These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

Nunes, A. C., Jr.

2010-01-01

2

Basic Principles of Ultrasound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

3

Using "Basic Principles" to Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chemical and physical properties of nicotine and its carboxylic acid salts found in tobacco provided as an interesting example to understand basic principles of complex science. The result showed that the experimental data used were inconsistent to the conclusion made, and the transfer of nicotine smoke from tobacco to smoke cannot be…

Seeman, Jeffrey I.

2005-01-01

4

Basic principle of superconductivity  

E-print Network

The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

Tian De Cao

2007-08-23

5

Writing in the Sciences The basic principles of good writing apply just as well to the sciences as they do to the humanities  

E-print Network

Writing in the Sciences The basic principles of good writing apply just as well to the sciences focuses on the features of science writing that distinguish it from other, non-scientific genres. Since that are common to most areas of science. Understanding how the distinctive features of science writing reflect

Kronzucker, Herbert J.

6

Basic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

7

Muscle, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field science research  

PubMed Central

Summary The design, implementation, evaluation, interpretation and report of research is a key important for the science. The research required minimize the uncertainty, therefore we encourage all authors of respect how much can possible the contents in this official editorial also in order to stimulate interest and debate about constructive change in the use of statistics in our disciplines1,2. Authors are required to confirm that these standards and laws have been adhered to by formally citing this editorial within the methods section of their own manuscript. PMID:24596686

Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola

2013-01-01

8

Basic Principles of Liming John Peters  

E-print Network

Basic Principles of Liming John Peters UW Soil Science Department #12;#12;#12;Soil pH affects many · Herbicide performance #12;#12;#12;What factors determine the lime needs of a soil · Soil pH ­ determined by soil test · Buffer pH ­ determined by soil test #12;Buffer pH Organic matter Soil pH #12;Figure 3

Balser, Teri C.

9

Goal: Understand some of the basic principles of the chemistry of earth science and envi- Knowledge necessary for solving current and emerging problems  

E-print Network

Overview Goal: Understand some of the basic principles of the chemistry of earth science and envi in interior of earth escape gradually to form atmosphere. Ex. CO 2 from carbonates in rocks #15; Primarily. Mostly N 2 with small amounts of H 2 O and CO 2 5. Earth surface unshielded from UV rays ! only small

Schofield, Jeremy

10

Basic Science Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

Brummel, Clete

11

Basic Nuclear Science Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory contains an overview of the basic concepts in nuclear science. Nuclear structure, particle decay, nuclear reactions, and cosmic rays are briefly discussed. The page also contains helpful pictures to illustrate the concepts.

2009-10-30

12

Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How Can They Predict Students' Understanding of Basic Science Concepts and Principles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science

Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

2012-01-01

13

Some basic principles of a "LISA"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a concept studied and developed since a few decades both by European and American teams. Its aim is to study the gravitational wave signals emitted by astrophysical sources such as supermassive black hole (SMBH) coalescences, captures of compact objects by SMBHs, compact galactic binaries, etc. The LISA mission has been first an ESA/NASA mission (1998-2011), then became an ESA mission under the name of NGO (2012): it could hopefully be proposed for selection in 2013. The very basic principles of such a mission still deserve a presentation, being quite generic: this is the aim of the present article.

Vinet, Jean-Yves

2013-04-01

14

Basic Hydrologic Sciences Course Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief presentation provides an overview of the COMET Basic Hydrologic Sciences course including: goal and target audiences, structure of the course and adapting it to your needs, and a brief description of course components.

2014-09-14

15

Basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity.  

PubMed

To maximize office productivity, dentists should focus on performing tasks that only they can perform and not spend office hours performing tasks that can be delegated to non-dentist personnel. An important element of maximizing productivity is to arrange the schedule so that multiple patients are seated simultaneously in different operatories. Doing so allows the dentist to work on one patient in one operatory without needing to wait for local anesthetic to take effect on another patient in another operatory, or for assistants to perform tasks (such as cleaning up, taking radiographs, performing prophylaxis, or transporting and preparing equipment and supplies) in other operatories. Another way to improve productivity is to structure procedures so that fewer steps are needed to set up and implement them. In addition, during procedures, four-handed dental passing methods can be used to provide the dentist with supplies or equipment when needed. This article reviews basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity, based on the author's observations of business logistics used by various dental offices. PMID:22414506

Mamoun, John

2012-01-01

16

Computer-Based Instruction Facilitates Learning of Basic Business Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for use in basic business and consumer economics that can be delivered by computer. The lessons merge economic concepts and consumer economics principles, resulting in a conceptual approach to basic business and consumer economics education. (JOW)

Morrison, James L.

1984-01-01

17

Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A school that adopts a curriculum, that aims for a holistic understanding of technology, does so because it produces a better educated person than a curriculum which does not. How do we know when we are teaching technology holistically and why must we do so? Increasingly, more is asked of technology educators to be holistic in the understanding conveyed to learners of technology itself in order to make better informed technical and design decisions in a wider range of applied settings. The ability of the learner to naturally consider social and environmental factors, for example, when seeking solutions is seen by some State education systems in Australia as fundamental to a genuine education in technology (New South Wales Board of Studies, 2000 & 2002). In philosophy, the holist position asserts that to understand the particular one must understand its relation to the whole and that only through reflection of one's sensation based applications can genuine knowledge be critically affirmed (Matthews, 1980, p.87 & p.93). The combined apparently independent paths of the State and the Holist positions set a compelling scene not only for the socio-economic necessity for holistic technology education in the curriculum but also for Technology's status as a key curriculum agent in the knowledge formation process of educated individuals. This paper asserts that the general elements of Applied Setting (including Time), Human (as Agent), Tool and Environment are well placed to be the necessary basics to any holistic human technological activity. How and why these elements work together, their schema, will be referred to in this paper as the 'Basic Principles'. The paper presents the thesis that Technology cannot be reduced to less than these general elements and as such, Technology is their product. We therefore may need to understand and teach these elements and their relations to each other explicitly, in ways that reveal the utility of such understanding when making technical choices and design decisions for all the genres of technology and at all their scales of application and discovery. The case is made for technology to not merely be a 'know how' learning experience, but necessarily also a holistic 'know why' learning experience essential for developing and transferring technological knowledge.

Seeman, Kurt

18

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

1990-04-01

19

Basic Principles for Managing Intellectual Property in the Digital Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines 10 basic principles for managing intellectual property in a digital environment. Expands upon each principle and provides specific examples of how and where these principles might be applied. Briefly discusses the history of electronic documentation, recent changes, and how these impact on the world of scholarly communication. (MJP)

PS: Political Science and Politics, 1997

1997-01-01

20

Basic Science and The NIH  

PubMed Central

The following is an edited version of the Keynote Speech delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology by Harold Varmus, Director of the National Institutes of Health. The address, entitled Basic Science and the NIH, was given at the opening of the meeting in New Orleans on December 11, 1993. It was Varmus' first public policy talk as NIH Director. PMID:8049519

Varmus, Harold

1994-01-01

21

ACID PRECIPITATION: BASIC PRINCIPLES AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Forest productivity is emphasized in this review of the long-term beneficial and harmful effects of acid precipitation, as currently understood. The article summarizes principles about acid precipitation and its biological consequences which concern everyone in the pulp and paper...

22

The Basic Principle of the Near-Field Superlens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the diffraction limit in the optical imaging, the superlens with superresolution are developed using negative index materials. In this part, the basic principle of the near-field superlens is explained in details.

Kim, Kyoungsik

23

Basic principles of Bulgarian folk dietary traditions.  

PubMed

Bulgarian folk dietary tradition is one of the most ancient traditions in the world. Its origin can be traced back to prehistoric times. The contribution of ancient Thracians to it, for instance, with respect to some major foods, preparation of foods, practices and customs, is so deeply ingrained in it that to a large extent it determines its overall character. And this is actually an all-European legacy. The Proto-Bulgarian legacy in the field of nutrition is also considerable. Of particular importance here is the correlation of meals with time and with the so called good and bad periods of time. In the present study we have attempted to formulate some of the important principles of the Bulgarian folk dietary tradition. They are only a small part of the vast realm of principles concerning the diet of Bulgarians. All Bulgarian customs, rules and bans in the field of nutrition are based on them. Until quite recently they have had an obligatory character. They have coded in them the thousand-year-long experience of the Bulgarian people. All important rational aspects repeatedly verified in real life under different conditions and situations have been included in them. Thus a complete system of rules and norms of behaviour have been obtained giving exhaustive answers to all questions related to nutrition. It is designed to help people and future generations to avoid risk situations and prevent catastrophes resulting from malnutrition. PMID:10534918

Kuvandzhiev, G

1999-01-01

24

Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

Moreira, M. A. (principal investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

1984-01-01

25

Earth Science Literacy Principles Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI), funded by the National Science Foundation, has gathered and codified the underlying understandings of Earth sciences into a succinct document that will have broad-reaching applications in both public and private arenas. It establishes the "Big Ideas" and supporting concepts that all Americans should know about Earth sciences. The primary outcome of the Earth Science Literacy Initiative is a community-based document that clearly and succinctly states the underlying principles and ideas of Earth science across a wide variety of research fields that are funded through the NSF-EAR program, including Geobiology and Low-Temperature Geochemistry, Geomorphology and Land-Use Dynamics, Geophysics, Hydrologic Sciences, Petrology and Geochemistry, Sedimentary Geology and Paleobiology, and Tectonics.

2009-01-01

26

Description of basic mining legal principles.  

PubMed

The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently. PMID:23851585

Schmidt, Reinhard

2014-01-01

27

Basic principles governing the design of magnetic switches  

SciTech Connect

The idea of using saturable reactors as the basis of high power pulse generators is not a new concept, but there have been few recent applications of this technology. Here the principle of magnetic pulse generation is briefly described and some of the basic guidelines used to design these circuits are discussed. A demonstration of the principles by a small scale pulse amplifier is presented, and finally there is an extrapolation to a large scale system.

Birx, D.L.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.

1980-11-18

28

One Man's Approach to a Basic Course in Geological Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a twofold approach to teaching basic geology based on five principles to make science accessible to students who think they are bored with or afraid of the subject. The approach focuses on: appealing to the mind (to attack boredom) and appealing to the emotions (to attack fear). (BC)

Gould, Stephen Jay

1984-01-01

29

[Literature search in the biomedical domain: basic principles and tools].  

PubMed

At the very first glance, literature research in medical biology seems hard to some scientists. This paper aims to give an overall view of basic principles permitting to exploit correctly all existing equipments of information systems. Several definitions allow to familiarize with the documentary vocabulary. PMID:12463023

Randriarimanga, B; Rakotojaona, R; Rasolofonirina, N

1996-01-01

30

Network Analyzer Basics This presentation covers the principles  

E-print Network

Agilent Network Analyzer Basics #12;2 Abstract This presentation covers the principles of measuring information. #12;3 Network Analysis is Not.... This module is not about computer networks! When the name shown on this chart. Some instruments are optimized for one test only (like bit-error rate), while

Anlage, Steven

31

Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel  

E-print Network

Lung, Artificial: Basic Principles and Current Applications William J. Federspiel Kristie A. Henchir University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Artificial lungs currently of the lung, which is to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide. Current artificial lungs are also

Federspiel, William J.

32

GRADE APPEALS POLICY AND PROCEDURES 1.0 Basic Principles  

E-print Network

GRADE APPEALS POLICY AND PROCEDURES 1.0 Basic Principles 1.1 Instructors, and the student assumes the burden of proof in the appeals process. 1.2 Grounds for appeals are: (1) the application of non-academic criteria in the grading process

Berdichevsky, Victor

33

Basic principles of the surface harmonics method: Flat geometry  

SciTech Connect

The basic principles of the surface harmonics method are described. A one-dimensional problem is used to exemplify the specific features of the method and the algorithms for construction of finite-difference equations. The objective of this study is to popularize the surface harmonics method among specialists.

Kovalishin, A. A., E-mail: kaa@adis.vver.kiae.ru [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

34

Basic Sciences Instruction, The Columbia University Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The redesign of basic science curriculum at the Columbia University (New York) dental school is outlined. Goals included development of a medical continuum allowing students to apply basic science to patient care; decompression of crowded second-year content; and facilitation of student pursuit of research and other biomedical interests in third…

Formicola, Allan J.; Kahn, Norman

1992-01-01

35

Basic hydraulic principles of open-channel flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis--the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum--are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. These principles are introduced at a level that can be comprehended by a person with an understanding of the principles of physics and mechanics equivalent to that presented in the first college level course of the subject. The reader is assumed to have a working knowledge of algebra and plane geometry as well as some knowledge of calculus. Once the principles have been derived, a number of example applications are presented that illustrate the computation of flow through culverts and bridges, and over structures, such as dams and weirs. Because resistance to flow is a major obstacle to the successful application of the energy principle to open-channel flow, procedures are outlined for the rational selection of flow resistance coefficients. The principle of specific energy is shown to be useful in the prediction of water-surface profiles both in the qualitative and quantitative sense. (USGS)

Jobson, Harvey E.; Froehlich, David C.

