Sample records for basic science principles

  1. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  2. Using "Basic Principles" to Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of nicotine and its carboxylic acid salts found in tobacco provided as an interesting example to understand basic principles of complex science. The result showed that the experimental data used were inconsistent to the conclusion made, and the transfer of nicotine smoke from tobacco to smoke cannot be…

  3. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  4. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  5. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  6. Basic Principles of Liming John Peters

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Basic Principles of Liming John Peters UW Soil Science Department #12;#12;#12;Soil pH affects many · Herbicide performance #12;#12;#12;What factors determine the lime needs of a soil · Soil pH ­ determined by soil test · Buffer pH ­ determined by soil test #12;Buffer pH Organic matter Soil pH #12;Figure 3

  7. Principles of Chemical Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drennan, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The basic principles behind chemical science are the bedrock of a number of scientific endeavors, and this remarkable course from MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative is quite a find. Professor Catherine Drennan and Dr. Elizabeth Vogel Taylor created the materials for this course, and the site includes video lectures, lecture notes, and exams. Visitors will note that these materials can be found on the left-hand side of the page, and they can also be downloaded en masse via the "Download Course Materials" link. The topics covered here include the basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, and chemical kinetics. Also, visitors are encouraged to offer their own feedback on the course, or even provide a donation to help out with this initiative.

  8. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  9. Line Scanners Basic line-scanner principle

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    to the ground coordinate system · NB: satellite line scanners · line scanners are especially popularLine Scanners #12;Principle · Basic line-scanner principle #12;Principle · Sensor · single CCD line oriented perpendicular to the scanning (=flight) direction, often called "pushbroom scanner" · Scanning

  10. Basic equations, theory and principles of computational stock market (II) —Basic principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Tianquan

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, three basic principles for computational stock market are proposed namely, “the Nearest-Time Principle” (NTP),\\u000a “the Following Tendency Principle” (FTP), and “the Variational Principle on Difference of Supply and Demand” (VPDSD). The\\u000a issue, expression, mathematical description and applications of these principles are stated. These applications involve the\\u000a use in neural networks, basic equations of computational stock market, and

  11. Reflections on Basic Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joram Piatigorsky

    2010-01-01

    :After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research—free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts—and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I

  12. Reflections on Basic Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joram Piatigorsky

    2010-01-01

    After almost 50 years in science, I believe that there is an acceptable, often advantageous chasm between open-ended basic research—free exploration without a practical destination and in which the original ideas may fade into new concepts—and translational research or clinical research. My basic research on crystalline (proteins conferring the optical properties of the eye lens) led me down paths I

  13. Basic principles of variable speed drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    An understanding of the principles which govern variable speed drive operation is discussed for successful drive application. The fundamental factors of torque, speed ratio, and power as they relate to drive selection are discussed. The basic types of variable speed drives, their operating characteristics and their applications are also presented.

  14. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su Wang; Xiufeng Liu; Yandong Zhao

    2012-01-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds.

  15. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  16. Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Seeman, Kurt

    A school that adopts a curriculum, that aims for a holistic understanding of technology, does so because it produces a better educated person than a curriculum which does not. How do we know when we are teaching technology holistically and why must we do so? Increasingly, more is asked of technology educators to be holistic in the understanding conveyed to learners of technology itself in order to make better informed technical and design decisions in a wider range of applied settings. The ability of the learner to naturally consider social and environmental factors, for example, when seeking solutions is seen by some State education systems in Australia as fundamental to a genuine education in technology (New South Wales Board of Studies, 2000 & 2002). In philosophy, the holist position asserts that to understand the particular one must understand its relation to the whole and that only through reflection of one's sensation based applications can genuine knowledge be critically affirmed (Matthews, 1980, p.87 & p.93). The combined apparently independent paths of the State and the Holist positions set a compelling scene not only for the socio-economic necessity for holistic technology education in the curriculum but also for Technology's status as a key curriculum agent in the knowledge formation process of educated individuals. This paper asserts that the general elements of Applied Setting (including Time), Human (as Agent), Tool and Environment are well placed to be the necessary basics to any holistic human technological activity. How and why these elements work together, their schema, will be referred to in this paper as the 'Basic Principles'. The paper presents the thesis that Technology cannot be reduced to less than these general elements and as such, Technology is their product. We therefore may need to understand and teach these elements and their relations to each other explicitly, in ways that reveal the utility of such understanding when making technical choices and design decisions for all the genres of technology and at all their scales of application and discovery. The case is made for technology to not merely be a 'know how' learning experience, but necessarily also a holistic 'know why' learning experience essential for developing and transferring technological knowledge.

  17. Sustainable Education: Basic Principles and Strategic Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Branden, Kris

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the guiding principles of sustainable education. It starts from the observation that many education systems around the world have launched ambitious programs aiming to raise academic standards and to reconcile concerns for excellence with concerns for equity. However, many of these programs have failed to reach their…

  18. Basic principles of microwave power heating

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, M.

    1983-08-01

    The paper outlines the various parameters of the product which are employed in the design of a suitable microwave applicator as well as the physical principles of the microwave energy conversion process which underlie the optimization of energy consumption and product quality in real time.

  19. Basic principles of agroecology and sustainable agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Thomas; P. G. Kevan

    1993-01-01

    In the final analysis, sustainable agriculture must derive from applied ecology, especially the principle of the regulation of the abundance and distribution of species (and, secondarily, their activities) in space and time. Interspecific competition in natural ecosystems has its counterparts in agriculture, designed to divert greater amounts of energy, nutrients, and water into crops. Whereas natural ecosystems select for a

  20. Basic Science and The NIH

    PubMed Central

    Varmus, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following is an edited version of the Keynote Speech delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology by Harold Varmus, Director of the National Institutes of Health. The address, entitled Basic Science and the NIH, was given at the opening of the meeting in New Orleans on December 11, 1993. It was Varmus' first public policy talk as NIH Director. PMID:8049519

  1. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently. PMID:23851585

  2. Basics...and the Human Sciences Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Mary C.

    1978-01-01

    Analyzes the Human Sciences Program (HSP) in the light of some issues related to basic skills. These issues are: (1) HSP and the three Rs; (2) HSP and other basics; and (3) HSP and classroom discipline. (HM)

  3. Basic principles of the surface harmonics method: Flat geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalishin, A. A., E-mail: kaa@adis.vver.kiae.ru [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The basic principles of the surface harmonics method are described. A one-dimensional problem is used to exemplify the specific features of the method and the algorithms for construction of finite-difference equations. The objective of this study is to popularize the surface harmonics method among specialists.

  4. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY (Invited Review)

    E-print Network

    Braun, Douglas C.

    BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY (Invited Review) C. LINDSEY and D. C. BRAUN, Solar Physics Research Corporation, 4720 Calle Desecada, Tucson, AZ 85718, U.S.A. (e-mails: lindsey. These have included the dis- coveries of `acoustic moats' surrounding sunspots (Lindsey and Braun, 1998a

  5. Medical oncology: Basic principles and clinical management of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Calabresi, P.; Schein, P.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of three section, each containing several papers. The sections are: Basic Principles, Specific Neoplasmas, and Supportive Care. Some of the paper titles are: Pharmacology of Antineoplastic Agents, Hodgkin's Disease, Myeloma, Melanoma, Neoplasms of the Lung, Sarcomas, Pediatric Neoplasms, Infectious Consideration in Cancer, Nursing Considerations in Cancer, and Rehabilitation of the Patient with Cancer.

  6. Basic Sciences Instruction, The Columbia University Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formicola, Allan J.; Kahn, Norman

    1992-01-01

    The redesign of basic science curriculum at the Columbia University (New York) dental school is outlined. Goals included development of a medical continuum allowing students to apply basic science to patient care; decompression of crowded second-year content; and facilitation of student pursuit of research and other biomedical interests in third…

  7. Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

  8. The anaerobic SBR process: basic principles for design and automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. ruiz; M. Torrijos; P. Sousbie; J. Lebrato Martinez; R. Moletta

    Abstract This study has determined the purification performance,and the basic principles for the design of ananaerobic,SBR (ASBR) to be used to treat wastewater generated in the food industries. Two ASBR’s were set up and one fed with a slaughterhouse effluent at low concentration, the other with concentrated dairy wastewater. The maximum,loading rate applied should not exceed 4.5 g of COD\\/L\\/day

  9. JAMA Patient Page: Basic Science Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are immediately relevant for medical care, but the knowledge gained often is essential for progress in the various steps involved in new discoveries. In medicine, basic science research aims to better ...

  10. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph John Bevelacqua

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure

  11. Meredith Bartelstein Basic Sciences Category 1st

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Meredith Bartelstein Basic Sciences Category 1st place Physiology Simulations DHMC has an excellent suggest early access for students to the simulation center in connection with learning basic physiology. I a PEA arrest. They would have to first assess the patient. Clinical skills of cardiac auscultation

  12. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

  13. A Collaborative Strategy for Reciprocal Integration of Basic and Clinical Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmund H. Duthie; Deborah Simpson; Karen Marcdante; Diana Kerwin; Kathryn Denson; Mary Cohan

    Geriatric patient cases are ideal for use by basic science educators who seek to link key principles and concepts with clinical medicine. However, access to geriatric educators and geriatric patients able to highlight the evolution of a particular disease\\/condition, limits the basic science educator's ability to easily incorporate clinical cases into their teaching. To address this resource limitation, we developed

  14. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

  16. [Basic principles for the development of biomarkers in oncology].

    PubMed

    Seijas, Raquel; Herranz, Jesús; Malats, Nuria

    2013-06-01

    The accelerated expansion of the knowledge of genetic and molecular basics of cancer, together with the recent development of molecular biology techniques, have had a significant impact in the field of oncology, among other medical disciplines. So, over the last few years, we are crossing from an empiricism-based model to an evidence-based model in which drugs are adapted depending of the molecular alterations which result crucial for tumor development (both for carcinogenesis and acquisition of an aggressive phenotype leading to tumor invasion and resistance to therapy). The molecular alterations /variations offer the possibility of being detected and used as biomarkers in clinical practice. Biomarkers may have multiple applications in the field of oncology, from determining the risk to suffer the disease to prediction of response to therapy, including diagnosis, prognosis and disease monitoring, with the final aim of performing a more personalized medicine and achieving greater efficacy for the therapies selected, diminishing each therapy's own adverse events. Considering the importance biomarkers may get to have in clinical decision making, it is basic that their development is performed under straight evaluation and validation rules. In this article we review the various types of biomarkers and the basic methodological principles for their development, validation and subsequent clinical application. PMID:23793760

  17. 77 FR 5246 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...Office of Science/DOE. News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Basic Research Directions for User Science at the National Ignition Facility. Materials Sciences and Engineering Division Committee of Visitors. Mesoscale...

  18. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    PubMed

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed. PMID:12341064

  19. GOCE: Its principles and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R.; Gruber, T.; Albertella, W.; Yi, A.

    2012-12-01

    GOCE is the first satellite mission with a gravity gradiometer. It is very successful in delivering the global geoid and gravity anomaly field with rather high spatial resolution. The gradiometer measurements are based on the principle of differential accelerometry. It is the centre piece of a sensor system comprising in addition GPS, star tracking, angular control by magnetic torquing, drag free control in flight direction by ion thrusting and calibration via shaking with cold gas thrusters. Gravity field sensitivity is enhanced by the satellite's extremely low orbit altitude of only 265 km. GOCE science and application is primarily about "dynamic topography". In geophysics dynamic topography is referred to as that part of surface deformation which is not in isostatic balance but supported by vertical stresses at the base of the lithosphere. Gravity and geoid anomalies reflect the gravitational effect of dynamic topography. In oceanography dynamic topography is the deviation of the actual mean ocean surface, as measured by satellite altimetry, from the geoid which is the hypothetical ocean surface at rest. The uses of mean dynamic ocean topography range from ocean circulation studies via mass and heat transport in the oceans to the unification of height systems and levelling by GPS. Full exploitation of GOCE requires its combination with GRACE and with satellite laser ranging and GPS. The considered measurements and techniques must all refer consistently to the same set of geodetic standards such as those defined by the IERS.

  20. PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF BASIC SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    in Mathematics? Career Opportunities for a Mathematics graduate Curriculum and Study System Short Course1 PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF BASIC SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK MATHEMATICS PROGRAM 2007--2008 Last Edited: 02--04--2008 #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction University

  1. Research and Education in Basic Space Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEXIS E. TROCHE

    Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the Eu- ropean Space Agency is holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. These work- shops have been held in countries of Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean (Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia

  2. Philadelphia University Department of Basic Sciences

    E-print Network

    Philadelphia University Department of Basic Sciences Final Exam Graph Theory 11­6­2006 Part One (16 (d) K25 4. Which degree sequence comes from a tree? (a) 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1 (b) 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1 Two (13 points) 1. What is the definition? (a) Euler walk (b) Hamilton cycle (c) Tournament 2. Draw

  3. Basic Physical Science. Apprentice Related Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric

    One in a series of core instructional materials for apprentices to use during the first or second years of apprentice-related subjects training, this booklet deals with basic physical science. The first section consists of an outline of the content and scope of the core materials as well as a self-assessment pretest. Covered in the four…

  4. 76 FR 41234 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...guidance with respect to the basic energy sciences research program. Tentative agenda...the following: News from Office of Science/DOE. News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Materials by Design. R&D Coordination....

  5. CEST: from basic principles to applications, challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Elena; Sherry, A Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) offers a new type of contrast for MRI that is molecule specific. In this approach, a slowly exchanging NMR active nucleus, typically a proton, possessing a chemical shift distinct from water is selectively saturated and the saturated spin is transferred to the bulk water via chemical exchange. Many molecules can act as CEST agents, both naturally occurring endogenous molecules and new types of exogenous agents. A large variety of molecules have been demonstrated as potential agents, including small diamagnetic molecules, complexes of paramagnetic ions, endogenous macromolecules, dendrimers and liposomes. In this review we described the basic principles of the CEST experiment, with emphasis on the similarity to earlier saturation transfer experiments described in the literature. Interest in quantitative CEST has also resulted in the development of new exchange-sensitive detection schemes. Some emerging clinical applications of CEST are described and the challenges and opportunities associated with translation of these methods to the clinical environment are discussed. PMID:23273841

  6. The anaerobic SBR process: basic principles for design and automation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, C; Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Lebrato Martinez, J; Moletta, R

    2001-01-01

    This study has determined the purification performance and the basic principles for the design of an anaerobic SBR (ASBR) to be used to treat wastewater generated in the food industries. Two ASBR's were set up and one fed with a slaughterhouse effluent at low concentration, the other with concentrated dairy wastewater. The maximum loading rate applied should not exceed 4.5 g of COD/L/day for the dilute effluent and 6 g of COD/L/day for the concentrated effluent. At higher loading rates, the reactors become difficult to operate, mainly because of sludge removal problems, and purification efficiency declines. A detailed study of the kinetics (TOC, VFA, rate of biogas production) throughout one treatment cycle led to the development of a simple control strategy based on the monitoring of the biogas production rate which was then applied to the reactor treating the dairy wastewater. After automation, the reactor worked free of problems at an average pollution load of 5.4 g of COD/L/day. PMID:11381907

  7. Gyroscope precession in special and general relativity from basic principles

    E-print Network

    Rickard Jonsson

    2007-08-18

    In special relativity a gyroscope that is suspended in a torque-free manner will precess as it is moved along a curved path relative to an inertial frame S. We explain this effect, which is known as Thomas precession, by considering a real grid that moves along with the gyroscope, and that by definition is not rotating as observed from its own momentary inertial rest frame. From the basic properties of the Lorentz transformation we deduce how the form and rotation of the grid (and hence the gyroscope) will evolve relative to S. As an intermediate step we consider how the grid would appear if it were not length contracted along the direction of motion. We show that the uncontracted grid obeys a simple law of rotation. This law simplifies the analysis of spin precession compared to more traditional approaches based on Fermi transport. We also consider gyroscope precession relative to an accelerated reference frame and show that there are extra precession effects that can be explained in a way analogous to the Thomas precession. Although fully relativistically correct, the entire analysis is carried out using three-vectors. By using the equivalence principle the formalism can also be applied to static spacetimes in general relativity. As an example, we calculate the precession of a gyroscope orbiting a static black hole. In an addendum the general reasoning is extended to include also rotating reference frames.

  8. Basic Science Considerations in Primary Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Saqeb B; Dunlop, Douglas G; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Naqvi, Syed G; Gangoo, Shafat; Salih, Saif

    2010-01-01

    Total Hip Replacement is one of the most common operations performed in the developed world today. An increasingly ageing population means that the numbers of people undergoing this operation is set to rise. There are a numerous number of prosthesis on the market and it is often difficult to choose between them. It is therefore necessary to have a good understanding of the basic scientific principles in Total Hip Replacement and the evidence base underpinning them. This paper reviews the relevant anatomical and biomechanical principles in THA. It goes on to elaborate on the structural properties of materials used in modern implants and looks at the evidence base for different types of fixation including cemented and uncemented components. Modern bearing surfaces are discussed in addition to the scientific basis of various surface engineering modifications in THA prostheses. The basic science considerations in component alignment and abductor tension are also discussed. A brief discussion on modular and custom designs of THR is also included. This article reviews basic science concepts and the rationale underpinning the use of the femoral and acetabular component in total hip replacement. PMID:20582240

  9. 75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...the following: News from Office of Science/DOE News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation Workshop Final Report on the Science for Energy Technologies Workshop EFRC...

  10. Basic science research in pediatric radiology - how to empower the leading edge of our field.

    PubMed

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2014-08-01

    Basic science research aims to explore, understand and predict phenomena in the natural world. It spurs the discovery of fundamentally new principles and leads to new knowledge and new concepts. By comparison, applied research employs basic science knowledge toward practical applications. In the clinical realm, basic science research and applied research should be closely connected. Basic science discoveries can build the foundation for a broad range of practical applications and thereby bring major benefits to human health, education, environment and economy. This article explains how basic science research impacts our field, it describes examples of new research directions in pediatric imaging and it outlines current challenges that we need to overcome in order to enable the next groundbreaking discovery. PMID:25060618

  11. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  12. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  13. Agricultural Mechanics and Basic Plant Science. Agricultural Mechanics and Basic Animal Science. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This basic instructional guide for the first two years of instruction in agricultural education is one in a series of such guides. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for two courses: agricultural science and basic plant science and agricultural science and basic animal…

  14. Visual factory: basic principles and the 'zoning' approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bilalis; G. Scroubelos; A. Antoniadis; D. Emiris; D. Koulouriotis

    2002-01-01

    This research proposes a method of organizing an eÄ ective information-transfer system design in a plant-working environment. The method is based on a combi- nation of the visual characteristics principles used in the development of safety systems, visual factory design and advanced training practices. With the visual factory principle, the production area is separated into three task zonesA', `B' andC'.

  15. Position Statement Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators

    E-print Network

    Quigg, Chris

    Position Statement Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators Introduction Today's science teachers of science, including preservice, novice, and experienced educators. Quality science instruction is an interdependent process that requires the active participation and shared responsibility of science educators

  16. 77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...following: [ssquf] News from Office of Science/DOE [ssquf] News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences [ssquf] Future of ARPA-E [ssquf...Light Source (LCLS) update [ssquf] Materials Sciences and Engineering Division Committee...

  17. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  18. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  19. Bernoulli's Principle: Science as a Human Endeavor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deborah McCarthy

    2008-09-01

    What do the ideas of Daniel Bernoulli--an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, natural scientist, and professor--and your students' next landing of the space shuttle via computer simulation have in common? Because of his contribution, referred in physical science as Bernoulli's principle, modern flight is possible. The mini learning-cycle described here explores Bernoulli's principle with several simple activities, and highlights its application in our lives. Through this constructivist instructional strategy, students experience scientific inquiry as a process of discovery shared by humans, during which various explanations of observed phenomena are exchanged among team members.

  20. Informal Learning at School. Science Fairs in Basic Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zita Esteves; Andreia Cabral; Manuel F. M. Costa

    The work herein reports on the implementation of science fairs in a systematic way in basic schools. In particular we will present the second edition of the annual Science Fair at basic school Externato Maria Auxiliadora, in Viana do Castelo, Portugal, focusing on the evolution advised by the evaluation of the previous edition of the science fair. We will stress

  1. Challenges for translational psychopharmacology research—some basic principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus A. Miczek; Harriet de Wit

    2008-01-01

    We introduce below several principles that recur in the discussion of translating preclinical findings to clinical applications,\\u000a and conversely, developing animal models of human disorders:\\u000a \\u000a 1. The translation of preclinical data to clinical concerns is more successful when the scope of experimental models is restricted\\u000a to a core symptom of a psychiatric disorder.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. Preclinical experimental models gain in clinical

  2. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

  3. LSUHSC Educational Program Objectives and Institutional Competencies Knowledge of Basic Principles

    E-print Network

    , pharmacology, genetics, statistics and epidemiology. 2. Students must demonstrate knowledge of the basic 1. Students must understand and apply the scientific principles basic to their fields, including disease processes in the clinical areas relevant to their degree programs. 3. Students must be able

  4. Fusion plasma diagnostics with mm-waves - basic principles and recent developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Hartfuss

    2004-01-01

    Microwave techniques play an important role in modern fusion plasma diagnostics. Both passive radiometry as well as active probing techniques are in use. Basically the confining magnetic field and the electron density of the plasma determine its dielectric properties and resonances. The probing wavelength in interferometry are in the infrared range without changing the basic principles of the microwave diagnostic

  5. Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Ha, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation. PMID:23133449

  6. Basic equations, theory and principle of computational stock market (III)—basic theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Tian-quan

    2000-01-01

    By basic equations, two basic theories are presented: 1. Theory of stock' s value ?* (t) = ?*(0) exp(ar*2 t); 2. Theory of conservation of stock' s energy. Let stock' s energy ? be defined as a quadratic function of stock' s price\\u000a ? and its derivative\\u000a $$\\\\dot v,\\\\phi = {\\\\rm A}v^2 + Bv\\\\dot v + C\\\\dot v^2 + Dv$$

  7. Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels Kathryn C. Haering Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Table of Contents Soil formation and soil horizons................................................................................................................... 33 Soil composition by volume

  8. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from use of such a tool: students are often taught a list of concepts and a separate list of parameters for mathematical equations. The link between the two can be elusive. While wet-lab experimentation is the proven approach to developing this link, in silico simulation can provide a means of acquiring important insight and understanding within a time frame and at a cost that cannot be achieved otherwise. We suggest that simulations and their representation of laboratory experiments in the classroom can become a key component in student achievement by helping to develop a student's positive attitude towards science and his or her creativity in scientific inquiry. We present results of two simulation experiments that validate against data taken from current literature. We follow with a classroom example demonstrating how this tool can be seamlessly integrated within the traditional pharmacology learning experience.

  9. [From basic principles to clinical applications on transcutaneous vaccine].

    PubMed

    Okada, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The recent vigorous transnational migration of people and materials reflecting the development of transportation facilities, changes in social structure, and war disasters has increased the global spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Vaccine, which is the major fundamental prophylaxis against infectious diseases, has greatly contributed to the maintenance and improvement of human health worldwide. However, the disadvantages of conventional injection systems hamper the speedy mass-vaccination and the global distribution of vaccines. Transcutaneous immunization systems, which are easy-to-use and low-invasive methods of vaccination, have the potential to overcome certain issues associated with injectable vaccinations. In this review, we provide an outline of recent trends in the development of techniques for the transcutaneous delivery of vaccine antigens. We also introduce basic and clinical research involving our transcutaneous immunization systems that incorporate self-dissolving microneedle patch. PMID:24292185

  10. Basic principles of yeast genomics, a personal recollection.

    PubMed

    Dujon, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    The genomes of many yeast species or strain isolates have now been sequenced with an accelerating momentum that quickly relegates initial data to history, albeit that they are less than two decades old. Today, novel yeast genomes are entirely sequenced for a variety of reasons, often only to identify a few expected genes of specific interest, thus providing a wealth of data, heterogenous in quality and completion but informative about the origin and evolution of this heterogeneous collection of unicellular modern fungi. However, how many scientists fully appreciate the important conceptual and technological roles played by yeasts in the extraordinary development of today's genomics? Novel notions of general significance emerged from the very first eukaryote sequenced, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and were successively refined and extended over time. Tools with general applications were originally developed with this yeast; and surprises emerged from the results. Here, I have tried to recollect the gradual building up of knowledge as yeast genomics developed, and then briefly summarize our present views about the basic nature of yeast genomes, based on the most recent data. PMID:26071597

  11. An overture to basic science aspects of nerve injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Carlstedt

    2011-01-01

    Does the lack of improvement in surgical treatment of nerve injury despite thousands of years of research disturb you? Do you think that basic science has not really contributed to any advancement in the treatment of nerve injury? Have you contributed? Do you think that new molecular biology knowledge in nerve injury and repair is important? Knowing from basic science

  12. Scientific performance of Japan's science and technology basic plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Kondo

    2007-01-01

    The importance of science and technology (S&T) is well recognized in Japan. Thus, the Science and Technology Basic Law was enacted in 1995, and two S&T Basic Plans based on this law were made and executed from 1996 to 2005 with spending totaling 39 trillion yen (about 31 billion US dollars). A comprehensive review of the First and Second Plans

  13. The Basic Sciences in Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The movement to shift the optometric testing focus from traditional visual sciences to the biomedical sciences is fortunate, but the optometric curriculum should also be carefully evaluated and redesigned to integrate the sciences better. (MSE)

  14. Basic equations, theory and principle of computational stock market (I) —Basic equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Tianquan

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies computational stock market by using network model and similar methodology used in solid mechanics. Four\\u000a simultaneous basic equations, i.e., equation of interest rate and amount of circulating fund, equations of purchasing and\\u000a selling of share, equation of changing rate of share price, and equation of interest rate, share price and its changing rate,\\u000a have been established. Discussions

  15. Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLullo, Camille; Morris, Harry J.; Kriebel, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the relevance of basic science knowledge in the determination of patient assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is critical to good medical practice. One method often used to direct students in the fundamental process of integrating basic science and clinical information is problem-based learning (PBL). The faculty facilitated small…

  16. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  17. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.; Balogh, Werner R.

    2009-06-01

    Since 1991 the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs has been conducting a series of workshops on basic space science under its United Nations Programme on Space Applications. Up to 2004 the workshops focussed on capacity building efforts in basic space science, in particular for the benefit of developing countries. From 2005 onwards the workshops and their related activities contributed to the celebration of the International Heliophysical Year 2007. Together these activities and workshops constitute the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. This paper reflects on the achievements and outcomes of the Initiative and informs about considerations for its future evolution.

