshwater and marine sediment situations, we surprisingly found that much of the variation observed in nature can simply be predicted from these basic principles. Investigating discrepancies between observations and predictions led to two important biochemical factors that may create barriers for the viability of pathways: enzymatic costs for long pathways and high ammonium activation energy. We hypothesize that some discrepancies can be explained by non-equilibrium dynamics. The model predicted a pathway that has not been discovered in nature yet: the dismutation of nitrite to the level of nitrate and dinitrogen gas. PMID:21429064

van de Leemput, Ingrid A; Veraart, Annelies J; Dakos, Vasilis; de Klein, Jeroen J M; Strous, Marc; Scheffer, Marten

2011-03-23

16

Basic principles of molecular effects of irradiation.  

PubMed

In order to understand the consequences of radiation a thorough understanding of the radiobiological mechanisms of the molecular up to the clinical level is of importance. Radiobiology therefore combines the basic principles of physics as well as biology and medicine and is concerned with the action of radiation from the subcellular level up to the living organism. Topics of interest and relevance are covered in much more broadness as is possible in the short following article in the literature to which the interested reader is referred to. Classical books in this field were written by Steel et al. (1989) as well as by Hall (1994). Topics usually covered by radiobiological reviews are the classification of different types of radiation, cell cycle dependency of radiation effects, types of radiation damage and cell death, dose response curves, measurement of radiation damage, the oxygen effect, relative biological effectiveness, the influence of dose rate, and several other important research areas. This short overview will concentrate on a subset of radiobiological topics of high importance and relative novelty. PMID:22476592

Selzer, Edgar; Hebar, Alexandra

2012-02-01

17

Basics...and the Human Sciences Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes the Human Sciences Program (HSP) in the light of some issues related to basic skills. These issues are: (1) HSP and the three Rs; (2) HSP and other basics; and (3) HSP and classroom discipline. (HM)|

McConnell, Mary C.

1978-01-01

18

Rehabilitation in brain disorders. 1. Basic sciences.  

PubMed

This learning module highlights the basic sciences of brain disorders and their relevance to the rehabilitation process. It is part of the chapter on rehabilitation in brain disorders for the Self-Directed Medical Knowledge Program Study Guide for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. The chapter is composed of four articles, and each builds on principles established in the others. This article contains essential information on the hierarchy and integration of cerebral neural processes, functional anatomy, and neurochemistry. It also highlights newer advances in brain plasticity and response to injury, at a cellular level and with reference to acute and secondary processes, which will likely be at the forefront of medical management and functional "damage control" in the near future. The learner is directed to articles 2, 3, and 4 in this chapter for supporting information. PMID:2003763

Horn, L J

1991-03-01

19

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

1990-04-01

20

Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)|

Beder, Hal

1986-01-01

21

Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

Beder, Hal

1986-01-01

22

One Man's Approach to a Basic Course in Geological Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a twofold approach to teaching basic geology based on five principles to make science accessible to students who think they are bored with or afraid of the subject. The approach focuses on: appealing to the mind (to attack boredom) and appealing to the emotions (to attack fear). (BC)

Gould, Stephen Jay

1984-01-01

23

Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…

Seemann, Kurt

2003-01-01

24

Basic principles of forest fuel reduction treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful fire exclusion in the 20th century has created severe fire problems across the West. Not every forest is at risk of uncharacteristically severe wildfire, but drier forests are in need of active management to mitigate fire hazard. We summarize a set of simple principles important to address in fuel reduction treatments: reduction of surface fuels, increasing the height to

James K. Agee; Carl N. Skinner

2005-01-01

25

Basic principles of agroecology and sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the final analysis, sustainable agriculture must derive from applied ecology, especially the principle of the regulation of the abundance and distribution of species (and, secondarily, their activities) in space and time. Interspecific competition in natural ecosystems has its counterparts in agriculture, designed to divert greater amounts of energy, nutrients, and water into crops. Whereas natural ecosystems select for a

V. G. Thomas; P. G. Kevan

1993-01-01

26

ACID PRECIPITATION: BASIC PRINCIPLES AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Forest productivity is emphasized in this review of the long-term beneficial and harmful effects of acid precipitation, as currently understood. The article summarizes principles about acid precipitation and its biological consequences which concern everyone in the pulp and paper...

27

LeChâtelier's Principle in the Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

LeChâtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium is actually a very general statement about systems in equilibrium and their behavior when subjected to external force or stress. Although one almost never finds mention of his name or law in other sciences, analogous principles and concepts do exist. In this note we examine some of the similar forms taken by this chemical principle

Volker B. E. Thomsen

2000-01-01

28

Curriculum development in anesthesia: Basic theoretical principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Educational theories provide a guiding basis for coherent medical curriculum development and instruction in a similar way\\u000a that evidence-based medicine provides a rational basis for medical treatment. The purpose of this review is to provide general\\u000a organizational, theoretical and educational principles for developing or modifying an anesthesia curriculum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Source  This paper draws from the general educational and cognitive psychology literature, the

Anne K. Wong

2006-01-01

29

Undergraduate basic science preparation for dental school.  

PubMed

In the Institute of Medicines report Dental Education at the Crossroads, it was suggested that dental schools across the country move toward integrated basic science education for dental and medical students in their curricula. To do so, dental school admission requirements and recommendations must be closely reviewed to ensure that students are adequately prepared for this coursework. The purpose of our study was twofold: 1) to identify student dentists' perceptions of their predental preparation as it relates to course content, and 2) to track student dentists' undergraduate basic science course preparation and relate that to DAT performance, basic science course performance in dental school, and Part I and Part II National Board performance. In the first part of the research, a total of ninety student dentists (forty-five from each class) from the entering classes of 1996 and 1997 were asked to respond to a survey. The survey instrument was distributed to each class of students after each completed the largest basic science class given in their second-year curriculum. The survey investigated the area of undergraduate major, a checklist of courses completed in their undergraduate preparation, the relevance of the undergraduate classes to the block basic science courses, and the strength of requiring or recommending the listed undergraduate courses as a part of admission to dental school. Results of the survey, using frequency analysis, indicate that students felt that the following classes should be required, not recommended, for admission to dental school: Microbiology 70 percent, Biochemistry 54.4 percent, Immunology 57.78 percent, Anatomy 50 percent, Physiology 58.89 percent, and Cell Biology 50 percent. The second part of the research involved anonymously tracking undergraduate basic science preparation of the same students with DAT scores, the grade received in a representative large basic science course, and Part I and Part II National Board performance. Using T-test analysis correlations, results indicate that having completed multiple undergraduate basic science courses (as reported by AADSAS BCP hours) did not significantly (p < .05) enhance student performance in any of these parameters. Based on these results, we conclude that student dentists with undergraduate preparation in science and nonscience majors can successfully negotiate the dental school curriculum, even though the students themselves would increase admission requirements to include more basic science courses than commonly required. Basically, the students' recommendations for required undergraduate basic science courses would replicate the standard basic science coursework found in most dental schools: anatomy, histology, biochemistry, microbiology, physiology, and immunology plus the universal foundation course of biology. PMID:12484677

Humphrey, Sue P; Mathews, Robert E; Kaplan, Alan L; Beeman, Cynthia S

2002-11-01

30

[Polymerase chain reaction: basic principles and applications in molecular pathology].  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technology used for quick and easy amplifying DNA sequences, which is based on the principle of enzymatic replication of the nucleic acids. This method has in the field of molecular biology an irreplaceable role and constitutes one of the basic methods for DNA analysis. In the following article we describe the basic principles of PCR, and its importance especially in the field of pathology. PMID:23964908

Stan?k, Libor

2013-06-01

31

[HPV in urology : Basic principles and controversies].  

PubMed

The information presented in this article summarizes some of the basic knowledge on human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and the consequences particularly in men. According to current understanding most HPV infections are latent and transient in immunocompetent patients but some will persist. Predominantly due to the different oncogenic potential of various HPV types, persisting infections can give rise to benign or malignant neoplasms in both genders. Current controversies, such as the need for HPV testing in men or routine male HPV vaccination will be discussed. High-risk male populations, e.g. men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV positive men, merit special attention from urologists in the future. The groups of HIV positive MSMs are at an extremely high risk of developing anal cancer that currently even exceeds the highest reported incidence of cervical cancer. PMID:23942723

Schneede, P; Waidelich, R

2013-09-01

32

Science versus Basic Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One goal of basic research in education is to identify the variables of effective instruction. As this pursuit has been conceived, however, its theoretical problems make it unlikely that the effort will provide a clear picture of instructional variables, their interactions, or the kind of teacher training that is implied by instructional variables.

Engelmann, Siegfried

2008-01-01

33

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-01-01

34

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure

Joseph John Bevelacqua

2010-01-01

35

Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science, by John W. Moore, Conrad L. Stanitski, Peter C. Jurs published by Brooks/Cole, 2009.

36

78 FR 38696 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC...Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue...respect to the basic energy sciences research program....

2013-06-27

37

78 FR 6088 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC...Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of...SC-22/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue...respect to the basic energy sciences research program....

2013-01-29

38

76 FR 8358 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC...Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue...respect to the basic energy sciences research program....

2011-02-14

39

FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

Samara, G.A.

1996-02-01

40

Basic science curriculum in vascular surgery residency.  

PubMed

Recognizing the importance of basic science teaching in surgical education, the leadership of the Association of Program Directors in Vascular Surgery (APDVS) appointed a panel to gather information and to present its findings at the 1999 annual fall meeting of the Apdvs. A questionnaire was distributed to the program directors present. In addition, information was gathered from the American Board of Surgery regarding the basic science content in the vascular surgery item pool on the vascular surgery qualifying examination (VQE). The vascular surgery unit of the surgical resident curriculum was also analyzed. Fifty-three program directors (64%) completed the questionnaire. Although only two program directors felt that their residents were better prepared to answer basic science questions, the results of the Vqe showed that the examinees do not, as a group, perform differently on basic science items than on clinical management questions. In addition, only a minority of program directors (15%) use a specific method to monitor the learning process of their residents. The majority of the program directors responding (75%) felt that they were capable of teaching basic science to residents. Interestingly, almost half the 53 respondents (47%) said that a basic science curriculum should be comprehensive, not exclusively relevant to the clinical setting. Vqe content outline and the vascular surgery unit of the surgical resident curriculum revealed great emphasis on clinically relevant basic science information. The Apdvs panel recommends that a basic science curriculum should be comprehensive, yet clinically pertinent, and completely integrated with the clinical curriculum. In terms of how to teach basic science in vascular residencies, the panel supports teaching conferences that are problem-based with a faculty member acting as the "resource person" and with specific goals set for the conferences. The panel also suggested establishing a Web site that provides a series of questions, the answers of which could be readily available to trainees and program directors. such immediate feedback could be of great help to program directors to focus the learning process of their residents and monitor its progress. PMID:11296342

Sidawy, A N; Sumpio, B; Clowes, A W; Rhodes, R S

2001-04-01

41

The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine ``big ideas''

M. E. Wysession; D. A. Budd; K. M. Campbell; M. H. Conklin; E. S. Kappel; N. Ladue; G. Lewis; R. Raynolds; R. W. Ridky; R. M. Ross; J. Taber; B. J. Tewksbury; P. Tuddenham

2009-01-01

42

Basic Hydrologic Sciences Distance Learning Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course consists of an orientation, eight foundation topics and two case study modules. The orientation provides an overview of all the components of the course. The introductory foundation topic provides a basic background on fundamental concepts in the hydrologic sciences. Other foundation topics focus on specific areas of the hydrologic sciences, covering terminology and assumptions as well as critical processes and considerations for hydrologic forecasters. Case study modules integrate foundation material into realistic forecast situations.

Spangler, Tim

1999-09-09

43

A Collaborative Strategy for Reciprocal Integration of Basic and Clinical Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geriatric patient cases are ideal for use by basic science educators who seek to link key principles and concepts with clinical medicine. However, access to geriatric educators and geriatric patients able to highlight the evolution of a particular disease\\/condition, limits the basic science educator's ability to easily incorporate clinical cases into their teaching. To address this resource limitation, we developed

Edmund H. Duthie; Deborah Simpson; Karen Marcdante; Diana Kerwin; Kathryn Denson; Mary Cohan

44

To Facilitate Knowledge Management Using Basic Principles of Knowledge Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Engineering are two important concepts in recent years. Knowledge Engineering is the aspect of systems engineering which addresses uncertain process requirements by emphasizing the acquisition of knowledge about a process and representing this knowledge in a Knowledge-based System. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how to use the basic principles of knowledge engineering to

Xiaohui Yang

2009-01-01

45

Transdermal drug delivery: Basic principles for the veterinarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of topical pharmaceutical formulations is increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. A potential concern is that not all formulations are registered for the intended species, yet current knowledge strongly suggests that simple extrapolation of transdermal drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between species, including humans, cannot be done. In this review, an overview is provided of the underlying basic principles determining

P. C. Mills; S. E. Cross

2006-01-01

46

Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

Gralla, Edward J.

1976-01-01

47

Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

Gralla, Edward J.

1976-01-01

48

Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL)…

Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

2012-01-01

49

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research...

1993-01-01

50

The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to assist in areas such as the creation of educational products and standards and the setting of relevant government policy. In order to increase the reach of the ESLI Principles, the document has been translated into Spanish, and other languages are also being considered. The document will undergo annual updating in response to growth and change in the scientific understandings of Earth science.

Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

2009-12-01

51

Computational Materials Science from First Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent developments in atomistic computer simulations of matter incorporating both quantum and classical statistical mechanical elements. These methods treat the electronic and geometric structure of solids, liquids and molecules on an equal footing and require no a priori knowledge (i.e. they are based on first principles, the basic laws of quantum and classical physics, not on experimental information).

D. Hohl

1994-01-01

52

Bernoulli's Principle: Science as a Human Endeavor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What do the ideas of Daniel Bernoulli--an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, natural scientist, and professor--and your students' next landing of the space shuttle via computer simulation have in common? Because of his contribution, referred in physical science as Bernoulli's principle, modern flight is possible. The mini learning-cycle…

McCarthy, Deborah

2008-01-01

53

Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine  

PubMed Central

New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

2010-01-01

54

The precautionary principle in environmental science.  

PubMed Central

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy.

Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

2001-01-01

55

Limitations on diversity in basic science departments.  

PubMed

It has been over 30 years since the beginning of efforts to improve diversity in academia. We can identify four major stages: (1) early and continuing efforts to diversify the pipeline by increasing numbers of women and minorities getting advanced degrees, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); (2) requiring academic institutions to develop their own "affirmative action plans" for hiring and promotion; (3) introducing mentoring programs and coping strategies to help women and minorities deal with faculty practices from an earlier era; (4) asking academic institutions to rethink their practices and policies with an eye toward enabling more faculty diversity, a process known as institutional transformation. The thesis of this article is that research-intensive basic science departments of highly ranked U.S. medical schools are stuck at stage 3, resulting in a less diverse tenured and tenure-track faculty than seen in well-funded science departments of major universities. A review of Web-based records of research-intensive departments in universities with both medical school and nonmedical school departments indicates that the proportion of women and Black faculty in science departments of medical schools is lower than the proportion in similarly research-intensive university science departments. Expectations for faculty productivity in research-intensive medical school departments versus university-based departments may lead to these differences in faculty diversity. PMID:22775445

Leboy, Phoebe S; Madden, Janice F

2012-07-09

56

Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

Horton, Linda

2010-03-01

57

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pursuant to recommendations of the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNISPACE III and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNCOPUOS annual UN European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991 These workshops contribute to the development of astrophysics and space science particularly in developing nations Following a process of prioritization the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field i operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD ii virtual observatories iii astrophysical data systems iv concurrent design capabilities for the development of international space missions and v theoretical astrophysics such as applications of nonextensive statistical mechanics Beginning in 2005 the workshops focus on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 IHY2007 The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost ground-based world-wide instrument arrays as lead by the IHY secretariat Further information Wamsteker W Albrecht R and Haubold H J Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide A Decade of UN ESA Workshops Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht 2004 http ihy2007 org http www oosa unvienna org SAP bss ihy2007 index html http www cbpf br GrupPesq StatisticalPhys biblio htm

Haubold, H. J.

58

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pursuant to recommendations of the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), annual UN/ European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991. These workshops contribute to the development of astrophysics and space science, particularly in developing nations. Following a process of prioritization, the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field: (i) operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD, (ii) virtual observatories, (iii) astrophysical data systems, (iv) concurrent design capabilities for the development of international space missions, and (v) theoretical astrophysics such as applications of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Beginning in 2005, the workshops focus on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007). The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost, ground-based, world-wide instrument arrays as lead by the IHY secretariat. Wamsteker, W., Albrecht, R. and Haubold, H.J.: Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide: A Decade of UN/ESA Workshops. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2004. http://ihy2007.org http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html http://www.cbpf.br/GrupPesq/StatisticalPhys/biblio.htm

Haubold, H. J.

2006-08-01

59

Basic genetic principles applied to posterior fossa malformations.  

PubMed

Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques turned possible for neuroradiologists to be frequently the first one to detect possible brain structural anomalies. However, with all the recent advances in genetics and embryology, understanding posterior fossa malformation's principles is being hardest to be achieved than previously. Studies in vertebrate models provide a developmental framework in which to categorize human hindbrain malformations and serve to inform our thinking regarding candidate genes involved in disrupted developmental processes. The main focus of this review was to survey the basic principles of the rhombomere division, anteroposterior and dorsoventral patterning, alar and basal zone concept, and axonal path finding to integrate the knowledge of human hindbrain malformations for better understanding the genetic basis of hindbrain development. PMID:24132065

Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; Littig, Ingrid Aguiar; da Rocha, Antonio Jose; Vedolin, Leonardo

2011-12-01

60

Basic Science Living Skills for Today's World. Teacher's Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a teacher's edition of a basic skills curriculum in science for adult basic education (ABE) students. The course consists of 25 lessons on basic science concepts, designed to give students a good understanding of the biological and physical sciences. Suggested activities and experiments that the student can do are also included.…

Zellers (Robert W.) Educational Services, Johnstown, PA.

61

Assessment in Basic Science Instruction: Directions for Practice and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, we discuss assessment of students' understanding of the basic biomedical sciences during the basic science component of medical education. Because we strongly believe that assessment should follow from and be congruent with course and curricular goals, the first section discusses recent trends in basic science education: where it's been and where it appears to be headed. The

D. B. Swanson; S. M. Case

1997-01-01

62

Basic Science Living Skills for Today's World. Teacher's Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a teacher's edition of a basic skills curriculum in science for adult basic education (ABE) students. The course consists of 25 lessons on basic science concepts, designed to give students a good understanding of the biological and physical sciences. Suggested activities and experiments that the student can do are also included.…

Zellers (Robert W.) Educational Services, Johnstown, PA.

63

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01

64

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01

65

Basic Physical Chemistry for the Atmospheric Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Updated and revised, this highly successful text details the basic chemical principles required for modern studies of atmospheres, oceans, and Earth and planetary systems. This completely accessible introduction allows undergraduate and graduate students with little formal training in chemistry to grasp such fundamental concepts as chemical equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, solution chemistry, acid and base chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, and photochemistry. In the companion volume Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry (also to be published in May 2000), Peter Hobbs details atmospheric chemistry itself, including its applications to air pollution, acid rain, the ozone hole, and climate change. Together these two books offer an ideal introduction to atmospheric chemistry for a variety of disciplines.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2000-09-01

66

Basic Science Right, Not Basic Science Lite: Medical Education at a Crossroad  

Microsoft Academic Search

This perspective is a counterpoint to Dr. Brass’ article, Basic biomedical sciences and the future of medical education: implications for internal medicine. The authors review development of the US medical education system as an introduction to a discussion of Dr. Brass’ perspectives.\\u000a The authors agree that sound scientific foundations and skill in critical thinking are important and that effective educational

Ruth-Marie E. Fincher; Paul M. Wallach; W. Scott Richardson

2009-01-01

67

[Basic principles for the development of biomarkers in oncology].  

PubMed

The accelerated expansion of the knowledge of genetic and molecular basics of cancer, together with the recent development of molecular biology techniques, have had a significant impact in the field of oncology, among other medical disciplines. So, over the last few years, we are crossing from an empiricism-based model to an evidence-based model in which drugs are adapted depending of the molecular alterations which result crucial for tumor development (both for carcinogenesis and acquisition of an aggressive phenotype leading to tumor invasion and resistance to therapy). The molecular alterations /variations offer the possibility of being detected and used as biomarkers in clinical practice. Biomarkers may have multiple applications in the field of oncology, from determining the risk to suffer the disease to prediction of response to therapy, including diagnosis, prognosis and disease monitoring, with the final aim of performing a more personalized medicine and achieving greater efficacy for the therapies selected, diminishing each therapy's own adverse events. Considering the importance biomarkers may get to have in clinical decision making, it is basic that their development is performed under straight evaluation and validation rules. In this article we review the various types of biomarkers and the basic methodological principles for their development, validation and subsequent clinical application. PMID:23793760

Seijas, Raquel; Herranz, Jesús; Malats, Nuria

2013-06-01

68

Underground oil shale retorting. [Basic principles are outlined  

SciTech Connect

The basic principles involved in combustion processing of oil shale are outlined. The manual is designed to serve as an introduction to the subject for the support personnel of the LLL Oil Shale Project. The material is presented in a simple two page format with one page devoted to a figure or table and the facing page contains a brief description of that material. Thus, it can serve as a self-study guide. Following a brief description of oil shale, how it was formed, and the extent of the resource, an overview of the concepts and major technical problems of Modified In-Situ (MIS) Oil Shale Retorting is presented. Finally, the liquid product, shale oil, is compared with typical petroleum crudes.

Campbell, J.H.; Raley, J.H.

1980-02-01

69

[Basic principles and historical consideration of MR cholangiopancreatography].  

PubMed

Basic principle of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is heavily T2-weighted imaging (hydrography) to use bile and pancreatic juice as "natural contrast medium". Firstly developed sequence for MRCP was a CE-FAST sequence, which employed time-reversed FID signal. The current most popular sequences for MRCP are single-shot fast spin-echo sequences, which are divided into three types (2D single slice, 2D mutiple slice and 3D methods). The advantage of 2D single slice method is conveniently obtained projection imaging within a few seconds of examination time. Both 2D multiple slice and 3D methods consists of a MIP image and a series of source images. The MIP image creates global images of pancreatico-biliary system. The source images provide detailed evaluation of various anatomical structures and abnormalities. By using these sequences properly, MRCP can yield valuable informations of pancreatico-biliary diseases non-invasively. PMID:9847594

Ohgi, K; Furukawa, T; Akiyama, H; Kimura, S; Uehara, K; Murata, K

1998-11-01

70

Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

Ward, Janet

2004-01-01

71

Science For the Layman [review of The Canon: A Whirligig Tour of the Beautiful Basics of Science (Angier, N.; 2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ambitious, 304-page sprint through the fundamentals delivers its lessons via cheerful interviews with hundreds of top-notch scientists. However, the author's jittery style may alienate most people. The author, Natalie Angier, who reports on science for The New York Times, dips into physics, chemistry, and biology, and then on to rock formations and plants. She addresses the basic principles in

Sandra Upson

2007-01-01

72

The intraoperative gamma probe: basic principles and choices available.  

PubMed

By taking advantage of the proximity to radioactive sentinel nodes and occult tumors achievable in an operative setting, intraoperative probes are becoming increasingly important in the surgical management of cancer. This article begins with a discussion of the statistical limitations of radiation detection and measurement and of the key performance parameters (sensitivity, energy resolution, and spatial resolution) that characterize detectors. The basic design and operating principle of radiation detectors used in intraoperative probes, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, are then reviewed. Scintillation detector-based intraoperative probes, generally using a NaI(T1) or a CsI(T1) crystal connected to a photomultiplier tube by a fiberoptic cable, have the advantages of reliability, relatively low cost, and high sensitivity, especially for medium- to high-energy photons. Disadvantages include poor energy resolution and scatter rejection, and bulkiness. Semiconductor (CdZn, CdZnTe, HgI2)-based probes are compact and have excellent energy resolution and scatter rejection, but with complex energy spectra reflecting charge-carrier trapping. Their main disadvantage is lower sensitivity. The performance parameters of various commercially available intraoperative probes are then compared. The article concludes with a discussion of the practical considerations in selecting and using intraoperative probes, including ergonomic and other design features, as well as performance parameters. PMID:10656242

Zanzonico, P; Heller, S

2000-01-01

73

[Basic principles of risk management in medical practice].  

PubMed

I explain the basic principles of risk management in medical practice. It is most important to understand the different meanings of the following four terms: risk, danger, crisis, and hazard. The word "risk" comes from Latin, and means food necessary to live today and tomorrow. Both medical practitioners and patients need to get over the risk in the process of diagnosis and treatment. The word "danger" means something which can harm us. It is better not to provoke such dangerous things. The word "crisis" comes from Greek, and signifies a turning point meaning life or death. Decision making is the most important at this critical point. The word "hazard" comes from old French for a game of dice. It may lead to an accident in some situations. The social welfare system has continually deteriorated in Japan. We must provide medical services in unsafe circumstances. Medical practitioners promise to do their best, but cannot guarantee a favorable outcome. It is very important to communicate with patients and family members. Doctors and nurses may experience problems with patients and their families. When problems occur regarding a patient, the management of the hospital must support the staff members concerned. PMID:19363994

Karasawa, Hideharu

2009-03-01

74

CEST: from basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed. PMID:23273841

Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E

2012-12-06

75

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative for IHY 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations, in cooperation with national and international space-related agencies and organizations, has been organizing annual workshops since 1990 on basic space science, particularly for the benefit of scientists and engineers from developing nations. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, through the IHY Secretariat and the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) will assist scientists and

N. Gopalswamy; J. M. Davila; B. J. Thompson; H. Haubold

2006-01-01

76

Populations. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide is for an elementary school science unit designed for use with third grade (or older) children in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation or edition of…

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

77

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1991 the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs has been conducting a series of workshops on basic space science under its United Nations Programme on Space Applications. Up to 2004 the workshops focussed on capacity building efforts in basic space science, in particular for the benefit of developing countries. From 2005 onwards the workshops and their related activities contributed to the celebration of the International Heliophysical Year 2007. Together these activities and workshops constitute the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. This paper reflects on the achievements and outcomes of the Initiative and informs about considerations for its future evolution.

Haubold, Hans J.; Balogh, Werner R.

2009-06-01

78

Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the U.S. maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences' (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

1990-10-01

79

Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

Not Available

1990-10-01

80

BASIC STEPS IN DESIGNING SCIENCE LABORATORIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|PLANNERS OF CURRENT UNIVERSITY LABORATORIES OFTEN MAKE THE SAME MISTAKES MADE BY INDUSTRIAL LABORATORIES 20 YEARS AGO. THIS CAN BE REMEDIED BY INCREASED COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SCIENTISTS AND DESIGNERS IN SEMINARS DEFINING THE BASIC NEEDS OF A PARTICULAR LABORATORY SITUATION. ELECTRONIC AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ACCOUNT FOR OVER 50 PER CENT OF TOTAL…

WHITNEY, FRANK L.

81

Refractometry of Living Cells Part I. Basic Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The principles underlying a new method of refractometry of living cells are dis- cussed. The method was evolved from the chance observation that the amoebocytes of the blood of the earthworm, examined in their own blood, appeared bright instead of dark by positive phase-contrast microscopy. This was shown to be due to the pre- sence of dissolved haemoglobin which

R. BARER; S. JOSEPH

82

Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we…

Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

2012-01-01

83

Assessment of the basic energy sciences program. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A list of experts reviewing the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program and their organizations are given. The assessment plan is explained; the program examined the following: quality of science being conducted in the program, quality of performers supported by the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program, and the impact of the research on mission oriented needs. The intent of the assessment is to provide an indication of general status relative to these questions for the BES divisions. The approach to the assessment is described. The sampling plan which was used as a guide in determining the sample size and selecting the sample to evaluate the research program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are discussed. Special analyses were conducted on the dispersion of reviewers' ratings, the ratings of the lower funded projects, and the amount of time the principal investigator devoted to the project. These are presented in the final appendix together with histograms for individual rating variables for each program area. (MCW)

Not Available

1982-03-01

84

Basic principles for conducting human research in orthopaedic medicine.  

