Science.gov

Sample records for basic science principles

  1. Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

  2. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  3. Using "Basic Principles" to Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of nicotine and its carboxylic acid salts found in tobacco provided as an interesting example to understand basic principles of complex science. The result showed that the experimental data used were inconsistent to the conclusion made, and the transfer of nicotine smoke from tobacco to smoke cannot be…

  4. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  5. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  6. Basic Principles for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A basic set of principles for adult education reflects what should be found in each state and local program. First, basic skills should be mastered by all students. Second, course content should be directly related to learner, labor market, and community needs. Third, partnership efforts should be expanded and strengthened. Fourth, programs must…

  7. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  8. Principles for Working with Basic Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Dean

    1994-01-01

    Describes the various "affective filters" that inhibit basic writers from learning to write. Suggests principles for avoiding such inhibitions among basic writers. Claims that such principles are an effective way of fostering writing development among basic writers. (HB)

  9. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  10. Photovoltaics: Basic Design Principles and Components

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This publication will introduce you to the basic design principles and components of PV systems. It will also help you discuss these systems knowledgeably with an equipment supplier or system installer.

  11. [Basic science and applied science].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html PMID:11547597

  12. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  13. INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL Principles of Plant Science

    E-print Network

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    i INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL Principles of Plant Science Environmental Factors and Technology in Growing of the Plant Sciences Chapter 1. Introduction to the Plant Sciences 1 Chapter 2. Plants and Society 3 Chapter 3. Plants as Industries 5 Chapter 4. The Sciences of Plants 8 Basics of Plant Growth and Development Chapter

  14. Basic principles of variable speed drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    An understanding of the principles which govern variable speed drive operation is discussed for successful drive application. The fundamental factors of torque, speed ratio, and power as they relate to drive selection are discussed. The basic types of variable speed drives, their operating characteristics and their applications are also presented.

  15. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How Can They Predict Students' Understanding of Basic Science Concepts and Principles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-01-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science

  16. Some basic principles of a "LISA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinet, Jean-Yves

    2013-04-01

    A Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a concept studied and developed since a few decades both by European and American teams. Its aim is to study the gravitational wave signals emitted by astrophysical sources such as supermassive black hole (SMBH) coalescences, captures of compact objects by SMBHs, compact galactic binaries, etc. The LISA mission has been first an ESA/NASA mission (1998-2011), then became an ESA mission under the name of NGO (2012): it could hopefully be proposed for selection in 2013. The very basic principles of such a mission still deserve a presentation, being quite generic: this is the aim of the present article.

  17. Basic principles of the Stirling cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-03-01

    The basic principles of the Stirling cycle are outlined. From an elementary theory the general properties of the cycle are derived with a discussion of the most important losses. The performance of the fundamental and ideal (isothermal) cycle are described. The actual cycle, which differs from the ideal one by the occurrence of losses is also described. In the ideal Stirling cycle, the cold is produced by the reversible expansion of a gas. The gas performs a closed cycle, during which it is alternately compressed at ambient temperature in a compression space and expanded at the desired low temperature in an expansion space, thereby reciprocating between these spaces through one connecting duct, wherein a regenerator provides for the heat exchange between the outgoing and the returning gas flow. The problem of how to minimize the total sum of the losses is examined.

  18. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  19. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

    1990-04-01

    The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future and will help the U.S. maintain and enhance its economic strength. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals (energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security) depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions. The program has two distinct interrelated parts: research and facilities operations and development. In the pursuit of forefront research results, BES designs, builds and operates certain large, complex advanced scientific facilities such as neutron sources and synchrotron radiation sources. These facilities not only provide BES with unique instruments, but these instruments are also made available to all qualified users, even those not supported by BES. Thus, the facilities actually leverage a great deal more research from the national effort. The BES program conducts basic research that will most likely help the Nation's long-term energy goals. BES implements a broad strategy for conducting basic research and contributes strongly towards national energy goals and to national goals of maintaining and enhancing scientific leadership, technological innovation, and economic strength.

  1. Basic principles of remote sensing. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Forty eight selected bibliographic references dealing with the remote sensing of the environment are given. Emphasis was placed on data that deal with fundamental aspects and principles of the technique.

  2. Basic Science and The NIH

    PubMed Central

    Varmus, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following is an edited version of the Keynote Speech delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology by Harold Varmus, Director of the National Institutes of Health. The address, entitled Basic Science and the NIH, was given at the opening of the meeting in New Orleans on December 11, 1993. It was Varmus' first public policy talk as NIH Director. PMID:8049519

  3. Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…

  4. Basic Public Speaking Principles: An Examination of Twelve Popular Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Jon; Pearson, Judy C.

    A study investigated the principles included in basic public speaking texts and the relative importance given to each principle. Content analysis was used to examine 12 of the most popular introductory-level college public speaking textbooks. The unit of analysis was selected, categories were constructed, and the data were coded and weighted.…

  5. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (principal investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  6. Symmetry in the basic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toole, Joseph E.; Jensen, David W.; Rogers, Mark E.; Chernek, Paul J.; Erstfeld, Thomas E.

    1989-04-01

    The basic mathematical theory behind plane symmetry groups is presented. This theory is then applied in classifying the symmetry of bounded figures, frieze patterns and wallpaper patterns. Recently developed algorithms are included to help analyze complex designs. Symmetry operations relevant to 3-D crystallography are discussed. In particular, the seven crystal systems that classify the 32 crystallographic point groups are described. These are then used to construct the Bravais lattices. The role is investigated of symmetry in biological forms. Specifically, work on growth and form of molluscan shells is reviewed with an attempt to explain the consequences of that growth and form to the natural history of the Chambered Nautilus and its ancestors. The central role symmetry has increasingly played in physics is looked at by examining the Principle of Least Action and the invariance of the Lagrangian under a transformation. Noether's Theorem guarantees that a conservation law is associated with each of these symmetries. Examples include the conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum, as well as the purely quantum mechanical symmetry of invariance under an exchange operation. A brief look at gauge theories is the final example of how symmetry has become a guiding principle in the formulation of new theories.

  7. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently. PMID:23851585

  8. Basic space sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo, Richard S.

    Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this ``Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,'' Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

  9. OPTICAL AND INFRARED DETECTORS FOR Basic principles to state-of-the-art

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    OPTICAL AND INFRARED DETECTORS FOR ASTRONOMY Basic principles to state-of-the-art James W. Beletic detector systems. In many ways, today's optical and infrared detectors are nearly perfect, with high astronomical instru- ments and thereby, the best science. This chapter explains how optical and infrared

  10. Fundamentals of occlusion and restorative dentistry. Part I: basic principles.

    PubMed

    Warreth, Abdulhadi; Ramadan, Marwa; Bajilan, Mustafa Raad; Ibieyou, Najia; El-Swiah, Jamal; Elemam, Ranya Faraj

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the basic principles of dental occlusion and an overview of this subject area, which is important for dental professionals. Clinical relevance: A sound knowledge of dental occlusion is important in order to improve dental treatment outcome and achieve a long-lasting restoration. PMID:26506700

  11. [Design principles of the POLIMAG-01 basic model].

    PubMed

    Kabishev, V N; Kadyrkov, A P; Makarov, V V; Mikheev, A A; Panin, N I; Solomakha, V N

    2007-01-01

    The design principles and functional capabilities of the basic model of the POLIMAG-01 magnetotherapy apparatus are described. Technical characteristics of the apparatus are specified. Original engineering solutions involved in the apparatus design provide local, distributed, and general magnetotherapy. PMID:18277402

  12. Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel

    E-print Network

    Federspiel, William J.

    Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel Kristie A. Henchir University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs currently of the lung, which is to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide. Current artificial lungs are also

  13. March 2012 19 The Basic Patent Law Principle

    E-print Network

    Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    Principle That Inventors Ultimately Have Rights In Their Inventions By Maddy F. Baer, Stephanie Lollo inventors to the rights in their inventions. While this may seem like a basic proposi- tion of patent law of the Bayh-Dole Act Prior to 1980, ownership of inventions arising from federally-funded research

  14. Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

  15. Basic space sciences: The Latin American experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahade, Jorge

    The paper reports on the extent basic space science is carried in Latin America and outlines the steps that may be taken to improve the situation. Member of the Carrera del Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina.

  16. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

  17. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1994-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

  20. Self-organization: the basic principle of neural functions.

    PubMed

    Szentágothai, J

    1993-06-01

    Recent neurophysiological observations are giving rise to the expectation that in the near future genuine biological experiments may contribute more than will premature speculations to the understanding of global and cognitive functions. The classical reflex principle--as the basis of neural functions--has to yield to new ideas, like autopoiesis and/or self-organization, as the basic paradigm in the framework of which the essence of the neural can be better understood. Neural activity starts in the very earliest stages of development well before receptors and afferent input become functional. Under suitable conditions, both in nervous tissue cultures and in embryonic tissue recombination experiments, the conditions of such initial autopoietic activity can be studied. This paper tries to generalize this elementary concept for various neural centers, notably for the spinal segmental apparatus and the cerebral cortex. PMID:8236059

  1. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  2. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    PubMed

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed. PMID:12341064

  3. Climate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation

    E-print Network

    Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    Climate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation with a Family Forest Perspective Baylor'Alene, Idaho #12;Outline What do we know, and how well (WG1)? Tree Studies What can we do? (Adapt (WG2), Mitigate (WG3), Both (Synergy!)) What's the role of adaptation? What about managed adaptation? How much

  4. Preparation of Basic and Clinical Sciences Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of basic and clinical science teaching in optometry in the next decade looks at the changing role of primary care and specialist optometrists, the training needs of current and future faculty, recommended curriculum changes, and decision making about delivery of this training. The roles of graduate training, residencies, and…

  5. Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralla, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

  6. Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  7. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-05-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

  8. 78 FR 6088 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...respect to the basic energy sciences research program. Tentative...News from Office of Science/DOE [ssquf] News...Office of Basic Energy Sciences [ssquf] New Charge...Facilities Division Public Participation: The meeting is...

  9. 77 FR 5246 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Basic Research Directions for User Science at the National Ignition Facility. Materials Sciences and Engineering Division Committee...Mesoscale Discussion. Public Participation: The meeting is open to...

  10. 78 FR 38696 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...respect to the basic energy sciences research program. Tentative...News from Office of Science/DOE [ssquf] News...Office of Basic Energy Sciences [ssquf] Report out...JCAP Review. Public Participation: The meeting is...

  11. 76 FR 41234 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...guidance with respect to the basic energy sciences research program. Tentative agenda...the following: News from Office of Science/DOE. News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Materials by Design. R&D Coordination....

  12. Module 10: Mixture Principles & Reporting Basics ISHI 2010 Mixture Workshop October 11, 2010

    E-print Network

    Module 10: Mixture Principles & Reporting Basics ISHI 2010 Mixture Workshop October 11, 2010 http;//www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/training.htm Mixture Principles & Reporting Basics Charlotte J. Word 21st International Symposium on Human Identification Mixture Interpretation Workshop: Principles, Protocols, and Practice October 11, 2010 ­ San

  13. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI were held in Egypt in 2010 for Western Asia, Nigeria in 2011 for Africa, and Ecuador in 2012 for Latin America and the Caribbean. The International Center for Space Weather Science and Education at Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 9www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/index_e.html), was established through the basic space science initiative in 2012. Similar research and education centres were also established in Nigeria(www.cbssonline.com/aboutus.html) and India (www.cmsintl.org). Activities of basic space science initiative were also coordinated with the Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, affiliated to the United Nations (www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/centres/index.html). Prospective future directions of the initiative will be discussed in this paper.

  14. Basic Science Considerations in Primary Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Saqeb B; Dunlop, Douglas G; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Naqvi, Syed G; Gangoo, Shafat; Salih, Saif

    2010-01-01

    Total Hip Replacement is one of the most common operations performed in the developed world today. An increasingly ageing population means that the numbers of people undergoing this operation is set to rise. There are a numerous number of prosthesis on the market and it is often difficult to choose between them. It is therefore necessary to have a good understanding of the basic scientific principles in Total Hip Replacement and the evidence base underpinning them. This paper reviews the relevant anatomical and biomechanical principles in THA. It goes on to elaborate on the structural properties of materials used in modern implants and looks at the evidence base for different types of fixation including cemented and uncemented components. Modern bearing surfaces are discussed in addition to the scientific basis of various surface engineering modifications in THA prostheses. The basic science considerations in component alignment and abductor tension are also discussed. A brief discussion on modular and custom designs of THR is also included. This article reviews basic science concepts and the rationale underpinning the use of the femoral and acetabular component in total hip replacement. PMID:20582240

  15. The intraoperative gamma probe: basic principles and choices available.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, P; Heller, S

    2000-01-01

    By taking advantage of the proximity to radioactive sentinel nodes and occult tumors achievable in an operative setting, intraoperative probes are becoming increasingly important in the surgical management of cancer. This article begins with a discussion of the statistical limitations of radiation detection and measurement and of the key performance parameters (sensitivity, energy resolution, and spatial resolution) that characterize detectors. The basic design and operating principle of radiation detectors used in intraoperative probes, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, are then reviewed. Scintillation detector-based intraoperative probes, generally using a NaI(T1) or a CsI(T1) crystal connected to a photomultiplier tube by a fiberoptic cable, have the advantages of reliability, relatively low cost, and high sensitivity, especially for medium- to high-energy photons. Disadvantages include poor energy resolution and scatter rejection, and bulkiness. Semiconductor (CdZn, CdZnTe, HgI2)-based probes are compact and have excellent energy resolution and scatter rejection, but with complex energy spectra reflecting charge-carrier trapping. Their main disadvantage is lower sensitivity. The performance parameters of various commercially available intraoperative probes are then compared. The article concludes with a discussion of the practical considerations in selecting and using intraoperative probes, including ergonomic and other design features, as well as performance parameters. PMID:10656242

  16. Gyroscope precession in special and general relativity from basic principles

    E-print Network

    Rickard Jonsson

    2007-08-18

    In special relativity a gyroscope that is suspended in a torque-free manner will precess as it is moved along a curved path relative to an inertial frame S. We explain this effect, which is known as Thomas precession, by considering a real grid that moves along with the gyroscope, and that by definition is not rotating as observed from its own momentary inertial rest frame. From the basic properties of the Lorentz transformation we deduce how the form and rotation of the grid (and hence the gyroscope) will evolve relative to S. As an intermediate step we consider how the grid would appear if it were not length contracted along the direction of motion. We show that the uncontracted grid obeys a simple law of rotation. This law simplifies the analysis of spin precession compared to more traditional approaches based on Fermi transport. We also consider gyroscope precession relative to an accelerated reference frame and show that there are extra precession effects that can be explained in a way analogous to the Thomas precession. Although fully relativistically correct, the entire analysis is carried out using three-vectors. By using the equivalence principle the formalism can also be applied to static spacetimes in general relativity. As an example, we calculate the precession of a gyroscope orbiting a static black hole. In an addendum the general reasoning is extended to include also rotating reference frames.

  17. The NavierStokes Equations Remark 1.1. Basic principles and variables. The basic equations of fluid dy-

    E-print Network

    John, Volker

    ­ 1836), right: George Gabriel Stokes (1819 ­ 1903). #12;4 1 The Navier­Stokes Equations 11 The Navier­Stokes Equations Remark 1.1. Basic principles and variables. The basic equations of fluid dy- namics are called Navier­Stokes equations. In the case of an isothermal flow, a flow

  18. Hot-melt extrusion--basic principles and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Lang, Bo; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    Originally adapted from the plastics industry, the use of hot-melt extrusion has gained favor in drug delivery applications both in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Several commercial products made by hot-melt extrusion have been approved by the FDA, demonstrating its commercial feasibility for pharmaceutical processing. A significant number of research articles have reported on advances made regarding the pharmaceutical applications of the hot-melt extrusion processing; however, only limited articles have been focused on general principles regarding formulation and process development. This review provides an in-depth analysis and discussion of the formulation and processing aspects of hot-melt extrusion. The impact of physicochemical properties of drug substances and excipients on formulation development using a hot-melt extrusion process is discussed from a material science point of view. Hot-melt extrusion process development, scale-up, and the interplay of formulation and process attributes are also discussed. Finally, recent applications of hot-melt extrusion to a variety of dosage forms and drug substances have also been addressed. PMID:24520867

  19. Summary Report Wellcome Trust Basic Science Career Tracker

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Summary Report Wellcome Trust Basic Science Career Tracker Results of wave 6 (2014) May 2015 #12;Summary Report: Basic Science Career Tracker | 2 1. Investment in individuals is integral to the Wellcome these and future researchers in the best and most helpful ways. 2. In 2009 the Basic Science Career Tracker (BSCT

  20. Basic Science Living Skills for Today's World. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers (Robert W.) Educational Services, Johnstown, PA.

    This document is a teacher's edition of a basic skills curriculum in science for adult basic education (ABE) students. The course consists of 25 lessons on basic science concepts, designed to give students a good understanding of the biological and physical sciences. Suggested activities and experiments that the student can do are also included.…

  1. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  2. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  3. 78 FR 6088 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy; SC-22/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  4. 77 FR 5246 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory... Perine; Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building,...

  5. 75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee...; Office of Basic Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, 1000 Independence...

  6. The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to assist in areas such as the creation of educational products and standards and the setting of relevant government policy. In order to increase the reach of the ESLI Principles, the document has been translated into Spanish, and other languages are also being considered. The document will undergo annual updating in response to growth and change in the scientific understandings of Earth science.

  7. Bernoulli's Principle: Science as a Human Endeavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    What do the ideas of Daniel Bernoulli--an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, natural scientist, and professor--and your students' next landing of the space shuttle via computer simulation have in common? Because of his contribution, referred in physical science as Bernoulli's principle, modern flight is possible. The mini learning-cycle…

  8. 75 FR 6369 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...News from Office of Science/DOE. [squf] News...Office of Basic Energy Sciences. [squf] Briefing from...Update from the BESAC Science for Energy Technologies...Solicitation. Public Participation: The meeting is...

  9. 77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...News from Office of Science/DOE [ssquf] News...Office of Basic Energy Sciences [ssquf] Future of ARPA-E...update [ssquf] Materials Sciences and Engineering Division...Mesoscale Discussion Public Participation: The meeting is...

  10. 75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation Workshop Final Report on the Science for Energy Technologies Workshop...Update COV Reports Public Participation: The meeting is open...

  11. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  12. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  13. 76 FR 41234 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  14. 76 FR 48147 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of...

  15. 77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  16. 78 FR 38696 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  17. 75 FR 6369 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory...

  18. Basic Principles--Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Don

    The priorities for sustaining life--air, shelter, water, and food--are the subjects of this module designed to give junior and senior high school students the foundation for safe, rewarding experiences in the outdoors. Five 50-minute lesson plans cover the basic need in order of priority: air (3 minutes to survive without it), shelter (3 hours, in…

  19. 78 FR 47677 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... Sciences Advisory Committee's (BESAC) charter will be renewed for a two-year period. The Committee will provide advice and recommendations to the Office of Science on the Basic Energy Sciences...

  20. Basic concepts and principles of stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    Maarleveld, Timo R; Khandelwal, Ruchir A; Olivier, Brett G; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic networks supply the energy and building blocks for cell growth and maintenance. Cells continuously rewire their metabolic networks in response to changes in environmental conditions to sustain fitness. Studies of the systemic properties of metabolic networks give insight into metabolic plasticity and robustness, and the ability of organisms to cope with different environments. Constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks has become an indispensable tool for such studies. Herein, we review the basic theoretical underpinnings of constraint-based stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks. Basic concepts, such as stoichiometry, chemical moiety conservation, flux modes, flux balance analysis, and flux solution spaces, are explained with simple, illustrative examples. We emphasize the mathematical definitions and their network topological interpretations. PMID:23893965

  1. Remote sensing applied to agriculture: Basic principles, methodology, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The general principles of remote sensing techniques as applied to agriculture and the methods of data analysis are described. the theoretical spectral responses of crops; reflectance, transmittance, and absorbtance of plants; interactions of plants and soils with reflectance energy; leaf morphology; and factors which affect the reflectance of vegetation cover are dicussed. The methodologies of visual and computer-aided analyses of LANDSAT data are presented. Finally, a case study wherein infrared film was used to detect crop anomalies and other data applications are described.

  2. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

  3. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

  4. Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Ha, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation. PMID:23133449

  5. 76 FR 8358 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Energy Sciences Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee... Energy Sciences; U.S. Department of Energy; Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue,...

  6. Bayesian inference in processing experimental data: principles and basic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostini, G.

    2003-09-01

    This paper introduces general ideas and some basic methods of the Bayesian probability theory applied to physics measurements. Our aim is to make the reader familiar, through examples rather than rigorous formalism, with concepts such as the following: model comparison (including the automatic Ockham's Razor filter provided by the Bayesian approach); parametric inference; quantification of the uncertainty about the value of physical quantities, also taking into account systematic effects; role of marginalization; posterior characterization; predictive distributions; hierarchical modelling and hyperparameters; Gaussian approximation of the posterior and recovery of conventional methods, especially maximum likelihood and chi-square fits under well-defined conditions; conjugate priors, transformation invariance and maximum entropy motivated priors; and Monte Carlo (MC) estimates of expectation, including a short introduction to Markov Chain MC methods.

  7. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    PubMed Central

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

  8. Clinical Competencies and the Basic Sciences: An Online Case Tutorial Paradigm for Delivery of Integrated Clinical and Basic Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLullo, Camille; Morris, Harry J.; Kriebel, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the relevance of basic science knowledge in the determination of patient assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is critical to good medical practice. One method often used to direct students in the fundamental process of integrating basic science and clinical information is problem-based learning (PBL). The faculty facilitated small…

  9. Some basic principles of plural cumulative shock technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sinaisky, N.A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant improvement was realized in the performance of a Soviet Union 1,200 MW electric power plant`s 150 MW oil-fired boilers by retrofitting a new type of fuel oil atomizer nozzle employing the principle of cavitation. The ``Cavitator`` nozzle utilizes Plural Cumulative Shock (PCS) to achieve superior atomization of the fuel-oil film in a cone shaped spraying jet. PCS is defined as the plurality of microcumulative jets formed by asymmetric compression of individual cavitation bubbles of approximately 100 microns in size resulting in free energy of up to 10{sup 8} K cal/mol in every jet at the last stage of the cavitation flow created by the Cavitator. The Cavitator nozzle is a mechanical atomizer which combines convoluted venturi flows with an outlet orifice in one assembly which divides fuel oil nucleation, bubble growth and bubble collapse while allowing some overlap of these zones in such a way that the collapse area occurs after the liquid has left the outlet orifice. Experimental results show that with an initial pressure of 150 psi, PCS reduces fuel droplet size to the range of 20--50 microns, thus increasing the number of liquid molecules and other excited atoms contacting oxygen to such a degree that the burning of oil becomes essentially gaseous. Discharge-cavitation performances studies confirmed that PCS yielded improvement from 10{sup {minus}3} W/M{sup 2} (with a conventional atomizer) to 400 W/M{sup 2} after several years of cavitator refinement. These observed results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Retrofitting standard atomizers with the Cavitator-10 led to improved boiler gross performance of up to 2.2%, saving more than 37,000 metric tons/year of {number_sign}6 fuel oil in a Soviet Union 1,200 MW power plant. An NOx reduction of 60% (with 1.02 average excess air) was also realized. Neither oil additives nor shot cleaning were used or required.

  10. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  11. Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the US maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

  12. Office of Basic Energy Sciences 1990 summary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-10-01

    Basic research is an important investment in the future which will help the U.S. maintain and enhance its economic strength. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences' (BES) basic research activities, carried out mainly in universities and Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, are critical to the Nation's leadership in science, for training future scientists, and to fortify the Nation's foundations for social and economic well-being. Attainment of the national goals -- energy self-sufficiency, improved health and quality of life for all, economic growth, national security -- depends on both technological research achievements and the ability to exploit them rapidly. Basic research is a necessary element for technology development and economic growth. This report presents the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences program. The BES mission is to develop understanding and to stimulate innovative thinking needed to fortify the Department's missions.

  13. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Interpretive Research in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1993-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the derivative notions of interdeterminacy, uncertainty, precision, and observer-observed interaction are discussed and their applications to social science research examined. Implications are drawn for research in science education. (PR)

  14. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272, App. A Appendix A to Part 272—Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic... investments as a portfolio, with assessments of program success based on aggregate returns. There should be...

  15. New Principles and Basic Approaches for the Curricula of Engineering Degree Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargione, Luiz Antonio

    This paper presents new principles and basic approaches for the curricula of engineering degree courses. The accentuated evolution of engineering, the fast technological transformations and, still, the impact provoked by government regulations in the field of education in Brazil have called attention to these issues. Following these changes, it…

  16. 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2005

    E-print Network

    Ceyer, Sylvia Teresse

    Introduction to chemistry, with emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. Introduction to the chemistry of ...