1988-01-01

36

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-01-01

37

Basic energy sciences: Summary of accomplishments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than four decades, the Department of Energy, including its predecessor agencies, has supported a program of basic research in nuclear- and energy related sciences, known as Basic Energy Sciences. The purpose of the program is to explore fundamental phenomena, create scientific knowledge, and provide unique user facilities necessary for conducting basic research. Its technical interests span the range of scientific disciplines: physical and biological sciences, geological sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences. Its products and facilities are essential to technology development in many of the more applied areas of the Department's energy, science, and national defense missions. The accomplishments of Basic Energy Sciences research are numerous and significant. Not only have they contributed to Departmental missions, but have aided significantly the development of technologies which now serve modern society daily in business, industry, science, and medicine. In a series of stories, this report highlights 22 accomplishments, selected because of their particularly noteworthy contributions to modern society. A full accounting of all the accomplishments would be voluminous. Detailed documentation of the research results can be found in many thousands of articles published in peer-reviewed technical literature.

1990-05-01

38

Subgroups: time to go back to basic statistical principles?  

PubMed

Exploratory subgroup analyses are an increasing source of controversy as part of the interpretation of the results of clinical trials. In this article, we review the major challenges of multiplicity, statistical methods available to assess consistency of effect, and the part appropriate design plays in mitigating the risk of false conclusions from subgroup analyses. We discuss the problems associated with using definitions of consistency based on effect sizes in specific subgroups. We argue that what is required is a return to basic statistical principles, including more use of modeling techniques. PMID:24392978

Keene, Oliver N; Garrett, Andrew D

2014-01-01

39

Fitting and Altering Ready-to-Wear: Basic Principles.  

E-print Network

)oe TA245.7 S73 ).1295 1 I 8-1295 Fitting and Altering Ready-to-Wear Basic Principles Texas Agricultural Extension Service The Texas A&M University System Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director College Station, Texas Becky Saunders* Good fit... is one of the most important reasons for choosing a ready-to-wear garment. Simple alterations often turn a poor fit into a good fit, making a garment more attractive and comfortable to wear. The best quality, color and fabric, and newest fashion trend...

Saunders, Becky

1980-01-01

40

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work is to determine the important principles and basic mechanisms which underlie various selective oil agglomeration processes for beneficiating fine-size coal in order to facilitate the technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. The recent work described herein has involved a more detailed study of the effects of mild oxidation on the surface properties of different types of coal and the relationship between the agglomerability of oxidized coals and their surface properties. In addition, the work has involved developing more effective means for separating coal and pyrite by finding and applying selective depressants for pyrite.

Wheelock, T.D.

1994-07-01

41

77 FR 5246 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Science/DOE. News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Basic Research Directions for User Science at the National Ignition Facility. Materials Sciences and Engineering Division Committee of Visitors. Mesoscale...

2012-02-02

42

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National... ADMINISTRATION AND SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272...Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research 1. Basic research is an...

2011-07-01

43

FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

Samara, G.A.

1996-02-01

44

The basic principle of planning is common sense The article has developed three propositions. First, the basic principle of urban planning is on  

E-print Network

" " The basic principle of planning is common sense Abstract The article has developed three propositions. First, the basic principle of urban planning is on common sense. Common sense has to be understood in the changing world so it is dynamic rather than static. Second, common sense provides

Illinois at Chicago, University of

45

Transdermal iontophoresis. Part I: Basic principles and considerations.  

PubMed

The skin has increasingly become a route for the delivery of drugs with a range of compounds being considered for transdermal delivery generating a great deal of interest in this area of research. The passive delivery of most compounds across the skin is limited due to the barrier properties afforded by stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. Transdermal iontophoresis is an effective technique for physically facilitating the transport of permeants across the skin by using electromotive force. It is being extensively explored as a potential means for delivery of hydrophilic, large and charged molecules and is also believed to be a future method of choice for peptides and proteins. In this context, this review focuses mainly on the basic principles and considerations of transdermal iontophoresis with particular emphasis on modeling, devices and parameters influencing transdermal iontophoresis. PMID:10327395

Nair, V; Pillai, O; Poduri, R; Panchagnula, R

1999-03-01

46

Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

2012-01-01

47

2013 Pain Day Poster Competition Basic Science  

E-print Network

2013 Pain Day Poster Competition Basic Science: Inhibiting Inflammation With Ccr2/5 Antagonist Reverses Mechanical And Cold Allodynia In Painful Diabetic Neuropathy Rats Jeongyoon Moon1 , Xiang Qun Shi1 for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; 2. Rapid Pharmaceutical Inc, Rockville, Maryland

Volesky, Bohumil

48

2013 Pain Day Poster Competition Basic Science  

E-print Network

2013 Pain Day Poster Competition Basic Science: Light-Induced Nociception: Remote Optogenetic Control Of Peripheral Pain Pathways In Freely Moving Mice Ihab Daou, Alexander H. Tuttle, Geraldine Longo/or inhibition of pain perception in vivo. Due to its high spatio-temporal precision, optogenetics is a powerful

Volesky, Bohumil

49

Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

Gralla, Edward J.

1976-01-01

50

Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-05-01

51

[Basic principles of aggressive rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].  

PubMed

Rehabilitation after ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction has drastically changed over the last decade, with the adoption of a more aggressive approach, right from the first day after surgery. Progress in the effectiveness of rehabilitation is based on improvements in operative techniques, as well as on the encouraging results of histological studies regarding graft healing. Despite a huge amount of research papers on this topic, a rehabilitation golden standard still has not been established, due to the complexity of this problem. In this review, we point out the basic principles of rehabilitation after arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction based on actual practices, as well as the importance of specific procedures for the prevention of complications during the postoperative period. The importance of range-of-motion exercises, early weight bearing, an appropriate gait scheme, patella mobilisation, pain and oedema control, as well as stretching and balance exercises is explained. The functional advantages of closed kinetic chain exercises, as well as their influence on the graft are also described, in comparison to open kinetic chain exercises. The fundamentals of returning to sports are revealed and the specific aspects of rehabilitation regarding graft choice are pointed out. While waiting for new clinical investigations, which are expected to enable the establishment of a rehabilitation golden standard, the outlined principles should be followed. The complexity of this injury requires treatment in highly specialised institutions. PMID:16758856

Dubljanin-Raspopovi?, Emilija; Kadija, Marko; Matanovi?, Dragana

2005-01-01

52

76 FR 41234 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...guidance with respect to the basic energy sciences research program. Tentative agenda...the following: News from Office of Science/DOE. News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Materials by Design. R&D Coordination....

2011-07-13

53

Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science, by John W. Moore, Conrad L. Stanitski, Peter C. Jurs published by Brooks/Cole, 2009.

54

Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine  

PubMed Central

New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease. PMID:19918069

Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

2010-01-01

55

Basic Energy SciencesBasic Energy Sciences DOE/EERE Hydrogen Storage  

E-print Network

19, 2003 Report on Hydrogen Storage Panel Findings inReport on Hydrogen Storage Panel Findings,Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and UseStorage and Use A follow-on workshop to BESAC Anticipated date of final report: August 2003 Harriet Kung Program Manager Office of Basic Energy Sciences

56

The intraoperative gamma probe: basic principles and choices available.  

PubMed

By taking advantage of the proximity to radioactive sentinel nodes and occult tumors achievable in an operative setting, intraoperative probes are becoming increasingly important in the surgical management of cancer. This article begins with a discussion of the statistical limitations of radiation detection and measurement and of the key performance parameters (sensitivity, energy resolution, and spatial resolution) that characterize detectors. The basic design and operating principle of radiation detectors used in intraoperative probes, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, are then reviewed. Scintillation detector-based intraoperative probes, generally using a NaI(T1) or a CsI(T1) crystal connected to a photomultiplier tube by a fiberoptic cable, have the advantages of reliability, relatively low cost, and high sensitivity, especially for medium- to high-energy photons. Disadvantages include poor energy resolution and scatter rejection, and bulkiness. Semiconductor (CdZn, CdZnTe, HgI2)-based probes are compact and have excellent energy resolution and scatter rejection, but with complex energy spectra reflecting charge-carrier trapping. Their main disadvantage is lower sensitivity. The performance parameters of various commercially available intraoperative probes are then compared. The article concludes with a discussion of the practical considerations in selecting and using intraoperative probes, including ergonomic and other design features, as well as performance parameters. PMID:10656242

Zanzonico, P; Heller, S

2000-01-01

57

Gyroscope precession in special and general relativity from basic principles  

E-print Network

In special relativity a gyroscope that is suspended in a torque-free manner will precess as it is moved along a curved path relative to an inertial frame S. We explain this effect, which is known as Thomas precession, by considering a real grid that moves along with the gyroscope, and that by definition is not rotating as observed from its own momentary inertial rest frame. From the basic properties of the Lorentz transformation we deduce how the form and rotation of the grid (and hence the gyroscope) will evolve relative to S. As an intermediate step we consider how the grid would appear if it were not length contracted along the direction of motion. We show that the uncontracted grid obeys a simple law of rotation. This law simplifies the analysis of spin precession compared to more traditional approaches based on Fermi transport. We also consider gyroscope precession relative to an accelerated reference frame and show that there are extra precession effects that can be explained in a way analogous to the Thomas precession. Although fully relativistically correct, the entire analysis is carried out using three-vectors. By using the equivalence principle the formalism can also be applied to static spacetimes in general relativity. As an example, we calculate the precession of a gyroscope orbiting a static black hole. In an addendum the general reasoning is extended to include also rotating reference frames.

Rickard Jonsson

2007-08-18

58

75 FR 41838 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agenda will include discussions of the following: News from Office of Science/DOE News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation Workshop Final Report on the Science for...

2010-07-19

59

Limitations on diversity in basic science departments.  

PubMed

It has been over 30 years since the beginning of efforts to improve diversity in academia. We can identify four major stages: (1) early and continuing efforts to diversify the pipeline by increasing numbers of women and minorities getting advanced degrees, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); (2) requiring academic institutions to develop their own "affirmative action plans" for hiring and promotion; (3) introducing mentoring programs and coping strategies to help women and minorities deal with faculty practices from an earlier era; (4) asking academic institutions to rethink their practices and policies with an eye toward enabling more faculty diversity, a process known as institutional transformation. The thesis of this article is that research-intensive basic science departments of highly ranked U.S. medical schools are stuck at stage 3, resulting in a less diverse tenured and tenure-track faculty than seen in well-funded science departments of major universities. A review of Web-based records of research-intensive departments in universities with both medical school and nonmedical school departments indicates that the proportion of women and Black faculty in science departments of medical schools is lower than the proportion in similarly research-intensive university science departments. Expectations for faculty productivity in research-intensive medical school departments versus university-based departments may lead to these differences in faculty diversity. PMID:22775445

Leboy, Phoebe S; Madden, Janice F

2012-08-01

60

Basic Science Living Skills for Today's World. Teacher's Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a teacher's edition of a basic skills curriculum in science for adult basic education (ABE) students. The course consists of 25 lessons on basic science concepts, designed to give students a good understanding of the biological and physical sciences. Suggested activities and experiments that the student can do are also included.…

Zellers (Robert W.) Educational Services, Johnstown, PA.

61

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01

62

Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1993-04-01

63

The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions  

PubMed Central

The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to ‘prove’ the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today. PMID:20368251

Martyushev, Leonid M.

2010-01-01

64

Basic principles of FRAP, FLIM and FRET S. R. Swift and L. Trinkle-Mulcahy  

E-print Network

Basic principles of FRAP, FLIM and FRET S. R. Swift and L. Trinkle-Mulcahy Introduction including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM surrounding FLIM, FRET and FRAP by describing the basic principles of these techniques, how they are performed

Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura

65

The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to assist in areas such as the creation of educational products and standards and the setting of relevant government policy. In order to increase the reach of the ESLI Principles, the document has been translated into Spanish, and other languages are also being considered. The document will undergo annual updating in response to growth and change in the scientific understandings of Earth science.

Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

2009-12-01

66

Integration of basic sciences in health's courses.  

PubMed

Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and compares failure rate, global final grade, approved student final grade, grade distribution and students' satisfaction with teacher conduction between integrated curriculum and traditional learning in health courses from Anhembi Morumbi University-a private institution from Brazil. Comparison between integrated and traditional curriculum was based on students' records obtained from first-year health sciences students. A total of 1,697 records from 2005 to 2007 (nonintegrated curriculum) and 785 records from 2008 (integrated curriculum) were selected for this study and they were necessary to get information about students' grades. Moreover, a questionnaire was applied in order to cover student's satisfaction with teacher conduction. The data presented in this study indicated that the integrated curriculum based on PBL was related to an improvement in student's grades and satisfaction compared with traditional teaching. We believe that the effectiveness in health education will be a combination of "classical" presentation of contents associated to actively involved students in the educational process and methodology based on problems in order to create the stimulus for the undergraduates continue to integrate basic and clinical investigation. PMID:22615229

Azzalis, L A; Giavarotti, L; Sato, S N; Barros, N M T; Junqueira, V B C; Fonseca, F L A

2012-01-01

67

INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL Principles of Plant Science  

E-print Network

and Production 18 Environmental Factors that Influence Plant Growth and Crop Production Technologies Chapter 9 technologies that modify the environment to improve plant production. The instructor's manual to Principles in the various advanced plant production courses such as agronomy, crop science, vegetable crops, small fruits

Decoteau, Dennis R.