PubMed

Researchers and clinicians operate in an increasingly complex clinical and regulatory environment in which understanding the principles governing human research is essential. However, most orthopaedic surgeons have not received in-depth training in regulatory requirements and scientific research methods. Ensuring that research is conducted in accordance with state and federal laws and ethical principles is essential to guard compromising patient information and avoid severe penalties for noncompliance. The researcher must understand the regulations for compliance and proper data management, including the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, proper application of informed consent, use of the Institutional Review Board, and data protection guidelines. Tools such as a regulatory binder can assist investigators in complying with requirements, maintaining regulatory standards, and ensuring a robust study design and conduct. PMID:23728961

Slover, James D; Shue, Jennifer; Karia, Raj J; Band, Philip A

2013-06-01

85

The Principles of Science Education in Today's Schools. A Roundtable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the dialogue from a roundtable discussion on the principles of science education in today's school held by "Pedagogika" in March 2004. Participants were as follows: from the Russian Academy of Education: V.P. Borisenkov, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, vice president of the Russian Academy of Education, and editor…

Russian Education and Society, 2006

2006-01-01

86

Endoscopy in Meningioma Surgery: Basic Principles, Applications, and Indications  

Microsoft Academic Search

No doubt surgery of benign intracranial lesions is among the most exciting and satisfying aspects of everyday neurosurgi-cal\\u000a practice, because the precise, elegant, safe, and effective surgical deed can give the patient back his or her normal life.\\u000a As a matter of fact, meningioma surgery follows a general principle: the complete removal of an intracranial meningi-oma often\\u000a means cure for

Paolo Cappabianca; Luigi M. Cavallo; Felice Esposito; Enrico de Divitiis

87

Resident's morning report: An opportunity to reinforce principles of biomedical science in a clinical context.  

PubMed

The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a faculty member for discussion. This venue provides an opportunity to illustrate how basic biomedical principles facilitate an understanding of the clinical presentation, the relevant pathophysiology, and the rationale for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A discussion of biochemical principles can easily be incorporated into these case discussions, with the potential to reinforce these concepts and to illustrate their application to clinical decision making. This approach maintains the effort to teach basic biomedical sciences in the context of clinical application across the educational continuum. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 41(5):315-318, 2013. PMID:24019184

Brass, Eric P

2013-09-10

88

Animation-Based Explanation of Basic Data Communication Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of communication systems is high. Hence, the presentation of modern communication methods to undergraduate students is difficult. A graphic presentation, and especially an animation can be much more effective than a bare text. The animations must concentrate on basic methods, be enough abstract, user friendly, aesthetic, and possess some kind of flexibility concerning animated scenarios, speed of presentation,

Drago Hercog

89

Clamping devices; structural concepts and basic design principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, has developed and is now refining pneumatic shock machines for hammering all kinds of rod elements into the ground. The machines consist of a pneumatic shock component and a clamping device which transmits the shock load to the component being sunk into the ground and receives the reactive

Smolyanitskii

1988-01-01

90

Cough, basic science, and the clinician.  

PubMed

Cough is a major cause of disability and distress worldwide. In June 2007, the First American Cough Conference was held in New York City and covered a spectrum of topics of interest to the basic scientist as well as the clinician. The conference was organized by Dr. Peter Dicpinigaitis and its proceedings are published in the February Supplement of LUNG. This supplement consists of a series of articles that provide a valuable overview of recent advances in our understanding of mechanism, etiology, and treatment of cough and constitute an adjunct to the guidelines recently published by the American College of Chest Physicians, the British Thorax Society, the European Respiratory Society, and the Japanese Respiratory Society. PMID:18311504

McCool, F Dennis

2008-03-01

91

Basic concepts and principles of stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks.  

PubMed

Metabolic networks supply the energy and building blocks for cell growth and maintenance. Cells continuously rewire their metabolic networks in response to changes in environmental conditions to sustain fitness. Studies of the systemic properties of metabolic networks give insight into metabolic plasticity and robustness, and the ability of organisms to cope with different environments. Constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks has become an indispensable tool for such studies. Herein, we review the basic theoretical underpinnings of constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks. Basic concepts, such as stoichiometry, chemical moiety conservation, flux modes, flux balance analysis, and flux solution spaces, are explained with simple, illustrative examples. We emphasize the mathematical definitions and their network topological interpretations. PMID:23893965

Maarleveld, Timo R; Khandelwal, Ruchir A; Olivier, Brett G; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J

2013-07-29

92

Teaching socially intelligent computing principles in introductory computer science courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of artificial intelligence has long captured the imagination of popular culture, perhaps even inspiring some to pursue formal study in computer science. There is a growing interest in an offshoot of the basic idea of machine intelligence called \\

Alan Shaw

2012-01-01

93

Complications of chemotherapy, a basic science update.  

PubMed

Anthracyclines, discovered 50 years ago, are antibiotics widely used as antineoplastic agents and are among the most successful anticancer therapies ever developed to treat a wide range of cancers, including hematological malignancies, soft tissue sarcomas and solid tumors. However, some anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, exhibit major signs of cardiotoxicity that may ultimately lead to heart failure (HF). Despite intensive research on doxorubicine-induced cardiotoxicity, the underlying mechanisms responsible for doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity have not been fully elucidated yet. Published literature so far has focused mostly on mitochondria dysfunction with consequent oxidative stress, Ca(2+) overload, and cardiomyocyte death as doxorubicin side effects, leading to heart dysfunction. This review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte death (i.e.: cardiomyocyte death, mitochondria metabolism and bioenergetic alteration), but we will also point to new directions of possible mechanisms, suggesting potent prior or concomitant alterations of specific signaling pathways with molecular actors directly targeted by the anticancer drugs itself (i.e. calcium homeostasis or cAMP signaling cascade). The mechanisms of anticancer cardiac toxicity may be more complex than just mitochondria dysfunction. Partnership of both basic and clinical research is needed to promote new strategies in diagnosis, therapies with concomitant cardioprotection in order to achieve cancer treatment with acceptable cardiotoxicity along life span. PMID:23972551

Mazevet, Marianne; Moulin, Maryline; Llach-Martinez, Anna; Chargari, Cyrus; Deutsch, Eric; Gomez, Ana-Maria; Morel, Eric

2013-08-22

94

Introduction to Circular Accelerators - Basic Science and Applied Research  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an introduction to history and overview of circular particle accelerators, reviews acceleration methods and basic principles of: weak and strong focusing, transverse and longitudinal particle motion, optic elements operation. The classification of circular machines is given. Author overviews future projects and technological applied research of particle accelerators.

Trubnikov, Grigory [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research JINR, Joliot Curie, 6, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)

2010-01-05

95

Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation.

Shin, Ji Hoon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Ha, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong Hyun

2012-01-01

96

Application of Pascal Principle in Earth Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pascal experiment is interpreted and the chamber is roughly defined. Pascal experiment in relation to Pascal principle compared with a chamber in the earth crust. It is conclude that: 1: The pressure (P) inside the Pascal's cylinder is the combination of two pressure; the external pressure (P1) and the hydraulic pressure (P2). Pc=P1+P2 The direction of the force is

M. Samimi Namin

2009-01-01

97

[Basic techniques of electroencephalography: principles and clinical applications].  

PubMed

The electroencephalogram is a technique for the functional exploration of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a relatively old technique but even today it continues to be a tool of great assistance to the clinician in diagnosing and treating certain pathologies, such as epilepsy, encephalopathies, alterations to the state of consciousness, CNS infections, etc. On the other hand, it is a diagnostic tool whose applications are expanding in combination with other neurophysiological techniques, such as in the field of the study and diagnosis of sleep pathology (polysomnography, multiple sleep latency test...) and in intraoperative monitoring together with somasensory evoked potentials. This article describes the basic techniques of electroencephalography, with special emphasis on its main clinical applications and on future perspectives. PMID:20094087

Ramos-Argüelles, F; Morales, G; Egozcue, S; Pabón, R M; Alonso, M T

2009-01-01

98

Basic research in computer science and software engineering at SKLCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Key Laboratory of Computer Science (SKLCS) is committed to basic research in computer science and software engineering.\\u000a The research topics of the laboratory include: concurrency theory, theory and algorithms for real-time systems, formal specifications\\u000a based on context-free grammars, semantics of programming languages, model checking, automated reasoning, logic programming,\\u000a software testing, software process improvement, middleware technology, parallel algorithms and

Jian Zhang; Wenhui Zhang; Naijun Zhan; Yidong Shen; Haiming Chen; Yunquan Zhang; Yongji Wang; Enhua Wu; Hongan Wang; Xueyang Zhu

2008-01-01

99

Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods.  

PubMed

Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students' acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students' personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students' potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

2012-07-24

100

Connecting Science and Society: Basic Research in the Service of Social Objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flawed dichotomy of basic versus applied science (or of ``curiosity-driven'' vs. ``mission-oriented'' science) pervades today's thinking about science policy. This talk argues for the addition of a third mode of scientific research, called Jeffersonian science. Whereas basic science, as traditionally understood, is a quest for the unknown regardless of societal needs, and applied science is known science applied to

Gerhard Sonnert

2007-01-01

101

New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit…

Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

2008-01-01

102

Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

103

Basic equations, theory and principle of computational stock market (III)—basic theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

By basic equations, two basic theories are presented: 1. Theory of stock' s value ?* (t) = ?*(0) exp(ar*2 t); 2. Theory of conservation of stock' s energy. Let stock' s energy ? be defined as a quadratic function of stock' s price\\u000a ? and its derivative\\u000a $$\\\\dot v,\\\\phi = {\\\\rm A}v^2 + Bv\\\\dot v + C\\\\dot v^2 + Dv$$

Yun Tian-quan

2000-01-01

104

Basic organization principles of the VOR: lessons from frogs.  

PubMed

Locomotion is associated with a number of optical consequences that degrade visual information processing in the absence of appropriate compensatory movements. The resulting retinal image flow is counteracted by coordinated eye-head reflexes that are initiated by optokinetic and vestibular inputs. The contribution of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) for stabilizing retinal images is relatively small in amplitude in frogs but important in function by compensating for the non-linearities of the neck motor system. The spatial tuning of the VOR networks underlying the angular (AVOR) and linear (LVOR) with respect to canal and extraocular motor coordinates is organized in a common, canal-related reference frame. Thereby, the axes of head and eye rotation are aligned, principle and auxiliary VOR connections transform vestibular into motor signals and parallel AVOR and LVOR circuits mediate vergence and version signals separately. Comparison of these results with data from other vertebrates demonstrates a number of fundamental organization principles common to most vertebrates. However, the fewer degrees of behavioral freedom of frogs are reflected by the absence of, e.g. a functioning velocity storage network or of a fixation suppression of the VOR. In vitro experiments with the isolated brainstem and branches of N.VIII attached were used to study the putative transmitters of vestibular nerve afferent inputs, the postsynaptic receptor subtypes of second-order vestibular neurons and their dynamic response properties. Evidence is presented that suggests that afferent vestibular nerve fibers with different dynamic response properties activate different subtypes of glutamate receptors. The convergence pattern of monosynaptic afferent nerve inputs from different labyrinthine organs onto second-order vestibular neurons is remarkably specific. As a rule, second-order vestibular neurons receive converging afferent nerve inputs from one semicircular canal and from a specific sector of hair cells on one otolith organ. This convergence pattern remains malleable even in adulthood and reorganization is initiated by activity-related changes in vestibular nerve afferent fibers. The output of second-order vestibular neurons is modified by at least three inhibitory control loops. Uncrossed inhibitory vestibular side loops appear to control specifically the dynamic response tuning, whereas coplanar commissural inhibitory inputs improve mainly the spatial tuning and the cerebellar feedback loop controls the response gain. Among the targets of second-order vestibular projection neurons are extraocular motoneurons and internuclear neurons. Extraocular motoneurons differ among each other by the presence of very different response dynamics. These differences may represent a co-adaptation to the response dynamics of twitch and non-twitch extraocular muscle fibers. Different dynamical properties are required for a rapid acceleration of the globe at the one end and for the maintenance of a stable eccentric eye position over long periods of time at the other end of a continuum of variations in dynamic response properties. The maintenance of a given eccentric eye position over long periods of time is especially well developed in frogs and assists visual surveillance during lurking in the absence of saccades. PMID:15261395

Straka, H; Dieringer, N

2004-07-01

105

Basic Principles of Synaptic Physiology Illustrated by a Computer Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A computer model is described that simulates many basic aspects of chemical synapse physiology. The model consists of two displays, the first being a pictorial diagram of the anatomical connections between two presynaptic neurons and one postsynaptic neuron. Either or both of the presynaptic cells can be stimulated from a control panel with variable control of the number of pulses and firing rate; the resulting presynaptic action potentials are animated. The second display plots the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell versus time following presynaptic stimulation. The model accurately simulates temporal and spatial summation when the presynaptic cells are arranged and stimulated in parallel and simulates presynaptic inhibition when they are arranged and stimulated in series. Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials can be demonstrated by altering the nature of the ionic conductance change occurring on the postsynaptic cell. The effects on summation of changing length constant or time constant of the postsynaptic cell can also be illustrated. The model is useful for teaching these concepts to medical, graduate, or undergraduate students and can also be used as a self-directed computer laboratory exercise. It is available for free download from the internet.

PhD Michael J. Davis (Texas A&M University Dept. of Medical Physiology)

2001-03-01

106

The role of basic sciences in diagnostic oral radiology.  

PubMed

Although it is generally taken for granted that dental education must include both basic science and feature-based knowledge components, little is known about their relative roles in visual interpretation of radiographs. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, we sought to compare the educational efficacy of three learning strategies in diagnostic radiology: one that used basic scientific (pathophysiologic) information, one that used feature lists structured with an organizational tool, and one that used unstructured feature lists. Our second objective was to determine whether basic scientific information provides conceptual coherence or is merely a simple means for organizing feature-based knowledge. Predoctoral dental and undergraduate dental hygiene students (n=96) were randomly assigned into three groups (basic science, structured algorithm, and feature list) and were taught four confusable intrabony entities. The students completed diagnostic and memory tests immediately after learning and one week later, and these data were subjected to a 3x2 repeated measures ANOVA. For the diagnostic test, students in the basic science group outperformed those assigned to the feature list and structured algorithm groups on immediate and delayed testing (p<0.05). A main effect of learning condition was found to be significant. On the memory test, performance was similar across all three groups, and no significant effects were found. The results of this study support the critical role of basic scientific knowledge in diagnostic radiology. This study also refutes the organized learning theory and provides support for the conceptual coherence theory as a possible explanation for the process by which basic science aids in diagnosis. PMID:19805783

Baghdady, Mariam T; Pharoah, Michael J; Regehr, Glenn; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

2009-10-01

107

Some basic principles in dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids can be established systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the two-field one in the dynamic theory of viscoelastic materials with voids by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

Luo, En; Li, Weihua

2007-06-01

108

Some basic principles for the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by Luo, some basic principles in the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics can be established systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation in terms of convolutions is given, which can be considered as the generalized principle of virtual work in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is not only possible to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem, but also to systematically derive the complementary functionals for the eleven-field, nine-field and six-field simplified Gurtin-type variational principles and the potential energy-functional for the three-field one in the linear theory of piezoelectric micropolar elastodynamics by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationships among various principles can be explained clearly.

Luo, En; Li, Weihua

2010-06-01

109

Basic Science at the Extreme States of Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific regime accessed by pulsed power is most succinctly described as the extreme states of matter. These include: high pressure, (2) high temperature, and (3) high magnetic fields. The opportunities for new and exciting basic research range through the disciplines of; (1) astrophysics, (2) planetary physics, (3) geophysics, (4) materials science, (5) plasma physics, (6) atomic physics, and (7)

Johndale C. Solem

1996-01-01

110

BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

CASSEL, RICHARD

111

BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

CASSEL, RICHARD

112

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: the TRIPOD concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1990, the United Nations is annually holding a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities through the Official Development Assistance (ODA) of Japan. Teaching material, hands-on astrophysics material, and variable star observing programmes had been developed for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in an university environment. This approach to astronomical telescope facility, observing programme, and teaching astronomy has become known as the basic space science TRIPOD concept. Currently, a similar TRIPOD concept is being developed for the International Heliophysical Year 2007, consisting of an instrument array, data taking and analysis, and teaching space science.

Kitamura, Masatoshi; Wentzel, Don; Henden, Arne; Bennett, Jeffrey; Al-Naimiy, H. M. K.; Mathai, A. M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph; Thompson, Barbara; Webb, David; Haubold, Hans

113

Application of Pascal Principle in Earth Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pascal experiment is interpreted and the chamber is roughly defined. Pascal experiment in relation to Pascal principle compared with a chamber in the earth crust. It is conclude that: 1: The pressure (P) inside the Pascal's cylinder is the combination of two pressure; the external pressure (P1) and the hydraulic pressure (P2). Pc=P1+P2 The direction of the force is from top to bottom. In the case of the chamber the pressure is Pch=P1-P2 and its positive direction is regarded to be from bottom to top. P1 is the external pressure, and is the maximum pressure applied to chamber .The external pressure creates a constant internal pressure throughout the chamber .The magnitude of the constant pressure is based on the litho static pressure of the bottom of the chamber; because it is the maximum pressure that the chamber is connected. P1=?1gH+?2gh Where H is the overburden thickness, h is the highness of the chamber, ?1 is the density of the overburden and ?2 is density of country rock. The hydrostatic pressure within the chamber is P2=?3gh. Also ?3 is the density of the chamber. So the pressure inside the chamber would be: Pch=P1-P2 then Pch=?1gH+(?2-?3)gh. The equation above means that, the chamber pressure equals to the overburden pressure plus Archimedes pressure. 2: The word squeezing which is a vulgar word has an important physical meaning that is ((Pascal principle driving movement)).In another word, almost all movements, related to chambers, within the earth are a squeezing event which's, driving force is the steady constant pressure mentioned above. Any change in this pressure depends on the rupturing of the chamber and the behavior of the movement of the chamber matter. 3: If we provide a safety valve on piston of the Pascal's cylinder and increase the load we see the safety valve bursts and the matter inside the cylinder squeeze out .The pressure is from top to bottom but the movement is from bottom to top. The direction of force has changed 180° degree. This is Pascal's miracle and displays the all movements that pierce the earth surface and let the matter squeeze out.

Samimi Namin, M.

2009-12-01

114

Storytelling in Earth sciences: The eight basic plots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.

Phillips, Jonathan

2012-11-01

115

Opportunities for Computational Discovery in Basic Energy Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the broad-ranging support of computational physics and computational science within the Department of Energy Office of Science will be provided. Computation as the third branch of physics is supported by all six offices (Advanced Scientific Computing, Basic Energy, Biological and Environmental, Fusion Energy, High-Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics). Support focuses on hardware, software and applications. Most opportunities within the fields of condensed-matter physics, chemical-physics and materials sciences are supported by the Officeof Basic Energy Science (BES) or through partnerships between BES and the Office for Advanced Scientific Computing. Activities include radiation sciences, catalysis, combustion, materials in extreme environments, energy-storage materials, light-harvesting and photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and superconductivity. A summary of two recent reports by the computational materials and chemical communities on the role of computation during the next decade will be provided. In addition to materials and chemistry challenges specific to energy sciences, issues identified include a focus on the role of the domain scientist in integrating, expanding and sustaining applications-oriented capabilities on evolving high-performance computing platforms and on the role of computation in accelerating the development of innovative technologies.

Pederson, Mark

2011-03-01

116

FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences, materials sciences programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research programs from Sandia Laboratory in Materials Science are briefly presented. Significant accomplishments include: preparation of Tl superconductors under equilibrium conditions; development of force-feedback sensor for interfacial force microscope; predictive model of hydrogen interactions in silicon dioxide on silicon; layer-by-layer sputtering of Si (001); oscillatory As4 surface reaction rates during molecular beam epitaxy of AlAs, GaAs, and InAs; and the effects of interfacial strain on the band offsets of lattice matched III-V semiconductor. Other accomplishments include: a new mechanism for surface diffusion; solid solution effects in Tl-containing superconductors; record high superconducting transitions for organic materials; atomic vibrations in boron carbides; and a method for studying radical/surface reactions in chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

1991-01-01

117

Cooperation in basic space science - Opportunities and impediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is made of benefits derivable from developing nations' participation in basic space sciences research activities. It is noted that the superior mathematics training obtained by young scientists in Latin American universities uniquely qualifies them for work in space plasma modeling and simulation studies, the application of sophisticated methods of statistical analysis and chaos, and the development of neural computer methods in pattern recognition applicable to the automated intelligent analysis of remote sensing images. Aggressive participation in current and planned international space science programs is recommended.

Roederer, Juan G.

118

Skin pH: from basic science to basic skin care.  

PubMed

The "acid mantle" is a topic not only of historical interest, but also of clinical significance and has recently been linked to vital stratum corneum function. Despite compelling basic science evidence placing skin pH as a key factor in barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum integrity, and antimicrobial defense, application of the acid mantle concept in clinical care is lacking. We review recent basic science investigations into skin pH, discuss skin disorders characterized by aberrant pH, and finally discuss practical application for preservation of the acid mantle. Recognizing factors that alter skin pH and selecting products that preserve the acid mantle is of prime importance in treating dermatologic patients. PMID:23322028

Ali, Saba M; Yosipovitch, Gil

2013-05-01

119

Current Tumor Ablation Technologies: Basic Science and Device Review  

PubMed Central

Image-guided tumor ablation is an increasingly utilized tool to treat focal malignancy. Tumor ablation can be divided into two large categories, thermal and chemical ablation. The authors provide an overview of the current methods used to achieve thermal and chemical ablation of tumors, specifically addressing the basic science behind the ablation methods as well as providing a brief synopsis of the commercial devices currently available for use in the United States.

Saldanha, David F.; Khiatani, Vishal L.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Yap, Felix Y.; Bui, James T.; Knuttinen, M. Grace; Owens, Charles A.; Gaba, Ron C.

2010-01-01

120

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis: Basic principles and applications in radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a widely accepted method for analyzing and comparing the diagnostic accuracy of radiological tests. In this paper we will explain the basic principles underlying ROC analysis and provide practical information on the use and interpretation of ROC curves. The major applications of ROC analysis will be discussed and their limitations will be addressed.

Arian R van Erkel; Peter M. Th Pattynama

1998-01-01

121

TELEOLOGY IN BIOLOGY: HADDOX ON THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE LIVING WORLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Jack Haddox's mature philosophical work emphasizes humanistic themes and existential concerns, his earliest major project in philosophy; his 1959 dissertation at Notre Dame: Reasons for the Importance of a Philosophical Study of Some of the Basic Principles of the Living World, was a detailed analysis of the methodology of biological investigation. The dissertation examined case studies involving enzymes, proteins,

John Symons

122

New Principles and Basic Approaches for the Curricula of Engineering Degree Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents new principles and basic approaches for the curricula of engineering degree courses. The accentuated evolution of engineering, the fast technological transformations and, still, the impact provoked by government regulations in the field of education in Brazil have called attention to these issues. Following these changes, it…

Gargione, Luiz Antonio

123

Round Rocks: Teaching Principles of Earth Science and Paleontology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides teachers with a highly effective way of presenting paleontology and earth science principles with limited classroom time. The main idea is to emphasize the thought processes that paleontologists use in their work. By answering certain questions and learning certain principles, students are compelled to think about the process of scientific reasoning. The process consists of taking a rock (from anywhere) in the hand and asking a single, simple question: How did this rock come to be this way? This lesson provides teachers with an outline of the process, principles and questions that students should use and answer about their rocks in order to understand the way scientists think and develop hypotheses and conclusions.

Allmon, Warren; Griffing, David

124

DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovo...

S. K. Deb

2005-01-01

125

Study habits and attitude of medical students of basic sciences.  

PubMed

Study habits and attitude for learning of Basic Medical Sciences amongst 133 students of first and second year MBBS course were analyzed (through questionnaires). The study revealed that the most of the students desired to be physicians to serve the patient/society. They preferred to learn more through self study (48.0%) and lecture classes (43.0%), less through group discussion (8.0%) and PBL (1.0%). Only 5.0% use to surf the internet regularly for their study matter and 79.0% students had never consulted any medical journals. PMID:17899965

Dhungel, Kshitiz Upadhyay; Prajapati, Rajesh; Pramanik, Tapas; Ghosh, Arijit; Roychowdhury, Paresh

2007-06-01

126

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative for IHY 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations, in cooperation with national and international space-related agencies and organizations, has been organizing annual workshops since 1990 on basic space science, particularly for the benefit of scientists and engineers from developing nations. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, through the IHY Secretariat and the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) will assist scientists and engineers from all over the world in participating in the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007. A major thrust of the IHY/UNBSSI program is to deploy arrays of small, inexpensive instruments such as magnetometers, radio telescopes, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, etc. around the world to provide global measurements of ionospheric and heliospheric phenomena. The small instrument program is envisioned as a partnership between instrument providers, and instrument hosts in developing countries. The lead scientist will provide the instruments (or fabrication plans for instruments) in the array; the host country will provide manpower, facilities, and operational support to obtain data with the instrument typically at a local university. Funds are not available through the IHY to build the instruments; these must be obtained through the normal proposal channels. However all instrument operational support for local scientists, facilities, data acquisition, etc will be provided by the host nation. It is our hope that the IHY/UNBSSI program can facilitate the deployment of several of these networks world wide. Existing data bases and relevant software tools that can will be identified to promote space science activities in developing countries. Extensive data on space science have been accumulated by a number of space missions. Similarly, long-term data bases are available from ground based observations. These data can be utilized in ways different from originally intended for understanding the heliophysical processes. This paper provides an overview of the IHY/UNBSS program, its achievements and future plans.

Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; Thompson, B. J.; Haubold, H.

2006-08-01

127

Research programs for Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

A chemical sciences review meeting was held in which research programs in chemistry were discussed. Major topics included: chemistry of actinides and fission products, interactions of solvents, solutes and surfaces in supercritical extraction, chemical and physical principles in multiphase separations, and chemical kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

Not Available

1988-01-01

128

Current Developments in Basic Space Science in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is important to developing African countries. In this paper, a brief review of the situation of astronomical research in Africa before 1991 is given. During that period only South Africa and Egypt were carrying out observational research in astronomy. In other African countries astronomy research was in its infancy, except the University of Nigeria Space Research Centre (UNNSRC) in theoretical areas. A summary of the important recommendations for Africa at the United Nations/ European Space Agency (UN/ESA) series of workshops on basic space science were itemized to help identify those which have now been accomplished. Additionally, UNNSRC has now embarked on further observational programmes through the establishment of strong collaborative ventures with two observatories in South Africa, the Hartesbeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (Hart RAO) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). UNNSRC has also made permanent arrangements with HartRAO, SAAO, and the Jodrell Bank for collaborations in data analysis. A new interest in astronomy appears to have awakened in Nigeria with three more universities joining this area of basic space science. It is recommended that the time has come for all African countries to contribute towards a common facility such as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The efforts of UN/ESA which resulted in tremendous achievements are commended.

Okeke, P. N.

129

Deduction of generalised Kirchhoff's Laws from the basic principles of electromagnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deduction of the so well-renowned and established Laws of Kirchhoff relating to the currents flowing in a network, which are considered to be almost axiomatic in electrical engineering sciences, seems to be preposterous and non-sensical at first sight. However, on a closer examination it will appear that these laws are based on two principles, viz, the steady-state condition under

Samarendra Kumar Mitra; Topen Roy

1966-01-01

130

Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

Eiseman, Elisa

2001-03-01

131

Basic and Applied Science Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, or LANSCE, is an accelerator-based national user facility for research in basic and applied science using four experimental areas. LANSCE has two areas that provide neutrons generated by the 800-MeV proton beam striking tungsten target systems. A third area uses the proton beam for radiography. The fourth area uses 100 MeV protons to produce medical radioisotopes. This paper describes the four LANSCE experimental areas, gives nuclear science highlights of the past operating period, and discusses plans for the future.