  17. A Behavioral Science Assessment of Selected Principles of Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Monroe; Rees, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the bahavioral science support for a set of 20 food-buying principles. Three types of principles are found; they differ in the consumer behaviors they recommend and in the nature and strength of support they receive in the behavioral science literature. (Author/JOW)

  18. Introduction to Circular Accelerators - Basic Science and Applied Research

    SciTech Connect

    Trubnikov, Grigory

    2010-01-05

    This paper gives an introduction to history and overview of circular particle accelerators, reviews acceleration methods and basic principles of: weak and strong focusing, transverse and longitudinal particle motion, optic elements operation. The classification of circular machines is given. Author overviews future projects and technological applied research of particle accelerators.

  19. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Bernice, Comp.; Wenzel, Duane, Comp.

    This first supplement to the Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books contains books received for the museum's 13th annual children's science book fair. Children's science books are listed under these headings: animals; astronomy; aviation and space; biography; careers; earth sciences; environment/conservation;…

  20. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  1. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...Background: The Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network...funding of basic behavioral and social sciences research (b-BSSR...basic mechanisms of behavior and social processes that are relevant...register, visit the registration Web site at...

  2. About the Department of Energy's Basic Energy Sciences Program Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter

    E-print Network

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    , the following ten "Basic Research Needs" workshops, the panel on Grand Challenge science, and the summary report New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future detail the key basic research needed to create.energy.gov/bes/news-and-resources/reports/basic-research-needs/). 1 Science for Energy Technology

  3. BASIC ELECTRICITY. SCIENCE IN ACTION SERIES, NUMBER 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASSEL, RICHARD

    THIS TEACHING GUIDE, INVOLVING ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY, EMPHASIZES STUDENT INVESTIGATIONS RATHER THAN FACTS, AND IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE MAJOR GOAL IN SCIENCE TEACHING IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTIGATIVE ATTITUDE IN THE STUDENT. ACTIVITIES SUGGESTED INVOLVE SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS…

  4. What is Paleotology? Paleontology is a basic science concerned with

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    What is Paleotology? Paleontology is a basic science concerned with the evolutionary history, systematics, functional morphology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, and plate tectonics. Why Study Paleontology-hand experience in lab, field and experiential learning courses First-Year Paleontology at UTM All Paleontology

  5. Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine

    E-print Network

    , 72076 Tübingen, Germany; h Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics and DepartmentsMaking evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine Randolph M. Nessea,1 , Carl T. Bergstromb Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; f Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine

  6. Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first edition of Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications was published in 1985 to "...offer a comprehensive review of general concepts of nutrition as they pertain to pediatrics as well as relevant information on the nutritional management of specific disease states." A ...

  7. School of Basic Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    School of Basic Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine M.D./Ph.D PROGRAM ACADEMIC POLICIES AND PROCEDURES #12;Objective: The combined M.D./Ph.D. program within the College of Medicine at the University will make major contributions via translational medicine to enhance the diagnosis and treatment of human

  8. Pima College Students' Knowledge of Selected Basic Physical Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    In 1989 a study was conducted at Pima Community College (PCC) to assess students' knowledge of basic physical science concepts. A three-part survey instrument was administered to students in a second semester sociology class, a first semester astronomy class, a second semester Spanish class, and a first semester physics class. The survey…

  9. Basic Biobehavioral and Psychological Sciences Branch (BBPSB) Factsheet

    Cancer.gov

    About BBPSB Scientific Staff National Cancer Instit?te U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Instit?tes of Health Basic Biobehavioral and Ps?chological Sciences Branch (BBPSB) http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/bbpsb/ Mission: Advance

  10. Zebrafish Housing Systems: A Review of Basic Operating Principles and Considerations for Design and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations. PMID:23382349

  11. Possible agreement of wave function reduction from the basic principles of quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Roland Omnès

    2008-02-19

    Reduction is shown to be a possible consequence of the basic principles of quantum mechanics, involving no branching of the quantum state of the universe. The key feature of a measurement is attributed to the creation of macroscopic germs of ionized tracks, bubbles, sparks and so on, in a superposed quantum state, the main mechanism being a breaking and a restoration of ``classicality'' in nearby macroscopic objects and their small patterns. A new significance of quantum probabilities, involving no absolute randomness, is also proposed.

  12. The Principles of Science Education in Today's Schools. A Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the dialogue from a roundtable discussion on the principles of science education in today's school held by "Pedagogika" in March 2004. Participants were as follows: from the Russian Academy of Education: V.P. Borisenkov, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, vice president of the Russian Academy of Education, and editor…

  13. A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

  14. TREE TRAILS Promoting `diversity' is a basic principle of urban forestry. A diverse forest implies a more resilient

    E-print Network

    1 TREE TRAILS Promoting `diversity' is a basic principle of urban forestry. A diverse forest characteristics to observe: size, shape, leaves, fruit, and bark. Tell students to list the plants and animals

  15. Storytelling in Earth sciences: The eight basic plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.

  16. "Basic Research Directions Workshop on User Science at the National Ignition Facility"

    E-print Network

    "Basic Research Directions Workshop on User Science at the National Ignition Facility" ­ An NNSA/SC Workshop John Sarrao Basic Research Directions Workshop on User Science at the National Ignition Facility;Basic Research Directions Workshop on User Science at the National Ignition Facility "NIF Science

  17. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  18. Visual Factory: Basic principles and the "zoning" approach Technical University of Crete, bilalis@dpem.tuc.gr

    E-print Network

    Aristomenis, Antoniadis

    Visual Factory: Basic principles and the "zoning" approach by N. Bilalis Technical University principle the production area is separated into three task zones `A', `B' and `C'. Zone "A" represents the "peripheral" or "reference" zone, Zone "B" represents the "access" or "link" zone and Zone "C" represents

  19. ensc-basic-science-math-guidelines,rev2015-05-01 Rev. 05/01/2015 Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Program

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    ensc-basic-science-math-guidelines,rev2015-05-01 Rev. 05/01/2015 Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Program OSU Ecampus - Online Degree Guidelines for the "Basic Science and Math" Requirements are these guidelines official approval to meet specific degree requirements. Basic Science and Math requirements 1

  20. Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity

    E-print Network

    Xiaodong Chen

    2005-10-03

    Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable, Interpreting of quantum physics, Berry phase, three dimensional time, unified theory

  1. Current Tumor Ablation Technologies: Basic Science and Device Review

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, David F.; Khiatani, Vishal L.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Yap, Felix Y.; Bui, James T.; Knuttinen, M. Grace; Owens, Charles A.; Gaba, Ron C.

    2010-01-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation is an increasingly utilized tool to treat focal malignancy. Tumor ablation can be divided into two large categories, thermal and chemical ablation. The authors provide an overview of the current methods used to achieve thermal and chemical ablation of tumors, specifically addressing the basic science behind the ablation methods as well as providing a brief synopsis of the commercial devices currently available for use in the United States. PMID:22550363

  2. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases. PMID:20109968

  3. Integrating basic science without integrating basic scientists: reconsidering the place of individual teachers in curriculum reform.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robin; Pratt, Daniel; Bowen, Judith L; Regehr, Glenn

    2015-02-01

    The call for integration of the basic and clinical sciences plays prominently in recent conversations about curricular change in medical education; however, history shows that, like other concepts related to curricular reform, integration has been continually revisited, leading to incremental change but no meaningful transformation. To redress this cycle of "change without difference," the medical education community must reexamine the approach that dominates medical education reform efforts and explore alternative perspectives that may help to resolve the cyclical "problem" of recommending but not effecting integration. To provide a different perspective on implementing integration, the authors of this Perspective look to the domain of educational change as an approach to examining the transitions that occur within complex and evolving environments. This area of literature both acknowledges the multiple levels involved in change and emphasizes the need not only to address systemic structure but also to prioritize individuals during times of transition. The struggle to implement curricular integration in medical education may stem from the fact that reform efforts appear to focus largely on transformation at the level of curricular structure as opposed to considering what learning needs to occur at each level of change and highlighting the individual as the educational change literature suggests. To bring appropriate attention to the place of individual educators, especially basic scientists, the medical education community should explore how the mandate to integrate clinically relevant material may impact these faculty and the teaching of their domains. PMID:25140528

  4. PRINCIPLES OF NUTRITION SCIENCE Tufts University, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    NUTR 202 PRINCIPLES OF NUTRITION SCIENCE Tufts University, Friedman School of Nutrition ScienceD Candidate Biochemical and Molecular Nutrition emily.mohn@tufts.edu Phone: (203) 2416812 Tufts Graduate nutrition. During the course of the semester students will learn the components of a healthy diet

  5. Computer animation and improved student comprehension of basic science concepts.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2006-01-01

    Many medical students have difficulty learning basic science, either because they find the material challenging to comprehend or because they believe it has limited clinical application. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)--ie, computer animation--can clarify instruction by allowing students to visualize complex, dynamic processes in an interesting presentation. At West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM) in Lewisburg, a series of computer animations have been developed to present concepts in molecular and cellular biology. The author conducted an investigation to compare the efficacy of one representative computer animation with that of traditional textbook material. The subjects were 22 students who had been admitted to WVSOM but who had not yet begun classes. The experimental design of the study consisted of a prelesson test, a lesson, and a postlesson test. The lesson explained the process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication using either a computer animation (n=12) or a chapter from a textbook (n=10). Lesson comprehension as measured by the tests was significantly higher for subjects who used the computer animation than for subjects who used the textbook (P<.01). Furthermore, reviewing the text after studying with the computer animation did not raise test scores, suggesting that the animation was sufficient for learning and the text was unnecessary. After the study, a majority of subjects indicated a preference for the animation over the text. These results demonstrate that CAI can be an effective tool for relating basic science to medical students by improving comprehension and eliciting interest in the lessons. PMID:16428683

  6. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William

    2005-01-11

    New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

  7. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

  8. Development and Testing of Simulation (Game) to Illustrate Basic Principles of Integrated Project Delivery and Target Value Design: A First Run Study 

    E-print Network

    Munankami, Manish 1972-

    2012-12-07

    This research is focused on developing a simulation (game) that will help explain the basic principles of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Target Value Design (TVD). The transfer of knowledge about Lean principles ...

  9. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet... publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) initiative. Attendance is limited to prior registration via http://www.regonline.com/oppnet . Background: The Basic Behavioral...

  10. Basic Principles of Planar Chromatography and Its Potential for Hyphenated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    Sample preparation, detection, identification, and quantitative determination of biomolecules are presented in this chapter. Advantages of planar chromatography and the basic principles (chambers, sample application, and chromatogram development) are also described. Rapid detection of biomolecules plays a strategical role in their investigation. Hyphenated techniques such as planar chromatography coupled to UV diode array detection and to mass spectrometry provide on-line extensive structural information on the metabolites prior to their isolation. In this chapter, the combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with biomolecules specific detection by diode array scanning (DAD), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TLC-FTIR) is discussed. In the last part of the chapter, the reader will gain useful information about a recent method of planar chromatography - multidimensional planar chromatography (MD-PC) and information on application of different modes of multidimensional planar chromatography and combination of this technique with diode array detection (MD-PC-DAD) and HPLC-DAD for separation, detection, and qualitative and quantitative determination of biomolecules. Planar chromatography as a pilot technique for HPLC is also described.

  11. Basic principles and ecological consequences of changing water regimes on nitrogen cycling in fluvial systems.

    PubMed

    Pinay, Gilles; Clément, Jean Christophe; Naiman, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Understanding the environmental consequences of changing water regimes is a daunting challenge for both resource managers and ecologists. Balancing human demands for fresh water with the needs of the environment for water in appropriate amounts and at the appropriate times are shaping the ways by which this natural resource will be used in the future. Based on past decisions that have rendered many freshwater resources unsuitable for use, we argue that river systems have a fundamental need for appropriate amounts and timing of water to maintain their biophysical integrity. Biophysical integrity is fundamental for the formulation of future sustainable management strategies. This article addresses three basic ecological principles driving the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in river systems. These are (1) how the mode of nitrogen delivery affects river ecosystem functioning, (2) how increasing contact between water and soil or sediment increases nitrogen retention and processing, and (3) the role of floods and droughts as important natural events that strongly influence pathways of nitrogen cycling in fluvial systems. New challenges related to the cumulative impact of water regime change, the scale of appraisal of these impacts, and the determination of the impacts due to natural and human changes are discussed. It is suggested that cost of long-term and long-distance cumulative impacts of hydrological changes should be evaluated against short-term economic benefits to determine the real environmental costs. PMID:12481915

  12. diffusion-fundamentals The Open-Access Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application

    E-print Network

    Schuck, Götz

    × 10­10 H+ -Diffusion, symmetr. H-bond (TD) ~0.3 4 × 10­09 The method allowing us to isolate specificdiffusion-fundamentals The Open-Access Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application www.diffusion-fundamentals.org, ISSN 1862-4138; © 2005-2010 Diffusion Fundamentals

  13. Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

  14. Research programs for Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    A chemical sciences review meeting was held in which research programs in chemistry were discussed. Major topics included: chemistry of actinides and fission products, interactions of solvents, solutes and surfaces in supercritical extraction, chemical and physical principles in multiphase separations, and chemical kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  15. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

  16. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  17. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.

  18. Applying Cognitive Science Principles to Improve Retention of Science Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Gooklasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether three student-centred strategies influenced retention of science vocabulary words among 7th grade students. Two of the strategies (drawing pictures and talking about the definition of the terms) were developed to involve the students in more constructive and interactive exercises when compared to the technique that was in…

  19. Basic Regulatory Principles of Escherichia coli's Electron Transport Chain for Varying Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Sebastian G.; Beek, Alexander Ter; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M. Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25268772

  20. The Meniscus: Review of Basic Principles With Application to Surgery and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Timothy; Johnson, Darren L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review basic meniscal anatomy, histology, and biomechanical principles as they apply to surgery and rehabilitation. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL for the years 1960–1999 using the terms meniscus, surgery, rehabilitation, meniscal repair, and arthroscopy. Data Synthesis: Injuries to a healthy meniscus are usually produced by a compressive force coupled with transverse-plane tibiofemoral rotation as the knee moves from flexion to extension during rapid cutting or pivoting. The goal of meniscal surgery is to restore a functional meniscus to prevent the development of degenerative osteoarthritis in the involved knee. The goal of rehabilitation is to restore patient function based on individual needs, considering the type of surgical procedure, which meniscus was repaired, the presence of coexisting knee pathology (particularly ligamentous laxity or articular cartilage degeneration), the type of meniscal tear, the patient's age, preoperative knee status (including time between injury and surgery), decreased range of motion or strength, and the patient's athletic expectations and motivations. Progressive weight bearing and joint stress are necessary to enhance the functionality of the meniscal repair; however, excessive shear forces may be disruptive. Prolonged knee immobilization after surgery can result in the rapid development of muscular atrophy and greater delays in functional recovery. Conclusions/Recommendations: Accelerated joint mobility and weight-bearing components of rehabilitation protocols represent the confidence placed in innovative surgical fixation methods. After wound healing, an aquatic therapy environment may be ideal during all phases of rehabilitation after meniscal surgery (regardless of the exact procedure), providing the advantages of controlled weight bearing and mobility progressions. Well-designed, controlled, longitudinal outcome studies for patients who have undergone meniscectomy, meniscal repair, or meniscal reconstruction are lacking. PMID:16558666

  1. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  2. PNNL Highlights for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (July 2013-July 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2014-08-13

    This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.

  3. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury - from basic science to clinical bedside

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Anja; Bonney, Megan; Bonney, Stephanie; Weitzel, Lindsay; Koeppen, Michael; Eckle, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial ischemia, cardiac surgery or circulatory arrest. Primarily, no blood flow to the heart causes an imbalance between oxygen demand and supply, named ischemia (from the greek isch-, restriction and -haema, blood), resulting in damage or dysfunction of the cardiac tissue. Instinctively, early and fast restoration of blood flow has been established to be the treatment of choice to prevent further tissue injury. Indeed, the use of thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective strategy for reducing the size of a myocardial infarct and improving the clinical outcome. Unfortunately, restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium, named reperfusion, can also induce injury. This phenomenon was therefore termed myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Subsequent studies in animal models of acute myocardial infarction suggest that myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct. Consequently many researchers aim to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury to find therapeutic strategies ultimately reducing the final infarct size. Despite of the identification of numerous therapeutic strategies at the bench, many of them are just in the process of being translated to bedside. In the current review, we will discuss the most striking basic science findings made during the last decades that are currently under clinical evaluation, with the ultimate goal to treat patients who are suffering from myocardial ischemia and reperfusion associated tissue injury. PMID:22368166

  4. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2015-05-15

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (?6?months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ?20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be. PMID:25911667

  5. The HelCat basic plasma science device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Desjardins, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; Watts, C.; Hsu, S. C.; Betts, S.; Kelly, R.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Helicon-Cathode(HelCat) device is a medium-size linear experiment suitable for a wide range of basic plasma science experiments in areas such as electrostatic turbulence and transport, magnetic relaxation, and high power microwave (HPM)-plasma interactions. The HelCat device is based on dual plasma sources located at opposite ends of the 4 m long vacuum chamber - an RF helicon source at one end and a thermionic cathode at the other. Thirteen coils provide an axial magnetic field B >= 0.220 T that can be configured individually to give various magnetic configurations (e.g. solenoid, mirror, cusp). Additional plasma sources, such as a compact coaxial plasma gun, are also utilized in some experiments, and can be located either along the chamber for perpendicular (to the background magnetic field) plasma injection, or at one of the ends for parallel injection. Using the multiple plasma sources, a wide range of plasma parameters can be obtained. Here, the HelCat device is described in detail and some examples of results from previous and ongoing experiments are given. Additionally, examples of planned experiments and device modifications are also discussed.

  6. Republished: Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2015-12-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (?6?months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ?20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be. PMID:26607736

  7. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim

    2016-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (?6?months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ?20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be. PMID:26729891

  8. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p < 0.05, ?2 = 0.59 between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre-to-post assessment with an effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

  9. University of Oregon Basic Science of Musculoskeletal System in Clinical Decisions

    E-print Network

    Lockery, Shawn

    Athletic Training Program Required Resources: 1. Required Textbook: Nordin M., Frankel V. Basic and written form. 5. Gain experience in oral presentation and classroom teaching. 6. Apply knowledge of basicUniversity of Oregon Basic Science of Musculoskeletal System in Clinical Decisions HPHY 660_Fall

  10. A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

    2009-01-01

    The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

  11. May 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 5 BioScience 413 Principles of fluvial geomorphology have guided

    E-print Network

    Poff, N. LeRoy

    May 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 5 · BioScience 413 Articles Principles of fluvial geomorphology have guided river continuum concept (RCC;Vannote et al.1980).Based on early principles of fluvial geomorphology (e

  12. Update on Keloid Management: Clinical and Basic Science Advances

    PubMed Central

    Viera, Martha H.; Vivas, Alejandra C.; Berman, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background Keloids are benign, fibroproliferative lesions that represent abnormal healing resulting in excessive fibrosis. They are composed of mainly type III (early) or type I (late) collagen. Some of the symptoms include pruritus, tenderness, and pain. Often, they are very difficult to treat and prevent from recurrence. In contrast to hypertrophic scars, keloids extend beyond the margin of the wound. The Problem There is very limited evidence on the best wound management for minimizing scarring. Multiple available therapeutic modalities have been used for the treatment of keloids; however, high-recurrence rates continue to be reported. Unsuccessful treatment of keloids leads to psychological impact on the patients and increased economic burden. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Currently, there are biological and antineoplastic agents that can potentially treat and prevent excessive scar formation. Some of them have been used as "off label" therapies, and others are still in the experimental phase such as interferon alpha (IFN-?), imiquimod, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1). The use of IFN-?2b showed 18% recurrence rate when applied to postsurgical excised keloids. Imiquimod 5% can lower recurrence rate on postshaved keloids to 37.5% at 6-month and to 0% at a 12-month follow-up period. TGF-?1 oligonucleotides have shown effective and long-lasting inhibition of TGF-?-mediated scarring in vitro as well as in animal models. Daily injections of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-?1 and -?2 have shown successful reductions in scarring. Conclusion Latest discoveries in the use of novel agents suggest therapeutic alternatives for the prevention of recurrences of hypertrophic scars and postexcision keloid lesions. PMID:24527306

  13. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  14. Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2003-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

  15. Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

  16. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  17. International cooperation in basic space science, Western Asian countries and the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The world will never better develop and attain a global peace state, if it does not exist a world-wide cooperation, union of interests among all countries on planet Earth, respecting and understanding each other culture differences. So, if the countries interested in space science want to create or better develop this field, they need to firstly construct peace states and social cooperation, while scientific and technological cooperation will develop -among them. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations (UN)' Agenda 21 (UN UNCED, 1992), I propose four points that can lead to a practical and solid international cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, based on ground studies, with sustainable space programs in countries with social necessities, and to the construction of an avenue of peace states in those areas and in the world, 1) The creation of LINKS among the "developing" countries, among the "developed" ones and between them -with scientists, engineers, educators and administrative personnel. This can catalyze a self-sustainable scientific and technological production in the "developing" countries. Financial matters could be done through the World Bank in coopera-tion with UNESCO. 2) The administration of this difficult enterprise of international coopera-tion. With the increasing complexity of relationships among the aerospace-interested countries, it will be necessary the creation of a center capable to serve as an INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATOR CENTER FOR AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES. 3) CULTURE: in Western Asian countries there is a cultural habit that when somebody gives something valuable to a person, this person should give something back. Thus, the Western Asian countries receiving infor-mation on basic aerospace science and technology from the "developed" ones, those countries would probably feel they should give something in return. Western Asian countries could trans-mit their costumes, thinking ways, habits, persons' worries, thoughts and life knowledge, and music -culture -among themselves and to the "developed" countries. With this transmission of culture, principally among children, a better understanding among the countries could be created and the relationships among them could be very much easier for a sustainable inter-national cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, and for a sustainable better development and peace states for all Peoples and Nations on Earth. A cultural aspect which can highly increase children's interest in basic space science and technologies is by preparing the `terrain' of their minds, planting seeds of peace on them. It is known that if children live in countries with peace states their learning capacity is much better. So, I also propose (a neces-sity) to reeducate children -by teaching them about peace, showing them about Nations which have peace societies, redirecting children's mind for them to acquire knowledge of peace. So, they will grow into adults with more possibilities of developing science and technology (space research included) for peaceful purposes. We can extend our hands and actually help persons and Peoples with real necessities. By doing this way and keeping it constant we all can greatly grow together socially, and scientific-technologically, and real peace states will be achieved while sustainable space program will develop better -these two matters go 'hands-in-hands'. 4) The PARTICIPATION of the Western Asian countries in already programmed space missions, the participation in the astrobiology research, and in the transference of aerospace-related sci-entific and technical information to them. The better social development of the world (with sustainable space programs) with more union among the Peoples and Nations on Earth, within a protected environment, it is a goal we (a living species Homo sapiens, among others species, on this extremely rare unique special planet Earth) all need to achieve together.

  18. Chemical carcinogens: a review of the science and its associated principles. U.S. Interagency Staff Group on Carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In order to articulate a view of chemical carcinogenesis that scientists generally hold in common today and to draw upon this understanding to compose guiding principles that can be used as a bases for the efforts of the regulatory agencies to establish guidelines for assessing carcinogenic risk to meet the specific requirements of the legislative acts they are charged to implement, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office, the White House drew on the expertise of a number of regulatory agencies to elucidate present scientific views in critical areas of the major disciplines important to the process of risk assessment. The document is composed of two major sections, Principles and the State-of-the-Science. The latter consists of subsections on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, short-term and long-term testing, and epidemiology, which are important components in the risk assessment step of hazard identification. These subsections are followed by one on exposure assessment, and a final section which includes analyses of dose-response (hazard) assessment and risk characterization. The principles are derived from considerations in each of the subsections. Because of present gaps in understanding, the principles contain judgmental (science policy) decisions on major unresolved issues as well as statements of what is generally accepted as fact. These judgments are basically assumptions which are responsible for much of the uncertainty in the process of risk assessment. There was an attempt to clearly distinguish policy and fact. The subsections of the State-of-the-Science portion provide the underlying support to the principles articulated, and to read the "Principles" section without a full appreciation of the State-of-the-Science section is to invite oversimplification and misinterpretation. Finally, suggestions are made for future research efforts which will improve the process of risk assessment. PMID:3530737

  19. New Trends in Integrated Science Teaching. Volume V. The Teaching of Basic Sciences, Integrated Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Judith, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Conference on Integrated Science Foundation Worldwide are provided in abbreviated form. The conference examined developments in integrated science education during the last ten years and discussed possible future trends. Chapters are based upon plenary papers and working groups. Some of the integrated science

  20. The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabalevskii, Dmitrii

    1988-01-01

    Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)

  1. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  2. Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

  3. Course: Psychology 370 (Schedule# 29470, Section 2); Psychological Testing and Measurement Course Description: Measurement theory and the basic principles of testing. Selection,

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    SYLLABUS Course: Psychology 370 (Schedule# 29470, Section 2); Psychological Testing and Measurement Course Description: Measurement theory and the basic principles of testing. Selection, construction, and critical evaluation of group tests of intelligence, personality, aptitude, interest, and achievement

  4. MAS334 COMBINATORICS 2014/2015 Solutions to Example Sheet 2 : Three basic principles

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    . 2. Label pigeon-holes 1, 3, 5, . . . , 2n-1 and place each of the n+1 numbers into the pigeon- hole corresponding to its highest odd factor. Putting n+1 numbers into n pigeon-holes is bound to give two in the same pigeon-hole, by the Pigeon-Hole Principle. So two of the numbers will have the same highest odd

  5. Potential Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Savings in the Basic Science Building at UTMB 

    E-print Network

    Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Claridge, D. E.; Reddy, T. A.; Haberl, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the potential energy savings due to optimizing the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) operation schedule in the Basic Science Building at University of Texas ...