  18. Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

  19. Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-10-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the U.S. maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences' (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

  20. Department of Basic Sciences Philadelphia University Module Syllabus

    E-print Network

    /3 Bipartite Graphs, A Coloring Algorithm 6 2/4 ­ 6/4 Matching, Hall's Marriage Theorem 7 9/4 ­ 13/4 Vertex. Websites: Basic Sciences Department- http://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/math Amin Witno Website- http

  1. TEACHING PHYSICS: Visual Basic science simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Evans

    2000-01-01

    We are exploring the use of science simulation\\/modelling programs for teaching a variety of science concepts across the age range. The programs have been converted from the original RMBasic thanks to technological advances in equipment. We find that the programs complement practical work and allow in-depth analysis using multi-tasking with other programs.

  2. Introduction to Circular Accelerators - Basic Science and Applied Research

    SciTech Connect

    Trubnikov, Grigory [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research JINR, Joliot Curie, 6, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-05

    This paper gives an introduction to history and overview of circular particle accelerators, reviews acceleration methods and basic principles of: weak and strong focusing, transverse and longitudinal particle motion, optic elements operation. The classification of circular machines is given. Author overviews future projects and technological applied research of particle accelerators.

  3. 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2005

    E-print Network

    Ceyer, Sylvia Teresse

    Introduction to chemistry, with emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. Introduction to the chemistry of ...

  4. Through the looking glass: Basics and principles of reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Que, Syril Keena T; Fraga-Braghiroli, Naiara; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Scope, Alon

    2015-08-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offers high-resolution, noninvasive skin imaging and can help avoid obtaining unnecessary biopsy specimens. It can also increase efficiency in the surgical setting by helping to delineate tumor margins. Diagnostic criteria and several RCM algorithms have been published for the differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasms. We provide an overview of the basic principles of RCM, characteristic RCM features of normal skin and cutaneous neoplasms, and the limitations and future directions of RCM. PMID:26051696

  5. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    This first supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books contains books received for the museum's 13th annual children's science book fair. Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; environment/conservation;…

  6. Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Mary Beth; Design, M; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between basic science research and product design/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition of a medical device is broad and varied. This paper is aimed towards those devices which interact with tissue and are rooted in the tenets of science. Both the scientific method and the design process are compared with similarities and opposites identified. The paper concludes identifying fundamental principles of medical device development and highlights the importance of both entities. PMID:19964135

  7. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  8. SPH262: Principles of Environmental Health Sciences Unit Rationale

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    SPH262: Principles of Environmental Health Sciences Fall 2010 CRN: 54018 Unit Rationale the environment is so broadly defined, the field of environmental health science is usually defined more, methods, and issues related to environmental health sciences. Programmatic learning objectives for UCD MPH

  9. Understanding nature of science as progressive transitions in heuristic principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mansoor Niaz

    2001-01-01

    This study has the following objectives: (a) understand nature of science as progressive transitions in heuristic principles as conceptualized by Schwab (1962); (b) reformulate Smith and Scharmann's characterization of nature of science (Smith & Scharmann, 1999) in the light of evidence from history and philosophy of science; and (c) provide a rationale for the inclusion of three more characteristics of

  10. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    Presented is the second annual supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984. In this supplement, children's science books are listed under the headings of animals, astronomy, aviation and space, biography, earth sciences, encyclopedias and reference books, environment and conservation, fiction,…

  11. Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Basic Energy Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers basic engineering science for understanding energy. Topics like force, energy, power, thermodynamics, the periodic table and stoichiometry are covered. A number of useful graphics are included to enhance the materials. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  12. Evaluating Decentralized Basic Science Medical Education:A Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Cullen; Charles W. Dohner; Roy Schwarz

    1981-01-01

    The Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho Program in Decentralized Medical Education began in 1971. Since that time, more than 400 students have participated in the University Phase of the program. This article presents a modelfor evaluating the basic science portion of the program in which the first year of medical school is taught at sites remote from the medical center

  13. BASIC SCIENCE HIV Epidemics Driven by Late Disease Stage Transmission

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    BASIC SCIENCE HIV Epidemics Driven by Late Disease Stage Transmission Brandy L. Rapatski, PhD, Frederick Suppe, PhD,*§ and James A. Yorke, PhD* Summary: How infectious a person is when infected with HIV of semen infectivity by HIV disease stage. We find that the infectivity of the symptomatic stage is far

  14. Conceptual approach to astronomy and basic science education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Melek

    2001-01-01

    An approach is developed, in which the major dynamical and physical concepts of astronomy and basic space science are used, to build a scheme (prototype model)for their education on the undergraduate level. It has been shown a way to teach different theories and observational facts in which those concepts are built in or used; within the suggested educational scheme. The

  15. Developing basic space science world wide: progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans J. Haubold; Willem Wamsteker

    2004-01-01

    The UN\\/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and

  16. The use of high pressure in basic and materials science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Schilling

    1998-01-01

    There are at least three important applications of the high pressure technique in basic and materials science: (1) to synthesize novel materials not accessible by other techniques, (2) to transform a given material from one phase to another, and (3) to uncover underlying systematics and critically test theoretical concepts. High pressure studies currently enjoy an increasing popularity which is fueled

  17. Attitudes of Residents and Anesthesiologists Toward Basic Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Schonhorst

    2006-01-01

    The perceived relevance of the subject matter is an essential condition for adult learning. Attitudes refer to internal states that influence learner's choices of personal action, which determine the probability of learning behaviors. Our objectives in this study were to describe and compare attitudes of residents and anesthesiologists towards the relevance of basic sciences to clinical practice. An 8-item questionnaire

  18. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: the TRIPOD concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Kitamura; Don Wentzel; Arne Henden; Jeffrey Bennett; H. M. K. Al-Naimiy; A. M. Mathai; Nat Gopalswamy; Joseph Davila; Barbara Thompson; David Webb; Hans Haubold

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990, the United Nations is annually holding a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities through the Official Development Assistance (ODA) of Japan. Teaching material, hands-on astrophysics material,

  19. Dean's Column In this issue Translating Basic Science

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Matthew

    with others in developing and testing hypotheses for biomedical applications of basic science discoveries. We interest in therapeutic agents and delivery systems, host-microbe interactions, bio imaging, stem cell . . . . . . . . . .11 Student Awards . . . . . . . . . . . .12 The Class of 2005. . . . . . . . . . .14 Joint Degree

  20. BASIC SCIENCE Identification of 3 Phylogenetically Related HIV-1 BG

    E-print Network

    Posada, David

    BASIC SCIENCE Identification of 3 Phylogenetically Related HIV-1 BG Intersubtype Circulating Na´jera, MD, PhD* Summary: BG intersubtype recombinants represented 11.6% of HIV-1 isolates recombinant form, Cuba, HIV-1, subtype B, subtype G (J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45:151­160) HIV-1

  1. Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a

    E-print Network

    Park, Jong-Sang

    Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Kim,1 MD, PhD, and Hyeon-Cheol Gwon,1* MD, PhD Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the curcumin-coating stent (CCS) on the inhibi- tion of restenosis in a rabbit iliac artery stent model. Background: Curcumin

  2. Connecting Science and Society: Basic Research in the Service of Social Objectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Sonnert

    2007-01-01

    A flawed dichotomy of basic versus applied science (or of ``curiosity-driven'' vs. ``mission-oriented'' science) pervades today's thinking about science policy. This talk argues for the addition of a third mode of scientific research, called Jeffersonian science. Whereas basic science, as traditionally understood, is a quest for the unknown regardless of societal needs, and applied science is known science applied to

  3. Contributions of Basic Sciences to Science of Education. Studies in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Bernard M.

    The science of education has been influenced by the basic sciences to the extent that educational research now has been able to modernize its approach by accepting and using the basic scientific methodology and experimental techniques. Using primarily the same steps of scientific investigations, education today holds a place of much greater esteem…

  4. Philadelphia University Faculty of Science Department of Basic Sciences

    E-print Network

    stoichiometry. Gravimetrical Analysis Titrations and acid base titration curves besides chromatography of the concentrations, principles of volumetric analysis, acid-base equilibrium in aqueous solutions, acid-base calculations based on chemical equations. And ability to differentiate between acids and bases and identify

  5. [Introduction to palliative care for the oncologist-history and basic principles of palliative care].

    PubMed

    Shima, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    The basic principle of palliative care has evolved over time and is the historical origin of the modern hospice. WHO proposed the first definition of palliative care in 1989, and the definition was revised in 2002. These definitions have something in common. Both relieve the pain and suffering to improve QOL. Palliative care is also good for any kind of life-threatening disease, regardless of whether it requires short or long term recuperation. That also need to be able to accept equally all the people of the community. The provision of general palliative care is the responsibility of all medical, nursing, and health professionals for the welfare of all patients with life-threatening disease. Specialist palliative care is based on the basic principles of palliative care, intensive clinical training, and systematic acquisition of knowledge and skills training to support palliative care education, clinical research and training provided by the profession. It has been established by nursing and medical experts in palliative care that palliative care can provide expertise in interdisciplinary teams in different settings. It is necessary that the medical system. PMID:20948245

  6. The Principles of Science Education in Today's Schools. A Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the dialogue from a roundtable discussion on the principles of science education in today's school held by "Pedagogika" in March 2004. Participants were as follows: from the Russian Academy of Education: V.P. Borisenkov, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, vice president of the Russian Academy of Education, and editor…

  7. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  8. The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kriebel; Joel Tickner; Paul Epstein; John Lemons; Richard Levins; Edward L. Loechler; Margaret Quinn; Ruthann Rudel; Ted Schettler; Michael Stoto

    Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, pro- posed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking pre- ventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of

  9. Interprofessional education and the basic sciences: Rationale and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Jill E

    2015-07-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to improve patient outcomes and the quality of care. Interprofessional learning outcomes and interprofessional competencies are now included in many countries' health and social care professions' accreditation standards. While IPE may take place at any time in health professions curricula it tends to focus on professionalism and clinical topics rather than basic science activities. However generic interprofessional competencies could be included in basic science courses that are offered to at least two different professional groups. In developing interprofessional activities at the preclinical level, it is important to define explicit interprofessional learning outcomes plus the content and process of the learning. Interprofessional education must involve interactive learning processes and integration of theory and practice. This paper provides examples of IPE in anatomy and makes recommendations for course development and evaluation. Anat Sci Educ 8: 299-304. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25688869

  10. Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological

    E-print Network

    Feb18th Site/hubupgrades: · ORNLM20:UpgradedtoMX480onDec17th · AMESLABM10:UpgradedtoM10ionJan13th · FORR Oct,2002 Jan,2003 Apr,2003 Jul,2003 Oct,2003 Jan,2004 Apr,2004 Jul,2004 Oct,2004 Jan,2005 Apr,2005 JulSupporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research · Basic Energy Sciences · Biological

  11. Developing basic space science world wide: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.; Wamsteker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Germany (1996), France (2000), Mauritius (2001), and Argentina (2002) emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a world wide basis. Since 1996, the workshops are contributing to the development of the World Space Observatory (WSO/UV) concept. Achievements of the series of workshops are briefly summarized in this report.

  12. Tendon Basic Science: Development, Repair, Regeneration, and Healing

    PubMed Central

    Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Flatow, Evan L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathy and tendon rupture are common and disabling musculoskeletal conditions. Despite the prevalence of these injuries, a limited number of investigators are conducting fundamental, basic science studies focused on understanding processes governing tendinopathies and tendon healing. Development of effective therapeutics is hindered by the lack of fundamental guiding data on the biology of tendon development, signal transduction, mechanotransduction, and basic mechanisms underlying tendon pathogenesis and healing. To propel much needed progress, the New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference, co-sponsored by NIAMS/NIH, the Orthopaedic Research Society, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, was held to promote exchange of ideas between tendon researchers and basic science experts from outside the tendon field. Discussed research areas that are underdeveloped and represent major hurdles to the progress of the field will be presented in this review. To address some of these outstanding questions, conference discussions and breakout sessions focused on six topic areas (Cell Biology and Mechanics, Functional Extracellular Matrix, Development, Mechano-biology, Scarless Healing, and Mechanisms of Injury and Repair), which are reviewed in this special issue and briefly presented in this review. Review articles in this special issue summarize the progress in the field and identify essential new research directions. PMID:25764524

  13. A straightforward guide to the basic science behind arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dumotier, Berengere M

    2014-12-01

    The underlying mechanisms behind cardiac arrhythmias are described in this manuscript. In clinical practice, significant arrhythmias are unpredictable, and under some conditions, potentially life-threatening. How can basic science help improve our understanding of molecular entities and factors behind the arrhythmia to advance, develop, adapt or deliver available medications? Structural heart disease and remodelling (eg, heart failure, cardiomyopathy), the presence of modulating factors (ie, diabetes mellitus, autonomic nervous system), genetic predispositions (ie, channelopathies) are considerable preconditions, and influence the development of an arrhythmia. Cardiac arrhythmias may indeed share common basic mechanisms, while elements and substrates perpetuating these may be different and ultimately manifest as various ECG abnormalities. This article lists cellular and subcellular iatrogenic disorders responsible for abnormal impulse generation, or conduction disturbances, including the latest development in theories and biological research, for a better understanding of cellular disorders behind arrhythmogenesis. PMID:25184825

  14. Republished: A straightforward guide to the basic science behind arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dumotier, Berengere M

    2015-04-01

    The underlying mechanisms behind cardiac arrhythmias are described in this manuscript. In clinical practice, significant arrhythmias are unpredictable, and under some conditions, potentially life-threatening. How can basic science help improve our understanding of molecular entities and factors behind the arrhythmia to advance, develop, adapt or deliver available medications? Structural heart disease and remodelling (e.g., heart failure, cardiomyopathy), the presence of modulating factors (i.e., diabetes mellitus, autonomic nervous system), genetic predispositions (i.e., channelopathies) are considerable preconditions, and influence the development of an arrhythmia. Cardiac arrhythmias may indeed share common basic mechanisms, while elements and substrates perpetuating these may be different and ultimately manifest as various ECG abnormalities. This article lists cellular and subcellular iatrogenic disorders responsible for abnormal impulse generation, or conduction disturbances, including the latest development in theories and biological research, for a better understanding of cellular disorders behind arrhythmogenesis. PMID:25862707

  15. "Science Citation Index" Data as a Safety Net for Basic Science Books Considered for Weeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Amrita J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Science Citation Index" in deciding whether to keep older basic science books that have failed to meet other criteria for collection retention. It is concluded that manual searching of the indexes proved feasible and reliable, while the lack of book titles on the online version reduced reliability of weeding decisions.…

  16. PROJECT SUCCESS: Marine Science. (Introductory Packet, Basic Marine Science Laboratory Techniques, Oceanographic Instruments, Individual Projects, Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Bryan

    Five packets comprise the marine science component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. Considered in the introductory section are identification (pre/post measure) procedures. Remaining packets address the following topics (subtopics in parentheses): basic marine science laboratory techniques (microscope techniques and metric…

  17. Application of Pascal Principle in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samimi Namin, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Pascal experiment is interpreted and the chamber is roughly defined. Pascal experiment in relation to Pascal principle compared with a chamber in the earth crust. It is conclude that: 1: The pressure (P) inside the Pascal's cylinder is the combination of two pressure; the external pressure (P1) and the hydraulic pressure (P2). Pc=P1+P2 The direction of the force is from top to bottom. In the case of the chamber the pressure is Pch=P1-P2 and its positive direction is regarded to be from bottom to top. P1 is the external pressure, and is the maximum pressure applied to chamber .The external pressure creates a constant internal pressure throughout the chamber .The magnitude of the constant pressure is based on the litho static pressure of the bottom of the chamber; because it is the maximum pressure that the chamber is connected. P1=?1gH+?2gh Where H is the overburden thickness, h is the highness of the chamber, ?1 is the density of the overburden and ?2 is density of country rock. The hydrostatic pressure within the chamber is P2=?3gh. Also ?3 is the density of the chamber. So the pressure inside the chamber would be: Pch=P1-P2 then Pch=?1gH+(?2-?3)gh. The equation above means that, the chamber pressure equals to the overburden pressure plus Archimedes pressure. 2: The word squeezing which is a vulgar word has an important physical meaning that is ((Pascal principle driving movement)).In another word, almost all movements, related to chambers, within the earth are a squeezing event which's, driving force is the steady constant pressure mentioned above. Any change in this pressure depends on the rupturing of the chamber and the behavior of the movement of the chamber matter. 3: If we provide a safety valve on piston of the Pascal's cylinder and increase the load we see the safety valve bursts and the matter inside the cylinder squeeze out .The pressure is from top to bottom but the movement is from bottom to top. The direction of force has changed 180° degree. This is Pascal's miracle and displays the all movements that pierce the earth surface and let the matter squeeze out.

  18. The biology of biologics: basic science and clinical concepts.

    PubMed

    Novitsky, Yuri W; Rosen, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    The repair of complex abdominal wall defects remains one of the most challenging procedures facing reconstructive surgeons. Through these collaborative efforts, defects that were once thought to be impossible to reconstruct can now be repaired, and patients who were left to a miserable quality of life are now offered hope. Among the most important advances in this field have been the adoption of component separation and many of its modifications, the development of new lightweight synthetic mesh, and the explosion of biologic mesh into the surgical armamentarium of the reconstructive surgeon. While biologic grafts are gaining in popularity, the molecular processes and host reactions to biologic grafts are not only unclear but often misunderstood and misrepresented. As a result, comprehensive analysis of basic science concepts presented in this review should help a practicing surgeon with understanding what biologics actually do and what we can expect biologic meshes to accomplish. This article focuses on summarizing the current basic science evidence and the clinical outcomes of utilization of these grafts published in the peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23096994

  19. Development and Testing of Simulation (Game) to Illustrate Basic Principles of Integrated Project Delivery and Target Value Design: A First Run Study 

    E-print Network

    Munankami, Manish 1972-

    2012-12-07

    This research is focused on developing a simulation (game) that will help explain the basic principles of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Target Value Design (TVD). The transfer of knowledge about Lean principles ...

  20. Time reversal data communications on pipes using guided elastic waves: Part I. Basic principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuanwei; Zhao, Deshuang; Ying, Yujie

    2011-04-01

    Piezoelectric sensors that are embedded in large structures and are inter-connected as a sensor network can provide critical information regarding the integrity of the structures being monitored. A viable data communication scheme for sensor networks is needed to ensure effective transmission of messages regarding the structural heath conditions from sensor nodes to the central processing unit. In this paper we develop a time reversal based data communication scheme that utilizes guided elastic waves for structural health monitoring applications. Unlike conventional data communication technologies that use electromagnetic radio waves or acoustical waves, the proposed method utilize elastic waves as message carriers and steel pipes as transmission channels. However, the multi-modal and dispersive characteristics of guided waves make it difficult to interpret the channel responses or to transfer correctly the structural information data along pipes. In this paper, we present the basic principles of the proposed time reversal based pulse position modulation and demonstrate by simulation that this method can effectively overcome channel dispersion, achieve synchronization, and delivery information bits through steels pipes or pipe-like structures correctly.

  1. Basic Principles of Planar Chromatography and Its Potential for Hyphenated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    Sample preparation, detection, identification, and quantitative determination of biomolecules are presented in this chapter. Advantages of planar chromatography and the basic principles (chambers, sample application, and chromatogram development) are also described. Rapid detection of biomolecules plays a strategical role in their investigation. Hyphenated techniques such as planar chromatography coupled to UV diode array detection and to mass spectrometry provide on-line extensive structural information on the metabolites prior to their isolation. In this chapter, the combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with biomolecules specific detection by diode array scanning (DAD), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TLC-FTIR) is discussed. In the last part of the chapter, the reader will gain useful information about a recent method of planar chromatography - multidimensional planar chromatography (MD-PC) and information on application of different modes of multidimensional planar chromatography and combination of this technique with diode array detection (MD-PC-DAD) and HPLC-DAD for separation, detection, and qualitative and quantitative determination of biomolecules. Planar chromatography as a pilot technique for HPLC is also described.

  2. Applying principles from safety science to improve child protection.

    PubMed

    Cull, Michael J; Rzepnicki, Tina L; O'Day, Kathryn; Epstein, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Child Protective Services Agencies (CPSAs) share many characteristics with other organizations operating in high-risk, high-profile industries. Over the past 50 years, industries as diverse as aviation, nuclear power, and healthcare have applied principles from safety science to improve practice. The current paper describes the rationale, characteristics, and challenges of applying concepts from the safety culture literature to CPSAs. Preliminary efforts to apply key principles aimed at improving child safety and well-being in two states are also presented. PMID:24199329

  3. Round Rocks: Teaching Principles of Earth Science and Paleontology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Warren Allmon

    This lesson provides teachers with a highly effective way of presenting paleontology and earth science principles with limited classroom time. The main idea is to emphasize the thought processes that paleontologists use in their work. By answering certain questions and learning certain principles, students are compelled to think about the process of scientific reasoning. The process consists of taking a rock (from anywhere) in the hand and asking a single, simple question: How did this rock come to be this way? This lesson provides teachers with an outline of the process, principles and questions that students should use and answer about their rocks in order to understand the way scientists think and develop hypotheses and conclusions.

  4. Corneal Gene Therapy: Basic Science and Translational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rajiv R.; Rodier, Jason T.; Sharma, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. Gene therapy is an emerging technology for corneal blindness due to the accessibility and immune-privileged nature of the cornea, ease of vector administration and visual monitoring, and ability to perform frequent noninvasive corneal assessment. Vision restoration by gene therapy is contingent upon vector and mode of therapeutic gene introduction into targeted cells/tissues. Numerous efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches have evolved in last decade for developing gene-based interventions for corneal diseases. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. This review describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various ocular surface disorders and diseases. PMID:23838017

  5. Basic Science Research to Support the Nuclear Materials Focus Area

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.; Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. G.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

  6. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the major clenching theoretical and experimental findings. These findings will remove the last trace of uncertainty about the total disproof of the membrane theory. In addition, I have also included an introduction of the association-induction hypothesis, which is the one and only unifying theory of the living cell that has survived and unwaveringly grown more comprehensive and powerful after more than half of a century of worldwide testing. PMID:21970156

  7. CONSTITUTIVE THEORIES: BASIC PRINCIPLES Instituto de Matematica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    E-print Network

    Liu, I-Shih

    of balance laws 6. Constitutive equations in material description 7. Principle of material frame-indifference, thermomechanical history, constitutive equation, material frame-indifference, material objectivity, simple materi- als, material symmetry, isotropic functions, entropy principle. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Frame

  8. Research programs for Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    A chemical sciences review meeting was held in which research programs in chemistry were discussed. Major topics included: chemistry of actinides and fission products, interactions of solvents, solutes and surfaces in supercritical extraction, chemical and physical principles in multiphase separations, and chemical kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  9. An interdisciplinary course in women's health integrating basic and clinical sciences: Clinical anatomy and women's health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caren M. Stalburg; Tamara A. Stein

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, undergraduate medical education is divided into preclinical and clinical years, with basic sciences taught during the first years and clinical sciences taught during the latter years. In an effort to better integrate the basic and clinical sciences in undergraduate medical education, and focus on women's health, we have developed a new interdisciplinary fourth-year elective at the University of Michigan

  10. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  11. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

  12. Basic regulatory principles of Escherichia coli's electron transport chain for varying oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Sebastian G; Ter Beek, Alexander; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25268772

  13. The Meniscus: Review of Basic Principles With Application to Surgery and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Timothy; Johnson, Darren L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review basic meniscal anatomy, histology, and biomechanical principles as they apply to surgery and rehabilitation. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL for the years 1960–1999 using the terms meniscus, surgery, rehabilitation, meniscal repair, and arthroscopy. Data Synthesis: Injuries to a healthy meniscus are usually produced by a compressive force coupled with transverse-plane tibiofemoral rotation as the knee moves from flexion to extension during rapid cutting or pivoting. The goal of meniscal surgery is to restore a functional meniscus to prevent the development of degenerative osteoarthritis in the involved knee. The goal of rehabilitation is to restore patient function based on individual needs, considering the type of surgical procedure, which meniscus was repaired, the presence of coexisting knee pathology (particularly ligamentous laxity or articular cartilage degeneration), the type of meniscal tear, the patient's age, preoperative knee status (including time between injury and surgery), decreased range of motion or strength, and the patient's athletic expectations and motivations. Progressive weight bearing and joint stress are necessary to enhance the functionality of the meniscal repair; however, excessive shear forces may be disruptive. Prolonged knee immobilization after surgery can result in the rapid development of muscular atrophy and greater delays in functional recovery. Conclusions/Recommendations: Accelerated joint mobility and weight-bearing components of rehabilitation protocols represent the confidence placed in innovative surgical fixation methods. After wound healing, an aquatic therapy environment may be ideal during all phases of rehabilitation after meniscal surgery (regardless of the exact procedure), providing the advantages of controlled weight bearing and mobility progressions. Well-designed, controlled, longitudinal outcome studies for patients who have undergone meniscectomy, meniscal repair, or meniscal reconstruction are lacking. PMID:16558666

  14. Weed Management -The Basics

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Weed Management - The Basics Anthony Cortilet Minnesota Department of Agriculture Roger Becker University of Minnesota #12;Over-arching Weed Science Principles · Weed ecology and biology basic to all systems · Weed species cross over cropping boundaries · Perennial, biennial, or annual - disturbed

  15. Applying Cognitive Science Principles to Improve Retention of Science Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Gooklasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether three student-centred strategies influenced retention of science vocabulary words among 7th grade students. Two of the strategies (drawing pictures and talking about the definition of the terms) were developed to involve the students in more constructive and interactive exercises when compared to the technique that was in…

  16. PNNL Highlights for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (July 2013-July 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2014-08-13

    This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.

  17. Teaching Aldosterone Regulation and Basic Scientific Principles Using a Classic Paper by Dr. James O. Davis and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanke, Craig J.; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th…

  18. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p < 0.05, ?2 = 0.59 between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre-to-post assessment with an effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  19. The HelCat basic plasma science device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Desjardins, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; Watts, C.; Hsu, S. C.; Betts, S.; Kelly, R.; Schamiloglu, E.; Schamiloglu

    2015-01-01

    The Helicon-Cathode(HelCat) device is a medium-size linear experiment suitable for a wide range of basic plasma science experiments in areas such as electrostatic turbulence and transport, magnetic relaxation, and high power microwave (HPM)-plasma interactions. The HelCat device is based on dual plasma sources located at opposite ends of the 4 m long vacuum chamber - an RF helicon source at one end and a thermionic cathode at the other. Thirteen coils provide an axial magnetic field B >= 0.220 T that can be configured individually to give various magnetic configurations (e.g. solenoid, mirror, cusp). Additional plasma sources, such as a compact coaxial plasma gun, are also utilized in some experiments, and can be located either along the chamber for perpendicular (to the background magnetic field) plasma injection, or at one of the ends for parallel injection. Using the multiple plasma sources, a wide range of plasma parameters can be obtained. Here, the HelCat device is described in detail and some examples of results from previous and ongoing experiments are given. Additionally, examples of planned experiments and device modifications are also discussed.