68

Bernoulli's Principle: Science as a Human Endeavor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do the ideas of Daniel Bernoulli--an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, natural scientist, and professor--and your students' next landing of the space shuttle via computer simulation have in common? Because of his contribution, referred in physical science as Bernoulli's principle, modern flight is possible. The mini learning-cycle…

McCarthy, Deborah

2008-01-01

69

75 FR 6369 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...News from Office of Science/DOE. [squf] News...Office of Basic Energy Sciences. [squf] Briefing from the Advanced Research Projects Agency-- Energy...Update from the BESAC Science for Energy Technologies Workshop....

2010-02-09

70

77 FR 41395 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...following: [ssquf] News from Office of Science/DOE [ssquf] News from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences [ssquf] Future of ARPA-E [ssquf...Light Source (LCLS) update [ssquf] Materials Sciences and Engineering Division Committee...

2012-07-13

71

78 FR 38696 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). The Federal Advisory Committee...of Basic Energy Sciences [ssquf] Report out from the Committee of Visitors...science.energy.gov/bes/besac/. Issued in Washington, DC,...

2013-06-27

72

Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1991-12-01

73

Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

Not Available

1991-12-01

74

During the course of the Medical Genetics residency training program, each trainee must acquire an understanding of basic genetic principles and familiarity with all of the major  

E-print Network

During the course of the Medical Genetics residency training program, each trainee must acquire an understanding of basic genetic principles and familiarity with all of the major sub disciplines of the field. This will include (1) detailed knowledge regarding the basic science of genetics in general and human genetics

Stephens, Matthew

75

Informal Learning at School. Science Fairs in Basic Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work herein reports on the implementation of science fairs in a systematic way in basic schools. In particular we will present the second edition of the annual Science Fair at basic school Externato Maria Auxiliadora, in Viana do Castelo, Portugal, focusing on the evolution advised by the evaluation of the previous edition of the science fair. We will stress

Zita Esteves; Andreia Cabral; Manuel F. M. Costa

76

Basic Principles--Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The priorities for sustaining life--air, shelter, water, and food--are the subjects of this module designed to give junior and senior high school students the foundation for safe, rewarding experiences in the outdoors. Five 50-minute lesson plans cover the basic need in order of priority: air (3 minutes to survive without it), shelter (3 hours, in…

Deaton, Don

77

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels  

E-print Network

Chapter 3. Concepts of Basic Soil Science W. Lee Daniels Kathryn C. Haering Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Table of Contents Soil formation and soil horizons................................................................................................................... 33 Soil composition by volume

Kaye, Jason P.

78

New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

2008-01-01

79

Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

80

New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from use of such a tool: students are often taught a list of concepts and a separate list of parameters for mathematical equations. The link between the two can be elusive. While wet-lab experimentation is the proven approach to developing this link, in silico simulation can provide a means of acquiring important insight and understanding within a time frame and at a cost that cannot be achieved otherwise. We suggest that simulations and their representation of laboratory experiments in the classroom can become a key component in student achievement by helping to develop a student's positive attitude towards science and his or her creativity in scientific inquiry. We present results of two simulation experiments that validate against data taken from current literature. We follow with a classroom example demonstrating how this tool can be seamlessly integrated within the traditional pharmacology learning experience.

Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

2008-08-01

81

Neutron spin manipulation optics: basic principles and possible applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of basic elements for neutron spin manipulation optics (NSMO) based on Larmor and non-Larmor (quantum) precessions under reflection are considered. It is concluded that transition to 3D in neutron polarization optics may bring additional instrumental possibilities. New neutron optical devices will include spin turners (particularly, ?/2-turners and ?- turners, or flippers), spin precessors and antiprecessors, 3D-polarizers, 3D-analyzers, 3D- rotators, spin manipulators, hyper-polarizers. The innovative neutron optics is directly applicable to developing 3D polarization and polarimetry techniques, such as reflectometry with 3D- polarimetry, Neutron optical Spin Echo (NoSE), including compact NoSE and TOF NoSE schemes. A hyper-polarizer is a device which not only separates neutrons with the opposite spins, but also flips the 'wrong' spins. Thus, hyper-polarizers can double the intensity of polarized neutron beams, although a gain in the intensity can be achieved only with the increase either in the angular divergence or in the width of the beam, in full accordance with the Liouville theorem. The tasks to be solved for implementation of the NSMO concepts are discussed.

Pleshanov, N. K.

2014-07-01

82

How Clouds Form-Understanding the Basic Principles of Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this investigation is to understand the change that takes place when water condenses from a gas to a liquid, and how a change in pressure affects this transformation. Materials needed for the experiment include a large (2L) soda bottle, a squeeze bottle with a plastic hose, parking pens, construction paper, wooden matches, and tap water. The resource includes background information, a pre-activity exploration for students, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is the chapter 12 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

83

Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

Ward, Janet

2004-01-01

84

Environments. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a teacher's guide to an elementary science unit designed for use with fourth grade, or higher, students in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaption or edition of…

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

85

Material Objects. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a teacher's guide for an elementary science unit designed for use with first grade students in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to the curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation or edition of the SCIS…

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

86

Populations. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide is for an elementary school science unit designed for use with third grade (or older) children in the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation or edition of…

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

87

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Interpretive Research in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the derivative notions of interdeterminacy, uncertainty, precision, and observer-observed interaction are discussed and their applications to social science research examined. Implications are drawn for research in science education. (PR)

Roth, Wolff-Michael

1993-01-01

88

New Principles and Basic Approaches for the Curricula of Engineering Degree Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents new principles and basic approaches for the curricula of engineering degree courses. The accentuated evolution of engineering, the fast technological transformations and, still, the impact provoked by government regulations in the field of education in Brazil have called attention to these issues. Following these changes, it…

Gargione, Luiz Antonio

89

OPTICAL AND INFRARED DETECTORS FOR Basic principles to state-of-the-art  

E-print Network

OPTICAL AND INFRARED DETECTORS FOR ASTRONOMY Basic principles to state-of-the-art James W. Beletic Detectors play a key role in an astronomical observatory. In astronomy, the role of the telescope detector systems. In many ways, today's optical and infrared detectors are nearly perfect, with high

Masci, Frank

90

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis: Basic principles and applications in radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a widely accepted method for analyzing and comparing the diagnostic accuracy of radiological tests. In this paper we will explain the basic principles underlying ROC analysis and provide practical information on the use and interpretation of ROC curves. The major applications of ROC analysis will be discussed and their limitations will be addressed.

Arian R van Erkel; Peter M. Th Pattynama

1998-01-01

91

Introduction to Circular Accelerators - Basic Science and Applied Research  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an introduction to history and overview of circular particle accelerators, reviews acceleration methods and basic principles of: weak and strong focusing, transverse and longitudinal particle motion, optic elements operation. The classification of circular machines is given. Author overviews future projects and technological applied research of particle accelerators.

Trubnikov, Grigory [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research JINR, Joliot Curie, 6, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)

2010-01-05

92

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science, Fall 2005  

E-print Network

Introduction to chemistry, with emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. Introduction to the chemistry of ...

Ceyer, Sylvia Teresse

93

Resident's morning report: an opportunity to reinforce principles of biomedical science in a clinical context.  

PubMed

The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a faculty member for discussion. This venue provides an opportunity to illustrate how basic biomedical principles facilitate an understanding of the clinical presentation, the relevant pathophysiology, and the rationale for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A discussion of biochemical principles can easily be incorporated into these case discussions, with the potential to reinforce these concepts and to illustrate their application to clinical decision making. This approach maintains the effort to teach basic biomedical sciences in the context of clinical application across the educational continuum. PMID:24019184

Brass, Eric P

2013-01-01

94

Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.  

PubMed

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25326609

Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

2014-10-01

95

Mapping Australia's basic research in the medical and health sciences.  

PubMed

The Institute for Scientific Information indexes most of the major international basic research journals in science in the Science Citation Index (SCI). Australia's presence in the medical and health sciences journals in the SCI and the citations its published research receives in these journals show that Australia's basic medical research has high international "visibility". Mapping the source of the most highly "visible" Australian medical research articles shows high impact research coming from several different sectors (research institutes, universities, hospitals, etc.), but with a concentration in the member institutions of the Australian Association of Medical Research Institutes (AAMRI). Published research from the AAMRI is cited at a rate two-thirds higher than the Australian average for medical and health sciences. PMID:9418803

Bourke, P; Butler, L

96

Some Applications of Principles from Developmental Psychology to Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article outlines and explicates a number of principles derived from developmental psychology in relation to their applicability in science education. It is shown that these principles are at variance with those derived from the classical schema of the scientific method. (Author/MA)

Halbwachs, F.

1979-01-01

97

75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Background: The Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet...funding of basic behavioral and social sciences research (b-BSSR...that focus on basic mechanisms of behavior and social processes that are relevant...

2010-10-22

98

BASIC SCIENCE Identification of 3 Phylogenetically Related HIV-1 BG  

E-print Network

BASIC SCIENCE Identification of 3 Phylogenetically Related HIV-1 BG Intersubtype Circulating Na´jera, MD, PhD* Summary: BG intersubtype recombinants represented 11.6% of HIV-1 isolates recombinant form, Cuba, HIV-1, subtype B, subtype G (J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45:151­160) HIV-1

Posada, David

99

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a  

E-print Network

Basic Science Effects of Curcumin for Preventing Restenosis in a Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Iliac Kim,1 MD, PhD, and Hyeon-Cheol Gwon,1* MD, PhD Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the curcumin-coating stent (CCS) on the inhibi- tion of restenosis in a rabbit iliac artery stent model. Background: Curcumin

Park, Jong-Sang

100

Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first edition of Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications was published in 1985 to "...offer a comprehensive review of general concepts of nutrition as they pertain to pediatrics as well as relevant information on the nutritional management of specific disease states." A ...

101

Introduction to Alternative and Renewable Energy: Basic Energy Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended for use in a college-level introductory course in alternative and renewable energy. The document covers basic engineering science for understanding energy. Topics like force, energy, power, thermodynamics, the periodic table and stoichiometry are covered. A number of useful graphics are included to enhance the materials. This module may be downloaded in PDF file format.

102

School of Basic Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine  

E-print Network

will make major contributions via translational medicine to enhance the diagnosis and treatment of human combined with the application to modern medicine. Policies and Procedures: I. The MD/PhD Advisory CommitteeSchool of Basic Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine M.D./Ph.D PROGRAM ACADEMIC POLICIES

Meyers, Steven D.

103

The Principles of Science Education in Today's Schools. A Roundtable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the dialogue from a roundtable discussion on the principles of science education in today's school held by "Pedagogika" in March 2004. Participants were as follows: from the Russian Academy of Education: V.P. Borisenkov, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, vice president of the Russian Academy of Education, and editor…

Russian Education and Society, 2006

2006-01-01

104

Basic Knowledge for Market Principle: Approaches to the Price Coordination Mechanism by Using Optimization Theory and Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.

Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Masuda, Kazuaki

105

Opportunities for Computational Discovery in Basic Energy Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the broad-ranging support of computational physics and computational science within the Department of Energy Office of Science will be provided. Computation as the third branch of physics is supported by all six offices (Advanced Scientific Computing, Basic Energy, Biological and Environmental, Fusion Energy, High-Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics). Support focuses on hardware, software and applications. Most opportunities within the fields of condensed-matter physics, chemical-physics and materials sciences are supported by the Officeof Basic Energy Science (BES) or through partnerships between BES and the Office for Advanced Scientific Computing. Activities include radiation sciences, catalysis, combustion, materials in extreme environments, energy-storage materials, light-harvesting and photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and superconductivity. A summary of two recent reports by the computational materials and chemical communities on the role of computation during the next decade will be provided. In addition to materials and chemistry challenges specific to energy sciences, issues identified include a focus on the role of the domain scientist in integrating, expanding and sustaining applications-oriented capabilities on evolving high-performance computing platforms and on the role of computation in accelerating the development of innovative technologies.

Pederson, Mark

2011-03-01

106

The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, pro- posed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking pre- ventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of

David Kriebel; Joel Tickner; Paul Epstein; John Lemons; Richard Levins; Edward L. Loechler; Margaret Quinn; Ruthann Rudel; Ted Schettler; Michael Stoto

107

FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

2006-07-01

108

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

109

[Introduction to palliative care for the oncologist-history and basic principles of palliative care].  

PubMed

The basic principle of palliative care has evolved over time and is the historical origin of the modern hospice. WHO proposed the first definition of palliative care in 1989, and the definition was revised in 2002. These definitions have something in common. Both relieve the pain and suffering to improve QOL. Palliative care is also good for any kind of life-threatening disease, regardless of whether it requires short or long term recuperation. That also need to be able to accept equally all the people of the community. The provision of general palliative care is the responsibility of all medical, nursing, and health professionals for the welfare of all patients with life-threatening disease. Specialist palliative care is based on the basic principles of palliative care, intensive clinical training, and systematic acquisition of knowledge and skills training to support palliative care education, clinical research and training provided by the profession. It has been established by nursing and medical experts in palliative care that palliative care can provide expertise in interdisciplinary teams in different settings. It is necessary that the medical system. PMID:20948245

Shima, Yasuo

2010-10-01

110

Clinical competencies and the basic sciences: an online case tutorial paradigm for delivery of integrated clinical and basic science content.  