  6. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) 1991-2012 and Beyond

    E-print Network

    Mathai, A M; Balogh, W R

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains an overview and summary on the achievements of the United Nations basic space science initiative in terms of donated and provided planetariums, astronomical telescopes, and space weather instruments, particularly operating in developing nations. This scientific equipment has been made available to respective host countries, particularly developing nations, through the series of twenty basic space science workshops, organized through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications since 1991. Organized by the United Nations, the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the basic space science workshops were organized as a series of workshops that focused on basic space science (1991-2004), the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (2005-2009), and the International Space Weather Initiative (2010-2012) proposed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac...

  7. The Integration of Nutrition Education in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, Isaias

    1977-01-01

    At the Center for Biomedical Education at the City University of New York, nutrition is integrated into the chemistry-biochemistry sequence of a six-year B.S.-M.D. program. Students perform an actual analysis of a sample of their own food, learning basic techniques and concepts, and also carry on experiments with rats on other diets. (Editor/LBH)

  8. Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

  9. Science: A Practical View. Volume III. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific principles of…

  10. Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Justin G; Grande, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients' social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course. PMID:25755935

  11. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  12. New Science Committee Chair Advocates “Basic” Research, smaller budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    With election and inaugural activities complete, the 105th Congress of the United States is set to begin the work of lawmaking. The new session brings some new names to the leadership of several committees that oversee science policy and funding, yet it seems clear that efforts will be focused again on shrinking the federal budget deficit.The Science Committee of the House of Representatives, which oversees NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and parts of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has a new chairman—F. James Sensenbrenner Jr. The Republican from Wisconsin was the chair of the Space and Aeronautics subcommittee; he now replaces chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.), who retired after 20 years in the House.

  13. First principles calculations for modern ceramic science and engineering.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Isao; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2008-02-13

    The free energy of compounds can be theoretically obtained as a function of temperature, pressure and chemical potentials by a combination of a first principles method including phonon calculations and statistical approaches using cluster expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. The information is quite useful in ceramic science and engineering since experimental data are not abundantly available. As an example of phonon calculations, results for graphite in comparison to diamond are presented. The free energy difference among polymorphs of Ga(2)O(3) is shown as a function of temperature as well. Theoretical calculations of x-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) and electron energy loss near edge structures (ELNES) are also demonstrated. Proper inclusion of the core-hole effect is mandatory in the calculation. For 3d transition element L(2,3) XANES/ELNES, a configuration interaction approach to take account of the correlation among the core-hole and the excited electron satisfactorily reproduces experimental spectra. As an example, results for Mn-doped ZnO are shown. PMID:21693877

  14. Practicable Taxonomy of Basic Skills of Science Practicals at Secondary Level for Their Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindhu, R. S.; Sharma, Reeta

    1998-01-01

    Explains a taxonomy of basic skills of science practicals that is used in the assessment of secondary science students. Details the assessment scheme which involves the evaluation of students through laboratory practical examinations, observational assessment, and written records of academic sessions. (DDR)

  15. Development and Validation of a Project Package for Junior Secondary School Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udofia, Nsikak-Abasi

    2014-01-01

    This was a Research and Developmental study designed to develop and validate projects for Junior Secondary School Basic Science instruction and evaluation. The projects were developed using the project blueprint and sent for validation by experts in science education and measurement and evaluation; using a project validation scale. They were to…

  16. The operating regimes and basic control principles of SNPS Topaz''. [Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A.N.; Volberg, M.S.; Grayznov, G.M.; Zhabotinsky, E.E.; Serbin, V.I. )

    1991-01-05

    The basic operating regimes of space nuclear power system (SNPS) Topaz'' are considered. These regimes include: prelaunch preparation and launch into working orbit, SNPS start-up to obtain desired electric power, nominal regime, SNPS shutdown. The main requirements for SNPS at different regimes are given, and the control algorithms providing these requirements are described. The control algorithms were chosen on the basis of theoretical studies and ground power tests of the SNPS prototypes. Topaz'' successful ground and flight tests allow to conclude that for SNPS of this type control algorithm providing required thermal state of cesium vapor supply system and excluding any possibility of discharge processes in current conducting elements is the most expedient at the start-up regime. At the nominal regime required electric power should be provided by maintenance of reactor current and fast-acting voltage regulator utilization. The limitation of the outlet coolant temperature should be foreseen also.

  17. From Basic Network Principles to Neural Architecture: Emergence of Orientation Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsker, Ralph

    1986-11-01

    Orientation-selective cells--cells that are selectively responsive to bars and edges at particular orientations--are a salient feature of the architecture of mammalian visual cortex. In the previous paper of this series, I showed that such cells emerge spontaneously during the development of a simple multilayered network having local but initially random feedforward connections that mature, one layer at a time, according to a simple development rule (of Hebb type). In this paper, I show that, in the presence of lateral connections between developing orientation cells, these cells self-organize into banded patterns of cells of similar orientation. These patterns are similar to the ``orientation columns'' found in mammalian visual cortex. No orientation preference is specified to the system at any stage, none of the basic developmental rules is specific to visual processing, and the results emerge even in the absence of visual input to the system (as has been observed in macaque monkey).

  18. Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological

    E-print Network

    and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics DNSSEC Implementa not support SHA256 · FIPS 140-2 Level3 #12;Systemic Problems · .net is not signed · .org is signed ­Registrar) ­Well supported by most DNSSEC capable servers #12;Testing and debugging · Limited tools available

  19. Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

  20. DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). The goal of the Material Sciences projects is to study the structural, optical, electrical, and defect properties of semiconductors and related materials using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Specific projects involving PV include: ordering in III-V semiconductors, isoelectronic co-doping, doping bottlenecks in semiconductors, solid-state theory, and computational science. The goal of the Chemical Sciences projects is to advance the fundamental understanding of the relevant science involving materials, photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, nanoscale chemistry, and catalysis that support solar photochemical conversion technologies. Specific projects relating to PV include: dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, semiconductor nanostructures, and molecular semiconductors. This presentation will give an overview of some of the major accomplishments of these projects.

  1. The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

    2006-01-01

    Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented. PMID:16674820

  2. Interactome maps of mouse gene regulatory domains reveal basic principles of transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Kyong-Rim Kieffer; Tang, Zhonghui; Mathe, Ewy; Qian, Jason; Sung, Myong-Hee; Li, Guoliang; Resch, Wolfgang; Baek, Songjoon; Pruett, Nathanael; Grøntved, Lars; Vian, Laura; Nelson, Steevenson; Zare, Hossein; Hakim, Ofir; Reyon, Deepak; Yamane, Arito; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Kovalchuk, Alexander L.; Zou, Jizhong; Joung, J. Keith; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Xiaoan; Hager, Gordon L.; Ruan, Yijun; Casellas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A key finding of the ENCODE project is that the enhancer landscape of mammalian cells undergoes marked alterations during ontogeny. However, the nature and extent of these changes are unclear. As part of the NIH Mouse Regulome Project, we here combined DNaseI hypersensitivity, ChIP-Seq, and ChIA-PET technologies to map the promoter-enhancer interactomes of pluripotent ES cells and differentiated B lymphocytes. We confirm that enhancer usage varies widely across tissues. Unexpectedly, we find that this feature extends to broadly-transcribed genes, including Myc and Pim1 cell cycle regulators, which associate with an entirely different set of enhancers in ES and B cells. By means of high-resolution CpG methylomes, genome editing, and digital footprinting we show that these enhancers recruit lineage-determining factors. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the turning on and off of enhancers during development correlates with promoter activity. We propose that organisms rely on a dynamic enhancer landscape to control basic cellular functions in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24360274

  3. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  4. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses. PMID:19639918

  5. Body diffusion kurtosis imaging: Basic principles, applications, and considerations for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Padhani, Anwar R; Chenevert, Thomas L; Koh, Dow-Mu; De Keyzer, Frederik; Taouli, Bachir; Le Bihan, Denis

    2015-11-01

    Technologic advances enable performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at ultrahigh b-values, where standard monoexponential model analysis may not apply. Rather, non-Gaussian water diffusion properties emerge, which in cellular tissues are, in part, influenced by the intracellular environment that is not well evaluated by conventional DWI. The novel technique, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), enables characterization of non-Gaussian water diffusion behavior. More advanced mathematical curve fitting of the signal intensity decay curve using the DKI model provides an additional parameter Kapp that presumably reflects heterogeneity and irregularity of cellular microstructure, as well as the amount of interfaces within cellular tissues. Although largely applied for neural applications over the past decade, a small number of studies have recently explored DKI outside the brain. The most investigated organ is the prostate, with preliminary studies suggesting improved tumor detection and grading using DKI. Although still largely in the research phase, DKI is being explored in wider clinical settings. When assessing extracranial applications of DKI, careful attention to details with which body radiologists may currently be unfamiliar is important to ensure reliable results. Accordingly, a robust understanding of DKI is necessary for radiologists to better understand the meaning of DKI-derived metrics in the context of different tumors and how these metrics vary between tumor types and in response to treatment. In this review, we outline DKI principles, propose biostructural basis for observations, provide a comparison with standard monoexponential fitting and the apparent diffusion coefficient, report on extracranial clinical investigations to date, and recommend technical considerations for implementation in body imaging. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;42:1190-1202. PMID:26119267

  6. Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual’s commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person’s own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain’s default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory consolidation. PMID:23874312

  7. Goal Commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: basic principles.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A few empirically supported principles can account for much of the thematic content of waking thought, including rumination, and dreams. (1) An individual's commitments to particular goals sensitize the individual to respond to cues associated with those goals. The cues may be external or internal in the person's own mental activity. The responses may take the form of noticing the cues, storing them in memory, having thoughts or dream segments related to them, and/or taking action. Noticing may be conscious or not. Goals may be any desired endpoint of a behavioral sequence, including finding out more about something, i.e., exploring possible goals, such as job possibilities or personal relationships. (2) Such responses are accompanied and perhaps preceded by protoemotional activity or full emotional arousal, the amplitude of which determines the likelihood of response and is related to the value placed on the goal. (3) When the individual is in a situation conducive to making progress toward attaining the goal, the response to goal cues takes the form of actions or operant mental acts that advance the goal pursuit. (4) When circumstances are unfavorable for goal-directed operant behavior, the response remains purely mental, as in mind-wandering and dreaming, but still reflects the content of the goal pursuit or associated content. (5) Respondent responses such as mind-wandering are more likely when the individual is mentally unoccupied with ongoing tasks and less likely the more that is at stake in the ongoing task. The probability of respondent thought is highest during relaxed periods, when the brain's default-mode network dominates, or during sleep. The article briefly summarizes neurocognitive findings that relate to mind-wandering and evidence regarding adverse effects of mind-wandering on task performance as well as evidence suggesting adaptive functions in regard to creative problem-solving, planning, resisting delay discounting, and memory consolidation. PMID:23874312

  8. Shared Governance of the Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida A. Preamble; Guiding Principles

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    1 Shared Governance of the Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida A. Preamble; Guiding Principles: The Horticultural Sciences (HS) Department is fully committed to shared governance Constitution in its Preamble and Article I, Section 2. The Horticultural Sciences Department will use shared

  9. Plane Wave First-principles Materials Science Codes on Multicore Supercomputer Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canning, Andrew; Deslippe, Jack; Louie, Steven. G.; Scidac Team

    2014-03-01

    Plane wave first-principles codes based on 3D FFTs are one of the largest users of supercomputer cycles in the world. Modern supercomputer architectures are constructed from chips having many CPU cores with nodes containing multiple chips. Designs for future supercomputers are projected to have even more cores per chip. I will present new developments for hybrid MPI/OpenMP PW codes focusing on a specialized 3D FFTs that gives greatly improved scaling over a pure MPI version on multicore machines. Scaling results will be presented for the full electronic structure codes PARATEC and BerkeleyGW. using the new hybrid 3D FFTs, threaded libraries and OpenMP to gain greatly improved scaling to very large core count on Cray and IBM machines. Support for this work was provided through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research (and Basic Energy Sciences).

  10. Introduction to the theory of forced equilibria: General principles, basic concepts, and definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauson, Vladimir L.; Akimov, Vladlen V.

    1997-12-01

    Until now, only a small amount of work has been done to verify the constraints of using fundamental regularities of the exact sciences in geochemistry and mineralogy. As for the chemical thermodynamics, the most important problem is the inadequate presentation of the thermodynamic state of real mineral systems. Our contention is that this state cannot be rigorously referred to any conventional type, if examined by the traditional chemical thermodynamics, and must be analyzed in terms of forced-equilibrium theory. The forced equilibrium is defined as a specific thermodynamic state resulting from the action of forcing factors, that is, the conditions or constraints which restrict possible variations of principal or internal thermodynamic system parameters. The advantage of this approach is that it proceeds from the operative forcing factor to the actual type of equilibrium of the real system, whereas the traditional analysis usually postulates the type of equilibrium state without proof of adequacy. The equilibrium conditions for thermoelastic solids with a coherent interphase boundary are a good example of forced equilibrium. The numerical modelling of forced equilibria in some real mineral systems and the comparison of the results with experimental and natural data show that the actual thermodynamic states of mineral systems more often represent stable or metastable forced equilibria than kinetically depressed or metastable states in their traditional understanding.

  11. Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amara, Francis

    Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

  12. Lost in Translation—Basic Science in the Era of Translational Research ?

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges. PMID:20038540

  13. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Laura L.; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. Results: The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Conclusions: Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository. PMID:20098658

  14. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

  15. Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

    2007-08-04

    The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State University and Charles University in Prague. In this paper, we report neutron capture studies that are of particular interest to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In addition to determining neutron capture cross sections, we are also interested in the nuclear properties of the excited state compound nuclei created in the capture reactions. One model that describes the behavior of the nucleus is the statistical model. Our statistical studies included measuring the photon strength function, resonance parameters, level density and gamma-ray ({gamma}-ray) cascade multiplicity. The DANCE array allows the separation of cascades by the number of transitions (multiplicity) in the cascade, and this makes it possible to study detailed properties of the statistical cascade such as the relationship between multiplicity and energy distributions. The work reported here includes reaction on molybdenum targets, europium targets, gadolinium targets and the first americium-242m target. Our goal is to improve the accuracy and provide new measurements for stable and radioactive targets. We are especially interested in energy-dependent neutron capture cross sections. In all of our experiments, the photons emitted in the capture reactions are gamma rays, and they are detected by the barium fluoride crystal array named the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) shown in Fig. 1. The detector array is made of 160 crystals arranged in a sphere around the target. There are four different crystal shapes, each of which covers an equal solid angle. This array was specifically designed to measure neutron capture cross sections with targets that were milligram sized or smaller, including radioactive targets. The barium fluoride crystals are scintillation (light generating) detectors with very fast response time, and are therefore suitable for high count rate experiments. Actual neutron capture events must be reliably distinguished from background {gamma}-rays, which are always present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hyd

  16. Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often…

  17. Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

  18. An Analysis of Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Achievement, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Cognitive Structure Outcomes After Learning Basic Atomic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1998-01-01

    Explores the interrelationships between students' general science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs, and cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  19. X-ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic principles of x-ray production.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2004-09-01

    The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of disease. Combined PET/CT scanners provide the high-resolution anatomic imaging capability of CT with the metabolic and physiologic information by PET, to offer a significant increase in information content useful for the diagnostician and radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, or other physician needing both anatomic detail and knowledge of disease extent. Nuclear medicine technologists at the forefront of PET should therefore have a good understanding of x-ray imaging physics and basic CT scanner operation, as covered by this 4-part series. After reading the first article on x-ray production, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with (a) the physical characteristics of x-rays relative to other electromagnetic radiations, including gamma-rays in terms of energy, wavelength, and frequency; (b) methods of x-ray production and the characteristics of the output x-ray spectrum; (c) components necessary to produce x-rays, including the x-ray tube/x-ray generator and the parameters that control x-ray quality (energy) and quantity; (d) x-ray production limitations caused by heating and the impact on image acquisition and clinical throughput; and (e) a glossary of terms to assist in the understanding of this information. PMID:15347692

  20. Basic research needs to assure a secure energy future. A report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    This report has highlighted many of the possible fundamental research areas that will help our country avoid a future energy crisis. The report may not have adequately captured the atmosphere of concern that permeated the discussions at the workshop. The difficulties facing our nation and the world in meeting our energy needs over the next several decades are very challenging. It was generally felt that traditional solutions and approaches will not solve the total energy problem. Knowledge that does not exist must be obtained to address both the quantity of energy needed to increase the standard of living world-wide and the quality of energy generation needed to preserve the environment. In terms of investments, it was clear that there is no single research area that will secure the future energy supply. A diverse range of economic energy sources will be required--and a broad range of fundamental research is needed to enable these. Many of the issues fall into the traditional materials and chemical sciences research areas, but with specific emphasis on understanding mechanisms, energy related phenomena, and pursuing novel directions in, for example, nanoscience and integrated modeling. An important result from the discussions, which is hopefully apparent from the brief presentations above, is that the problems that must be dealt with are truly multidisciplinary. This means that they require the participation of investigators with different skill sets. Basic science skills have to be complemented by awareness of the overall nature of the problem in a national and world context, and with knowledge of the engineering, design, and control issues in any eventual solution. It is necessary to find ways in which this can be done while still preserving the ability to do first-class basic science. The traditional structure of research, with specific disciplinary groupings, will not be sufficient. This presents great challenges and opportunities for the funders of the research that must be done. For example, the applied research programs in the DOE need a greater awareness of the user facilities and an understanding of how to use them to solve their unique problems. The discussions reinforced what all of the participants already knew: the issue of energy security is of major importance both for the U.S. and for the world. Furthermore, it is clear that major changes in the primary energy sources, in energy conversion, and in energy use, must be achieved within the next fifty years. This time scale is determined by two drivers: increasing world population and increasing expectations of that population. Much of the research and development currently being done are concerned with incremental improvements in what has been done in the immediate past; and it is necessary to take this path because improvements will be needed across the board. These advances extend the period before the radical changes have to be made; however, they will not solve the underlying, long-range problem. The Subpanel recommends that a major program be funded to conduct a multidisciplinary research program to address the issues to ensure a secure energy future for the U.S. It is necessary to recognize that this program must be ensured of a long-term stability. It is also necessary that a management and funding structure appropriate for such an approach be developed. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences is well positioned to support this initiative by enhancement of their already world-class scientific research programs and user facilities.

  1. Basic Research in the Mission Agencies: Agency Perspectives on the Conduct and Support of Basic Research. Report of the National Science Board, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    A survey was conducted by the National Science Board of the basic research supported by executive branch agencies of the federal government. Most of the data came from information solicited by the Board from federal agencies involved in science. Fourteen mission agencies and two agencies not so classified and 20 subunits of these responded.…

  2. Meaty Principles for Environmental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockcastle, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that educated persons should be exposed to a body of conceptual knowledge which includes basic principles of the biological and physical sciences. Practical examples involving force, sound, light, waves, and density of water are cited. A lesson on animal tracks using principles of force and pressure is also described. (DH)

  3. 3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/14 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 6/14 1

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/14 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 6/14 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 152 Computer Science I Using Java 3. Java basics 1. Higher-level languages and compilation 2. Java programs and statements 3. Program documentation

  4. Second Place -Resident Basic Science Award 1995 Mitochondrial role in hair cell survival after injury

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    . Animals treated with chloramphenicol alone did not have any evidence of hair cell loss at the distal boundary of the lesion. Pure-tone noise exposure characteristically produced hair cell loss alongSecond Place - Resident Basic Science Award 1995 Mitochondrial role in hair cell survival after

  5. BASIC SCIENCE Cross-Clade CD8 T-Cell Responses to HIVIIIB and Chinese B

    E-print Network

    Lieberman, Judy

    BASIC SCIENCE Cross-Clade CD8 T-Cell Responses to HIVIIIB and Chinese B and C/B Viruses in North American and Chinese HIV-Seropositive Donors Vanessa Franc¸ois-Bongarcon, BS,* Yi Feng, MS, Sang-Kyung Lee American donors and 4 Chi- nese donors. IFN- production in response to HIVIIIB or the Chinese viruses

  6. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  7. BASIC AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE Low-Frequency Nevirapine Resistance at Multiple Sites

    E-print Network

    Matsen, Frederick A. "Erick"

    BASIC AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE Low-Frequency Nevirapine Resistance at Multiple Sites May Predict Treatment Failure in Infants on Nevirapine-Based Treatment Dara A. Lehman, MHS, PhD,* Dalton C. Wamalwa in infants exposed to single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for prevention of mother to child transmission. Although

  8. Comparison of Graduates of Regular Curriculum and Unified Basic-Science--Clinical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbato, Anthony; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The differences between graduates who were in different curricula at Loyola University of Chicago Stritch School of Medicine were identified. Physicians who combined the basic and clinical sciences throughout the program, chose specialties in family practice and psychiatry more than the regular track students. (Author/MLW)

  9. A Role for Clinical Case Simulations in Basic Medical Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchaer, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations can help students apply basic science knowledge (which they are acquiring concurrently) to the identification and management of the physiological, metabolic, and/or anatomic problem(s) underlying the signs and the symptoms of a specific "simulated patient." The design, development, and production of these simulations are described. (JN)

  10. Quick Facts for MD/PhD Students Medical School; Basic Science (Years 1 -2)

    E-print Network

    Quick Facts for MD/PhD Students Medical School; Basic Science (Years 1 - 2) A. Core curriculum MD, clinical research, etc. The Honors program is designed to supplement the medical school curriculum receive full-training in both the medical and graduate school curricula culminating in both medical

  11. BASIC AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE Association Between HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage and

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    BASIC AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE Association Between HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage and Resistance a universal vaccine against HIV-1. Mainly responsible for new infections are variants only using CCR5 for cell diverse HIV-1 isolates for which IC50 neutralization titers were determined for the broadly neutralizing

  12. BASIC SCIENCE The Contribution of the Thymus to the Recovery of

    E-print Network

    de Boer, Rob J.

    BASIC SCIENCE The Contribution of the Thymus to the Recovery of Peripheral Naive T-Cell Numbers: The quantitative contribution of the thymus to the maintenance of peripheral populations of naive T cells is poorly numbers (rather than the TREC content). Key Words: HIV, thymus, TREC, mathematical models (J Acquir Immune

  13. Basics of Inertial Confinement Fusion NIF and Photon Science Directorate Chief Scientist

    E-print Network

    Basics of Inertial Confinement Fusion John Lindl NIF and Photon Science Directorate Chief Scientist (NIC) · Opportunities for the future on NIF #12;Fusion can be accomplished in three different ways density) 102 103 104 105 500 50 5 0.5 Capsule energy (KJ) NIF Relaxed pressure and stability requirements

  14. Basic Sciences in Clinical Glaucoma How Does Nonpenetrating Glaucoma Surgery Work?

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Mark

    Basic Sciences in Clinical Glaucoma How Does Nonpenetrating Glaucoma Surgery Work? Aqueous Outflow Resistance and Glaucoma Surgery Douglas H. Johnson, MD, and *Mark Johnson, PhD Department of Ophthalmology the abnormal trabecular meshwork of glaucoma address the pathologic problem of the disease. Surgeries

  15. Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lila G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

  16. A Hybrid Model of Mathematics Support for Science Students Emphasizing Basic Skills and Discipline Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Deborah C.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of students entering university lacking basic mathematical skills is a critical issue in the Australian higher-education sector and relevant globally. The Maths Skills programme at La Trobe University has been developed to address under preparation in the first-year science cohort in the absence of an institutional mathematics support…

  17. Basic Principles of Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are many different spectroscopic methods available for solving a wide range of analytical problems. The methods differ with respect to the species to be analyzed (such as molecular or atomic spectroscopy), the type of radiation-matter interaction to be monitored (such as absorption, emission, or diffraction), and the region of the electromagnetic spectrum used in the analysis. Spectroscopic methods are very informative and widely used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Spectroscopic methods based on the absorption or emission of radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), infrared (IR), and radio (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR) frequency ranges are most commonly encountered in traditional food analysis laboratories. Each of these methods is distinct in that it monitors different types of molecular or atomic transitions. The basis of these transitions is explained in the following sections.

  18. Milestones and Basic Principles.

    PubMed

    Moukarzel, Maroun; Chalouhy, Charbel; Kallas Chemaly, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Current shortage in organ donors led to the expansion of criteria for organ donation placing organ preservation as one cornerstone for successful transplant, graft function and survival. The historical work of Belzer and Collins paved the way for key descriptions of physiopathology of cell ischemia and protection (cytokines roles, oxidative stress, energy shift to lactic acidosis and perfusion pressure changes). Good preservation means immediate recovery of function and prevention of chronic rejection. Two cooling approaches are available: static (SCS: simple cold storage) suitable for all organs, and dynamic (HMP: hypothermic machines perfusion) designed for kidneys and liver. A thorough discussion of historically manufactured and widely sold preservation solutions e.g. EuroCollins, UW solution (Viaspan®) as well as current used solutions e.g. Custodiol® and the new Celsior is available in this review. Obviously, every single organ exhibits different tolerance to warm and cold ischemia depending on its nature and demands after transplant. Future perspectives of organ preservation may be hidden in hibernators which may hold the enigmas of perfect human organ preservation. PMID:26591191

  19. Basic Economic Principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tideman, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

  20. [The Stem-Cell Application in Ischemic Heart Disease: Basic Principles, Specifics and Practical Experience from Clinical Studies].