  20. CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM (Revised, August 2012) Program summary The CTSI Basic to Clinical Collaborative Research (Ba such project representing a true collaboration between a clinical scientist and a basic research scientist

  1. CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM (Revised, February 2013) Program summary The CTSI Basic to Clinical Collaborative Research (Ba such project representing a collaboration between a clinical scientist and a basic research scientist. A true

  2. CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM (Revised, November 2010) Program summary The CTSI Basic to Clinical Collaborative Research Pilot such project representing a true collaboration between a clinical scientist and a basic research scientist

  3. CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM (Revised, September 2011) Program summary The CTSI Basic to Clinical Collaborative Research (Ba such project representing a true collaboration between a clinical scientist and a basic research scientist

  4. CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM (Revised, October 2014) Program summary The CTSI Basic to Clinical Collaborative Research (Ba such project representing a collaboration between a clinical scientist and a basic research scientist. A true

  5. Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Beth Privitera; Jeffrey Johnson

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between basic science research and product design\\/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition

  6. Asthma: Addressing consistency in results from basic science, clinical trials, and observational experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Spahn; Ronina Covar; David A. Stempel

    2002-01-01

    The basic science understanding of the pathophysiology of a disease often serves as the basis for clinical investigations. This knowledge is used to propose new directions in care and confirm initial concepts. The basic science of asthma demonstrates that the most comprehensive management of inflammation appears to be associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids and proposes a mechanism for

  7. A review of second law techniques applicable to basic thermal science research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kevin Drost; Joseph R. Zamorski

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a review of second law analysis techniques which can contribute to basic research in the thermal sciences. The review demonstrated that second law analysis has a role in basic thermal science research. Unlike traditional techniques, second law analysis accurately identifies the sources and location of thermodynamic losses. This allows the development of innovative solutions

  8. Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

  9. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  10. Connecting Science and Society: Basic Research in the Service of Social Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    A flawed dichotomy of basic versus applied science (or of ``curiosity-driven'' vs. ``mission-oriented'' science) pervades today's thinking about science policy. This talk argues for the addition of a third mode of scientific research, called Jeffersonian science. Whereas basic science, as traditionally understood, is a quest for the unknown regardless of societal needs, and applied science is known science applied to known needs, Jeffersonian science is the quest for the unknown in the service of a known social need. It is research in an identified area of basic scientific ignorance that lies at the heart of a social problem. The talk discusses the conceptual foundations and then provides some case examples of Jeffersonian-type science initiatives, such as the Lewis and Clark Expedition, initiated by Thomas Jefferson (which led us to call this mode of research Jeffersonian), research conducted under the auspices of the National Institutes of Health, and a science policy project by President Jimmy Carter and his Science Adviser, Frank Press, in the late 1970s. Because the concept of Jeffersonian science explicitly ties basic research to the social good, one of the potential benefits of adding a Jeffersonian dimension to our thinking about science is that it might make science careers more attractive to women and underrepresented minorities.

  11. Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2003-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

  12. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  13. Learning Bayesian Belief Networks Based on the Minimum Description Length Principle: Basic Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe SUZUKI

    1996-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper addresses the problem of learning Bayesian belief networks (BBN) based on the minimum descrip- tion length (MDL) principle. First, we give a formula of descrip- tion length based on which the MDL-based procedure learns a BBN. Secondly, we point out that the difference between the MDL-based and Cooper and Herskovits procedures is essentially in the priors rather

  14. International cooperation in basic space science, Western Asian countries and the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The world will never better develop and attain a global peace state, if it does not exist a world-wide cooperation, union of interests among all countries on planet Earth, respecting and understanding each other culture differences. So, if the countries interested in space science want to create or better develop this field, they need to firstly construct peace states and social cooperation, while scientific and technological cooperation will develop -among them. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations (UN)' Agenda 21 (UN UNCED, 1992), I propose four points that can lead to a practical and solid international cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, based on ground studies, with sustainable space programs in countries with social necessities, and to the construction of an avenue of peace states in those areas and in the world, 1) The creation of LINKS among the "developing" countries, among the "developed" ones and between them -with scientists, engineers, educators and administrative personnel. This can catalyze a self-sustainable scientific and technological production in the "developing" countries. Financial matters could be done through the World Bank in coopera-tion with UNESCO. 2) The administration of this difficult enterprise of international coopera-tion. With the increasing complexity of relationships among the aerospace-interested countries, it will be necessary the creation of a center capable to serve as an INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATOR CENTER FOR AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES. 3) CULTURE: in Western Asian countries there is a cultural habit that when somebody gives something valuable to a person, this person should give something back. Thus, the Western Asian countries receiving infor-mation on basic aerospace science and technology from the "developed" ones, those countries would probably feel they should give something in return. Western Asian countries could trans-mit their costumes, thinking ways, habits, persons' worries, thoughts and life knowledge, and music -culture -among themselves and to the "developed" countries. With this transmission of culture, principally among children, a better understanding among the countries could be created and the relationships among them could be very much easier for a sustainable inter-national cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, and for a sustainable better development and peace states for all Peoples and Nations on Earth. A cultural aspect which can highly increase children's interest in basic space science and technologies is by preparing the `terrain' of their minds, planting seeds of peace on them. It is known that if children live in countries with peace states their learning capacity is much better. So, I also propose (a neces-sity) to reeducate children -by teaching them about peace, showing them about Nations which have peace societies, redirecting children's mind for them to acquire knowledge of peace. So, they will grow into adults with more possibilities of developing science and technology (space research included) for peaceful purposes. We can extend our hands and actually help persons and Peoples with real necessities. By doing this way and keeping it constant we all can greatly grow together socially, and scientific-technologically, and real peace states will be achieved while sustainable space program will develop better -these two matters go 'hands-in-hands'. 4) The PARTICIPATION of the Western Asian countries in already programmed space missions, the participation in the astrobiology research, and in the transference of aerospace-related sci-entific and technical information to them. The better social development of the world (with sustainable space programs) with more union among the Peoples and Nations on Earth, within a protected environment, it is a goal we (a living species Homo sapiens, among others species, on this extremely rare unique special planet Earth) all need to achieve together.

  15. Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, Franz [Technical University Munich, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    This is a review of the most important milestones in the last ten years of development in the field of grating-based x-ray and neutron imaging. It provides a description of the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with x-rays and neutrons. Furthermore, it reviews the theory of grating-based quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.

  16. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

  17. Preference-based CBR: General Ideas and Basic Principles Eyke Hullermeier and Weiwei Cheng

    E-print Network

    Hüllermeier, Eyke

    , our goal is to develop a coherent and generic methodological framework for case-based reason- ing (CBR. A preference-based approach to CBR appears to be appealing for several reasons, notably because case-based- proximate nature of case-based problem solving. In this paper, we outline the basic ideas of preference

  18. Basic Principles and Ecological Consequences of Altered Flow Regimes for Aquatic Biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STUART E. BUNN; ANGELA H. ARTHINGTON

    2002-01-01

    The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wetland ecosystems. We\\u000a have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and\\u000a aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant\\u000a of physical habitat

  19. New Trends in Integrated Science Teaching. Volume V. The Teaching of Basic Sciences, Integrated Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Judith, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Conference on Integrated Science Foundation Worldwide are provided in abbreviated form. The conference examined developments in integrated science education during the last ten years and discussed possible future trends. Chapters are based upon plenary papers and working groups. Some of the integrated science

  20. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Anderson; Michael Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic\\u000a electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers’ understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional\\u000a inquiry oriented investigation of the same

  1. Basic principles in the optical design of imaging multiple aperature systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatke, Erin M.; Burge, James H.

    2002-12-01

    We discuss the basic concepts that have been useful in our work designing multiple aperture telescopes with wide fields of view. We examine combining errors at zero field and errors that are linear as a function of field. An easy optimization for satisfying the sine condition to eliminate linear piston errors is given. Methods for estimating the RMS wavefront errors for the lower-order combining errors are given.

  2. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE PHYSIOLOGY & NEUROBIOLOGY PHNB (0404E)

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE PHYSIOLOGY & NEUROBIOLOGY PHNB (0404E Physiology & Neurobiology Ecology & Evolution Microbiology Individualized Studies NOTES: Student name PHYSIOLOGY & NEUROBIOLOGY 0404E Grade of C- or better required in each course 27 minimum required credits

  3. Potential Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Savings in the Basic Science Building at UTMB

    E-print Network

    Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Claridge, D. E.; Reddy, T. A.; Haberl, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the potential energy savings due to optimizing the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) operation schedule in the Basic Science Building at University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB...

  4. Expository-Deductive vs. Discovery-Inductive Programing of Physical Science Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Richard Thomas

    Principles of mechanics and simple machines were taught to 14 ninth-grade general science classes. Three treatments were used: (1) an Expository-Deductive program in which the subject reads the statement and explanation of a principle before working with example frames illustrating that principle; (2) a Discovery-Inductive program in which the…

  5. A Determination of Aerospace Principles Desirable for Inclusion in Fifth or Sixth Grade Science Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mervin LeRoy

    Determined were aerospace principles for inclusion in fifth or sixth grade science programs and the extent to which current textbooks included these principles. A preliminary list of principles was formulated and submitted to the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Bureau of Standards for modification. From this, a revised…

  6. Immunology primer for neurosurgeons and neurologists part I: Basic principles of immunology

    PubMed Central

    Blaylock, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the workings of the immune system has evolved considerably over the past 20 years, with great strides being made as regard to complex interactions and repertoire of effector reactions under a host of conditions. Many of our previous understandings have been challenged, especially concerning tumor immunology and autoimmunity. Also of critical importance is our understanding of how the immune system terminates its attacks and the mechanisms used to regulate the balance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mechanisms, so as to prevent excessive immune bystander damage. I will discuss in part I the basic physiology of innate immune function and the immune systems reactions to invasion by microorganisms. PMID:23493579

  7. CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

    ://grants.nih.gov/grants/glossary.htm#C) or an individual who has an active clinical practice and is not involved in bench/laboratory-based researchCLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE (CTSI) BASIC TO CLINICAL COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PILOT PROGRAM (Revised, August 2014) Program summary The CTSI Basic to Clinical Collaborative Research (Ba

  8. competency Course Objective 1 1a Recall key concepts in basic sciences.

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    in basic sciences. 2 1b Review the role of discovery in physician careers. 3 1c Discuss core concepts in basic medical management skills needed for internship. 4 1d PracticeCourse objective Geisel competency Course Objective 1 1a Recall key concepts

  9. Basic Science Reasoning and Clinical Reasoning Intertwined: Epistemological Analysis and Consequences for Medical Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Magnani

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to emphasize the distinction between basic medical science (and reasoning) and clinical science (and\\u000a reasoning) in order to illuminate some basic philosophical and cognitive issues in medical education. The Kunhian concept\\u000a of exemplar refers to the field of growth of scientific knowledge and in this sense is related to the “anti-theoretical” emphasis\\u000a on problem

  10. Medical student culture: Note?taking cooperatives in basic science curricula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorthea Juul

    1992-01-01

    This article examines an aspect of contemporary medical education in the basic sciences—student note?taking cooperatives that produce written versions of faculty lectures. The phenomenon is analyzed in the context of the educational milieu of the basic science years as described in several recently published first?person accounts of medical training. Faculty and student perspectives are delineated along with relevant research findings.

  11. Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

  12. The Integration of Nutrition Education in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, Isaias

    1977-01-01

    At the Center for Biomedical Education at the City University of New York, nutrition is integrated into the chemistry-biochemistry sequence of a six-year B.S.-M.D. program. Students perform an actual analysis of a sample of their own food, learning basic techniques and concepts, and also carry on experiments with rats on other diets. (Editor/LBH)

  13. PRINCIPLES OF WEED SCIENCE -PLS 4601c INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT PLS 5632c

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    1 PRINCIPLES OF WEED SCIENCE - PLS 4601c INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ­ PLS 5632c Department Description: An introduction to the principles of weed science. Lecture topics will include: weed biology and ecology, an introduction to weed management techniques and methodologies, factors affecting weed control

  14. Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Justin G; Grande, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients' social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course. PMID:25755935

  15. Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Camille DiLullo (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Anatomy)

    2009-10-01

    This article describes the addition of problem based learning (PBL) into the basic medical curriculum of a large course (270 students). The PBL was provided via a learning management system and attended to the following goals: visual exposure, patient/physician history, patient communication and interactions.

  16. The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

    2006-01-01

    Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented. PMID:16674820

  17. Development and Validation of a Project Package for Junior Secondary School Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udofia, Nsikak-Abasi

    2014-01-01

    This was a Research and Developmental study designed to develop and validate projects for Junior Secondary School Basic Science instruction and evaluation. The projects were developed using the project blueprint and sent for validation by experts in science education and measurement and evaluation; using a project validation scale. They were to…

  18. BASIC SCIENCE EDUCATION IN PAKISTANI MEDICAL CURRICULA: ROLE OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Perwaiz Iqbal

    In Pakistan, the traditional science-oriented MBBS curriculum pertaining to basic sciences up to early seventies was loaded with the teaching of anatomy and physiology with less emphasis on biochemis- try and molecular biology. Although, there has been a significant change since then, yet the role of cell and molecular biology in the curriculum has remained less than desirable. With the

  19. The Basic Science Curriculum in the 21st Century: What Needs to Be Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garant, Philias R.

    1986-01-01

    The basic science curriculum in dental education could be improved by adopting a curriculum containing only two integrated required science courses about (1) the structure and function of the human body and (2) disease and reaction to disease in the human body. Elective graduate-level predoctoral courses would allow specialization. (MSE)

  20. Retention of Basic Sciences Knowledge at Clinical Years of Medical Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Lazi?, Elvira; Dujmovi?, Josip; Hren, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore the association between the knowledge of basic (physiology and biochemistry) and clinical sciences (internal medicine) among medical students, and determine the level of retained basic science knowledge at the fifth year of medical studies. Methods Medical students attending the second (n?=?145, response rate 60%) or the fifth year (n?=?176, response rate 73%) of medical studies at the Zagreb University School of Medicine in Croatia were given an anonymous knowledge test with 15 pairs of questions developed specifically for this purpose. Each pair consisted of a basic and clinical question, with the correct answer to the basic question explaining the physiological or biochemical background of the clinical question. Three pairs of questions were excluded from the analysis due to poor psychometric characteristics. Results We found statistically significant correlation between basic and clinical tests scores for both groups of students (r?=?0.47, P<0.001 for the second year and r?=?0.45, P<0.001 for the fifth year). 2?×?2 within-between measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction effect for knowledge test and study year (Wilks ??=?0.55, F1, 319?=?262.7, P<0.001; effect size?=?0.45), showing that fifth year students scored lower on the basic test than second year students but obtained higher scores on the clinical test. Conclusion The core basic science knowledge is lost during the clinical years of medical studies. Although remembering and understanding basic science concepts as a background of clinical statements at the clinical years does not directly affect clinical knowledge, there is a positive correlation between retained basic science concepts and clinical knowledge. PMID:17167861

  1. Interactome maps of mouse gene regulatory domains reveal basic principles of transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Kyong-Rim Kieffer; Tang, Zhonghui; Mathe, Ewy; Qian, Jason; Sung, Myong-Hee; Li, Guoliang; Resch, Wolfgang; Baek, Songjoon; Pruett, Nathanael; Grøntved, Lars; Vian, Laura; Nelson, Steevenson; Zare, Hossein; Hakim, Ofir; Reyon, Deepak; Yamane, Arito; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Kovalchuk, Alexander L.; Zou, Jizhong; Joung, J. Keith; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Xiaoan; Hager, Gordon L.; Ruan, Yijun; Casellas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A key finding of the ENCODE project is that the enhancer landscape of mammalian cells undergoes marked alterations during ontogeny. However, the nature and extent of these changes are unclear. As part of the NIH Mouse Regulome Project, we here combined DNaseI hypersensitivity, ChIP-Seq, and ChIA-PET technologies to map the promoter-enhancer interactomes of pluripotent ES cells and differentiated B lymphocytes. We confirm that enhancer usage varies widely across tissues. Unexpectedly, we find that this feature extends to broadly-transcribed genes, including Myc and Pim1 cell cycle regulators, which associate with an entirely different set of enhancers in ES and B cells. By means of high-resolution CpG methylomes, genome editing, and digital footprinting we show that these enhancers recruit lineage-determining factors. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the turning on and off of enhancers during development correlates with promoter activity. We propose that organisms rely on a dynamic enhancer landscape to control basic cellular functions in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24360274

  2. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  3. Magnetic nanoparticle heating and heat transfer on a microscale: Basic principles, realities and physical limitations of hyperthermia for tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Dutz, Silvio; Hergt, Rudolf

    2013-12-01

    In this review article we present basic principles of magnetically induced heat generation of magnetic nanoparticles for application in magnetic particle hyperthermia. After explanation of heating mechanisms, the role of particle-particle as well as particle-tissue interactions is discussed with respect to achievable heating power of the particles inside the tumour. On the basis of heat transfer theory at the micro-scale, the balance between generated and dissipated heat inside the tumour and the resulting damaging effects for biological tissue is examined. The heating behaviour as a function of tumour size is examined in combination with feasible field strength and frequency. Numerical calculations and experimental investigations are used to show the lower tumour size limit for tumour heating to therapeutically suitable temperatures. In summary, this article illuminates practical aspects, limitations, and the state of the art for the application of magnetic heating in magnetic particle hyperthermia as thermal treatment of small tumours. PMID:23968194

  4. Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

  5. Basic and Translational Science Effect of Combined Locally

    E-print Network

    Salem, Aliasger K.

    appear to increase the number of microcanals. UROLOGY 79: 967.e1­967.e4, 2012. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. I n of Urology, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Experimental Thera- peutics, Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City: Moshe Wald, M.D., Department of Urology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, 3 RCP, Iowa City, IA

  6. College Basics: Critical Thinking in Literature & Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Ina; Katz, Marilyn

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching approach used in introductory classes in literature and political science based on the assumption that technical academic skills must be developed simultaneously with the processes of critical thinking. Course content and methods of presenting and analyzing material for each course are described. (DR)

  7. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2014-04-01

    It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ? 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ? 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR phenomenology and weaken the status of the Planck scale hypothesis. Another crucial observation is that, already before incorporating standard matter and relativity, the SST geometry naturally yields a H t = 1 law where t is the age of the Universe and H the ratio between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale. As standard cosmology is not required to get such a fundamental result, the need for a conventional Planck scale is far from obvious and the study of UHECR can potentially yield evidence for an alternative approach including new physics and new ultimate constituents of matter. UHECR may in particular allow to explore the possible indications of the existence of a transition scale at very high energy where the standard laws would start becoming less and less dominant and new physics would replace the conventional fundamental principles. We discuss prospects of searches for potential signatures of such a phenomenon.

  8. Shared Governance of the Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida A. Preamble; Guiding Principles

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    1 Shared Governance of the Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida A. Preamble; Guiding Principles: The Horticultural Sciences (HS) Department is fully committed to shared governance Constitution in its Preamble and Article I, Section 2. The Horticultural Sciences Department will use shared

  9. Principles of clinical medicine: Oregon Health Sciences University School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fields, S A; Toffler, W L; Elliott, D; Chappelle, K

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the School of Medicine at Oregon Health Sciences University inaugurated a Principles of Clinical Medicine (PCM) course as part of an overall curricular revision. The PCM course, which covers the first and second years of medical school, integrates material from ten separate courses in the previous curriculum. Students learn longitudinally over the two years, rather than "cramming" discrete areas of knowledge and then moving on. Course sessions are related to concurrently taken basic science classes. Meeting two afternoons per week, the PCM course offers preceptorships, health care issues sessions, and patient examination sessions. The PCM course aims to encompass the body of knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to become a competent physician. First- and second-year students have more opportunities than previously to interact with patients and practicing physicians in the community. Competition between learning areas, student perceptions of "soft" and "hard" courses, teacher recruitment, and administrative burnout are ongoing difficulties, while faculty recognition and development, administrative commitment and flexibility, and student and faculty feedback all contribute to the success of the course. The PCM course is now the backbone of the first two years of medical school and creates a solid foundation for the third and fourth years. PMID:9447198

  10. Lost in Translation—Basic Science in the Era of Translational Research ?

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges. PMID:20038540

  11. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

  12. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1973-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice; Wenzel, Duane

    Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; encyclopedias and reference books; environment and conservation; fiction; general science; life sciences; marine life; mathematics and computer science; medical and health sciences; physics and chemistry; plant…

  13. Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

    2007-08-04

    The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State University and Charles University in Prague. In this paper, we report neutron capture studies that are of particular interest to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In addition to determining neutron capture cross sections, we are also interested in the nuclear properties of the excited state compound nuclei created in the capture reactions. One model that describes the behavior of the nucleus is the statistical model. Our statistical studies included measuring the photon strength function, resonance parameters, level density and gamma-ray ({gamma}-ray) cascade multiplicity. The DANCE array allows the separation of cascades by the number of transitions (multiplicity) in the cascade, and this makes it possible to study detailed properties of the statistical cascade such as the relationship between multiplicity and energy distributions. The work reported here includes reaction on molybdenum targets, europium targets, gadolinium targets and the first americium-242m target. Our goal is to improve the accuracy and provide new measurements for stable and radioactive targets. We are especially interested in energy-dependent neutron capture cross sections. In all of our experiments, the photons emitted in the capture reactions are gamma rays, and they are detected by the barium fluoride crystal array named the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) shown in Fig. 1. The detector array is made of 160 crystals arranged in a sphere around the target. There are four different crystal shapes, each of which covers an equal solid angle. This array was specifically designed to measure neutron capture cross sections with targets that were milligram sized or smaller, including radioactive targets. The barium fluoride crystals are scintillation (light generating) detectors with very fast response time, and are therefore suitable for high count rate experiments. Actual neutron capture events must be reliably distinguished from background {gamma}-rays, which are always present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hyd

  14. Basic and Applied Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS H848, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2003-08-26

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, or LANSCE, is an accelerator-based national user facility for research in basic and applied science. At present LANSCE has two experimental areas primarily using neutrons generated by 800-MeV protons striking tungsten target systems. A third area uses the proton beam for radiography. This paper describes the three LANSCE experimental areas, gives highlights of the past operating period, and discusses plans for the future.

  15. Basic Principles of Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are many different spectroscopic methods available for solving a wide range of analytical problems. The methods differ with respect to the species to be analyzed (such as molecular or atomic spectroscopy), the type of radiation-matter interaction to be monitored (such as absorption, emission, or diffraction), and the region of the electromagnetic spectrum used in the analysis. Spectroscopic methods are very informative and widely used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Spectroscopic methods based on the absorption or emission of radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), infrared (IR), and radio (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR) frequency ranges are most commonly encountered in traditional food analysis laboratories. Each of these methods is distinct in that it monitors different types of molecular or atomic transitions. The basis of these transitions is explained in the following sections.

  16. Magnetoencephalography: Basic principles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay P

    2014-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic field generated by the electrical activity of neurons. It is usually combined with a magnetic resonance imaging to get what is called magnetic source imaging. The technology that has helped record these minute magnetic fields is super-conducting quantum interference detector which is like a highly sensitive magnetic field meter. To attenuate the external magnetic noise the MEG is housed inside a magnetically shielded room. The actual sensors recording magnetic fields are magnetometers and/or gradiometers. MEG fields pass through the head without any distortion. This is a significant advantage of MEG over electroencephalography. MEG provides a high spatial and temporal resolution. The recording and identification information should be according to the American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society guidelines published in 2011. MEG currently has two approved indications in the United States, one is for pre-operative brain mapping and the other is for use in epilepsy surgery. MEG studies have shown functional brain tissue inside brain tumors. PMID:24791076

  17. Medieval Science and the Origins of Galileo's Principle of Inertia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, G. Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The conceptual steps that first led Galileo toward his principle are reconstructed showing that his thoughts on the subject of motions that are neither natural nor forced were of fundamental importance. (MP)

  18. Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2003-02-01

    This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the research that must be done. For example, the applied research programs in the DOE need a greater awareness of the user facilities and an understanding of how to use them to solve their unique problems. The discussions reinforced what all of the participants already knew: the issue of energy security is of major importance both for the U.S. and for the world. Furthermore, it is clear that major changes in the primary energy sources, in energy conversion, and in energy use, must be achieved within the next fifty years. This time scale is determined by two drivers: increasing world population and increasing expectations of that population. Much of the research and development currently being done are concerned with incremental improvements in what has been done in the immediate past; and it is necessary to take this path because improvements will be needed across the board. These advances extend the period before the radical changes have to be made; however, they will not solve the underlying, long-range problem. The Subpanel recommends that a major program be funded to conduct a multidisciplinary research program to address the issues to ensure a secure energy future for the U.S. It is necessary to recognize that this program must be ensured of a long-term stability. It is also necessary that a management and funding structure appropriate for such an approach be developed. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences is well positioned to support this initiative by enhancement of their already world-class scientific research programs and user facilities.

  19. Meaty Principles for Environmental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockcastle, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that educated persons should be exposed to a body of conceptual knowledge which includes basic principles of the biological and physical sciences. Practical examples involving force, sound, light, waves, and density of water are cited. A lesson on animal tracks using principles of force and pressure is also described. (DH)

  20. Basic Research in the Mission Agencies: Agency Perspectives on the Conduct and Support of Basic Research. Report of the National Science Board, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    A survey was conducted by the National Science Board of the basic research supported by executive branch agencies of the federal government. Most of the data came from information solicited by the Board from federal agencies involved in science. Fourteen mission agencies and two agencies not so classified and 20 subunits of these responded.…

  1. [United Nations Resolutions. Resolution on Prison Education. Resolution on Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners. Resolution on Criminal Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    This document contains three United Nations resolutions that emphasize the role and practice of prison education. The three resolutions were adopted in 1990: (1) the Economic and Social Council Resolution 1990/20 on prison education; (2) the General Assembly Resolution 45/111 on basic principles for the treatment of prisoners; and (3) General…

  2. On the basic principles of radar polarimetry: the target characteristic polarization state theory of Kennaugh, Huynen's polarization fork concept, and its extension to the partially polarized case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang-Martin Boerner; Wei-Ling Yan; An-Qing Xi; Yoshio Yamaguchi

    1991-01-01

    Basic principles of radar polarimetry are introduced. The target characteristic polarization state theory is developed first for the coherent case using the three stage, the basis transformation, and the power (Mueller) matrix optimization procedures. Kennaugh's and Huynen's theories of radar target polarimetry are verified for the monostatic reciprocal case. It is shown that there exist, in total, five unique pairs

  3. Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

  4. A Hybrid Model of Mathematics Support for Science Students Emphasizing Basic Skills and Discipline Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Deborah C.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of students entering university lacking basic mathematical skills is a critical issue in the Australian higher-education sector and relevant globally. The Maths Skills programme at La Trobe University has been developed to address under preparation in the first-year science cohort in the absence of an institutional mathematics support…

  5. Exploring Magnetism: Bringing The Sun-Earth Connection into the Classroom via Basic Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Mendez; L. Peticolas; N. Craig; G. Holman

    2005-01-01

    The E\\/PO programs of NASA missions often face the challenge of making complex science investigations relevant for the classroom. Magnetism is one of the basic topics taught in classrooms throughout the nation. It also has profound importance within a great variety of astrophysical systems. We have used the topic of magnetism to form the basis of a series of teacher's

  6. `Leaning in' to Support Sex Differences in Basic Science and Clinical Research

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    and do differ between males and females, even in brain regions unre- lated to reproduction. Indeed`Leaning in' to Support Sex Differences in Basic Science and Clinical Research Teresa K. Woodruff. Woolley, PhD1,6 1. Women's Health Research Institute, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University

  7. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE MICROBIOLOGY MICB (0404D)

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE MICROBIOLOGY MICB (0404D) A minimum Physiology & Neurobiology Ecology & Evolution Microbiology Individualized Studies NOTES: Student name MICROBIOLOGY 0404D Grade of C- or better required in each course 27 minimum required credits Advanced Program

  8. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS CEBG (0404A)

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS CEBG (0404A Specialization Areas see reverse side for Advanced Program requirements Cell Biology & Genetics General Biology CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS 0404A Grade of C- or better required in each course 27 minimum required

  9. Impact of the USMLE Step 1 on Teaching and Learning of the Basic Biomedical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, David B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the newly modified United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 reviews the test, phase-in plans, and potential impact on basic biomedical sciences education. It is recommended that medical schools not use the test as the sole criterion for promotion to the third year and carefully review other examination-related requirements…

  10. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  11. Basic Sciences in Clinical Glaucoma How Does Nonpenetrating Glaucoma Surgery Work?