Lisowski, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS H848, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2005-05-24

132

Science-Active Liberal Arts Colleges and the Future of Basic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report, "Educating America's Scientists: The Role of the Research Colleges" identified a group of 48 liberal arts colleges distinguished by their research records and proportions of science graduates. These institutions are remarkable for their production of meaningful basic research with the presence of doctorate level departments. (MLW)

Stanitski, Conrad; And Others

1986-01-01

133

Basic science research to support the nuclear material focus area  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

Boak, J. M. (Jeremy M.); Eller, P. Gary; Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.

2002-01-01

134

Basic Science Research to Support the Nuclear Materials Focus Area  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.; Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. G.

2002-02-26

135

Spinal cord injury I: A synopsis of the basic science  

PubMed Central

Substantial knowledge has been gained in the pathological findings following naturally occurring spinal cord injury (SCI) in dogs and cats. The molecular mechanisms involved in failure of neural regeneration within the central nervous system, potential therapeutics including cellular transplantation therapy, neural plasticity, and prognostic indicators of recovery from SCI have been studied. This 2-part review summarizes 1) basic science perspectives regarding treating and curing spinal cord injury, 2) recent studies that shed light on prognosis and recovery from SCI, 3) current thinking regarding standards of care for dogs with SCI, 4) experimental approaches in the laboratory setting, and 5) current clinical trials being conducted in veterinary medicine. Part I presents timely information on the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury, challenges associated with promoting regeneration of neurons of the central nervous system, and experimental approaches aimed at developing treatments for spinal cord injury.

Webb, Aubrey A.; Ngan, Sybil; Fowler, J. David

2010-01-01

136

Corneal gene therapy: basic science and translational perspective.  

PubMed

Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. Gene therapy is an emerging technology for corneal blindness due to the accessibility and immune-privileged nature of the cornea, ease of vector administration and visual monitoring, and ability to perform frequent noninvasive corneal assessment. Vision restoration by gene therapy is contingent upon vector and mode of therapeutic gene introduction into targeted cells/tissues. Numerous efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches have evolved in the last decade for developing gene-based interventions for corneal diseases. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. This review describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various ocular surface disorders and diseases. PMID:23838017

Mohan, Rajiv R; Rodier, Jason T; Sharma, Ajay

2013-02-13

137

Basic science and treatment options for articular cartilage injuries.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage injuries can produce significant musculoskeletal morbidity for both young and active aging patient populations. The complex and highly specialized composition of normal hyaline cartilage makes treatment of focal chondral injuries a formidable challenge for the basic scientist, surgeon, and physical therapist. The current array of surgical treatment options offers palliative, reparative, and restorative treatment strategies. Palliative options include simple arthroscopic debridement. Reparative strategies utilize marrow stimulation techniques to induce formation of fibrocartilage within the chondral defect. Restorative tactics attempt to replace damaged cartilage with hyaline or hyaline-like tissue using osteochondral or chondrocyte transplantation. Furthermore, while treatment success is obviously dependent on good surgical selection and technique, the importance of sound, compliant postoperative rehabilitation cannot be understated. The purpose of this article is to review the basic science of articular cartilage, current treatment options available, and outline the clinical decision making involved when using these procedures by presenting the algorithm used at our institution for treating focal cartilage lesions. PMID:17063834

Lewis, Paul B; McCarty, L Pearce; Kang, Richard W; Cole, Brian J

2006-10-01

138

HOW VALID ARE THE BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES UNDERPINNING GLOBAL CHANGE SCIENCE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing scientific approach to investigating and understanding the environmental consequences of human-induced global change is underpinned by two basic biological principles. First, the principle that species genetically adapt to changing environment conditions. Second, the principle that nutrients present in the environment in the smallest relative concentrations limit biological productivity. We contend that both principles have been formulated based on

Anastassia Makarieva; Victor G. Gorshkov; Brendan Mackey; Vadim V. Gorshkov

139

Guest editorial: From neuroscience to neuro-rehabilitation: transferring basic neuroscientific principles from laboratory to bedside.  

PubMed

Several new approaches for treatment of Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders are currently under investigation, including the use of rehabilitation training strategies, which are often combined with electrical and/or pharmacological modulation of spinal locomotor circuitries. While these approaches show great promise in the laboratory setting, there still exists a large gap in knowledge on how to transfer these treatments to daily clinical use. This thematic series presents a cross section of cutting edge approaches with the goal of transferring basic neuroscience principles from the laboratory to the proverbial "bedside". PMID:23336967

Koenig, Alexander; Luft, Andreas; Cajigas, Iahn

2013-01-21

140

Guest Editorial: From neuroscience to neuro-rehabilitation: transferring basic neuroscientific principles from laboratory to bedside  

PubMed Central

Several new approaches for treatment of Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders are currently under investigation, including the use of rehabilitation training strategies, which are often combined with electrical and/or pharmacological modulation of spinal locomotor circuitries. While these approaches show great promise in the laboratory setting, there still exists a large gap in knowledge on how to transfer these treatments to daily clinical use. This thematic series presents a cross section of cutting edge approaches with the goal of transferring basic neuroscience principles from the laboratory to the proverbial "bedside".

2013-01-01

141

BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases.

Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Bluml, Stefan

2010-01-01

142

Basic science curriculum during residency: justification based on in-training examination scores.  

PubMed

The American Board of Surgery is increasing its emphasis on competency in surgical basic science as part of residency training. The 1991 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) contained 135 questions designated as basic science to assess residents' knowledge. We reviewed the separate progression of scores in clinical and basic sciences at Wayne State University (WSU) surgical residency and nationally through the 1991 ABSITE report. Regression analysis of WSU data yielded a slope (% correct answers per postgraduate year) of 5.3 for clinical and 2.4 for basic science scores (P < 0.001 by t-statistic applied to regression slopes). These data imply a progression of knowledge during residency but at a significantly slower rate for basic science. The national data confirm this trend, although we were unable to evaluate it statistically. This situation illustrates the need for organized teaching of clinically relevant basic science as part of a residency curriculum. PMID:7998608

Steffes, C P; Dulchavsky, S A

1994-12-01

143

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)|

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

144

Back to the Basic Sciences: An Innovative Approach to Teaching Senior Medical Students How Best to Integrate Basic Science and Clinical Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abraham Flexner persuaded the medical establishment of his time that teaching the sciences, from basic to clinical, should be a critical component of the medical student curriculum, thus giving rise to the \\

Abby L. Spencer; Teresa Brosenitsch; Arthur S. Levine; Steven L. Kanter

2008-01-01

145

Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury - from basic science to clinical bedside  

PubMed Central

Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial ischemia, cardiac surgery or circulatory arrest. Primarily, no blood flow to the heart causes an imbalance between oxygen demand and supply, named ischemia (from the greek isch-, restriction and -haema, blood), resulting in damage or dysfunction of the cardiac tissue. Instinctively, early and fast restoration of blood flow has been established to be the treatment of choice to prevent further tissue injury. Indeed, the use of thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective strategy for reducing the size of a myocardial infarct and improving the clinical outcome. Unfortunately, restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium, named reperfusion, can also induce injury. This phenomenon was therefore termed myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Subsequent studies in animal models of acute myocardial infarction suggest that myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct. Consequently many researchers aim to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury to find therapeutic strategies ultimately reducing the final infarct size. Despite of the identification of numerous therapeutic strategies at the bench, many of them are just in the process of being translated to bedside. In the current review, we will discuss the most striking basic science findings made during the last decades that are currently under clinical evaluation, with the ultimate goal to treat patients who are suffering from myocardial ischemia and reperfusion associated tissue injury.

Frank, Anja; Bonney, Megan; Bonney, Stephanie; Weitzel, Lindsay; Koeppen, Michael; Eckle, Tobias

2012-01-01

146

Database access and problem solving in the basic sciences.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the potential contribution that access to a database of biomedical information may offer in support of problem-solving exercises when personal knowledge is inadequate. Thirty-six medical students were assessed over four occasions and three domains in the basic sciences: bacteriology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Each assessment consisted of a two-pass protocol in which students were first assessed for their personal knowledge of a domain with a short-answer problem set. Then, for a sample of problems they had missed, they were asked to use a database, INQUIRER, to respond to questions which they had been unable to address with their personal knowledge. Results indicate that for a domain in which the database is well-integrated in course activities, useful retrieval of information which augmented personal knowledge increased over three assessment occasions, even continuing to increase several months after course exposure and experience with the database. For all domains, even at assessments prior to course exposure, students were able to moderately extend their ability to solve problems through access to the INQUIRER database.

de Bliek, R.; Friedman, C. P.; Wildemuth, B. M.; Martz, J. M.; File, D.; Twarog, R. G.; Reich, G. M.; Hoekstra, L.

1993-01-01

147

Back to the basic sciences: an innovative approach to teaching senior medical students how best to integrate basic science and clinical medicine.  

PubMed

Abraham Flexner persuaded the medical establishment of his time that teaching the sciences, from basic to clinical, should be a critical component of the medical student curriculum, thus giving rise to the "preclinical curriculum." However, students' retention of basic science material after the preclinical years is generally poor. The authors believe that revisiting the basic sciences in the fourth year can enhance understanding of clinical medicine and further students' understanding of how the two fields integrate. With this in mind, a return to the basic sciences during the fourth year of medical school may be highly beneficial. The purpose of this article is to (1) discuss efforts to integrate basic science into the clinical years of medical student education throughout the United States and Canada, and (2) describe the highly developed fourth-year basic science integration program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In their critical review of medical school curricula of 126 U.S. and 17 Canadian medical schools, the authors found that only 19% of U.S. medical schools and 24% of Canadian medical schools require basic science courses or experiences during the clinical years, a minor increase compared with 1985. Curricular methods ranged from simple lectures to integrated case studies with hands-on laboratory experience. The authors hope to advance the national discussion about the need to more fully integrate basic science teaching throughout all four years of the medical student curriculum by placing a curricular innovation in the context of similar efforts by other U.S. and Canadian medical schools. PMID:18580085

Spencer, Abby L; Brosenitsch, Teresa; Levine, Arthur S; Kanter, Steven L

2008-07-01

148

Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.

Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

2006-10-01

149

Japanese medical students' interest in basic sciences: a questionnaire survey of a medical school in Japan.  

PubMed

The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using ?(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent. PMID:23337622

Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

2013-01-01

150

Connecting Science and Society: Basic Research in the Service of Social Objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flawed dichotomy of basic versus applied science (or of ``curiosity-driven'' vs. ``mission-oriented'' science) pervades today's thinking about science policy. This talk argues for the addition of a third mode of scientific research, called Jeffersonian science. Whereas basic science, as traditionally understood, is a quest for the unknown regardless of societal needs, and applied science is known science applied to known needs, Jeffersonian science is the quest for the unknown in the service of a known social need. It is research in an identified area of basic scientific ignorance that lies at the heart of a social problem. The talk discusses the conceptual foundations and then provides some case examples of Jeffersonian-type science initiatives, such as the Lewis and Clark Expedition, initiated by Thomas Jefferson (which led us to call this mode of research Jeffersonian), research conducted under the auspices of the National Institutes of Health, and a science policy project by President Jimmy Carter and his Science Adviser, Frank Press, in the late 1970s. Because the concept of Jeffersonian science explicitly ties basic research to the social good, one of the potential benefits of adding a Jeffersonian dimension to our thinking about science is that it might make science careers more attractive to women and underrepresented minorities.

Sonnert, Gerhard

2007-03-01

151

A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

2009-01-01

152

Setting the Scene: Basic Rules for a Safer Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six classes, six teachers--just navigating middle school is a voyage of discovery for early adolescents. We offer them a confusing array of choices, many in science. Sometimes it seems we spend too much science class time teaching organization, caution, and control. But these skills--critical to making science experiences exciting and safe--are also important science processes. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreword, Introduction, and References.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2003-01-01

153

A Determination of Aerospace Principles Desirable for Inclusion in Fifth or Sixth Grade Science Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined were aerospace principles for inclusion in fifth or sixth grade science programs and the extent to which current textbooks included these principles. A preliminary list of principles was formulated and submitted to the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Bureau of Standards for modification. From this, a revised…

Johnson, Mervin LeRoy

154

Office of Basic Energy Sciences: 1984 summary report  

SciTech Connect

Subprograms of the OBES discussed in this document include: materials sciences, chemical sciences, nuclear sciences, engineering and geosciences, advanced energy projects, biological energy research, carbon dioxide research, HFBR, HFIR, NSLS, SSRL, IPNS, Combustion Research Facility, high-voltage and atomic resolution electron microscopic facilities, Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, Dynamitron Accelerator, calutrons, and Transuranium Processing Plant. Nickel aluminide and glassy metals are discussed. (DLC)

Not Available

1984-11-01

155

Basic Properties of Magnetic Shape-Memory Materials from First-Principles Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mutual influence of phase transformations, magnetism, and electronic properties of magnetic-shape memory Heusler materials is a basic issue of electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory. In this article, we show that these calculations can be pursued to finite temperatures, which allows to derive on a first-principles basis the temperature versus composition phase diagram of the pseudo-binary Ni-Mn-(Ga, In, Sn, Sb) system. The free energy calculations show that the phonon contribution stabilizes the body-centered-cubic (bcc)-like austenite structure at elevated temperatures, whereas magnetism favors the low-temperature martensite phase with body-centered-tetragonal (bct) or rather face-centered-tetragonal (fct) structure. The calculations also allow to make predictions of magnetostructural and magnetic field induced properties of other (new) magnetic Heusler alloys not based on NiMn such as Co-Ni-(Ga-Zn) and Fe-Co-Ni-(Ga-Zn) intermetallic compounds.

Entel, Peter; Dannenberg, Antje; Siewert, Mario; Herper, Heike C.; Gruner, Markus E.; Comtesse, Denis; Elmers, Hans-Joachim; Kallmayer, Michael

2012-08-01

156

Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: A model  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a significant medical and societal problem. This reality arises from the fact that an exponential and an unrestricted cellular growth destabilizes human body as a system. From this perspective, cancer is a manifestation of a system-in-failing. A model of normal and abnormal cell cycle oscillations has been developed incorporating systems science, complexity, and chaos theories. Using this model, cancer expresses a failing subsystem and is characterized by a positive exponential growth taking place in the outer edge of chaos. The overall survival of human body as a system is threatened. This model suggests, however, that cancer's exponential cellular growth and disorganized complexity could be controlled through the process of induction of differentiation of cancer stem cells into cells of low and basic functionality. This concept would imply reorientation of current treatment principles from cellular killing (cyto-toxic therapies) to cellular retraining (cyto-education).

Janecka, Ivo P.

2007-01-01

157

The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However,…

Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

2012-01-01

158

Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy  

SciTech Connect

This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

1990-11-01

159

Science: A Practical View. Volume III. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific principles of…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

160

Catalysis for Energy: Fundamental Science and Long-Term Impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences Catalysis Science Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an in-depth analysis of the investment in catalysis basic research by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Catalysis Science Program.1 Catalysis is essential to our ability to control chemical reac...

2009-01-01

161

Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often…

Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

2011-01-01

162

Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines…

Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

2011-01-01

163

Basic Principles of Planar Chromatography and Its Potential for Hyphenated Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sample preparation, detection, identification, and quantitative determination of biomolecules are presented in this chapter. Advantages of planar chromatography and the basic principles (chambers, sample application, and chromatogram development) are also described. Rapid detection of biomolecules plays a strategical role in their investigation. Hyphenated techniques such as planar chromatography coupled to UV diode array detection and to mass spectrometry provide on-line extensive structural information on the metabolites prior to their isolation. In this chapter, the combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with biomolecules specific detection by diode array scanning (DAD), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TLC-FTIR) is discussed. In the last part of the chapter, the reader will gain useful information about a recent method of planar chromatography - multidimensional planar chromatography (MD-PC) and information on application of different modes of multidimensional planar chromatography and combination of this technique with diode array detection (MD-PC-DAD) and HPLC-DAD for separation, detection, and qualitative and quantitative determination of biomolecules. Planar chromatography as a pilot technique for HPLC is also described.

Tuzimski, Tomasz

164

Principle and Basic Characteristics of a Hybrid Variable-Magnetic-Force Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduction in the power consumed by motors is important for energy saving in the case of electrical appliances and electric vehicles (EVs). The motors used for operating these devices operate at variable speeds. Further, the motors operate with a small load in the stationary mode and a large load in the starting mode. A permanent magnet motor can be operated at the rated power with a high efficiency. However, the efficiency is low at a small load or at a high speed because the large constant magnetic force results in substantial core loss. Furthermore, the flux-weakening current that decreases the voltage at a high speed leads to significant copper loss and core loss. Therefore, we have developed a new technique for controlling the magnetic force of a permanent magnet on the basis of the load or speed of the motor. In this paper, we propose a novel motor that can vary the magnetic flux of a permanent magnet and clarify the principle and basic characteristics of the motor. The new motor has a permanent magnet that is magnetized by the magnetizing coil of the stator. The analysis results show that the magnetic flux linkage of the motor can be changed from 37% to 100% that a high torque can be produced.

Sakai, Kazuto; Kuramochi, Satoru

165

Time reversal data communications on pipes using guided elastic waves: Part I. Basic principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric sensors that are embedded in large structures and are inter-connected as a sensor network can provide critical information regarding the integrity of the structures being monitored. A viable data communication scheme for sensor networks is needed to ensure effective transmission of messages regarding the structural heath conditions from sensor nodes to the central processing unit. In this paper we develop a time reversal based data communication scheme that utilizes guided elastic waves for structural health monitoring applications. Unlike conventional data communication technologies that use electromagnetic radio waves or acoustical waves, the proposed method utilize elastic waves as message carriers and steel pipes as transmission channels. However, the multi-modal and dispersive characteristics of guided waves make it difficult to interpret the channel responses or to transfer correctly the structural information data along pipes. In this paper, we present the basic principles of the proposed time reversal based pulse position modulation and demonstrate by simulation that this method can effectively overcome channel dispersion, achieve synchronization, and delivery information bits through steels pipes or pipe-like structures correctly.

Jin, Yuanwei; Zhao, Deshuang; Ying, Yujie

2011-03-01

166

Facilitating learning and innovation in organizations using complexity science principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties have been encountered in communi - cating the meaning and value of complexity sci- ence principles to people in organizations. While one school of thought in the literature holds that it is not necessary to attempt to communicate the principles transparently, one set of researchers set out to develop a range of tools and a workshop ses- sion to

Carol Webb; Fiona Lettice; Mark Lemon

167

Basic Science Research Related to Chiropractic Spinal Adjusting: The State of the Art and Recommendations Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objectives of this white paper are to review and summarize the basic science literature relevant to spinal fixation (subluxation) and spinal adjusting procedures and to make specific recommendations for future research.

Gregory Cramer; Brian Budgell; Charles Henderson; Partap Khalsa; Joel Pickar

2006-01-01

168

Chemical Engineering Division Basic Energy Sciences Research: July 1976--September 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies in basic energy science covered many different activities, nearly all of which were designed to gain information required for a better understanding of systems important to national needs in energy and environment. Studies of associating gases inc...

1978-01-01

169

The Melting Pot of Automated Discovery: Principles for a New Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

After two decades of research on automated discovery, many principles are shaping up as a foundation of discovery science.\\u000a In this paper we view discovery science as automation of discovery by systems who autonomously discover knowledge and a theory\\u000a for such systems. We start by clarifying the notion of discovery by automated agent. Then we present a number of principles

Jan ?ytkow

170

Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

171

Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

172

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)|

Busch, Phyllis S.

1985-01-01

173

Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common…

Schubert, Nancy A.

174

Computational Biology of cardiac arrhythmias: from basic science to application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac virtual tissues are biophysically, histologically and anatomically detailed computational models that are sufficiently well validated to be used as a predictive tool, are currently used in basic research, and are beginning to be applied to clinical problems. Virtual cardiac cells and tissues are stiff, high order ordinary and partial differential equations. While 1- and 2-D tissues can be run

O. V. Aslanidi; V. N. Biktashev; M. Chen; R. H. Clayton; A. V. Holden; J. V. Tucker; H. Zhang

2003-01-01

175

The Genetic Science Learning Center: The Basics and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents an animated "tour" of the basics of DNA and genes. The program can be downloaded so that it can be used without an Internet connection. Students will get the chance to learn more about DNA, genes, chromosomes, proteins, traits and heredity. The interactive lesson makes it easy for students to choose which sections to focus on.

2004-01-01

176

Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries.  

PubMed

Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

2011-03-28

177

Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

2006-01-01

178

Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that “[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental

Mariachiara Tallacchini; Mariachiara

2005-01-01

179

Between Precautionary Principle and “Sound Science”: Distributing the Burdens of Proof  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opponents of biotechnology ofteninvoke the Precautionary Principle to advancetheir cause, whereas biotech enthusiasts preferto appeal to ``sound science.'' Publicauthorities are still groping for a usefuldefinition. A crucial issue in this debate isthe distribution of the burden of proof amongthe parties favoring and opposing certaintechnological developments. Indeed, the debateon the significance and scope of thePrecautionary Principle can be fruitfullyre-framed as a

Henk van den Belt; Bart Gremmen

2002-01-01

180

Teaching Aldosterone Regulation and Basic Scientific Principles Using a Classic Paper by Dr. James O. Davis and Colleagues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th…

Hanke, Craig J.; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.

2006-01-01

181

Teaching Aldosterone Regulation and Basic Scientific Principles Using a Classic Paper by Dr. James O. Davis and Colleagues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th…

Hanke, Craig J.; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.

2006-01-01

182

Flexner revisited: the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education.  

PubMed

A central tenet of Flexner's report was the fundamental role of science in medical education. Today, there is tension between the time needed to teach an ever-expanding knowledge base in science and the time needed for increased instruction in clinical application and in the behavioral, ethical, and managerial knowledge and skills needed to prepare for clinical experiences. One result has been at least a perceived reduction in time and focus on the foundational sciences. In this context, the International Association of Medical Science Educators initiated a study to address the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education by seeking perspectives from various groups of medical educators to five questions: (1) What are the sciences that constitute the foundation for medical practice? (2) What is the value and role of the foundational sciences in medical education? (3) When and how should these foundational sciences be incorporated into the medical education curriculum? (4) What sciences should be prerequisite to entering the undergraduate medical curriculum? (5) What are examples of the best practices for incorporating the foundational sciences into the medical education curriculum? The results suggest a broad group of experts believes that an understanding of basic science content remains essential to clinical practice and that teaching should be accomplished across the entire undergraduate medical education experience and integrated with clinical applications. Learning the sciences also plays a foundational role in developing discipline and rigor in learners' thinking skills, including logical reasoning, critical appraisal, problem solving, decision making, and creativity. PMID:20107367

Finnerty, Edward P; Chauvin, Sheila; Bonaminio, Giulia; Andrews, Mark; Carroll, Robert G; Pangaro, Louis N

2010-02-01

183

Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected f...

B. R. Kinzey F. March S. C. McDonald V. E. Lee W. B. Ashton

1990-01-01

184

BASIC SCIENCE EDUCATION IN PAKISTANI MEDICAL CURRICULA: ROLE OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan, the traditional science-oriented MBBS curriculum pertaining to basic sciences up to early seventies was loaded with the teaching of anatomy and physiology with less emphasis on biochemis- try and molecular biology. Although, there has been a significant change since then, yet the role of cell and molecular biology in the curriculum has remained less than desirable. With the

M. Perwaiz Iqbal

185

DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). The goal of the Material Sciences projects is to study the structural, optical, electrical, and defect properties of semiconductors and related materials using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Specific projects involving PV include: ordering in III-V semiconductors, isoelectronic co-doping, doping bottlenecks in semiconductors, solid-state theory, and computational science. The goal of the Chemical Sciences projects is to advance the fundamental understanding of the relevant science involving materials, photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, nanoscale chemistry, and catalysis that support solar photochemical conversion technologies. Specific projects relating to PV include: dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, semiconductor nanostructures, and molecular semiconductors. This presentation will give an overview of some of the major accomplishments of these projects.

Deb, S. K.

2005-01-01

186

Basic science of intra-articular fractures and posttraumatic osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Intra-articular fractures represent the primary etiologic factor leading to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. The pathomechanisms linking intra-articular fractures to end-stage cartilage destruction are poorly understood. However, fracture-related chondrocyte death has been linked to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Researchers have made significant progress in understanding the pathomechanical link between injury and chondrocyte death. This article reviews recent basic scientific progress investigating intraarticular fractures and fracture-related chondrocyte death and dysfunction. PMID:20736796

McKinley, Todd O; Borrelli, Joseph; D'Lima, Darryl D; Furman, Bridgette D; Giannoudis, Peter V

2010-09-01

187

Behavioral science theory and principles for practice in health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of health education practice lies in its effectiveness. Behavioral science theories have greater potential to enhance the effect- iveness of practice than is currently realized. Many have called for development of strategies to overcome current barriers to the use of theory in the field. Such strategies should explicate the potential of commonly taught behavioral science theories to facilitate

Christine Jackson

1997-01-01

188

Modeling heterogeneous materials via two-point correlation functions: basic principles.  

PubMed

Heterogeneous materials abound in nature and man-made situations. Examples include porous media, biological materials, and composite materials. Diverse and interesting properties exhibited by these materials result from their complex microstructures, which also make it difficult to model the materials. Yeong and Torquato [Phys. Rev. E 57, 495 (1998)] introduced a stochastic optimization technique that enables one to generate realizations of heterogeneous materials from a prescribed set of correlation functions. In this first part of a series of two papers, we collect the known necessary conditions on the standard two-point correlation function S2(r) and formulate a conjecture. In particular, we argue that given a complete two-point correlation function space, S2(r) of any statistically homogeneous material can be expressed through a map on a selected set of bases of the function space. We provide examples of realizable two-point correlation functions and suggest a set of analytical basis functions. We also discuss an exact mathematical formulation of the (re)construction problem and prove that S2(r) cannot completely specify a two-phase heterogeneous material alone. Moreover, we devise an efficient and isotropy-preserving construction algorithm, namely, the lattice-point algorithm to generate realizations of materials from their two-point correlation functions based on the Yeong-Torquato technique. Subsequent analysis can be performed on the generated images to obtain desired macroscopic properties. These developments are integrated here into a general scheme that enables one to model and categorize heterogeneous materials via two-point correlation functions. We will mainly focus on basic principles in this paper. The algorithmic details and applications of the general scheme are given in the second part of this series of two papers. PMID:17930202

Jiao, Y; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S

2007-09-11

189

Design Principles for Creating Locally-Rooted National Science and Mathematics Curricula in Timor-Leste  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper articulates and illustrates design principles that guided the development of a set of hands-on teaching activities for the national science and mathematics curricula at junior-high and high-school level education in Timor-Leste, a small, low-income nation in Southeast Asia. A partnership between a university, an international science

Gabrielson, Curtis A.; Hsi, Sherry

2012-01-01

190

The imaging fringe and flexure tracker of LINC-NIRVANA: basic opto-mechanical design and principle of operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LINC-NIRVANA is the interferometric near-infrared imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Being able to observe at wavelength bands from J to K (suppported by an adaptive optics system operating at visible light) LINC-NIRVANA will provide an unique and unprecedented combination of high angular resolution (~ 9 milliarcseconds at 1.25?m), wide field of view (~ 100 arcseconds2 at 1.25?m), and large collecting area (~ 100m2). One of the major contributions of the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne to this project is the development and provision of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS). In addition to the single-eye adaptive optics systems the FFTS is a crucial component to ensure a time-stable wavefront correction over the full aperture of the double-eye telescope, a mandatory pre-requisite for interferometric observations. Using a independent HAWAII 1 detector array at a combined focus close to the science detector, the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System analyses the complex two-dimensional interferometric point spread function (PSF) of a suitably bright reference source at frame rates of up to several hundred Hertz. By fitting a parameterised theoretical model PSF to the preprocessed image-data the FFTS determines the amount of pistonic phase difference and angular misalignment between the wavefronts of the two optical paths of LINC-NIRVANA. For every exposure the corrective parameters are derived in real-time and transmitted to a dedicated piezo-electric fast linear mirror for simple path lengths adjustments, and/or to the adaptive optics systems of the single-eye telescopes for more complicated corrections. In this paper we present the basic concept and currect status of the opto-mechanical design of the Fringe and Flexure Tracker, the operating principle of the fringe and flexure tracking loops, and the encouraging result of a laboratory test of the piston control loop.