    PubMed

    Banovi?, Marko; Obradovi?, Slobodan; Beleslin, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Longer life duration, different clinical presentations of coronary disease, as well as high incidence of comorbidity in patients with ischemic heart disease have led to an increase in the incidence of ischemic heart failure. Despite numerous and new treatment methods that act on different pathophysiological mechanisms that cause heart failure, and whose aim is to slowdown or stop the progression of this devastating disease, morbidity and mortality in these patients remain high. These facts have firstly led to the introduction of the experimental, and then clinical studies with the application of stem cells in patients with ischemic heart disease. Previous studies have shown that the application of stem cells is a feasible and safe method in patients with acute coronary syndrome, as well as in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, but the efficacy of these methods in both of the abovementioned clinical syndromes has yet to be established.This review paper outlines the basic principles of treatment of ischemic heart disease with stem cells, as well as the experience and knowledge gained in previous clinical studies. PMID:26506764

  1. How WebQuests Can Enhance Science Learning Principles in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic…

  2. ECE 417/ECE517 Basic Semiconductor Devices Catalog Description: Theory and physical principles of bipolar junction and field-effect transistors.

    E-print Network

    ECE 417/ECE517 ­ Basic Semiconductor Devices Catalog Description: Theory and physical principles-effect transistors · Modeling and simulation of semiconductor devices using computer aided design/analysis software-type semiconductor in a MOS structure using its C-V characteristics and energy band diagrams. 4. Understand

  3. The Challenge of the Humanities and Social Science Education Through the Basic Seminar (Science of Snow Sports)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniai, Tetsuyuki; Sugimoto, Taku; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Ikota, Masaru

    The Education Center of Chiba Institute of Technology is taking a new approach to the introduction of liberal arts subjects commonly included in the curriculum of all departments through a newly established basic seminar, the Science of Snow Sports. Each faculty member has been working on setting up classes that cross the conventional boundaries of fields and disciplines and which are targeted at students of all faculties and departments. This paper describes the potential for teaching liberal arts and social science subjects to engineering students through the medium of sports science, based on actual experience gained via this new approach.

  4. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica andColombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  5. Aligning library instruction with the needs of basic sciences graduate students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Question: How can an existing library instruction program be reconfigured to reach basic sciences graduate students and other patrons missed by curriculum-based instruction? Setting: The setting is an academic health sciences library that serves both the university and its affiliated teaching hospital. Methods: The existing program was redesigned to incorporate a series of seven workshops that encompassed the range of information literacy skills that graduate students in the basic sciences need. In developing the new model, the teaching librarians made changes in pedagogy, technology, marketing, and assessment strategies. Results: Total attendance at the sessions increased substantially in the first 2 years of the new model, increasing from an average of 20 per semester to an average of 124. Survey results provided insight about what patrons wanted to learn and how best to teach it. Conclusion: Modifying the program's content and structure resulted in a program that appealed to the target audience. PMID:23133328

  6. Iron and Malaria Interactions: Research Needs From Basic Science to Global Policy12

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    The resurgence in interest and concern regarding the potentially malign interactions between iron administration and malaria infections, especially in young children and pregnant women, has generated a research agenda that is both broad and deep. This paper highlights some of the key questions under 5 headings: basic science; clinical science and epidemiology; technological developments; country level planning; and global policy. At a time of unparalleled progress in basic science, which is illuminating the mechanisms by which iron interacts with infectious organisms, it is concluded that there are good medium-term prospects for achieving policy breakthroughs based on a secure foundation of disease-nutrient interactions. However, it is also stressed that there is much that can be done in the interim, especially in relation to health systems and implementation research that can empower systems to integrate iron interventions with programs for malaria prevention, surveillance, and treatment. PMID:22797996

  7. Science Curricula Design: Analysis of Authors' Ideological and Pedagogical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Silvia; Morais, Ana M.; Neves, Isabel P.

    2011-01-01

    The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the Official Pedagogic Discourse of the curriculum for Portuguese middle schools contains the ideological and pedagogical principles of its authors. The research is epistemologically and sociologically grounded, placing particular emphasis on Bernstein theory of…

  8. Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law

    SciTech Connect

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara . E-mail: mariachiara.tallacchini@unimi.it

    2005-09-01

    The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that '[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. By focusing on situations of scientific uncertainty where data are lacking, insufficient, or inconclusive, the principle introduced a shift from a neutral legal attitude towards science to a bias in favor of safety, and a shift from the paradigm of science certain and objective to the awareness that the legal regulation of science involves decisions about values and interests. Implementation of the precautionary principle is highly variable. A crucial question still needs to be answered regarding the assumption that scientific certainty is a 'normal' characteristic of scientific knowledge. The relationship between technoscience and society has moved into a situation where uncertain knowledge is the rule. From this perspective, a more general framework for a democratic governance of science is needed. In democratic society, science may still have a special authoritative voice, but it cannot be the ultimate word on decisions that only the broader society may make. Therefore, the precautionary model of scientific regulation needs to be informed by an 'extended participatory model' of the relationship between science and society.

  9. Meeting report: “Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In March, 2012 we held the first Mideast conference on “Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back”, at the University of Amman, Jordan. This event brought together both clinical and basic scientists with expertise in depression and anxiety spectrum disorders. The meeting took place in a large lecture hall at the University of Jordan Medical School. The audience included faculty, residents, and students. The Dean of the Medical School opened the meeting, welcoming the guest speakers and participants. PMID:23497694

  10. Basic principles of static proton low-resolution spin diffusion NMR in nanophase-separated materials with mobility contrast.

    PubMed

    Schäler, Kerstin; Roos, Matthias; Micke, Peter; Golitsyn, Yury; Seidlitz, Anne; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Schneider, Horst; Hempel, Günter; Saalwächter, Kay

    2015-11-01

    We review basic principles of low-resolution proton NMR spin diffusion experiments, relying on mobility differences in nm-sized phases of inhomogeneous organic materials such as block-co- or semicrystalline polymers. They are of use for estimates of domain sizes and insights into nanometric dynamic inhomogeneities. Experimental procedures and limitations of mobility-based signal decomposition/filtering prior to spin diffusion are addressed on the example of as yet unpublished data on semicrystalline poly(?-caprolactone), PCL. Specifically, we discuss technical aspects of the quantitative, dead-time free detection of rigid-domain signals by aid of the magic-sandwich echo (MSE), and magic-and-polarization-echo (MAPE) and double-quantum (DQ) magnetization filters to select rigid and mobile components, respectively. Such filters are of general use in reliable fitting approaches for phase composition determinations. Spin diffusion studies at low field using benchtop instruments are challenged by rather short (1)H T1 relaxation times, which calls for simulation-based analyses. Applying these, in combination with domain sizes as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, we have determined spin diffusion coefficients D for PCL (0.34, 0.19 and 0.032nm(2)/ms for crystalline, interphase and amorphous parts, respectively). We further address thermal-history effects related to secondary crystallization. Finally, the state of knowledge concerning the connection between D values determined locally at the atomic level, using (13)C detection and CP- or REDOR-based "(1)H hole burning" procedures, and those obtained by calibration experiments, is summarized. Specifically, the non-trivial dependence of D on the magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequency, with a minimum under static and a local maximum under moderate-MAS conditions, is highlighted. PMID:26404771

  11. The application of Gestalt principles in a middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Salma

    This thesis is an initial step in creating an educational philosophy for a private, affiliated school through the application of Gestalt principles. Middle school science students were given a pre-test for measuring their critical thinking skills which were defined by Gestalt principles (Blosser 1973) and modeled on real life science fair project scenarios. After taking the pre-test, the students were assigned science fair projects. Simultaneously they were informally assessed by a rubric. Finally, the students took a post-test to see if their critical thinking skills improved as a result of being guided to think along the lines of the Gestalt learning theory. As a result of completing the procedure, the researcher found that the students' critical thinking skills were improved as evidenced by the higher test scores on the post-test. The pilot study was successful and Gestalt Principles could be successfully implemented as part of the private school curriculum.

  12. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing learning activities that link ocean sciences with real-life issues relevant to employment, environment and economic concerns.

  13. Fostering Student Enrollment in Basic Sciences: the Case of Southern Tuscany

    E-print Network

    Montalbano, Vera

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades it has been detected in Italy a decrease in enrollment in basic sciences, i.e. Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. The increase in specific orientation is strategically crucial to achieve the goal of maintaining and increasing the number of motivated and capable students who enroll in these courses. With the purpose of increasing scientific vocations, workshops were organized in high schools and teachers involved in planning and implementation of laboratories, conferences for scientific outreach, thematic exhibitions, guided tours of research laboratories, summer's schools for students and courses for teachers were realized for developing a cultural enhancement in teaching basic sciences. Particularly significant is the case of activities organized by the Department of Physics of the University of Siena for students and teachers in Southern Tuscany. The methods used in cultural enhancement of teachers and activities designed to support schools with limited laboratory facilities, together wit...

  14. U.S. National Science Foundation Budget Proposal Focuses on Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2008-03-01

    The budget request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 focuses attention on basic research, establishes and supports several cross-foundation investment projects designed to have a transformative impact across science and engineering, and puts foundation activities back on track to double their research budgets by the next decade. The foundation's total proposed budget is US$6.85 billion, an increase of 13% over that enacted for FY 2008. Most of this funding increase goes to NSF's Research and Related Activities (R&RA) account, which, at $5.59 billion, is $772.5 million above the FY 2008 enacted amount.

  15. Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, Steven D; Peters, W. A.; Adekola, Aderemi S; Allen, J.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Becker, J.; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Erikson, Luke; Gaddis, A. L.; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Howard, Joshua A; Jandel, M.; Johnson, Micah; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Matei, Catalin; Matthews, C.; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Patterson, N. P.; Paulauskas, Stanley; Pelham, T.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, David C; Rogers, J.; Schmitt, Kyle; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Thomas, J. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, Gemma L

    2009-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  16. Science in Writing: Learning Scientific Argument in Principle and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bagley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the processes of writing in science and in particular the "complex performance" of writing a scientific argument. The article explores in general terms the nature of scientific argumentation in which the author-scientist makes claims, provides evidence to support these claims, and develops chains of scientific…

  17. Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

    2012-01-01

    Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and…

  18. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid out a broad view of the basic and grand challenge science needs for the development of future clean energy technologies in a series of comprehensive 'Basic Research Needs' workshops and reports (inside front cover and http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html) and has structured its programs and launched initiatives to address the challenges. The basic science needs of industry, however, are often more narrowly focused on solving specific nearer-term roadblocks to progress in existing and emerging clean energy technologies. To better define these issues and identify specific barriers to progress, the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) sponsored the Workshop on Science for Energy Technology, January 18-21, 2010. A wide cross-section of scientists and engineers from industry, universities, and national laboratories delineated the basic science Priority Research Directions most urgently needed to address the roadblocks and accelerate the innovation of clean energy technologies. These Priority Research Directions address the scientific understanding underlying performance limitations in existing but still immature technologies. Resolving these performance limitations can dramatically improve the commercial penetration of clean energy technologies. A key conclusion of the Workshop is that in addition to the decadal challenges defined in the 'Basic Research Needs' reports, specific research directions addressing industry roadblocks are ripe for further emphasis. Another key conclusion is that identifying and focusing on specific scientific challenges and translating the results to industry requires more direct feedback and communication and collaboration between industrial and BES-supported scientists. BES-supported scientists need to be better informed of the detailed scientific issues facing industry, and industry more aware of BES capabilities and how to utilize them. An important capability is the suite of BES scientific user facilities, which are seen as playing a key role in advancing the science of clean energy technology. Working together, in

  19. A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE`s two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document.

  20. Implications of computer science principles for quantum physics

    E-print Network

    Ariel Bendersky; Gonzalo de la Torre; Gabriel Senno; Santiago Figueira; Antonio Acin

    2014-07-02

    The Church-Turing thesis is one of the pillars of computer science; it postulates that every classical system has equivalent computability power to the so-called Turing machine. While this thesis is crucial for our understanding of computing devices, its implications in other scientific fields have hardly been explored. Here we start this research programme in the context of quantum physics and show that computer science laws have profound implications for some of the most fundamental results of the theory. We first show how they question our knowledge on what a mixed quantum state is, as we identify situations in which ensembles of quantum states defining the same mixed state, indistinguishable according to the quantum postulates, do become distinguishable when prepared by a computer. We also show a new loophole for Bell-like experiments: if some of the parties in a Bell-like experiment use a computer to decide which measurements to make, then the computational resources of an eavesdropper have to be limited in order to have a proper observation of non-locality. Our work opens a new direction in the search for a framework unifying computer science and quantum physics.

  1. Integrating Basic Analytical Methods and Computer-Interface Technology into an Environmental Science Water Quality Lab Improves Student Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho-Knighton, Kathleen M.; Smoak, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if integrating basic analytical methods and computer interface technology would result in a positive change in student attitude. Students' self-concept of science knowledge and skills (Capability), opinion towards science (Affect), and perceptions of the value of science (Value) were determined with…

  2. Types of Programs and Evaluation Processes Needed to Maximize the Pharmacist's Contribution to Society: 1--The Role of the Basic Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Gilbert J.; Spratto, George R.

    1978-01-01

    Continuing education programs for pharmacists must integrate basic science knowledge with information on its practical application. Such programs are only achievable through interdisciplinary planning by the basic science and clinical practice faculties. (JMD)

  3. Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications Available online 6 June 2006 Abstract Osmosis is a physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied of osmosis through natural materials, and from the 1960s, special attention has been given to osmosis through

  4. Principled Improvement in Science: Forces and Proportional Relations in Early Secondary-School Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Ilie, Sonia; Guardia, Paula; Hofmann, Riikka; Mercer, Neil; Riga, Fran

    2015-01-01

    In response to continuing concerns about student attainment and participation in science and mathematics, the "epiSTEMe" project took a novel approach to pedagogy in these two disciplines. Using principles identified as effective in the research literature (and combining these in a fashion not previously attempted), the project developed…

  5. Illustrating Some Principles of Separation Science through Gravitational Field-Flow Fractionation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Ronald; Sharma, Reshmi; Andric, Goja; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Particle separation is an important but often neglected topic in undergraduate curricula. This article discusses how the method of gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) can be used to illustrate many principles of separation science and some fundamental concepts of physical chemistry. GrFFF separates particles during their elution through…

  6. FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

  7. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, Concept: Water that Comes Down as Rain Is Used Over and Over Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Provides directions for basic science experiments which demonstrate the rain cycle, fundamentals of cloud formation, and testing for the presence of acidity in local rainwater. Describes materials required, step-by-step instructions, and discussion topics. (NEC)

  8. Basic Warehousing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on basic warehousing is designed to provide Marines with Military Occupation Speciality 3051 in the rank of private through corporal with instruction in those basic principles, methods, and procedures that can be applied to any warehousing or storage…

  9. Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doluisio, James T.

    1980-01-01

    Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences

  10. Using Basic Principles To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2005-10-01

    The Henderson Hasselbalch equation calculates the equilibrium distribution of 50:50 for nicotine in its nonprotonated (free base form), relative to its monoprotonated form, at pH of 8 in dilute aqueous solution. This ratio has then been used in the literature to predict the effect of ammonia compounds in tobacco and in smoke on nicotine pyrolysis and smoke chemistry. Experiments demonstrate that neither the thermal chemistry of tobacco alkaloids nor the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke can be explained by the position of the nonprotonated versus monoprotonated form equilibrium in aqueous extracts of tobacco. The high thermal stability of nicotine in air allows nicotine salts to be converted to nonprotonated nicotine and volatilize during heating prior to any substantial decomposition of the nicotine moiety. In contrast, cocaine hydrochloride is thermally unstable and will rapidly decompose upon heating; cocaine hydrochloride must first be converted to its nonprotonated form prior to heating and volatilization.

  11. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

  12. Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-07-15

    On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

  13. Establishing a Successful Basic Science Research Program in Colon and Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Ira; Wick, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    Although at first glance, the surgeon-scientist appears to be a rare breed in today's clinical revenue-driven world, with careful planning and mentorship this is still a vibrant career path. If one is considering this avenue, it is important to seize even small opportunities to pursue laboratory work during training—summers in college and medical school, rotation blocks, and dedicated time in the middle of residency. Publications and small grants during these times will lay the ground work for future success. When considering a faculty position, it is essential to identify a mentorship environment that has a track record for success—either in the department of surgery or anywhere in the university. Ensuring adequate support from the department of surgery chair and division leader is essential. Basic science careers take years for the return in investment to be manifested! Also critical is to secure extramural funding early in the faculty stint—first foundation grants and then National Institutes of Health–mentored scientist funding. Surgeons provide a unique perspective in basic science work and it is critical that we continue to support young surgeons in this career path. PMID:25067919

  14. Basic Principles of Marine Diesel Engines, 8-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of marine diesel engines is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to acquaint…

  15. int. j. prod. res., 2002, vol. 40, no. 15, 35753588 Visual factory: basic principles and the `zoning' approach

    E-print Network

    Aristomenis, Antoniadis

    and the `zoning' approach N. BILALISy*, G. SCROUBELOSz, A. ANTONIADIS}, D. EMIRIS} and D. KOULOURIOTISy principle, the production area is separated into three task zones `A', `B' and `C'. Zone `A' represents the `peripheral' or `reference' zone, zone `B' repre- sents the `access' or `link' zone and zone `C' represents

  16. Conceiving "personality": Psychologist's challenges and basic fundamentals of the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana

    2015-09-01

    Scientists exploring individuals, as such scientists are individuals themselves and thus not independent from their objects of research, encounter profound challenges; in particular, high risks for anthropo-, ethno- and ego-centric biases and various fallacies in reasoning. The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) aims to tackle these challenges by exploring and making explicit the philosophical presuppositions that are being made and the metatheories and methodologies that are used in the field. This article introduces basic fundamentals of the TPS-Paradigm including the epistemological principle of complementarity and metatheoretical concepts for exploring individuals as living organisms. Centrally, the TPS-Paradigm considers three metatheoretical properties (spatial location in relation to individuals' bodies, temporal extension, and physicality versus "non-physicality") that can be conceived in different forms for various kinds of phenomena explored in individuals (morphology, physiology, behaviour, the psyche, semiotic representations, artificially modified outer appearances and contexts). These properties, as they determine the phenomena's accessibility in everyday life and research, are used to elaborate philosophy-of-science foundations and to derive general methodological implications for the elementary problem of phenomenon-methodology matching and for scientific quantification of the various kinds of phenomena studied. On the basis of these foundations, the article explores the metatheories and methodologies that are used or needed to empirically study each given kind of phenomenon in individuals in general. Building on these general implications, the article derives special implications for exploring individuals' "personality", which the TPS-Paradigm conceives of as individual-specificity in all of the various kinds of phenomena studied in individuals. PMID:25281293

  17. TU-A-18A-01: Basic Principles of PET/CT, Calibration Methods and Contrast Recovery Across Multiple Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Kappadath, S; Nye, J

    2014-06-15

    This continuing education session will discuss the physical principles of PET/CT imaging and characterization of contrast recovery using accreditation phantoms. A detailed overview will be given on the physical principles of PET including positron decay physics, 2D and 3D data acquisition, time-of-flight, scatter correction, CT attenuation correction, and image reconstruction. Instrument quality control and calibration procedures will be discussed. Technical challenges, common image artifacts and strategies to mitigate these issues will also be discussed. Data will be presented on acquisition techniques and reconstruction parameters affecting contrast recovery. The discussion will emphasize the minimization of reconstruction differences in quantification metrics such as SUV and contrast recovery coefficients for the NEMA and ACR clinical trial phantoms. Data from new and older generation scanners will be shown including comparison of contrast recovery measurements to their analytical solutions. The goal of this session is to update attendees on the quality control and calibration of PET/CT scanners, on methods to establish a common calibration for PET/CT scanners to control for instrument variance across multiple sites. Learning Objectives: Review the physical principles of PET/CT, quality control and calibration Gain further understanding on how to apply techniques for improving quantitative agreement across multiple cameras Describe the differences between measured and expected contrast recovery for the NEMA and ACR PET phantoms.

  18. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J; Rhyne, James J; Lewis, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  19. Opportunities for Early Intervention Based on Theory, Basic Neuroscience, and Clinical Science

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the “goal” of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented, along with theoretical principles, neuroscience, and other tissue science data concerning mechanisms that contribute to behavioral changes. One such opportunity is to increase the structured engagement of caregivers, guided by therapists, in administering well-defined activity intervention programs focused on the development of specific functional skills. Such an approach may be one of the few financially feasible options for generating sufficient therapy that adheres to principles for optimizing development of neuromotor control. PMID:20966210

  20. Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1993-03-01

    Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

  1. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    2014-04-01

    With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  2. Basic principles for the development of a common standardised method for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

    2012-04-01

    Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

  3. The Cognitive Outcome in the Physical Games at the College of Students of the Basic Science in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salameh, Ibrahim A. M.; Al-Maharmeh, Yaseen A. M.; Oudat, Mo'een A.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at reconnoitering the cognitive outcome in the physical games at students of the college of basic science in the World Islamic Science and Education University. The descriptive method was employed, where the sample was randomly chosen, and amounted to (16) students (males & females) from the faculty. The sample discussed five…

  4. Development of Radio Astronomy at Centre for Basic Space Science Observatory, Nsukka Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliyu, Nasiru; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Lanre, Daniyan O.; Ezechi, Nwachukwu E.

    2015-08-01

    Radio telescopes for research, teaching and learning at Centre for Basic Space Science (CBSS) observatory are currently in place of development. A small parabolic radio telescope with diameter of 3.0 m working at 1420 MHz is already available for general purpose of radio astronomical observations. In addition, a Radio Jove telescope with dual dipole antenna working at 20 MHz and Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitor working at 24 KHz are also available. It is suitable to monitor daily solar burst, solar flares as well as Jupiter decametric emission. More over, CBSS radio interferometers are now under construction. It consists of non-tracking Radio Jove array and SID monitor as well as two radio telescope tracking interferometers. The latter is planned to utilize up to 4 antennas. Multi frequency receivers are made available at 24 KHz, 20 and 1420 MHz and will be used for VLBI in the near future.

  5. Research and Education in Basic Space Science: The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops

    E-print Network

    H. M. K. Al-Naimiy; C. P. Celebre; K. Chamcham; H. S. P. de Alwis; M. C. P. de Carias; H. J. Haubold; A. E. Troche Boggino

    2000-02-22

    Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency is holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countries of Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean (Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt, Jordan), and Europe (Germany, France). Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshops lead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia, Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Uruguay. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to network these astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and education programmes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has been developed for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in an university environment.

  6. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  7. International Space Science Programs: Basic Research with a High Public Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2009-04-01

    The exploration of outer space, and the use of platforms in space to monitor the Earth, are increasingly international enterprises. The spacefaring nations of the world have programs to study the moon, the Sun, the other planets of the solar system, and the universe beyond. Space is also the domain from which navigation, communication, reconnaissance, and resource management functions are carried out by civilian and military agencies. Recent decades of experience have shown the immense benefits of international cooperation to pursue scientific research goals. In turn, the products of such basic research have immense potential to improve space situational awareness and to mitigate the effects of ''space weather'' on human technology. A key to future success of space exploration is to minimize the impacts of laws and regulations such as ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) that have already had a devastating effect on space commerce and basic space research. In this presentation I discuss the conduct of forefront science in the context of sensible, prudent international space policy and evolving governmental regulations.

  8. Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Science educators play a central role in educating, inspiring, and guiding students to become responsible, scientifically literate citizens. Therefore, teachers of science must uphold the highest ethical standards of the profession to earn and maintain the respect, trust, and confidence of students, parents, school leaders, colleagues, and other…

  9. An Integrated Course in Pain Management and Palliative Care Bridging the Basic Sciences and Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kullgren, Justin; Unni, Elizabeth; Hanson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development of an integrated pain and palliative care course and to investigate the long-term effectiveness of the course during doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and in their practice after graduation. Design. Roseman University College of Pharmacy faculty developed a 3-week elective course in pain and palliative care by integrating relevant clinical and pharmaceutical sciences. Instructional strategies included lectures, team and individual activities, case studies, and student presentations. Assessment. Students who participated in the course in 2010 and 2011 were surveyed anonymously to gain their perception about the class as well as the utility of the course during their APPEs and in their everyday practice. Traditional and nontraditional assessment of students confirmed that the learning outcomes objectives were achieved. Conclusions. Students taking the integrated course on pain management and palliative care achieved mastery of the learning outcome objectives. Surveys of students and practicing pharmacists who completed the course showed that the learning experience as well as retention was improved with the integrated mode of teaching. Integrating basic and clinical sciences in therapeutic courses is an effective learning strategy. PMID:23966724

  10. Strengthening Faculty Recruitment for Health Professions Training in Basic Sciences in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-01-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health (HRH), with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools—two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master’s programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

  11. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a brief summary of those relevant to issues raised by researchers at the workshop.