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Basic Sciences in Clinical Glaucoma How Does Nonpenetrating Glaucoma Surgery Work? Aqueous Outflow Resistance and Glaucoma Surgery Douglas H. Johnson, MD, and *Mark Johnson, PhD Department of Ophthalmology the abnormal trabecular meshwork of glaucoma address the pathologic problem of the disease. Surgeries

  12. A simulation for teaching the basic and clinical science of fluid therapy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard E. Rawson (Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Biomedical Sciences)

    2009-01-01

    The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical cases that, by nature, are diverse, change over time, and respond in unique ways to therapeutic interventions. We developed a dynamic model using STELLA software that simulates normal and abnormal fluid and electrolyte balance in the dog. Students interact, not with the underlying model, but with a user interface that provides sufficient data (skin turgor, chemistry panel, etc.) for the clinical assessment of patients and an opportunity for treatment. Students administer fluids and supplements, and the model responds in "real time," requiring regular reassessment and, potentially, adaptation of the treatment strategy. The level of success is determined by clinical outcome, including improvement, deterioration, or death. We expected that the simulated cases could be used to teach both the clinical and basic science of fluid therapy. The simulation provides exposure to a realistic clinical environment, and students tend to focus on this aspect of the simulation while, for the most part, ignoring an exploration of the underlying physiological basis for patient responses. We discuss how the instructor's expertise can provide sufficient support, feedback, and scaffolding so that students can extract maximum understanding of the basic science in the context of assessing and treating at the clinical level.

  13. In Defense of Basic Science Funding: Today’s Scientific Discovery Is Tomorrow’s Medical Advance

    PubMed Central

    Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In this address, I will discuss the importance of basic science in tackling our health problems. I will also describe how the funding cuts are damaging our economic competitiveness and turning our young people away from science. PMID:23686129

  14. 3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/14 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 6/14 1

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/14 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 6/14 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 152 Computer Science I Using Java 3. Java basics 1. Higher-level languages and compilation 2. Java programs and statements 3. Program documentation

  15. 3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/13 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 8/13 1

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/13 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 8/13 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 152 Computer Science I Using Java 3. Java basics 1. Higher-level languages and compilation 2. Java programs and statements 3. Program documentation

  16. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica andColombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  17. Chemistry for Health-Science Students: What Is an Appropriate Balance between Basic Chemical Concepts and Health-Related Applications?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genyea, Julien; Callewaert, Denis M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry content for a two-semester, health-related, chemistry course sequence. Indicates that basic principles should be emphasized and that (when appropriate) these principles should be discussed with applications to health care. Other issues related to chemistry for health-related programs…

  18. Design Principles for Creating Locally-Rooted National Science and Mathematics Curricula in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielson, Curtis A.; Hsi, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    This paper articulates and illustrates design principles that guided the development of a set of hands-on teaching activities for the national science and mathematics curricula at junior-high and high-school level education in Timor-Leste, a small, low-income nation in Southeast Asia. A partnership between a university, an international science

  19. Aligning library instruction with the needs of basic sciences graduate students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Question: How can an existing library instruction program be reconfigured to reach basic sciences graduate students and other patrons missed by curriculum-based instruction? Setting: The setting is an academic health sciences library that serves both the university and its affiliated teaching hospital. Methods: The existing program was redesigned to incorporate a series of seven workshops that encompassed the range of information literacy skills that graduate students in the basic sciences need. In developing the new model, the teaching librarians made changes in pedagogy, technology, marketing, and assessment strategies. Results: Total attendance at the sessions increased substantially in the first 2 years of the new model, increasing from an average of 20 per semester to an average of 124. Survey results provided insight about what patrons wanted to learn and how best to teach it. Conclusion: Modifying the program's content and structure resulted in a program that appealed to the target audience. PMID:23133328

  20. The Challenge of the Humanities and Social Science Education Through the Basic Seminar (Science of Snow Sports)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Sugimoto, Taku; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Ikota, Masaru

    The Education Center of Chiba Institute of Technology is taking a new approach to the introduction of liberal arts subjects commonly included in the curriculum of all departments through a newly established basic seminar, the Science of Snow Sports. Each faculty member has been working on setting up classes that cross the conventional boundaries of fields and disciplines and which are targeted at students of all faculties and departments. This paper describes the potential for teaching liberal arts and social science subjects to engineering students through the medium of sports science, based on actual experience gained via this new approach.

  1. The Application of Network Science Principles to Knowledge Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Halladay; Charles A. Milligan

    2004-01-01

    Current approaches to knowledge representation begin with the principles of logic and ontology that Aristotle initially introduced into history. These knowledge representation approaches focus on building systems that incorporate not only computational models, but also models that people can understand and analyze. Knowledge representation fidelity requires relationship richness of both relationship types and quantities This paper introduces a new discipline

  2. Science Curricula Design: Analysis of Authors' Ideological and Pedagogical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Silvia; Morais, Ana M.; Neves, Isabel P.

    2011-01-01

    The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the Official Pedagogic Discourse of the curriculum for Portuguese middle schools contains the ideological and pedagogical principles of its authors. The research is epistemologically and sociologically grounded, placing particular emphasis on Bernstein theory of…

  3. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes: from basic science to clinical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aiko K.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    New appreciation of the adaptive capabilities of the nervous system, recent recognition that most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, and progress in enabling regeneration are generating growing interest in novel rehabilitation therapies. Here we review the 35-year evolution of one promising new approach, operant conditioning of spinal reflexes. This work began in the late 1970’s as basic science; its purpose was to develop and exploit a uniquely accessible model for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple behavior in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The model was developed first in monkeys and then in rats, mice, and humans. Studies with it showed that the ostensibly simple behavior (i.e., a larger or smaller reflex) rests on a complex hierarchy of brain and spinal cord plasticity; and current investigations are delineating this plasticity and its interactions with the plasticity that supports other behaviors. In the last decade, the possible therapeutic uses of reflex conditioning have come under study, first in rats and then in humans. The initial results are very exciting, and they are spurring further studies. At the same time, the original basic science purpose and the new clinical purpose are enabling and illuminating each other in unexpected ways. The long course and current state of this work illustrate the practical importance of basic research and the valuable synergy that can develop between basic science questions and clinical needs. PMID:24672441

  4. Control of multiscale systems with constraints. 1. Basic principles of the concept of evolution of systems with varying constraints

    E-print Network

    S. Adamenko; V. Bolotov; V. Novikov

    2013-07-17

    Physical fundamentals of the self-organizing theory for the system with varying constraints are considered. A variation principle, specifically the principle of dynamic harmonization as a generalization of the Gauss-Hertz principle for the systems with varying internal structure is formulated. In compliance with this principle the system evolves through dynamics of the processes leading to harmonization of the internal multiscale structure of the system and its connections with external actions as a result of minimizing the dynamic harmonization function. Main principles of the shell model of self-organization under the action of the dominating entropic disturbance are formulated.

  5. The Changing Biomedical Research and Health Care Environments: Implications for Basic Science Graduate Education and Research in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williard, Renee

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that changes in the biomedical research environment and health care system call for reexamination of the mission and value of research and graduate education programs in basic sciences in pharmacy schools. Trends in research funding and graduate-level basic sciences are noted though contributions of these efforts to the field are…

  6. Grant Title: TRANSLATING BASIC BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCOVERIES INTO INTERVENTIONS TO IMPROVE HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIORS (R01)

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Grant Title: TRANSLATING BASIC BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCOVERIES INTO INTERVENTIONS of Research: Support interdisciplinary teams of basic and applied biological, behavioral and/or social science, or adherence to medical regimens) and/or prevent and reduce problem health behaviors (e.g., smoking, tanning

  7. Moral Principles and the Life Sciences: Choices about Moral Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David; Brett, William

    2005-01-01

    Today, more than at any other time in human history, biologists are or should be concerned about the morality of biological research and newly developed technologies. Two questions confront any scientist or science student concerned about morality and the life sciences. Is there some theoretical framework that might be used to assist in deciding…

  8. Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law

    SciTech Connect

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara [Bioethics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 10, 20100 Milan (Italy) and Science Technology and Law, Law Faculty, University of Piacenza, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)]. E-mail: mariachiara.tallacchini@unimi.it

    2005-09-01

    The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that '[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. By focusing on situations of scientific uncertainty where data are lacking, insufficient, or inconclusive, the principle introduced a shift from a neutral legal attitude towards science to a bias in favor of safety, and a shift from the paradigm of science certain and objective to the awareness that the legal regulation of science involves decisions about values and interests. Implementation of the precautionary principle is highly variable. A crucial question still needs to be answered regarding the assumption that scientific certainty is a 'normal' characteristic of scientific knowledge. The relationship between technoscience and society has moved into a situation where uncertain knowledge is the rule. From this perspective, a more general framework for a democratic governance of science is needed. In democratic society, science may still have a special authoritative voice, but it cannot be the ultimate word on decisions that only the broader society may make. Therefore, the precautionary model of scientific regulation needs to be informed by an 'extended participatory model' of the relationship between science and society.

  9. 6.1 The Basics of Counting 1. two basic principles of counting are the sum rule and the product rule. We present them

    E-print Network

    Gera, Ralucca

    alpha characters and decimal digits, and must contain at least one digit. Solution: By the sum rule|. This applies to every element in A B, so we must subtract |A B| to correct the overcount. 8. the division the total number of ways to do something by the number of duplications (it is the multiplication principle

  10. Basic science in Parkinson’s disease: its impact on clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg B. Schulz; Manfred Gerlach; Gabriele Gille; Wilfried Kuhn; Martina Müngersdorf; Peter Riederer; Martin Südmeyer; Albert Ludolph

    2011-01-01

    Failures in clinical studies that were aimed to prove disease-modifying effects of treatments in Parkinson’s disease (PD)\\u000a raise the question as to whether basic sciences have had an impact in clinical practice. This question implies that despite\\u000a well-publicized results obtained by intensive genetic and pathogenetic research, e.g. the identification of mutations and\\u000a cellular biochemical pathways that underlie Parkinson-specific neurodegeneration, no

  11. Basic science curriculums in nuclear cardiology and cardiovascular imaging: Evolving and emerging concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Van Decker; Theodore Villafana

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of basic science with regard to physics, instrumentation, and radiation safety has been part of nuclear cardiology\\u000a training since its inception. Although there are clear educational and quality rationale for such, regulations associated\\u000a with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Subpart J of old 10 CFR §35 (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 35) from the\\u000a 1960s mandated such

  12. Selecting students for medical school: What predicts success during basic science studies? A cognitive approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Lindblom-Ylänne; Kirsti Lonka; Esko Leskinen

    1996-01-01

    This study focuses on differences between multiple-choice science tests and a learning-from-text (LFT) test, and how these tests predict success in basic medical studies. The subjects (N = 503) were applicants to the Helsinki University Medical Faculty. All of them had to take an entrance examination in order to be considered for admission to a 6-year study programme combining medical

  13. Research and Education in Basic Space Science: The Approach Pursued in the UN\\/ESA Workshops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. K. Al-Naimiy; CYNTHIA P. CELEBRE; KHALIL CHAMCHAM; H. S. PADMASIRI DE ALWIS; MARIA C. PINEDA DE CARIAS; HANS J. HAUBOLD; A. E. Troche Boggino

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency\\u000ais holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the\\u000aworldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countries\\u000aof Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean\\u000a(Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt,\\u000aJordan),

  14. UN\\/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science: An Update on Their Achievements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans J. Haubold

    1999-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, expensive observatories are\\u000abeing erected at La Silla (Chile), Mauna Kea (Hawai), Las Palmas (Canary\\u000aIsland), and Calar Alto (Spain), to name a view. In 1990, at the beginning of\\u000aThe Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Bahcall [2]), the UN\\/ESA\\u000aWorkshops on Basic Space Science initiated the establishment of small

  15. The Role of Cardiac PET in Translating Basic Science into the Clinical Arena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paco E. Bravo; Frank M. Bengel

    Non-invasive imaging has become fundamental in translating findings from basic science research into clinical applications.\\u000a In this aspect, positron-emission tomography (PET) offers important advantages over other common imaging modalities like single-photon\\u000a emission computed tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since PET provides superior detection\\u000a sensitivity in the evaluation of different cardiovascular targets and pathways at the cellular and

  16. How do medical students in their clinical years perceive basic sciences courses at King Saud University?

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Awatif

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The inclusion of detailed basic science courses in medical school curricula has been a concern of students. The main objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of medical students towards basic sciences courses taught to them in the preclinical years and the applicability of these courses to current clinical practice. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2008-2009 among medical students in their clinical years at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Thirty percent of all students (n=314) were randomly selected to receive a questionnaire designed to evaluate their opinions about course load, ability to recall information, value of practical sessions, availability of references and course guidelines, and the applicability of individual courses to clinical practice. RESULTS: Students identified anatomy and pathology as the courses most overloaded with content (76% and 70%, respectively). Half of the students felt they retained the most knowledge of physiology (50%), while less than a quarter of students (19%) felt they retained the most information from biochemistry coursework. The role of practical sessions in facilitating theoretical understanding was more evident in anatomy (69%). Physiology was perceived as the subject with the highest applicability to clinical practice (66%), while pathology (29%) was identified as the subject with the least practical application. Students became increasingly negative in their opinions about basic science courses as they progressed through their medical education. CONCLUSION: Current attitudes of medical students towards their basic science courses indicate a need to reform the curricula so as to maximize the benefit of these courses. PMID:21245601

  17. Long-term retention of basic science knowledge: a review study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugène J. F. M. Custers

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention\\u000a of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are\\u000a employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently, first the results of\\u000a retention studies in

  18. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid out a broad view of the basic and grand challenge science needs for the development of future clean energy technologies in a series of comprehensive 'Basic Research Needs' workshops and reports (inside front cover and http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html) and has structured its programs and launched initiatives to address the challenges. The basic science needs of industry, however, are often more narrowly focused on solving specific nearer-term roadblocks to progress in existing and emerging clean energy technologies. To better define these issues and identify specific barriers to progress, the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) sponsored the Workshop on Science for Energy Technology, January 18-21, 2010. A wide cross-section of scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories delineated the basic science Priority Research Directions most urgently needed to address the roadblocks and accelerate the innovation of clean energy technologies. These Priority Research Directions address the scientific understanding underlying performance limitations in existing but still immature technologies. Resolving these performance limitations can dramatically improve the commercial penetration of clean energy technologies. A key conclusion of the Workshop is that in addition to the decadal challenges defined in the 'Basic Research Needs' reports, specific research directions addressing industry roadblocks are ripe for further emphasis. Another key conclusion is that identifying and focusing on specific scientific challenges and translating the results to industry requires more direct feedback and communication and collaboration between industrial and BES-supported scientists. BES-supported scientists need to be better informed of the detailed scientific issues facing industry, and industry more aware of BES capabilities and how to utilize them. An important capability is the suite of BES scientific user facilities, which are seen as playing a key role in advancing the science of clean energy technology. Working together, in

  19. Science in Writing: Learning Scientific Argument in Principle and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bagley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the processes of writing in science and in particular the "complex performance" of writing a scientific argument. The article explores in general terms the nature of scientific argumentation in which the author-scientist makes claims, provides evidence to support these claims, and develops chains of scientific…

  20. A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE`s two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document.

  1. Integrating Basic Analytical Methods and Computer-Interface Technology into an Environmental Science Water Quality Lab Improves Student Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho-Knighton, Kathleen M.; Smoak, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if integrating basic analytical methods and computer interface technology would result in a positive change in student attitude. Students' self-concept of science knowledge and skills (Capability), opinion towards science (Affect), and perceptions of the value of science (Value) were determined with…

  2. The understanding levels of preservice teachers’ of basic science concepts’ measurement units and devices, their misconceptions and its causes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özgül Keles; Hülya Ertas; Naim Uzun; Mustafa Cansiz

    2010-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to determine preservice science teachers’ and elementary teachers’ level of understanding about measurement units, and devices; and misconceptions about basic science concepts (mass, weight, density, heat, temperature, energy, specific heat etc.). The sample included 92 undergraduate students who are second year preservice elementary teacher; and first and second year elementary science teacher. In this

  3. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    PubMed

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline. PMID:22765213

  4. The role of basic oral care and good clinical practice principles in the management of oral mucositis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah B. McGuire; Maria Elvira P. Correa; Judith Johnson; Patricia Wienandts

    2006-01-01

    Background  The Basic Oral Care Group is one of eight subcommittees functioning within the Mucositis Study Group Guidelines Panel of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and International Society for Oral Oncology (MASCC\\/ISOO). The Basic Oral Care Group, comprised of the four authors of this paper, represented the disciplines of nursing (DBM, JJ), dentistry (MEPC), and pediatric dentistry (PW).

  5. Implications of computer science principles for quantum physics

    E-print Network

    Ariel Bendersky; Gonzalo de la Torre; Gabriel Senno; Santiago Figueira; Antonio Acin

    2014-07-02

    The Church-Turing thesis is one of the pillars of computer science; it postulates that every classical system has equivalent computability power to the so-called Turing machine. While this thesis is crucial for our understanding of computing devices, its implications in other scientific fields have hardly been explored. Here we start this research programme in the context of quantum physics and show that computer science laws have profound implications for some of the most fundamental results of the theory. We first show how they question our knowledge on what a mixed quantum state is, as we identify situations in which ensembles of quantum states defining the same mixed state, indistinguishable according to the quantum postulates, do become distinguishable when prepared by a computer. We also show a new loophole for Bell-like experiments: if some of the parties in a Bell-like experiment use a computer to decide which measurements to make, then the computational resources of an eavesdropper have to be limited in order to have a proper observation of non-locality. Our work opens a new direction in the search for a framework unifying computer science and quantum physics.

  6. General chemistry students' understanding of climate science principles relating to chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A. N.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L. C.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Science project, we are developing the chemistry of climate science inventory for use in general chemistry courses. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which integrates federal research on climate and global change, has set out a climate literacy framework, Climate Literacy: the Essential Principles of Climate Science (US Climate Change Science Program, 2009). Developed by collaboration among NOAA, NASA, AAAS, and a distinguished group of scientists and educators, this Framework defines a set of essential principles and scientific thinking skills that a climate literate person should understand. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry. We have interviewed 24 undergraduates to elicit their understanding of the Earth's energy system, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather. Our analysis and findings indicate that the fundamental science necessary to understand the Earth's energy system and climate change are not well understood by the undergraduates in this sample. Details of the interviews, analysis, and synthesis of findings will be shared.

  7. Principled Improvement in Science: Forces and Proportional Relations in Early Secondary-School Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Ilie, Sonia; Guardia, Paula; Hofmann, Riikka; Mercer, Neil; Riga, Fran

    2015-01-01

    In response to continuing concerns about student attainment and participation in science and mathematics, the "epiSTEMe" project took a novel approach to pedagogy in these two disciplines. Using principles identified as effective in the research literature (and combining these in a fashion not previously attempted), the project developed…

  8. Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications Available online 6 June 2006 Abstract Osmosis is a physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied of osmosis through natural materials, and from the 1960s, special attention has been given to osmosis through

  9. Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through…

  10. A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan P. McAdams; Jennifer L. Pals

    2006-01-01

    Despite impressive advances in recent years with respect to theory and research, personality psychology has yet to articulate clearly a comprehensive framework for understanding the whole person. In an effort to achieve that aim, the current article draws on the most promising empirical and theoretical trends in personality psychology today to articulate 5 big principles for an integrative science of

  11. Learning Effects of a Science Textbook Designed with Adapted Cognitive Process Principles on Grade 5 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ming-Chang; Chou, Pei-I; Wang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chih-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the illustrations in a science textbook, with their design modified according to cognitive process principles, affected students' learning performance. The quasi-experimental design recruited two Grade 5 groups (N?=?58) as the research participants. The treatment group (n?=?30) used the modified version of the textbook,…

  12. FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

  13. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Mohammed K Khalil (Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine Biomedical Sciences)

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Methods of the study and outcomes are discussed.

  14. Archive of Second House Science Basic Research Subcommittee Hearing on Domain Names: September 30, 1997

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Basic Research.

    1997-01-01

    Democracy.Net, a joint project of the Center for Democracy and Technology and the Voters Telecommunications Watch, is providing coverage of two hearings before the US House Science Committee on Basic Research dealing with the Domain Name System, its current status, and future direction. The first hearing took place September 25, 1997 and the second takes place September 30. Witnesses are: Dr. Joseph Bordogna, National Science Foundation; Larry Irving, Assistant Secretary for Communication and Information, US Department of Commerce; Dr. Jonathan Postel, Director, Computer Networks Division; and Gabriel Battista, Network Solutions, Inc. The site is highlighted by RealPlayer coverage of the Hearings, selected written statements of the participants, photos, and background information.

  15. Archive of First House Science Basic Research Subcommittee Hearing on Domain Names: September 25, 1997

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Democracy.Net, a joint project of the Center for Democracy and Technology and the Voters Telecommunications Watch, is providing coverage of two hearings before the US House Science Committee on Basic Research dealing with the Domain Name System, its current status, and future direction. The first hearing took place September 25, 1997 and the second takes place September 30. Witnesses are: Dr. Joseph Bordogna, National Science Foundation; Larry Irving, Assistant Secretary for Communication and Information, US Department of Commerce; Dr. Jonathan Postel, Director, Computer Networks Division; and Gabriel Battista, Network Solutions, Inc. The site is highlighted by RealPlayer coverage of the Hearings, selected written statements of the participants, photos, and background information.

  16. Building capacity in the basic space sciences in Southern Africa: Experiences and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, P.

    2009-06-01

    The basic space sciences and their supporting technologies underpin the ability of a country to utilise space applications programmes for development. By whatever measure is employed, Africa is under-represented in the international space science community. This paper reviews lessons learnt over the past 8 years with regard to sustainable capacity building in the region. At present there are a number of role-players in the space arena engaged in various capacity-building initiatives. We advocate that the emphasis of these initiatives should shift from fairly isolated capacity-building activities to comprehensive regional capacity-building programmes developed jointly by the different role-players. In order to develop such coordinated programmes, the establishment of a capacity-building forum involving the space community, the development sector and the developing countries in a region, is proposed.