Straubmeier, Christian; Bertram, Thomas; Eckart, Andreas; Rost, Steffen; Wang, Yeping; Herbst, Tom; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Weigelt, Gerd

2006-07-01

191

Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the addition of problem based learning (PBL) into the basic medical curriculum of a large course (270 students). The PBL was provided via a learning management system and attended to the following goals: visual exposure, patient/physician history, patient communication and interactions.

Camille DiLullo (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Anatomy); Harry Morris (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Family Medicine); Richard M Kriebel (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology)

2009-10-01

192

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other Federal agencies' basic research investments when making investment...review is used to select basic research projects for support. It is crucial...of Defense invest in the highest quality research for defense needs. Merit...

2009-07-01

193

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other Federal agencies' basic research investments when making investment...review is used to select basic research projects for support. It is crucial...of Defense invest in the highest quality research for defense needs. Merit...

2010-07-01

194

Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To protect fragile ecosystems and to build sustainable communities that are resilient to climate change-including extreme weather and climate events- a climate-literate citizenry is essential. This climate science literacy guide indentifies the essential ...

2009-01-01

195

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers’ understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p < 0.05, ?2 = 0.59 between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre-to-post assessment with an effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group (M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2010-11-01

196

Principles of Human Computer Collaboration for Knowledge Discovery in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem in computational scientific discovery is to identify, among the diversity of discovery programs written in various sciences, a commonality that will take a next step beyond the acknowledged general—but weak—framework of heuristic search.We characterize discovery in science as the generation of novel, interesting, plausible, and intelligible knowledge about the objects of study. We then analyze four current

Raúl E. Valdés-pérez

1999-01-01

197

Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law  

SciTech Connect

The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that '[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. By focusing on situations of scientific uncertainty where data are lacking, insufficient, or inconclusive, the principle introduced a shift from a neutral legal attitude towards science to a bias in favor of safety, and a shift from the paradigm of science certain and objective to the awareness that the legal regulation of science involves decisions about values and interests. Implementation of the precautionary principle is highly variable. A crucial question still needs to be answered regarding the assumption that scientific certainty is a 'normal' characteristic of scientific knowledge. The relationship between technoscience and society has moved into a situation where uncertain knowledge is the rule. From this perspective, a more general framework for a democratic governance of science is needed. In democratic society, science may still have a special authoritative voice, but it cannot be the ultimate word on decisions that only the broader society may make. Therefore, the precautionary model of scientific regulation needs to be informed by an 'extended participatory model' of the relationship between science and society.

Tallacchini, Mariachiara [Bioethics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 10, 20100 Milan (Italy) and Science Technology and Law, Law Faculty, University of Piacenza, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)]. E-mail: mariachiara.tallacchini@unimi.it

2005-09-01

198

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology and Laboratory Science: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology provides students with the basic laboratory skills and knowledge to pursue a career in biotechnology. The manual, written by four biotechnology instructors with over 20 years of teaching experience, incorporates instruction, exercises, and laboratory activities that the authors have been using and perfecting for years. These exercises and activities serve to engage students and help them understand the fundamentals of working in a biotechnology laboratory. Building students' skills through an organized and systematic presentation of materials, procedures, and tasks, the manual will help students explore overarching themes that relate to all biotechnology workplaces. The fundamentals in this manual are critical to the success of research scientists, scientists who develop ideas into practical products, laboratory analysts who analyze samples in forensic, clinical, quality control, environmental, and other testing laboratories.

Kraus, Mary E.; Seidman, Lisa A.; Mowery, Jeanette; Brandner, Diana

2012-03-19

199

First-Order Principles for College Teachers. Ten Basic Ways To Improve the Teaching Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the first order principles (FOPs) of college teaching and their role as the easiest route to working happily and successfully in the classroom. Part 1 lists the 10 principles: (1) moderate classroom incivilities with prosocial immediacies; (2) wait actively for the fruits of one's teaching efforts; (3) begin before feeling…

Boice, Robert

200

Constructing Good Tests: A Summary of Basic Precepts and Principles Presented in Measurement Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement is a necessary component for research in psychology and education. Researchers use various tests as tools to measure a given construct, making it necessary to have tests that assess a given construct accurately. There are specific principles necessary to follow when constructing a test. This paper discusses the principles for…

Altman, Daniel R.

201

Revealing the Mystery of the Galilean Principle of Relativity. Part I: Basic Assertions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Galileo has formulated, one cannot detect, once embarked in a uniform translational motion, and not receiving any information from the outside, how fast he is moving. Why? No one that we recall of, has worked out the answer of this question, although the Galilean Principle of Relativity ( GPR), constituted a major ingredient of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR). Thus, consider a quantum mechanical object of “ clock mass” M 0 ( which is just a mass), doing a “ clock motion”, such as rotation, vibration, etc., with a total energy E 0, in a space of size ?0. Previously we have established that, if the mass M 0 is multiplied by an arbitrary number ?, then through the relativistic or non-relativistic quantum mechanical description of the object ( which ever is appropriate to describe the case in hand), the size ?0 of it, shrinks as much, and the total energy E 0, concomitantly, increases as much. This quantum mechanical occurrence yields, at once, the invariance of the quantity E 0 M 0?{0/2} with regards to the mass change in question, the object being overall at rest; this latter quantity is, on the other hand, as induced by the quantum mechanical framework, necessarily strapped to h 2, the square of the Planck Constant. But this constant is already, dimension wise, Lorentz invariant. Thus, any quantity bearing the dimension of h 2, is Lorentz invariant, too. So is then, the quantity E 0 M 0?{0/2} ( no matter how the size of concern lies with respect to the direction of uniform translational motion) that would come into play. Thence, the quantum mechanical invariance of the quantity E 0 M 0?{0/2} with regards to an arbitrary mass change, comes to be identical to the Lorentz invariance of this quantity, were the object brought to a uniform translational motion. It is this prevalence, which displays, amazingly, the underlying mechanism, securing the end results of the STR, and this via quantum mechanics. The Lorentz invariant quantum mechanical architecture, E 0 M 0?{0/2}˜ h 2, more fundamentally, constitutes the answer of the mystery drawn by the GPR. In this article, we frame the basic assertions, which will be used in a subsequent article, to display the quantum mechanical machinery making the GPR, and to draw the bridge between the GPR and the architecture, we disclose.

Yarman, Tolga

2009-08-01

202

Changing Educational Needs of Psychologists: Do We Need More Medical Knowledge, Basic Science and More Psychological Science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists of the 21st century must be highly skilled and versatile to function effectively in academic health centers\\u000a (AHCs). Thus, the current paper focuses on the training psychologists receive to prepare them for their diverse roles in AHCs.\\u000a The paper is framed around the question: Do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science? posed to the

Cynthia D. Belar

2008-01-01

203

Collins Advanced Modular Sciences: Particles, Principles and Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is one of the series written to support the Northern Modular Science Scheme. The Physics Core book in the same series was reviewed by Jonathan Allday in the June 1996 issue of this journal, and his remarks about layout and overall approach apply equally here. Roughly speaking, the first half of the book relates to module Ph6 Particle

E Swinbank

1997-01-01

204

THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE TO ASSESS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging field of sustainability science recognizes the important role of technologies in reaching the conditional goals of sustainable development. Research in sustainable te chnologies requires transdisciplinarity to determin e the resilience, adaptive capacity, and complexity of social-ecological syste ms to assess the potential of such technologies for increasing the carrying capacity and improving the resilience of social-eco logical systems,

ALAN C BRENT

205

Teaching computer science principles to liberal arts students using Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scheme dialect of Lisp is being used as an expository notation in introductory courses for liberal arts students at Trinity University. Terminology from natural language identifying parts of speech, such as verb, noun, pronoun and adverb, is used to present Scheme syntax and semantics to non programmers. Simple working models of various computer science topics are described. Experiences from

Aaron Konstam; John E. Howland

1994-01-01

206

Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science  

SciTech Connect

The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State University and Charles University in Prague. In this paper, we report neutron capture studies that are of particular interest to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In addition to determining neutron capture cross sections, we are also interested in the nuclear properties of the excited state compound nuclei created in the capture reactions. One model that describes the behavior of the nucleus is the statistical model. Our statistical studies included measuring the photon strength function, resonance parameters, level density and gamma-ray ({gamma}-ray) cascade multiplicity. The DANCE array allows the separation of cascades by the number of transitions (multiplicity) in the cascade, and this makes it possible to study detailed properties of the statistical cascade such as the relationship between multiplicity and energy distributions. The work reported here includes reaction on molybdenum targets, europium targets, gadolinium targets and the first americium-242m target. Our goal is to improve the accuracy and provide new measurements for stable and radioactive targets. We are especially interested in energy-dependent neutron capture cross sections. In all of our experiments, the photons emitted in the capture reactions are gamma rays, and they are detected by the barium fluoride crystal array named the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) shown in Fig. 1. The detector array is made of 160 crystals arranged in a sphere around the target. There are four different crystal shapes, each of which covers an equal solid angle. This array was specifically designed to measure neutron capture cross sections with targets that were milligram sized or smaller, including radioactive targets. The barium fluoride crystals are scintillation (light generating) detectors with very fast response time, and are therefore suitable for high count rate experiments. Actual neutron capture events must be reliably distinguished from background {gamma}-rays, which are always present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hyd

Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

2007-08-04

207

Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) collaborative was formed to address basic science and engineering knowledge gaps relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. Many of the research activities fall between areas normally funded by different directorates at DOE and might be considered too applied for the basic science directorate and too basic in nature for other directorates. An executive committee

Lee Spangler; Alfred Cunningham; David Lageson; Jesse Melick; Mike Gardner; Laura Dobeck; Kevin Repasky; Joseph Shaw; Richard Bajura; B. Peter. McGrail; Curtis M. Oldenburg; Jeff Wagoner; Rajesh Pawar

2011-01-01

208

Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

Amara, Francis

209

Neurorehabilitation: a bridge between basic science and clinical practice.  

PubMed

A true paradigm shift or revolution of thinking is taking place in the field of neurology. Earlier, it was regarded as the science of exact diagnosis of incurable illnesses, according to the resigned dogma that damage to the central nervous system could not be repaired: "Once development is complete, the sources of growth and regeneration of axons and dendrites are irretrievably lost. In the adult brain the nerve paths are fixed and immutable: everything can die, nothing can be regenerated" (Cajal, 1928). Even then one could have countered this with what holds today: "Rehabilitation does not take place in the test tube!", and one would have been supported only a short time later by a most authoritative source, if one had read and quoted what the professor of neurology and neurosurgery in Breslau, Otfried Foerster, wrote in a 100-page article about therapeutic exercises that appeared in the Handbuch der Neurologie. From his introduction, only three sentences are quoted, which illustrate his opinion of the importance of therapeutic exercises and are closer to our views of brain functions today (Foerster, 1936): There is no doubt that most motor disturbances caused by lesions of the nervous system are more or less completely compensated as a result of a tendency inherent to the organism to carry out as expediently as possible the tasks of which it is capable under normal circumstances, using all the forces still available to it with the remaining undamaged parts of the nervous system, even following injury to its substance. This happens spontaneously, when neither a reversal of the noxa nor a regeneration of the destroyed tissue is possible, simply by means of a reorganization of the remaining parts of the nervous system, which is not a machine composed of individual parts that stands still when one part fails; rather, it possesses an admirable plasticity and exhibits an astonishingly extensive adaptability, not only to changed external conditions but also to disruptions of its own substance. Therapeutic exercises influence the course of spontaneous restoration; they support it, strengthen it. Not infrequently, in fact, they actually set it in motion when the forces essential to restoration lie fallow and are not deployed by the organism. PMID:11328329

Kesselring, J

2001-05-01

210

Lost in Translation--Basic Science in the Era of Translational Research ?  

PubMed Central

The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges.

Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-01-01

211

Basic and Applied Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, or LANSCE, is an accelerator-based national user facility for research in basic and applied science. At present LANSCE has two experimental areas primarily using neutrons generated by 800-MeV protons striking tungsten target systems. A third area uses the proton beam for radiography. This paper describes the three LANSCE experimental areas, gives highlights of the past operating period, and discusses plans for the future.

Lisowski, P.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS H848, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2003-08-26

212

The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)|

Kabalevskii, Dmitrii

1988-01-01

213

Study on basic principles of tri-axial stabilization for flat SOTM on vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on stabilization and insulation of vehicle attitude changes for flat SOTM. According to study on tri-axial stabilization principles and beam tilting techniques, the structure applying mechanical compensation for antenna azimuth as well as elevation and electronic compensation for polarization is set, the simulation results indicate that beam tilting technique could reduce antenna height effectively while the

Huachun Xu; Minli Yao; Xiaowei Shen

2008-01-01

214

The vibrating-membrane problem - based on basic principles and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectangular and circular membranes have been modelled as discrete arrays of mass points connected by mass- less springs. Based on Newton's principles and Hooke's law, the movement of such membranes has been simu- lated. All vibrational modes, as known from closed form solutions of the corresponding wave equations, can be excited, with deviations from theoretical values of no more than

Hermann Härtel; Ernesto Martin

215

An Analysis of Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Achievement, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Cognitive Structure Outcomes After Learning Basic Atomic Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the interrelationships between students' general science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs, and cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Contains 19 references. (DDR)|

Tsai, Chin-Chung

1998-01-01

216

Basic research opportunities in computer science through the United States Air Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tutorial will provide an introduction to the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), which supports the mission of the United States Air Force through basic research in relevant scientific disciplines. We will describe the kinds of research AFOSR funds and describe AFOSR's interest and current initiatives in information technology and computer science. Members of the audience will see

David R. Luginbuhl

2007-01-01

217

The double macchiato years; awards for the best basic science and epidemiology papers in 2012.  

PubMed

It's increasingly difficult to get published in Thorax so we commend all those who managed it in 2012; and salute all those who tried and failed. We think that comparisons are invidious but our chief editors, with all their schoolboy charm, disagree so here are our awards for the best basic science and epidemiological manuscripts in the year of the London Olympics. PMID:23842817

Cullinan, Paul; Lloyd, Clare

2013-08-01

218

The Use of High Pressure in Basic, Materials, and Life Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are at least three important applications of the high pressure technique in the basic, materials, and life sciences: (1) to uncover underlying systematics and critically test theoretical concepts, (2) to synthesize novel materials and phases not accessible by other means, and (3) to test the effect of pressure on living organisms and explore the conditions favorable for the origin

James S. Schilling

1998-01-01

219

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2013-01-01

220

A simulation for teaching the basic and clinical science of fluid therapy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical cases that, by nature, are diverse, change over time, and respond in unique ways to therapeutic interventions. We developed a dynamic model using STELLA software that simulates normal and abnormal fluid and electrolyte balance in the dog. Students interact, not with the underlying model, but with a user interface that provides sufficient data (skin turgor, chemistry panel, etc.) for the clinical assessment of patients and an opportunity for treatment. Students administer fluids and supplements, and the model responds in "real time," requiring regular reassessment and, potentially, adaptation of the treatment strategy. The level of success is determined by clinical outcome, including improvement, deterioration, or death. We expected that the simulated cases could be used to teach both the clinical and basic science of fluid therapy. The simulation provides exposure to a realistic clinical environment, and students tend to focus on this aspect of the simulation while, for the most part, ignoring an exploration of the underlying physiological basis for patient responses. We discuss how the instructor's expertise can provide sufficient support, feedback, and scaffolding so that students can extract maximum understanding of the basic science in the context of assessing and treating at the clinical level.

Richard E. Rawson (Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Biomedical Sciences)

2009-01-01

221

The Department of Energy: Some Aspects of Basic Research in the Chemical Sciences, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the second of a two-part report requested by the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, with the primary purpose of assisting program and administrative officers of OBES in examining present and future plans for orienting and expa...

1981-01-01

222

Impact of the USMLE Step 1 on Teaching and Learning of the Basic Biomedical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the newly modified United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 reviews the test, phase-in plans, and potential impact on basic biomedical sciences education. It is recommended that medical schools not use the test as the sole criterion for promotion to the third year and carefully review other examination-related requirements…

Swanson, David B.; And Others

1992-01-01

223

Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services Project (DREAMS TM): clinical and Basic Science Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DREAMS clinical and basic science projects complement the digital EMS effort by investigating the mechanisms of tissue injury in order to minimize the mortality and mortality of trauma and 'natural' injuries such as heart attacks. We have a broad effort a...

W. Casscells

1999-01-01

224

Iron and malaria interactions: research needs from basic science to global policy.  

PubMed

The resurgence in interest and concern regarding the potentially malign interactions between iron administration and malaria infections, especially in young children and pregnant women, has generated a research agenda that is both broad and deep. This paper highlights some of the key questions under 5 headings: basic science; clinical science and epidemiology; technological developments; country level planning; and global policy. At a time of unparalleled progress in basic science, which is illuminating the mechanisms by which iron interacts with infectious organisms, it is concluded that there are good medium-term prospects for achieving policy breakthroughs based on a secure foundation of disease-nutrient interactions. However, it is also stressed that there is much that can be done in the interim, especially in relation to health systems and implementation research that can empower systems to integrate iron interventions with programs for malaria prevention, surveillance, and treatment. PMID:22797996

Prentice, Andrew M; Cox, Sharon E

2012-07-01

225

A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite impressive advances in recent years with respect to theory and research, personality psychology has yet to articulate clearly a comprehensive framework for understanding the whole person. In an effort to achieve that aim, the current article draws on the most promising empirical and theoretical trends in personality psychology today to articulate 5 big principles for an integrative science of

Dan P. McAdams; Jennifer L. Pals

2006-01-01

226

Does the Modality Principle for Multimedia Learning Apply to Science Classrooms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study demonstrated that the modality principle applies to multimedia learning of regular science lessons in school settings. In the first field experiment, 27 Dutch secondary school students (age 16-17) received a self-paced, web-based multimedia lesson in biology. Students who received lessons containing illustrations and narration…

Harskamp, Egbert G.; Mayer, Richard E.; Suhre, Cor

2007-01-01

227

Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution…

Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate

2007-01-01

228

Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

Rusli, Aloysius

2012-06-01

229

Basic Principles and Ecological Consequences of Altered Flow Regimes for Aquatic Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wetland ecosystems. We\\u000a have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and\\u000a aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant\\u000a of physical habitat

STUART E. BUNN; ANGELA H. ARTHINGTON

2002-01-01

230

The building bricks of product quality: An overview of some basic concepts and principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the role companies, and their business processes, have in product quality during the product lifecycle of a product. The basic business processes and possible organisation forms of those processes are discussed. The trends in these business processes are used to illustrate the current inherent instability of these processes. It is explained how companies can deal

Thijs P. J. Berden; Aarnout C. Brombacher; Peter C. Sander

2000-01-01

231

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-01-01

232

Some aspects of metallurgical assessment of boiler tubes—Basic principles and case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural changes in boiler tubes during prolong operation at high temperature and pressure decrease load bearing capacity limiting their useful lives. When the load bearing capacity falls below a critical level depending on operating parameters and tube geometry, failure occurs. In order to avoid such failures mainly from the view point of economy and safety, this paper describes some basic

Satyabrata Chaudhuri

2006-01-01

233

Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Research Under Controlled Conditions: Basic Principles and Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern agriculture, use of essential plant nutrients in adequate amounts and proper balance is one of the key components in increasing crop yields. Further, in developing crop production technologies, research work under field and controlled conditions is necessary to generate basic and applied information. In addition, research is very dynamic and complex due to variation in climatic, soil, and

N. K. Fageria

2005-01-01

234

Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging  

SciTech Connect

This is a review of the most important milestones in the last ten years of development in the field of grating-based x-ray and neutron imaging. It provides a description of the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with x-rays and neutrons. Furthermore, it reviews the theory of grating-based quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.

Pfeiffer, Franz [Technical University Munich, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-07-31

235

Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a review of the most important milestones in the last ten years of development in the field of grating-based x-ray and neutron imaging. It provides a description of the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with x-rays and neutrons. Furthermore, it reviews the theory of grating-based quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.

Pfeiffer, Franz

2012-07-01

236

UV x-ray free electron lasers through high-gain single pass amplifier: Basic principles and issues  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the basic principles of high gain free electron laser amplifier in single pass configuration for generation of intense, tunable radiation for wavelength shorter than 1,000 {angstrom}. Two schemes are discussed: for wavelength region between 1,000--100 {angstrom}, the high gain harmonic generation of a coherent input radiation can be used. For x-ray wavelength as short as a few {angstrom}, the self-amplified spontaneous emission is currently the only known free electron laser scheme. The author also presents a brief introduction of various key issues in realizing these schemes, which will be discussed in detail in other papers in these proceedings.

Kim, K.J.

1994-09-01

237

Facilitating Learning & SenseMaking with Complexity Science Principles in Organisations by Means of a Complexity Starter Kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: It is acknowledged ,that the underlying principles of complexity ,science hold intrinsic value as sense-making ,analogies for ,managers ,and others working ,in organisational settings. However, recent research found that academics and practitioners encounter ,difficulties communicating ,the meaning ,and ,value ,of complexity science principles to people in organisations. While one school of thought inthe literature holds that it is not

Fiona Lettice

238

Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

SciTech Connect

This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the research that must be done. For example, the applied research programs in the DOE need a greater awareness of the user facilities and an understanding of how to use them to solve their unique problems. The discussions reinforced what all of the participants already knew: the issue of energy security is of major importance both for the U.S. and for the world. Furthermore, it is clear that major changes in the primary energy sources, in energy conversion, and in energy use, must be achieved within the next fifty years. This time scale is determined by two drivers: increasing world population and increasing expectations of that population. Much of the research and development currently being done are concerned with incremental improvements in what has been done in the immediate past; and it is necessary to take this path because improvements will be needed across the board. These advances extend the period before the radical changes have to be made; however, they will not solve the underlying, long-range problem. The Subpanel recommends that a major program be funded to conduct a multidisciplinary research program to address the issues to ensure a secure energy future for the U.S. It is necessary to recognize that this program must be ensured of a long-term stability. It is also necessary that a management and funding structure appropriate for such an approach be developed. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences is well positioned to support this initiative by enhancement of their already world-class scientific research programs and user facilities.

None

2003-02-01

239

FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)  

SciTech Connect

The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

Samara, G.A.

1997-05-01

240

Cancer in pregnancy. Part I: basic diagnostic and therapeutic principles and treatment of gynecological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Cancer in pregnancy is a rare circumstance. However, the coincidence of pregnancy and malignancy is supposed to increase due\\u000a to a general tendency of postponing childbearing to older age. To date, clinical guidelines are scarce and experience regarding\\u000a therapeutic management is limited to case reports.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This review focuses on general diagnostic and therapeutic principles including systemic therapy for malignancies in

Friederike Hoellen; Roland Reibke; Katrin Hornemann; Marc Thill; Doerte W. Luedders; Katharina Kelling; Amadeus Hornemann; Michael K. Bohlmann

241

Basic space science. Proceedings. Fourth United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop, Cairo (Egypt), 27 Jun - 1 Jul 1994.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of the Workshop were to promote basic space science in Western Asia countries; to enhance national capabilities to develop programs and to undertake research activities in basic space science, to enhance scientific cooperation among developing countries and between developing and industrialized countries.

Haubold, H. J.; Mikhail, J. S.

1995-01-01

242

Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing learning activities that link ocean sciences with real-life issues relevant to employment, environment and economic concerns.

Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

2004-12-01

243

Meeting report: "Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back"  

PubMed Central

In March, 2012 we held the first Mideast conference on “Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back”, at the University of Amman, Jordan. This event brought together both clinical and basic scientists with expertise in depression and anxiety spectrum disorders. The meeting took place in a large lecture hall at the University of Jordan Medical School. The audience included faculty, residents, and students. The Dean of the Medical School opened the meeting, welcoming the guest speakers and participants.

2013-01-01

244

Using Basic Ethical Principles to Evaluate Safety Efforts in Transfusion Medicine  

PubMed Central

Pursuit of pharmaceutical purity of the blood in the bag has led to a shrinking donor base and a significantly more expensive product. Decisions regarding new infectious marker testing and donor deferrals have typically been made emphasizing decreasing one specific risk without considering the effect the intervention will have on the overall safety and availability of blood transfusion. Regulations have been formulated by governmental agencies with limited input from the medical community. The decision making process has lacked risk benefit analyses and has not had the robustness associated with spirited discussions. Policies made in this manner may result in certain risks being decreased but can also have adverse unintended consequences. Being guided by the ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice, we need to evaluate our actions in the context of overall blood safety rather than narrowly focusing on any one area.

Brooks, Jay P.

2012-01-01

245

Design principles for clinical efficacy of cancer nanomedicine: a look into the basics.  

PubMed

With recent advances in cancer nanomedicine, there is an increasing expectation for clinical translation. However, what are the parameters of a nanomedicine that will define clinical success, which will be measured by increased efficacy and not just ease of delivery or reduction in toxicity? In this Perspective, we build on a fundamental study by Stefanick et al. on the significance of the design principles in the engineering of a nanomedicine, such as peptide-PEG-linker length and ligand density in cellular uptake of liposomal nanoparticles. We address additional design parameters that can potentially facilitate clinical translation as well as how emerging insights into tumor biology will inspire next-generation cancer nanomedicines. PMID:23607425

Sengupta, Shiladitya; Kulkarni, Ashish

2013-04-23

246

Principle and Basic Characteristics of Variable-Magnetic-Force Memory Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reduction in the power consumed by motors is required for energy saving in the case of electrical appliances and electric vehicles (EV). The motors used for operating these apparatus operate at variable speeds. Further, the motors operate with small load in stationary mode and with large load in start-up mode. A permanent magnet motor can operate at the rated power with a high efficiency. However, the efficiency is lower at small load or high speed because the large constant magnetic force results in substantial core loss. Furthermore, the flux-weakening current that depresses voltage at high speed leads to significant copper loss. Therefore, we have developed a new technique for controlling the magnetic force of permanent magnet on the basis of the load or speed of the motor. In this paper, we propose the novel motor that can vary magnetic flux and we clarify the principle.