PubMed

Understanding the relevance of basic science knowledge in the determination of patient assessment, diagnosis, and treatment is critical to good medical practice. One method often used to direct students in the fundamental process of integrating basic science and clinical information is problem-based learning (PBL). The faculty facilitated small group discussion format traditionally used for PBL is a significant challenge for faculty and facilities with a large class. To provide inductive learning to a large class early in the preclerkship curriculum, a series of online, case-based tutorials was created using the method of inquiry-based learning. The tutorial paradigm is designed to challenge students through a guided inquiry process in which clinical skills and basic science information are seamlessly joined. The psychosocial dimension of patient care is added to the documented case presentation of the tutorials in the form of patient/physician history taking and physical examination videos. These videos augment the written case with additional information providing the student with visual exposure in methods of patient communication and appropriate professional patient/physician interactions that address competencies of patient care, communication, and professionalism. The tutorials were made available via learning management system course sites. The study tracked usage of the tutorials by 270 first-year medical students. PMID:19670214

DiLullo, Camille; Morris, Harry J; Kriebel, Richard M

2009-10-01

111

Principles of Population Health Science Population Health 795  

E-print Network

1 Principles of Population Health Science Population Health 795 A course in the Program in Population Health Fall 2012 University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health The lecture in medicine and public health, inequities in health persist. Understanding health on a population level

Sheridan, Jennifer

112

Public Health Principles and Practice Population Health Sciences 780  

E-print Network

Public Health Principles and Practice Population Health Sciences 780 Fall 2011 This course examines population-based approaches to improve the health of the public. The focus will be on learning methods for community health improvement--from assessment to finding and implementing evidence based public health

Sheridan, Jennifer

113

Principles of Population Health Science Population Health 795  

E-print Network

1 Principles of Population Health Science Population Health 795 A course in the Program in Population Health Fall 2011 University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health OVERVIEW Despite significant advances in medicine and public health, inequities in health persist. Understanding

Sheridan, Jennifer

114

Distortion of some of the basic principles of public health practice in India.  

PubMed

India's political leadership has chosen personnel from the Indian Administrative Service cadre of generalist administrators and from the clinician-dominated cadre of the Central Health Services to run the country's health service system. The personnel's inadequate or distorted understanding of some of the basic principles of public health practice--such as developing an epidemiological approach to solving community health problems, choice of appropriate technology, and optimization of health service systems--has had a very deleterious effect on the health service system. These administrators have become vulnerable to manipulation by personnel from international agencies, who also have questionable public health credentials, to create space for imposition of their technocentric, ill-conceived, and ill-designed agenda. To rationalize adoption of such an obviously faulty agenda, they have to be ahistorical, apolitical, and atheoretical and indulge in misinformation, disinformation, and suppression and manipulation of information. This amounts to what Navarro has termed "intellectual fascism." PMID:16981635

Banerji, Debabar

2006-01-01

115

BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases. PMID:20109968

Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

2010-01-01

116

Transfer printing methods for flexible thin film solar cells: basic concepts and working principles.  

PubMed

Fabricating thin film solar cells (TFSCs) on flexible substrates will not only broaden the applications of solar cells, but also potentially reduce the installation cost. However, a critical challenge for fabricating flexible TFSCs on flexible substrates is the incompatibility issues between the thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of these substrates and the fabrication conditions. Transfer printing methods, which use conventional substrates for the fabrication and then deliver the TFSCs onto flexible substrates, play a key role to overcome these challenges. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and working principles of four major transfer printing methods associated with (1) transfer by sacrificial layers, (2) transfer by porous Si layer, (3) transfer by controlled crack, and (4) transfer by water-assisted thin film delamination. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for implementing these methods for practical solar cell manufacture. PMID:25184987

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

2014-09-23

117

Integrating basic science without integrating basic scientists: reconsidering the place of individual teachers in curriculum reform.  

PubMed

The call for integration of the basic and clinical sciences plays prominently in recent conversations about curricular change in medical education; however, history shows that, like other concepts related to curricular reform, integration has been continually revisited, leading to incremental change but no meaningful transformation. To redress this cycle of "change without difference," the medical education community must reexamine the approach that dominates medical education reform efforts and explore alternative perspectives that may help to resolve the cyclical "problem" of recommending but not effecting integration. To provide a different perspective on implementing integration, the authors of this Perspective look to the domain of educational change as an approach to examining the transitions that occur within complex and evolving environments. This area of literature both acknowledges the multiple levels involved in change and emphasizes the need not only to address systemic structure but also to prioritize individuals during times of transition. The struggle to implement curricular integration in medical education may stem from the fact that reform efforts appear to focus largely on transformation at the level of curricular structure as opposed to considering what learning needs to occur at each level of change and highlighting the individual as the educational change literature suggests. To bring appropriate attention to the place of individual educators, especially basic scientists, the medical education community should explore how the mandate to integrate clinically relevant material may impact these faculty and the teaching of their domains. PMID:25140528

Hopkins, Robin; Pratt, Daniel; Bowen, Judith L; Regehr, Glenn

2015-02-01

118

Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

Eiseman, Elisa

2001-03-01

119

Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle Basics of Probability  

E-print Network

Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle Topic 5 Combinations Pascal's Triangle Outline Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal's Triangle 2 / 14 #12;Fundamental Principle of Counting The Birthday Problem Combinations Pascal

Watkins, Joseph C.

120

BASIC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS for User Science at the National Ignition Facility  

E-print Network

Nuclear Security Administration ­ Office of Science Workshop on Basic Research Directions on User Science FACILITY Report on the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) ­ Office of Science (SC) Workshop................................................................................ 31 Nuclear Physics

Stewart, Sarah T.

121

About the Department of Energy's Basic Energy Sciences Program Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter  

E-print Network

, and private institutions. About the "Basic Research Needs" Report Series Over the past ten years, the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) and BES have engaged thousands of scientists from academia technologies. The reports from the foundational Basic Research Needs to Assure a Secure Energy Future workshop

Rollins, Andrew M.

122

Research programs for Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

A chemical sciences review meeting was held in which research programs in chemistry were discussed. Major topics included: chemistry of actinides and fission products, interactions of solvents, solutes and surfaces in supercritical extraction, chemical and physical principles in multiphase separations, and chemical kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

Not Available

1988-01-01

123

Round Rocks: Teaching Principles of Earth Science and Paleontology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides teachers with a highly effective way of presenting paleontology and earth science principles with limited classroom time. The main idea is to emphasize the thought processes that paleontologists use in their work. By answering certain questions and learning certain principles, students are compelled to think about the process of scientific reasoning. The process consists of taking a rock (from anywhere) in the hand and asking a single, simple question: How did this rock come to be this way? This lesson provides teachers with an outline of the process, principles and questions that students should use and answer about their rocks in order to understand the way scientists think and develop hypotheses and conclusions.

Allmon, Warren; Griffing, David

124

The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Dichotomy Principle” and the classical “Golden Section Principle” are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of “Harmony Mathematics”, a new proposed mathematical direction.

A. P. Stakhov

2005-01-01

125

Basic Principles of Planar Chromatography and Its Potential for Hyphenated Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sample preparation, detection, identification, and quantitative determination of biomolecules are presented in this chapter. Advantages of planar chromatography and the basic principles (chambers, sample application, and chromatogram development) are also described. Rapid detection of biomolecules plays a strategical role in their investigation. Hyphenated techniques such as planar chromatography coupled to UV diode array detection and to mass spectrometry provide on-line extensive structural information on the metabolites prior to their isolation. In this chapter, the combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with biomolecules specific detection by diode array scanning (DAD), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TLC-FTIR) is discussed. In the last part of the chapter, the reader will gain useful information about a recent method of planar chromatography - multidimensional planar chromatography (MD-PC) and information on application of different modes of multidimensional planar chromatography and combination of this technique with diode array detection (MD-PC-DAD) and HPLC-DAD for separation, detection, and qualitative and quantitative determination of biomolecules. Planar chromatography as a pilot technique for HPLC is also described.

Tuzimski, Tomasz

126

Development and Testing of Simulation (Game) to Illustrate Basic Principles of Integrated Project Delivery and Target Value Design: A First Run Study  

E-print Network

and there is a need for teaching materials in this field. The Lean Construction community believes that teaching lean principles through games or simulations is very effective. This study is focused on developing a simulation that explains the basic principles...

Munankami, Manish 1972-

2012-12-07

127

Principles of Forest Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of Forest Hydrology has been written to accompany class lectures for students pursuing training in forestry, wildland resources, environmental sciences, and geography. The book introduces basic principles and concepts of hydrology and it does this quite well.Principles of Forest Hydrology is a revision of an earlier book, An Outline of Forest Hydrology, coauthored with Wade L. Nutter. The new

Edwin T. Engman

1983-01-01

128

Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part II: Coupling between ion mobility, electrolysis, and acidbase  

E-print Network

Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part II: Coupling on the web 7th July 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b906468k We present elements of electrolyte dynamics the coupling between acid­base equilibrium chemistry and electrophoretic mobilities of electrolytes, at both

Santiago, Juan G.

129

Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part I: Acidbase equilibria and pH buffersx  

E-print Network

Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part I: Acid of electrolytes, and discuss the effects of ionic strength and temperature on pH calculation. More practically, we with electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry in typical microfluidic electrokinetic systems. Introduction

Santiago, Juan G.

130

The fringe and flexure tracking system for LINC-NIRVANA: basic design and principle of operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LINC-NIRVANA is the interferometric near-infrared imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Operating at JHK bands LINC-NIRVANA will provide an unique and unprecedented combination of high angular resolution (~9 milliarcseconds at 1.25 ?m), wide field of view (~100 arcseconds2 at 1.25 ?m), and large collecting area (~100 m2). One of the major contributions of the I. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne to this project is the development of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS). In close cooperation with the Adaptive Optics systems of LINC-NIRVANA the FFTS is a fundamental component to ensure a complete and time-stable wavefront correction at the position of the science detector in order to allow for long integration times at interferometric angular resolutions. Using a dedicated near-infrared detector array at a combined focus close to the science detector, the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System analyses the interferometric point spread function (PSF) of a suitably bright reference source at frame rates of several hundred Hertz up to 1 kHz. By fitting a parameterized theoretical model PSF to the preprocessed image-data the FFTS determines the amount of pistonic phase difference and the amount of an angular misalignment between the wavefronts of the two optical paths of LINC-NIRVANA. For every exposure the correcting parameters are derived in real-time and transmitted to the respective control electronics, or the Adaptive Optics systems of the single-eye telescopes, which will adjust their optical elements accordingly. In this paper we present the opto-mechanical hardware design, the principle of operation of the software control algorithms, and the results of first numerical simulations and laboratory experiments of the performance of this Fringe and Flexure Tracking System.

Straubmeier, Christian; Bertram, Thomas; Eckart, Andreas; Wang, Yibing; Zealouk, Lahbib; Herbst, Thomas M.; Andersen, David R.; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Weigelt, Gerd P.

2004-10-01

131

Basic science curriculum during residency: justification based on in-training examination scores.  

PubMed

The American Board of Surgery is increasing its emphasis on competency in surgical basic science as part of residency training. The 1991 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) contained 135 questions designated as basic science to assess residents' knowledge. We reviewed the separate progression of scores in clinical and basic sciences at Wayne State University (WSU) surgical residency and nationally through the 1991 ABSITE report. Regression analysis of WSU data yielded a slope (% correct answers per postgraduate year) of 5.3 for clinical and 2.4 for basic science scores (P < 0.001 by t-statistic applied to regression slopes). These data imply a progression of knowledge during residency but at a significantly slower rate for basic science. The national data confirm this trend, although we were unable to evaluate it statistically. This situation illustrates the need for organized teaching of clinically relevant basic science as part of a residency curriculum. PMID:7998608

Steffes, C P; Dulchavsky, S A

1994-12-01

132

76 FR 8358 - Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC). Federal Advisory Committee...2012 Budget. New charge to BESAC--Mesoscale Science. Follow-up...Science for Energy Technologies Report. Public Participation: The...science.doe.gov/bes/BESAC/meetings.html. Issued...

2011-02-14

133

Basic regulatory principles of Escherichia coli's electron transport chain for varying oxygen conditions.  

PubMed

For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25268772

Henkel, Sebastian G; Ter Beek, Alexander; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

2014-01-01

134

Basic Regulatory Principles of Escherichia coli's Electron Transport Chain for Varying Oxygen Conditions  

PubMed Central

For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25268772

Henkel, Sebastian G.; Beek, Alexander Ter; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M. Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

2014-01-01

135

PNNL Highlights for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (July 2013-July 2014)  

SciTech Connect

This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.

Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.

2014-08-13

136

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research  

...planning and funding of basic research to the maximum possible extent...in the portfolio of basic research investments. A wide range of scientific and engineering fields...investments not only in established research areas with promise for...

2014-07-01

137

The HelCat basic plasma science device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

abstract-type="normal"> The Helicon-Cathode(HelCat) device is a medium-size linear experiment suitable for a wide range of basic plasma science experiments in areas such as electrostatic turbulence and transport, magnetic relaxation, and high power microwave (HPM)-plasma interactions. The HelCat device is based on dual plasma sources located at opposite ends of the 4 m long vacuum chamber - an RF helicon source at one end and a thermionic cathode at the other. Thirteen coils provide an axial magnetic field B >= 0.220 T that can be configured individually to give various magnetic configurations (e.g. solenoid, mirror, cusp). Additional plasma sources, such as a compact coaxial plasma gun, are also utilized in some experiments, and can be located either along the chamber for perpendicular (to the background magnetic field) plasma injection, or at one of the ends for parallel injection. Using the multiple plasma sources, a wide range of plasma parameters can be obtained. Here, the HelCat device is described in detail and some examples of results from previous and ongoing experiments are given. Additionally, examples of planned experiments and device modifications are also discussed.

Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Desjardins, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; Watts, C.; Hsu, S. C.; Betts, S.; Kelly, R.; Schamiloglu, E.

2015-01-01

138

Teaching Aldosterone Regulation and Basic Scientific Principles Using a Classic Paper by Dr. James O. Davis and Colleagues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom discussion of scientific articles can be an effective means of teaching scientific principles and methodology to both undergraduate and graduate science students. The availability of classic papers from the American Physiological Society Legacy Project has made it possible to access articles dating back to the early portions of the 20th…

Hanke, Craig J.; Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.

2006-01-01

139

The imaging fringe and flexure tracker of LINC-NIRVANA: basic opto-mechanical design and principle of operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LINC-NIRVANA is the interferometric near-infrared imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Being able to observe at wavelength bands from J to K (suppported by an adaptive optics system operating at visible light) LINC-NIRVANA will provide an unique and unprecedented combination of high angular resolution (~ 9 milliarcseconds at 1.25?m), wide field of view (~ 100 arcseconds2 at 1.25?m), and large collecting area (~ 100m2). One of the major contributions of the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne to this project is the development and provision of the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS). In addition to the single-eye adaptive optics systems the FFTS is a crucial component to ensure a time-stable wavefront correction over the full aperture of the double-eye telescope, a mandatory pre-requisite for interferometric observations. Using a independent HAWAII 1 detector array at a combined focus close to the science detector, the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System analyses the complex two-dimensional interferometric point spread function (PSF) of a suitably bright reference source at frame rates of up to several hundred Hertz. By fitting a parameterised theoretical model PSF to the preprocessed image-data the FFTS determines the amount of pistonic phase difference and angular misalignment between the wavefronts of the two optical paths of LINC-NIRVANA. For every exposure the corrective parameters are derived in real-time and transmitted to a dedicated piezo-electric fast linear mirror for simple path lengths adjustments, and/or to the adaptive optics systems of the single-eye telescopes for more complicated corrections. In this paper we present the basic concept and currect status of the opto-mechanical design of the Fringe and Flexure Tracker, the operating principle of the fringe and flexure tracking loops, and the encouraging result of a laboratory test of the piston control loop.

Straubmeier, Christian; Bertram, Thomas; Eckart, Andreas; Rost, Steffen; Wang, Yeping; Herbst, Tom; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Weigelt, Gerd

2006-06-01

140

Teachers' Involvement in Implementing the Basic Science and Technology Curriculum of the Nine-Year Basic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated teachers' involvement in implementing the basic science and technology curriculum in primary schools in WSLGA (Warri South Local Government Area) of Delta State. It sought to identify the availability of the document in primary schools and teachers' knowledge of the objectives and activities specified in the curriculum.…

Odili, John Nwanibeze; Ebisine, Sele Sylvester; Ajuar, Helen Nwakaife

2011-01-01

141

Basic principles of flight test instrumentation engineering, volume 1, issue 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 1 of the AG 300 series on 'Flight Test Instrumentation' gives a general introduction to the basic principles of flight test instrumentation. The other volumes in the series provide more detailed treatments of selected topics on flight test instrumentation. Volume 1, first published in 1974, has been used extensively as an introduction for instrumentation courses and symposia, as well as being a reference work on the desk of most flight test and instrumentation engineers. It is hoped that this second edition, fully revised, will be used with as much enthusiasm as the first edition. In this edition a flight test system is considered to include both the data collection and data processing systems. In order to obtain an optimal data flow, the overall design of these two subsystems must be carefully matched; the detail development and the operation may have to be done by separate groups of specialists. The main emphasis is on the large automated instrumentation systems used for the initial flight testing of modern military and civil aircraft. This is done because there, many of the problems, which are discussed here, are more critical. It does not imply, however, that smaller systems with manual data processing are no longer used. In general, the systems should be designed to provide the required results at the lowest possible cost. For many tests which require only a few parameters, relatively simple systems are justified, especially if no complex equipment is available to the user. Although many of the aspects discussed in this volume apply to both small and large systems, aspects of the smaller systems are mentioned only when they are of special interest. The volume has been divided into three main parts. Part 1 defines the main starting points for the design of a flight test instrumentation system, as seen from the points of view of the flight test engineer and the instrumentation engineer. In Part 2 the discussion is concentrated on those aspects which apply to each individual measuring channel, and in Part 3 the main emphasis is on the integration of the individual data channels into one data collection system and on those aspects of the data processing which apply to the complete system.

Borek, Robert W., Sr. (editor); Pool, A. (editor)

1994-01-01

142

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! the control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference F(2,134) = 4.8, p < 0.05, ?2 = 0.59 between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre-to-post assessment with an effect size of d = 0.72. However, while students in the experimental group performed better than their control group peers, they rated their knowledge of the topic lower than the control group ( M post-control = 3.0, M post-experiment = 2.7), leading to further examination of their laboratory journals. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, this study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that video game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-08-01

143

Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and maintenance. We proposed that some software engineering principles can be incorporated into the introductory-level of the computer science curriculum. Our vision is to give community college students a broader exposure to the software development lifecycle. For those students who plan to transfer to a baccalaureate program subsequent to their community college education, our vision is to prepare them sufficiently to move seamlessly into mainstream computer science and software engineering degrees. For those students who plan to move from the community college to a programming career, our vision is to equip them with the foundational knowledge and skills required by the software industry. To accomplish our goals, we developed curriculum modules for teaching seven of the software engineering knowledge areas within current computer science introductory-level courses. Each module was designed to be self-supported with suggested learning objectives, teaching outline, software tool support, teaching activities, and other material to assist the instructor in using it.

Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

144

A Simulation for Teaching the Basic and Clinical Science of Fluid Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…

Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf

2009-01-01

145

Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between basic science research and product design\\/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition

Mary Beth Privitera; Jeffrey Johnson

2009-01-01

146

Translating Basic Science into Commercial Opportunities the vitality of thought is in adventure  

E-print Network

Translating Basic Science into Commercial Opportunities the vitality of thought is in adventure #12 by utilizing the vast intellectual and physical resources of Stony Brook University and Brookhaven National universities participate in the translation of basic science into life enhancing technologies. We ask for your

Ge, Qiaode Jeff

147

Gas Chromatography?Mass Spectrometry?Basic Principles, Instrumentation and Selected Applications for Detection of Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini?review discusses the analytical technique of gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS), specifically basic principles and instrumentations. The applications of GC?MS to a number of studies for determining organic compounds from around the world are presented and highlight its universal use and acceptance. Selected applications show that GC?MS is an integral and complimentary part of many field studies involving organic compound

J. Sneddon; S. Masuram; J. C. Richert

2007-01-01

148

Update on Keloid Management: Clinical and Basic Science Advances  

PubMed Central

Background Keloids are benign, fibroproliferative lesions that represent abnormal healing resulting in excessive fibrosis. They are composed of mainly type III (early) or type I (late) collagen. Some of the symptoms include pruritus, tenderness, and pain. Often, they are very difficult to treat and prevent from recurrence. In contrast to hypertrophic scars, keloids extend beyond the margin of the wound. The Problem There is very limited evidence on the best wound management for minimizing scarring. Multiple available therapeutic modalities have been used for the treatment of keloids; however, high-recurrence rates continue to be reported. Unsuccessful treatment of keloids leads to psychological impact on the patients and increased economic burden. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Currently, there are biological and antineoplastic agents that can potentially treat and prevent excessive scar formation. Some of them have been used as "off label" therapies, and others are still in the experimental phase such as interferon alpha (IFN-?), imiquimod, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1). The use of IFN-?2b showed 18% recurrence rate when applied to postsurgical excised keloids. Imiquimod 5% can lower recurrence rate on postshaved keloids to 37.5% at 6-month and to 0% at a 12-month follow-up period. TGF-?1 oligonucleotides have shown effective and long-lasting inhibition of TGF-?-mediated scarring in vitro as well as in animal models. Daily injections of neutralizing antibodies against TGF-?1 and -?2 have shown successful reductions in scarring. Conclusion Latest discoveries in the use of novel agents suggest therapeutic alternatives for the prevention of recurrences of hypertrophic scars and postexcision keloid lesions. PMID:24527306

Viera, Martha H.; Vivas, Alejandra C.; Berman, Brian

2012-01-01

149

Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

Clancey, William J.

2003-01-01

150

Setting the Scene: Basic Rules for a Safer Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six classes, six teachers--just navigating middle school is a voyage of discovery for early adolescents. We offer them a confusing array of choices, many in science. Sometimes it seems we spend too much science class time teaching organization, caution, and control. But these skills--critical to making science experiences exciting and safe--are also important science processes. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreword, Introduction, and References.

Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry

2003-01-01

151

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1985-01-01

152

Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation  

E-print Network

Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

2007-01-01

153

International cooperation in basic space science, Western Asian countries and the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world will never better develop and attain a global peace state, if it does not exist a world-wide cooperation, union of interests among all countries on planet Earth, respecting and understanding each other culture differences. So, if the countries interested in space science want to create or better develop this field, they need to firstly construct peace states and social cooperation, while scientific and technological cooperation will develop -among them. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations (UN)' Agenda 21 (UN UNCED, 1992), I propose four points that can lead to a practical and solid international cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, based on ground studies, with sustainable space programs in countries with social necessities, and to the construction of an avenue of peace states in those areas and in the world, 1) The creation of LINKS among the "developing" countries, among the "developed" ones and between them -with scientists, engineers, educators and administrative personnel. This can catalyze a self-sustainable scientific and technological production in the "developing" countries. Financial matters could be done through the World Bank in coopera-tion with UNESCO. 2) The administration of this difficult enterprise of international coopera-tion. With the increasing complexity of relationships among the aerospace-interested countries, it will be necessary the creation of a center capable to serve as an INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATOR CENTER FOR AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES. 3) CULTURE: in Western Asian countries there is a cultural habit that when somebody gives something valuable to a person, this person should give something back. Thus, the Western Asian countries receiving infor-mation on basic aerospace science and technology from the "developed" ones, those countries would probably feel they should give something in return. Western Asian countries could trans-mit their costumes, thinking ways, habits, persons' worries, thoughts and life knowledge, and music -culture -among themselves and to the "developed" countries. With this transmission of culture, principally among children, a better understanding among the countries could be created and the relationships among them could be very much easier for a sustainable inter-national cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, and for a sustainable better development and peace states for all Peoples and Nations on Earth. A cultural aspect which can highly increase children's interest in basic space science and technologies is by preparing the `terrain' of their minds, planting seeds of peace on them. It is known that if children live in countries with peace states their learning capacity is much better. So, I also propose (a neces-sity) to reeducate children -by teaching them about peace, showing them about Nations which have peace societies, redirecting children's mind for them to acquire knowledge of peace. So, they will grow into adults with more possibilities of developing science and technology (space research included) for peaceful purposes. We can extend our hands and actually help persons and Peoples with real necessities. By doing this way and keeping it constant we all can greatly grow together socially, and scientific-technologically, and real peace states will be achieved while sustainable space program will develop better -these two matters go 'hands-in-hands'. 4) The PARTICIPATION of the Western Asian countries in already programmed space missions, the participation in the astrobiology research, and in the transference of aerospace-related sci-entific and technical information to them. The better social development of the world (with sustainable space programs) with more union among the Peoples and Nations on Earth, within a protected environment, it is a goal we (a living species Homo sapiens, among others species, on this extremely rare unique special planet Earth) all need to achieve together.

de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

154

Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy  

SciTech Connect

This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

1990-11-01

155

Systems and Variables. Basic Edition. Science for Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide is for an elementary school science unit designed for use with third grade (or older) children in the schools of the Trust Territory of Micronesia. Although there is a degree of similarity to curriculum materials developed for the Science Curriculum Improvement Study, this Micronesian unit does not purport to be an adaptation…

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

156

Basic principles of design and functioning of multifunctional laser diagnostic system for non-invasive medical spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devising of a general engineering theory of multifunctional diagnostic systems for non-invasive medical spectrophotometry is an important and promising direction of modern biomedical engineering. We aim in this study to formalize in scientific engineering terms objectives for multifunctional laser non-invasive diagnostic system (MLNDS). The structure-functional model as well as a task-function of generalized MLNDS was formulated and developed. The key role of the system software for MLNDS general architecture at steps of ideological-technical designing has been proved. The basic principles of block-modules composition of MLNDS hardware are suggested as well.

Rogatkin, D. A.; Sokolovski, S. G.; Fedorova, K. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Sidorov, V. V.; Rafailov, E. U.

2011-03-01

157

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on pre-service teachers' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who…

Anderson, Janice; Barnett, Michael

2011-01-01

158

Basic Principles and Ecological Consequences of Altered Flow Regimes for Aquatic Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wetland ecosystems. We\\u000a have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and\\u000a aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant\\u000a of physical habitat

STUART E. BUNN; ANGELA H. ARTHINGTON

2002-01-01

159

Science: A Practical View. Volume III. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific principles of…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

160

Grant Title: TRANSLATING BASIC BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCOVERIES INTO INTERVENTIONS TO IMPROVE HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIORS (R01)  

E-print Network

Grant Title: TRANSLATING BASIC BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCOVERIES INTO INTERVENTIONS of Research: Support interdisciplinary teams of basic and applied biological, behavioral and/or social science discoveries in basic behavioral and/or social science research by developing and refining novel health

Farritor, Shane

161

The Integration of Nutrition Education in the Basic Biomedical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the Center for Biomedical Education at the City University of New York, nutrition is integrated into the chemistry-biochemistry sequence of a six-year B.S.-M.D. program. Students perform an actual analysis of a sample of their own food, learning basic techniques and concepts, and also carry on experiments with rats on other diets. (Editor/LBH)

Raw, Isaias

1977-01-01

162

Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

Schubert, Nancy A.