  17. Basic Principles of Marine Diesel Engines, 8-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of marine diesel engines is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to acquaint…

  18. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

  19. An elective course on the basic and clinical sciences aspects of vitamins and minerals.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students' knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products. PMID:23463149

  20. Establishing a Successful Basic Science Research Program in Colon and Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Ira; Wick, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    Although at first glance, the surgeon-scientist appears to be a rare breed in today's clinical revenue-driven world, with careful planning and mentorship this is still a vibrant career path. If one is considering this avenue, it is important to seize even small opportunities to pursue laboratory work during training—summers in college and medical school, rotation blocks, and dedicated time in the middle of residency. Publications and small grants during these times will lay the ground work for future success. When considering a faculty position, it is essential to identify a mentorship environment that has a track record for success—either in the department of surgery or anywhere in the university. Ensuring adequate support from the department of surgery chair and division leader is essential. Basic science careers take years for the return in investment to be manifested! Also critical is to secure extramural funding early in the faculty stint—first foundation grants and then National Institutes of Health–mentored scientist funding. Surgeons provide a unique perspective in basic science work and it is critical that we continue to support young surgeons in this career path. PMID:25067919

  1. Establishing a successful basic science research program in colon and rectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Leeds, Ira; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2014-06-01

    Although at first glance, the surgeon-scientist appears to be a rare breed in today's clinical revenue-driven world, with careful planning and mentorship this is still a vibrant career path. If one is considering this avenue, it is important to seize even small opportunities to pursue laboratory work during training-summers in college and medical school, rotation blocks, and dedicated time in the middle of residency. Publications and small grants during these times will lay the ground work for future success. When considering a faculty position, it is essential to identify a mentorship environment that has a track record for success-either in the department of surgery or anywhere in the university. Ensuring adequate support from the department of surgery chair and division leader is essential. Basic science careers take years for the return in investment to be manifested! Also critical is to secure extramural funding early in the faculty stint-first foundation grants and then National Institutes of Health-mentored scientist funding. Surgeons provide a unique perspective in basic science work and it is critical that we continue to support young surgeons in this career path. PMID:25067919

  2. An Elective Course on the Basic and Clinical Sciences Aspects of Vitamins and Minerals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course on vitamins and minerals and their usefulness as dietary supplements. Design. A 2-credit-hour elective course designed to provide students with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science information on vitamins and minerals was developed and implemented in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, an active-learning component was incorporated in the course in the form of group discussion. Assessment. Student learning was demonstrated by examination scores. Performance on pre- and post-course surveys administered in 2011 demonstrated a significant increase in students’ knowledge of the basic and clinical science aspects of vitamins and minerals, with average scores increasing from 61% to 86%. At the end of the semester, students completed a standard course evaluation. Conclusion. An elective course on vitamin and mineral supplements was well received by pharmacy students and helped them to acquire knowledge and competence in patient counseling regarding safe, appropriate, effective, and economical use of these products. PMID:23463149

  3. Conducting correlation seminars in basic sciences at KIST Medical College, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal. In Nepal, six basic science subjects are taught together in an integrated organ system-based manner with early clinical exposure and community medicine. Correlation seminars are conducted at the end of covering each organ system. The topics are decided by the core academic group (consisting of members from each basic science department, the Department of Community Medicine, the academic director, and the clinical and program coordinators) considering the public health importance of the condition and its ability to include learning objectives from a maximum number of subjects. The learning objectives are decided by individual departments and finalized after the meeting of the core group. There are two student coordinators for each seminar and an evaluation group evaluates each seminar and presenter. Correlation seminars help students revise the organ system covered and understand its clinical importance, promote teamwork and organization, and supports active learning. Correlation seminars should be considered as a learning modality by other medical schools. PMID:22066033

  4. Conducting correlation seminars in basic sciences at KIST Medical College, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P Ravi

    2011-01-01

    KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal. In Nepal, six basic science subjects are taught together in an integrated organ system-based manner with early clinical exposure and community medicine. Correlation seminars are conducted at the end of covering each organ system. The topics are decided by the core academic group (consisting of members from each basic science department, the Department of Community Medicine, the academic director, and the clinical and program coordinators) considering the public health importance of the condition and its ability to include learning objectives from a maximum number of subjects. The learning objectives are decided by individual departments and finalized after the meeting of the core group. There are two student coordinators for each seminar and an evaluation group evaluates each seminar and presenter. Correlation seminars help students revise the organ system covered and understand its clinical importance, promote teamwork and organization, and supports active learning. Correlation seminars should be considered as a learning modality by other medical schools. PMID:22066033

  5. Metallurgical principles of cryogenically treated tool steels—a review on the current state of science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simranpreet Singh Gill; Jagdev Singh; Rupinder Singh; Harpreet Singh

    2011-01-01

    The cryogenic treatment of tool steels has transformed over centuries from black art to science, but the metallurgical principles\\u000a responsible for increase in wear resistance, tensile strength, toughness, and stability are still disputed. Metallurgists\\u000a comprehend how tool steels respond to cryogenic treatment, but they also understand that for many years, the cryogenic treatment\\u000a of tool steels had the reputation of

  6. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  7. Basic principles for the development of a common standardised method for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

    2012-04-01

    Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

  8. Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1993-03-01

    Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

  9. uSIMPK. An Excel for Windows-based simulation program for instruction of basic pharmacokinetics principles to pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Brocks, Dion R

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom. PMID:25934593

  10. Some basic aspects of statistical methods and sample size determination in health science research.

    PubMed

    Binu, V S; Mayya, Shreemathi S; Dhar, Murali

    2014-04-01

    A health science researcher may sometimes wonder "why statistical methods are so important in research?" Simple answer is that, statistical methods are used throughout a study that includes planning, designing, collecting data, analyzing and drawing meaningful interpretation and report the findings. Hence, it is important that a researcher knows the concepts of at least basic statistical methods used at various stages of a research study. This helps the researcher in the conduct of an appropriately well-designed study leading to valid and reliable results that can be generalized to the population. A well-designed study possesses fewer biases, which intern gives precise, valid and reliable results. There are many statistical methods and tests that are used at various stages of a research. In this communication, we discuss the overall importance of statistical considerations in medical research with the main emphasis on estimating minimum sample size for different study objectives. PMID:25558154

  11. Research and Education in Basic Space Science: The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops

    E-print Network

    H. M. K. Al-Naimiy; C. P. Celebre; K. Chamcham; H. S. P. de Alwis; M. C. P. de Carias; H. J. Haubold; A. E. Troche Boggino

    2000-02-22

    Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency is holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countries of Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean (Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt, Jordan), and Europe (Germany, France). Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia, Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Uruguay. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to network these astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and education programmes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has been developed for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in an university environment.

  12. Role of Basic Science in the Development of New Medicines: Examples from the Eicosanoid Field

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    The role of basic science in the development of health care has received more and more attention. In my own area of research involving the so-called eicosanoids, there are many examples of how studies of structure and function of small molecules, as well as proteins and genes, have led to new therapeutic agents for treatment of a variety of diseases. In most of the cases, the discoveries have resulted in the recognition of novel therapeutic targets amenable to modulation by small molecules. However, there are also examples in which the molecular mechanisms of actions of drugs, discovered by phenotypic screening, have been elucidated. The majority of the examples in this article consist of approved drugs; however, in some cases, ongoing developments of potential therapeutics are cited. PMID:22318727

  13. An Integrated Course in Pain Management and Palliative Care Bridging the Basic Sciences and Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kullgren, Justin; Unni, Elizabeth; Hanson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development of an integrated pain and palliative care course and to investigate the long-term effectiveness of the course during doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and in their practice after graduation. Design. Roseman University College of Pharmacy faculty developed a 3-week elective course in pain and palliative care by integrating relevant clinical and pharmaceutical sciences. Instructional strategies included lectures, team and individual activities, case studies, and student presentations. Assessment. Students who participated in the course in 2010 and 2011 were surveyed anonymously to gain their perception about the class as well as the utility of the course during their APPEs and in their everyday practice. Traditional and nontraditional assessment of students confirmed that the learning outcomes objectives were achieved. Conclusions. Students taking the integrated course on pain management and palliative care achieved mastery of the learning outcome objectives. Surveys of students and practicing pharmacists who completed the course showed that the learning experience as well as retention was improved with the integrated mode of teaching. Integrating basic and clinical sciences in therapeutic courses is an effective learning strategy. PMID:23966724

  14. Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Science educators play a central role in educating, inspiring, and guiding students to become responsible, scientifically literate citizens. Therefore, teachers of science must uphold the highest ethical standards of the profession to earn and maintain the respect, trust, and confidence of students, parents, school leaders, colleagues, and other…

  15. A new Big Five: fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Dan P; Pals, Jennifer L

    2006-04-01

    Despite impressive advances in recent years with respect to theory and research, personality psychology has yet to articulate clearly a comprehensive framework for understanding the whole person. In an effort to achieve that aim, the current article draws on the most promising empirical and theoretical trends in personality psychology today to articulate 5 big principles for an integrative science of the whole person. Personality is conceived as (a) an individual's unique variation on the general evolutionary design for human nature, expressed as a developing pattern of (b) dispositional traits, (c) characteristic adaptations, and (d) self-defining life narratives, complexly and differentially situated (e) in culture and social context. The 5 principles suggest a framework for integrating the Big Five model of personality traits with those self-defining features of psychological individuality constructed in response to situated social tasks and the human need to make meaning in culture. PMID:16594837

  16. The Frog Vestibular System as a Model for Lesion-Induced Plasticity: Basic Neural Principles and Implications for Posture Control

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, François M.; Straka, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the central nervous system (CNS) to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the CNS include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims toward a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of vestibular function. PMID:22518109

  17. The use of shock waves in medicine--a tool of the modern OR: an overview of basic physical principles, history and research.

    PubMed

    Thiel, M; Nieswand, M; Dörffel, M

    2000-01-01

    Extracorporeal-generated shock waves were first used in medical therapy, to disintegrate kidney stones, approximately 20 years ago. Since this time, shock waves have changed the treatment of urolithiasis substantially and are now the first-choice treatment for kidney and ureteral stones. First clinical investigations of the shock-wave treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica (IPP) are showing promising results. Shock waves have also been used in orthopaedics and traumatology, to treat insertion tendinitis, non-unions or delayed unions, avascular necrosis of the head of femur and other necrotic bone alterations. Shock-wave application has also been used in the treatment of horse tendons, ligaments and bones in veterinary medicine. The theory of shock-wave therapy for orthopaedic diseases involves the stimulation of healing processes in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a completely different approach from that of urology, where shock waves are used for disintegration. This paper gives an overview of the basic physical principles of shock waves, and the history and basic research behind shock-wave use in medicine. PMID:20156022

  18. Knowledge loss of medical students on first year basic science courses at the university of Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    D'Eon, Marcel F

    2006-01-01

    Background Many senior undergraduate students from the University of Saskatchewan indicated informally that they did not remember much from their first year courses and wondered why we were teaching content that did not seem relevant to later clinical work or studies. To determine the extent of the problem a course evaluation study that measured the knowledge loss of medical students on selected first year courses was conducted. This study replicates previous memory decrement studies with three first year medicine basic science courses, something that was not found in the literature. It was expected that some courses would show more and some courses would show less knowledge loss. Methods In the spring of 2004 over 20 students were recruited to retake questions from three first year courses: Immunology, physiology, and neuroanatomy. Student scores on the selected questions at the time of the final examination in May 2003 (the 'test') were compared with their scores on the questions 10 or 11 months later (the 're-test') using paired samples t -tests. A repeated-measures MANOVA was used to compare the test and re-test scores among the three courses. The re-test scores were matched with the overall student ratings of the courses and the student scores on the May 2003 examinations. Results A statistically significant main effect of knowledge loss (F = 297.385; p < .001) and an interaction effect by course (F = 46.081; p < .001) were found. The students' scores in the Immunology course dropped 13.1%, 46.5% in Neuroanatomy, and 16.1% in physiology. Bonferroni post hoc comparisons showed a significant difference between Neuroanatomy and Physiology (mean difference of 10.7, p = .004). Conclusion There was considerable knowledge loss among medical students in the three basic science courses tested and this loss was not uniform across courses. Knowledge loss does not seem to be related to the marks on the final examination or the assessment of course quality by the students. PMID:16412241

  19. Exploration of an e-learning model to foster critical thinking on basic science concepts during work placements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bas A. De Leng; Diana H. J. M. Dolmans; Rijn Jöbsis; Arno M. M. Muijtjens; Cees P. M. Van Der Vleuten

    2009-01-01

    We designed an e-learning model to promote critical thinking about basic science topics in online communities of students during work placements in higher education. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the model we explored the online discussions in two case studies. We evaluated the quantity of the interactions by looking at quantitative data of the discussion ‘threads’ and we

  20. Fusion connection: Contributions to industry, defense and basic science resulting from scientific advances made in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Finn; J. Woo; R. Temkin; D. Anderson; J. Anderson; D. Barbosa; R. Briggs; J. Callen; S. Colgate; J. Cowles

    1985-01-01

    Fusion research has led to significant contributions in many different areas of industry, defense, and basic science. This diversity is represented visually in the introductory figure which shows both a radio galaxy, and a microchip produced by plasma etching. Some of these spin-off technologies are discussed.

  1. Basic science and translational research in female pelvic floor disorders: Proceedings of an NIH-sponsored meeting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Weber; Gunhilde M. Buchsbaum; Bertha Chen; Amanda L. Clark; Margot S. Damaser; Firouz Daneshgari; Gary Davis; John DeLancey; Kimberly Kenton; Alison C. Weidner; R. Ann Word

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To report the ¢ndings of a multidisciplinary group of scientists focusing on issues in basic science and translational research related to female pelvic £oor disorders, and to produce recom- mendations for a research agenda for investigators studying female pelvic £oor disorders. Methods: A National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored meeting was held on November 14 ^ 15, 2002, bringing together

  2. The unexpected evolution of basic science studies about cyclic nucleotide action into a treatment for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Jackie

    2015-01-16

    In these Reflections, I describe my perceived role in discoveries made in the cyclic nucleotide field that culminated in the advent of PDE5 inhibitors that treat erectile dysfunction, such as Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis. The discoveries emphasize the critical role of basic science, which often evolves in unpredictable and circuitous paths, in improving human health. PMID:25505249

  3. The Buffalo Approach to Changing the Basic Science Curriculum, or Toiling and Dreaming in the Vineyards of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lisa A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The State University of New York at Buffalo dental school's reform of basic science curriculum is discussed. The paper first outlines the curriculum review/development process, focusing on incorporation of specific competencies, computer-based curriculum analysis, and the role of a dental schools consortium. The paper then looks at future…

  4. Worldwide Development of Astronomy: The Story of a Decade of UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science

    E-print Network

    Hans J. Haubold; Willem Wamsteker

    1997-05-21

    In 1990 the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of these Workshops and their follow-up projects.

  5. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  6. Bridging Science and Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joseph A. Taylor

    2002-03-01

    The Colleges of Engineering and Education at Penn State University have collaborated to design and deliver an engineering course for education and other nonscience majors. In this course, students integrate basic principles of applied physical science and

  7. Traumatic white matter injury and glial activation: from basic science to clinics.

    PubMed

    Kou, Zhifeng; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-11-01

    An improved understanding and characterization of glial activation and its relationship with white matter injury will likely serve as a novel treatment target to curb post injury inflammation and promote axonal remyelination after brain trauma. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public healthcare burden and a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Particularly, traumatic white matter (WM) injury or traumatic axonal injury has been reported as being associated with patients' poor outcomes. However, there is very limited data reporting the importance of glial activation after TBI and its interaction with WM injury. This article presents a systematic review of traumatic WM injury and the associated glial activation, from basic science to clinical diagnosis and prognosis, from advanced neuroimaging perspective. It concludes that there is a disconnection between WM injury research and the essential role of glia which serve to restore a healthy environment for axonal regeneration following WM injury. Particularly, there is a significant lack of non-invasive means to characterize the complex pathophysiology of WM injury and glial activation in both animal models and in humans. An improved understanding and characterization of the relationship between glia and WM injury will likely serve as a novel treatment target to curb post injury inflammation and promote axonal remyelination. PMID:24807544

  8. Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption. Part I: The basic science aspects.

    PubMed

    Brezniak, Naphtali; Wasserstein, Atalia

    2002-04-01

    Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) or, as it is better known, root resorption, is an unavoidable pathologic consequence of orthodontic tooth movement. It is a certain adverse effect of an otherwise predictable force application. Although it is rarely serious, it is a devastating event when it is radiographically recognized. Orthodontics is probably the only dental specialty that actually uses the inflammatory process as a means of solving functional and esthetic problems. Force application initiates a sequential cellular process. We know exactly how and when it is evoked, but we are unable to predict its actual overall outcome. The extent of this inflammatory process depends on many factors such as the virulence or aggressiveness of the different resorbing cells, as well as the vulnerability and sensitivity of the tissues involved. Individual variation and susceptibility, which are related to this process, remain beyond our understanding. We are therefore unable to predict the incidence and extent of OIIRR after force application. This contemporary review is divided into two parts. In Part I, we discuss the basic sciences aspects of OIIRR as a continuation of our previously published work. In Part II, we present the clinical aspects of this subject. PMID:11999941

  9. Reaction of SO2 with pure and metal-doped MgO: Basic principles for the cleavage of S-O bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. A.; Jirsak, T.; González, L.; Evans, J.; Pérez, M.; Maiti, A.

    2001-12-01

    Synchrotron-based high-resolution photoemission, x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, and first-principles density-functional calculations are used to examine the interaction of SO2 with pure and modified surfaces of magnesium oxide. On a MgO(100) single crystal, SO2 reacts with O centers to form SO3 and SO4 species. The bonding interactions with the Mg cations are weak and do not lead to cleavage of S-O bonds. An identical result is found after adsorbing SO2 on pure stoichiometric powders of MgO and other oxides (TiO2, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, NiO, CuO, ZnO, V2O5, CeO2, BaO). In these systems, the occupied cations bands are too stable for effective bonding interactions with the LUMO of SO2. To activate an oxide for S-O bond cleavage, one has to create occupied metal states above the valence band of the oxide. DF calculations predict that in the presence of these "extra" electronic states the adsorption energy of SO2 should increase, and there should be a significant oxide?SO2(LUMO) charge transfer that facilitates the cleavage of the S-O bonds. In this article, we explore three different approaches (formation of O vacancies, promotion with alkali metals, and doping with transition metals) that lead to the activation of SO2 and S-O bond breaking on MgO and oxides in general. Basic principles for a rational design of catalysts with a high efficiency for the destruction of SO2 are presented.

  10. Targeting as a Mode of Science Communication: Principles, Issues and a Practical Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; Vigh, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Today's media landscape contains a rich and diverse range of communications opportunities. New media, such as the internet, blogosphere and social networks, are complementing, supplementing and also replacing the traditional mass media communications through print, radio and television. This diversification certainly contains pitfalls and difficulties as has been demonstrated in the Climategate affair. But there are also real opportunities for utilizing the diversity to provide targeted science communications that are framed in the context of the specific group of interest. That such targeting of audience attitudes and beliefs is an important key to effective science communications has been demonstrated by, for example, Leiserowitz, Maibach et al (2009). This approach does require an understanding of the audience and a careful framing of the message in terms familiar to the targeted group. Here many factors come into play, including: including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters. In this talk we shall elaborate on the principles, issues and opportunities. A practical example of working with the religious community on communicating the science of climate change will also be presented. This will include the approach adopted, progress to date and the lessons learnt.

  11. Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peg Brigham Alden

    2006-03-01

    Due to increasingly widespread inclusion practices and more thorough identification procedures, students with documented learning disabilities (LD) are becoming a larger percentage of the science classroom. Because many practicing science teachers have little training or experience in identifying and meeting the needs of students with disabilities, this article outlines basic educational principles that support the unique learning needs of these students. Each principle is accompanied by examples of how a science instructor might put the principle, "science for all students," into practice.

  12. UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science: An Initiative in the Worl dwide Development of Astronomy

    E-print Network

    H. J. Haubold

    1998-09-26

    In 1990, the United Nations, in cooperation with the European Space Agency, initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin American and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of these Workshops (1991-1998) and their follow-up projects with a view to enhance the worldwide development of astronomy and space science. The Workshops are being considered unique and a model for such an endeavor.

  13. Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

  14. The attitudes and perceptions of medical students towards basic science subjects during their clinical years: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Ashwani K; Verma, Minni; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Kamaljit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the conventional system of medical education, basic subjects are taught in the 1st year with least interdisciplinary interaction. The objective of this study was to explore the students’ perception about content, need and application of basic science subjects during the clinical years of their medical education. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed among students randomly after taking their written consent for participation in the study. About 265 completely filled questionnaires were received back and the response was analyzed. Results: Students identified anatomy as the subject with overloaded syllabus (75.4%) and also with maximum clinical application with 50.1% of them considering it the most important basic subject. Students were satisfied with the practical integration of subjects to impart clinical skills, but considered problem based learning a better method of teaching. According to 37%, 43.8% and 33.2% of respondents respectively; anatomy, biochemistry and physiology curriculum should only cover the general concepts to give the working knowledge of the subject. Approximately, 65% of the respondents were able to recall the knowledge of anatomy and physiology while biochemistry was retained by 40%. Conclusions: Overall, the attitudes of students toward basic science subjects were positive. The learning experience for them can be improved significantly by better clinical integration of the subjects. PMID:24600572

  15. Ethics and Values in Science-Technology-Society Education: Converging Themes in a Basic Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    1993-01-01

    Provides the results of a review and synthesis of research bearing on ethics and values education in science and technology performed by a group of philosophers, public interest educators, and a science curriculum specialist. (DDR)

  16. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are planned. "Other Research" includes: BUNDLE (Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrite in a Liquid Experiment) activities (primarily crucible development), vibrational float-zone processing (with Vanderbilt University), use of ultrasonics in materials processing (with UAH), rotational effects on microstructural development, and application of magnetic fields for mixing.

  17. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  18. Science: A Practical View. Volume I. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the first in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) ecology (what marine science

  19. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  20. A Multi-Instructor, Team-Based, Active-Learning Exercise to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences Content

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Darren M.; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Design. A team-based learning activity that involved pre-class reading assignments, individual-and team-answered multiple-choice questions, and evaluation and discussion of a clinical case, was designed, implemented, and moderated by 3 faculty members from the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacy practice departments. Assessment. Student performance was assessed using a multiple-choice examination, an individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), a team readiness assurance test (TRAT), and a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Student attitudes were assessed using a pre- and post-exercise survey instrument. Students’ understanding of possible correct treatment strategies for depression improved. Students were appreciative of this true integration of basic sciences knowledge in a pharmacotherapy course and to have faculty members from both disciplines present to answer questions. Mean student score on the on depression module for the examination was 80.4%, indicating mastery of the content. Conclusions. An exercise led by multiple instructors improved student perceptions of the importance of team-based teaching. Integrated teaching and learning may be achieved when instructors from multiple disciplines work together in the classroom using proven team-based, active-learning exercises. PMID:22438605

  1. Report of the joint ESOT and TTS basic science meeting 2013: current concepts and discoveries in translational transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Susanne; Fabritius, Cornelia; Ritschl, Paul; Oberhuber, Rupert; Günther, Julia; Kotsch, Katja

    2014-10-01

    A joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and The Transplantation (TTS) Societies for basic science research was organized in Paris, France, on November 7-9, 2013. Focused on new ideas and concepts in translational transplantation, the meeting served as a venue for state-of-the-art developments in basic transplantation immunology, such as the potential for tolerance induction through regulation of T-cell signaling. This meeting report summarizes important insights which were presented in Paris. It not only offers an overview of established aspects, such as the role of Tregs in transplantation, presented by Nobel laureate Rolf Zinkernagel, but also highlights novel facets in the field of transplantation, that is cell-therapy-based immunosuppression or composite tissue transplantation as presented by the emotional story given by Vasyly Rohovyy, who received two hand transplants. The ESOT/TTS joint meeting was an overall productive and enjoyable platform for basic science research in translational transplantation and fulfilled all expectations by giving a promising outlook for the future of research in the field of immunological transplantation research. PMID:24890468

  2. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE Physiology & Neurobiology PHNB (0404E) C or better required in all courses effective 9/2005

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE Physiology & Neurobiology PHNB (0404E & Genetics General Biology Physiology & Neurobiology Ecology & Evolution Microbiology Individualized Studies PHYSIOLOGY & NEUROBIOLOGY 0404E FALL 2005 Grade of C or better required in each course 27 minimum required

  3. Multi-Database Searching in the Behavioral Sciences--Part I: Basic Techniques and Core Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angier, Jennifer J.; Epstein, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines practical searching techniques in seven core behavioral science databases accessing psychological literature: Psychological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Biosis, Medline, Excerpta Medica, Sociological Abstracts, ERIC. Use of individual files is discussed and their relative strengths/weaknesses are compared. Appended is a list…

  4. Basic Concepts of the Educational Science Sub-Discipline of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kaethe

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual system is outlined for the educational science sub-discipline of adult education. Adults' attending instruction or not attending instruction is conceptually specified. Focusing as it does on a cardinal event of adult education, this represents a first step toward a system for the educational science sub-discipline of…

  5. Making space law relevant to basic space science in the commercial space age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sriram Swaminathan

    2005-01-01

    Space science has been at the heart of humanity's activity in space, a fact reflected in the body of space law set up to regulate such activity. The increase in commercial utilisation of space may threaten the conduct of space science; reform of space law, however, could alleviate this situation. Using the examples of radio and light interference, and space

  6. Science: A Practical View. Volume II. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The guide is divided into three components. The first component helps students…

  7. Basic Science Process Skills. An Inservice Workshop Kit: Outlines and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Paul; And Others

    A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…

  8. Home Economics and Basic Skills. Correlation of the Curriculum Guide for Consumer and Homemaking Education with Objectives for Reading, Writing, Mathematics, Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended to assist home economics teachers in recognizing which learning activities reinforce basic reading, writing, mathematics, and science skills concepts. The first chapter discusses objectives in each of these four basic skills areas. The remaining chapters consist of cross-referenced lists of reading, writing, mathematics, and…

  9. Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

  10. Articular cartilage repair: basic science and clinical progress. A review of the current status and prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Hunziker

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review the basic scientific status of repair in articular cartilage tissue and to assess the efficiency of current clinical therapies instigated for the treatment of structural lesions generated therein as a result of trauma or during the course of various diseases, notably osteoarthritis (OA). Current scientific trends and possible directions for the future will also be discussed.Design A

  11. Dendritic Encapsulation of Function: Applying Nature's Site Isolation Principle from Biomimetics to Materials Science.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stefan; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The convergence of our understanding of structure-property relationships for selected biological macromolecules and our increased ability to prepare large synthetic macromolecules with a structural precision that approaches that of proteins have spawned a new area of research where chemistry and materials science join with biology. While evolution has enabled nature to perfect processes involving energy transfer or catalysis by incorporating functions such as self-replication and repair, synthetic macromolecules still depend on our synthetic skills and abilities to mesh structure and function in our designs. Clearly, we can take advantage of our understanding of natural systems to mimic the structural features that lead to optimized function. For example, numerous biological systems make use of the concept of site isolation whereby an active center or catalytic site is encapsulated, frequently within a protein, to afford properties that would not be encountered in the bulk state. The ability of the dendritic shell to encapsulate functional core moieties and to create specific site-isolated nanoenvironments, and thereby affect molecular properties, has been explored. By utilizing the distinct properties of the dendrimer architecture active sites that have either photophysical, photochemical, electrochemical, or catalytic functions have been placed at the core. Applying the general concept of site isolation to problems in materials research is likely to prove extremely fruitful in the long term, with short-term applications in areas such as the construction of improved optoelectronic devices. This review focuses on the evolution of a natural design principle that contributes to bridging the gap between biology and materials science. The recent progress in the synthesis of dendrimer-encapsulated molecules and their study by a variety of techniques is discussed. These investigations have implications that range from the preliminary design of artificial enzymes, catalysts, or light-harvesting systems to the construction of insulated molecular wires, light-emitting diodes, and fiber optics. PMID:11169692

  12. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 50th anniversary editorial board commentary: anatomy, basic sciences, and genetics--then and now.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Mark P; Cooper, Gregory M; Marazita, Mary L

    2014-05-01

    To celebrate the 50th year of the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal we look back to where we started in 1964 and where we are now, and we speculate about directions for the future in a "Then and Now" editorial series. This editorial examines changing trends and perspectives in anatomical, basic science, and genetic studies published in this 50-year interval. In volume 1 there were 45 total papers, seven (16%) of which were peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: four in anatomy, three in craniofacial biology, and none in genetics. In contrast, in volume 50, of 113 articles there were 47 (42%) peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: 30 in anatomy, five in craniofacial biology, and 12 in genetics. Topical analysis of published manuscripts then and now reveal that similar topics in anatomy and craniofacial biology are still being researched today (e.g., phenotypic variability, optimal timing of surgery, presurgical orthopedics, bone grafting); whereas, most of the more recent papers use advanced technology to address old questions. In contrast, genetic publications have clearly increased in frequency during the last 50 years, which parallels advances in the field during this time. However, all of us have noticed that the more "cutting-edge" papers in these areas are not being submitted for publication to the journal, but instead to discipline-specific journals. Concerted efforts are therefore indicated to attract and publish these cutting-edge papers in order to keep the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal in the forefront of orofacial cleft and craniofacial anomaly research and to provide a valuable service to American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members. PMID:24617328

  13. How do the National Science Education Standards support the teaching of engineering principles and design?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sami Fadali; Mike Robinson

    2000-01-01

    The recently developed National Science Education Standards (NSES) have the overall goal of making scientific literacy, in all of our citizens, a reality in the 21st century. The NSES science standards address content in science and technology as well as science as inquiry, science in personal and social perspectives, and the history and nature of science in grades K-4, 5-8

  14. Basic science going clinical: molecularly targeted therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. N. Deininger

    2004-01-01

    Imatinib (STI571), a 2-phenylaminopyrimidine, specifically inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of Abl, Kit, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Clinical trials in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), characterized by the constitutively active Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, characterized by activating mutations of Kit, have shown excellent results. This success is proof of principle for the concept of molecularly targeted therapy:

  15. ECE 417/ECE517 Basic Semiconductor Devices Catalog Description: Theory and physical principles of bipolar junction and field-effect transistors.