Sakai, Kazuto; Yuki, Kazuaki; Hashiba, Yutaka; Takahashi, Norio; Yasui, Kazuya; Kovudhikulrungsri, Lilit

247

Basic principles of nuclear medicine techniques for detection and evaluation of trauma and sports medicine injuries.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine skeletal imaging is a very sensitive technique for evaluating bone and muscle abnormalities because it can detect minor changes in metabolism and blood flow. The specificity of bone imaging, however, depends on the ability of the nuclear medicine physician to make a differential diagnosis. To aid in making a specific diagnosis, this article describes the various patterns of abnormality in stress fractures, tibial stress syndrome (shin splints), compartment syndrome, enthesopathy, and traumatic fractures. The characteristic scintigraphic appearance of joint injuries, muscle injuries (rhabdomyolysis), and radionuclide arthrography is discussed and the way the scan patterns change with time in these various disorders is described. A brief summary of the basic anatomy and physiology of bone and muscle in normal and injured tissue is presented and the basic mechanisms which cause the various abnormal scan patterns is postulated. In addition, a staging system for stress fractures is presented to help direct the referring physician toward the proper management of the injured patient. In most cases, nuclear medicine skeletal imaging can be used to differentiate between acute muscle injury, tibial stress syndrome, skeletal injury (periosteal reaction, stress fracture, and traumatic fracture) or an abnormality that is entirely associated with the joint or connective tissue. This differential diagnosis is easier if the nuclear medicine procedure is performed within a few days after the onset of injury. PMID:3291129

Matin, P

1988-04-01

248

Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science educators play a central role in educating, inspiring, and guiding students to become responsible, scientifically literate citizens. Therefore, teachers of science must uphold the highest ethical standards of the profession to earn and maintain the respect, trust, and confidence of students, parents, school leaders, colleagues, and other…

National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

249

Basic science in Parkinson’s disease: its impact on clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failures in clinical studies that were aimed to prove disease-modifying effects of treatments in Parkinson’s disease (PD)\\u000a raise the question as to whether basic sciences have had an impact in clinical practice. This question implies that despite\\u000a well-publicized results obtained by intensive genetic and pathogenetic research, e.g. the identification of mutations and\\u000a cellular biochemical pathways that underlie Parkinson-specific neurodegeneration, no

Jörg B. Schulz; Manfred Gerlach; Gabriele Gille; Wilfried Kuhn; Martina Müngersdorf; Peter Riederer; Martin Südmeyer; Albert Ludolph

2011-01-01

250

Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science  

SciTech Connect

Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Peters, W. A. [Rutgers University; Adekola, Aderemi S [ORNL; Allen, J. [Rutgers University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee; Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Erikson, Luke [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Gaddis, A. L. [Furman University; Harlin, Christopher W [ORNL; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Howard, Joshua A [ORNL; Jandel, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Johnson, Micah [ORNL; Kapler, R. [University of Tennessee; Krolas, W. [University of Warsaw; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL; Ma, Zhanwen [ORNL; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Matthews, C. [Rutgers University; Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O'Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Patterson, N. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Paulauskas, Stanley [University of Tennessee; Pelham, T. [University of Surrey, UK; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Radford, David C [ORNL; Rogers, J. [Tennessee Technological University; Schmitt, Kyle [University of Tennessee; Shapira, Dan [ORNL; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Sissom, D. J. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Swan, T. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilhelmy, J. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilson, Gemma L [ORNL

2009-04-01

251

Neutron Transfer Reactions: Surrogates for Neutron Capture for Basic and Applied Nuclear Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on 130,132Sn, 134Te and 75As are discussed.

Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, S. D.; Peters, W. A.; Adekola, A.; Allen, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Becker, J. A.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K. A.; Erikson, L.; Gaddis, A.; Harlin, C.; Hatarik, R.; Howard, J.; Jandel, M.; Johnson, M. S.; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, F.; Livesay, R. J.; Ma, Z.; Matei, C.; Matthews, C.; Moazen, B.; Nesaraja, C. D.; O'Malley, P.; Patterson, N.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Pelham, T.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, D.; Rogers, J.; Schmitt, K.; Shapira, D.; Shriner, J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, M. S.; Swan, T.; Thomas, J. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, G. L.

2009-03-01

252

Neutron Transfer Reactions: Surrogates for Neutron Capture for Basic and Applied Nuclear Science  

SciTech Connect

Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

Cizewski, J. A.; Peters, W. A.; Allen, J.; Hatarik, R.; Matthews, C.; O'Malley, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Jones, K. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Kozub, R. L.; Howard, J.; Patterson, N.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Rogers, J.; Sissom, D. J. [Department of Physics, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States); Pain, S. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Adekola, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45703 (United States); Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Liang, F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pittman, S. T. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] (and others)

2009-03-10

253

Basic science curriculums in nuclear cardiology and cardiovascular imaging: Evolving and emerging concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The teaching of basic science with regard to physics, instrumentation, and radiation safety has been part of nuclear cardiology\\u000a training since its inception. Although there are clear educational and quality rationale for such, regulations associated\\u000a with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Subpart J of old 10 CFR §35 (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 35) from the\\u000a 1960s mandated such

William A. Van Decker; Theodore Villafana

2008-01-01

254

The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence  

PubMed Central

Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented.

Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

2006-01-01

255

Metallurgical principles of cryogenically treated tool steels—a review on the current state of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic treatment of tool steels has transformed over centuries from black art to science, but the metallurgical principles\\u000a responsible for increase in wear resistance, tensile strength, toughness, and stability are still disputed. Metallurgists\\u000a comprehend how tool steels respond to cryogenic treatment, but they also understand that for many years, the cryogenic treatment\\u000a of tool steels had the reputation of

Simranpreet Singh Gill; Jagdev Singh; Rupinder Singh; Harpreet Singh

2011-01-01

256

State of the science of maternal-infant bonding: A principle-based concept analysis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: to provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. DESIGN: principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. SETTING: literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. MEASUREMENT AND FINDINGS: after a brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) Maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioural or biological components was limited. (2) The concept is clearly operationalised in the affective domain. (3) Maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. KEY CONCLUSION: despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. PMID:23452661

Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E

2013-02-26

257

The impact of whole-plant instruction of preservice teachers' understanding of plant science principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to determine how an inquiry-based, whole-plant instructional strategy would affect preservice elementary teachers' understanding of plant science principles. This study probed: what preservice teachers know about plant biology concepts before and after instruction, their views of the interrelatedness of plant parts and the environment, how growing a plant affects preservice teachers' understanding, and which types of activity-rich plant themes studies, if any, affect preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The participants in the study were enrolled in two elementary science methods class sections at a state university. Each group was administered a preinstructional test at the beginning of the study. The treatment group participated in inquiry-based activities related to the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001), while the comparison group studied those same concepts through traditional instructional methods. A focus group was formed from the treatment group to participate in co-concept mapping sessions. The participants' understandings were assessed through artifacts from activities, a comparison of pre- and postinstructional tests, and the concept maps generated by the focus group. Results of the research indicated that the whole-plant, inquiry-based instructional strategy can be applied to teach preservice elementary teachers plant biology while modeling the human constructivist approach. The results further indicated that this approach enhanced their understanding of plant science content knowledge, as well as pedagogical knowledge. The results also showed that a whole-plant approach to teaching plant science concepts is an instructional strategy that is feasible for the elementary school. The theoretical framework for this study was Human Constructivist learning theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998). The content knowledge and instructional strategy was informed by the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001) and Botany for the Next Millennium (Botanical Society of America, 1995). As a result of this study, a better understanding of the factors that influence preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of plant science principles may benefit elementary science educator in preparing teachers that are "highly qualified."

Hypolite, Christine Collins

258

The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI): A Historical Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pursuant to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), annual UN/European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991. These workshops contributed to the development of astrophysics and space science, particularly in developing nations. Following a process of prioritization, the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field: (i) operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD, (ii) virtual observatories, (iii) astrophysical data systems, (iv) con-current design capabilities for the development of international space missions, and (v) theoretical astrophysics such as applications of non-extensive statistical mechanics. Beginning in 2005, the workshops are focusing on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007). The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost, ground-based, world- wide instrument arrays as led by the IHY secretariat. Wamsteker, W., Albrecht, R. and Haubold, H.J.: Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide: A Decade of UN/ESA Workshops: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2004. http://ihy2007.org http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html http://www.cbpf.br/GrupPesq/StatisticalPhys/biblio.htm

Haubold, H. J.

2006-11-01

259

The relationship between immediate relevant basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge: physiology knowledge and transthoracic echocardiography image interpretation.  

PubMed

Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent research has implied that a more complex relationship between the two knowledge bases exists. In this study, we explore the relationship between immediate relevant basic science (physiology) and clinical knowledge within a specific domain of medicine (echocardiography). Twenty eight medical students in their 3rd year and 45 physicians (15 interns, 15 cardiology residents and 15 cardiology consultants) took a multiple-choice test of physiology knowledge. The physicians also viewed images of a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination and completed a checklist of possible pathologies found. A total score for each participant was calculated for the physiology test, and for all physicians also for the TTE checklist. Consultants scored significantly higher on the physiology test than did medical students and interns. A significant correlation between physiology test scores and TTE checklist scores was found for the cardiology residents only. Basic science knowledge of immediate relevance for daily clinical work expands with increased work experience within a specific domain. Consultants showed no relationship between physiology knowledge and TTE interpretation indicating that experts do not use basic science knowledge in routine daily practice, but knowledge of immediate relevance remains ready for use. PMID:21952688

Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

2011-09-28

260

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag DisordersAn American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: This the first of two articles reviewing the scientific literature on the evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs), employing the methodology of evidence-based medicine. In this first part of this paper, the general principles of circadian biology that underlie clinical evaluation and treatment are reviewed. We then report on the accumulated evidence regarding the evaluation and treatment of shift work disorder (SWD) and jet lag disorder (JLD). Methods: A set of specific questions relevant to clinical practice were formulated, a systematic literature search was performed, and relevant articles were abstracted and graded. Results: A substantial body of literature has accumulated that provides a rational basis the evaluation and treatment of SWD and JLD. Physiological assessment has involved determination of circadian phase using core body temperature and the timing of melatonin secretion. Behavioral assessment has involved sleep logs, actigraphy and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Treatment interventions fall into three broad categories: 1) prescribed sleep scheduling, 2) circadian phase shifting (“resetting the clock”), and 3) symptomatic treatment using hypnotic and stimulant medications. Conclusion: Circadian rhythm science has also pointed the way to rational interventions for the SWD and JLD, and these treatments have been introduced into the practice of sleep medicine with varying degrees of success. More translational research is needed using subjects who meet current diagnostic criteria. Citation: Sack RL; Auckley D; Auger RR; Carskadon MA; Wright KP; Vitiello MV; Zhdanova IV. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: Part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1460-1483.

Sack, Robert L; Auckley, Dennis; Auger, R. Robert; Carskadon, Mary A.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

2007-01-01

261

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, Concept: Water that Comes Down as Rain Is Used Over and Over Again.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides directions for basic science experiments which demonstrate the rain cycle, fundamentals of cloud formation, and testing for the presence of acidity in local rainwater. Describes materials required, step-by-step instructions, and discussion topics. (NEC)|

Busch, Phyllis S.

1985-01-01

262

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, Concept: Water that Comes Down as Rain Is Used Over and Over Again.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides directions for basic science experiments which demonstrate the rain cycle, fundamentals of cloud formation, and testing for the presence of acidity in local rainwater. Describes materials required, step-by-step instructions, and discussion topics. (NEC)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1985-01-01

263

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

264

Rhetorical Analysis of Science Policy Literature, 1960-1990. (1) Basic Research Goals: A Comparison of Political Ideologies. (2) Basic Research Goals: Perceptions of Key Political Figures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) project on basic research for the 1990's the report provides a rhetorical analysis of science policy literature from 1960-1990. The document consists of two separate reports. The first considers the inf...

D. S. Birdsell H. W. Simons

1990-01-01

265

Library and Information Science and Archive Administration: A Guide to Building Up a Basic Collection for Library Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography identifies a useful selection of basic documents and publications to provide help and guidance to schools of library and information science and archival studies--especially those in developing countries--that wish to establish a basic collection for the use of students and teachers or to enlarge their existing collection.…

Parker, J. Stephen, Comp.

266

Library and Information Science and Archive Administration: A Guide to Building Up a Basic Collection for Library Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography identifies a useful selection of basic documents and publications to provide help and guidance to schools of library and information science and archival studies--especially those in developing countries--that wish to establish a basic collection for the use of students and teachers or to enlarge their existing collection.…

Parker, J. Stephen, Comp.

267

Basic Principles of Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are many different spectroscopic methods available for solving a wide range of analytical problems. The methods differ with respect to the species to be analyzed (such as molecular or atomic spectroscopy), the type of radiation-matter interaction to be monitored (such as absorption, emission, or diffraction), and the region of the electromagnetic spectrum used in the analysis. Spectroscopic methods are very informative and widely used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Spectroscopic methods based on the absorption or emission of radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), infrared (IR), and radio (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR) frequency ranges are most commonly encountered in traditional food analysis laboratories. Each of these methods is distinct in that it monitors different types of molecular or atomic transitions. The basis of these transitions is explained in the following sections.

Penner, Michael H.

268

Stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia: from basic science to clinical applications.  

PubMed

Recent stem cell technology provides a strong therapeutic potential not only for acute ischemic stroke but also for chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with neuroregenerative neural cell replenishment and replacement. In addition to resident neural stem cell activation in the brain by neurotrophic factors, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can be mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for homing into the brain for both neurorepair and neuroregeneration in acute stroke and neurodegenerative diseases in both basic science and clinical settings. Exogenous stem cell transplantation is also emerging into a clinical scene from bench side experiments. Early clinical trials of intravenous transplantation of autologous BMSCs are showing safe and effective results in stroke patients. Further basic sciences of stem cell therapy on a neurovascular unit and neuroregeneration, and further clinical advancements on scaffold technology for supporting stem cells and stem cell tracking technology such as magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography or optical imaging with near-infrared could allow stem cell therapy to be applied in daily clinical applications in the near future. PMID:22252239

Abe, Koji; Yamashita, Toru; Takizawa, Shunya; Kuroda, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobutaka

2012-01-18

269

An Elective Course on the Basic and Clinical Sciences Aspects of Vitamins and Minerals  

PubMed Central

Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students’ knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products.

2013-01-01

270

Stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia: from basic science to clinical applications  

PubMed Central

Recent stem cell technology provides a strong therapeutic potential not only for acute ischemic stroke but also for chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with neuroregenerative neural cell replenishment and replacement. In addition to resident neural stem cell activation in the brain by neurotrophic factors, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can be mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for homing into the brain for both neurorepair and neuroregeneration in acute stroke and neurodegenerative diseases in both basic science and clinical settings. Exogenous stem cell transplantation is also emerging into a clinical scene from bench side experiments. Early clinical trials of intravenous transplantation of autologous BMSCs are showing safe and effective results in stroke patients. Further basic sciences of stem cell therapy on a neurovascular unit and neuroregeneration, and further clinical advancements on scaffold technology for supporting stem cells and stem cell tracking technology such as magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography or optical imaging with near-infrared could allow stem cell therapy to be applied in daily clinical applications in the near future.

Abe, Koji; Yamashita, Toru; Takizawa, Shunya; Kuroda, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobutaka

2012-01-01

271

InSAR of the future: seeing through the lens of basic science, math, and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in geophysical research enabled by InSAR methods has been tightly linked both to basic math and physics and to technological advances throughout InSAR's 30 year history. Here we examine significant scientific achievements using InSAR against the improved understanding of basic science and the technological developments that have permitted new geophysical applications. Abstract mathematical and physical constructs such as network flow and a more complete understanding of radar scattering have led to new algorithms such as phase unwrapping and persistent scattering analysis. Fundamental advancements in technology, including digital data acquisition and processing, multichannel radar systems, and the huge increase in computational power, have led to the ever-increasing set of questions that can be addressed by InSAR remote sensing. Because of the long lead times required to put radar satellites in space, current technological trends provide a good indication of the capabilities of future radar spacecraft for the foreseeable future. On the other hand, predicting which existing analysis methods now used commonly in other branches of science will cross over to geophysical applications and lead to scientific breakthroughs is nearly impossible, and thus we can only predict here that many exciting results will follow as data from these spacecraft flow to ever-increasing numbers of scientists.

Zebker, H. A.

2005-12-01

272

Higher temperature reactor materials workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 18-21, 2002, the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop to identify needs and opportunities for materials research aimed at performance improvements of structural materials in higher temperature reactors. The workshop focused discussion around the reactor concepts proposed as part of the Generation

T. Allen; S. Bruemmer; M. Kassner; R. Odette; R. Stoller; W. Wolfer; S. Zinkle; J. Elmer; A. Motta

2002-01-01

273

Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009  

SciTech Connect

The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

274

Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.  

PubMed

As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base. PMID:23740911

Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

2013-06-01

275

Opportunities for Early Intervention Based on Theory, Basic Neuroscience, and Clinical Science  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the “goal” of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented, along with theoretical principles, neuroscience, and other tissue science data concerning mechanisms that contribute to behavioral changes. One such opportunity is to increase the structured engagement of caregivers, guided by therapists, in administering well-defined activity intervention programs focused on the development of specific functional skills. Such an approach may be one of the few financially feasible options for generating sufficient therapy that adheres to principles for optimizing development of neuromotor control.

2010-01-01

276

The science of research: the principles underlying the discovery of cognitive and other biological mechanisms.  

PubMed

Studies of cognitive function include a wide spectrum of disciplines, with very diverse theoretical and practical frameworks. For example, in Behavioral Neuroscience cognitive mechanisms are mostly inferred from loss of function (lesion) experiments while in Cognitive Neuroscience these mechanisms are commonly deduced from brain activation patterns. Although neuroscientists acknowledge the limitations of deriving conclusions using a limited scope of approaches, there are no systematically studied, objective and explicit criteria for what is required to test a given hypothesis of cognitive function. This problem plagues every discipline in science: scientific research lacks objective, systematic studies that validate the principles underlying even its most elemental practices. For example, scientists decide what experiments are best suited to test key ideas in their field, which hypotheses have sufficient supporting evidence and which require further investigation, which studies are important and which are not, based on intuitions derived from experience, implicit principles learned from mentors and colleagues, traditions in their fields, etc. Philosophers have made numerous attempts to articulate and frame the principles that guide research and innovation, but these speculative ideas have remained untested and have had a minimal impact on the work of scientists. Here, I propose the development of methods for systematically and objectively studying and improving the modus operandi of research and development. This effort (the science of scientific research or S2) will benefit all aspects of science, from education of young scientists to research, publishing and funding, since it will provide explicit and systematically tested frameworks for practices in science. To illustrate its goals, I will introduce a hypothesis (the Convergent Four) derived from experimental practices common in molecular and cellular biology. This S2 hypothesis proposes that there are at least four fundamentally distinct strategies that scientists can use to test the connection between two phenomena of interest (A and B), and that to establish a compelling connection between A and B it is crucial to develop independently confirmed lines of convergent evidence in each of these four categories. The four categories include negative alteration (decrease probability of A or p(A) and determine p(B)), positive alteration (increase p(A) and determine p(B)), non-intervention (examine whether A precedes B) and integration (develop ideas about how to get from A to B and integrate those ideas with other available information about A and B). I will discuss both strategies to test this hypothesis and its implications for studies of cognitive function. PMID:18280120

Silva, Alcino J

2008-01-08

277

[Evolution of the number of authors in clinical and basic science journals in the Spanish language].  

PubMed

The number of signing authors in Revista Clínica Española. Revista Española de Fisiología and Revista Española de Oncología have been analyzed from their first to the last received issue. The results obtained show an increasing number of authors in all journals specially during the 70s. The results also point out a relative decrease in the number of authors in basic sciences in relation to clinical publications. The increase in the number of authors in The Revista Española de Oncología has started somewhat later than the others. The environmental and professional stress as well as the interrelations between different hospital members have been suggested, amongst others, as the possible cause of these events. PMID:2320767

Soteras, F; Blanco, J R; García Pineda, A F; Rupérez, H; Córdova, A; Escanero, J F

1990-01-01

278

Role of Basic Science in the Development of New Medicines: Examples from the Eicosanoid Field  

PubMed Central

The role of basic science in the development of health care has received more and more attention. In my own area of research involving the so-called eicosanoids, there are many examples of how studies of structure and function of small molecules, as well as proteins and genes, have led to new therapeutic agents for treatment of a variety of diseases. In most of the cases, the discoveries have resulted in the recognition of novel therapeutic targets amenable to modulation by small molecules. However, there are also examples in which the molecular mechanisms of actions of drugs, discovered by phenotypic screening, have been elucidated. The majority of the examples in this article consist of approved drugs; however, in some cases, ongoing developments of potential therapeutics are cited.

Samuelsson, Bengt

2012-01-01

279

Targeting as a Mode of Science Communication: Principles, Issues and a Practical Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's media landscape contains a rich and diverse range of communications opportunities. New media, such as the internet, blogosphere and social networks, are complementing, supplementing and also replacing the traditional mass media communications through print, radio and television. This diversification certainly contains pitfalls and difficulties as has been demonstrated in the Climategate affair. But there are also real opportunities for utilizing the diversity to provide targeted science communications that are framed in the context of the specific group of interest. That such targeting of audience attitudes and beliefs is an important key to effective science communications has been demonstrated by, for example, Leiserowitz, Maibach et al (2009). This approach does require an understanding of the audience and a careful framing of the message in terms familiar to the targeted group. Here many factors come into play, including: including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters. In this talk we shall elaborate on the principles, issues and opportunities. A practical example of working with the religious community on communicating the science of climate change will also be presented. This will include the approach adopted, progress to date and the lessons learnt.

Holland, G. J.; Vigh, J. L.

2011-12-01

280

Teaching population health as a basic science at Harvard Medical School.  

PubMed

In 2006-2007, Harvard Medical School implemented a new, required course for first-year medical and dental students entitled Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health. Conceived of as a "basic science" course, its primary goal is to allow students to develop an understanding of caring for individuals and promoting the health of populations as a continuum of strategies, all requiring the engagement of physicians. In the course's first iteration, topical content accessible to first-year students was selected to exemplify physicians' roles in addressing current threats to population health. Methodological areas included domains of clinical epidemiology, decision sciences, population-level prevention and health promotion, physicians' roles in the public health system, and population-level surveillance and intervention strategies. Large-group settings were selectively used to frame the relevance of each topic, and conceptual learning of statistical and epidemiologic methods occurred in conference groups of 24 students. Finally, tutorials of eight students and one or two faculty were used for critical reading of published studies, review of problem sets, and group discussion of population health issues. To help students appreciate the structure and function of the public health system and physicians' role in public health emergencies, the course included a role-playing exercise simulating response to an influenza pandemic. The first iteration of the course was well received, and assessment of students suggested mastery of basic skills. Preclinical courses represent a progressive step in developing a workforce of physicians who embrace their responsibility to improve the health of the population as a whole, as well as the health of the patient in front of them. PMID:18367890

Finkelstein, Jonathan A; McMahon, Graham T; Peters, Antoinette; Cadigan, Rebecca; Biddinger, Paul; Simon, Steven R

2008-04-01

281

An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.  

PubMed

An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century. PMID:22383409

Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

2012-03-01

282

Using Basic Science to Develop an Innovative Program in Complementary and Alternative Medicine.  

PubMed

The growing interest in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and the increasing incorporation of its modalities in the United States' healthcare system have exposed a number of problems in the field. These include a shortage of qualified CAM providers, scarcity of evidence-based research, lack of trained scientists in the field, and the ubiquitous marketing of frequently uncontrolled CAM products. Thus, the development of a comprehensive and scientifically sound educational infrastructure has become a crucial initial step in redirecting these adverse trends.With support from the NIH-sponsored curricular CAM initiative, faculty from the department of physiology and biophysics at Georgetown University developed a M.S. program in CAM in 2003. This unique, first of its kind, science-based graduate program offers a master's degree (MS) in physiology with an emphasis on CAM. The CAM-MS degree in physiology is designed to enable students to critically assess various CAM modalities, apply scientific rigor, and carry out evidence-based CAM research. The curriculum includes core science courses and CAM-related classes. Additionally, in order to emphasize the application of academic knowledge and further strengthen problem-solving skills, the students complete an eight-week summer practicum in a professional CAM-related environment.Here, we report on our innovative and interdisciplinary CAM graduate program where creative teaching is implemented by basic scientists and enhanced by the application of their disciplines in tandem with the clinical expertise of CAM practitioners in the community. Thus, the faculty in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics is developing emerging cross disciplinary areas of study and interest in order to prepare new generations of future physicians, health professionals, educators, and researchers capable of objectively assessing the safety and efficacy of various CAM modalities, and introducing scientific rigor to much needed research into the various aspects of CAM therapies. PMID:21243105

Amri, Hakima; Haramati, Aviad

2010-01-01

283

The influence of regional basic science campuses on medical students' choice of specialty and practice location: a historical cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) employs eight regional basic science campuses, where half of the students complete their first two years of medical school. The other half complete all four years at the main campus in Indianapolis. The authors tested the hypothesis that training at regional campuses influences IUSM students to pursue primary care careers near the regional

James J Brokaw; Christina A Mandzuk; Michael E Wade; Dennis W Deal; Mary T Johnson; Gary W White; Jeffrey S Wilson; Terrell W Zollinger

2009-01-01

284

Exploration of an e-learning model to foster critical thinking on basic science concepts during work placements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed an e-learning model to promote critical thinking about basic science topics in online communities of students during work placements in higher education. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the model we explored the online discussions in two case studies. We evaluated the quantity of the interactions by looking at quantitative data of the discussion ‘threads’ and we

Bas A. De Leng; Diana H. J. M. Dolmans; Rijn Jöbsis; Arno M. M. Muijtjens; Cees P. M. Van Der Vleuten

2009-01-01

285

An analysis of Taiwanese eighth graders' science achievement, scientific epistemoiogical beliefs and cognitive structure outcomes after learning basic atomic theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the interrelationships between students’ general science achievement, scientific epistemoiogical beliefs and their cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Research data were mainly gathered from 48 Taiwanese eighth graders’ questionnaire responses and their recalled scientific information about the atomic model, analysed by a flow map technique as evidence of their cognitive structures. This study

1998-01-01

286

Integrated Case Studies and Medical Decision Making: A Novel, Computer-Assisted Bridge from the Basic Sciences to the Clinics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A medical school course integrating basic science and clinical issues consists of 13 problem-based learning exercises, each exploring a clinical case. Using networked terminals in specially-designed small-group rooms, students progress through cases with a faculty facilitator. Users cite access to better images, accountability, and juxtaposition…

Schor, Nina Felice; And Others

1995-01-01

287

Translating Basic Science Research to Clinical Application: Models and Strategies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Preclinical stroke models provide insights into mechanisms of cellular injury and potential therapeutic targets. Renewed efforts to standardize preclinical practices and adopt more rigorous approaches reflect the assumption that a better class of compounds will translate into clinical efficacy. While the need for novel therapeutics is clear, it is also critical that diagnostics be improved to allow for more rapid treatment upon hospital admission. Advances in imaging techniques have aided in the diagnosis of stroke, yet current limitations and expenses demonstrate the need for new and complementary approaches. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) exhibits the highest mortality rate, displays unique pathology and requires specialized treatment strategies relative to other forms of stroke. The aggressive nature and severe consequences of ICH underscore the need for novel therapeutic approaches as well as accurate and expeditious diagnostic tools. The use of experimental models will continue to aid in addressing these important issues as the field attempts to translate basic science findings into the clinical setting. Several preclinical models of ICH have been developed and are widely used to recapitulate human pathology. Because each model has limitations, the burden lies with the investigator to clearly define the question being asked and select the model system that is most relevant to that question. It may also be necessary to optimize and refine pre-existing paradigms, or generate new paradigms, as the future success of translational research is dependent upon the ability to mimic human sequelae and assess clinically relevant outcome measures as means to evaluate therapeutic efficacy.

Leonardo, Christopher C.; Robbins, Sean; Dore, Sylvain

2012-01-01

288

Basic science and surgical treatment options for articular cartilage injuries of the knee.  

PubMed

The complex structure of articular cartilage allows for diverse knee function throughout range of motion and weight bearing. However, disruption to the structural integrity of the articular surface can cause significant morbidity. Due to an inherently poor regenerative capacity, articular cartilage defects present a treatment challenge for physicians and therapists. For many patients, a trial of nonsurgical treatment options is paramount prior to surgical intervention. In instances of failed conservative treatment, patients can undergo an array of palliative, restorative, or reparative surgical procedures to treat these lesions. Palliative methods include debridement and lavage, while restorative techniques include marrow stimulation. For larger lesions involving subchondral bone, reparative procedures such as osteochondral grafting or autologous chondrocyte implantation are considered. Clinical success not only depends on the surgical techniques but also requires strict adherence to rehabilitation guidelines. The purpose of this article is to review the basic science of articular cartilage and to provide an overview of the procedures currently performed at our institution for patients presenting with symptomatic cartilage lesions. PMID:22383075

Tetteh, Elizabeth S; Bajaj, Sarvottam; Ghodadra, Neil S

2012-02-29

289

The role of basic oral care and good clinical practice principles in the management of oral mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Basic Oral Care Group is one of eight subcommittees functioning within the Mucositis Study Group Guidelines Panel of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and International Society for Oral Oncology (MASCC\\/ISOO). The Basic Oral Care Group, comprised of the four authors of this paper, represented the disciplines of nursing (DBM, JJ), dentistry (MEPC), and pediatric dentistry (PW).