163

The Genetic Science Learning Center: The Basics and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents an animated "tour" of the basics of DNA and genes. The program can be downloaded so that it can be used without an Internet connection. Students will get the chance to learn more about DNA, genes, chromosomes, proteins, traits and heredity. The interactive lesson makes it easy for students to choose which sections to focus on.

2004-01-01

164

BESAC Subcommittee Workshop Report 20-Year Basic Energy Sciences  

E-print Network

, ORO Kathy Taylor, Retired GM (BESAC) Laboratory Technical Representatives: ANL-- Robert Kustom BNL:30pm - 3:30pm High Flux Isotope Reactor Target Station II Jim Roberto, ORNL 3:30pm - 4:00pm Break 4 a key role in the creation and support of world-class scientific research user facilities. Basic Energy

Knowles, David William

165

Using Video Games to Support Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Learning of Basic Physics Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic\\u000a electromagnetism with pre-service elementary teachers. To this end we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on pre-service teachers’ understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional\\u000a inquiry oriented investigation of the same

Janice Anderson; Michael Barnett

2011-01-01

166

Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

2014-05-01

167

[Basic principles of physics in optical imaging of the human eye].  

PubMed

Creation of a real picture of the observed object on the retina by optical system of the eye is the primary physical condition of the visual perception. Absorption of the light energy initiates the sequence of further physicochemical, biochemical and psychophysiological events partially taking place already in the retina but mostly in the higher cerebral and spinal centres. So the visual perception and its final evaluation is the result of a complicated complex of processes where the optical imaging itself plays the role of the starting factor. In the publication particularly the physical substance of the optical imaging on refraction surfaces between media with different refraction index has been accentuated. The laws of reflection and refraction and their origin are derived in the terms of the physical (Maxwell equations) and geometrical (Fermat principle, principle of the mutual independence of light beams) optics. In the adequate extent the development and structure of the eye and the whole visual complex, the bases of the quantification of the visual perception and contemporary opinions on mechanisms of the colour vision (trichromatic theory) have been described. The publication is completed by a mathematical appendix explaining some relations usually absent in the biomedical literature. PMID:11413677

Vodicka, I

2000-01-01

168

Immunology primer for neurosurgeons and neurologists part I: Basic principles of immunology  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge concerning the workings of the immune system has evolved considerably over the past 20 years, with great strides being made as regard to complex interactions and repertoire of effector reactions under a host of conditions. Many of our previous understandings have been challenged, especially concerning tumor immunology and autoimmunity. Also of critical importance is our understanding of how the immune system terminates its attacks and the mechanisms used to regulate the balance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mechanisms, so as to prevent excessive immune bystander damage. I will discuss in part I the basic physiology of innate immune function and the immune systems reactions to invasion by microorganisms. PMID:23493579

Blaylock, Russell L.

2013-01-01

169

Funding the Foundation: Basic Science at the Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings from a conference with leading experts examines the hugely successful American model of technological and scientific innovation. They stress the critical importance of government funding of physical science for the realms of national security, education, and industry. Kent Hughes and Frederick M. Bush, both of the Woodrow Wilson…

Hughes, Kent, Ed.; Sha, Lynn, Ed.

2006-01-01

170

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics IPv6 SNMP Network will become consistent and routine IPv6 SNMP Network Management Goals #12;2/2/10 ·ESnet has a long history - Polling of SNMP MIBs - Handling of asynchronous trap based alerts - GUI input & output Enablers ESnet has

171

Science and Nonscience Students' Ideas about Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for Elementary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 14-item questionnaire was given to 100 students in preservice training to become primary and secondary education faculty. Results showed that science and non-science majors held a series of misconceptions about several basic topics central to astronomy. The changes in astronomy misconceptions were analyzed by means of a written questionnaire…

Kalkan, Huseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim

2007-01-01

172

Basic science research in chiropractic: the state of the art and recommendations for a research agenda.  

PubMed

A position paper was prepared as background information for participants in the National Workshop to Develop the Chiropractic Workshop Agenda conducted by the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research, Davenport, Iowa. The paper was revised in light of comments and suggestions at the workshop by participants and by a workgroup composed of basic scientists from within and outside of chiropractic. This final article documents the history of basic science research in chiropractic, and the current state of the art of basic science research conducted since 1975 by chiropractors or investigators at chiropractic institutions in North America. Seed recommendations contained in the working paper for the development of an adequate infrastructure needed to conduct future research and seed recommendations for a future basic science research agenda were also modified and revised by the workgroup participants through a modified nominal group process. The final recommendations contained in this article represent a synthesis of these recommendations and those of the authors. PMID:9127254

Brennan, P C; Cramer, G D; Kirstukas, S J; Cullum, M E

1997-01-01

173

DOE Office of Science Funded Basic Research at NREL that Impacts Photovoltaic Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, supports a number of basic research projects in materials, chemicals, and biosciences at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that impact several renewable energy technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). The goal of the Material Sciences projects is to study the structural, optical, electrical, and defect properties of semiconductors and related materials using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Specific projects involving PV include: ordering in III-V semiconductors, isoelectronic co-doping, doping bottlenecks in semiconductors, solid-state theory, and computational science. The goal of the Chemical Sciences projects is to advance the fundamental understanding of the relevant science involving materials, photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, nanoscale chemistry, and catalysis that support solar photochemical conversion technologies. Specific projects relating to PV include: dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, semiconductor nanostructures, and molecular semiconductors. This presentation will give an overview of some of the major accomplishments of these projects.

Deb, S. K.

2005-01-01

174

Why our patients (and we) need basic science research  

PubMed Central

In times of fiscal austerity, the tendency is to seek instant, inexpensive gratification. In the case of biomedical research, this means the shortest path to practical clinical implementation. But fueling the translational pipeline with discovery depends critically on allowing the biomedical research community to follow their science where it takes them. Fiscal constraints carry with them the risk of squelching creativity and forfeiting the power of serendipity to provide the substrate for the translational engine in the future. PMID:23713087

2013-01-01

175

The operating regimes and basic control principles of SNPS Topaz''. [Cs  

SciTech Connect

The basic operating regimes of space nuclear power system (SNPS) Topaz'' are considered. These regimes include: prelaunch preparation and launch into working orbit, SNPS start-up to obtain desired electric power, nominal regime, SNPS shutdown. The main requirements for SNPS at different regimes are given, and the control algorithms providing these requirements are described. The control algorithms were chosen on the basis of theoretical studies and ground power tests of the SNPS prototypes. Topaz'' successful ground and flight tests allow to conclude that for SNPS of this type control algorithm providing required thermal state of cesium vapor supply system and excluding any possibility of discharge processes in current conducting elements is the most expedient at the start-up regime. At the nominal regime required electric power should be provided by maintenance of reactor current and fast-acting voltage regulator utilization. The limitation of the outlet coolant temperature should be foreseen also.

Makarov, A.N.; Volberg, M.S.; Grayznov, G.M.; Zhabotinsky, E.E.; Serbin, V.I. (Scientific Production Unification Krasnaya Zvezda'' USSR, Moscow 115230 (SU))

1991-01-05

176

Shared Governance of the Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida A. Preamble; Guiding Principles  

E-print Network

1 Shared Governance of the Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida A. Preamble; Guiding Principles: The Horticultural Sciences (HS) Department is fully committed to shared governance Constitution in its Preamble and Article I, Section 2. The Horticultural Sciences Department will use shared

Jawitz, James W.

177

The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence  

PubMed Central

Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented. PMID:16674820

Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

2006-01-01

178

Basic Principles and Emerging Concepts in the Redox Control of Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork of poorly connected findings. The article, therefore, reviews principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-?B), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms. Major conclusions are that (i) direct signaling by free radicals is restricted to O2•? and •NO and can be excluded for fast reacting radicals such as •OH, •OR, or Cl•; (ii) oxidant signals are H2O2, enzymatically generated lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite; (iii) free radical damage is sensed via generation of Michael acceptors; (iv) protein thiol oxidation/alkylation is the prominent mechanism to modulate function; (v) redox sensors must be thiol peroxidases by themselves or proteins with similarly reactive cysteine or selenocysteine (Sec) residues to kinetically compete with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)- and peroxiredoxin (Prx)-type peroxidases or glutathione-S-transferases, respectively, a postulate that still has to be verified for putative mammalian sensors. S-transferases and Prxs are considered for system complementation. The impact of NF-?B and Nrf2 on hormesis, management of inflammatory diseases, and cancer prevention is critically discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2335–2381. PMID:21194351

Flohé, Leopold

2011-01-01

179

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology and Laboratory Science: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology provides students with the basic laboratory skills and knowledge to pursue a career in biotechnology. The manual, written by four biotechnology instructors with over 20 years of teaching experience, incorporates instruction, exercises, and laboratory activities that the authors have been using and perfecting for years. These exercises and activities serve to engage students and help them understand the fundamentals of working in a biotechnology laboratory. Building students' skills through an organized and systematic presentation of materials, procedures, and tasks, the manual will help students explore overarching themes that relate to all biotechnology workplaces. The fundamentals in this manual are critical to the success of research scientists, scientists who develop ideas into practical products, laboratory analysts who analyze samples in forensic, clinical, quality control, environmental, and other testing laboratories.

Brandner, Diana; Kraus, Mary E.; Mowery, Jeanette; Seidman, Lisa A.

2012-03-19

180

Interactome maps of mouse gene regulatory domains reveal basic principles of transcriptional regulation  

PubMed Central

A key finding of the ENCODE project is that the enhancer landscape of mammalian cells undergoes marked alterations during ontogeny. However, the nature and extent of these changes are unclear. As part of the NIH Mouse Regulome Project, we here combined DNaseI hypersensitivity, ChIP-Seq, and ChIA-PET technologies to map the promoter-enhancer interactomes of pluripotent ES cells and differentiated B lymphocytes. We confirm that enhancer usage varies widely across tissues. Unexpectedly, we find that this feature extends to broadly-transcribed genes, including Myc and Pim1 cell cycle regulators, which associate with an entirely different set of enhancers in ES and B cells. By means of high-resolution CpG methylomes, genome editing, and digital footprinting we show that these enhancers recruit lineage-determining factors. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the turning on and off of enhancers during development correlates with promoter activity. We propose that organisms rely on a dynamic enhancer landscape to control basic cellular functions in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24360274

Kwon, Kyong-Rim Kieffer; Tang, Zhonghui; Mathe, Ewy; Qian, Jason; Sung, Myong-Hee; Li, Guoliang; Resch, Wolfgang; Baek, Songjoon; Pruett, Nathanael; Grøntved, Lars; Vian, Laura; Nelson, Steevenson; Zare, Hossein; Hakim, Ofir; Reyon, Deepak; Yamane, Arito; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Kovalchuk, Alexander L.; Zou, Jizhong; Joung, J. Keith; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Xiaoan; Hager, Gordon L.; Ruan, Yijun; Casellas, Rafael

2014-01-01

181

Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ? 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ? 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR phenomenology and weaken the status of the Planck scale hypothesis. Another crucial observation is that, already before incorporating standard matter and relativity, the SST geometry naturally yields a H t = 1 law where t is the age of the Universe and H the ratio between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale. As standard cosmology is not required to get such a fundamental result, the need for a conventional Planck scale is far from obvious and the study of UHECR can potentially yield evidence for an alternative approach including new physics and new ultimate constituents of matter. UHECR may in particular allow to explore the possible indications of the existence of a transition scale at very high energy where the standard laws would start becoming less and less dominant and new physics would replace the conventional fundamental principles. We discuss prospects of searches for potential signatures of such a phenomenon.

Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

2014-04-01

182

Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.  

PubMed

A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses. PMID:19639918

Cesario, Sandra K

2009-06-01

183

Guiding Principles for Mathematics and Science Education Research Methods: Report of a Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a brief review of research methods employed in recent studies and proposes a number of guiding principles for designing and evaluating future research proposals in the area of mathematics and science education.

Suter, Larry E.; Frechtling, Joy; Foundation, National S.

184

Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

Amara, Francis

185

A precautionary principle for dual use research in the life sciences.  

PubMed

Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges against the principle exist - for example that it stifles scientific development, lacks practical applicability and is poorly defined and vague - the analysis concludes that a Precautionary Principle is applicable to the field. Certain factors such as credibility of the threat, availability of information, clear prescriptive demands on responsibility and directives on how to act, determine the suitability and success of a Precautionary Principle. Moreover, policy-makers and researchers share a responsibility for providing and seeking information about potential sources of harm. A central conclusion is that the principle is meaningful and useful if applied as a context-dependent moral principle and allowed flexibility in its practical use. The principle may then inspire awareness-raising and the establishment of practical routines which appropriately reflect the fact that life science research may be misused for harmful purposes. PMID:19594724

Kuhlau, Frida; Höglund, Anna T; Evers, Kathinka; Eriksson, Stefan

2011-01-01

186

What's Hot, What's New at WTC-Basic Science.  