    E-print Network

    of bipolar junction and field-effect transistors. Credits: 4 Terms Offered: Winter Prerequisites: ECE 416 and physical principles of bipolar junction transistors · Theory and physical principles of field-effect transistors · Modeling and simulation of semiconductor devices using computer aided design/analysis software

  16. A PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING COURSE IN PHYSIOLOGY FOR UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE BASIC SCIENCE STUDENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheella Mierson

    n small-group problem-based learning (PBL), students work cooperatively to solve complex, real-world problems. The problems lead the students to learn basic concepts rather than being presented as applications of concepts they have already learned. The goals are for students to learn and be able to apply the disciplinary content, develop critical thinking abilities, and acquire skills of life-long learning, communication,

  17. Review of advantages of Joel-Cohen surgical abdominal incision in caesarean section: a basic science perspective.

    PubMed

    Karanth, K L; Sathish, N

    2010-09-01

    Caesarean section is a common operation and the best postoperative outcomes are desired. Surgical techniques have been devised or modified to reduce operative and post operative discomfort. Many studies have evaluated or compared the Joel-Cohen abdominal incision with Pfannenstiel incision and found the former to be superior for various reasons such as less postoperative febrile morbidity, less analgesia requirements, shorter operating time, less intra operative blood loss and adhesion formation, reduction in hospital stay and wound infection in the group undergoing Caesarean section by this technique. This study is to find whether better postoperative outcomes of the Joel-Cohen incision group can be justified by the explanations of fundamentals of the basic sciences. Literature was reviewed for randomized clinical trials and review articles comparing the different kinds of abdominal incisions for Caesarean section. The study revealed that the Joel-Cohen method was beneficial. The fundamentals of basic sciences were studied to try to find an explanation to the enumerated advantages of the Joel-Cohen procedure; attributing to the differences in the techniques used. PMID:21939169

  18. Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

  19. Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

  20. REQUIRED TEMPLATE -LETTER OF OFFER BASIC or CLINICAL SCIENCE, RESEARCH TRACK

    E-print Network

    will be evaluated on an annual basis in the context of the School of Medicine Research Space Policy. Expectations the faculty of the Department of , School of Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) in New Orleans of Medicine. (If applicable, include this or a similar statement: However, since you are being hired

  1. Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health. Social Influence and Social Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses social influence and social cognition's effect on health and social well-being, and examines the efficacy of public health campaigns, the effects of negative stereotyping, and why some teenagers resist drug use and others do not as part of the social problems addressed by behavioral science research. Future directions for research on…

  2. Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calzonetti, F.

    1993-03-01

    Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of II-VI semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

  3. Planning of a West Virginia University Research Center in the basic materials sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Calzonetti, F.

    1993-03-01

    Research is being conducted on both structural and functional materials. The following research projects are being conducted: modeling of metallic alloy system for high-temperature structural applications, atomistic origins of embrittlement effects with alloy, high temperature crack growth, modeling of II-VI semiconductor superlattices for electrooptic applications, and highly parallel computer science research for materials modeling.

  4. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

  5. Chemical Nanotechnology: A Liberal Arts Approach to a Basic Course in Emerging Interdisciplinary Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lon A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The nanotechnology degree programs initiated at various institutions provided an excellent way of learning to look at the amazing opportunities that arise when various disciplines of science interact. The enrolled students were actively engaged in the subject matter and also expressed greater confidence in their ability to consider technology with…

  6. INTEGRATING QA PRINCIPLES WITH BASIC ELEMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROGRAM PROMOTES QUALITY SCIENCE IN A NON-GLP RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the research conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL) located in Research Triangle Park, NC, involves "pilot" and small-scale acute toxicity assessments conducted over short periods of time. onsequently, the...

  7. Threading secure coding principles and risk analysis into the undergraduate computer science and information systems curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair Taylor; Shiva Azadegan

    2006-01-01

    Most computer security issues can be attributed to software vulnerabilities. The number of software vulnerabilities continues to increase. Building secure systems requires incorporating security principles early and throughout the software development life cycle. Education of current and future software developers must include secure coding and design principles. Towson University, as a designated National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Security

  8. A model of integrated information-analytic system for basic research support in earth sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. M. Arskii; A. V. Veselovskii; A. N. Shogin

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers the design of integrated information-analytic systems by using a mathematical model of grouping of the\\u000a related scientific-research institutes and choosing a group center, i.e., an Internet portal. The modeling accounts for thematic\\u000a similarity of targeted tasks and cost issues. The Electronic Earth project launched by the Presidium of the Russian Academy\\u000a of Sciences (RAS) is aimed at

  9. The Utilization of the Seven Principles for Good Practices of Full-Time and Adjunct Faculty in Teaching Health & Science in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musaitif, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which undergraduate full-time and adjunct faculty members in the health and science programs at community colleges in Southern California utilize the seven principles of good practice as measured by the Faculty Inventory of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate…

  10. Schmperli, 19.09.2013 M Sc Molecular Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    -12, weeks 1-7, DCB, S481 Prof. R. Häner 1.5 3021 Basic medicinal chemistry - principles of drug action, Fri.00 Cellular and molecular immunology Principles of nucleic acids weeks 1-7 Basic medicinal chemistry. Moreno, Dr. B. Egger 1.5 11502 Molecular Life Science Journal Club, Thu 9-10, bi-weekly, IZB, C159 Prof

  11. ``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

    2006-12-01

    XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite all these efforts, one can’t help noticing an asymmetric level of scientific exploitation in the realm of X-ray astronomy between developing and developed countries. The latter have traditionally enjoyed the comparative advantage of deeper know-how, deriving from direct experience in hardware and mission development. The XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre’s efforts act to alleviate this situation through, for example, increasing the usage of the web for data and information dissemination, as well as by supporting actively such initiatives as the COSPAR Capacity-Building Workshops, specifically designed to create long-lasting bridges between researchers in developing and developed countries.

  12. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

    2014-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein. PMID:24593507

  13. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

    2014-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  14. Contour Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ackerman, Steve

    Contour Basics is an exercise designed to introduce students to contour plots. The Contour Activity is a great on-line resource that starts slowly and increases in difficulty. It teaches students basic techniques for generating contours, introduces students to the subtleties of generating contour plots with sparse data, provides many opportunities for students to assess their own progress and understanding and has complete on-line drawing capabilities. The exercise is geared toward atmospheric and oceanic sciences but is beneficial for all geoscience students. In addition to the exercise, this site includes information on teaching materials, teaching notes and tips, assessment suggestions and additional references. This activity is part of the Starting Point Collection: http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/

  15. Study of the impacts of patient-educators on the course of basic sciences in dental studies.

    PubMed

    Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C

    2015-02-01

    Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients. PMID:24628743

  16. Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. Methods We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Results Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. Conclusions A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required. PMID:21463516

  17. The role of a science story, activities, and dialogue modeled on Philosophy for Children in teaching basic science process skills to fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Louise Brandes Moura

    This study was an application of Philosophy for Children pedagogy to science education. It was designed to answer the question, What roles do a science story (Harry Discovers Science), multi-sensorial activities designed to accompany the story, and classroom dialogue associated with the story---all modeled on the Philosophy for Children curriculum---play in the learning processes of a class of fifth graders with regard to the basic science process skills of classification, observation, and inference? To answer the question, I collected qualitative data as I carried out a participatory study in which I taught science to fifth graders at an international, bilingual private religious school in Brasilia, Brazil for a period of one semester. Twenty-one (n = 21) children participated in the study, 10 females and 11 males, who came from a predominantly middle and upper class social background. Data were collected through student interviews, student class reflection sheets, written learning assessments, audiotapes of all class sessions, including whole-class and small-class group discussions, and a videotape of one class session. Some of the key findings were that the story, activities and dialogue facilitated the children's learning in a number of ways. The story modeled the performance of classification, observation and inference skills for the children as well as reflection on the meaning of inference. The majority of the students identified with the fictional characters, particularly regarding traits such as cleverness and inquisitiveness, and with the learning context of the story. The multi-sensorial activities helped children learn observation and inference skills as well as dialogue. Dialogue also helped children self-correct and build upon each other's ideas. Some students developed theories about how ideal dialogue should work. In spite of the inherent limitations of qualitative and teacher research studies, as well as the limitations of this particular study, and despite the fact that there is a need for further research to confirm the transferability of findings, this study both supports and expands to the domain of basic science process skills the claim that Philosophy for Children helps students develop thinking skills.

  18. Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Incorporting Science, Technology, Fairness, and Accountability in Environmental, Health and Safety Decisions

    E-print Network

    Ashford, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The precautionary principle is in sharp political focus today because (1) the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing and (2) there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on allegedly more "rational" ...

  19. Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

  20. Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

  1. Pages 6-15 In: J. Wu, X. Han and J. Huang (eds), Lectures in Modern Ecology (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science and Technology Press, Beijing.

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

    Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science and Technology Press, Beijing. 1 #12;Pages 6-15 In: J. Wu, X. Han and J. Huang (eds), Lectures in Modern Ecology (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science and Technology Press, Beijing. 3 #12;Pages 6

  2. The Lujan Center is a national user facility funded by Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy which o ers capability for basic and applied neutron scattering

    E-print Network

    of Energy which o ers capability for basic and applied neutron scattering relevant to national security are the domain of the low-Q scattering intrument, LQD. These well-established neutron techniques probe long Matter, Local Structure, and Nanomaterials The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center encompasses a set

  3. Applying the Science of Learning: Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 100 years, a major accomplishment of psychology has been the development of a science of learning aimed at understanding how people learn. In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and education is the development of a science of instruction aimed at understanding how to present material in…

  4. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  5. Rocket Principles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On this site from the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project, the science and history of rocketry is explained. Visitors will find out how rocket principles illustrate Newton's Laws of Motion. There is a second page of this site, Practical Rocketry, which discusses the workings of rockets, including propellants, engine thrust control, stability and control systems, and mass.

  6. Multimedia Design Principles in the Psychomotor Domain: The Effect of Multimedia and Spatial Contiguity on Students' Learning of Basic Life Support with Task Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…

  7. Basic Science Simulations Provide New Insights to Aid Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Massive first-principles simulation provides insight into flame anchoring in a hydrogen-rich jet in cross-flow. When gas turbine designers want to use gasified biomass for stationary power generation, they are faced with a challenge: bio-derived syngas typically contains significant amounts of hydrogen, which is far more reactive than the methane that is the traditional gas turbine fuel. This reactivity leads to a safety design issue, because with hydrogen-rich fuels a flame may anchor in the fuel injection section of the combustor instead of the downstream design point. In collaboration with Jacqueline Chen of Sandia National Laboratories and Andrea Gruber of SINTEF, a Norwegian energy think tank, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is carrying out fundamental simulations to provide new insight into the physics of flame anchoring in canonical 'jet in cross-flow' configurations using hydrogen-rich fuels. To deal with the large amount and complexity of the data, the combustion scientists also teamed up with computer scientists from across the U.S. Department of Energy's laboratories to develop novel ways to analyze the data. These simulations have shown that fine-scale turbulence structures formed at the jet boundary provide particularly intense mixing between the fuel and air, which then enters a quiescent region formed downstream of the jet in a separate, larger turbulent structure. This insight explains the effect that reducing the wall-normal velocity of the fuel jet causes the flame to blow off; with the aid of the simulation, we now understand this counterintuitive result because reducing the wall-normal velocity would reduce the intensity of the mixing as well as move the quiescent region farther downstream. NREL and its research partners are conducting simulations that provide new insight into the physics of flame anchoring in canonical 'jet in cross-flow' configurations using hydrogen-rich fuels. Simulation results explain the mechanism behind flame blow-off occurring when a component in the cross-flow direction is progressively added to the jet velocity vector, thereby reducing the relative impact of its wall-normal velocity component. Understanding the mechanism for flame anchoring aids the design of fuel injection nozzles that meet safety requirements when using hydrogen-rich fuels.

  8. Formally acknowledging donor-cadaver-patients in the basic and clinical science research arena.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion

    2013-10-01

    Historically, in the healthcare profession, cadaveric tissue has been predominantly used for teaching the architecture of the human body. It is respectful practice in scientific writing to acknowledge colleagues who have helped to collect/analyze data and prepare manuscripts; however, it appears that we have omitted to thank those that have donated themselves for any of these projects to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate the formal acknowledgment thanking those who have given the amazing gift of themselves to science. A literature search was conducted on printed and electronic anatomical and clinical journals. Anatomical and clinical conferences were attended between 2008 and 2012; posters utilizing cadaveric tissue were examined for acknowledgment. University/private institutions were contacted to ascertain if memorial services were held. Literature revealed only one journal that required acknowledgment when donor-cadaver's (DC's) were used. Poster examination revealed very few acknowledgments of DC tissue at clinical conferences. While all university programs (n?=?20) held memorial services, only 6 of 20 private procurement organizations had any such event. Our surgical anatomist forefathers faced awkward conditions because cadaveric tissue was not readily available. Contemporarily, anatomists and researchers have ready access to DC's. Socially, these donations are recognized as unparalleled educational tools and gifts, yet often they are not given the appropriate recognition and are overlooked in the publishing and scientific research arena. This research suggests editors, researchers, IRB committees, nonprofit body willed programs, and for-profit procurement organizations formally recognize and/or require recognition of those who donate their bodies for research. PMID:23716496

  9. Exploring Magnetism: from Standards-based physical science concepts to cutting edge NASA research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Mendez; L. M. Peticolas

    2008-01-01

    The increasing focus on educational standards in the K-12 classroom can appear to push out extra topics, like cutting-edge NASA science. But that need not be the case. All NASA science is rooted in basic physical science and mathematics concepts. Relating modern investigations to their basic principles is an effective way to not only insert these topics into classroom curricula,

  10. Emergent Principles for the Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Cluster-Based Experiments in Social Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Cook

    2005-01-01

    In experimentally designed research, many good reasons exist for assigning groups or clusters to treatments rather than individuals. This article discusses them. But cluster-level designs face some unique or exacerbated challenges. The article identifies them and offers some principles about them. One emphasizes how statistical power and sample size estimation depend on intraclass correlations, particularly after conditioning on the use

  11. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  12. Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How Personal and Academic Characteristics of Pre-Service Science Teachers Compare with Their Understandings of Basic Chemical Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Vanessa; Kind, Per Morten

    2011-01-01

    Around 150 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11-16-year-olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by…

  13. CIS 160 Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science Course Number & Title (A.1) CIS 160 Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    (A.5a) What are the basic mathematical concepts and techniques needed in computer science? The course. · The student will learn concepts of graph theory (directed and undirected graphs) and basic connectivity number theory · Basic concepts of set theory · Well-ordered sets and the induction principle · Relations

  14. 479Program of Medical Laboratory Sciences Undergraduate Catalogue 201314

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    , antigens, antibodies, and complement system, as well as basic principles in blood banking and transfusion medicine. First semester. #12;480 Program of Medical Laboratory Sciences Undergraduate Catalogue 2013

  15. A sensitization-homeostasis model of nicotine craving, withdrawal, and tolerance: integrating the clinical and basic science literature.

    PubMed

    DiFranza, Joseph R; Wellman, Robert J

    2005-02-01

    Recent reports suggest that nicotine withdrawal symptoms are common among adolescents after a few weeks of intermittent tobacco use. No current model of nicotine dependence had predicted the rapid development of symptoms of dependence and withdrawal before the development of tolerance. We present a model that integrates neuroscience with clinical observations regarding how nicotine dependence develops, progresses, and resolves in humans. The central tenet of this sensitization-homeostasis model is that nicotine's dependence liability derives from its ability to stimulate neural pathways responsible for the suppression of craving. As a result of sensitization, the craving suppression produced by nicotine is magnified to superphysiological levels. The overinhibition of neurons responsible for craving initiates compensatory homeostatic measures that stimulate the craving pathways and result in craving when nicotine is absent. Separate homeostatic mechanisms are responsible for craving, withdrawal, and tolerance. The sensitization-homeostasis model is unique in its attribution of dependence to craving suppression, its attention to the temporal relationships among clinical features of nicotine dependence, and its extensive integration of clinical observations and basic science. It provides a framework for theory-based research. PMID:15804674

  16. Higher temperature reactor materials workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.; Bruemmer, S.; Kassner, M.; Odette, R.; Stoller, R.; Was, G.; Wolfer, W.; Zinkle, S.; Elmer, J.; Motta, A.

    2002-08-12

    On March 18-21, 2002, the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop to identify needs and opportunities for materials research aimed at performance improvements of structural materials in higher temperature reactors. The workshop focused discussion around the reactor concepts proposed as part of the Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Roadmap. The goal of the Generation IV initiative is to make revolutionary improvements in nuclear energy system design in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability. The Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Roadmap working groups have identified operation at higher temperature as an important step in improving economic performance and providing a means for nuclear energy to support thermochemical production of hydrogen. However, the move to higher operating temperatures will require the development and qualification of advanced materials to perform in the more challenging environment. As part of the process of developing advanced materials for these reactor concepts, a fundamental understanding of materials behavior must be established and the data-base defining critical performance limitations of these materials under irradiation must be developed. This workshop reviewed potential reactor designs and operating regimes, potential materials for application in high-temperature reactor environments, anticipated degradation mechanisms, and research necessary to understand and develop reactor materials capable of satisfactory performance while subject to irradiation damage at high temperature. The workshop brought together experts from the reactor materials and fundamental materials science communities to identify research and development needs and opportunities to provide optimum high temperature nuclear energy system structural materials.

  17. Citizen Science 2.0: Data Management Principles to Harness the Power of the Crowd

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Lukyanenko; Jeffrey Parsons; Yolanda Wiersma

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a Citizen science refers to voluntary participation by the general public in scientific endeavors. Although citizen science\\u000a has a long tradition, the rise of online communities and user-generated web content has the potential to greatly expand its\\u000a scope and contributions. Citizens spread across a large area will collect more information than an individual researcher can.\\u000a Because citizen scientists tend to make

  18. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phylliss

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

  19. Amplification of the concept of meaning as the validating principle in psychodynamic science.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Crittenden E

    2005-01-01

    In two previous articles by this author, the concept of psyche was given legitimate scientific status insofar as a necessarily new and unique scientific paradigm for psychodynamics was elaborated, stemming from the idea that positivistic science is not appropriate to the subjective data of psychoanalysis. This paradigm includes the idea that the concept of meaning as scientific validation is central to psychodynamic science. The concepts of erroneous meaning, synchronicity, and numinosity were introduced as aspects of this new scientific paradigm. In the present article, the complementary relationship between psychodynamic and traditional science is explored. The concepts of synchronicity, numiosity, and meaning are elaborated, together with discussion of the phenomenon of anxiety as it impinges on these dynamics. The concept of erroneous meaning is in this article separated from the concept of meaning itself through the idea that the activation of anxiety separates the two. PMID:16178686

  20. Progress of basic research in Parkinson’s disease in China: data mini-review from the National Natural Science Foundation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This review is to analyze the role of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) on the development of basic research of Parkinson’s disease from 1990 to 2012. Data on the total number of projects and funding of NSFC allocated to Parkinson’s disease, as well as hotspots in western countries, papers published, awards, personnel training, subject construction were collected, and the role of NSFC on other sources of funding was evaluated. Over the past 23 years, a full range of continuous funding from NSFC has led to fruitful results and a strong impetus to the progress of basic research of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23987120

  1. Data Communication Principles Reliable Data Transfer

    E-print Network

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer Data Communication Basics Mahalingam Ramkumar Mississippi State University, MS September 8, 2014 Ramkumar CSE 4153 / 6153 #12;Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer 1 Data Communication Principles Data Rate of a Communication

  2. Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

    2006-05-24

    The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

  3. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  4. Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

  5. Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science Seminar Series Principles Defining the Operation of

    E-print Network

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    include bio-nanotechnology, materials science, molecular/dielectric devices, sensors and electronic-vicinity, electronegativity, and density-of-states, can be employed to reversibly dope its carriers via the mechanics a challenge due to the volumetric-shrinkage, electrostatic charging, and structural degradation of cells under

  6. Design Principles for High School Engineering Design Challenges: Experiences from High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    At the University of Pittsburgh, the author and his colleagues have been exploring a range of approaches to design challenges for implementation in high school science classrooms. In general, their approach has always involved students working during class time over the course of many weeks. So, their understanding of what works must be…

  7. Methodological Congruity in Principle and in Practice: A Dilemma in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Mike; Bentley, Di

    1986-01-01

    Science educators verge upon "sheer eclectic laziness." That is, there is a lack of congruence between classroom practices and the discernible assumptions that underwrite them. Examples are provided. What is needed is a thoughtful selection of models of teaching and learning matched to strategies for their achievement. (RM)

  8. Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

  9. High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP) for studies of basic nuclear science relevant to Stellar and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear processes have been explored traditionally by means of conventional accelerator experiments, which are difficult to execute at conditions relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis. Thus, nuclear reactions at stellar energies are often studied through extrapolations from higher-energy data or in low-background underground experiments. Even when measurements are possible using accelerators at relevant energies, thermonuclear reaction rates in stars are inherently different from those in accelerator experiments. The fusing nuclei are surrounded by bound electrons in accelerator experiments, whereas electrons occupy mainly continuum states in a stellar environment. Nuclear astrophysics research will therefore benefit from an enlarged toolkit for studies of nuclear reactions. In this presentation, we report on the first use of High Energy Density Plasmas for studies of nuclear reactions relevant to basic nuclear science, stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility at University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in which spherical capsules were irradiated with powerful lasers to compress and heat the fuel to high enough temperatures and densities for nuclear reactions to occur. Four experiments will be highlighted in this presentation. In the first experiment, the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-T) scattering at 14.1 MeV was measured with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in accelerator experiments. In the second experiment, the T(t,2n)4He reaction, a mirror reaction to the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction that plays an important role in the proton-proton chain that transforms hydrogen into ordinary 4He in stars like our Sun, was studied at energies in the range 15-40 keV. In the third experiment, the 3He+3He solar fusion reaction was studied directly, and in the fourth experiment, we probed the T+3He reaction, possibly relevant to Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  10. Beware of agents when flying aircraft: Basic principles behind a generic methodology for the evaluation and certification of advanced aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javaux, Denis; Masson, Michel; Dekeyser, Veronique

    1994-01-01

    There is currently a growing interest in the aeronautical community to assess the effects of the increasing levels of automation on pilots' performance and overall safety. The first effect of automation is the change in the nature of the pilot's role on the flight deck. Pilots have become supervisors who monitor aircraft systems in usual situations and intervene only when unanticipated events occur. Instead of 'hand flying' the airplane, pilots contribute to the control of aircraft by acting as mediators, instructions given to the automation. By eliminating the need for manually controlling normal situations, such a role division has reduced the opportunities for the pilot to acquire experience and skills necessary to safely cope with abnormal events. Difficulties in assessing the state and behavior of automation arise mainly from four factors: (1) the complexity of current systems and consequence mode-related problems; (2) the intrinsic autonomy of automation which is able to fire mode transitions without explicit commands from the pilots; (3) the bad quality of feed-back from the control systems displays and interfaces to the pilots; and (4) the fact that the automation currently has no explicit representation of the current pilots' intentions and strategy. Assuming certification has among its major goals to guarantee the passengers' and pilots' safety and the airplane integrity under normal and abnormal operational conditions, the authors suggest it would be particularly fruitful to come up with a conceptual reference system providing the certification authorities both with a theoretical framework and a list of principles usable for assessing the quality of the equipment and designs under examination. This is precisely the scope of this paper. However, the authors recognize that the conceptual presented is still under development and would thus be best considered as a source of reflection for the design, evaluation and certification processes of advanced aviation technologies.

  11. Silicon MOS Pixel Based on the Deep Trapping Gate Principle: Design and Material Science Challenges

    E-print Network

    Fourches, Nicolas T

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the deep trapping gate device was introduced fairly recently on the basis of technological and transport simulations currently used in the field of classical electron devices. The concept of a buried gate containing localized deep level centers (Deep Trapping Gate or DTG) renders possible the operation of this field effect pixel detector. The deep centers can be deep defects or localized states in a quantum dot. This gate modulates the drain-source current. This principle was formerly evaluated with realistic simulations parameters and this shows that a measurable signal is obtained for an energy deposition of a minimum ionizing particle within a limited silicon thickness. We will study here the potential techniques usable for the fabrication of the device with their drawbacks, advantages and limits. The first technique introduced is impurity implantation, followed by annealing. The problems related to the control of the defects in the DTG will be examined in the light of recent work on ion imp...

  12. The New Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnane, Richard J.; Levy, Frank

    1997-01-01

    To teach the New Basic Skills to all students, schools can adopt the five principles of high-performance firms: (1) develop clear goals; (2) provide opportunities to solve problems and the incentives to do so; (3) provide the training needed to pursue solutions effectively; (4) measure progress toward goals regularly; and (5) persevere and learn…

  13. Using Basic Science to Design a Clinical Trial: Baseline Characteristics of Women Enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Miller; D. M. Black; E. A. Brinton; M. J. Budoff; M. I. Cedars; H. N. Hodis; R. A. Lobo; J. E. Manson; G. R. Merriam; F. Naftolin; N. Santoro; H. S. Taylor; S. M. Harman

    2009-01-01

    Observational and epidemiological studies suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD)\\u000a risk. However, results from prospective trials showed neutral or adverse effects most likely due to differences in participant\\u000a demographics, such as age, timing of initiation of treatment, and preexisting cardiovascular disease, which reflected in part\\u000a the lack of basic science information on mechanisms of action of

  14. Writing in the Sciences The basic principles of good writing apply just as well to the sciences as they do to the humanities

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    : The cretaceous period was a time of great change for land plants. It is thought to have seen the origin of the angiosperms, which exploded in diversity and prominence through the period. It was also a period which saw

  15. Precis of the Government Response to the IUS Select Committee Report 6. The allocation of the CSR07 science budget has been consistent with the Haldane Principle.