Deborah B. McGuire; Maria Elvira P. Correa; Judith Johnson; Patricia Wienandts

2006-01-01

290

Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ? 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I), hypothesis generation (Exam II), choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III), measuring scientific thought (Exam IV). The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Results Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p < 0.001). The scatter plot of the data showed a linear correlation between the score for each exam and the total final score. This meant that students with a higher final score were able to perform better in each exam through having drawn up a meaningful concept map. The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770), (p < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between each exam score and the average grade (p < 0.001). The highest correlation was observed between Exam I (R = 0.7708) and the average grade. This means students with higher average grades had better grades in each exam, especially in drawing the concept map. Conclusions We hope that this competition will encourage medical schools to integrate theory and practice, analyze data, and read research articles. Our findings relate to a selected population, and our data may not be applicable to all medical students. Therefore, further studies are required to validate our results.

2012-01-01

291

A model for integrating clinical care and basic science research, and pitfalls of performing complex research projects for addressing a clinical challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collaboration of clinicians with basic science researchers is crucial for addressing clinically relevant research questions. In order to initiate such mutually beneficial relationships, we propose a model where early career clinicians spend a designated time embedded in established basic science research groups, in order to pursue a postgraduate qualification. During this time, clinicians become integral members of the research

R. Steck; D. R. Epari; M. A. Schuetz

2010-01-01

292

Basic Principles of Marine Diesel Engines, 8-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of marine diesel engines is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to acquaint…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

293

The use of self-learning modules to facilitate learning of basic science concepts in an integrated medical curriculum.  

PubMed

This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41 medical students, 40 students voluntarily completed a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended items to evaluate students' attitudes and perspectives on the learning value of SLMs. Closed-ended items were assessed on a five-point Likert scale (5 = high score) and the data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Open-ended questions further evaluated students' perspectives on the effectiveness of SLMs; student responses to open-ended questions were analyzed to identify shared patterns or themes in their experience using SLMs. The results of the midterm examination were also analyzed to compare student performance on items related to SLMs and traditional sessions. Students positively evaluated their experience using the SLMs with an overall mean score of 4.25 (SD ± 0.84). Most students (97%) indicated that the SLMs improved understanding and facilitated learning basic science concepts. SLMs were reported to allow learner control, to help in preparation for subsequent in-class discussion, and to improve understanding and retention. A significant difference in students' performance was observed when comparing SLM-related items with non-SLM items in the midterm examination (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of SLMs in an integrated basic science curriculum has the potential to individualize the teaching and improve the learning of basic sciences. PMID:20814914

Khalil, Mohammed K; Nelson, Loren D; Kibble, Jonathan D

294

[Basic principle and impact factors of soil vapor extraction (SVE) technology for remediation of contaminated soils by volatile and semivolatile organics].  

PubMed

Because soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an effective, economic, and environmentally benign technology to remediate soils contaminated by volatile and semivolatile organics, it has been widely used in the remediation of these soils. The objectives of this paper were to introduce the basic principle of SVE and general steps of constructing SVE engineering, discuss major impact factors on remediation efficiency of SVE technology, and describe three kinds of enhanced SVE technologies. Finally, study and application progress of SVE technologies in China was introduced. PMID:21634184

Liu, Shao-Qing; Jiang, Lin; Huang, Zhe; Li, Yan-Xia; Lin, Chun-Ye

2011-03-01

295

Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination. A Report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The twin aspects of energy and control (or direction) are the underlying concepts. Matter and energy are closely linked, and their understanding and control will have overwhelming importance for our civilization, our planet, our science, and our technolog...

2007-01-01

296

A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small- group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The

J P Schoeman; M van Schoor; L L van der Merwe

2009-01-01

297

Basic science and clinical application of stem cells in veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.Embryonic stem (ES) cell research, for instance, is mainly performed in animals. Key feature of ES cells is their potential to contribute to any tissue type of the body (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215:329-336, 2008). ES cells are capable of self-renewal and thus have the inherent potential for exceptionally prolonged culture (up to 1-2 years). So far, ES cells have been recovered and maintained from non-human primate, mouse (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005) and horse blastocysts (Guest and Allen, Stem Cells Dev 16:789-796, 2007). In addition, bovine ES cells have been grown in primary culture and there are several reports of ES cells derived from mink, rat, rabbit, chicken and pigs (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005). However, clinical applications of ES cells are not possible yet, due to their in vivo teratogenic degeneration. The potential to form a teratoma consisting of tissues from all three germ lines even serves as a definitive in vivo test for ES cells.Stem cells obtained from any postnatal organism are defined as adult stem cells. Adult haematopoietic and MSCs, which can easily be recovered from extra embryonic or adult tissues, possess a more limited plasticity than their embryonic counterparts (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215:329-336, 2008). It is believed that these stem cells serve as cell source to maintain tissue and organ mass during normal cell turnover in adult individuals. Therefore, the focus of attention in veterinary science is currently drawn to adult stem cells and their potential in regenerative medicine. Also experience gained from the treatment of animal patients provides valuable information for human medicine and serves as precursor to future stem cell use in human medicine.Compared to human medicine, haematopoietic stem cells only play a minor role in veterinary medicine because medical conditions requiring myeloablative chemotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem cell induced recovery of the immune system are relatively rare and usually not being treated for monetary as well as animal welfare reasons.In contrast, regenerative medicine utilising MSCs for the treatment of acute injuries as well as chronic disorders is gradually turning into clinical routine. Therefore, MSCs from either extra embryonic or adult tissues are in the focus of attention in veterinary medicine and research. Hence the purpose of this chapter is to offer an overview on basic science and clinical application of MSCs in veterinary medicine. PMID:20309674

Ribitsch, I; Burk, J; Delling, U; Geißler, C; Gittel, C; Jülke, H; Brehm, W

2010-01-01

298

A Multi-Instructor, Team-Based, Active-Learning Exercise to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences Content  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Design. A team-based learning activity that involved pre-class reading assignments, individual-and team-answered multiple-choice questions, and evaluation and discussion of a clinical case, was designed, implemented, and moderated by 3 faculty members from the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacy practice departments. Assessment. Student performance was assessed using a multiple-choice examination, an individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), a team readiness assurance test (TRAT), and a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Student attitudes were assessed using a pre- and post-exercise survey instrument. Students’ understanding of possible correct treatment strategies for depression improved. Students were appreciative of this true integration of basic sciences knowledge in a pharmacotherapy course and to have faculty members from both disciplines present to answer questions. Mean student score on the on depression module for the examination was 80.4%, indicating mastery of the content. Conclusions. An exercise led by multiple instructors improved student perceptions of the importance of team-based teaching. Integrated teaching and learning may be achieved when instructors from multiple disciplines work together in the classroom using proven team-based, active-learning exercises.

Roesch, Darren M.; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha

2012-01-01

299

BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes I and II. Biology, Earth Science, Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computer programs which teach concepts and processes related to biology, earth science, and chemistry are presented. The seven biology problems deal with aspects of genetics, evolution and natural selection, gametogenesis, enzymes, photosynthesis, and the transport of material across a membrane. Four earth science problems concern climates, the…

Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

300

Science: A Practical View. Volume II. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The guide is divided into three components. The first component helps students…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

301

Basic Concepts of the Educational Science Sub-Discipline of Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a conceptual system is outlined for the educational science sub-discipline of adult education. Adults' attending instruction or not attending instruction is conceptually specified. Focusing as it does on a cardinal event of adult education, this represents a first step toward a system for the educational science sub-discipline of…

Schneider, Kaethe

2005-01-01

302

Basic Science Process Skills. An Inservice Workshop Kit: Outlines and Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…

Rowland, Paul; And Others

303

Making space law relevant to basic space science in the commercial space age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space science has been at the heart of humanity's activity in space, a fact reflected in the body of space law set up to regulate such activity. The increase in commercial utilisation of space may threaten the conduct of space science; reform of space law, however, could alleviate this situation. Using the examples of radio and light interference, and space

Sriram Swaminathan

2005-01-01

304

Science: A Practical View. Volume II. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The guide is divided into three components. The first component helps students…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

305

Applying the Science of Learning: Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last 100 years, a major accomplishment of psychology has been the development of a science of learning aimed at understanding how people learn. In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and education is the development of a science of instruction aimed at understanding how to present material in…

Mayer, Richard E.

2008-01-01

306

A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.  

PubMed

In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy. PMID:19653516

Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

2009-03-01

307

Threading secure coding principles and risk analysis into the undergraduate computer science and information systems curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer security issues can be attributed to software vulnerabilities. The number of software vulnerabilities continues to increase. Building secure systems requires incorporating security principles early and throughout the software development life cycle. Education of current and future software developers must include secure coding and design principles. Towson University, as a designated National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Security

Blair Taylor; Shiva Azadegan

2006-01-01

308

Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries  

PubMed Central

Modern fishery science, which began in 1957 with Beverton and Holt, is ca. 50 years old. At its inception, fishery science was limited by a nineteenth century mechanistic worldview and by computational technology; thus, the relatively simple equations of population ecology became the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. The time has come for this to change and for community ecology to become the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. This point will be illustrated with two examples. First, when viewed from a community perspective, excess production must be considered in the context of biomass left for predators. We argue that this is a better measure of the effects of fisheries than spawning biomass per recruit. Second, we shall analyse a simple, but still multi-species, model for fishery management that considers the alternatives of harvest regulations, inshore marine protected areas and offshore marine protected areas. Population or community perspectives lead to very different predictions about the efficacy of reserves.

Mangel, Marc; Levin, Phillip S.

2005-01-01

309

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005  

SciTech Connect

World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

2005-04-21

310

``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite all these efforts, one can’t help noticing an asymmetric level of scientific exploitation in the realm of X-ray astronomy between developing and developed countries. The latter have traditionally enjoyed the comparative advantage of deeper know-how, deriving from direct experience in hardware and mission development. The XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre’s efforts act to alleviate this situation through, for example, increasing the usage of the web for data and information dissemination, as well as by supporting actively such initiatives as the COSPAR Capacity-Building Workshops, specifically designed to create long-lasting bridges between researchers in developing and developed countries.

Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

2006-12-01

311

COPA (Committee on Professional Activities) Colloquium on Selected Topics in Behavioral Science Basic Research held at Alexandria, Virginia on 23-25 April 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1980, the US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) sponsored a colloquium of selected topics from the Basic Research program. Twenty-one principal investigators on research funded by ARI presented their findings. The proc...

B. Farr G. Y. Nogami J. Schendel P. A. Gade

1983-01-01

312

A cross-college age study of science and nonscience students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts in preservice training for high-school teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to a total of 433 students in college preservice training for future high-school teachers showed that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, R.

313

The Frog Vestibular System as a Model for Lesion-Induced Plasticity: Basic Neural Principles and Implications for Posture Control  

PubMed Central

Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the central nervous system (CNS) to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the CNS include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims toward a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of vestibular function.

Lambert, Francois M.; Straka, Hans

2011-01-01

314

Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

1970-01-01

315

Fish-Farming and the Precautionary Principle: Context and Values in Environmental Science for Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper starts with the assumption that the Precautionary Principle (PP) is one of the most important elements of the concept\\u000a of sustainability. It is noted that PP has entered international treaties and national law. PP is widely referred to as a\\u000a central principle of environmental policy. However, the precise content of PP remains largely unclear. In particular it seems

Matthias Kaiser

1997-01-01

316

Articular cartilage repair: basic science and clinical progress. A review of the current status and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the basic scientific status of repair in articular cartilage tissue and to assess the efficiency of current clinical therapies instigated for the treatment of structural lesions generated therein as a result of trauma or during the course of various diseases, notably osteoarthritis (OA). Current scientific trends and possible directions for the future will also be discussed.Design A

E. B. Hunziker

2002-01-01

317

Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

2010-01-01

318

Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

1981-01-01

319

Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

320

Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

321

Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of II-VI semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

Calzonetti, F.

1993-03-01

322

Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of II-VI semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

Calzonetti, F.

1993-03-01

323

Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

Mowery, Donald R.

324

Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

Albracht, James, Ed.

325

Early Science Education: Exploring familiar contexts to improve the understanding of some basic scientific concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study rests on the belief that Science Education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced from the early years in formal schooling as a first step to a scientific culture for all. The question is to make clear what to learn and how to teach in a way that is both motivating for

Isabel P. Martins; Luisa Veiga

2001-01-01

326

Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

Albracht, James, Ed.

327

Chemical Nanotechnology: A Liberal Arts Approach to a Basic Course in Emerging Interdisciplinary Science and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nanotechnology degree programs initiated at various institutions provided an excellent way of learning to look at the amazing opportunities that arise when various disciplines of science interact. The enrolled students were actively engaged in the subject matter and also expressed greater confidence in their ability to consider technology with…

Porter, Lon A., Jr.

2007-01-01

328

Integrating the Dimensions of Sex and Gender into Basic Life Sciences Research: Methodologic and Ethical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The research process from study design and selecting a species and its husbandry, through the experiment, analysis, peer review, and publication is rarely subject to questions about sex or gender differences in mainstream life sciences research. However, the impact of sex and gender on these processes is important in explaining biological variations and presentation of symptoms and diseases.Objective: This

Anita Holdcroft

2007-01-01

329

In search of an organizing principle for the behavioral science literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about man, the philosophical concern of the “anthropological sciences” in the early 19th century, has now become a unifying concept for the scientific study of human behavior. The literature of the behavioral sciences and of the field of mental health, however, remains to be unified. The worldwide system of bibliographic organization, conceptually rooted in the late 19th century, needs

Ilse Bry; Lois Afflerbach

1968-01-01

330

Home Economics and Basic Skills. Correlation of the Curriculum Guide for Consumer and Homemaking Education with Objectives for Reading, Writing, Mathematics, Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist home economics teachers in recognizing which learning activities reinforce basic reading, writing, mathematics, and science skills concepts. The first chapter discusses objectives in each of these four basic skills areas. The remaining chapters consist of cross-referenced lists of reading, writing, mathematics, and…

Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Vocational Education.

331

Review of advantages of Joel-Cohen surgical abdominal incision in caesarean section: a basic science perspective.  

PubMed

Caesarean section is a common operation and the best postoperative outcomes are desired. Surgical techniques have been devised or modified to reduce operative and post operative discomfort. Many studies have evaluated or compared the Joel-Cohen abdominal incision with Pfannenstiel incision and found the former to be superior for various reasons such as less postoperative febrile morbidity, less analgesia requirements, shorter operating time, less intra operative blood loss and adhesion formation, reduction in hospital stay and wound infection in the group undergoing Caesarean section by this technique. This study is to find whether better postoperative outcomes of the Joel-Cohen incision group can be justified by the explanations of fundamentals of the basic sciences. Literature was reviewed for randomized clinical trials and review articles comparing the different kinds of abdominal incisions for Caesarean section. The study revealed that the Joel-Cohen method was beneficial. The fundamentals of basic sciences were studied to try to find an explanation to the enumerated advantages of the Joel-Cohen procedure; attributing to the differences in the techniques used. PMID:21939169

Karanth, K L; Sathish, N

2010-09-01

332

The use of shock waves in medicine--a tool of the modern OR: an overview of basic physical principles, history and research.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal-generated shock waves were first used in medical therapy, to disintegrate kidney stones, approximately 20 years ago. Since this time, shock waves have changed the treatment of urolithiasis substantially and are now the first-choice treatment for kidney and ureteral stones. First clinical investigations of the shock-wave treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica (IPP) are showing promising results. Shock waves have also been used in orthopaedics and traumatology, to treat insertion tendinitis, non-unions or delayed unions, avascular necrosis of the head of femur and other necrotic bone alterations. Shock-wave application has also been used in the treatment of horse tendons, ligaments and bones in veterinary medicine. The theory of shock-wave therapy for orthopaedic diseases involves the stimulation of healing processes in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a completely different approach from that of urology, where shock waves are used for disintegration. This paper gives an overview of the basic physical principles of shock waves, and the history and basic research behind shock-wave use in medicine. PMID:20156022

Thiel, M; Nieswand, M; Dörffel, M

2000-01-01

333

Citizen Science 2.0: Data Management Principles to Harness the Power of the Crowd  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Citizen science refers to voluntary participation by the general public in scientific endeavors. Although citizen science\\u000a has a long tradition, the rise of online communities and user-generated web content has the potential to greatly expand its\\u000a scope and contributions. Citizens spread across a large area will collect more information than an individual researcher can.\\u000a Because citizen scientists tend to make

Roman Lukyanenko; Jeffrey Parsons; Yolanda Wiersma

2011-01-01

334

Categorical principles, techniques and results for high-level-replacement systems in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to give an introduction how to use categorical methods in a specific field of computer science: The field of high-level-replacement systems has its roots in the well-established theories of formal languages, term rewriting, Petri nets, and graph grammars playing a fundamental role in computer science. More precisely, it is a generalization of the algebraic

Hartmut Ehrig; Michael Löwe

1993-01-01

335

Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) collaborative was formed to address basic science and engineering knowledge gaps relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. Many of the research activities fall between areas normally funded by different directorates at DOE and might be considered too applied for the basic science directorate and too basic in nature for other directorates. An executive committee comprised of institutional leads (and leaders in the field of carbon sequestration) met annually and talked via a monthly scheduled conference call to identify research gaps and research strengths among the ZERT institutions. The executive committee established the following major objectives: (1) Improve computational tools for simulation of CO{sub 2} behavior in the subsurface. This includes adding reactive transport, development of coupled models to include geomechanics, inclusion of hysteretic effects, parallelization, etc. (2) Test efficacy of near-surface detection techniques, help establish detection limits for those techniques, and provide data to assist in development of transport models in the near-surface region. Development of a field site to help accomplish this objective. (3) Develop a comprehensive risk assessment framework that will allow flexible coupling of multiple computational models for different components/processes of the system. (4) Perform gap analysis to determine critical missing data for CO{sub 2} properties in the subsurface including thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} - brine mixtures, reaction rates, relative permeabilities, etc. In addition, perform laboratory based experiments to generate that key data. (5) Investigate innovative leakage mitigation strategies. Many of these efforts were multi-institutional. Computational code improvement was undertaken by LBNL, LLANL, PNNL, and NETL, all ZERT institutions participated in the near-surface detection experiments, the systems level risk modeling was lead by LANL, but built to incorporate process level models developed by other ZERT institutions and utilizes information from ZERT investigations of natural analogs for escape mechanisms, and all institutions measured properties of CO2 - brine and/or rock interactions.

Lee Spangler; Alfred Cunningham; David Lageson; Jesse Melick; Mike Gardner; Laura Dobeck; Kevin Repasky; Joseph Shaw; Richard Bajura; B. Peter. McGrail; Curtis M. Oldenburg; Jeff Wagoner; Rajesh Pawar

2011-03-31

336

Emergent Principles for the Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Cluster-Based Experiments in Social Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimentally designed research, many good reasons exist for assigning groups or clusters to treatments rather than individuals. This article discusses them. But cluster-level designs face some unique or exacerbated challenges. The article identifies them and offers some principles about them. One emphasizes how statistical power and sample size estimation depend on intraclass correlations, particularly after conditioning on the use

Thomas D. Cook

2005-01-01

337

Life Science Standards and Curriculum Development for 9-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes a design for a life science curriculum following the National Research Council National Science Education Standards. The overarching theme is that science as inquiry should be recognized as a basic and controlling principle in the ultimate organization and experiences in students' science education. Six-week units include Matter, Energy,…

Speece, Susan P.; Andersen, Hans O.

1996-01-01

338

Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach it (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the words "periodic table" send chills down your spine? Are you anxious about atomic structure? Confounded by chemical equations? Relax! The cure for chemistry confusion is within reach, courtesy of this newly available book in the Stop Faking It! series. Best-selling author Bill Robertson takes a fresh approach to chemistry fundamentals by helping you understand them from the ground up. Instead of hounding you to memorize the characteristics of atoms and the periodic table, Chemistry Basics will help you see those characteristics as a natural consequence of our understanding of atomic structure. You will learn not just that atoms behave in certain ways, but why they behave in that way. You will learn not just how to balance chemical equations, but why in the world you would want to! You will also learn not just that carbon is a building block of thousands of organic compounds, but why carbon is suited for this purpose.

Robertson, William C.

2007-01-01

339

Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach it  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the words "periodic table" send chills down your spine? Are you anxious about atomic structure? Confounded by chemical equations? Relax! The cure for chemistry confusion is within reach, courtesy of this newly available book in the Stop Faking It! series. Best-selling author Bill Robertson takes a fresh approach to chemistry fundamentals by helping you understand them from the ground up. Instead of hounding you to memorize the characteristics of atoms and the periodic table, Chemistry Basics will help you see those characteristics as a natural consequence of our understanding of atomic structure. You will learn not just that atoms behave in certain ways, but why they behave in that way. You will learn not just how to balance chemical equations, but why in the world you would want to! You will also learn not just that carbon is a building block of thousands of organic compounds, but why carbon is suited for this purpose.

Robertson, William C.

2007-01-01

340

The Principle of the Variety of Evidence and its Significance to Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of having a variety of diverse evidence supporting a climate model or ensemble of models is an important one when gauging our confidence in them. Obtaining observational evidence from a range of different sources that support a theory or model has long been recognized as a virtue among climate scientists, and the most recent IPCC report mentions the importance of having a broad array of support and multiple lines of evidence for climate models. Some recent approaches to model evaluation, however, include an appeal to variety of evidence as a virtue only indirectly. We argue that more directly embracing the principle of variety of evidence as a confirmatory virtue (if not formally, then at least explicitly), could greatly benefit the perception and communication of the weight of evidence supporting our confidence in climate model simulations, on various time and spatial scales.

Lloyd, E. A.; Mearns, L. O.

2011-12-01

341

Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

NONE

1995-12-31

342

Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized. PMID:22337370

Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

2012-01-01

343

Principles of American Democracy. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource document is designed to assist teachers in implementing the "History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve." The purpose of these models is to support implementation of the "Framework" at the local level. In addition to serving as a resource for teachers and other developers of…

Prescott, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

344

Methodological Congruity in Principle and in Practice: A Dilemma in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science educators verge upon "sheer eclectic laziness." That is, there is a lack of congruence between classroom practices and the discernible assumptions that underwrite them. Examples are provided. What is needed is a thoughtful selection of models of teaching and learning matched to strategies for their achievement. (RM)

Watts, Mike; Bentley, Di

1986-01-01

345

Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

Taber, Keith S.

2010-01-01

346

Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

England, Richard

2009-01-01

347

Design Principles for High School Engineering Design Challenges: Experiences from High School Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the University of Pittsburgh, the author and his colleagues have been exploring a range of approaches to design challenges for implementation in high school science classrooms. In general, their approach has always involved students working during class time over the course of many weeks. So, their understanding of what works must be…

Schunn, Christian

2011-01-01

348

Group Work in Elementary Science: Towards Organisational Principles for Supporting Pupil Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group work has been promoted in many countries as a key component of elementary science. However, little guidance is given as to how group work should be organized, and because previous research has seldom been conducted in authentic classrooms, its message is merely indicative. A study is reported, which attempts to address these limitations.…

Howe, Christine; Tolmie, Andy; Thurston, Allen; Topping, Keith; Christie, Donald; Livingston, Kay; Jessiman, Emma; Donaldson, Caroline

2007-01-01

349

Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no…

Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

2010-01-01

350

Magnetic resonance imaging: Basic principles  

SciTech Connect

This book has been revised to reflect the past three years' technological developments and to meet the everyday needs of radiologists and clinicians who use MRI in routine practice. Among the new features are a lucid explanation of the gray scale and its significance; a complete atlas of normal MRI anatomy; and head-to-foot illustrations of pathologic MRI findings.

Young, S.W.

1987-01-01

351

Basic principles of superfund litigation  

SciTech Connect

Many legal aspects of the 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, known as CERCLA, pose problems for industry and the general public. The legal issues are developing and many of the numerous problems will require future resolution in the courts. A plea is made for a cooperative effort by lawyers, regulators, and courts to analyze and solve these problems from a proper perspective.

Russell, J.H.

1985-03-01

352

Basic Principles of Pancreatic Scanning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role and value of pancreatic scanning in the diagnosis of malignant disease were evaluated. It was found that, by employing the Anger scintillation camera and by utilizing dynamic visualization techniques, adequate pictures of the pancreas could be ob...

J. S. Stevenson C. D. Maynard

1973-01-01

353

Using Tetracyclines to Treat Osteoporotic/Osteopenic Bone Loss: From the Basic Science Laboratory to the Clinic  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis (progressive inflammatory disease characterized by alveolar bone loss, a major cause of tooth loss worldwide) is associated with both systemic osteoporosis and its milder form, osteopenia. Tetracyclines, by virtue of their non-antimicrobial proanabolic and anti-catabolic properties, are excellent candidate pharmaceuticals to simultaneously treat these local and systemic disorders. This paper reviews the foundational basic science and translational research which lead to a pivotal multicenter randomized clinical trial in postmenopausal women with both periodontitis and systemic (skeletal) osteopenia. This trial was designed primarily to examine whether subantimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD) could reduce progressive alveolar (oral) bone loss associated with periodontitis and, secondarily, whether SDD could reduce systemic bone loss in the same subjects. This paper describes the efficacy and safety findings from this clinical trial and also outlines future directions using this promising and novel approach to manage both oral and systemic bone loss.

Payne, Jeffrey B.; Golub, Lorne M.

2010-01-01

354

Ascending monoaminergic systems alterations in Alzheimer's disease. Translating basic science into clinical care.  

PubMed

Extensive neuropathological studies have established a compelling link between abnormalities in structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic (MA-ergic) systems and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main cell populations of these systems including the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the tuberomamillary nucleus undergo significant degeneration in AD, thereby depriving the hippocampal and cortical neurons from their critical modulatory influence. These studies have been complemented by genome wide association studies linking polymorphisms in key genes involved in the MA-ergic systems and particular behavioral abnormalities in AD. Importantly, several recent studies have shown that improvement of the MA-ergic systems can both restore cognitive function and reduce AD-related pathology in animal models of neurodegeneration. This review aims to explore the link between abnormalities in the MA-ergic systems and AD symptomatology as well as the therapeutic strategies targeting these systems. Furthermore, we will examine possible mechanisms behind basic vulnerability of MA-ergic neurons in AD. PMID:23707776

Trillo, Ludwig; Das, Devsmita; Hsieh, Wayne; Medina, Brian; Moghadam, Sarah; Lin, Bill; Dang, Van; Sanchez, Martha Millan; De Miguel, Zurine; Ashford, J Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad

2013-05-24

355

United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2010 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004) Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, Ro Korea 2009) Starting in 2010, the workshops focus on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as recommended in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of UNCOPUOS (www.iswi-secretariat.org/). Workshops on the ISWI have been scheduled to be hosted by Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently, fourteen IHY/ISWI instrument arrays with more than five hundred instruments are operational in ninety countries.

Gadimova, S.; Haubold, H. J.; Danov, D.; Georgieva, K.; Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Davila, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.

2011-11-01

356

A SERLINE-based union list of serials for basic health sciences libraries: a detailed protocol.  

PubMed

In March 1981 the Consortium for Information Resources (CIR) was chosen by the Massachusetts Health Sciences Library Network to develop and automate a statewide biomedical union list of serials. Employing a commercial processor, ANSI standard Z39.42-1980, and SERLINE, CIR consolidated the journal holdings of six Massachusetts health-related library consortia. SERLINE, with its unique identifier as the single control element, governed the form of entry and bibliographic data for each journal. Additionally, SERLINE enhanced the union list by providing "see references" and general notations to map users to main titles or special information. An original feature of this union list is the "rolled" holdings and location statements intended to encourage even distribution of interlibrary loan transactions. The resulting union list of serials includes the holdings of 116 Massachusetts libraries, 94 of which are hospital libraries. The list includes nearly 3,000 unique titles and 15,000 holdings statements; production costs averaged $1.35 per unique title and 27 per holdings statement. PMID:6758891

Bell, C L

1982-10-01

357

Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

2008-09-24

358

Training the Translational Research Teams of the Future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science Program.  