PubMed

The World Transplant Congress of 2014 presented a broad swath of science that touched on many disparate aspects of cell and organ transplantation, molecular and cellular immunology, systems biology, development, technology and translation into humans. A number of themes emerged this year. B cell biology and antibody chemistry were prominent, as they have been for several years. T cells, co-stimulatory blockade and regulatory T cells continue to dominate many aspects of immune research. Many new aspects of monocyte, macrophage, NK cell and NK T cell development, biology and regulation are now being explored. Diverse aspects of organ injury and the acute and chronic responses to injury are being investigated with new techniques, new targets and a resurgent vigor. Novel advances in xenotransplantation and experimental tolerance garnered much attention. Newer investigations in microbiota and nanotechnology promise significant gains in the near future. Lastly the 'omics of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, bacteria and enzyme actions promise new understanding in biological systems and how to control those systems. PMID:25612488

Bromberg, J S

2015-02-01

187

Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

2014-08-01

188

Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries  

PubMed Central

Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

2011-01-01

189

Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms. For instance, guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often…

Kim, Minchi C.; Freemyer, Sarah

2011-01-01

190

UNIT GUIDE 2014/15 SPAI20013 Principles of Quantitative Social Science  

E-print Network

1 UNIT GUIDE 2014/15 SPAI20013 Principles of Quantitative Social Science Teaching Block: 1 Weeks: 1 in the social sciences; and discussions of data sources. The two-hour computer lab sessions, via `hands on' work consulting the office. Aims and Objectives To: Introduce you to the random sample social survey and survey

Bristol, University of

191

Design Principles for Creating Locally-Rooted National Science and Mathematics Curricula in Timor-Leste  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper articulates and illustrates design principles that guided the development of a set of hands-on teaching activities for the national science and mathematics curricula at junior-high and high-school level education in Timor-Leste, a small, low-income nation in Southeast Asia. A partnership between a university, an international science

Gabrielson, Curtis A.; Hsi, Sherry

2012-01-01

192

Second Place -Resident Basic Science Award 1995 Mitochondrial role in hair cell survival after injury  

E-print Network

biogenesis in hair cell survival after injury was evaluated by inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesiswith biogenesis is involved in cellular responses to injury. They suggest that mitochondrial function may regulateSecond Place - Resident Basic Science Award 1995 Mitochondrial role in hair cell survival after

Rubel, Edwin

193

A Problem-Oriented Independent Studies Programme in Basic Medical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An independent studies program (ISP) in the basic medical sciences developed at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry involves 16 students as a learning team working with 10 medical teachers as a teaching team. The program offers an alternative to the lecture-laboratory-conference traditional format. (Author/LBH)

Morgan, H. R.

1977-01-01

194

Platelet-Rich PlasmaFrom Basic Science to Clinical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized in surgery for 2 decades; there has been a recent interest in the use of PRP for the treatment of sports-related injuries. PRP contains growth factors and bioactive proteins that influence the healing of tendon, ligament, muscle, and bone. This article examines the basic science of PRP, and it describes the current clinical applications

Timothy E. Foster; Brian L. Puskas; Bert R. Mandelbaum; Michael B. Gerhardt; Scott A. Rodeo

2009-01-01

195

Undergraduate Student Researchers, Preferred Learning Styles, and Basic Science Research: A Winning Combination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In basic science research, student researchers are often challenged with not only the technical portion of the research design but also the team dynamic. Understanding how a student prefers to learn can provide an advantage for mentors to better meet these challenges. In this article, the authors describe the experience of working with student…

Woeste, Lori A.; Barham, Beverly J.

2007-01-01

196

Impact of the USMLE Step 1 on Teaching and Learning of the Basic Biomedical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the newly modified United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 reviews the test, phase-in plans, and potential impact on basic biomedical sciences education. It is recommended that medical schools not use the test as the sole criterion for promotion to the third year and carefully review other examination-related requirements…

Swanson, David B.; And Others

1992-01-01

197

Improving College Faculty Instruction in the Basic and Allied Health Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project to improve college instruction in the basic and allied health sciences at New York Chiropractic College and the New York Institute of Technology is described. Attention was directed to: the kinds of resources colleges and professional schools provide to improve instruction; motivation of faculty to explore innovative or strategic…

Washton, Nathan S.

198

A Hybrid Model of Mathematics Support for Science Students Emphasizing Basic Skills and Discipline Relevance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of students entering university lacking basic mathematical skills is a critical issue in the Australian higher-education sector and relevant globally. The Maths Skills programme at La Trobe University has been developed to address under preparation in the first-year science cohort in the absence of an institutional mathematics support…

Jackson, Deborah C.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

2013-01-01

199

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE MICROBIOLOGY MICB (0404D)  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE MICROBIOLOGY MICB (0404D) A minimum Physiology & Neurobiology Ecology & Evolution Microbiology Individualized Studies NOTES: Student name MICROBIOLOGY 0404D Grade of C- or better required in each course 27 minimum required credits Advanced Program

Gruner, Daniel S.

200

Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

Croen, Lila G.; And Others

1986-01-01

201

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS CEBG (0404A)  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS CEBG (0404A Specialization Areas see reverse side for Advanced Program requirements Cell Biology & Genetics General Biology CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS 0404A Grade of C- or better required in each course 27 minimum required

Gruner, Daniel S.

202

3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/14 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 6/14 1  

E-print Network

3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/14 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 6/14 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 152 Computer Science I Using Java 3. Java basics 1. Higher-level languages and compilation 2. Java programs and statements 3. Program documentation

Keil, David M.

203

3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/13 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 8/13 1  

E-print Network

3. Java basics David Keil Computer Science I 8/13 David Keil Computer Science I Using Java 3. Intro to Java 8/13 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 152 Computer Science I Using Java 3. Java basics 1. Higher-level languages and compilation 2. Java programs and statements 3. Program documentation

Keil, David M.

204

Science Curricula Design: Analysis of Authors' Ideological and Pedagogical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study analyses the extent to which the sociological message transmitted by the Official Pedagogic Discourse of the curriculum for Portuguese middle schools contains the ideological and pedagogical principles of its authors. The research is epistemologically and sociologically grounded, placing particular emphasis on Bernstein theory of…

Ferreira, Silvia; Morais, Ana M.; Neves, Isabel P.

2011-01-01

205

Iron and Malaria Interactions: Research Needs From Basic Science to Global Policy12  

PubMed Central

The resurgence in interest and concern regarding the potentially malign interactions between iron administration and malaria infections, especially in young children and pregnant women, has generated a research agenda that is both broad and deep. This paper highlights some of the key questions under 5 headings: basic science; clinical science and epidemiology; technological developments; country level planning; and global policy. At a time of unparalleled progress in basic science, which is illuminating the mechanisms by which iron interacts with infectious organisms, it is concluded that there are good medium-term prospects for achieving policy breakthroughs based on a secure foundation of disease-nutrient interactions. However, it is also stressed that there is much that can be done in the interim, especially in relation to health systems and implementation research that can empower systems to integrate iron interventions with programs for malaria prevention, surveillance, and treatment. PMID:22797996

Cox, Sharon E.

2012-01-01

206

Aligning library instruction with the needs of basic sciences graduate students: a case study  

PubMed Central

Question: How can an existing library instruction program be reconfigured to reach basic sciences graduate students and other patrons missed by curriculum-based instruction? Setting: The setting is an academic health sciences library that serves both the university and its affiliated teaching hospital. Methods: The existing program was redesigned to incorporate a series of seven workshops that encompassed the range of information literacy skills that graduate students in the basic sciences need. In developing the new model, the teaching librarians made changes in pedagogy, technology, marketing, and assessment strategies. Results: Total attendance at the sessions increased substantially in the first 2 years of the new model, increasing from an average of 20 per semester to an average of 124. Survey results provided insight about what patrons wanted to learn and how best to teach it. Conclusion: Modifying the program's content and structure resulted in a program that appealed to the target audience. PMID:23133328

O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A.

2012-01-01

207

Before and beyond the precautionary principle: Epistemology of uncertainty in science and law  

SciTech Connect

The precautionary principle has become, in European regulation of science and technology, a general principle for the protection of the health of human beings, animals, plants, and the environment. It requires that '[w]here there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. By focusing on situations of scientific uncertainty where data are lacking, insufficient, or inconclusive, the principle introduced a shift from a neutral legal attitude towards science to a bias in favor of safety, and a shift from the paradigm of science certain and objective to the awareness that the legal regulation of science involves decisions about values and interests. Implementation of the precautionary principle is highly variable. A crucial question still needs to be answered regarding the assumption that scientific certainty is a 'normal' characteristic of scientific knowledge. The relationship between technoscience and society has moved into a situation where uncertain knowledge is the rule. From this perspective, a more general framework for a democratic governance of science is needed. In democratic society, science may still have a special authoritative voice, but it cannot be the ultimate word on decisions that only the broader society may make. Therefore, the precautionary model of scientific regulation needs to be informed by an 'extended participatory model' of the relationship between science and society.

Tallacchini, Mariachiara [Bioethics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 10, 20100 Milan (Italy) and Science Technology and Law, Law Faculty, University of Piacenza, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)]. E-mail: mariachiara.tallacchini@unimi.it

2005-09-01

208

Chemistry for Health-Science Students: What Is an Appropriate Balance between Basic Chemical Concepts and Health-Related Applications?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry content for a two-semester, health-related, chemistry course sequence. Indicates that basic principles should be emphasized and that (when appropriate) these principles should be discussed with applications to health care. Other issues related to chemistry for health-related programs…

Genyea, Julien; Callewaert, Denis M.

1983-01-01

209

The application of Gestalt principles in a middle school science classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is an initial step in creating an educational philosophy for a private, affiliated school through the application of Gestalt principles. Middle school science students were given a pre-test for measuring their critical thinking skills which were defined by Gestalt principles (Blosser 1973) and modeled on real life science fair project scenarios. After taking the pre-test, the students were assigned science fair projects. Simultaneously they were informally assessed by a rubric. Finally, the students took a post-test to see if their critical thinking skills improved as a result of being guided to think along the lines of the Gestalt learning theory. As a result of completing the procedure, the researcher found that the students' critical thinking skills were improved as evidenced by the higher test scores on the post-test. The pilot study was successful and Gestalt Principles could be successfully implemented as part of the private school curriculum.

Akbar, Salma

210

U.S. National Science Foundation Budget Proposal Focuses on Basic Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The budget request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 focuses attention on basic research, establishes and supports several cross-foundation investment projects designed to have a transformative impact across science and engineering, and puts foundation activities back on track to double their research budgets by the next decade. The foundation's total proposed budget is US$6.85 billion, an increase of 13% over that enacted for FY 2008. Most of this funding increase goes to NSF's Research and Related Activities (R&RA) account, which, at $5.59 billion, is $772.5 million above the FY 2008 enacted amount.

Kumar, Mohi

2008-03-01

211

Imprinting Community College Computer Science Education with Software Engineering Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the two-year curriculum guide includes coverage of all eight software engineering core topics, the computer science courses taught in Alabama community colleges limit student exposure to the programming, or coding, phase of the software development lifecycle and offer little experience in requirements analysis, design, testing, and…

Hundley, Jacqueline Holliday

2012-01-01

212

THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE TO ASSESS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging field of sustainability science recognizes the important role of technologies in reaching the conditional goals of sustainable development. Research in sustainable te chnologies requires transdisciplinarity to determin e the resilience, adaptive capacity, and complexity of social-ecological syste ms to assess the potential of such technologies for increasing the carrying capacity and improving the resilience of social-eco logical systems,

ALAN C BRENT

213

Science in Writing: Learning Scientific Argument in Principle and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the processes of writing in science and in particular the "complex performance" of writing a scientific argument. The article explores in general terms the nature of scientific argumentation in which the author-scientist makes claims, provides evidence to support these claims, and develops chains of scientific…

Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bagley, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

214

Long-term retention of basic science knowledge: a review study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a review of long-term retention of basic science knowledge is presented. First, it is argued that retention\\u000a of this knowledge has been a long-standing problem in medical education. Next, three types of studies are described that are\\u000a employed in the literature to investigate long-term retention of knowledge in general. Subsequently, first the results of\\u000a retention studies in

Eugène J. F. M. Custers

2010-01-01

215

Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

Rusli, Aloysius

2012-06-01

216

Implications of computer science principles for quantum physics  

E-print Network

The Church-Turing thesis is one of the pillars of computer science; it postulates that every classical system has equivalent computability power to the so-called Turing machine. While this thesis is crucial for our understanding of computing devices, its implications in other scientific fields have hardly been explored. Here we start this research programme in the context of quantum physics and show that computer science laws have profound implications for some of the most fundamental results of the theory. We first show how they question our knowledge on what a mixed quantum state is, as we identify situations in which ensembles of quantum states defining the same mixed state, indistinguishable according to the quantum postulates, do become distinguishable when prepared by a computer. We also show a new loophole for Bell-like experiments: if some of the parties in a Bell-like experiment use a computer to decide which measurements to make, then the computational resources of an eavesdropper have to be limited in order to have a proper observation of non-locality. Our work opens a new direction in the search for a framework unifying computer science and quantum physics.