  12. Dissemination of an Innovative Mastery Learning Curriculum Grounded in Implementation Science Principles: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    McGaghie, William C; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Kristopaitis, Theresa; Wayne, Diane B

    2015-11-01

    Dissemination of a medical education innovation, such as mastery learning, from a setting where it has been used successfully to a new and different medical education environment is not easy. This article describes the uneven yet successful dissemination of a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum on central venous catheter (CVC) insertion for internal medicine and emergency medicine residents across medical education settings. The dissemination program was grounded in implementation science principles. The article begins by describing implementation science which addresses the mechanisms of medical education and health care delivery. The authors then present a mastery learning case study in two phases: (1) the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SBML CVC curriculum at a tertiary care academic medical center; and (2) the dissemination of the SBML CVC curriculum to an academic community hospital setting. Contextual information about the drivers and barriers that affected the SBML CVC curriculum dissemination is presented. This work demonstrates that dissemination of mastery learning curricula, like all other medical education innovations, will fail without active educational leadership, personal contacts, dedication, hard work, rigorous measurement, and attention to implementation science principles. The article concludes by presenting a set of lessons learned about disseminating an SBML CVC curriculum across different medical education settings. PMID:26352761

  13. Chemical Frustration. A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2015-06-23

    Final technical report for "Chemical Frustration: A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases" funded by the Office of Science through the Materials Chemistry Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  14. Outcome EE.3. Graduates will have achieved the knowledge of mathematics through differential and integral calculus, basic sciences, and engineering sciences necessary to design complex electrical and electronic devices and systems containing hardware

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    ____ Industrial Engineering ____ Geology ____ Civil Engineering ____ Mechanical Engineering ____ Other and integral calculus, basic sciences, and engineering sciences necessary to design complex electrical, and engineering science courses. Analyze Statler College of Engineering exit survey results related

  15. Worldwide Development of Astronomy: The Story of a Decade of UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science

    E-print Network

    Hans J. Haubold; Willem Wamsteker

    1997-05-21

    In 1990 the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of these Workshops and their follow-up projects.

  16. EMBO reports VOL 14 | NO 10 | 2013 2013 EUROPEAN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY ORGANIZATION848 t its most basic, science is about

    E-print Network

    Ruppin, Eytan

    A t its most basic, science is about models. Natural phenomena that were perplexing to ancient humans have whole cell models, we feel it is timely to examine this important endeavour, its challenges the data perfectly and yet do not reflect the cellular reality. Even if a model fits all the data well

  17. Basic laws of the processes and the principle of minimum energy consumption during pneumatic transport and distribution of pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leykin, V. Z.

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents analysis of the basic laws and a calculation-based investigation of processes related to the low-concentration pneumatic transport and the distribution of finely dispersed pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems of boiler units. Based on the principle of the minimum energy consumption, it is shown that, at high (standard) velocities of the turbulent gas flow—of 25-30 m/s, which is by 1.5-2 times higher than the critical speeds—the finely dispersed pulverized fuel can be transported simultaneously in the form of a low-concentration flow in pipelines and a concentrated, to 30% of the flow rate, thin layer on the pipeline walls with the height of the layer equal to 0.02-0.04 of the pipe radius. Consideration of this phenomenon is of great significance in terms of securing the efficient operation of pulverized fuel distribution units. The basic characteristics of the process have been determined and validated by test bench investigations using both model systems and pulverized fuel distribution systems of a number of power-generating units. The obtained results underlie a methodological approach to developing high-efficiency adjustable pulverized fuel distribution units. Also, results of industrial testing are presented that confirm the results of the analysis and of experimental studies.

  18. The Anna Karenina principle: A mechanism for the explanation of success in science

    E-print Network

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The first sentence of Leo Tolstoy's novel Anna Karenina is: "Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way". Here Tolstoy means that for a family to be happy, several key aspects must be given (such as good health of all family members, acceptable financial security, and mutual affection). If there is a deficiency in any one or more of these key aspects, the family will be unhappy. In this paper we introduce the Anna Karenina principle as a principle that can explain success in science. Here we will refer to three central areas in modern science in which scarce resources will most usually lead to failure: (1) peer review of research grant proposals and manuscripts (money and journal space as scarce resources), (2) citation of publications (reception as a scarce resource), and (3) new scientific discoveries (recognition as a scarce resource). If resources are scarce (journal space, funds, reception, and recognition), there can be success only when several key prerequisites for th...

  19. Arthroscopic contact Nd:YAG laser meniscectomy: basic science, surgical technique, and clinical follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Stephen J.; Fealy, Stephen V.; Gibney, Mary A.; Miller, Drew V.; Kelly, Anne M.

    1990-06-01

    Recent basic science studies (5) have provided a scientific foundation for the use of the Contact Nd:YAG Laser as an arthroscopic tool for xneniscal resection and acroxnioplasty of the shoulder in a saline medium. This study prospectively evaluates the results of a three stage laboratory investigation as well as the clinical results of arthroscopic xneniscal resection. Fifteen patients with meniscal tears underwent subtotal meniscectomies utilizing a Contact Nd:YAG Laser (Surgical Laser Technologies; Malvern, Pennsylvania) . This was done in a saline medium with an average laser wattage of 25 W, (range 20 W to 30 W). Patients were evaluated postoperatively with reference to subjective and objective parameters at one week and four weeks postoperatively. Patients were evaluated with regard to wound healing, intraarticular swelling and pain. Assessment of technical parameters such as ease of resection, time of resection and instrument access were compared to conventional instruments. All fifteen patients were rated as having clinically excellent results based on pain relief, wound healing and swelling. In addition, although there was increased time with setting up the laser and calibrating it, there was not an increase in time for meniscal resection. Little, or no, secondary "trimmuning" was necessary with the laser. Increased accessibility was noted due to the small size of the laser. Arthroscopic Contact Nd:YAG Laser surgery is a safe and effective tool for menisca]. resection and coagulation in arthroscopic acromioplasties. It provides significant advantages over conventional cutting instruments with regard to accessibility and reduced need for secondary instruments.

  20. Climate Risk Management in the Anthropocene: From Basic Science to Decisionmaking and Back.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    Burning fossil fuels imposes a complex mixture of benefits and risks on current and future generations. While enabling a tremendous growth in prosperity, the resulting greenhouse gas emissions also drive risks associated with anthropogenic climate change. Managing climate risks has already motivated local, national, and global actions: utilities replace coal-fired power plants with gas turbines, engineers design sea-walls for future climates, companies sequester carbon dioxide into geological reservoirs, and federally as well as privately funded research projects analyze potential geoengineering approaches. These actions raise the question: what are sustainable, scientifically sound, technologically feasible, economically efficient, and ethically defensible climate-risk management strategies? This presentation reviews current and suggests improved approaches to designing and analyzing climate risk management strategies. Choosing a strategy involves complex trade-offs across diverse objectives and risk management instruments. In addition, this problem is imbued with deep uncertainty, where decisionmakers disagree about the appropriate problem framing, model structure, parameter values, and objectives. Neglecting this deep uncertainty can lead to considerable biases in risk assessments. Furthermore, deep uncertainty can render the typically applied model of expected utility maximization a poor description of actual decisionmakers' preferences. Applying a robust decisionmaking framework can improve decision support, identify mission-critical basic science questions, simplify the integration of new scientific findings, and provide avenues to analyze coupled epistemic-ethical questions.

  1. Translating Basic Science Research to Clinical Application: Models and Strategies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo, Christopher C.; Robbins, Sean; Doré, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical stroke models provide insights into mechanisms of cellular injury and potential therapeutic targets. Renewed efforts to standardize preclinical practices and adopt more rigorous approaches reflect the assumption that a better class of compounds will translate into clinical efficacy. While the need for novel therapeutics is clear, it is also critical that diagnostics be improved to allow for more rapid treatment upon hospital admission. Advances in imaging techniques have aided in the diagnosis of stroke, yet current limitations and expenses demonstrate the need for new and complementary approaches. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) exhibits the highest mortality rate, displays unique pathology and requires specialized treatment strategies relative to other forms of stroke. The aggressive nature and severe consequences of ICH underscore the need for novel therapeutic approaches as well as accurate and expeditious diagnostic tools. The use of experimental models will continue to aid in addressing these important issues as the field attempts to translate basic science findings into the clinical setting. Several preclinical models of ICH have been developed and are widely used to recapitulate human pathology. Because each model has limitations, the burden lies with the investigator to clearly define the question being asked and select the model system that is most relevant to that question. It may also be necessary to optimize and refine pre-existing paradigms, or generate new paradigms, as the future success of translational research is dependent upon the ability to mimic human sequelae and assess clinically relevant outcome measures as means to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22661966

  2. Thinking science with thinking machines: The multiple realities of basic and applied knowledge in a research border zone.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steve G

    2015-04-01

    Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course. PMID:26477207

  3. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice, Executive Summary and Final Report, October 1, 1978 - March 15, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…

  4. Retention of knowledge and perceived relevance of basic sciences in an integrated case-based learning (CBL) curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge and understanding of basic biomedical sciences remain essential to medical practice, particularly when faced with the continual advancement of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Evidence suggests, however, that retention tends to atrophy across the span of an average medical course and into the early postgraduate years, as preoccupation with clinical medicine predominates. We postulated that perceived relevance demonstrated through applicability to clinical situations may assist in retention of basic science knowledge. Methods To test this hypothesis in our own medical student cohort, we administered a paper-based 50 MCQ assessment to a sample of students from Years 2 through 5. Covariates pertaining to demographics, prior educational experience, and the perceived clinical relevance of each question were also collected. Results A total of 232 students (Years 2–5, response rate 50%) undertook the assessment task. This sample had comparable demographic and performance characteristics to the whole medical school cohort. In general, discipline-specific and overall scores were better for students in the latter years of the course compared to those in Year 2; male students and domestic students tended to perform better than their respective counterparts in certain disciplines. In the clinical years, perceived clinical relevance was significantly and positively correlated with item performance. Conclusions This study suggests that perceived clinical relevance is a contributing factor to the retention of basic science knowledge and behoves curriculum planners to make clinical relevance a more explicit component of applied science teaching throughout the medical course. PMID:24099045

  5. Cannabinoid-Induced Hyperemesis: A Conundrum—From Clinical Recognition to Basic Science Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Darmani, Nissar A.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids are used clinically on a subacute basis as prophylactic agonist antiemetics for the prevention of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapeutics. Cannabinoids prevent vomiting by inhibition of release of emetic neurotransmitters via stimulation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Cannabis-induced hyperemesis is a recently recognized syndrome associated with chronic cannabis use. It is characterized by repeated cyclical vomiting and learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior. Although considered rare, recent international publications of numerous case reports suggest the contrary. The syndrome appears to be a paradox and the pathophysiological mechanism(s) underlying the induced vomiting remains unknown. Although some traditional hypotheses have already been proposed, the present review critically explores the basic science of these explanations in the clinical setting and provides more current mechanisms for the induced hyperemesis. These encompass: (1) pharmacokinetic factors such as long half-life, chronic exposure, lipid solubility, individual variation in metabolism/excretion leading to accumulation of emetogenic cannabinoid metabolites, and/or cannabinoid withdrawal; and (2) pharmacodynamic factors including switching of the efficacy of ?9-THC from partial agonist to antagonist, differential interaction of ?9-THC with Gs and Gi signal transduction proteins, CB1 receptor desensitization or downregulation, alterations in tissue concentrations of endocannabinoid agonists/inverse agonists, ?9-THC-induced mobilization of emetogenic metabolites of the arachidonic acid cascade, brainstem versus enteric actions of ?9-THC, and/or hypothermic versus hyperthermic actions of ?9-THC. In addition, human and animal findings suggest that chronic exposure to cannabis may not be a prerequisite for the induction of vomiting but is required for the intensity of emesis.

  6. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. PMID:23899406

  7. UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science: An Initiative in the Worl dwide Development of Astronomy

    E-print Network

    H. J. Haubold

    1998-09-26

    In 1990, the United Nations, in cooperation with the European Space Agency, initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin American and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of these Workshops (1991-1998) and their follow-up projects with a view to enhance the worldwide development of astronomy and space science. The Workshops are being considered unique and a model for such an endeavor.

  8. Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

  9. Radioimmunoassay: review of basic principles.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, S J

    1975-04-01

    The development of radioimmunoassay by the late Solomon A. Berson and Rosalyn S. Yalow during the late 1950s represents a milestone in the history of the application of radionuclide methodology to biology and to medical investigation and practice. The method offers a technique to assay materials otherwise unmeasureable or detectable only with difficulty. Radioimmunoassay is based upon the competition between labeled and unlabeled antigen for specific antibody sites, forming antigen-antibody complexes. This reaction is described by the expression see journal for formula. At equilibirum, the radioactive complex (bound) is separated from the radioactive antigen (free). The B/F ratio is dependent upon the amount of nonradioactive antigen. Antigen concentration in unknown samples is determined by comparing the B/F ratio to the B/F ratios obtained by incubating varying amounts of known nonradioactive antigen with the same amount of antibody as in the unknown sample under similar assay conditions. Sensitivity of the order of 10-12 moles/liter may be achieved through the preparation and use of a labeled antigen of high specific activity and the production and selection of antisera with appropriately high affinity constants. Specificity is dependent upon the ability of the antiserum to recognize subtle structural features of the antigen molecule. The ability to conveniently assay large numbers of samples with good precision has led to the application of this technique to quantitate substances (such as steroids) already measurable but by more cumbersome methods. Since the initial description of competitive binding radioassay techniques, there have been numerous contributions to its further development, refinement, and application. This article reviews the conception and development of this invaluable contribution to our understanding of health and disease. PMID:164695

  10. The Basic Principle of Calculus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

  11. 12 Basic Principles for Incorporating Media Literacy into Any Curriculum. Project Look Sharp: Providing Support, Education, and Training To Help Teachers Prepare Students To Survive in a Media-Saturated World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ithaca Coll., NY.

    Project Look Sharp is an initiative to promote and support the integration of media literacy into classroom curricula at all grade levels and instructional areas, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of media literacy education in the schools. It provides the following 12 guidelines as basic principles for incorporating media literacy into any…

  12. Outcome CS-c. Have knowledge of the basic principles of data structures, discrete mathematics and algorithms, and be able to apply this knowledge to problem solving in relevant application areas.

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Score % Class Avg % Grade *** 1. 2. 3. 4. * Indicate which program outcome each course outcome maps intoOutcome CS-c. Have knowledge of the basic principles of data structures, discrete mathematics in specific courses that have been identified with respect to this outcome. Course Performance indicators CS

  13. Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2008 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B.; Thompson, J.; Shuh, D.; Albrecht-Schmitt, T.; Gouder, T.

    2008-07-01

    This volume brings together theorists, modelers and experimentalists working in the field of actinide science to present and discuss the latest breakthroughs in a field that spans materials science, condensed matter physics and chemistry.

  14. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are planned. "Other Research" includes: BUNDLE (Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrite in a Liquid Experiment) activities (primarily crucible development), vibrational float-zone processing (with Vanderbilt University), use of ultrasonics in materials processing (with UAH), rotational effects on microstructural development, and application of magnetic fields for mixing.

  15. Basic science and clinical application of stem cells in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ribitsch, I; Burk, J; Delling, U; Geißler, C; Gittel, C; Jülke, H; Brehm, W

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.Embryonic stem (ES) cell research, for instance, is mainly performed in animals. Key feature of ES cells is their potential to contribute to any tissue type of the body (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215:329-336, 2008). ES cells are capable of self-renewal and thus have the inherent potential for exceptionally prolonged culture (up to 1-2 years). So far, ES cells have been recovered and maintained from non-human primate, mouse (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005) and horse blastocysts (Guest and Allen, Stem Cells Dev 16:789-796, 2007). In addition, bovine ES cells have been grown in primary culture and there are several reports of ES cells derived from mink, rat, rabbit, chicken and pigs (Fortier, Vet Surg 34:415-423, 2005). However, clinical applications of ES cells are not possible yet, due to their in vivo teratogenic degeneration. The potential to form a teratoma consisting of tissues from all three germ lines even serves as a definitive in vivo test for ES cells.Stem cells obtained from any postnatal organism are defined as adult stem cells. Adult haematopoietic and MSCs, which can easily be recovered from extra embryonic or adult tissues, possess a more limited plasticity than their embryonic counterparts (Reed and Johnson, J Cell Physiol 215:329-336, 2008). It is believed that these stem cells serve as cell source to maintain tissue and organ mass during normal cell turnover in adult individuals. Therefore, the focus of attention in veterinary science is currently drawn to adult stem cells and their potential in regenerative medicine. Also experience gained from the treatment of animal patients provides valuable information for human medicine and serves as precursor to future stem cell use in human medicine.Compared to human medicine, haematopoietic stem cells only play a minor role in veterinary medicine because medical conditions requiring myeloablative chemotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem cell induced recovery of the immune system are relatively rare and usually not being treated for monetary as well as animal welfare reasons.In contrast, regenerative medicine utilising MSCs for the treatment of acute injuries as well as chronic disorders is gradually turning into clinical routine. Therefore, MSCs from either extra embryonic or adult tissues are in the focus of attention in veterinary medicine and research. Hence the purpose of this chapter is to offer an overview on basic science and clinical application of MSCs in veterinary medicine. PMID:20309674

  16. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  17. COMMENTS ON "SCIENCE IN A NEW SITUATION THE ROLE OF BASIC RESEARCH"

    E-print Network

    Karabeg, Dino

    speakers The first speaker, John Ziman, stated that the new role of basic research is to serve as "central intelligence agency" to modern civil society. Our world is changing fast. It is necessary, observed Ziman

  18. Syllabus for PHYS 0174 Basic Physics for Science and Engineering 1

    E-print Network

    Budny, Daniel

    's Three Laws of Motion · Newton's Law of Gravitation · Work and Conservation of Energy · Linear Momentum the principles of · Measurement and vectors · Motion in one dimension · Motion in three dimensions · Newton · Rotational Motion · Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves · Thermodynamics Physics 0174 has three components

  19. Multi-Database Searching in the Behavioral Sciences--Part I: Basic Techniques and Core Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angier, Jennifer J.; Epstein, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines practical searching techniques in seven core behavioral science databases accessing psychological literature: Psychological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Biosis, Medline, Excerpta Medica, Sociological Abstracts, ERIC. Use of individual files is discussed and their relative strengths/weaknesses are compared. Appended is a list…

  20. Science: A Practical View. Volume II. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The guide is divided into three components. The first component helps students…

  1. BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes I and II. Biology, Earth Science, Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    Computer programs which teach concepts and processes related to biology, earth science, and chemistry are presented. The seven biology problems deal with aspects of genetics, evolution and natural selection, gametogenesis, enzymes, photosynthesis, and the transport of material across a membrane. Four earth science problems concern climates, the…

  2. Basic Science Process Skills. An Inservice Workshop Kit: Outlines and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Paul; And Others

    A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…

  3. Basic Concepts of the Educational Science Sub-Discipline of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kaethe

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual system is outlined for the educational science sub-discipline of adult education. Adults' attending instruction or not attending instruction is conceptually specified. Focusing as it does on a cardinal event of adult education, this represents a first step toward a system for the educational science sub-discipline of…

  4. Integration of basic biological sciences and clinical dentistry in the dental curriculum. A clinically orientated approach to teaching oral and dental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gotjamanos, T

    1990-06-01

    Although dental curricula have undergone significant revision during the past three decades, the problem of linking basic science with clinical dentistry often remains an unmet challenge in dental education. This paper describes the content and method of presentation of a course in oral and dental anatomy which aims to integrate closely basic biological science and clinical dental practice. The course holds considerable promise for overcoming one of the major deficiencies of the horizontally structured curriculum by presenting basic science information and detailing its clinical relevance simultaneously. The academic background, clinical experience, and educational philosophy of the course co-ordinator and assisting teaching staff are undoubtedly important factors in determining the extent to which integration between basic and clinical science can be achieved. PMID:2393365

  5. Basic Sleep and Circadian Science as Building Blocks for Behavioral Interventions: A Translational Approach for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Lauren D.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian functioning has been of particular interest to researchers focused on improving treatments for psychiatric illness. The goal of the present paper is to highlight the exciting research that utilizes basic sleep and circadian science as building blocks for intervention in the mood disorders. The reviewed evidence suggests that the sleep and circadian systems are 1) disrupted in the mood disorders and linked to symptoms, 2) open systems that can be modified, 3) the focus of interventions which have been developed to effectively treat sleep disturbance within mood disorders, and 4) intimately linked with mood, such that improvements in sleep are associated with improvements in mood. Although, significant positive treatment effects are evident, more research is needed to fill the gap in our basic understanding of the relationship between sleep and mood. PMID:24773429

  6. Home Economics and Basic Skills. Correlation of the Curriculum Guide for Consumer and Homemaking Education with Objectives for Reading, Writing, Mathematics, Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended to assist home economics teachers in recognizing which learning activities reinforce basic reading, writing, mathematics, and science skills concepts. The first chapter discusses objectives in each of these four basic skills areas. The remaining chapters consist of cross-referenced lists of reading, writing, mathematics, and…

  7. Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

  8. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  9. The Use of Behavioral Objectives in Instruction of Basic Vocational Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William Joseph; Bell, Paul E.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study in which a group of high school vocational science students using behavioral objectives scored significantly better than did a control group on measures of terminal achievement, critical operations, residual achievement, and attitude toward instruction. (MLH)

  10. LARGE ANIMAL MODELS OF HEART FAILURE: A CRITICAL LINK IN THE TRANSLATION OF BASIC SCIENCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Jennifer A.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2009-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome, with hallmarks of fatigue and dyspnea, which continues to be highly prevalent and morbid. Due to the growing burden of HF as the population ages, the need to develop new pharmacologic treatments and therapeutic interventions is of paramount importance. Common pathophysiologic features of HF include changes in left ventricle (LV) structure, function, and neurohormonal activation. The recapitulation of the HF phenotype in large animal models can allow for the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical therapies. Models of myocardial infarction/ischemia, ischemic cardiomyopathy, ventricular pressure and volume overload, and pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy have been created in dogs, pigs, and sheep for the investigation of HF and potential therapies. Large animal models recapitulating the clinical HF phenotype and translating basic science to clinical applications have successfully traveled the journey from bench to bedside. Undoubtedly, large animal models of HF will continue to play a crucial role in the elucidation of biologic pathways involved in HF and the development and refinement of HF therapies. PMID:19808348

  11. A study of the academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Mohsen; Samouei, Rahele; Tayebani, Tayebeh; Kolahduz, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the increasing importance of emotional intelligence (EI) in different aspects of life, such as academic achievement, the present survey is aimed to predict academic performance of medical students in the comprehensive examination of the basic sciences, according to the indices of emotional intelligence and educational status. Materials and Methods: The present survey is a descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study performed on the medical students of Isfahan, Tehran, and Mashhad Universities of Medical Sciences. Sampling the universities was performed randomly after which selecting the students was done, taking into consideration the limitation in their numbers. Based on the inclusion criteria, all the medical students, entrance of 2005, who had attended the comprehensive basic sciences examination in 2008, entered the study. The data collection tools included an Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (standardized in Isfahan), the average score of the first to fifth semesters, total average of each of the five semesters, and the grade of the comprehensive basic sciences examination. The data were analyzed through stepwise regression coefficient by SPSS software version 15. Results: The results indicated that the indicators of independence from an emotional intelligence test and average scores of the first and third academic semesters were significant in predicting the students’ academic performance in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the average scores of students, especially in the earlier semesters, as well as the indicators of independence and the self-esteem rate of students can influence their success in the comprehensive basic sciences examination. PMID:26430693

  12. Chemical Nanotechnology: A Liberal Arts Approach to a Basic Course in Emerging Interdisciplinary Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lon A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The nanotechnology degree programs initiated at various institutions provided an excellent way of learning to look at the amazing opportunities that arise when various disciplines of science interact. The enrolled students were actively engaged in the subject matter and also expressed greater confidence in their ability to consider technology with…

  13. Colloquium on Selected Topics in Behavioral Science Basic Research. (Alexandria, Virginia, April 23-25, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogami, Glenda Y., Ed.; And Others

    The 21 summaries of research programs, funded by the United States Army Research Institute (ARI) for the Behavioral and Social Sciences which are presented are grouped in five broad topic areas: computer-based systems; information processing; learning, memory and transfer; human relations; and related issues and trends. Papers presented include:…

  14. What Type of Faculty and Training Are Required for a Successful Basic Sciences Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Science education for optometry must go beyond therapeutic patient management to more preparation for biologically based care. Optometry faculty should be involved in research driven by specific patient problems and should prepare professionals to address patient quality-of-life and daily living needs. Interdisciplinary collaboration is needed.…

  15. Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

  16. REQUIRED TEMPLATE -LETTER OF OFFER BASIC or CLINICAL SCIENCE, RESEARCH TRACK

    E-print Network

    will be evaluated on an annual basis in the context of the School of Medicine Research Space Policy. Expectations the faculty of the Department of , School of Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) in New Orleans of Medicine. (If applicable, include this or a similar statement: However, since you are being hired

  17. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

  18. Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowery, Donald R.