PubMed

There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students. PMID:24127920

Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

2013-05-15

359

Principles for Principals: Workshop 3. Math/Science SkillsÂWhat's Important?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Juniors at Fenway High School in Boston, MA work closely with mentors from the Rhode Island based pharmacy chain, CVS. During the year, they plan the opening of a simulated retail store, looking at demographics, city planning, permitting, and costs and sales projections. At the end of the year, they have improved math and science skills and have been exposed to careers in retail pharmacy.

Astrophysics, Harvard-Smithsonian C.

360

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-01-01

361

Exploring Magnetism: from Standards-based physical science concepts to cutting edge NASA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing focus on educational standards in the K-12 classroom can appear to push out extra topics, like cutting-edge NASA science. But that need not be the case. All NASA science is rooted in basic physical science and mathematics concepts. Relating modern investigations to their basic principles is an effective way to not only insert these topics into classroom curricula,

B. J. Mendez; L. M. Peticolas

2008-01-01

362

Future directions in the treatment of anxiety disorders: an examination of theory, basic science, public policy, psychotherapy research, clinical training, and practice.  

PubMed

This article represents a transcribed roundtable discussion on anxiety disorders that took place at the 1998 Society for Psychotherapy Research in Snowbird, Utah. Eminent experts in the field of anxiety disorders took part in a discussion that focused on issues related to theory, basic science, public policy, therapy research, clinical training, and practice. Important topics addressed by the panel included the role of theory in research and clinical practice, the importance of psychopharmacological interventions, efficacy versus effectiveness research, the impact of public policy on research advancement, and the interface between basic science, research, and clinical practice. PMID:10599824

Newman, M G; Borkovec, T D; Hope, D A; Kozak, M J; McNally, R J; Taylor, C B

1999-11-01

363

The common principles established to expert's preparation by a remote methods in the Earth sciences field, and their decision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern socially economic situation in the country and in an education system is those, that traditional forms of getting education and training model cannot satisfy all needs for the educational services usually concentrated in the big cities, and so - the increased interest to new, progressive specialities has received the development in electronic - training systems. The attitude to education on the part of the states, the governments, societies has changed also. Education began to be considered as the major factor of economic growth and social development of the countries, the decision of some global problems connected to survival of mankind. In this connection, recently development and practical introduction of technologies of remote and open education are conducted in the different countries, the especial attention is given to the systems, capable to comprise, transfer and analyze huge streams of information. The experience which has been saved up by foreign colleagues, shows, that the sanction of this technological conflict lays, generally, in sphere of creation of a wide network of remote training, and, in narrow, both quality and quantity of a substantial part, also it is necessary not to forget about a choice of electronic-training systems with their reference to various areas. And an occurrence of the computer equipment in the user's end, development of existing ways and means of data transmission, functional expansion of already existing and creation of absolutely new hardware-software complexes, and many other things has begun occurrence of new scientific directions in such basic area of sciences as the Earth - science. (These are geoinformation systems, research of natural resources by space methods, organization and technology of data protection in geoinformation systems etc.) Clearly, that new specialities impose the certain conditions for preparation of experts, and, carrying out the analysis of already existing electronic training systems in the field of geoinformation systems, there have been revealed a number of lacks which do not allow to prepare highly skilled experts at a high level in the given area. The output consists in use of electronic-training systems, but even here, there is a number of problems, decision of which lays in the process of remote training of the Earth sciences. Classification of the systems engaged in the field of the Earth sciences training has revealed a number of lacks and has allowed to develop the certain methodological aspects, necessary to take into account creating them. One of such of electronic training systems basic lacks is that the trained itself is kind of "torn off" from modern hardware-software complexes, that is basic in the training the given scientific direction, in connection with that, the practical part is inseparable from theoretical, and student cannot use saved up experience in practice, knowing only the theory. Teaching of a material in the majority of systems goes with group at once. (Individual interests "are absorbed" by desire of the majority, and, accordingly, the user of system sometimes cannot receive answers to many questions). Impossibility of allocation of the concrete user for his training under more or less strong separate program or his reception of additional knowledge on adjacent areas. Many systems do not support on (off) -- line conferences or don't support the huge streams of the information transfer, that in training of the Earth sciences -- is the one of the basic criteria, (because the various territorially distributed users of system could exchange their experience, could share impressions about use of the certain hardware-software complexes, participate in conferences spent by the various centers, to communicate with the tutors not only in the form of various forums, but also operatively (it is possible even visually, by means of use of system of Web- videotranslations) to receive answers to arising questions, etc.). And introduction of such opportunities as ``daily planning'' and ``reminder'' to the system -

Kudzh, S.; Trofimov, S.

364

12 Basic Principles for Incorporating Media Literacy into Any Curriculum. Project Look Sharp: Providing Support, Education, and Training To Help Teachers Prepare Students To Survive in a Media-Saturated World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Project Look Sharp is an initiative to promote and support the integration of media literacy into classroom curricula at all grade levels and instructional areas, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of media literacy education in the schools. It provides the following 12 guidelines as basic principles for incorporating media literacy into…

Ithaca Coll., NY.

365

Complex actions of sex steroids in adipose tissue, the cardiovascular system, and brain: Insights from basic science and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Recent publications describing the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and other studies reporting the impact of hormone therapy on aging women have spurred reexamination of the broad use of estrogens and progestins during the postmenopausal years. Here, we review the complex pharmacology of these hormones, the diverse and sometimes opposite effects that result from the use of different estrogenic and progestinic compounds, given via different delivery routes in different concentrations and treatment sequence, and to women of different ages and health status. We examine our new and growing appreciation of the role of estrogens in the immune system and the inflammatory response, and we pose the concept that estrogen's interface with this system may be at the core of some of the effects on multiple physiological systems, such as the adipose/metabolic system, the cardiovascular system, and the central nervous system. We compare and contrast clinical and basic science studies as we focus on the actions of estrogens in these systems because the untoward effects of hormone therapy reported in the WHI were not expected. The broad interpretation and publicity of the results of the WHI have resulted in a general condemnation of all hormone replacement in postmenopausal women. In fact, careful review of the extensive literature suggests that data resulting from the WHI and other recent studies should be interpreted within the narrow context of the study design. We argue that these results should encourage us to perform new studies that take advantage of a dialogue between basic scientists and clinician scientists to ensure appropriate design, incorporation of current knowledge, and proper interpretation of results. Only then will we have a better understanding of what hormonal compounds should be used in which populations of women and at what stages of menopausal/postmenopausal life. PMID:16763155

Turgeon, Judith L; Carr, Molly C; Maki, Pauline M; Mendelsohn, Michael E; Wise, Phyllis M

2006-06-09

366

Principlism and moral dilemmas: a new principle  

PubMed Central

Moral conflicts occur in theories that involve more than one principle. I examine basic ways of dealing with moral dilemmas in medical ethics and in ethics generally, and propose a different approach based on a principle I call the "mutuality principle". It is offered as an addition to Tom Beauchamp and James Childress' principlism. The principle calls for the mutual enhancement of basic moral values. After explaining the principle and its strengths, I test it by way of an examination of three responses—in the recent Festschrift for Dr Raanon Gillon—to a case involving parental refusal of a blood transfusion. The strongest response is the one that comes closest to the requirements of the mutuality principle but yet falls short. I argue that the mutuality principle provides an explicit future orientation in principlism and gives it greater moral coherence.

DeMarco, J

2005-01-01

367

A Cross-College Age Study of Science and Nonscience Students' Conceptions of Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for High-School Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article reports the results of a a questionaire that was given to 433 students in college preservice training for future high school teachers. Results indicated that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-07-17

368

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)|

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

369

Basic Sciences - Surgical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

The Surgical Pathology Section provides expertise and diagnostic services in the field of Anatomic Pathology for Clinical Center patients and collaborates with the research staff in those investigations, which involve the use and study of human pathological material. Approximately 6,000 surgical specimens and biopsies (more than 60,000 slides which include routine and a variety of special stains) are accessioned each year. These include more than 2,000 fresh human tissues.

370

Basic Sciences - Biochemical Pathology  

Cancer.gov

Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of normal cell growth and differentiation and play essential roles in pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis and infection by pathogens. We are defining functions of adhesion molecules, their cell surface and matrix receptors, and the signal transduction pathways that regulate their activities in specific diseases. These studies will identify new molecular targets and could provide a basis for designing novel therapeutic agents.

371

Basic Sciences - Flow Cytometry  

Cancer.gov

The Flow Cytometry Unit provides specialized diagnostic procedures utilizing cytometric techniques as a clinical service. The laboratory immunophenotypes patient specimens from adult and pediatric Clinical Center patients with lymphoid neoplasms, acute as well as chronic leukemias, myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative syndrome, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and congenital immunodeficiency disorders. The majority of specimens receive their primary surgical pathology diagnosis within the unit (morphological evaluation is also performed by the unit).

372

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1984-01-01

373

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

Busch, Phylliss

1987-01-01

374

Basic Sciences - Autopsy  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Kleiner's section is responsible for administering the autopsies performed at the Clinical Center. Any patient seen on protocol at the NIH or who has a disease of significant clinical or research interest to a particular principal investigator may have an autopsy done by this section.

375

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains why earthworms are fascinating and important animals whose study should be expanded. Describes how to collect earthworms and their castings and how to demonstrate their tunneling activity. Stresses animal's uniqueness and how it is interrelated with other animals, plants, and non-living parts of the world. (NEC)|

Busch, Phyllis S.

1986-01-01

376

Human Systems. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Seven separate units…

Echaore, Susan D.; Bartavian, John

377

YES Mag: Science Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Parents, are you looking for a way to excite your children about science? This website developed by YES Mag, Canada's science magazine for kids, may just have the answer. Users can find numerous fun science activities addressing many of the basic science principles and phenomena including Newton's third law, lightening, wind, and chromatography. Each activity includes pictures to assist in the implementation of the project as well as a convenient printable version. With over thirty-five activities, children are sure to have a fun learning experience.

378

Teaching Basic Biological Simulation Techniques With the Programmable Calculator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The programable calculator has great potential for the development of simulations which provide new dimensions to instruction in the biological sciences. Basic principles of both biology and simulation itself can be presented. An introductory course on digital computer simulation in biology is now taught at Michigan Technological University; the…

Spain, J. D.

1972-01-01

379

Food Science. Content Modules for Food Science Featuring Problem-Solving Activities in Family and Consumer Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The food science course developed in Missouri combines basic scientific and mathematics principles in a hands-on instructional format as a part of the family and consumer sciences education curriculum. Throughout the course, students conduct controlled experiments and use scientific laboratory techniques and information to explore the biological…

Roff, Lori; Stringer, Lola

380

Basic teaching methods in physics and social science classroom: Reality and upper secondary school students' expectations in Norway and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, there was a worldwide discussion about the decreasing interest in science and technology studies on all levels. Much research has been organised to clarify what might affect student motivation to study science and, in particular, physics. The answers to what might motivate students are typically sought by investigating their interests or attitudes to (i) science (or domains

Jari Lavonen; Carl Angell; Reijo Byman; Ellen Henriksen; Ismo Koponen

381

Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

2006-05-24

382

An ion-pair principle for enantioseparations of basic analytes by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis using the di-n-butyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as chiral selector.  

PubMed

A chiral recognition mechanism of ion-pair principle has been proposed in this study. It rationalized the enantioseparations of some basic analytes using the complex of di-n-butyl l-tartrate and boric acid as the chiral selector in methanolic background electrolytes (BGEs) by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). An approach of mass spectrometer (MS) directly confirmed that triethylamine promoted the formation of negatively charged di-n-butyl l-tartrate-boric acid complex chiral counter ion with a complex ratio of 2:1. And the negatively charged counter ion was the real chiral selector in the ion-pair principle enantioseparations. It was assumed that triethylamine should play its role by adjusting the apparent acidity (pH*) of the running buffer to a higher value. Consequently, the effects of various basic electrolytes including inorganic and organic ones on the enantioseparations in NACE were investigated. The results showed that most of the basic electrolytes tested were favorable for the enantioseparations of basic analytes using di-n-butyl l-tartrate-boric acid complex as the chiral ion-pair selector. PMID:23434083

Wang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Qie-Nan; Yang, Geng-Liang; Chen, Xing-Guo

2013-02-10

383

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and spinal arthrodesis: the basic science perspective on protein interaction with the nervous system.  

PubMed

The use and "off-label" indications for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in spinal arthrodesis have been significantly expanded over the last decade. New surgical approaches and pathologies treated often place the exogenous protein near the spinal cord or peripheral nerves, yet little data exist to the potential interaction between rhBMP-2 and the nervous system. The current review was undertaken to provide a basic science perspective on the wide-ranging effects that rhBMP-2, a potent growth factor, has on the injured spinal cord and the local dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Results from the early animal studies on neural safety of rhBMP-2 were compared with the more recent in vivo work characterizing protein impact on the injured spinal cord. Potential mechanism of the rhBMP-2-induced radiculitis after lumbar arthrodesis is also discussed. The original pre-FDA approval animal study did not uncover any interaction between rhBMP-2 and the spinal cord or the nerve rootlets comprising the cauda equina. Recent in vivo work indicated, however, that in a penetrating injury model, rhBMP-2 triggers direct signaling in all spinal cord cells. In the rat, this interaction was deleterious to spontaneous recovery by exacerbating the inflammatory response to injury, increasing the glial scar, and making it more inhibitory to axonal regeneration. With respect to posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis in a noninjury model, rhBMP-2 use contributed to a transient postoperative mechanical hyperalgesia. Potential mechanism of this allodynia is through an observed inflammatory response within and around the local DRG. In summary, contrary to the original beliefs in the clinical community, rhBMP-2 does elicit a profound signaling response within the spinal cord and the peripheral ganglia. Recent preclinical studies indicate that rhBMP-2, if provided direct access to the spinal cord parenchyma or the DRG, can trigger significant inflammation and morphologic changes within these tissues that could be deleterious to neurologic recovery. PMID:21729799

Dmitriev, Anton E; Lehman, Ronald A; Symes, Aviva J

2011-06-01

384

BEYOND BARBOUR OR BACK TO BASICS? THE FUTURE OF SCIENCE-AND-RELIGION AND THE QUEST FOR UNITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflecting on the future of the field of science-and-reli- gion, I focus on three aspects. First, I describe the history of the reli- gion-and-science dialogue and argue that the emergence of the field was largely contingent on social-cultural factors in Western theology, especially in the United States. Next, I focus on the enormous influ- ence of science on Western society

Taede A. Smedes

2008-01-01

385

The role of a science story, activities, and dialogue modeled on Philosophy for Children in teaching basic science process skills to fifth graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an application of Philosophy for Children pedagogy to science education. It was designed to answer the question, What roles do a science story (Harry Discovers Science), multi-sensorial activities designed to accompany the story, and classroom dialogue associated with the story---all modeled on the Philosophy for Children curriculum---play in the learning processes of a class of fifth graders

Louise Brandes Moura Ferreira

2004-01-01

386

Harnessing the Use of Open Learning Exchange to Support Basic Education in Science and Mathematics in the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…

Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.

2013-01-01

387

Vacuum Technology:. Principles and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted on principles and applications of vacuum technology. Classification and properties of vacuum are discussed. Various pumping mechanisms as well as three basic flow regimes namely viscous, intermediate and molecular are briefly presented. Gas-surface interaction concepts including physisorption and chemisorption states with their distinctive character as well as desorption phenomenon are considered. Two types of surface reaction mechanisms, Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are introduced. Applications of vacuum technology in the field of surface science, microfabrication, particle accelerators and analytical techniques are described. Finally, the use of vacuum in different industries with their corresponding applications is briefly reviewed.

Moshfegh, A. Z.

2004-06-01

388

Report of the Task Force on Basic Science to the National Advisory Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke Council.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report surveys the present status of neuroscience research and defines areas of inquiry that will provide new data on basic mechanisms underlying normal and abnormal brain function. The report is necessarily broad, ranging from consideration of eleme...

1979-01-01

389

Basics of Online Searching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intended to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching to those with little or no prior experience, this textbook explains the basic elements of online information retrieval and compares the major database search systems. Its chapters add...

C. T. Wiley . A. Cochrane

1981-01-01

390

Accepting Evolution or Discarding Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Challenging basic principles of constitutional law, advocates of intelligent design are undermining educators' ability to teach evolution in their science classrooms. Because US Supreme Court rulings now prohibit creationist accounts of the origin of life in schools, arguments favoring divine intervention, known as intelligent design, have…

Sharpes, Donald K.; Peramas, Mary M.

2006-01-01

391

Three New Concepts of Future Computer Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an observation resulted from the six-year Sino-USA computer science leadership exchanges: the trend\\u000a towards the emergence of a new computer science that is more universal and fundamental than that in the past. In the 21st\\u000a century, the field of computer science is experiencing fundamental transformations, from its scope, objects of study, basic\\u000a metrics, main abstractions, fundamental principles,

Zhi-Wei Xu; Dan-Dan Tu

2011-01-01

392

Introduction: Food Science as a Discipline  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food Science can be denned as the application of the basic sciences and engineering to study the fundamental physical, chemical,\\u000a and biochemical nature of foods and the principles of food processing. Food technology is the use of the information generated\\u000a by food science in the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, and distribution, as it affects the consumption of\\u000a safe, nutritious and

Dennis R. Heldman

393

Contour Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contour Basics is an exercise designed to introduce students to contour plots. The Contour Activity is a great on-line resource that starts slowly and increases in difficulty. It teaches students basic techniques for generating contours, introduces students to the subtleties of generating contour plots with sparse data, provides many opportunities for students to assess their own progress and understanding and has complete on-line drawing capabilities. The exercise is geared toward atmospheric and oceanic sciences but is beneficial for all geoscience students. In addition to the exercise, this site includes information on teaching materials, teaching notes and tips, assessment suggestions and additional references. This activity is part of the Starting Point Collection: http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/

Whittaker, Tom; Ackerman, Steve; Mackay, R. M.

2011-04-27

394

The Five Senses. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

Lobb, Nancy; Roderman, Winifred Ho

395

The Five Senses. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

Lobb, Nancy; Roderman, Winifred Ho

396

Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of doctoral students in the basic biomedical sciences at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Midway through graduate training, UCSF students are already considering a broad range of career options, with one-third intending to pursue a non–research career path. To better support this branching career pipeline, we recommend that national standards for training and mentoring include emphasis on career planning and professional skills development to ensure the success of PhD-level scientists as they contribute to a broadly defined global scientific enterprise.

Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O'Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

2011-01-01

397

Development of e-Learning Courses for Promoting Student's Global Competency-Basic Courses as a Guide to ESP Education in Advanced Science and Technology-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osaka University has been chosen for the FY2005's “Selected Efforts of the Distinctive University Education Support Program (Gendai GP/Good Practice) ”by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) . The aim of this project is to improve English proficiency of undergraduate students with scientific backgrounds. Under this strategic fund, e-Learning course contents were developed for instructing basic, yet practical English for Biotechnology during FY2005. Throughout the project, e-Learning contents will be developed for five other selected subjects of science i.e., 1) biotechnology, 2) information technology, 3) nano-technology, 4) environmental technology and 5) robotics technology, for undergraduate students as guiding courses to ESP education in graduate (higher) level.

Nishikawa, Mikako; Nakajima, Mikio; Iwai, Chiharu; Ogasawara, Fumie; Kishino, Fumio; Fukui, Kiichi

398

Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01

399

Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01

400

Teaching future teachers basic astronomy concepts Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements at a time of reform in science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases, Sun and Moon eclipses, and others. The activities concerning the characteristics

Ricardo Trumper

2006-01-01

401

Das Generationenverhaltnis. Uberlegungen zu einem grundbegriff der Erziehungswissenschaft (The Generational Relation--Reflections on a Basic Concept of Educational Science).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that findings of interdisciplinary research that point to a decrease in differences between the generations have caused educational science to reconsider the concept of the generational relation regarding its special significance for pedagogics. Presents a conceptual-theoretical framework against this background. (CMK)

Muller, Hans-Rudiger

1999-01-01

402

Reading Habits and Attitude Toward Medical Humanities of Basic Science Students in a Medical College in Western Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal, admits students from Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, and other countries to the undergraduate medical course. Purposes: The present study sought to describe and explore reading habits of medical students during the first three semesters and obtain their views regarding inclusion of medical humanities in the course. Methods: The authors introduced a

P. Ravi Shankar; Arun K. Dubey; P. Mishra; Dinesh K. Upadhyay

2008-01-01

403

Basic Electronics I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

Robertson, L. Paul

404

Basic Electronics I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

Robertson, L. Paul

405

Psychosomatic Principles  

PubMed Central

There are four lines of development that might be called psychosomatic principles. The first represents the work initiated by Claude Bernard, Cannon, and others, in neurophysiology and endocrinology in relationship to stress. The second is the application of psychoanalytic formulations to the understanding of illness. The third is in the development of the social sciences, particularly anthropology, social psychology and sociology with respect to the emotional life of man, and, fourth, there is an increased application of epidemiological techniques to the understanding and incidence of disease and its causes. These principles can be applied to the concepts of comprehensive medicine and they bid fair to be unifying and helpful in its study. This means that future practitioners, as well as those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine, are going to have to have a much more precise knowledge of the influence of emotions on bodily processes.

Cleghorn, R. A.

1965-01-01

406

Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers was designed to address teachers' conceptual understanding of basic scientific principles, student misconceptions and how to deal with them, and observation and measurement techniques. For 4 weeks in summer and on 6 Saturdays during 2 academic years, 30 leaders among science teachers from the…

Meisner, Gerald W.; Lee, Ernest W.

407

Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers was designed to address teachers' conceptual understanding of basic scientific principles, student misconceptions and how to deal with them, and observation and measurement techniques. For 4 weeks in summer and on 6 Saturdays during 2 academic years, 30 leaders among science teachers from the…

Meisner, Gerald W.; Lee, Ernest W.

408

Administrative Process. Principles of Organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a training outline for a presentation for students which includes lecture, class discussion, and film. The purpose is to introduce the students to the basic principles of organization, and to relate these principles to housing management and...

1973-01-01

409

Basic solutions to carbon/carbon oxidation: Science and technology. Annual technical report, 15 April 1993-14 April 1994  

SciTech Connect

The attached report addresses the first year of a program aimed at developing basic solutions to carbon/carbon composite oxidation. In particular, one primary thrust is the development of boron containing carbons through pyrolysis of boron containing polymers. Additionally, a basic understanding of the oxidation mechanisms in carbons and boron containing carbons is being sought. Several new boron containing precursors have been synthesized, which can be converted to B/C materials after pyrolysis. In particular, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been copolymerized with a boron-containing monomer (vinylcatecholborane.) Approximately 68% of the original boron is retained after pyrolysis yielding a product with 3.4% boron. 1,4-polybutadiene (PBD) has been hydroborated to contain large amounts of boron. Model compounds have been used to prepare polydiyne with considerable amounts of boron. In the latter two cases, direct analysis for % boron is not yet available. Preliminary TGA data suggests that PBD containing boron results in a more stable structure.

Harrison, T.R.; Chung, T.; Radovic, L.; Pantano, C.; Thrower, P.A.

1994-05-13

410

Lawrence Hall of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lawrence Hall of Science is a resource center for preschool through high school science and mathematics education, and a public science center with hands-on experiences for learners of all ages. Home of the William Knox Holt Planetarium, there is extensive educational programming centered on astronomy, including Planetarium Activities for Student Success kits for purchase that illustrate basic principles of astronomy. Earthquakes, erosion, wind and weather are the focus of the Forces that Shape the Bay exhibits, and there are also a number of exhibits highlighting math and physics. The website provides many online games and home activities available for download. The Lawrence Hall of Science Center for Curriculum Innovation creates instructional materials in mathematics and science for preschool through 12th graders for use by students, teachers and other educators, parents and families, and the website provides an array of information on the various programs. Title II funding for professional development is available.

411

The Future of Restorative Neurosciences in Stroke: Driving the Translational Research Pipeline From Basic Science to Rehabilitation of People After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Major advances during the past 50 years highlight the immense potential for restoration of function after neural injury, even in the damaged adult human brain. Yet, the translation of these advances into clinically useful treatments is painstakingly slow. Objective Here, we consider why the traditional model of a “translational research pipeline” that transforms basic science into novel clinical practice has failed to improve rehabilitation practice for people after stroke. Results We find that (1) most treatments trialed in vitro and in animal models have not yet resulted in obviously useful functional gains in patients; (2) most clinical trials of restorative treatments after stroke have been limited to small-scale studies; (3) patient recruitment for larger clinical trials is difficult; (4) the determinants of patient outcomes and what patients want remain complex and ill-defined, so that basic scientists have no clear view of the clinical importance of the problems that they are addressing; (5) research in academic neuroscience centers is poorly integrated with practice in front-line hospitals and the community, where the majority of patients are treated; and (6) partnership with both industry stakeholders and patient pressure groups is poorly developed, at least in the United Kingdom where research in the translational restorative neurosciences in stroke depends on public sector research funds and private charities. Conclusions We argue that interaction between patients, front-line clinicians, and clinical and basic scientists is essential so that they can explore their different priorities, skills, and concerns. These interactions can be facilitated by funding research consortia that include basic and clinical scientists, clinicians and patient/carer representatives with funds targeted at those impairments that are major determinants of patient and carer outcomes. Consortia would be instrumental in developing a lexicon of common methods, standardized outcome measures, data sharing and long-term goals. Interactions of this sort would create a research-friendly, rather than only target-led, culture in front-line stroke rehabilitation services.

Cheeran, Binith; Cohen, Leonardo; Dobkin, Bruce; Ford, Gary; Greenwood, Richard; Howard, David; Husain, Masud; Macleod, Malcolm; Nudo, Randolph; Rothwell, John; Rudd, Anthony; Teo, James; Ward, Nicholas; Wolf, Steven

2011-01-01

412

Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy (“Pre-RT-MRI examination”) and at the time of BT (“BT MRI examination”) with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring procedure. Choice of imaging parameters and BT equipment is made after taking into account aspects of interaction between imaging and applicator reconstruction, as well as those between imaging, geometry and dose calculation. In a prospective clinical context, to implement 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy and to take advantage of its full potential, it is essential to successfully meet the MR imaging criteria described in the present recommendations of the GYN GEC-ESTRO working group.

Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M.; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Potter, Richard

2012-01-01

413

Bridging the Basic-Applied Gap to Provide the Science Base That Ensures Successful CO2 Sequestration (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deployment of carbon sequestration at a significant scale requires assessment of CO2-water(brine)-rock interactions for a large number of natural storage sites representing a range of geologic environments. In contrast with oil and gas production, CO2 storage may utilize deeper saline formations and requires prediction of the behavior of coupled engineered and natural systems over long time frames. This, in turn, requires the development of a broad science base in support of this applied need. Experience with production of natural CO2 deposits and with CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) in the Permian Basin of West Texas—along with some shorter duration sequestration operations in a few other countries—suggests that a well characterized geologic site can be engineered to store CO2 effectively for periods of decades (and likely much longer). Natural analogs—CO2 accumulations resulting from natural sources at depth— provide additional evidence that CO2 can be introduced into a geologic system and stored for a very long time. Similarly, accumulation of natural gas and oil in geologic systems suggests storage of mobile gases and fluids can be achieved over geologic times. This optimism notwithstanding, ensuring that large-scale CO2 storage is safe, effective, and successful requires predicting the movement/reactivity of CO2 and the behavior of the storage site over large areas and long periods of time. DOE’s Carbon Sequestration R&D program is developing the science and tools needed for large-scale storage of CO2, ranging from fundamental reactions between fluids and rocks to the development of new frameworks for multiscale predictions of the behavior of engineered-natural systems. A recent addition to this effort is the National Risk Assessment Program (NRAP), which includes a multi-national lab collaboration to facilitate the integration of the scientific insight being developed across the sequestration program. A primary goal of NRAP is to help in bridging the gap between fundamental science and application. In the context of CO2-water-rock interactions, NRAP focus includes wellbore integrity, caprock integrity, ensuring the protection of groundwater, and identifying key geochemical signals that can be used to monitor the evolution of the site.