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    Precis of the Government Response to the IUS Select Committee Report 6. The allocation of the CSR07 science budget has been consistent with the Haldane Principle. 10. The Government understands how those whose work is not funded may well question those who gave it a lower priority. 11. The Government

  16. Materials Science & Technology Division FACT SHEET The MST division mission is to conduct basic and applied research and development

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Materials Science & Technology Division FACT SHEET Mission: The MST division mission is to conduct of modeling and simulation, the three classical pillars of materials science: synthesis, structural characterization, and property evaluation, and a variety of applied materials science and technology topics ranging

  17. Electricity. Physical Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elaine; And Others

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of physical science. Seven separate units…

  18. Human Systems. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echaore, Susan D.; Bartavian, John

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Seven separate units…

  19. Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations Part 1: Basic Properties, Cognitive Environment, Characteristics of the Princes

    E-print Network

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2015-01-01

    A Sleeping Beauty in Science is a publication that goes unnoticed (sleeps) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (is awakened by a prince). In this paper we investigate important properties of Sleeping Beauties, particularly to find out to what extent Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this study we focus primarily on physics (including materials science and astrophysics) and present first results for chemistry and for engineering & computer science. We find that more than half of the SBs are application-oriented. Therefore, it is important to investigate the reasons for and processes related to delayed recognition. First we analyze basic properties of the SBs such as the time-dependent distribution, author characteristics (names of authors, country, institution), as well as the journals and fields of the SBs are analyzed. Next we develop a new approach in which the cognitive environment of the SBs is analyzed, based ...

  20. Principles and Guidelines for the Development of a Science-based Decision Making Process Facilitating the Implementation of the 3Rs by Governmental Regulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clement Gauthier

    2002-01-01

    National government establishments, including regulatory agencies, are part of national science systems, which are a subset of larger national innovation systems. The forces that have influenced the basic roles of national government es- tablishments in five countries over the past 10 yr are re- viewed on the basis of a study commissioned by Industry Canada in 1999 for the Council

  1. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  2. Perceptions of D.M.D. student readiness for basic science courses in the United States: can online review modules help?

    PubMed

    Miller, C J; Aiken, S A; Metz, M J

    2015-02-01

    There can be a disconnect between the level of content covered in undergraduate coursework and the expectations of professional-level faculty of their incoming students. Some basic science faculty members may assume that students have a good knowledge base in the material and neglect to appropriately review, whilst others may spend too much class time reviewing basic material. It was hypothesised that the replacement of introductory didactic physiology lectures with interactive online modules could improve student preparedness prior to lectures. These modules would also allow faculty members to analyse incoming student abilities and save valuable face-to-face class time for alternative teaching strategies. Results indicated that the performance levels of incoming U.S. students were poor (57% average on a pre-test), and students often under-predicted their abilities (by 13% on average). Faculty expectations varied greatly between the different content areas and did not appear to correlate with the actual student performance. Three review modules were created which produced a statistically significant increase in post-test scores (46% increase, P < 0.0001, n = 114-115). The positive results of this study suggest a need to incorporate online review units in the basic science dental school courses and revise introductory material tailored to students' strengths and needs. PMID:25756103

  3. What's Basic About Basic Emotions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

    1990-01-01

    A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

  4. Evidence-based supervision: Tracking outcome and teaching principles of change in clinical supervision to bring science to integrative practice.

    PubMed

    Holt, Hannah; Beutler, Larry E; Kimpara, Satoko; Macias, Sandra; Haug, Nancy A; Shiloff, Nicole; Goldblum, Peter; Temkin, Rainey Sealey; Stein, Mickey

    2015-06-01

    Supervision is the primary way in which psychotherapy trainees develop the skills of applying interventions, conceptualizing cases, and practicing self-reflection. Although critical to professional development, the nature and objectives of supervision can vary widely among supervisors, depending on idiosyncratic differences and the orientation used. As clinical psychology moves toward integrating science and practice, the need to teach students evidence-based principles of therapeutic change and how to use outcome measures to enhance progress is paramount. Furthermore, with hundreds of "evidence-based" interventions and widely diverse supervisors, the fact that cross-cutting interventions and common factors carry the burden of most therapeutic change is frequently lost. In this article, we outline an experimental training system that is being tested as a means to teach student-therapists to use empirically established moderators (treatment factors) and mediators of change to tailor their interventions to client differences. This experimental approach is derived from Systematic Treatment Selection (Beutler, Clarkin, & Bongar, 2000), a cross-cutting system that can be used to aid individualized treatment planning as well as to track and use client outcomes in clinical supervision within a graduate-level training clinic. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25985042

  5. Bilingualism: Beyond Basic Principles. Multilingual Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc, Ed.; Housen, Alex, Ed.; Wei, Li, Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on individual bilingualism and societal and educational phenomena. After "Introduction and Overview" (Jean-Marc Dewaele, Alex Housen, and Li Wei), 12 papers include: (1) "Who is Afraid of Bilingualism?" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); (2) "The Importance of being Bilingual" (John Edwards); (3) "Towards a More…

  6. [Anesthesia in experimental animals. Basic principles].

    PubMed

    Cruz, J I

    1996-03-01

    The use of experimental animals often requires anesthesia to provide immobility, analgesia and sufficiently lowered levels of consciousness. In addition to ethical reasons, animals require anesthesia not only for ethical reasons but also because pain or stress can alter the quality of research results. European Union rules contemplating the use of anesthesia, analgesia and other procedures to eliminate the suffering of experimental animals were adopted for use in Spain on March 14, 1980. Among the preoperatory considerations to be kept in mind is the possibility of diseases carried by animals, some of which can be transmitted to humans. Management and restraint of animals must also be planned before administering drugs. Recognition of pain, and its adequate analgesic treatment is important throughout surgical procedures. Different species of experimental animals require different types of administration. Some drugs, types and routes of administration and monitoring requirements are the same as those used in humans. Great differences exist, however, specifically in the large number of drugs used in animals but not in humans, and in techniques such as tracheal intubation that involve special difficulties. PMID:8848647

  7. On the Basic Principles of Igneous Petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    How and why Differentiation occurs has dominated Igneous Petrology since its beginning (~1880) even though many of the problems associated with it have been thoroughly solved. Rediscovery of the proverbial wheel with new techniques impedes progress. As soon as thin section petrography was combined with rock and mineral chemistry, rock diversity, compositional suites, and petrographic provinces all became obvious. The masterful 1902 CIPW norm in a real sense solved the chemical mystery of differentiation: rocks are related by the addition and subtraction of minerals in the anciently appreciated process of fractional crystallization. Yet few believed this, even after phase equilibria arrived. Assimilation, gas transfer, magma mixing, Soret diffusion, immiscibility, and other processes had strong adherents, even though by 1897 Becker conclusively showed the ineffectiveness of molecular diffusion in large-scale processes. The enormity of heat to molecular diffusion (today's Lewis no.) should have been convincing; but few paid attention. Bowen did, and he refined and restated the result; few still paid attention. And in spite of his truly masterful command of experiment and field relations in promoting fractional crystallization, Fenner and others fought him with odd arguments. The beauty of phase equilibria eventually dominated at the expense of knowing the physical side of differentiation. Bowen himself saw and struggled with the connection between physical and chemical processes. Progress has come from new concepts in heat transfer, kinetics, and slurry dynamics. The key approach is understanding the dynamic competition between spatial rates of solidification and all other processes. The lesson is clear: Scholarship and combined field, laboratory and technical expertise are critical to understanding magmatic processes. Magma is a limitlessly enchanting and challenging material wherein physical processes buttressed by chemistry govern.

  8. Biological adhesion for locomotion: basic principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. J. Persson

    2007-01-01

    Surface roughness is the main reason why macroscopic solids usually do not adhere to each other with any measurable strength; even a root-mean-square roughness amplitude of approx. 1 ?m is enough to completely remove the adhesion between normal rubber (with an elastic modulus E ? 1 MPa) and a hard nominally flat substrate. Strong adhesion between solids with rough surfaces

  9. Colonoscopy: basic principles and novel techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yark Hazewinkel; Evelien Dekker

    2011-01-01

    Colonoscopy is considered the 'gold standard' for detection and removal of premalignant lesions in the colon. However, studies suggest that colonoscopy is less protective for right-sided than for left-sided colorectal cancer. Optimizing the effectiveness of colonoscopy is a continuous process, and during the past decade several important quality indicators have been defined that can be used to measure the performance

  10. Electrosurgery: part I. Basics and principles.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Arash; Mansoori, Parisa; Sandoval, Laura F; Feldman, Steven R; Pearce, Daniel; Williford, Phillip M

    2014-04-01

    The term electrosurgery (also called radiofrequency surgery) refers to the passage of high-frequency alternating electrical current through the tissue in order to achieve a specific surgical effect. Although the mechanism behind electrosurgery is not completely understood, heat production and thermal tissue damage is responsible for at least the majority--if not all--of the tissue effects in electrosurgery. Adjacent to the active electrode, tissue resistance to the passage of current converts electrical energy to heat. The only variable that determines the final tissue effects of a current is the depth and the rate at which heat is produced. Electrocoagulation occurs when tissue is heated below the boiling point and undergoes thermal denaturation. An additional slow increase in temperature leads to vaporization of the water content in the coagulated tissue and tissue drying, a process called desiccation. A sudden increase in tissue temperature above the boiling point causes rapid explosive vaporization of the water content in the tissue adjacent to the electrode, which leads to tissue fragmentation and cutting. PMID:24629361

  11. Antioxidants: basic principles, emerging concepts, and problems.

    PubMed

    Niki, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    The radical scavenging antioxidants play an essential role in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases, and a thorough understanding of the action and capacity of antioxidants is critically important. Despite the assumption that antioxidants must exert beneficial effects against oxidative stress, many large-scale randomized controlled trials gave inconsistent and disappointing results on the prevention of chronic diseases. It is now generally accepted that there is no evidence to support the use of non-discriminative antioxidant supplements for prevention of diseases. On the other hand, recent data show that antioxidants may be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of diseases when the right antioxidant is given to the right subject at the right time for the right duration. Now it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as physiologically important signaling messengers as well as deleterious agents. The signaling ROS are produced in a subtly regulated manner, while many deleterious ROS are produced and react randomly. Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation products which, in contrast to enzymatic oxidation products, are produced by non-specific mechanisms cause oxidative damage, but may also induce adaptive response to enhance the expression of antioxidant enzymes and compounds. This has raised a question if removal of too many ROS by supplementation of antioxidants may upset the cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic diseases. However, it is unlikely that antioxidants impair physiologically essential signaling pathways. PMID:24923567

  12. Basic principles of coaxial launch technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.

    1984-01-01

    Already in the 1930s, a discrete-coil mechanically synchronized launcher was built. At the present time, research is almost entirely directed towards railguns. However, although coaxial accelerators are more complex than railguns, they have certain unique advantages. Some of these advantages are related to the absence of physical contact requirements with the projectile, the possibility of a scale-up to very large projectile size, and the availability of up to 100 times more thrust for a given current. The price of the advantages is the need for a drive current in the form of pulses synchronized precisely with transit of each projectile coil through each drive coil. At high velocities, high voltages are required, and high voltage switching represents the technology limit on launch velocity. Attention is given to inductance gradients, the double hump, methods of excitation, methods of synchronization, projectile configuration, energy supply, fundamental limits, trends, and research needs.

  13. Principles and basic concepts of molecular imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Grenier; Peter Brader

    2011-01-01

    Advanced knowledge in molecular biology and new technological developments in imaging modalities and contrast agents calls\\u000a for molecular imaging (MI) to play a major role in the near future in many human diseases (Weissleder and Mahmood Radiology\\u000a 219:316–333, 2001). Imaging systems are providing higher signal-to-noise ratio and higher spatial and\\/or temporal resolution. New specific\\u000a contrast agents offer the opportunity to

  14. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  15. Teaching future teachers basic astronomy concepts Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements at a time of reform in science education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Trumper

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases, Sun and Moon eclipses, and others. The activities concerning the characteristics

  16. Transiting from school science to real engineering by employing materials science and engineering concepts within the school programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron S Blicblau

    Many scientific principles can be learnt by an understanding of materials behaviour in different physical, environmental and chemical situations. In the primary school these principles are often implemented by utilizing everyday materials for use in art or hobby applications. In the high school, as students learn some basic science and mathematics, they can apply this knowledge to analyze the behaviour

  17. Government Information Policy Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the utility of policy principles advanced by professional associations for public access to government information. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS), the Information Industry Association (IIA), and the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) urge the adoption of principles for the dissemination of public…

  18. Development of e-Learning Courses for Promoting Student's Global Competency-Basic Courses as a Guide to ESP Education in Advanced Science and Technology-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Mikako; Nakajima, Mikio; Iwai, Chiharu; Ogasawara, Fumie; Kishino, Fumio; Fukui, Kiichi

    Osaka University has been chosen for the FY2005's “Selected Efforts of the Distinctive University Education Support Program (Gendai GP/Good Practice) ”by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) . The aim of this project is to improve English proficiency of undergraduate students with scientific backgrounds. Under this strategic fund, e-Learning course contents were developed for instructing basic, yet practical English for Biotechnology during FY2005. Throughout the project, e-Learning contents will be developed for five other selected subjects of science i.e., 1) biotechnology, 2) information technology, 3) nano-technology, 4) environmental technology and 5) robotics technology, for undergraduate students as guiding courses to ESP education in graduate (higher) level.

  19. Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O’Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of doctoral students in the basic biomedical sciences at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Midway through graduate training, UCSF students are already considering a broad range of career options, with one-third intending to pursue a non–research career path. To better support this branching career pipeline, we recommend that national standards for training and mentoring include emphasis on career planning and professional skills development to ensure the success of PhD-level scientists as they contribute to a broadly defined global scientific enterprise. PMID:21885820

  20. Teaching future teachers basic astronomy concepts Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements at a time of reform in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-05-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases, Sun and Moon eclipses, and others. The activities concerning the characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements and their results are reported. The experimental class as well as the control groups improved their grasp of basic astronomy concepts at a statistically significant level. Regarding subjects relevant to this study (Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements), only the experimental class and one of the control groups showed a statistically significant improvement, and in both cases the experimental class made the most impressive progress of all.

  1. Corrosion Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Retaining much of the text of the Basic Corrosion Course, Corrosion Basics contains updated, and additional information on plastics, concrete, coatings, water, cracking phenomena, and design. Chapters were rearranged. The cross referenced index was retained and updated to facilitate the quick location of any topic throughout the text. This publication provides the general coverage of the field of corrosion.

  2. YES Mag: Science Projects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Parents, are you looking for a way to excite your children about science? This website developed by YES Mag, Canada's science magazine for kids, may just have the answer. Users can find numerous fun science activities addressing many of the basic science principles and phenomena including Newton's third law, lightening, wind, and chromatography. Each activity includes pictures to assist in the implementation of the project as well as a convenient printable version. With over thirty-five activities, children are sure to have a fun learning experience.

  3. Using technology to promote science as a basic subject for literacy: A precollege/college/industry/government collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, B.L. [Microscopy Facility, New Paltz, NY (United States); Saturnelli, A.M. [Newburgh Free Academy, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Our goal is to ensure that All students have the opportunity to learn science, and it is being accomplished through a unique working model program that: (1) changes the way that teaching and learning take place; (2) incorporates the advanced technology of microscopy directly into the K-12 curriculum; and (3) develops R & D teacher specialists. We conducted three in-service science courses, a Summer Science Microscopy Camp, and a staff development program (the latter funded by a NYS Education Department grant) in which science professors, industrial engineers and scientists interacted with teachers and students to explore the world using high technology. This year, all 5th and 7th graders in the district (200 students) and about 1,000 high school science students are having experiences as active researchers, solving real-life, multi-step problems using all levels of microscopy, including scanning tunneling. Students develop a chronological portfolio, using multimedia formats. Our 1993 Summer Microscopy Camp attendance record was 98%, compared to the typical 75% for other programs.

  4. Basic Experiments in Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, S. G.

    Presented is a set of laboratory experiments developed to provide students with demonstrations and hands-on experiences with a variety of basic communications methods. These experiments may be used with students who have training in engineering, as well as those with social sciences who have no engineering background. Detailed exercises dealing…

  5. Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

    2011-03-31

    ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

  6. books & arts The CanOn: The BeauTiful BasiCs Of sCienCe

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    miserable) record, I might have cried foul at the misrepresentation. Numbers can be just as politically and that rings all too true, the demarcation takes root early. When the author's sister had two small children, the family had memberships in their city's zoo and its science museum. When the children reached their teens

  7. Resource Handbook--Space Beyond the Earth. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; space. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four units: 1) the sun, earth, and moon; 2) stars and planets; 3) exploring space; 4) man's existence in space. Each unit includes initiatory and developmental activities. There are also sections on evaluation, vocabulary,…

  8. Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD ENMA 301) and Callister, William D. Jr., Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach 3rd Ed of each module will be to introduce the basic materials science principles necessary to understand

  9. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Basic Information About Fluoride The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and ... and suffering because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the ...

  10. The CS Principles Project1 Owen Astrachan, Duke University

    E-print Network

    Briggs, Amy

    The CS Principles Project1 Owen Astrachan, Duke University Amy Briggs, Middlebury College Abstract The Computer Science Principles project is part course for everyone The Computer Science Principles project is part

  11. Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.

    1997-07-01

    This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Tremor (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basics) Patient information: Myoclonus (The Basics) Patient information: Fragile X syndrome (The Basics) Beyond the Basics — Beyond the Basics ... of Parkinson disease Overview of tremor Patient information: Fragile X syndrome (The Basics) Patient information: Myoclonus (The Basics) Patient ...

  13. Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisner, Gerald W.; Lee, Ernest W.

    The Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers was designed to address teachers' conceptual understanding of basic scientific principles, student misconceptions and how to deal with them, and observation and measurement techniques. For 4 weeks in summer and on 6 Saturdays during 2 academic years, 30 leaders among science teachers from the…

  14. M Sc Molecular Life Sciences Special qualification Plant Physiology

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    . Mühlemann 2 for 2 sem. W6186 Basic medicinal chemistry - principles of drug action, Fri 10-12, 12 sem. W6237 Molecular Life Sciences Journal Club, Thu 9-10, bi-weekly, ICB, Baltzerstr. 4, C161 Dr. O, or Chemistry and Molecular Sciences. On request, learning units from outside institutions and other programs (e

  15. Schmperli, 19.09.2013 M Sc Molecular Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    . Häner 1.5 3021 Basic medicinal chemistry - principles of drug action, Fri 10-12, weeks 8-14, DCB.30-18.30, monthly, ICB, C161 Prof. I. Roditi 4 for 2 sem. 11502 Molecular Life Science Journal Club, Thu 9-10, bi in Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, or Chemistry and Molecular Sciences. If a learning unit

  16. Three New Concepts of Future Computer Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Wei Xu; Dan-Dan Tu

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an observation resulted from the six-year Sino-USA computer science leadership exchanges: the trend\\u000a towards the emergence of a new computer science that is more universal and fundamental than that in the past. In the 21st\\u000a century, the field of computer science is experiencing fundamental transformations, from its scope, objects of study, basic\\u000a metrics, main abstractions, fundamental principles,

  17. Basic Electricity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource, created by National Aerospace Technical Education Center (SpaceTEC), is centered on basic electricity. The presentation focuses on standards for SpaceTEC certification. Safety when using electricity is the focal point of the slides. Basic diagrams and charts illustrate the do and donâ??ts when using electrical appliances. After the discussion of safety, the presentation shifts to the fundamental aspects of electricity. Such items as current, flow, voltage and other elements are discussed. Examples are used as representations of these basic processes. Overall, this is thorough presentation of this material. It totals nearly one-hundred twenty slides in length. Instructors could use this either as a presentation or simply to enhance existing curriculum.

  18. Principles of Applied Mathematics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kasimov, Aslan

    This course, presented by MIT and taught by professor Aslan Kasimov, describes basic principles of applied mathematics. Specifically, the material looks at mathematical analysis of continuum models of various natural phenomena. The course materials include student assignments and exams. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

  19. Basic Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Lonnie; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    The skills taught in these materials for a seven-unit course were those identified as necessary not only for entry-level electronic technicians but for those in other occupations as well, including appliance repair, heating and air conditioning, and auto mechanics. The seven units are on shop orientation and safety principles, introduction to…

  20. 15 Years of Cell-penetrating, Guanidinium-rich Molecular Transporters: Basic Science, Research Tools, and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Stanzl, Erika Geihe; Trantow, Brian M.; Vargas, Jessica R.; Wender, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus All living systems require biochemical barriers. As a consequence, all drugs, imaging agents, and probes have targets that are either on, in, or inside of these barriers. Fifteen years ago, we initiated research directed at more fully understanding these barriers and at developing tools and strategies for breaching them that could be of use in basic research, imaging, diagnostics and medicine. At the outset of this research and to a lesser extent now, the “rules” for drug design biased the selection of drug candidates to mainly those with an intermediate and narrow log P. At the same time, it was becoming increasingly apparent that Nature had long ago developed clever strategies to circumvent these “rules”. In 1988, for example, independent reports appeared documenting the otherwise uncommon passage of a protein (HIV-Tat) across a membrane. A subsequent study called attention to a highly basic domain in this protein (Tat49–57) being responsible for its cellular entry. This conspicuously contradictory behavior, i.e., a polar, highly charged peptide passing through a non-polar membrane, set the stage for learning how Nature had gotten around the current “rules” of transport. As elaborated in our studies and discussed herein, the key strategy used in Nature rests in part on the ability of a molecule to change its properties as a function of microenvironment, being a polarity chameleon – i.e., being polar in a polar milieu and relatively non-polar in a non-polar environment. Because this research originated in part with the protein Tat and its basic peptide domain, Tat49–57, the field focused heavily on peptides, even limiting its nomenclature to names such as ‘cell-penetrating peptides,’ ‘cell-permeating peptides,’ ‘protein transduction domains,’ and ‘membrane translocating peptides’ to note a few. Starting in 1997, through a systematic reverse engineering approach, we established that the ability of Tat49–57 to enter cells is not a function of its peptide backbone, but rather the number and spatial array of its guanidinium groups. These function-oriented studies allowed one to design more effective peptidic agents and to think beyond the confines of peptidic systems to new and even more effective non-peptidic agents. Because the function of passage across a cell membrane is not limited to or even best achieved with the peptide backbone, we referred to these agents by their shared function, i.e., ‘cell-penetrating molecular transporters’. The scope of this molecular approach to breaching biochemical barriers has expanded remarkably in the past 15 years, enabling or enhancing the delivery of a wide range of cargos into cells and across other biochemical barriers; creating new tools for research, imaging, and diagnostics; and introducing new therapies into clinical trials. PMID:23697862

  1. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  2. DOS basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

  3. Investigating cellular stress responses--a multidisciplinary approach from basic science to therapeutics--report on the EuroSciCon (European Scientific Conferences) meeting.

    PubMed

    Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    The meeting on "Investigating cellular stress responses--a multidisciplinary approach from basic science to therapeutics" was held in London on 13 October 2006. The purpose of this 1-day meeting was to bring together European scientists investigating the immune biology of stress proteins and their potential clinical applications. The main topics included: the role of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in bacterial infections; the role of Hsps with a molecular mass of about 70 kDa in cancer therapy and in prediction of the clinical outcome following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; the quality and duration of stress as a danger signal for the initiation of a stress response; the mechanism of Hsp-protein interaction; and Hsp export from tumor cells in secretory granules. PMID:17688189

  4. Investigating cellular stress responses—a multidisciplinary approach from basic science to therapeutics—Report on the EuroSciCon (European Scientific Conferences) meeting

    PubMed Central

    Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    The meeting on “Investigating cellular stress responses—a multidisciplinary approach from basic science to therapeutics” was held in London on 13 October 2006. The purpose of this 1-day meeting was to bring together European scientists investigating the immune biology of stress proteins and their potential clinical applications. The main topics included: the role of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in bacterial infections; the role of Hsps with a molecular mass of about 70 kDa in cancer therapy and in prediction of the clinical outcome following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; the quality and duration of stress as a danger signal for the initiation of a stress response; the mechanism of Hsp-protein interaction; and Hsp export from tumor cells in secretory granules. PMID:17688189

  5. Bernoulli's Principle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul G. Hewitt

    2004-09-01

    Many physics teachers have an unclear understanding of Bernoulli's principle, particularly when the principle is applied to aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it altogether. The following simplified treatment of the principle ignores most of the complexities of aerodynamics and hopefully will encourage teachers to bring Bernoulli back into the classroom.

  6. Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick J. Gravetter; Larry B. Wallnau

    2012-01-01

    The best-selling introduction to statistics for students in the behavioral and social sciences, this text continues to offer straightforward instruction, accuracy, built-in learning aids, and real-world examples. The goal of STATISTICS FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, 9th Edition is to not only teach the methods of statistics, but also to convey the basic principles of objectivity and logic that are essential

  7. Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick J. Gravetter; Larry B. Wallnau

    2009-01-01

    By far the best-selling introduction to statistics for users in the behavioral and social sciences, this book continues to offer straightforward instruction, accuracy, built-in learning aids, and real-world examples. The goal of STATISTICS FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, 8th Edition is to not only teach the methods of statistics, but also to convey the basic principles of objectivity and logic that

  8. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  9. Principles of Play for Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, John

    2004-01-01

    Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…

  10. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test and...

  11. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test and...

  12. Radiation Leukemogenesis: Applying Basic Science of Epidemiological Estimates of Low Dose Risks and Dose-Rate Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hoel, D. G.

    1998-11-01

    The next stage of work has been to examine more closely the A-bomb leukemia data which provides the underpinnings of the risk estimation of CML in the above mentioned manuscript. The paper by Hoel and Li (Health Physics 75:241-50) shows how the linear-quadratic model has basic non-linearities at the low dose region for the leukemias including CML. Pierce et. al., (Radiation Research 123:275-84) have developed distributions for the uncertainty in the estimated exposures of the A-bomb cohort. Kellerer, et. al., (Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 36:73-83) has further considered possible errors in the estimated neutron values and with changing RBE values with dose and has hypothesized that the tumor response due to gamma may not be linear. We have incorporated his neutron model and have constricted new A-bomb doses based on his model adjustments. The Hoel and Li dose response analysis has also been applied using the Kellerer neutron dose adjustments for the leukemias. Finally, both Pierce's dose uncertainties and Kellerer neutron adjustments are combined as well as the varying RBE with dose as suggested by Rossi and Zaider and used for leukemia dose-response analysis. First the results of Hoel and Li showing a significantly improved fit of the linear-quadratic dose response by the inclusion of a threshold (i.e. low-dose nonlinearity) persisted. This work has been complete for both solid tumor as well as leukemia for both mortality as well as incidence data. The results are given in the manuscript described below which has been submitted to Health Physics.

  13. Corrosion: Understanding the basics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.R. [ed.

    2000-07-01

    This new book presents a practical how to approach to understanding and solving the problems of corrosion of structural materials. Although it is written mainly for those having a limited technical background in corrosion, it also provides more experienced engineers with a useful overview of the principles of corrosion and can be used as a general guide for developing a corrosion-control program. Contents include: the effects and economic impact of corrosion; basic concepts important to corrosion; principles of aqueous corrosion; forms of corrosion: recognition and prevention; types of corrosive environments; corrosion characteristics of structural materials; corrosion control by proper design; corrosion control by materials selection; corrosion control by protective coatings and inhibitors; corrosion control by cathodic and anodic protection; corrosion testing and monitoring; techniques for diagnosis of corrosion failures; and glossary of corrosion-related terms.