    This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

  19. Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

  20. Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2006 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blobaum, Kerri J.M.; Chandler, Elaine A.; Havela, Ladislav; Maple, M. Brian; Neu, Mary P.

    2007-07-01

    These proceedings from the September 2006 symposium includes papers presented on experimental and modeling work with the intention of broadening understanding of the field of actinide research. Actinides have gained attention recently because of their roles in the threat of nuclear terrorism (e.g., 'dirty bombs') and the use of nuclear power to offset fossil fuel consumption. Actinide science is the study of the elements with atomic numbers in the range of 90 to 103, which includes uranium and plutonium. Beyond the well-known nuclear reactions of these heavy radioactive metals, the large electron clouds with 5f electrons in the outer shell yield fascinating and complex chemistries, crystal structures, and physical properties. Traditionally, actinide research has been divided among three scientific disciplines: chemistry (nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry); physics (condensed matter physics and electronic structure); and materials science (metallurgy). Modern actinide research, however, has become an interdisciplinary blend of these traditional fields, and it also incorporates developing fields such as environmental chemistry and superconductivity. Improved scientific understanding of actinides is needed for development of materials for actinide detection and nuclear fuels, and for safer management of nuclear waste. Recently, there has been a resurgence of actinide science at national laboratories and universities. The current multidisciplinary approach to actinide science lays the groundwork for understanding the connection between the 5f electronic structure and observed chemical reactions and physical properties such as structural phase transformations and novel ground states. This work provides many opportunities for new researchers in actinide science. These proceedings gather 25 selected papers among the 53 presentations given at this symposium.

  1. The University of Wyoming (UW) Science Network (UWSN) is the campus implementation of the science DMZ principle. The guiding principle behind

    E-print Network

    Douglas, Craig C.

    Abstract The University of Wyoming (UW) Science Network (UWSN) is the campus the regular campus exit architecture, and is neither restricted nor protected by the campus firewalls. Design At the core of computing at UW is a campus network built around high speed architecture supported by fast

  2. INTEGRATING QA PRINCIPLES WITH BASIC ELEMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROGRAM PROMOTES QUALITY SCIENCE IN A NON-GLP RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the research conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL) located in Research Triangle Park, NC, involves "pilot" and small-scale acute toxicity assessments conducted over short periods of time. onsequently, the...

  3. Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.; Graham, J.; Hoggan, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

  4. Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

  5. Can Clinical Scenario Videos Improve Dental Students' Perceptions of the Basic Sciences and Ability to Apply Content Knowledge?

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia Jayne; Metz, Michael James

    2015-12-01

    Dental students often have difficulty understanding the importance of basic science classes, such as physiology, for their future careers. To help alleviate this problem, the aim of this study was to create and evaluate a series of video modules using simulated patients and custom-designed animations that showcase medical emergencies in the dental practice. First-year students in a dental physiology course formatively assessed their knowledge using embedded questions in each of the three videos; 108 to 114 of the total 120 first-year students answered the questions, for a 90-95% response rate. These responses indicated that while the students could initially recognize the cause of the medical emergency, they had difficulty in applying their knowledge of physiology to the scenario. In two of the three videos, students drastically improved their ability to answer high-level clinical questions at the conclusion of the video. Additionally, when compared to the previous year of the course, there was a significant improvement in unit exam scores on clinically related questions (6.2% increase). Surveys were administered to the first-year students who participated in the video modules and fourth-year students who had completed the course prior to implementation of any clinical material. The response rate for the first-year students was 96% (115/120) and for the fourth-year students was 57% (68/120). The first-year students indicated a more positive perception of the physiology course and its importance for success on board examinations and their dental career than the fourth-year students. The students perceived that the most positive aspects of the modules were the clear applications of physiology to real-life dental situations, the interactive nature of the videos, and the improved student comprehension of course concepts. These results suggest that online modules may be used successfully to improve students' perceptions of the basic sciences and enhance their ability to apply basic science content to clinically important scenarios. PMID:26632300

  6. The Utilization of the Seven Principles for Good Practices of Full-Time and Adjunct Faculty in Teaching Health & Science in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musaitif, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which undergraduate full-time and adjunct faculty members in the health and science programs at community colleges in Southern California utilize the seven principles of good practice as measured by the Faculty Inventory of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate…

  7. Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Incorporting Science, Technology, Fairness, and Accountability in Environmental, Health and Safety Decisions

    E-print Network

    Ashford, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The precautionary principle is in sharp political focus today because (1) the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing and (2) there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on allegedly more "rational" ...

  8. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Pusan National University, Busan ; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Byoung Chul; Ahn, Jung Keun

    2014-02-15

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  9. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-López, José Manuel; Díaz-Mancha, Juan Antonio; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María; Polo-Padillo, Juan; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Munuera, Pedro V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT), to provide a snapshot of podiatry students' basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n = 247) correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n = 7) incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times) or the navicular (6 times). Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies. PMID:25110712

  10. Ascending monoaminergic systems alterations in Alzheimer's disease. translating basic science into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Trillo, Ludwig; Das, Devsmita; Hsieh, Wayne; Medina, Brian; Moghadam, Sarah; Lin, Bill; Dang, Van; Sanchez, Martha Millan; De Miguel, Zurine; Ashford, J Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Extensive neuropathological studies have established a compelling link between abnormalities in structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic (MA-ergic) systems and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main cell populations of these systems including the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the tuberomamillary nucleus undergo significant degeneration in AD, thereby depriving the hippocampal and cortical neurons from their critical modulatory influence. These studies have been complemented by genome wide association studies linking polymorphisms in key genes involved in the MA-ergic systems and particular behavioral abnormalities in AD. Importantly, several recent studies have shown that improvement of the MA-ergic systems can both restore cognitive function and reduce AD-related pathology in animal models of neurodegeneration. This review aims to explore the link between abnormalities in the MA-ergic systems and AD symptomatology as well as the therapeutic strategies targeting these systems. Furthermore, we will examine possible mechanisms behind basic vulnerability of MA-ergic neurons in AD. PMID:23707776

  11. Cognitive Factors and Residual Speech Errors: Basic Science, Translational Research, and Some Clinical Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Catherine Torrington

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the theoretical and empirical relationships between cognitive factors and residual speech errors (RSEs). Definitions of relevant cognitive domains are provided, as well as examples of formal and informal tasks that may be appropriate in assessment. Although studies to date have been limited in number and scope, basic research suggests that cognitive flexibility, short- and long-term memory, and self-monitoring may be areas of weakness in this population. Preliminary evidence has not supported a relationship between inhibitory control, attention, and RSEs; however, further studies that control variables such as language ability and temperament are warranted. Previous translational research has examined the effects of self-monitoring training on residual speech errors. Although results have been mixed, some findings suggest that children with RSEs may benefit from the inclusion of this training. The article closes with a discussion of clinical frameworks that target cognitive skills, including self-monitoring and attention, as a means of facilitating speech sound change. PMID:26458200

  12. Rho Kinases in Health and Disease: From Basic Science to Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Loirand, Gervaise

    2015-10-01

    Rho-associated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 are key regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics downstream of Rho GTPases that participate in the control of important physiologic functions, S including cell contraction, migration, proliferation, adhesion, and inflammation. Several excellent review articles dealing with ROCK function and regulation have been published over the past few years. Although a brief overview of general molecular, biochemical, and functional properties of ROCKs is included, an effort has been made to produce an original work by collecting and synthesizing recent studies aimed at translating basic discoveries from cell and experimental models into knowledge of human physiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and medical therapeutics. This review points out the specificity and distinct roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms highlighted in the last few years. Results obtained from genetically modified mice and genetic analysis in humans are discussed. This review also addresses the involvement of ROCKs in human diseases and the potential use of ROCK activity as a biomarker or a pharmacological target for specific inhibitors. PMID:26419448

  13. Basic Electronics I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  14. Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

  15. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-12-12

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  16. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  17. Basic Science Simulations Provide New Insights to Aid Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Massive first-principles simulation provides insight into flame anchoring in a hydrogen-rich jet in cross-flow. When gas turbine designers want to use gasified biomass for stationary power generation, they are faced with a challenge: bio-derived syngas typically contains significant amounts of hydrogen, which is far more reactive than the methane that is the traditional gas turbine fuel. This reactivity leads to a safety design issue, because with hydrogen-rich fuels a flame may anchor in the fuel injection section of the combustor instead of the downstream design point. In collaboration with Jacqueline Chen of Sandia National Laboratories and Andrea Gruber of SINTEF, a Norwegian energy think tank, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is carrying out fundamental simulations to provide new insight into the physics of flame anchoring in canonical 'jet in cross-flow' configurations using hydrogen-rich fuels. To deal with the large amount and complexity of the data, the combustion scientists also teamed up with computer scientists from across the U.S. Department of Energy's laboratories to develop novel ways to analyze the data. These simulations have shown that fine-scale turbulence structures formed at the jet boundary provide particularly intense mixing between the fuel and air, which then enters a quiescent region formed downstream of the jet in a separate, larger turbulent structure. This insight explains the effect that reducing the wall-normal velocity of the fuel jet causes the flame to blow off; with the aid of the simulation, we now understand this counterintuitive result because reducing the wall-normal velocity would reduce the intensity of the mixing as well as move the quiescent region farther downstream. NREL and its research partners are conducting simulations that provide new insight into the physics of flame anchoring in canonical 'jet in cross-flow' configurations using hydrogen-rich fuels. Simulation results explain the mechanism behind flame blow-off occurring when a component in the cross-flow direction is progressively added to the jet velocity vector, thereby reducing the relative impact of its wall-normal velocity component. Understanding the mechanism for flame anchoring aids the design of fuel injection nozzles that meet safety requirements when using hydrogen-rich fuels.

  18. Trends of Students of the College of Basic Science towards Teaching the Course of Athletics and Health by Using Computer Technology in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University (WISE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salameh, Ibrahim Abdul Ghani; Khawaldeh, Mohammad Falah Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Study aimed at identifying the trends of the students of basic sciences College in the World Islamic Sciences and Education University towards teaching health and sport course by using computer technology as a teaching method, and to identify also the impact of the variables of academic level and the gender on the students' trends. The study…

  19. Multimedia Design Principles in the Psychomotor Domain: The Effect of Multimedia and Spatial Contiguity on Students' Learning of Basic Life Support with Task Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…

  20. Statement of Principles Research support and teaching reductions for UBC Science faculty

    E-print Network

    Wood, Spencer

    who take maternity/parental/adoption leaves (September 2009) page 1/1 PREAMBLE PRINCIPLES The UBC balancing commitments in their personal lives. Many scientists who are on maternity or parental leave face. Faculty members who are eligible for Employment Insurance and UBC's Supplementary Employment Benefits

  1. Life Science Standards and Curriculum Development for 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Susan P.; Andersen, Hans O.

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a design for a life science curriculum following the National Research Council National Science Education Standards. The overarching theme is that science as inquiry should be recognized as a basic and controlling principle in the ultimate organization and experiences in students' science education. Six-week units include Matter, Energy,…

  2. Investigating the Relationship between STEM Learning Principles and Student Achievement in Math and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michael; Gonzalez, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) advocates commonly emphasize an interdisciplinary, authentic, project-based, and technology-based approach to learning, though the strength of prior research varies. This study examines the association between a range of classroom activities and academic performance gains in math and science. Using…

  3. The utilization of the seven principles for good practices of full-time and adjunct faculty in teaching health & science in community colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musaitif, Linda M.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which undergraduate full-time and adjunct faculty members in the health and science programs at community colleges in Southern California utilize the seven principles of good practice as measured by the Faculty Inventory of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. A second purpose was to compare degree of utilization for gender and class size. Methodology. This is a quantitative study wherein there exists a systematic and mathematical assessment of data gathered through the use of a Likert scale survey to process and determine the mathematical model of the use of the principles by the target population of both full-time and adjunct faculty of health/science programs of community colleges in Southern California. Findings. Examination of the data revealed that both full-time and adjunct faculty members of Southern California community colleges perceive themselves a high degree of utilization of the seven principles of good practice. There was no statistically significant data to suggest a discrepancy between full-time and adjunct professors' perceptions among the utilization of the seven principles. Overall, male faculty members perceived themselves as utilizing the principles to a greater degree than female faculty. Data suggest that faculty with class size 60 or larger showed to utilize the seven principles more frequently than the professors with smaller class sizes. Conclusions. Full-time and adjunct professors of the health and sciences in Southern California community colleges perceive themselves as utilizing the seven principles of good practice to a high degree. Recommendations. This study suggests many recommendations for future research, including the degree to which negative economic factors such as budget cuts and demands affect the utilization of the seven principles. Also recommended is a study comparing students' perceptions of faculty's utilization of the seven principles of good practice in the classroom with faculty's self-perception.

  4. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  5. Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How Personal and Academic Characteristics of Pre-Service Science Teachers Compare with Their Understandings of Basic Chemical Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Vanessa; Kind, Per Morten

    2011-01-01

    Around 150 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11-16-year-olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by…

  6. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  7. Use of the NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Examination as a Progress Test in the Preclerkship Curriculum of a New Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Teresa R.; Khalil, Mohammed K.; Peppler, Richard D.; Davey, Diane D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we describe the innovative use of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) as a progress test during the preclerkship medical curriculum. The main aim of this study was to provide external validation of internally developed multiple-choice assessments in a new medical…

  8. Innovation and Change in Medical Education: An Analysis of the First Year of Operation of a New School of Basic Medical Sciences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimberly, John R.

    This report presents a detailed analysis of various aspects of the first year of operation of the new School of Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Illinois. This new program in medical education is designed to increase the rate of production of new doctors, to alleviate some of the problems in health care delivery by shortening the amount…

  9. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  10. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phylliss

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

  11. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1986-01-01

    Explains why earthworms are fascinating and important animals whose study should be expanded. Describes how to collect earthworms and their castings and how to demonstrate their tunneling activity. Stresses animal's uniqueness and how it is interrelated with other animals, plants, and non-living parts of the world. (NEC)

  12. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1984-01-01

    Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

  13. Pages 6-15 In: J. Wu, X. Han and J. Huang (eds), Lectures in Modern Ecology (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science and Technology Press, Beijing.

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

    Pages 6-15 In: J. Wu, X. Han and J. Huang (eds), Lectures in Modern Ecology (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science and Technology Press, Beijing. 1 #12;Pages 6-15 In: J. Wu, X. Han and J. Huang (eds), Lectures in Modern Ecology (II): From Basic Ecology to Environmental Issues. Science

  14. Materials Science & Technology Division FACT SHEET The Materials Science & Technology (MST) Division mission is to conduct basic and applied research and

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Materials Science & Technology Division FACT SHEET Mission: The Materials Science & Technology (MST of materials science: synthesis, structural characterization, and property evaluation, and a variety of applied materials science and technology topics ranging from materials to extreme environments to use

  15. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  16. Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

  17. Group Work in Elementary Science: Towards Organisational Principles for Supporting Pupil Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Tolmie, Andy; Thurston, Allen; Topping, Keith; Christie, Donald; Livingston, Kay; Jessiman, Emma; Donaldson, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Group work has been promoted in many countries as a key component of elementary science. However, little guidance is given as to how group work should be organized, and because previous research has seldom been conducted in authentic classrooms, its message is merely indicative. A study is reported, which attempts to address these limitations.…

  18. The common principles established to expert's preparation by a remote methods in the Earth sciences field, and their decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudzh, S.; Trofimov, S.

    Modern socially economic situation in the country and in an education system is those, that traditional forms of getting education and training model cannot satisfy all needs for the educational services usually concentrated in the big cities, and so - the increased interest to new, progressive specialities has received the development in electronic - training systems. The attitude to education on the part of the states, the governments, societies has changed also. Education began to be considered as the major factor of economic growth and social development of the countries, the decision of some global problems connected to survival of mankind. In this connection, recently development and practical introduction of technologies of remote and open education are conducted in the different countries, the especial attention is given to the systems, capable to comprise, transfer and analyze huge streams of information. The experience which has been saved up by foreign colleagues, shows, that the sanction of this technological conflict lays, generally, in sphere of creation of a wide network of remote training, and, in narrow, both quality and quantity of a substantial part, also it is necessary not to forget about a choice of electronic-training systems with their reference to various areas. And an occurrence of the computer equipment in the user's end, development of existing ways and means of data transmission, functional expansion of already existing and creation of absolutely new hardware-software complexes, and many other things has begun occurrence of new scientific directions in such basic area of sciences as the Earth - science. (These are geoinformation systems, research of natural resources by space methods, organization and technology of data protection in geoinformation systems etc.) Clearly, that new specialities impose the certain conditions for preparation of experts, and, carrying out the analysis of already existing electronic training systems in the field of geoinformation systems, there have been revealed a number of lacks which do not allow to prepare highly skilled experts at a high level in the given area. The output consists in use of electronic-training systems, but even here, there is a number of problems, decision of which lays in the process of remote training of the Earth sciences. Classification of the systems engaged in the field of the Earth sciences training has revealed a number of lacks and has allowed to develop the certain methodological aspects, necessary to take into account creating them. One of such of electronic training systems basic lacks is that the trained itself is kind of "torn off" from modern hardware-software complexes, that is basic in the training the given scientific direction, in connection with that, the practical part is inseparable from theoretical, and student cannot use saved up experience in practice, knowing only the theory. Teaching of a material in the majority of systems goes with group at once. (Individual interests "are absorbed" by desire of the majority, and, accordingly, the user of system sometimes cannot receive answers to many questions). Impossibility of allocation of the concrete user for his training under more or less strong separate program or his reception of additional knowledge on adjacent areas. Many systems do not support on (off) -- line conferences or don't support the huge streams of the information transfer, that in training of the Earth sciences -- is the one of the basic criteria, (because the various territorially distributed users of system could exchange their experience, could share impressions about use of the certain hardware-software complexes, participate in conferences spent by the various centers, to communicate with the tutors not only in the form of various forums, but also operatively (it is possible even visually, by means of use of system of Web- videotranslations) to receive answers to arising questions, etc.). And introduction of such opportunities as ``daily planning'' and ``reminder'' to the system -

  19. Arts & Sciences Biology, B.A.

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    6/7/13 Arts & Sciences Biology, B.A. Broad Learning Goals A. Understand basic biological principles, and appreciate the breadth of modern biology. B. Understand and apply the scientific principle to conceptual or experimental problems in biology. C. Present biological data, and interpretations of the data, in written

  20. Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

    2006-05-24

    The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

  1. Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Animal Long-Bone Model: An Analysis of Basic Science Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gianakos, Arianna; Zambrana, Lester; Savage-Elliott, Ian; Lane, Joseph M; Kennedy, John G

    2015-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been suggested as an adjunct to aid in long-bone healing. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the basic science in vivo evidence for the use of PRP in the treatment of bone pathology. The PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were screened using the following search criteria: "(Platelet-rich plasma OR PRP OR autologous conditioned plasma OR ACP) AND (bone OR osteocytes OR osteogenesis OR nonunion OR delayed union)." Studies were included if they ful-filled the following criteria: (1) studied the effect of PRP or a similar concentrated platelet product, defined as a blood product with platelet concentration elevated to higher than baseline; (2) established a control with which to compare PRP; (3) were published in a peer-reviewed journal; and (4) looked specifically at animal long-bone models. All review articles and clinical studies, including randomized controlled trials and case series, were excluded from the review. Studies examining the effects of PRP on bones of animals with confounding pathology were excluded. In studies that contained additional treatment variables, only the portion of the experiment that compared PRP directly with the control were evaluated. Data were then extracted with a standardized table. The search yielded 29 articles for inclusion. Seventy-two percent of the studies reported platelet concentrations. Eighty-nine percent of studies reported significant improvement in earlier bone healing on histologic/histomorphometric assessment. One hundred percent showed significant increase in bone formation on radiographs in the PRP group. Eighty percent of studies reported a significant increase in bone area on microcomputed tomography. One hundred percent of studies showed a higher torsional stiffness for the PRP-treated defects. In the in vivo studies evaluated, PRP confers several beneficial effects on animal long-bone models. Proof of concept for PRP as a biologic adjunct in long-bone models has been determined. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1079-e1090.]. PMID:26652328

  2. The Oncologic Safety of Breast Fat Grafting and Contradictions Between Basic Science and Clinical Studies: A Systematic Review of the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Heath J; Orbay, Hakan; Wong, Michael S; Sahar, David E

    2015-10-01

    Fat grafting is increasingly popular and is becoming a common practice in plastic surgery for postmastectomy breast reconstruction and aesthetic breast augmentation; however, concerns over the oncologic safety remains a controversial and hot topic among scientists and surgeons. Basic science and laboratory research repeatedly show a potentially dangerous effect of adipose-derived stem cells on breast cancer cells; however, clinical research, although limited, continually fails to show an increase in breast cancer recurrence after breast fat grafting, with the exception of 1 small study on a subset patient population with intraepithelial neoplasm of the breast. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent conflicting basic science and clinical data to better understand the safety of breast fat grafting from an oncological perspective. PMID:26360655

  3. Beware of agents when flying aircraft: Basic principles behind a generic methodology for the evaluation and certification of advanced aviation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javaux, Denis; Masson, Michel; Dekeyser, Veronique

    1994-01-01

    There is currently a growing interest in the aeronautical community to assess the effects of the increasing levels of automation on pilots' performance and overall safety. The first effect of automation is the change in the nature of the pilot's role on the flight deck. Pilots have become supervisors who monitor aircraft systems in usual situations and intervene only when unanticipated events occur. Instead of 'hand flying' the airplane, pilots contribute to the control of aircraft by acting as mediators, instructions given to the automation. By eliminating the need for manually controlling normal situations, such a role division has reduced the opportunities for the pilot to acquire experience and skills necessary to safely cope with abnormal events. Difficulties in assessing the state and behavior of automation arise mainly from four factors: (1) the complexity of current systems and consequence mode-related problems; (2) the intrinsic autonomy of automation which is able to fire mode transitions without explicit commands from the pilots; (3) the bad quality of feed-back from the control systems displays and interfaces to the pilots; and (4) the fact that the automation currently has no explicit representation of the current pilots' intentions and strategy. Assuming certification has among its major goals to guarantee the passengers' and pilots' safety and the airplane integrity under normal and abnormal operational conditions, the authors suggest it would be particularly fruitful to come up with a conceptual reference system providing the certification authorities both with a theoretical framework and a list of principles usable for assessing the quality of the equipment and designs under examination. This is precisely the scope of this paper. However, the authors recognize that the conceptual presented is still under development and would thus be best considered as a source of reflection for the design, evaluation and certification processes of advanced aviation technologies.

  4. Precis of the Government Response to the IUS Select Committee Report 6. The allocation of the CSR07 science budget has been consistent with the Haldane Principle.

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    Precis of the Government Response to the IUS Select Committee Report 6. The allocation of the CSR07 science budget has been consistent with the Haldane Principle. 10. The Government understands how those whose work is not funded may well question those who gave it a lower priority. 11. The Government

  5. Baking Soda Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  6. Basics of Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.; Cochrane, Pauline (Atherton)

    Intended to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching to those with little or no prior experience, this textbook explains the basic elements of online information retrieval and compares the major database search systems. Its chapters address (1) relevant definitions and vocabulary; (2) the conceptual facets of database searching,…

  7. Animals. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderman, Winifred Ho; Booth, Gerald

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

  8. Green Plants. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, Mary

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

  9. Electricity. Physical Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elaine; And Others

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of physical science. Seven separate units…

  10. Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations Part 1: Basic Properties, Cognitive Environment, Characteristics of the Princes

    E-print Network

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2015-01-01

    A Sleeping Beauty in Science is a publication that goes unnoticed (sleeps) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (is awakened by a prince). In this paper we investigate important properties of Sleeping Beauties, particularly to find out to what extent Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this study we focus primarily on physics (including materials science and astrophysics) and present first results for chemistry and for engineering & computer science. We find that more than half of the SBs are application-oriented. Therefore, it is important to investigate the reasons for and processes related to delayed recognition. First we analyze basic properties of the SBs such as the time-dependent distribution, author characteristics (names of authors, country, institution), as well as the journals and fields of the SBs are analyzed. Next we develop a new approach in which the cognitive environment of the SBs is analyzed, based ...

  11. The Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences

    E-print Network

    Clark, Bunny

    of the physical principles underlying and the technology serving agriculture, food production, and natural agricultural production and associated industries. The minor contributes to "a basic understandingThe Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences Approved

  12. Food Science. Content Modules for Food Science Featuring Problem-Solving Activities in Family and Consumer Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Lori; Stringer, Lola

    The food science course developed in Missouri combines basic scientific and mathematics principles in a hands-on instructional format as a part of the family and consumer sciences education curriculum. Throughout the course, students conduct controlled experiments and use scientific laboratory techniques and information to explore the biological…

  13. Radiation Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... are here: EPA Home » Radiation Protection » Radiation Basics Radiation Basics Radiation is energy. It can come from ...