Guthrie, G. D.

2009-12-01

414

Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Benson, S.M.

1997-07-01

415

Hands-on Activities versus Worksheets in Reinforcing Physical Science Principles: Effects on Student Achievement and Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of 132 agricultural science students were divided into an experimental group who completed hands-on activities on Ohm's Law and incline plane and a control group who completed worksheets. There were no significant differences in immediate or follow-up measures of achievement. Hands-on students had significantly more positive attitudes.…

Johnson, Donald M.; Wardlow, George W.; Franklin, Timothy D.

1997-01-01

416

Applying Innovative Educational Principles when Classes Grow and Resources Are Limited: Biochemistry Experiences at Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching to large classes is often challenging particularly when the faculty and teaching resources are limited. Innovative, less staff intensive ways need to be explored to enhance teaching and to engage students. We describe our experience teaching biochemistry to 350 students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) under…

Omer, Selma; Hickson, Gilles; Tache, Stephanie; Blind, Raymond; Masters, Susan; Loeser, Helen; Souza, Kevin; Mkony, Charles; Debas, Haile; O'Sullivan, Patricia

2008-01-01

417

Careers of an elite cohort of U.S. basic life science postdoctoral fellows and the influence of their mentor's citation record  

PubMed Central

Background There is general agreement that the number of U.S. science PhDs being trained far exceeds the number of future academic positions. One suggested approach to this problem is to significantly reduce the number of PhD positions. A counter argument is that students are aware of the limited academic positions but have chosen a PhD track because it opens other, non-academic, opportunities. The latter view requires that students have objective information about what careers options will be available for them. Methods The scientific careers of the 1992-94 cohort of NIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) Kirchstein-NRSA F32 postdoctoral fellows (PD) was determined by following their publications (PubMed), grants (NIH and NSF), and faculty and industry positions through 2009. These basic life science PDs receive support through individual grant applications and represent the most successful class of NIH PDs as judged by academic careers and grants. The sex dependence of the career and grant success and the influence of the PD mentor's citation record were also determined Results Of the 439 1992-94 NIGMS F32 fellows, the careers of 417 could be determined. Although females had significantly higher rates of dropping out of science (22% females, 9% males) there was no significant difference in the fraction of females that ended up as associate or full professors at research universities (22.8% females, 29.1% for males). More males then females ended up in industry (34% males, 22% females). Although there was no significant correlation between male grant success and their mentor's publication record (h index, citations, publications), there was a significant correlation for females. Females whose mentor's h index was in the top quartile were nearly 3 times as likely to receive a major grant as those whose mentors were in the bottom quartile (38.7% versus 13.3%). Conclusions Sixteen years after starting their PD, only 9% of males had dropped out of science. More females (28%) have dropped out of science, primarily because fewer went into industry positions. The mentor's publication record does not affect the future grant success of males but it has a dramatic effect on female grant success.

2010-01-01

418

Understanding Basic Mechanics: Workbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workbook is designed to be used with the Understanding Basic Mechanics textbook in an introductory calculus-based physics course for science or engineering students. The text presents the basic subject matter, facilitating reference, while the workbook is used to ensure students have understood the reading, can interpret it appropriately, and can apply it to diverse situations.

Reif, Frederick

2006-07-22

419

Models of natural fracture connectivity: Implications for Reservoir permeability. Final report for DOE Basic Energy Sciences, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Fluid flow through fracture networks in a rock mass de ends strongly on the nature of connections between fracture segments and between individual fractures. Therefore the objective of this research project is to develop three dimensional models for natural fracture connectivity using an integrated field, laboratory, and theoretical methodology. The geometric models we have developed are based on detailed field mapping and observations from outcrops of both massive and layered sedimentary rocks, typical of producing oil and gas reservoirs, or of aquifers. Furthermore, we have used computer simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for fracture connectivity (or lack thereof) as single and multiple sets of fractures evolve. The computer models are based on fracture mechanics principles and the laboratory experiments utilize layered composite materials analogous to sedimentary sequences. By identifying the physical mechanisms of connectivity we can relate the degree of connectivity to the geometry, state of stress, and material properties of the reservoir rocks and, in turn, be in a position to evaluate the influence of these factors on fracture permeability.

Pollard, D.D.; Aydin, A.

1995-06-01

420

Science, Technology, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lecture notes cover the effects of science and technology on society and how our understanding of the basic structure and operating principles of the universe has affected human lives. Examples of beneficial technology are listed including agricultural genetics, disease control, and a case-study of the benefits of electricity. This is contrasted with technological excesses, but the irony is that without technology, fewer people would survive. Besides exploring some ethical questions and supporting technology, suggestions for science and technology policy are presented.

O'Connell, Robert W.

2009-07-06

421

Investigating cellular stress responses--a multidisciplinary approach from basic science to therapeutics--Report on the EuroSciCon (European Scientific Conferences) meeting  

PubMed Central

The meeting on “Investigating cellular stress responses—a multidisciplinary approach from basic science to therapeutics” was held in London on 13 October 2006. The purpose of this 1-day meeting was to bring together European scientists investigating the immune biology of stress proteins and their potential clinical applications. The main topics included: the role of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in bacterial infections; the role of Hsps with a molecular mass of about 70 kDa in cancer therapy and in prediction of the clinical outcome following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; the quality and duration of stress as a danger signal for the initiation of a stress response; the mechanism of Hsp-protein interaction; and Hsp export from tumor cells in secretory granules.

Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Multhoff, Gabriele

2007-01-01

422

An overview of the basic science of concussion and subconcussion: where we are and where we are going.  

PubMed

There has been a growing interest in the diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), or concussion. Repetitive concussion and subconcussion have been linked to a spectrum of neurological sequelae, including postconcussion syndrome, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia pugilistica. A more common risk than chronic traumatic encephalopathy is the season-ending or career-ending effects of concussion or its mismanagement. To effectively prevent and treat the sequelae of concussion, it will be important to understand the basic processes involved. Reviewed in this paper are the forces behind the primary phase of injury in mild TBI, as well as the immediate and delayed cellular events responsible for the secondary phase of injury leading to neuronal dysfunction and possible cell death. Advanced neuroimaging sequences have recently been developed that have the potential to increase the sensitivity of standard MRI to detect both structural and functional abnormalities associated with concussion, and have provided further insight into the potential underlying pathophysiology. Also discussed are the potential long-term effects of repetitive mild TBI, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Much of the data regarding this syndrome is limited to postmortem analyses, and at present there is no animal model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy described in the literature. As this arena of TBI research continues to evolve, it will be imperative to appropriately model concussive and even subconcussive injuries in an attempt to understand, prevent, and treat the associated chronic neurodegenerative sequelae. PMID:23199428

Dashnaw, Matthew L; Petraglia, Anthony L; Bailes, Julian E

2012-12-01

423

How can the principles of complexity science be applied to improve the coordination of care for complex pediatric patients?  

PubMed

Clinical and technological advances in medicine have resulted in more patients requiring multidisciplinary care and coordination of services. This is particularly challenging in pediatrics, given the dependency of children. Coordination of care is a key ingredient of quality care; when suboptimal, clinical outcomes and satisfaction can suffer. In this article we view coordination of care through the lens of complexity science in an effort to find new solutions to this healthcare challenge. PMID:16585105

Matlow, A G; Wright, J G; Zimmerman, B; Thomson, K; Valente, M

2006-04-01

424

How can the principles of complexity science be applied to improve the coordination of care for complex pediatric patients?  

PubMed Central

Clinical and technological advances in medicine have resulted in more patients requiring multidisciplinary care and coordination of services. This is particularly challenging in pediatrics, given the dependency of children. Coordination of care is a key ingredient of quality care; when suboptimal, clinical outcomes and satisfaction can suffer. In this article we view coordination of care through the lens of complexity science in an effort to find new solutions to this healthcare challenge.

Matlow, A G; Wright, J G; Zimmerman, B; Thomson, K; Valente, M

2006-01-01

425

Risk communication basics  

SciTech Connect

In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

426

Report on the Twelfth United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop on Basic Space Science (Beijing, P.R. China, 24 28 May 2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pursuant to recommendations of the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), annual UN/European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991. These workshops contributed to the development of astrophysics and space science, particularly in developing nations. Following a process of prioritization, the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field: (i) operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD, (ii) virtual observatories, (iii) astrophysical data systems, (iv) concurrent design capabilities for the development of international space missions, and (v) theoretical astrophysics such as applications of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Beginning in 2005, the workshops focus on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007). The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost, ground-based, world-wide instrument arrays as lead by the IHY secretariat.

Wamsteker, Willem; Haubold, Hans J.

2006-12-01

427

Radiation Leukemogenesis: Applying Basic Science of Epidemiological Estimates of Low Dose Risks and Dose-Rate Effects  

SciTech Connect

The next stage of work has been to examine more closely the A-bomb leukemia data which provides the underpinnings of the risk estimation of CML in the above mentioned manuscript. The paper by Hoel and Li (Health Physics 75:241-50) shows how the linear-quadratic model has basic non-linearities at the low dose region for the leukemias including CML. Pierce et. al., (Radiation Research 123:275-84) have developed distributions for the uncertainty in the estimated exposures of the A-bomb cohort. Kellerer, et. al., (Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 36:73-83) has further considered possible errors in the estimated neutron values and with changing RBE values with dose and has hypothesized that the tumor response due to gamma may not be linear. We have incorporated his neutron model and have constricted new A-bomb doses based on his model adjustments. The Hoel and Li dose response analysis has also been applied using the Kellerer neutron dose adjustments for the leukemias. Finally, both Pierce's dose uncertainties and Kellerer neutron adjustments are combined as well as the varying RBE with dose as suggested by Rossi and Zaider and used for leukemia dose-response analysis. First the results of Hoel and Li showing a significantly improved fit of the linear-quadratic dose response by the inclusion of a threshold (i.e. low-dose nonlinearity) persisted. This work has been complete for both solid tumor as well as leukemia for both mortality as well as incidence data. The results are given in the manuscript described below which has been submitted to Health Physics.

Hoel, D. G.

1998-11-01

428

Experience of the creative Space-Astrophysics Education in Israeli Science-Educational Center "Blossoms of Science" - creative activity from mini-projects in basic school to ASTROTOP-projects for graduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 12 year experience of educational project in Space Astrophysics Environment field realized on the base of National Science-Educational Center Blossoms of Science of the Jordan Valley College Our approach is based on the natural curiosity of children as driver of their self-development from the first minutes of their life and even in adult state This approach shift center of the weight in educational process from direct lectures sermons explanation from teacher to children on own attempts of children to investigate problem what is interesting for them by themselves individually or in group Our approach includes four levels of the projects nano-projects for children garden and basic school up to 10-12 years micro-projects for intermediate school 12-16 years mini-projects for high school 16-18 years and macro-projects for the best graduates high schools and students of colleges 17-22 years These levels and projects are interconnected one with another and sometimes participants started on the micro-projects level in intermediate school continue their activity up to macro-projects of the graduate s diploma level For each level we organize courses for preparation of the teachers and instructors interested in the using of our receipts and published books and brochures for them The content of our activity for different levels a Level of kinder gardens-basic schools -- special software with interactive movie - - nano-projects b Level of intermediate school Days of Science in tens schools of Israel--

Pustil'Nik, L.; Pundak, D.

429

Reading to learn experimental practice: The role of text and firsthand experience in the acquisition of an abstract science principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the onset of schooling, texts are used as important educational tools. In the primary years, they are integral to learning how to decode and develop fluency. In the later elementary years, they are often essential to the acquisition of academic content. Unfortunately, many children experience difficulties with this process, which is due in large part to their unfamiliarity with the genre of academic texts. The articles presented in this dissertation share an underlying theme of how to develop children's ability to comprehend and learn from academic, and specifically, non-narrative texts. The first article reviews research on the development of non-narrative discourse to elucidate the linguistic precursors to non-narrative text comprehension. The second and third articles draw from an empirical study that investigated the best way to integrate text, manipulation, and first-hand experience for children's acquisition and application of an abstract scientific principle. The scientific principle introduced in the study was the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a fundamental idea underlying scientific reasoning and a strategy for designing unconfounded experiments. Eight grade 4 classes participated in the study (N = 129), in one of three conditions: (a) read procedural text and manipulate experimental materials, (b) listen to procedural text and manipulate experimental materials, or (c) read procedural text with no opportunity to manipulate experimental materials. Findings from the study indicate that children who had the opportunity to read and manipulate materials were most effective at applying the strategy to designing and justifying unconfounded experiments, and evaluating written and physical experimental designs; however, there was no effect of instructional condition on a written assessment of evaluating familiar and unfamiliar experimental designs one week after the intervention. These results suggest that the acquisition and application of an abstract principle is facilitated by the integration of first-hand experience (acquired from physical manipulation) with second-hand knowledge (acquired from reading text). The dissertation also draws on recent proposals that characterize the role of manipulatives, action, and first-hand experience in abstract learning. In addition, it contributes to a growing knowledge base on instructional approaches that facilitate the development of non-narrative discourse.

Richmond, Erica Kesin

430

S100A1 in cardiovascular health and disease: "Closing the gap between basic science and clinical therapy"  

PubMed Central

Calcium (Ca2+) signaling plays a major role in a wide range of physiological functions including control and regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance and vascular tone [1, 2]. As all Ca2+ signals require proteins to relay intracellular Ca2+ oscillations downstream to different signaling networks, a specific toolkit of Ca2+-sensor proteins involving members of the EF-hand S100 Ca2+ binding protein superfamily maintains the integrity of the Ca2+ signaling in a variety of cardiac and vascular cells, transmitting the message with great precision and in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner [3–6]. Indeed, the possibility that S100 proteins might contribute to heart and vascular diseases was first suggested by the discovery of distinctive patterns of S100 expression in healthy and diseased hearts and vasculature from humans and animal heart failure (HF) models [7–18]. Based on more elaborate genetic studies in mice and strategies to manipulate S100 protein expression in human cardiac, skeletal muscle and vascular cells, it is now apparent that the integrity of distinct S100 protein isoforms in striated muscle and vascular cells such as S100A1, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8/A9 or S100B is a basic requirement for normal cardiovascular and muscular development and function; loss of integrity would naturally lead to profound deregulation of the implicated Ca2+ signaling systems with detrimental consequences to cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular function [7–20]. The brief debate and discussion here are confined by design to the biological actions and pathophysiological relevance of the EF-hand Ca2+-sensor protein S100A1 in the heart, vasculature and skeletal muscle with a particular focus on current translational therapeutic strategies [4, 21, 22]. By virtue of its ability to modulate the activity of numerous key effector proteins that are essentially involved in the control of Ca2+- and NO-homeostasis in cardiac, sketelal muscle and vascular cells, S100A1 has been proven to play a critical role both in cardiac performance, blood pressure regulation and skeletal muscle function [4, 21, 23]. Given that deregulated S100A1 expression in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells has recently been linked to heart failure and hypertension [4, 21, 23], it is arguably a molecular target of considerable clinical interest as S100A1 targeted therapies have already been successfully investigated in preclinical translational studies.

Kraus, Carolin; Rohde, David; Weidenhammer, Christian; Qiu, Gang; Pleger, Sven T.; Voelkers, Mirko; Boerries, Melanie; Remppis, Andrew; Katus, Hugo A.; Most, Patrick

2009-01-01

431

Basic Stamp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Parallax, Inc. gives some information about basic stamp microcontrollers. A Basic-Stamp microcontroller is a single-board computer. Parallax makes a variety of controllers; the BASIC Stamp II uses a PIC16C57microchip.

2012-10-12

432

Visual representations in science education: The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive load theory on instructional design principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual representations are essential for communicating ideas in the science classroom; however, the design of such representations is not always beneficial for learners. This paper presents instructional design considerations providing empirical evidence and integrating theoretical concepts related to cognitive load. Learners have a limited working memory, and instructional representations should be designed with the goal of reducing unnecessary cognitive load. However, cognitive architecture alone is not the only factor to be considered; individual differences, especially prior knowledge, are critical in determining what impact a visual representation will have on learners' cognitive structures and processes. Prior knowledge can determine the ease with which learners can perceive and interpret visual representations in working memory. Although a long tradition of research has compared experts and novices, more research is necessary to fully explore the expert-novice continuum and maximize the potential of visual representations.

Cook, Michelle Patrick

2006-11-01

433

Applying innovative educational principles when classes grow and resources are limited: Biochemistry experiences at Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences.  

PubMed

Teaching to large classes is often challenging particularly when the faculty and teaching resources are limited. Innovative, less staff intensive ways need to be explored to enhance teaching and to engage students. We describe our experience teaching biochemistry to 350 students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) under severe resource limitations and highlight our efforts to enhance the teaching effectiveness. We focus on peer assisted learning and present three pilot initiatives that we developed to supplement teaching and facilitate student interaction within the classroom. These included; instructor-facilitated small group activities within large group settings, peer-led tutorials to provide supplemental teaching and peer-assisted instruction in IT skills to enable access to online biochemistry learning resources. All our efforts were practical, low cost and well received by our learners. They may be applied in many different settings where faculties face similar challenges. PMID:21591227

Omer, Selma; Hickson, Gilles; Taché, Stephanie; Blind, Raymond; Masters, Susan; Loeser, Helen; Souza, Kevin; Mkony, Charles; Debas, Haile; O'Sullivan, Patricia

2008-11-01

434

Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: Science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist–practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive

Scott O. Lilienfeld; Rachel Ammirati; Michal David

435

5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551...overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, agencies shall credit hours of work...

2013-01-01

436

Basic principles of fluorescence and energy transfer.  

PubMed

Fluorescence is highly sensitive to environment, and the distance separating fluorophores and quencher molecules can provide the basis for effective homogeneous nucleic acid hybridization assays. Molecular interactions leading to fluorescence quenching include collisions, ground state and excited state complex formation, and long-range dipole-coupled energy transfer. These processes are well understood and equations are provided for estimating the effects of each process on fluorescence intensity. Estimates for the fluorescein-tetramethylrhodamine donor-acceptor pair reveal the relative contributions of dipole-coupled energy transfer, collisional quenching, and static quenching in several common assay formats, and illustrate that the degree of quenching is dependent upon the hybridization complex formed and the manner of label attachment. PMID:18695955

Morrison, Larry E

2008-01-01

437

Plant nutrition and growth: Basic principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strictly controlled experiments with plants, acclimatized under steady-state conditions and grown for a sufficiently long time period to get reliable and representative measurements, are necessary to obtain plant responses in precise terms (reference values). It is then possible to reproduce and compare experimental results with a high accuracy and to establish fundamental plant properties in an unambiguous and unifying terminology.

Torsten Ingestad; Göran I Ågren

1995-01-01

438

Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

We have come full circle from spinning quarks to 3D medical images. The bulk of MRI is now performed using slice-selective gradients, during which RF energy is applied to excite the hydrogen nuclei. By stepping a phase-encoding gradient during each TR and using a frequency-encoding gradient as the data are sampled, the 3D human object can be reduced to many individual points or voxels. By acquiring multiple slices at once, the time efficiency of imaging can be vastly improved. Many newer strategies use variations of this technique to acquire multiple lines of data during a single echo, enshrining spin warp imaging as the most important method of signal acquisition for MRI. PMID:15561528

Gibby, Wendell A

2005-01-01

439

Basic principles in preclinical cancer chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Anticancer agents so far available and their mechanisms of action suffer from the problem of their relatively low selectivity. Their insufficient clinical efficacy against the common, slowly growing solid tumors of the lung, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, urinary bladder, and brain remains disappointing. Recently the possibility has been discussed that the limited clinical activity of current anticancer drugs could result

Norbert Brock; Jiirg Pohl; Berthold Schneider

1990-01-01

440

Spectral Doppler: Basic Principles and Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral Doppler ultrasound velocimetry involves systematic analysis of the spectrum of frequencies that constitute the Doppler signal. This chapter presents a general perspective on Doppler signal anlyses and describes the spectral Doppler ultrasound devices commercially available for clinical use. They include continuous-wave (CW) Doppler, pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler and duplex Doppler devices. Within the realm of obstetric usage, the application needs

Dev Maulik

441

On the basic principles of geodesy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Résumé  L'auteur discute les principes fondamentaux de la Géodésie. Il recommande de projeter les stations du réseau géodésique au\\u000a géoïde en utilisant les vraies verticales et de considérer ce réseau projeté comme le réseau fondamental de la triangulation,\\u000a qui est indépendant du choix d'un ellipsoïde de référence. Pour le rendre accessible au calcul, on le projette sur un ellipsoïde\\u000a de référence

F. A. Vening Meinesz

1929-01-01

442

Scope and Basic Principles of Insect Pathology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects are the dominant animals in the world with more than one million described species. The vast majority of insects are innocuous or beneficial to humans, but a small percentage are pests that require a significant amount of our time, effort and funds to reduce their negative effects on food pr...

443

Lactic Acid Fermentations: Basic Principles and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO pub on lactic acid fermentation (reference: food technology) - covers (1) historical background (2) biochemical basis for development and process control (3) selection and stability of starter cultures; microorganisms (4) lactic fermentations in dev...

G. V. Gonzalez

1984-01-01

444

Basic principles of coaxial launch technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Already in the 1930s, a discrete-coil mechanically synchronized launcher was built. At the present time, research is almost entirely directed towards railguns. However, although coaxial accelerators are more complex than railguns, they have certain unique advantages. Some of these advantages are related to the absence of physical contact requirements with the projectile, the possibility of a scale-up to very large

H. Kolm; P. Mongeau

1984-01-01

445

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) consensus on science with treatment recommendations for pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic and advanced life support.  

PubMed

This publication contains the pediatric and neonatal sections of the 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations (COSTR). The consensus process that produced this document was sponsored by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). ILCOR was formed in 1993 and consists of representatives of resuscitation councils from all over the world. Its mission is to identify and review international science and knowledge relevant to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) and to generate consensus on treatment recommendations. ECC includes all responses necessary to treat life-threatening cardiovascular and respiratory events. The COSTR document presents international consensus statements on the science of resuscitation. ILCOR member organizations are each publishing resuscitation guidelines that are consistent with the science in this consensus document, but they also take into consideration geographic, economic, and system differences in practice and the regional availability of medical devices and drugs. The American Heart Association (AHA) pediatric and the American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA neonatal sections of the resuscitation guidelines are reprinted in this issue of Pediatrics (see pages e978-e988). The 2005 evidence evaluation process began shortly after publication of the 2000 International Guidelines for CPR and ECC. The process included topic identification, expert topic review, discussion and debate at 6 international meetings, further review, and debate within ILCOR member organizations and ultimate approval by the member organizations, an Editorial Board, and peer reviewers. The complete COSTR document was published simultaneously in Circulation (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation. 2005;112(suppl):73-90) and Resuscitation (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation. 2005;67:271-291). Readers are encouraged to review the 2005 COSTR document in its entirety. It can be accessed through the CPR and ECC link at the AHA Web site: www.americanheart.org. The complete publication represents the largest evaluation of resuscitation literature ever published and contains electronic links to more detailed information about the international collaborative process. To organize the evidence evaluation, ILCOR representatives established 6 task forces: basic life support, advanced life support, acute coronary syndromes, pediatric life support, neonatal life support, and an interdisciplinary task force to consider overlapping topics such as educational issues. The AHA established additional task forces on stroke and, in collaboration with the American Red Cross, a task force on first aid. Each task force identified topics requiring evaluation and appointed international experts to review them. A detailed worksheet template was created to help the experts document their literature review, evaluate studies, determine levels of evidence, develop treatment recommendations, and disclose conflicts of interest. Two evidence evaluation experts reviewed all worksheets and assisted the worksheet reviewers to ensure that the worksheets met a consistently high standard. A total of 281 experts completed 403 worksheets on 275 topics, reviewing more than 22000 published studies. In December 2004 the evidence review and summary portions of the evidence evaluation worksheets, with worksheet author conflict of interest statements, were posted on the Internet at www.C2005.org, where readers can continue to access them. Journal advertisements and e-mails invited public comment. Two hundred forty-nine worksheet authors (141 from the United States and 108 from 17 other countries) and addi

2006-04-17

446

Online Courses: Montana State University NTEN: The Dirt on Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dirt on Soil Science is a 1 credit graduate course for K-6 elementary school teachers who are interested in understanding the basic principles of soil science. This online course lasts 6-weeks and includes conversing with your instructor and classmat

1900-01-01

447

The Science Workbook of Student Research Projects in Food - Agriculture - Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This workbook provides descriptions of research projects for high school and middle school science teachers and students. The projects can be used as demonstrations in the laboratory or classroom to help teachers illustrate the practical application of basic science principles. They can also be used by students, under the guidance of the…

Darrow, Edward E., Ed.

448

Online Courses: MSU National Teachers Enhancement Network: The Dirt on Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dirt on Soil Science is a 1 credit graduate course for K-6 elementary school teachers who are interested in understanding the basic principles of soil science. This online course lasts 6-weeks and includes conversing with your instructor and classmat

1900-01-01

449

Epidemiology: An Essential Science for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces epidemiology as a health science that is essential as a complement to the basic laboratory and clinical sciences in speech-language pathology and audiology. A definition of epidemiology is presented. Principles of epidemiology, including causal criteria, and concepts such as incidence, prevalence, and risk are discussed. (Author/CR)|

Lubker, Bobbie Boyd

1997-01-01

450

Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Magazine online. Access abstracts and full text articles updated weekly. Browse through the current issue or archived articles. Obtain information on magazine subscriptions and student, educator, and scientist awards. A wealth of science information is at your fingertips in all disciplines, particularly medicine. Links to other AAAS resources including extensive career information and the latest in HIV/AIDS and aging research.

451

Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

Roach, Linda E., Ed.

452

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-science Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments, worksheets, and interactive classroom learning techniques such as Peer Instruction (PI)1 and SCALE-UP.2 It was found that the new course showed an increase in students' class participation, attendance, and overall interest, with most rating their science experience as very positive.

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-12-01

453

Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment  

PubMed Central

Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.

Topaz, Moris

2012-01-01

454

Commentary: The Year in Basic Science: Update of Estrogen Plus Progestin Therapy for Menopausal Hormone Replacement Implicating Stem Cells in the Increased Breast Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

This transcript is based on my The Year in Basic Science lecture at ENDO 2008. I reviewed current data surrounding hormone replacement therapy and the relationship between systemic estrogen plus progestin (E+P) treatment and increased breast cancer risk, and I explored the hypothesis that women who develop breast cancer while on E+P had occult, undiagnosed disease before they started therapy. Beginning with recent hormone replacement therapy data focusing on E+P and its association with breast cancer to set the stage, the lecture then reviewed our newly published data that progestins expand breast cancer stem cells. Finally, the issues of occult or undiagnosed breast cancer in presumably healthy women, and of tumor dormancy in breast cancer survivors, were brought to bear on the discussion. Taken together, these apparently disparate themes allowed me to suggest the idea that systemic progestins have the ability to reawaken cancers that were presumed to be either nonexistent or cured. To avoid this potentially devastating outcome while retaining the benefits of E+P, I advocated the use of local P delivery methods, rather than the currently popular systemic routes.

Horwitz, Kathryn B.

2008-01-01

455

Science Sacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

Freudenberg, Kimberlee

2012-01-01

456

Understanding Basic Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text is designed for an introductory calculus-based physics course for science or engineering students. Combined with its workbook, it forms a coherent introduction to basic mechanics. The text presents the basic subject matter, facilitating reference and review, while the workbook actively engages students in their learning to ensure that they have understood the reading, can interpret it appropriately, and can apply it to diverse situations.