  14. The impact of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2: What role do public-private partnerships have in pushing the boundaries of clinical and basic science research on Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Jones-Davis, Dorothy M; Buckholtz, Neil

    2015-07-01

    In the growing landscape of biomedical public-private-partnerships, particularly for Alzheimer's disease, the question is posed as to their value. What impacts do public-private-partnerships have on clinical and basic science research in Alzheimer's disease? The authors answer the question using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) as a test case and example. ADNI is an exemplar of how public-private-partnerships can make an impact not only on clinical and basic science research and practice (including clinical trials), but also of how similar partnerships using ADNI as an example, can be designed to create a maximal impact within their fields. PMID:26194319

  15. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  16. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  17. Basic Immunology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klimov, Vladimir V.

    Some individuals might blanch at the idea of a "basic" immunology overview, but Professor Vladimir V. Klimov provides just such a resource on this site. As the homepage notes, the site is designed to assist undergraduate students learning about the basics of immunology through essays, images, animations, quizzes, case histories, and external links. Visitors can begin by looking over the "Table of Contents" area, which includes seven complete chapters of information. These chapters include "The Immune Responses", "Effector Activity", and "Functional Organization of the Immune System". While some of the materials on the site require a paid subscription, there's enough free material here to get students on their way to learning more about this field of study.

  18. Open Science: a first step towards Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Tuddenham, Peter

    2015-04-01

    As Earth Science communicators gear up to adopt the new tools and captivating approaches to engage citizen scientists, budding entrepreneurs, policy makers and the public in general, researchers have the responsibility, and opportunity, to fully adopt Open Science principles and capitalize on its full societal impact and engagement. Open Science is about removing all barriers to basic research, whatever its formats, so that it can be freely used, re-used and re-hashed, thus fueling discourse and accelerating generation of innovative ideas. The concept is central to EU's Responsible Research and Innovation philosophy, and removing barriers to basic research measurably contributes to engaging citizen scientists into the research process, it sets the scene for co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, and raises the general science literacy level of the public. Despite this potential, only 50% of today's basic research is freely available. Open Science can be the first passive step of communicating marine research outside academia. Full and unrestricted access to our knowledge including data, software code and scientific publications is not just an ethical obligation, but also gives solid credibility to a more sophisticated communication strategy on engaging society. The presentation will demonstrate how Open Science perfectly compliments a coherent communication strategy for placing Marine Research in societal context, and how it underpin an effective integration of Ocean & Earth Literacy principles in standard educational, as well mobilizing citizen marine scientists, thus making marine science Open Science.

  19. 60 FR 30609 - Principles of Public Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-06-09

    ...NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Principles of Public...National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. ACTION: Request for...National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS)...

  20. Guarani Basic Course, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This is the first in a two-volume basic course in Guarani, the indigenous language of Paraguay. The volume consists of an introduction to the Guarani language, some general principles for adult language-learning, and ten instructional units. Because the goal of the course is to encourage and lead the learner to communicate in Guarani in class and…

  1. Core Competencies for Basic Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Claire; Calderon, Ray

    These competencies for drafting are designed to cover basic principles and practices for beginning drafters. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish competency for…

  2. Positron Emission Tomography: Principles, Technology, and Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Sibylle I.

    2005-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technique for quantitative measurement of physiologic parameters in vivo (an overview of principles and applications can be found in [P.E. Valk, et al., eds. Positron Emission Tomography. Basic Science and Clinical Practice. 2003, Springer: Heidelberg]), based on the detection of small amounts of posi-tron-emitter-labelled biologic molecules. Various radiotracers are available for neuro-logical, cardiological, and oncological applications in the clinic and in research proto-cols. This overview describes the basic principles, technology, and recent develop-ments in PET, followed by a section on the development of a tomograph with ava-lanche photodiodes dedicated for small animal imaging as an example of efforts in the domain of high resolution tomographs.

  3. Bellagio Principles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bellagio Principles (available in text and as a RealAudio multimedia presentation) provide "guidelines for the practical assessment of progress towards sustainable development." These principles were developed by an international group of researchers in 1996.

  4. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Code Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    SPH is the shorthand for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. This method is a Lagrangian method which means that it involves following the motion of elements of fluid. These elements have the characteristics of particles and the method is called a particle method. A useful review of SPH (Monaghan 1992) gives the basic technique and how it can be applied to numerous problems relevant to astrophysics. You can get some basic SPH programs from http://www.maths.monash.edu.au/~jjm/sphlect. In the present lecture I will assume that the student has studied this review and therefore understands the basic principles. In today's lecture I plan to approach the equations from a different perspective by using a variational principle.

  5. Basically Acids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Houston,

    Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

  6. Course Objective 1 1a,1c Learn and apply useful knowledge of the most current basic science that help to explain normal skin and adnexal, hair, nails and mucous membrane structure and

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    knowledge of the most current basic science that help to explain normal skin, and the pathophysiology of disease, such that this knowledge can be used to improve patient care with disorders of the skin, hair, nails and mucous membranes. 3 1c Correlate cutaneous

  7. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  8. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  9. Principles of lake sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

  10. Online Courses: Montana State University NTEN: The Dirt on Soil Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    The Dirt on Soil Science is a 1 credit graduate course for K-6 elementary school teachers who are interested in understanding the basic principles of soil science. This online course lasts 6-weeks and includes conversing with your instructor and classmat

  11. Online Courses: MSU National Teachers Enhancement Network: The Dirt on Soil Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    The Dirt on Soil Science is a 1 credit graduate course for K-6 elementary school teachers who are interested in understanding the basic principles of soil science. This online course lasts 6-weeks and includes conversing with your instructor and classmat

  12. University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Baccalaureate Degree, Radiation Sciences

    E-print Network

    : 027:053 Human Anatomy (3sh) 060:113 Human Anatomy Online (4sh) 060:099 Anatomy Physiology for Radiation Sciences (4sh) 060:110 Principles of Human Anatomy (3sh) AND one of the following: 029:008 Basic · Prerequisite Courses: - Rhetoric: 010:003 Accelerated Rhetoric (4 sh) - Natural Sciences: anatomy, one of these

  13. Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology: Basic Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID GRUNDY; ELIE D. AL-CHAER; QASIM AZIZ; STEPHEN M. COLLINS; MEIYUN KE; YVETTE TACHÉ; JACKIE D. WOOD

    2006-01-01

    The focus of neurogastroenterology in Rome II was the enteric nervous system (ENS). To avoid duplication with Rome II, only advances in ENS neurobiology after Rome II are reviewed together with stronger emphasis on in- teractions of the brain, spinal cord, and the gut in terms of relevance for abdominal pain and disordered gastro- intestinal function. A committee with expertise

  14. The Basic Science of Tendinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinghua Xu; George A. C. Murrell

    2008-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a common clinical problem with athletes and in many occupational settings. Tendinopathy can occur in any tendon,\\u000a often near its insertion or enthesis where there is an area of stress concentration, and is directly related to the volume\\u000a of repetitive load to which the tendon is exposed. Recent studies indicate tendinopathy is more likely to occur in situations

  15. The Basic Science of Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yinghua

    2008-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a common clinical problem with athletes and in many occupational settings. Tendinopathy can occur in any tendon, often near its insertion or enthesis where there is an area of stress concentration, and is directly related to the volume of repetitive load to which the tendon is exposed. Recent studies indicate tendinopathy is more likely to occur in situations that increase the “dose” of load to the tendon enthesis – including increased activity, weight, advancing age, and genetic factors. The cells in tendinopathic tendon are rounder, more numerous, and show evidence of oxidative damage and more apoptosis. These cells also produce a matrix that is thicker and weaker with more water, more immature and cartilage-like matrix proteins, and less organization. There is now evidence of a population of regenerating stem cells within tendon. These studies suggest prevention of tendinopathy should be directed at reducing the volume of repetitive loads to below that which induces oxidative-induced apoptosis and cartilage-like genes. The management strategies might involve agents or cells that induce tendon stem cell proliferation, repair and restoration of matrix integrity. PMID:18478310

  16. Roadmap: Middle Childhood Social Studies and Science Bachelor of Science in Education

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    Biological Foundations 4 C Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences PSYC 11762 General Psychology 3 Fulfills Kent Educational Psychology 3 C CHEM 10030 Chemistry in Our World 3 C Fulfills Kent Core Additional HIST 11050 Principles of Microeconomics 3 C Fulfills Kent Core Additional ENG 22071 Great Books to 1700 or ENG 22072

  17. Applying Innovative Educational Principles when Classes Grow and Resources Are Limited: Biochemistry Experiences at Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omer, Selma; Hickson, Gilles; Tache, Stephanie; Blind, Raymond; Masters, Susan; Loeser, Helen; Souza, Kevin; Mkony, Charles; Debas, Haile; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Teaching to large classes is often challenging particularly when the faculty and teaching resources are limited. Innovative, less staff intensive ways need to be explored to enhance teaching and to engage students. We describe our experience teaching biochemistry to 350 students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) under…

  18. A Note on Nathanial's Invariance Principle in Polyadic Inductive Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jeff B.; Vencovská, Alena

    As one direction of a Representation Theorem for probability functions satisfying Nathanial's Invariance Principle in Polyadic Inductive Logic we exhibit a family of basic probability functions satisfying this principle. We conjecture that every probability function satisfying this principle can be approximated arbitrarily closely by a convex combination of these basic solutions.

  19. Principles of Photogrammetry Ayman F. Habib Chapters 1 & 2

    E-print Network

    Habib, Ayman

    Principles of Photogrammetry Ayman F. Habib 1 Chapters 1 & 2 · Chapter 1: Photogrammetry radiation #12;Principles of Photogrammetry Ayman F. Habib 2 ENGO 431: Chapter 3 Basic Optics #12;Principles of Photogrammetry Ayman F. Habib 3 Overview · Introduction & objectives · Basic camera components · Reflection

  20. Wave basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    Wave properties are the basis for many concepts in science. This activity, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to waves, wavelength, amplitude, and frequency. Here students can drag a chain of particles in any direction to simulate the resulting wave motion. Students can also manipulate the density of the fluid. Three pop-up boxes provide students with activities and explanations for amplitude, frequency, and wavelength. The amplitude activity enables students to vary and view the swing of a pendulum over time. Students study frequency by varying the period of a wave and watching the response graphed over time. The wavelength activity has students measure the wavelength of a wave. Students are informed when they have answered correctly. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  1. Educational Project Management Instructional System. Module Two. Project Management Basic Principles. Volume I--Lessons 1 to 6. Volume II--Lessons 7 to 12. Volume III--Case Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, C. Peter; Cook, Desmond L.

    This module is the second in a self-instructional program designed to train public school personnel in how to manage educational projects. The purpose of this module is to provide current or potential project directors with the basic knowledge, skills, abilities, and sensitivities needed to manage a local educational project. In the areas of…

  2. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  3. Thinking about thinking and emotion: the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin G

    2014-01-01

    Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma for medical educators. We can no longer expect students to continue memorizing this large body of increasingly complex knowledge. Instead, our efforts should be redirected at developing in students a competency as flexible thinkers and agile learners so they can adeptly deal with new knowledge, complexity, and uncertainty in a rapidly changing world. Such a competency would entail not only cognitive but also emotional skills essential for the holistic development of their professional identity. This article will argue that metacognition--“thinking about thinking (and emotion)”--offers the most viable path toward developing this competency. The overwhelming volume of medical knowledge has driven some medical schools to reduce the time allocated in their curricula to the “soft-option” humanities as they tend to consider them an expendable “luxury.” Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, has moved away from the traditional conception of the medical humanities as “the arts,” composed of art, music, and literature, toward an approach that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences, based on metacognition. This metacognitive approach to the humanities, described in this article, has three goals: 1) to develop students as flexible thinkers and agile learners and to provide them with essential cognitive and emotional skills for navigating medical complexity and uncertainty; 2) to elicit in students empathy and tolerance by making them aware of the immense diversity in human cognition (and emotion); and 3) to integrate the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences. Through this metacognitive approach, students come to understand their patterns of cognition and emotions, and in the group setting, they learn to mindfully calibrate their thinking and emotions. They gain a humbling appreciation of the fallibility of the human mind/brain and how cognitive biases and misperception can lead to medical error. They come to appreciate the complex interplay between cognition and emotion, and the importance of cognitive monitoring and emotional regulation. In the group setting, students also gain a sense of perspective of their thinking patterns and emotions in relation to those of their peers. Perspective taking and mindfulness engender tolerance and empathy, which ultimately serves as a platform for working collaboratively in teams as medical professionals. Students become aware of the social context in which thinking and learning occur, and this further shapes their professional identity. Thinking, learning, and interacting in the group setting ultimately induces a shift from self-preoccupation and an individualistic approach to knowledge toward an appreciation of collective cognition and empathy towards others. In this article, I describe the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and how it is designed to develop students as agile learners and flexible thinkers with the mindful capacity for cognitive and emotional monitoring and regulation. Thinking and learning in the group setting of the colloquium ultimately also fosters the student’s professional identity. PMID:25662528

  4. [Treatment with carbon-ion radiotherapy and its combinations -- basic biological studies and investigations at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences].

    PubMed

    Imai, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The clinical application of carbon ions generated by the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) reached its 20th anniversary in 2014. More than 9,000 cancer patients have been treated at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Carbon-ion radiotherapy has been applied for treating various types of tumors that were considered difficult to control with existing modalities. Our experience to date has indicated that carbon-ion radiotherapy is advantageous for head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, bone/soft tissue sarcomas of the pelvis, uterine cervix adenocarcinomas, and other cancers. However, some cancer types (such as those in close proximity to radiosensitive normal organs) require additional treatments to sensitize the target cancer because of limitation of the irradiation dose. Furthermore, systemic combined therapy is also utilized to suppress possible metastasis. Currently, some anticancer agents are utilized with carbon-ion radiotherapy, including dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, vincristine (DAV), gemcitabine, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil. Interesting reagents such as PARP and HSP90 inhibitors have been proposed as cancer cell- specific sensitizers for carbon-ion irradiation during basic biological studies, especially those from the Research Project with Heavy Ions at NIRS-HIMAC. In our laboratory, we have focused our studies on the suppression of metastasis. We have proposed the concurrent use of reagents to inhibit the invasive potential of cancer cells under carbon-ion irradiation. Recently, we have also shown that combining carbon-ion radiotherapy with the local injection of dendritic cells inhibits lung metastases in an in vivo murine model. PMID:25743134

  5. K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease on ecosystems. R. Ostfeld, F. Keesing, and V

  6. Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Rusanu, Aurelian [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Wang, Yang [Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Zhang, X.-G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Classical Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations characterizing extended defects typically require millions of atoms. First principles calculations employed to understand these defect systems at an electronic level cannot, and should not deal with such large numbers of atoms. We present an e cient coarse graining (CG) approach to calculate local electronic properties of large MD-generated structures from the rst principles. We used the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method for two types of iron defect structures 1) screw-dislocation dipoles and 2) radiation cascades. The multiple scattering equations are solved at fewer sites using the CG. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force eld. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with rst-principles based on full local structure information, while atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This CG approach reduces computational costs signi cantly and makes large-scale structures amenable to rst principles study. Work is sponsored by the USDoE, O ce of Basic Energy Sciences, Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the ORNL, which is supported by the O ce of Science of the USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  7. Principles of Asking Effective Questions During Student Problem Solving

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    science instructors is asking effective questions. This paper presents a set of instructional principles in knowledge. These principles can help computer science educators ask more effective questions in a variety and compare these approaches to principles of effective question asking from the relevant cognitive science

  8. Understanding Records and Archives: Principles and Practices

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Why do people create records? What are they good for? How can organizations use record-keeping to further their aims and goals? These are but a few of the questions explored by the course "Understanding Records and Archives: Principles and Practices". This site is part of the OpenCourseWare initiative at the University of Michigan, and the course itself was created and taught by Paul Conway. On this site, visitors can access a range of materials from the course, including the syllabus, a reading list, assignments, and a course schedule. In the "Lectures" area, visitors can read the notes from each class meeting, and the topics covered include basic archives concepts, legal issues, and the nature of archives. For anyone involved in information science and library studies, this site will be most useful.

  9. Approved Module Information for LT1307, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Principles of Economics Module Code: LT1307

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    an introduction to the basic terminology, principles, concepts, and techniques of microeconomics; * to provide an introduction to the basic terminology, principles, concepts, and techniques of macroeconomics; * to facilitate understanding of the basic terminology, principles, concepts, and techniques of economics; * use the basic

  10. Geography's Place in Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodring, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Geography instruction provides a basis for more education and for life. A knowledge of geography is basic to the study of history, economics, political science, geology, biology, and many other disciplines. Geographical knowledge is essential for daily activities such as reading a newspaper or comprehending world events. (RM)

  11. PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy Dept. of Soil Science University of Wisconsin #12;Phosphorus Terminology · Phosphorus (P) = element name and symbol · P2O5 = phosphate (oxide) Amount of P in fertilizers use #12;Forms & Concentrations of Phosphorus (P) in Soils Form Concentration (ppm) Total 1000 Soil

  12. Using the principles of complex systems thinking and implementation science to enhance maternal and child health program planning and delivery.

    PubMed

    Kroelinger, Charlan D; Rankin, Kristin M; Chambers, David A; Diez Roux, Ana V; Hughes, Karen; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, epidemiologic methodologies have focused on measurement of exposures, outcomes, and program impact through reductionistic, yet complex statistical modeling. Although not new to the field of epidemiology, two frameworks that provide epidemiologists with a foundation for understanding the complex contexts in which programs and policies are implemented were presented to maternal and child health (MCH) professionals at the 2012 co-hosted 18th Annual MCH Epidemiology Conference and 22nd CityMatCH Urban Leadership Conference. The complex systems approach offers researchers in MCH the opportunity to understand the functioning of social, medical, environmental, and behavioral factors within the context of implemented public health programs. Implementation science provides researchers with a framework to translate the evidence-based program interventions into practices and policies that impact health outcomes. Both approaches offer MCH epidemiologists conceptual frameworks with which to re-envision how programs are implemented, monitored, evaluated, and reported to the larger public health audience. By using these approaches, researchers can begin to understand and measure the broader public health context, account for the dynamic interplay of the social environment, and ultimately, develop more effective MCH programs and policies. PMID:25108501

  13. The Principles of Flight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Principle's of Flight Web site is offered by the Pilot's Web Aviation Journal and contains an excellent introduction to the physics of flight. Topics include Newton's laws of motion and force, airfoils, lift and drag, forces acting on an airplane, speed, flight maneuvers, the effects of roll, and more. Each topic contains good illustrations, descriptions, and equations. Overall, the site is an interesting and informative look behind the science of flight.

  14. Principles of Optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Born; Emil Wolf

    1999-01-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous

  15. Bioengineering 280A Principles of

    E-print Network

    Liu, Thomas T.

    shows twin gestation sacs (s) and bladder (B). Ultrasound System Acuson Sequoia Doppler Ultrasound #12 principles underlying the major modalities, including X-ray, computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound. Basic of Medical Imaging 1895 - Roentgen discovers X-rays 1942 - Dussik demonstrates transmission ultrasound

  16. Bioengineering 280A Principles of

    E-print Network

    Liu, Thomas T.

    gestation sacs (s) and bladder (B). Ultrasound Systems Acuson Sequoia Sonosite 180 #12;6 Doppler Ultrasound principles underlying the major modalities, including X-ray, computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound. Basic of Medical Imaging 1895 - Roentgen discovers X-rays 1942 - Dussik demonstrates transmission ultrasound

  17. Bioengineering 280A Principles of

    E-print Network

    Liu, Thomas T.

    Sonosite 180 #12;6 Doppler Ultrasound 3D Ultrasound History of MRI 1946: Felix Bloch (Stanford principles underlying the major modalities, including X-ray, computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound. Basic of Medical Imaging 1895 - Roentgen discovers X-rays 1942 - Dussik demonstrates transmission ultrasound

  18. Principles of Semiconductor Devices

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Van Zeghbroeck, Bart Jozef

    Home page of an online and interactive textbook, Principles of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.

  19. Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality

    E-print Network

    Dongsheng Wang

    2015-04-19

    The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be explained, some post-quantum theory which is more complete in some sense than quantum mechanics is possible and might not necessarily be a hidden variable theory.

  20. Principles of smile design

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile. PMID:21217950

  1. Remote Sensing Principles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This introduction to Earth observation includes definitions of several terms, examples taken from real situations, and questions, answers, and exercises. A simple example of traditional chorological mapping methods and is used to show some fundamental principles of satellite images. Histogram, pixel and classification are introduced. There are discussions about remote sensing, the history of Earth observation, and geostationary and solar synchronous orbits. In addition, the basic physical concepts underlying remote sensing are explained, with the help of some relatively simple viewgraphs. This site is also available in German, French, Italian and Spanish.

  2. Bernoulli's Principle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Horton

    2009-05-30

    In this lab, students will use a little background information about Bernoulli's principle to figure out how the spinning of a moving ball affects its trajectory. The activity is inquiry in that students will be discovering this relationship on their own.

  3. THE PRINCIPLES OF OUR EQUITABLE COMMUNITY

    E-print Network

    Napier, Terrence

    THE PRINCIPLES OF OUR EQUITABLE COMMUNITY Lehigh University is first and foremost an educational community has a personal responsibility to acknowledge and practice the following basic principles: We affirm the inherent dignity in all of us, and we maintain an inclusive and equitable community. We

  4. Basics of NMR

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hornak, Joseph P.

    Dr. Joseph Hornak of the Rochester Institute of Technology presents this high quality hypertextbook for in-depth coverage of the physics and technique behind Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (For Dr. Hornak's Basics of MRI, see the August 4, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The material is presented in a detailed and clear manner without over simplifying the concepts. Chapters include "The Mathematics of NMR," "Spin Physics," "NMR Spectroscopy," "Fourier Transforms," "Pulse Sequences," and much more. A chapter on "NMR Hardware" offers an overview of components (like the superconducting magnet and various coils) used in most NMR systems. The "Practical Considerations" chapter emphasizes spectroscopic techniques. With the screen split into two separate frames, explanatory graphics can be viewed alongside the text. A glossary and a list of symbols are also included in this carefully produced textbook.

  5. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  6. Helping Students Learn Basic Inferential Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Lyle

    1974-01-01

    Helping behavioral sciences students succeed in their first course in basic inferential statistics can be a challenging problem for the teacher. This paper addresses this situation through suggesting a number of potentially helpful techniques for the quantitative teacher. (Author)

  7. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Stevens; T. Michalske; J. Trewhella; L. Makowski; B. Swanson; S. Colson; T. Hazen; F. Roberto; D. David Franz; G. Resnick; S. Jacobson; J. Valdez; P. Gourley; M. Tadros; M. Sigman; M. Sailor; M. Ramsey; B. Smith; K. Shea; J. Hrbek; P. Rodacy; D. Tevault; N. Edelstein; J. Beitz; C. Burns; G. Choppin; S. Clark; M. Dietz; R. Rogers; S. Traina; D. Baldwin; M. Thurnauer; G. Hall; L. Newman; D. Miller; H. Kung; D. Parkin; D. Shuh; H. Shaw; L. Terminello; D. Meisel; D. Blake; M. Buchanan; J. Roberto; R. Carling; G. Samara; D. Sasaki; P. Pianetta; B. Faison; D. Thomassen; T. Fryberger; G. Kiernan; M. Kreisler; L. Morgan; J. Hicks; J. Dehmer; L. Kerr; J. Mays

    2002-01-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism

  8. Psychodynamic Group Psychotherapy: A Behavior Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hopfenberg, Russell

    2015-07-01

    As the current mental health climate places greater emphasis on evidence-based practice, it is important to consider the basic science underlying treatment. This article examines the psychodynamic group psychotherapy process from a behavior science perspective, linking basic research results to clinical practice. Clinical interventions and the change process are explained in the context of operant behavior theory. A special class of operant behavior, cultural behavior, is described and connected to therapeutic resistance and its resolution. Emotional difficulties and their amelioration are explained using respondent conditioning principles. In keeping with the American Psychological Association (2005) position regarding research evidence, these behavior science explanations serve to connect the group psychotherapeutic process to relevant results of basic research in psychology, further endorsing this treatment modality. PMID:26076203

  9. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen III. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume III. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific…

  10. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen I. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume I. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the first in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) ecology (what…

  11. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen II. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume II. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. This guide is divided into three components. The first component…

  12. Back to the Basics: Kansas City, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    "Back to the Basics" is an innovation of the WETMAAP Program (Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography) which offers a series of workshops that provide training in basics ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for assessing geography and earth science topics. The precept of the series is to…

  13. Basic Concepts of Soil Carrie Laboski

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Basic Concepts of Soil Fertility Carrie Laboski UW-Madison Department of Soil Science #12;2. Nutrient uptake Basic Concepts of Soil Fertility: 1. 17 essential elements 3. Cation exchange · function nutrients in soil solution or on soil surfaces; - roots contact ~1% of soil volume; - mycorrhizal infection

  14. 32 CFR 272.3 - Definition of basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...272.3 Definition of basic research. Basic research is systematic study directed...engineering, environmental, and life sciences related to long-term national...It is farsighted high payoff research that provides the basis for...

  15. Roadmap: Integrated Science -Earth Science Bachelor of Science in Education

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    11040 Earth Dynamics 3 C Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences GEOL 11041 Earth Dynamics Laboratory 1 C Society 3 C GEOL 11042 Earth History 3 C Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences GEOL 11043 Earth HistoryRoadmap: Integrated Science - Earth Science ­ Bachelor of Science in Education [EH

  16. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  17. Systems Science Approach to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

    Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

  18. The Basics of Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the basic stages and mechanisms of mammalian brain development. Studies elucidating the neurobiology of brain development span the levels of neural organization from the macroanatomic, to the cellular, to the molecular. Together this large body of work provides a picture of brain development as the product of a complex series of dynamic and adaptive processes operating within a highly constrained, genetically organized but constantly changing context. The view of brain development that has emerged from the developmental neurobiology literature presents both challenges and opportunities to psychologists seeking to understand the fundamental processes that underlie social and cognitive development, and the neural systems that mediate them. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of some very basic principles of brain development, drawn from contemporary developmental neurobiology, that may be of use to investigators from a wide range of disciplines. PMID:21042938

  19. Roadmap: Integrated Science Earth Science Bachelor of Science in Education

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    11040 Earth Dynamics 3 C Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences GEOL 11041 Earth Dynamics Laboratory 1 C Society 3 C GEOL 11042 Earth History 3 C Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences GEOL 11043 Earth History 23063 Earth Materials I 4 C PHY 13001 General College Physics I 4 C Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences

  20. Mac Basic Recording Mac Basic Recording

    E-print Network

    Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

    Mac Basic Recording Mac Basic Recording The Panopto (My Pitt Video) Mac Recorder allows a lot/recording. Logging In Creators are able to log in to the Mac Recorder with their credentials and record video, audio and Password" the next time the Mac Recorder is launched it will automatically login. 4. Click Create New