  14. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  15. Harnessing the Use of Open Learning Exchange to Support Basic Education in Science and Mathematics in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano, Josephine S.; Mandapat, Louie Carl R.; Khan, Concepcion L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the open learning initiatives of the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology to overcome certain barriers, such as enabling access, cost of replication, timely feedback, monitoring and continuous improvement of learning modules. Using an open-education model, like MIT's (Massachusetts Institute…

  16. Basic-deformed thermostatistics

    E-print Network

    A. Lavagno; A. M. Scarfone; P. Narayana Swamy

    2007-06-04

    Starting from the basic-exponential, a q-deformed version of the exponential function established in the framework of the basic-hypergeometric series, we present a possible formulation of a generalized statistical mechanics. In a q-nonuniform lattice we introduce the basic-entropy related to the basic-exponential by means of a q-variational principle. Remarkably, this distribution exhibits a natural cut-off in the energy spectrum. This fact, already encountered in other formulations of generalized statistical mechanics, is expected to be relevant to the applications of the theory to those systems governed by long-range interactions. By employing the q-calculus, it is shown that the standard thermodynamic functional relationships are preserved, mimicking, in this way, the mathematical structure of the ordinary thermostatistics which is recovered in the q=1 limit.

  17. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  18. 1.0 Basic Principles GRADEAPPEALSPOLICYANDPROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    , disability, or veteran status; (2) sexual harassment or discrimination; or (3 in the grading process, as listed in the university's non-discrimination/affirmative action a formal written appeal with the Dean of the College within ten days of having

  19. Line Scanners Basic line-scanner principle

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    orientation · measure ground control points in undistorted images · determine Helmert transformation · requires position and attitude of the camera direct relative orientation using GPS/IMU measurements · GPS

  20. Scope and Basic Principles of Insect Pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are the dominant animals in the world with more than one million described species. The vast majority of insects are innocuous or beneficial to humans, but a small percentage are pests that require a significant amount of our time, effort and funds to reduce their negative effects on food pr...

  1. School Counseling Principles: Foundations and Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Counselor Association (Bks), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This book serves as a ready reference for advancing a common understanding of the rapidly evolving school counseling profession. Its purpose is to help school counselors, school counseling students, educators, administrators and other school counseling stakeholders best converge on the most highly agreed upon responses to common professional…

  2. Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gibby, Wendell A

    2005-01-01

    We have come full circle from spinning quarks to 3D medical images. The bulk of MRI is now performed using slice-selective gradients, during which RF energy is applied to excite the hydrogen nuclei. By stepping a phase-encoding gradient during each TR and using a frequency-encoding gradient as the data are sampled, the 3D human object can be reduced to many individual points or voxels. By acquiring multiple slices at once, the time efficiency of imaging can be vastly improved. Many newer strategies use variations of this technique to acquire multiple lines of data during a single echo, enshrining spin warp imaging as the most important method of signal acquisition for MRI. PMID:15561528

  3. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

    PubMed

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Daskalakis, Z; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V; Ferreri, F; Fitzgerald, P B; George, M S; Hallett, M; Lefaucheur, J P; Langguth, B; Matsumoto, H; Miniussi, C; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A; Paulus, W; Rossi, S; Rothwell, J C; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Walsh, V; Ziemann, U

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments. PMID:25797650

  4. Workshop on Computer Science and Information Technologies CSIT'2002, Patras, Greece, 2002 Intelligent Educational Systems for Individualized Learning

    E-print Network

    Workshop on Computer Science and Information Technologies CSIT'2002, Patras, Greece, 2002 Intelligent Educational Systems for Individualized Learning Jim Prentzas, Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis Department present the basic principles underlying the main types of intelligent educational systems used

  5. Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O’Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of doctoral students in the basic biomedical sciences at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Midway through graduate training, UCSF students are already considering a broad range of career options, with one-third intending to pursue a non–research career path. To better support this branching career pipeline, we recommend that national standards for training and mentoring include emphasis on career planning and professional skills development to ensure the success of PhD-level scientists as they contribute to a broadly defined global scientific enterprise. PMID:21885820

  6. Development of e-Learning Courses for Promoting Student's Global Competency-Basic Courses as a Guide to ESP Education in Advanced Science and Technology-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Mikako; Nakajima, Mikio; Iwai, Chiharu; Ogasawara, Fumie; Kishino, Fumio; Fukui, Kiichi

    Osaka University has been chosen for the FY2005's “Selected Efforts of the Distinctive University Education Support Program (Gendai GP/Good Practice) ”by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) . The aim of this project is to improve English proficiency of undergraduate students with scientific backgrounds. Under this strategic fund, e-Learning course contents were developed for instructing basic, yet practical English for Biotechnology during FY2005. Throughout the project, e-Learning contents will be developed for five other selected subjects of science i.e., 1) biotechnology, 2) information technology, 3) nano-technology, 4) environmental technology and 5) robotics technology, for undergraduate students as guiding courses to ESP education in graduate (higher) level.

  7. Outcome CS-b. Have knowledge of the basic principles and methods of programming language translation, formal languages, and The assessment is performed with respect to the key abilities that the students are expected to acquire in specific courses that ha

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    outcome maps into. ** For example "exam 1, problem 1" *** For Grade give the class average on an "A=4.0, BOutcome CS-b. Have knowledge of the basic principles and methods of programming language that the students are expected to acquire in specific courses that have been identified with respect to this outcome

  8. Using technology to promote science as a basic subject for literacy: A precollege/college/industry/government collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, B.L.; Saturnelli, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    Our goal is to ensure that All students have the opportunity to learn science, and it is being accomplished through a unique working model program that: (1) changes the way that teaching and learning take place; (2) incorporates the advanced technology of microscopy directly into the K-12 curriculum; and (3) develops R & D teacher specialists. We conducted three in-service science courses, a Summer Science Microscopy Camp, and a staff development program (the latter funded by a NYS Education Department grant) in which science professors, industrial engineers and scientists interacted with teachers and students to explore the world using high technology. This year, all 5th and 7th graders in the district (200 students) and about 1,000 high school science students are having experiences as active researchers, solving real-life, multi-step problems using all levels of microscopy, including scanning tunneling. Students develop a chronological portfolio, using multimedia formats. Our 1993 Summer Microscopy Camp attendance record was 98%, compared to the typical 75% for other programs.

  9. Resident's Morning Report: An Opportunity to Reinforce Principles of Biomedical Science in a Clinical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brass, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a…

  10. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  11. Accepting Evolution or Discarding Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpes, Donald K.; Peramas, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Challenging basic principles of constitutional law, advocates of intelligent design are undermining educators' ability to teach evolution in their science classrooms. Because US Supreme Court rulings now prohibit creationist accounts of the origin of life in schools, arguments favoring divine intervention, known as intelligent design, have emerged…

  12. Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

    2011-03-31

    ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

  13. Resource Handbook--Matter and Energy. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; matter and energy. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into the following six units: 1) Composition of Matter, with 27 concepts; 2) Light, with 20 concepts; 3) Heat, with 14 concepts; 4) Sound, with 12 concepts; 5) Electricity and Magnetism, with 17 concepts; and 6)…

  14. Transformational advances in knowledge and technology come from discovery science. As the nation's largest funder of basic

    E-print Network

    is using microbial and plant genomic data, advanced analytical technologies, and modeling and simulation ­ such as a quark-gluon plasma ­ have changed our view of how the material world works and unlocked a host of new, environmental remediation, and climate stabilization. National Lab-led research in the biological sciences

  15. Program for Educational Mobility for Health Manpower (The Basic Sciences), June 12-August 25, 1970. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordinating Council for Education in the Health Sciences for San Diego and Imperial Counties, CA.

    Community college administrators and faculty in the areas of anatomy, physiology, chemistry, physics, and microbiology attended an 11-day workshop to redefine, modify, and develop science concepts for a core curriculum in the allied health field. To achieve workshop objectives, the committee heard presentations by consultants, visited clinical…

  16. Machines. Physical Science in Action. Revised Edition. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echaore, Susan D.; Wentz, Budd

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of physical science. Seven separate units…

  17. Basic Research in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    1979-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)

  18. Fifteen years of cell-penetrating, guanidinium-rich molecular transporters: basic science, research tools, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Stanzl, Erika Geihe; Trantow, Brian M; Vargas, Jessica R; Wender, Paul A

    2013-12-17

    All living systems require biochemical barriers. As a consequence, all drugs, imaging agents, and probes have targets that are either on, in, or inside of these barriers. Fifteen years ago, we initiated research directed at more fully understanding these barriers and at developing tools and strategies for breaching them that could be of use in basic research, imaging, diagnostics, and medicine. At the outset of this research and now to a lesser extent, the "rules" for drug design biased the selection of drug candidates mainly to those with an intermediate and narrow log P. At the same time, it was becoming increasingly apparent that Nature had long ago developed clever strategies to circumvent these "rules." In 1988, for example, independent reports documented the otherwise uncommon passage of a protein (HIV-Tat) across a membrane. A subsequent study implicated a highly basic domain in this protein (Tat49-57) in its cellular entry. This conspicuously contradictory behavior of a polar, highly charged peptide passing through a nonpolar membrane set the stage for learning how Nature had gotten around the current "rules" of transport. As elaborated in our studies and discussed in this Account, the key strategy used in Nature rests in part on the ability of a molecule to change its properties as a function of microenvironment; such molecules need to be polarity chameleons, polar in a polar milieu and relatively nonpolar in a nonpolar environment. Because this research originated in part with the protein Tat and its basic peptide domain, Tat49-57, the field focused heavily on peptides, even limiting its nomenclature to names such as "cell-penetrating peptides," "cell-permeating peptides," "protein transduction domains," and "membrane translocating peptides." Starting in 1997, through a systematic reverse engineering approach, we established that the ability of Tat49-57 to enter cells is not a function of its peptide backbone, but rather a function of the number and spatial array of its guanidinium groups. These function-oriented studies enabled us and others to design more effective peptidic agents and to think beyond the confines of peptidic systems to new and even more effective nonpeptidic agents. Because the function of passage across a cell membrane is not limited to or even best achieved with the peptide backbone, we referred to these agents by their shared function, "cell-penetrating molecular transporters." The scope of this molecular approach to breaching biochemical barriers has expanded remarkably in the past 15 years: enabling or enhancing the delivery of a wide range of cargos into cells and across other biochemical barriers, creating new tools for research, imaging, and diagnostics, and introducing new therapies into clinical trials. PMID:23697862

  19. SARS Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Isolation and Quarantine Fact Sheet References and Resources SARS Basics Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: ... 3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS [3 pages] SARS? Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral ...

  20. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  1. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  2. Asthma Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Concussions: What to Know Pregnant? What to Expect Asthma Basics KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Lungs & Respiratory System > ... Induced Asthma Allergy-Triggered Asthma Asthma Categories About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  3. Principles of optical-data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shulman, A. R.

    1968-01-01

    Document presents optical-data processing information on a level which will convey the basic principles involved to those having a general technical background. Mathematical discussions are included but are not required for a basic understanding.

  4. 15 Years of Cell-penetrating, Guanidinium-rich Molecular Transporters: Basic Science, Research Tools, and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Stanzl, Erika Geihe; Trantow, Brian M.; Vargas, Jessica R.; Wender, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus All living systems require biochemical barriers. As a consequence, all drugs, imaging agents, and probes have targets that are either on, in, or inside of these barriers. Fifteen years ago, we initiated research directed at more fully understanding these barriers and at developing tools and strategies for breaching them that could be of use in basic research, imaging, diagnostics and medicine. At the outset of this research and to a lesser extent now, the “rules” for drug design biased the selection of drug candidates to mainly those with an intermediate and narrow log P. At the same time, it was becoming increasingly apparent that Nature had long ago developed clever strategies to circumvent these “rules”. In 1988, for example, independent reports appeared documenting the otherwise uncommon passage of a protein (HIV-Tat) across a membrane. A subsequent study called attention to a highly basic domain in this protein (Tat49–57) being responsible for its cellular entry. This conspicuously contradictory behavior, i.e., a polar, highly charged peptide passing through a non-polar membrane, set the stage for learning how Nature had gotten around the current “rules” of transport. As elaborated in our studies and discussed herein, the key strategy used in Nature rests in part on the ability of a molecule to change its properties as a function of microenvironment, being a polarity chameleon – i.e., being polar in a polar milieu and relatively non-polar in a non-polar environment. Because this research originated in part with the protein Tat and its basic peptide domain, Tat49–57, the field focused heavily on peptides, even limiting its nomenclature to names such as ‘cell-penetrating peptides,’ ‘cell-permeating peptides,’ ‘protein transduction domains,’ and ‘membrane translocating peptides’ to note a few. Starting in 1997, through a systematic reverse engineering approach, we established that the ability of Tat49–57 to enter cells is not a function of its peptide backbone, but rather the number and spatial array of its guanidinium groups. These function-oriented studies allowed one to design more effective peptidic agents and to think beyond the confines of peptidic systems to new and even more effective non-peptidic agents. Because the function of passage across a cell membrane is not limited to or even best achieved with the peptide backbone, we referred to these agents by their shared function, i.e., ‘cell-penetrating molecular transporters’. The scope of this molecular approach to breaching biochemical barriers has expanded remarkably in the past 15 years, enabling or enhancing the delivery of a wide range of cargos into cells and across other biochemical barriers; creating new tools for research, imaging, and diagnostics; and introducing new therapies into clinical trials. PMID:23697862

  5. Models of natural fracture connectivity: Implications for reservoir permeability. Annual report for DOE Basic Energy Sciences, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, D.D.; Aydin, A.

    1995-06-01

    Fluid flow through fracture networks in a rock mass depends strongly on the nature of connections between fracture segments and between individual fractures. Therefore the objective of this research project is to develop three dimensional models for natural fracture connectivity using an integrated field, laboratory, and theoretical methodology. The geometric models we have developed are based on detailed field mapping and observations from outcrops of both massive and layered sedimentary rocks, typical of producing oil and gas reservoirs, or of aquifers. Furthermore, we have used computer simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for fracture connectivity (or lack thereof) as single and multiple sets of fractures evolve. The computer models are based on fracture mechanics principles and the laboratory experiments utilize layered composite materials analogous to sedimentary sequences. By identifying the physical mechanisms of connectivity we can relate the degree of connectivity to the geometry, state of stress, and material properties of the reservoir rocks and, in turn, be in a position to evaluate the influence of these factors on fracture permeability.

  6. Pattern recognition principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

  7. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. PMID:26315516

  8. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  9. HPV vaccination to prevent cervical cancer and other HPV-associated disease: from basic science to effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Lowy, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Identification of HPV infection as the etiologic agent of virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a proportion of other epithelial cancers, has led to development of three FDA-approved multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs). This essay describes the research and development that led to the VLP vaccines; discusses their safety, efficacy, and short-term effect on HPV-associated disease; and speculates that even a single dose of these vaccines, when given to adolescents, might be able to confer long-term protection. The HPV field exemplifies how long-term funding for basic research has lead to clinical interventions with the long-term potential to eradicate most cancers attributable to HPV infection. Although this essay is the result of my receiving the 2015 Harrington Prize for Innovation in Medicine from the Harrington Discovery Institute and the American Society for Clinical Investigation, this clinical advance has depended on the research of many investigators, development of commercial vaccines by the pharmaceutical companies, and participation of many patient volunteers in the clinical trials. PMID:26727228

  10. Schedule for Completion of NUS B.Sc. (Hons.) in Chemistry KCL M.Sc. in Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Yao, Shao Q

    Schedule for Completion of NUS B.Sc. (Hons.) in Chemistry ­ KCL M.Sc. in Forensic Science 4000 module.) [4x4MCs=16 MCs] YEAR5 Semesters1&2 7BBFM125 Principles of Forensic Science [10]/{15} 7 in Chemistry 1 [4] MA1421 Basic Applied Mathematics for Sciences OR MA1102R Calculus [4] LSM1401 Fundamentals

  11. Basic Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Lonnie; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    The skills taught in these materials for a seven-unit course were those identified as necessary not only for entry-level electronic technicians but for those in other occupations as well, including appliance repair, heating and air conditioning, and auto mechanics. The seven units are on shop orientation and safety principles, introduction to…

  12. Radiation Leukemogenesis: Applying Basic Science of Epidemiological Estimates of Low Dose Risks and Dose-Rate Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hoel, D. G.

    1998-11-01

    The next stage of work has been to examine more closely the A-bomb leukemia data which provides the underpinnings of the risk estimation of CML in the above mentioned manuscript. The paper by Hoel and Li (Health Physics 75:241-50) shows how the linear-quadratic model has basic non-linearities at the low dose region for the leukemias including CML. Pierce et. al., (Radiation Research 123:275-84) have developed distributions for the uncertainty in the estimated exposures of the A-bomb cohort. Kellerer, et. al., (Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 36:73-83) has further considered possible errors in the estimated neutron values and with changing RBE values with dose and has hypothesized that the tumor response due to gamma may not be linear. We have incorporated his neutron model and have constricted new A-bomb doses based on his model adjustments. The Hoel and Li dose response analysis has also been applied using the Kellerer neutron dose adjustments for the leukemias. Finally, both Pierce's dose uncertainties and Kellerer neutron adjustments are combined as well as the varying RBE with dose as suggested by Rossi and Zaider and used for leukemia dose-response analysis. First the results of Hoel and Li showing a significantly improved fit of the linear-quadratic dose response by the inclusion of a threshold (i.e. low-dose nonlinearity) persisted. This work has been complete for both solid tumor as well as leukemia for both mortality as well as incidence data. The results are given in the manuscript described below which has been submitted to Health Physics.

  13. DOS basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

  14. Open Science: a first step towards Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Tuddenham, Peter

    2015-04-01

    As Earth Science communicators gear up to adopt the new tools and captivating approaches to engage citizen scientists, budding entrepreneurs, policy makers and the public in general, researchers have the responsibility, and opportunity, to fully adopt Open Science principles and capitalize on its full societal impact and engagement. Open Science is about removing all barriers to basic research, whatever its formats, so that it can be freely used, re-used and re-hashed, thus fueling discourse and accelerating generation of innovative ideas. The concept is central to EU's Responsible Research and Innovation philosophy, and removing barriers to basic research measurably contributes to engaging citizen scientists into the research process, it sets the scene for co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, and raises the general science literacy level of the public. Despite this potential, only 50% of today's basic research is freely available. Open Science can be the first passive step of communicating marine research outside academia. Full and unrestricted access to our knowledge including data, software code and scientific publications is not just an ethical obligation, but also gives solid credibility to a more sophisticated communication strategy on engaging society. The presentation will demonstrate how Open Science perfectly compliments a coherent communication strategy for placing Marine Research in societal context, and how it underpin an effective integration of Ocean & Earth Literacy principles in standard educational, as well mobilizing citizen marine scientists, thus making marine science Open Science.

  15. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP First Principles Materials Science Codes for Intel Xeon Phi (MIC) based HPC: The Petascale and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canning, Andrew; Deslippe, Jack; Chelikowsky, James; Louie, Steven G.

    2015-03-01

    Exploiting the full potential of present petascale and future exascale supercomputers based on many core chips requires a high level of threading on the node as well as reduced communications between the nodes to scale to large node counts. We will present results for a variety of first principles materials science codes (Berkeley-GW, PARATEC, PARSEC) on Intel Xeon Phi (MIC) based supercomputers for algorithms using hybrid OpenMP/MPI parallelism to obtain both efficiently threaded single chip performance and parallel scaling to large node counts. Support provided through the SciDAC program funded by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, ASCR and BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 at LBNL and Award No. DESC0008877 at UT, Austin.

  16. Attitudes among students and teachers on vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Dahle, L O; Behrbohm Fallsberg, M; Rundquist, I; Hammar, M

    2002-05-01

    Important elements in the curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science sections of the curriculum, and horizontal integration between different subject areas. Integration throughout the whole curriculum is time-consuming for both teachers and students and hard work is required for planning, organization and execution. The aim was to assess the importance of vertical and horizontal integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to opinions among students and teachers. In a questionnaire 102 faculty teachers and 106 students were asked about the importance of 14 different components of the undergraduate medical curriculum including vertical and horizontal integration. They were asked to assign between one and six points to each component (6 points = extremely important for the quality of the curriculum; 1 point = unimportant). Students as well as teachers appreciated highly both forms of integration. Students scored horizontal integration slightly but significantly higher than the teachers (median 6 vs 5 points; p=0.009, Mann-Whitney U-test), whereas teachers scored vertical integration higher than students (6 vs 5; p=0.019, Mann-Whitney U-test). Both students and teachers considered horizontal and vertical integration to be highly important components of the undergraduate medical programme. We believe both kinds of integration support problem-based learning and stimulate deep and lifelong learning and suggest that integration should always be considered deeply when a new curriculum is planned for undergraduate medical education. PMID:12098415

  17. Principles of Play for Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, John

    2004-01-01

    Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…

  18. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test and...

  19. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test and...

  20. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test and...

  1. 32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test and...

  2. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  3. Basic cosmology

    E-print Network

    Ll. Bel

    2014-03-22

    Basic cosmology describes the universe as a Robertson-Walker model filled with black-body radiation and no barionic matter, and as observational data it uses only the value of the speed of light, the Hubble and deceleration parameters and the black-body temperature at the present epoch. It predicts the value of the next new parameter in the Hubble law.

  4. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  5. Body Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  6. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  7. Paraphrasing and Prediction with Self-Explanation as Generative Strategies for Learning Science Principles in a Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Jennifer R.; Bol, Linda; Ross, Steven M.; Watson, Ginger S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incorporation of generative strategies for the guided discovery of physics principles in a simulation. Participants who either paraphrased or predicted and self-explained guided discovery assignments exhibited improved performance on an achievement test as compared to a control group. Calibration accuracy (the…

  8. Cognitive Psychology and Constructivism: Concepts, Principles, and Implications within the Social Science Disciplines and Applications for Social Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Robert J.

    After a brief introduction to cognitive psychology, this paper provides a set of principles from cognitive psychology, information processing theory, and constructivist psychology; outlines examples of the existence and often longtime, conscious use of contemporary cognitive psychology assumptions and conceptions in the social and behavioral…

  9. Goal: Understand some of the basic principles of the chemistry of earth science and envi- Knowledge necessary for solving current and emerging problems

    E-print Network

    Schofield, Jeremy

    ) Nitrogen #12;xation (b) Thunderstorms (c) Haber process: synthesis of fertilizers 2. O 2 : 20:9% by volume are chemical constituents of environment 2. How physical and chemical properties determine processes #15; Self not due to gravitational collapse of elements in solar nebula 2. Cooling process ! water condensation

  10. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  11. Basic Skills--Basic Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conference Board of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The experience of eight prominent Canadian business organizations was examined in terms of how basic skills deficits are identified in their work force, the impact of those deficiencies on organizational competitiveness, and why corporate programs are developed in response to the issue. Some of the key findings were as follows: (1) employee…

  12. NAra Institute of Science and Technology

    E-print Network

    Duh, Kevin

    Research · Intercellular Communications · Plant Cell Function · Plant Developmental Signaling · Plant of microorganisms, plants and animals at the molecular and cellular levels, and to clarify principles of the basic phenomena of life and biological diversity. Research Area Plant Biology Biomedical Science Systems Biology

  13. Investigator Name 12_28_12 Department Affiliation Phone Email Location Research Interest/Extra Information Hazlett, Linda Ph.D. (NIH) Anatomy and Cell Biology 313-577-1061 lhazlett@med.wayne.edu Scott Hall Basic Science Research

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    313-577-3187 boneil@med.wayne.edu Lande Medical Building Cardiac arrest and resuscitation, cardiac@med.wayne.edu Lande Medical Building Basic Science Research Skoff, Robert Ph.D. Anatomy and Cell Biology 313, Robert Ph.D. Biochemistry and Mol. Biology 313-577-0419 rakins@med.wayne.edu Lande Medical Building

  14. Precaution, bioethics and normative justification : Daniel Steel: Philosophy and the precautionary principle: science, evidence and environmental policy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015, xv + 256 pp, ISBN 978-1-107-07816-1.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Daniel Steel's new book on the precautionary principle illustrates the need to work ahead to fuse perspectives of epistemology and philosophy of science with those of ethics to accomplish progress in the debate on the proper role of precaution in a broad selection of bioethical areas. Steel advances the territory greatly with regard to conceptual clarity and epistemology, but from a bioethics standpoint he is mistaken in discounting the need for ethical underpinnings of a sound theory of the precautionary principle. PMID:26303378

  15. Teaching/learning principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  16. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) consensus on science with treatment recommendations for pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic and advanced life support.

    PubMed

    2006-05-01

    This publication contains the pediatric and neonatal sections of the 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations (COSTR). The consensus process that produced this document was sponsored by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). ILCOR was formed in 1993 and consists of representatives of resuscitation councils from all over the world. Its mission is to identify and review international science and knowledge relevant to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) and to generate consensus on treatment recommendations. ECC includes all responses necessary to treat life-threatening cardiovascular and respiratory events. The COSTR document presents international consensus statements on the science of resuscitation. ILCOR member organizations are each publishing resuscitation guidelines that are consistent with the science in this consensus document, but they also take into consideration geographic, economic, and system differences in practice and the regional availability of medical devices and drugs. The American Heart Association (AHA) pediatric and the American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA neonatal sections of the resuscitation guidelines are reprinted in this issue of Pediatrics (see pages e978-e988). The 2005 evidence evaluation process began shortly after publication of the 2000 International Guidelines for CPR and ECC. The process included topic identification, expert topic review, discussion and debate at 6 international meetings, further review, and debate within ILCOR member organizations and ultimate approval by the member organizations, an Editorial Board, and peer reviewers. The complete COSTR document was published simultaneously in Circulation (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation. 2005;112(suppl):73-90) and Resuscitation (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation. 2005;67:271-291). Readers are encouraged to review the 2005 COSTR document in its entirety. It can be accessed through the CPR and ECC link at the AHA Web site: www.americanheart.org. The complete publication represents the largest evaluation of resuscitation literature ever published and contains electronic links to more detailed information about the international collaborative process. To organize the evidence evaluation, ILCOR representatives established 6 task forces: basic life support, advanced life support, acute coronary syndromes, pediatric life support, neonatal life support, and an interdisciplinary task force to consider overlapping topics such as educational issues. The AHA established additional task forces on stroke and, in collaboration with the American Red Cross, a task force on first aid. Each task force identified topics requiring evaluation and appointed international experts to review them. A detailed worksheet template was created to help the experts document their literature review, evaluate studies, determine levels of evidence, develop treatment recommendations, and disclose conflicts of interest. Two evidence evaluation experts reviewed all worksheets and assisted the worksheet reviewers to ensure that the worksheets met a consistently high standard. A total of 281 experts completed 403 worksheets on 275 topics, reviewing more than 22000 published studies. In December 2004 the evidence review and summary portions of the evidence evaluation worksheets, with worksheet author conflict of interest statements, were posted on the Internet at www.C2005.org, where readers can continue to access them. Journal advertisements and e-mails invited public comment. Two hundred forty-nine worksheet authors (141 from the United States and 108 from 17 other countries) and addi

  17. Basic space payload fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, J. M.; Gorevan, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    A new basic space fastener has been developed and tested by the GSFC. The purposes of this fastener are to permit assembly and servicing in space by astronauts and/or robots and to facilitate qualification of payloads on Earth prior to launch by saving time and money during the systems integration and component testing and qualification processes. The space fastener is a rework of the basic machine screw such that crossthreading is impossible; it is self-locking and will not work its way out during launch (vibration proof); it will not wear out despite repeated use; it occupies a small foot print which is comparable to its machine screw equivalent, and it provides force and exhibits strength comparable to its machine screw equivalent. Construction is ultra-simple and cost effective and the principle is applicable across the full range of screw sizes ranging from a #10 screw to 2.5 cm (1 in) or more. In this paper, the fastener principles of operation will be discussed along with test results and construction details. The new fastener also has considerable potential in the commercial sector. A few promising applications will be presented.

  18. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris

    2012-05-01

    Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review. PMID:23162229

  19. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  20. Visual Representations in Science Education: The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Cognitive Load Theory on Instructional Design Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Visual representations are essential for communicating ideas in the science classroom; however, the design of such representations is not always beneficial for learners. This paper presents instructional design considerations providing empirical evidence and integrating theoretical concepts related to cognitive load. Learners have a limited…

  1. Hands-on Activities versus Worksheets in Reinforcing Physical Science Principles: Effects on Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.; Wardlow, George W.; Franklin, Timothy D.

    1997-01-01

    A group of 132 agricultural science students were divided into an experimental group who completed hands-on activities on Ohm's Law and incline plane and a control group who completed worksheets. There were no significant differences in immediate or follow-up measures of achievement. Hands-on students had significantly more positive attitudes. (SK)

  2. Imaging Hall of Fame Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, RIT Baron Jean-Baptiste

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    de Fourier 1768-1830 Baron Jean-Baptiste Joseph de Fourier, a French mathematician and politicalImaging Hall of Fame Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, RIT Baron Jean-Baptiste Joseph is the basic principle of many computations in imaging science. Fourier trained for the priesthood, but his

  3. The Science Workbook of Student Research Projects in Food - Agriculture - Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Edward E., Ed.

    This workbook provides descriptions of research projects for high school and middle school science teachers and students. The projects can be used as demonstrations in the laboratory or classroom to help teachers illustrate the practical application of basic science principles. They can also be used by students, under the guidance of the teachers,…

  4. Integrating current reform principles: How the implementation of inquiry into secondary school science lessons translates into pedagogical changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Shelley Hill

    Standards and goals for science education have been established at the national level, as well as at the state level. The big challenge in the educational system today lies in how to implement this new vision for science education into the traditional science classroom. Further, this new set of guidelines also raises concerns about development effective pedagogical practices, as well as the creation of professional development programs designed to meet these goals. Inadequate evidence exists, however, that details the methods by which the changes set forth in current science reform documents can be effectively put into practice in the traditional classroom. This inquiry attempted to explore and describe the implementation of a professional development program, designed to foster the incorporation of inquiry into the traditional classroom, through the development of a collaborative environment at the department level within a high school setting. Additional components of this study included an investigation into changes in student attitudes and perceptions towards science and their classroom environment, as well as the extent to which the teachers' perceptions of their teaching efficacy and their classroom environment changed as a result of the incorporation of inquiry methods into their classrooms. The impact of the use of the inquiry methods, especially through the use of the learning cycle by the participants, was also examined. Data from the following sources were collected and analyzed in this mixed methods study: (a) surveys; (b) classroom observations; (c) interviews; and (d) field notes. The evidence suggested that an effective professional development model included opportunities for teachers to learn in collaborative groups as a part of the normal school day. This type of learning situation further resulted in changes in teachers' beliefs, which translated into changes in their classroom environments which were more closely aligned with those set forth in current reform documents.

  5. Health Instruction Packages: Basic Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathey, Barbara; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in a set of nine learning modules designed to instruct nursing and allied health students in a variety of biological topics. The first module, by Barbara Cathey, discusses cell growth and the proliferation of cells in benign and malignant tumors. The second module, by Eugene Volz, describes the…

  6. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  7. Principles of nuclear geology

    SciTech Connect

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

  8. Thinking about Thinking and Emotion: The Metacognitive Approach to the Medical Humanities that Integrates the Humanities with the Basic and Clinical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Eichbaum, Quentin G

    2014-01-01

    Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma for medical educators. We can no longer expect students to continue memorizing this large body of increasingly complex knowledge. Instead, our efforts should be redirected at developing in students a competency as flexible thinkers and agile learners so they can adeptly deal with new knowledge, complexity, and uncertainty in a rapidly changing world. Such a competency would entail not only cognitive but also emotional skills essential for the holistic development of their professional identity. This article will argue that metacognition—“thinking about thinking (and emotion)”—offers the most viable path toward developing this competency. The overwhelming volume of medical knowledge has driven some medical schools to reduce the time allocated in their curricula to the “soft-option” humanities as they tend to consider them an expendable “luxury.” Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, has moved away from the traditional conception of the medical humanities as “the arts,” composed of art, music, and literature, toward an approach that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences, based on metacognition. This metacognitive approach to the humanities, described in this article, has three goals: 1) to develop students as flexible thinkers and agile learners and to provide them with essential cognitive and emotional skills for navigating medical complexity and uncertainty; 2) to elicit in students empathy and tolerance by making them aware of the immense diversity in human cognition (and emotion); and 3) to integrate the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences. Through this metacognitive approach, students come to understand their patterns of cognition and emotions, and in the group setting, they learn to mindfully calibrate their thinking and emotions. They gain a humbling appreciation of the fallibility of the human mind/brain and how cognitive biases and misperceptions can lead to medical error. They come to appreciate the complex interplay between cognition and emotion, and the importance of cognitive monitoring and emotional regulation. In the group setting, students also gain a sense of perspective of their thinking patterns and emotions in relation to those of their peers. Perspective taking and mindfulness engender tolerance and empathy, which ultimately serves as a platform for working collaboratively in teams as medical professionals. Students become aware of the social context in which thinking and learning occur, and this further shapes their professional identity. Thinking, learning, and interacting in the group setting ultimately induces a shift from self-preoccupation and an individualistic approach to knowledge toward an appreciation of collective cognition and empathy towards others. In this article, I describe the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and how it is designed to develop students as agile learners and flexible thinkers with the mindful capacity for cognitive and emotional monitoring and regulation. Thinking and learning in the group setting of the colloquium ultimately also fosters the student’s professional identity. PMID:25662528

  9. Thinking about thinking and emotion: the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin G

    2014-01-01

    Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma for medical educators. We can no longer expect students to continue memorizing this large body of increasingly complex knowledge. Instead, our efforts should be redirected at developing in students a competency as flexible thinkers and agile learners so they can adeptly deal with new knowledge, complexity, and uncertainty in a rapidly changing world. Such a competency would entail not only cognitive but also emotional skills essential for the holistic development of their professional identity. This article will argue that metacognition--“thinking about thinking (and emotion)”--offers the most viable path toward developing this competency. The overwhelming volume of medical knowledge has driven some medical schools to reduce the time allocated in their curricula to the “soft-option” humanities as they tend to consider them an expendable “luxury.” Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, has moved away from the traditional conception of the medical humanities as “the arts,” composed of art, music, and literature, toward an approach that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences, based on metacognition. This metacognitive approach to the humanities, described in this article, has three goals: 1) to develop students as flexible thinkers and agile learners and to provide them with essential cognitive and emotional skills for navigating medical complexity and uncertainty; 2) to elicit in students empathy and tolerance by making them aware of the immense diversity in human cognition (and emotion); and 3) to integrate the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences. Through this metacognitive approach, students come to understand their patterns of cognition and emotions, and in the group setting, they learn to mindfully calibrate their thinking and emotions. They gain a humbling appreciation of the fallibility of the human mind/brain and how cognitive biases and misperception can lead to medical error. They come to appreciate the complex interplay between cognition and emotion, and the importance of cognitive monitoring and emotional regulation. In the group setting, students also gain a sense of perspective of their thinking patterns and emotions in relation to those of their peers. Perspective taking and mindfulness engender tolerance and empathy, which ultimately serves as a platform for working collaboratively in teams as medical professionals. Students become aware of the social context in which thinking and learning occur, and this further shapes their professional identity. Thinking, learning, and interacting in the group setting ultimately induces a shift from self-preoccupation and an individualistic approach to knowledge toward an appreciation of collective cognition and empathy towards others. In this article, I describe the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and how it is designed to develop students as agile learners and flexible thinkers with the mindful capacity for cognitive and emotional monitoring and regulation. Thinking and learning in the group setting of the colloquium ultimately also fosters the student’s professional identity. PMID:25662528

  10. Operationalization of Basic Observables in Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This novel approach to the foundation of the physical theory begins with thought experiments on measurement practice like Einstein for relativistic Kinematics. For a similar foundation of Dynamics one can start from Hermann von Helmholtz analysis of basic measurements. We define energy, momentum and mass from elemental ordering relations for "capability to execute work" and "impact" in a collision and apply Helmholtz program for quantification. From simple pre-theoretic (principle of inertia, impossibility of Perpetuum Mobile, relativity principle) and measurement methodical principles we derive all fundamental equations of Mechanics. We explain the mathematical formalism from the operationalization of basic observables.

  11. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  12. O,O'-Disubstituted N,N'-dihydroxynaphthalenediimides (DHNDI): first principles designed organic building blocks for materials science.

    PubMed

    Kantchev, Eric Assen B; Tan, Huei Shuan; Norsten, Tyler B; Sullivan, Michael B

    2011-10-21

    N,N'-Disubstituted naphthalenediimides (NDIs), planar, electron-deficient building blocks, play an important role in materials and biological sciences. Naphthalene core substituents control the HOMO and LUMO energies, whereas the N-alkyl or aryl substituents affect the solubility, aggregation, and packing propensity in condensed phases. N,N'-Dihydroxynaphthalenediimide (DHNDI) allows expanding the chemical diversity by O-alkylation, acylation, or sulfonylation; these derivatives also allow fine-tuning of the HOMO/LUMO levels. The synthesis, UV-vis, electrochemical, solid state, and computational prediction of the properties of such derivatives are presented. PMID:21939183

  13. Plotting Phylogenies R Tutorial: Basic Tree-Plotting

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    R Basics Plotting Phylogenies R Hints R Tutorial: Basic Tree-Plotting Weigang Qiu Department of Biological Sciences Hunter College BIOL 375 Molecular Evolution, Fall 2012 Weigang Qiu R Tutorial: Basic Tree-Plotting #12;R Basics Plotting Phylogenies R Hints Outline 1 R Basics 2 Plotting Phylogenies 3 R Hints Weigang

  14. K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease on ecosystems. R. Ostfeld, F. Keesing, and V

  15. BasicODT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-09-25

    BasicODT is a Monte Carlo simulation that numerically implements One-Dimensional Turbulence (ODT), a stochastic model of turbulent flow that was developed by the author of the code. This code is set up to simulate channel flow, which is the flow between two parallel flat walls driven by a fixed pressure gradient, with no-slip conditions at the walls. The code writes output files containing flow statistics gathered during the simulation. The code is accompanied by documentationmore »that explains how ODT modeling principles are numerically implemented within the code. The code and documentation are intended as an introduction to ODT for use as a learning tool for people who are unfamiliar with the model and its numerical implementation. ODT is fully described in published literature.« less

  16. Visual representations in science education: The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive load theory on instructional design principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    2006-11-01

    Visual representations are essential for communicating ideas in the science classroom; however, the design of such representations is not always beneficial for learners. This paper presents instructional design considerations providing empirical evidence and integrating theoretical concepts related to cognitive load. Learners have a limited working memory, and instructional representations should be designed with the goal of reducing unnecessary cognitive load. However, cognitive architecture alone is not the only factor to be considered; individual differences, especially prior knowledge, are critical in determining what impact a visual representation will have on learners' cognitive structures and processes. Prior knowledge can determine the ease with which learners can perceive and interpret visual representations in working memory. Although a long tradition of research has compared experts and novices, more research is necessary to fully explore the expert-novice continuum and maximize the potential of visual representations.

  17. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences--an ongoing science and policy success story.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most, ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C. PMID:23858990

  18. MATERIALS SCIENCE AS A VEHICLE FOR TEACHING MAINSTREAM CHEMISTRY

    E-print Network

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    MATERIALS SCIENCE AS A VEHICLE FOR TEACHING MAINSTREAM CHEMISTRY Donald R. Sadoway Department taught one of the subjects that satisfies the freshman chemistry requirement at MIT: Introduction to Solid State Chemistry (MIT subject number 3.091). This subject teaches basic principles of chemistry

  19. Higher Superstition. The Academic Left and Its Quarrels with Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Paul R.; Levitt, Norman

    In this book the authors raise serious questions about the growing criticism of science by humanists and social scientists on the "academic left," and explore the origins of this trend. They argue that when scientific texts are deconstructed and feminists make charges of scientific "patriarchy," the basic principles and practices that underlie 300…

  20. MSE 326: X-ray Science and Techniques Course Information

    E-print Network

    MSE 326: X-ray Science and Techniques Course Information Basic info Prof. Aaron Lindenberg Campus, announcements etc there. Textbook The textbook is Elements of Modern X-ray Physics by Jens Als-Nielson and Des.1002/9781119998365 Other recommended books for outside reading: Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles

  1. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F 09) Intro and Basic Concepts 1 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    . Precise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it and airconditioning systems, refrigerators, water heaters, etc. Dimensions and Units Any physical quantity can

  2. Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality

    E-print Network

    Dongsheng Wang

    2015-04-19

    The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be explained, some post-quantum theory which is more complete in some sense than quantum mechanics is possible and might not necessarily be a hidden variable theory.

  3. Psychodynamic Group Psychotherapy: A Behavior Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hopfenberg, Russell

    2015-07-01

    As the current mental health climate places greater emphasis on evidence-based practice, it is important to consider the basic science underlying treatment. This article examines the psychodynamic group psychotherapy process from a behavior science perspective, linking basic research results to clinical practice. Clinical interventions and the change process are explained in the context of operant behavior theory. A special class of operant behavior, cultural behavior, is described and connected to therapeutic resistance and its resolution. Emotional difficulties and their amelioration are explained using respondent conditioning principles. In keeping with the American Psychological Association (2005) position regarding research evidence, these behavior science explanations serve to connect the group psychotherapeutic process to relevant results of basic research in psychology, further endorsing this treatment modality. PMID:26076203

  4. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen I. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume I. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the first in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) ecology (what…

  5. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen II. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume II. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. This guide is divided into three components. The first component…

  6. La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen III. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume III. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

    This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific…

  7. University of New Mexico 2014 2015 Student Insurance Plan: Plan Basics Medical, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Occupational Therapy, Physician Assistant, Physical Therapy, and Radiologic

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    Laboratory Sciences, Occupational Therapy, Physician Assistant, Physical Therapy, and Radiologic Sciences/14/14 to 7/13/15 and Spring/Summer ­ 1/12/15 to 7/13/15. Medical, Physician Assistant, Physical Therapy: Physician Asst., Physical and Occupational Therapy Annual *8/18/14-8/17/15 Fall *8/18/14-1/11/15 Spring

  8. Quantum-Informational Principles for Physics

    E-print Network

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    of the most basic principles, as the relativity and the gravity-acceleration equivalence. The validity structure of quantum theory from informational principles [2­5], and we will very briefly examine them here field theory, the most fundamental theoretical structure of physics. The plan here pro- posed

  9. Marginality principle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a fragile resource supplying many goods and services. Given the diversity of soil across the world and within a landscape, there are many different capacities among soils to provide the basic soil functions. Marginality of soils is a difficult process to define because the metrics to define ...

  10. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  11. Systems Science Approach to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

    Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

  12. The Department of Pharmacology seeks to integrate both basic and applied research in the pharmaceutical sciences so that graduates are successful in pharmacy and

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    The Department of Pharmacology seeks to integrate both basic and applied research of Pharmacology offers a graduate certificate in Pharmacology/Toxicology as well as an M.S. in Pharmaceutical the molecular level to the whole organism in order to develop rational approaches for new pharmacological

  13. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  14. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics This primer on stem cells is ...

  15. 1 Internet Basics evolution of the web

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Outline 1 Internet Basics evolution of the web IP addresses and URLs client/server and HTTP 2 and the internet L-18 23 February 2015 1 / 29 #12;networking and the internet markup languages 1 Internet Basics in browser 5 Summary + Assignments Intro to Computer Science (MCS 260) networking and the internet L-18 23

  16. Back to the Basics: Kansas City, Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    "Back to the Basics" is an innovation of the WETMAAP Program (Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography) which offers a series of workshops that provide training in basics ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for assessing geography and earth science topics. The precept of the series is to…

  17. 32 CFR 272.3 - Definition of basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...272.3 Definition of basic research. Basic research is systematic study directed...engineering, environmental, and life sciences related to long-term national...It is farsighted high payoff research that provides the basis for...

  18. 32 CFR 272.3 - Definition of basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...272.3 Definition of basic research. Basic research is systematic study directed...engineering, environmental, and life sciences related to long-term national...It is farsighted high payoff research that provides the basis for...

  19. 32 CFR 272.3 - Definition of basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...272.3 Definition of basic research. Basic research is systematic study directed...engineering, environmental, and life sciences related to long-term national...It is farsighted high payoff research that provides the basis for...

  20. 32 CFR 272.3 - Definition of basic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...272.3 Definition of basic research. Basic research is systematic study directed...engineering, environmental, and life sciences related to long-term national...It is farsighted high payoff research that provides the basis for...

  1. Can Science `explain' Consciousness ?

    E-print Network

    M K Samal

    2000-02-24

    Consciousness is the process by which one attributes `meaning' to the world. Considering F$\\phi$llesdal's definition of `meaning' as the joint product of all `evidence' that is available to those who `communicate', we conclude that science can, not only reduce all the {\\em evidence} to a Basic Entity (we call BE), but also can `explain' consciousness once a suitable definition for {\\em communication} is found that exploits the quantum superposition principle to incorporate the fuzzyness of our experience. Consciousness may be beyond `computability', but it is not beyond `communicability'.

  2. Principles and Ethics in Scientific Communication in Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Donev, Doncho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aim: To present the basic principles and standards of scientific communication and writing a paper, to indicate the importance of honesty and ethical approach to research and publication of results in scientific journals, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author. Results: In the past more than 20 years there is an increasingly emphasized importance of respecting fundamental principles and standards of scientific communication and ethical approach to research and publication of results in peer review journals. Advances in the scientific community is based on honesty and equity of researchers in conducting and publishing the results of research and to develop guidelines and policies for prevention and punishment of publishing misconduct. Today scientific communication standards and definitions of fraud in science and publishing are generally consistent, but vary considerably policies and approach to ethics education in science, prevention and penal policies for misconduct in research and publication of results in scientific journals. Conclusion: It is necessary to further strengthen the capacity for education and research, and raising awareness about the importance and need for education about the principles of scientific communication, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education of the scientific community, in undergraduate teaching and postgraduate master and doctoral studies, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud. PMID:24505166

  3. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind. PMID:25000992

  4. S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education. Commentary from the Scientific Grassroots. A White Paper on the Issues and Need for Public Funding of Basic Science and Engineering Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jemison, Mae C., Ed.

    This document reports on the results of an ad hoc workshop called "S.E.E.ing the Future: Science Engineering and Education" Held at Dartmouth College in November of 2000 and sponsored by Dartmouth, the National Science Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company, and Science Service of Washington, DC. This transdisciplinary conference was one of a series…

  5. Basic technology can improve refinery profits

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, N.P. )

    1994-07-18

    A set of 12 principles based on refinery troubleshooting experience emphasizes the application of basic engineering methods to improve the design, retrofit, and optimization of refinery process equipment. The paper discusses process problems, profit bottlenecks, a mature industry, applying technology, and practical examples.

  6. Basics and Beyond by MortimerAbramowitz

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    The Human Eye "Simple" Microscope or Magnifier Compound Microscope - Basic Principles Overview Optical #12;The Human Eye What is a microscope? How does it work? A microscope is an instrument designed intensity. The Human Eye The eye receptors of the retina for sensing color are the cone cells; the cells

  7. Basic Rules of Alphabetical Sequence Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Michael's Coll., Winooski, VT. Library.

    As developed by the nonprofessional staff of St. Michael's College Library, Basic Rules of Alphabetic Sequence Simplified (BRASS) is a refined system of alphabetic filing for library card catalogs. It is designed to be a concise set of principles, consistently applied, making it therefore faster than other standard filing systems. BRASS consists…

  8. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  9. A Basic Guide to Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martocci, Barbara; Wilson, Greg

    More than 100 nuclear power plants supply over 17 percent of the electricity in the United States. The basic principles of how nuclear energy works and how it is used to make electricity are explained in this profusely illustrated booklet written for the average sixth grade reader. Discussions include: (1) atomic structure; (2) nuclear fission;…

  10. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

  11. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  12. Basics of Photometry Photometry: Basic Questions

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    Basics of Photometry #12;Photometry: Basic Questions · How do you identify objects in your image type of object you're studying? #12;#12;#12;Topics 1. General Considerations 2. Stellar Photometry 3. Galaxy Photometry #12;I: General Considerations 1. Garbage in, garbage out... 2. Object Detection 3

  13. Science and Math Activities and Resources for Teaching Home Economics (S.M.A.R.T.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marjorie C.

    This guide was written to aid home economics teachers in developing a greater understanding and use of basic skills in the home economics curriculum. The objectives of this guide are (1) to expand the awareness of underlying mathematics and science principles in the consumer and vocational home economics curriculum and (2) to provide a bank of…

  14. Math/Science/Technology Projects for the Technology Teacher. A Professional Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald L., Ed.

    The underlying development behind this monograph grew out of a series of 14 panels (20 inches by 28 inches) illustrating the basic linkages between existing industrial arts/technology education activities and mathematics or science principles or societal and environmental impacts. Specifically, each panel contained a full-color photograph of a…

  15. Plants. A Language Development Unit for Science. Life and the Environment. Grades One, Two and Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, Margy; McGregor, Cathy, Ed.

    One of the basic principles of the Language Development Approach is that students must learn the language necessary to understand, talk, and write about all subject areas in order to succeed in school. This book contains information about teaching primary school science in the Northwest Territories with lessons that emphasize language. The goals…

  16. Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (2005) 17971808 Extending the radiocarbon calibration beyond 26,000 years

    E-print Network

    Fairbanks, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    is not constant with time, and thus a basic principle of radioactive dating cannot be applied (de Vries, 1958. Mortlockb , Arthur L. Bloomc a Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA b Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964, USA c

  17. Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O'Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of…

  18. A Study to Determine the Basic Science and Mathematics Topics Most Needed by Engineering Technology Graduates of Wake Technical Institute in Performing Job Duties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Timothy I.; Roberson, Clarence E., Jr.

    A survey of 470 graduates of the six engineering technology programs at Wake Technical Institute--Architectural, Chemical, Civil Engineering, Computer, Electronic Engineering, and Industrial Engineering Technologies--and 227 of their employers was conducted in October, 1979, to determine the science and mathematics topics most needed by…

  19. Arthropod surveillance programs: Basic components, strategies, and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. Herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium “Advancements in arthro...

  20. Science Sacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Kimberlee

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…