Ariel Bendersky; Gonzalo de la Torre; Gabriel Senno; Santiago Figueira; Antonio Acin

2014-07-02

217

A report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee: 1992 review of the Basic Energy Sciences Program of the Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

The general quality of BES research at each of the 4 laboratories is high. Diversity of management at the different laboratories is beneficial as long as the primary BES mission and goals are clearly identified and effectively pursued. External sources of personnel should be encouraged. DOE has been designing a new high flux research reactor, the Advanced Neutron Source, to replace DOE`s two aging research reactors; BESAC conducted a panel evaluation of neutron sources for the future. The two new light sources, Advanced Light Source and Advanced Photon source will come on line well before all of their beamline instrumentation can be funded, developed, and installed. Appointment of a permanent director and deputy for OBES would enhance OBES effectiveness in budget planning and intra-DOE program coordination. Some DOE and DP laboratories have substantial infrastructure which match well industry development-applications needs; interlaboratory partnerships in this area are encouraged. Funding for basic science research programs should be maintained at FY1993 levels, adjusted for inflation; OBES plans should be updated and monitored to maintain the balance between basic research and facilities construction and operation. The recommendations are discussed in detail in this document.

Not Available

1993-09-01

218

Integrating Basic Analytical Methods and Computer-Interface Technology into an Environmental Science Water Quality Lab Improves Student Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate if integrating basic analytical methods and computer interface technology would result in a positive change in student attitude. Students' self-concept of science knowledge and skills (Capability), opinion towards science (Affect), and perceptions of the value of science (Value) were determined with…

Carvalho-Knighton, Kathleen M.; Smoak, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

219

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments  

E-print Network

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications Available online 6 June 2006 Abstract Osmosis is a physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied of osmosis through natural materials, and from the 1960s, special attention has been given to osmosis through

220

FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)  

SciTech Connect

The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

Samara, G.A.

1997-05-01

221

The relationship between immediate relevant basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge: physiology knowledge and transthoracic echocardiography image interpretation.  

PubMed

Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent research has implied that a more complex relationship between the two knowledge bases exists. In this study, we explore the relationship between immediate relevant basic science (physiology) and clinical knowledge within a specific domain of medicine (echocardiography). Twenty eight medical students in their 3rd year and 45 physicians (15 interns, 15 cardiology residents and 15 cardiology consultants) took a multiple-choice test of physiology knowledge. The physicians also viewed images of a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination and completed a checklist of possible pathologies found. A total score for each participant was calculated for the physiology test, and for all physicians also for the TTE checklist. Consultants scored significantly higher on the physiology test than did medical students and interns. A significant correlation between physiology test scores and TTE checklist scores was found for the cardiology residents only. Basic science knowledge of immediate relevance for daily clinical work expands with increased work experience within a specific domain. Consultants showed no relationship between physiology knowledge and TTE interpretation indicating that experts do not use basic science knowledge in routine daily practice, but knowledge of immediate relevance remains ready for use. PMID:21952688

Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

2012-10-01

222

Principles of Forest Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of Forest Hydrology has been written to accompany class lectures for students pursuing training in forestry, wildland resources, environmental sciences, and geography. The book introduces basic principles and concepts of hydrology and it does this quite well.Principles of Forest Hydrology is a revision of an earlier book, An Outline of Forest Hydrology, coauthored with Wade L. Nutter. The new version is quite similar to the original with some important additions in the areas of precipitation, subsurface water, and evapotranspiration. Metric units are used in the examples and problems, and the soil water potential terminology has been updated.

Engman, Edwin T.

223

Using Basic Principles To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Henderson Hasselbalch equation calculates the equilibrium distribution of 50:50 for nicotine in its nonprotonated (free base form), relative to its monoprotonated form, at pH of 8 in dilute aqueous solution. This ratio has then been used in the literature to predict the effect of ammonia compounds in tobacco and in smoke on nicotine pyrolysis and smoke chemistry. Experiments demonstrate that neither the thermal chemistry of tobacco alkaloids nor the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke can be explained by the position of the nonprotonated versus monoprotonated form equilibrium in aqueous extracts of tobacco. The high thermal stability of nicotine in air allows nicotine salts to be converted to nonprotonated nicotine and volatilize during heating prior to any substantial decomposition of the nicotine moiety. In contrast, cocaine hydrochloride is thermally unstable and will rapidly decompose upon heating; cocaine hydrochloride must first be converted to its nonprotonated form prior to heating and volatilization.

Seeman, Jeffrey I.

2005-10-01

224

Archive of Second House Science Basic Research Subcommittee Hearing on Domain Names: September 30, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Democracy.Net, a joint project of the Center for Democracy and Technology and the Voters Telecommunications Watch, is providing coverage of two hearings before the US House Science Committee on Basic Research dealing with the Domain Name System, its current status, and future direction. The first hearing took place September 25, 1997 and the second takes place September 30. Witnesses are: Dr. Joseph Bordogna, National Science Foundation; Larry Irving, Assistant Secretary for Communication and Information, US Department of Commerce; Dr. Jonathan Postel, Director, Computer Networks Division; and Gabriel Battista, Network Solutions, Inc. The site is highlighted by RealPlayer coverage of the Hearings, selected written statements of the participants, photos, and background information.

Research., United S.

1997-01-01

225

Archive of First House Science Basic Research Subcommittee Hearing on Domain Names: September 25, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Democracy.Net, a joint project of the Center for Democracy and Technology and the Voters Telecommunications Watch, is providing coverage of two hearings before the US House Science Committee on Basic Research dealing with the Domain Name System, its current status, and future direction. The first hearing took place September 25, 1997 and the second takes place September 30. Witnesses are: Dr. Joseph Bordogna, National Science Foundation; Larry Irving, Assistant Secretary for Communication and Information, US Department of Commerce; Dr. Jonathan Postel, Director, Computer Networks Division; and Gabriel Battista, Network Solutions, Inc. The site is highlighted by RealPlayer coverage of the Hearings, selected written statements of the participants, photos, and background information.

1997-01-01

226

Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science  

SciTech Connect

On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

Logan, B.G.

1994-07-15

227

Conducting correlation seminars in basic sciences at KIST Medical College, Nepal  

PubMed Central

KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal. In Nepal, six basic science subjects are taught together in an integrated organ system-based manner with early clinical exposure and community medicine. Correlation seminars are conducted at the end of covering each organ system. The topics are decided by the core academic group (consisting of members from each basic science department, the Department of Community Medicine, the academic director, and the clinical and program coordinators) considering the public health importance of the condition and its ability to include learning objectives from a maximum number of subjects. The learning objectives are decided by individual departments and finalized after the meeting of the core group. There are two student coordinators for each seminar and an evaluation group evaluates each seminar and presenter. Correlation seminars help students revise the organ system covered and understand its clinical importance, promote teamwork and organization, and supports active learning. Correlation seminars should be considered as a learning modality by other medical schools. PMID:22066033

2011-01-01

228

Conducting correlation seminars in basic sciences at KIST Medical College, Nepal.  

PubMed

KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal. In Nepal, six basic science subjects are taught together in an integrated organ system-based manner with early clinical exposure and community medicine. Correlation seminars are conducted at the end of covering each organ system. The topics are decided by the core academic group (consisting of members from each basic science department, the Department of Community Medicine, the academic director, and the clinical and program coordinators) considering the public health importance of the condition and its ability to include learning objectives from a maximum number of subjects. The learning objectives are decided by individual departments and finalized after the meeting of the core group. There are two student coordinators for each seminar and an evaluation group evaluates each seminar and presenter. Correlation seminars help students revise the organ system covered and understand its clinical importance, promote teamwork and organization, and supports active learning. Correlation seminars should be considered as a learning modality by other medical schools. PMID:22066033

Shankar, P Ravi

2011-01-01

229

Basic Principles of Marine Diesel Engines, 8-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of student materials for a secondary/postsecondary level course in principles of marine diesel engines is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose of the individualized, self-paced course is to acquaint…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

230

STATE OF THE SCIENCE OF MATERNAL-INFANT BONDING: A PRINCIPLE-BASED CONCEPT ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. Design Principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. Setting Literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. Measurement and Findings After brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioral or biological components was limited; (2) the concept is clearly operationalized in the affective domain; and (3) maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. Key Conclusion Despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. Implications for Practice Nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. PMID:23452661

Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E.

2013-01-01

231

Opportunities for Early Intervention Based on Theory, Basic Neuroscience, and Clinical Science  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the “goal” of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented, along with theoretical principles, neuroscience, and other tissue science data concerning mechanisms that contribute to behavioral changes. One such opportunity is to increase the structured engagement of caregivers, guided by therapists, in administering well-defined activity intervention programs focused on the development of specific functional skills. Such an approach may be one of the few financially feasible options for generating sufficient therapy that adheres to principles for optimizing development of neuromotor control. PMID:20966210

2010-01-01

232

Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009  

SciTech Connect

The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

233

Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.  

PubMed

As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base. PMID:23740911

Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

2013-06-01

234

Pathology Education: SY17-1 TEACHING AND EVALUATION OF BASIC PATHOLOGICAL SCIENCES IN A GENERATION OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING.  

PubMed

The past 20 years has seen a paradigm shift in the direction of pathology teaching to medical students with the understanding that the purpose medical student education was to train the 'undifferentiated' doctor equipped with skills to progress to postgraduate training. With the move in many regions to a shorter graduate entry program and changes in teaching faculty, in many schools in the Australasian region there has been a consequent reduction time devoted to pathology teaching to students. The quality of teaching varies greatly between medical schools, and in many cases this has created a greater need for an understanding of basic pathological principles for pathology residents and trainees. The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia has since the early 1980?s conducted an examination in Basic Pathological Sciences that trainees normally sit within the first 3 years of their training to ensure that all pathology trainees are equipped with the necessary foundation knowledge of pathological processes. In the past 4 years the College has allowed medical students to sit this examination and this has allowed an assessment of to what extent students learn about pathology in their medical school training. Over the past 4 years the pass rate of candidates overall ranged from 59% to 86%, and in every year trainees performed better than medical students. In this 4 year period the main area of weakness of all candidates was in the area of clinical biochemistry, including laboratory and test evaluation. The field of genetic pathology was most variable - in 1 year this had the best overall pass rate while in the following year it had the worst pass rate. Unexpectedly there was not one single area in which medical students had deficient knowledge. This can be explained by the demographics of all candidates sitting the exam, as 31/66 (47%) had a 4 year period from the completion of their studies and sitting the exam which emphasizes the need for an examination to refresh the basic pathology knowledge acquired during their medical school training. PMID:25188135

Nicholls, John

2014-10-01

235

Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science  

SciTech Connect

Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

Bodnarczuk, M.

1993-03-01

236

Some basic aspects of statistical methods and sample size determination in health science research  

PubMed Central

A health science researcher may sometimes wonder “why statistical methods are so important in research?” Simple answer is that, statistical methods are used throughout a study that includes planning, designing, collecting data, analyzing and drawing meaningful interpretation and report the findings. Hence, it is important that a researcher knows the concepts of at least basic statistical methods used at various stages of a research study. This helps the researcher in the conduct of an appropriately well-designed study leading to valid and reliable results that can be generalized to the population. A well-designed study possesses fewer biases, which intern gives precise, valid and reliable results. There are many statistical methods and tests that are used at various stages of a research. In this communication, we discuss the overall importance of statistical considerations in medical research with the main emphasis on estimating minimum sample size for different study objectives.

Binu, V. S; Mayya, Shreemathi S.; Dhar, Murali

2014-01-01

237

Basic science and spine literature document bone morphogenetic protein increases cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Background: Increasingly, clinical articles document that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP/INFUSE: Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA) and its derivatives utilized in spinal surgery increase the risk of developing cancer. However, there is also a large body of basic science articles that also document that various types of BMP and other members of the TGF-Beta (transforming growth factor beta) family promote the growth of different types of cancers. Methods: This review looks at many clinical articles citing BMP/INFUSE's role, largely “off-label”, in contributing to complications encountered during spinal surgery. Next, however, specific attention is given to the clinical and basic science literature regarding how BMP and its derivatives (e.g. members of the TGF-beta family) may also impact the development of breast and other cancers. Results: Utilizing BMP/INFUSE in spine surgery increased the risk of cancers/new malignancy as documented in several studies. For example, Carragee et al. found that for single-level instrumented posterolateral fusions (PLF) using high-dose rhBMP-2 (239 patients) vs. autograft (control group; n = 224), the risks of new cancers at 2 and 5 years postoperatively were increased. In laboratory studies, BMP's along with other members of the TGF-Beta family also modulated/contributed to the proliferation/differentiation of breast cancer (e.g. bone formation/turnover, breast cancer-related solid tumors, and metastases), lung, adrenal, and colon cancer. Conclusions: BMP/INFUSE when utilized clinically in spinal fusion surgery appears to promote cancer at higher rates than observed in the overall population. Furthermore, BMP and TGF-beta are correlated with increased cancer growth both in the clinic and the laboratory.

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

238

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p<0.002, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.22–2.27), controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking and age. Conclusions The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2012-01-01

239

High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

2014-04-01

240

Pharmacology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.  

PubMed

As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education. PMID:23929571

Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

2013-08-01

241

Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.  

PubMed

Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

2014-08-01

242

The Effects of Instruction in the Basic Science Process Skills on Attitudes, Knowledge and Lesson Planning Practices of Prospective Elementary School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of teaching the basic science process skills to preservice teachers on their (1) knowledge of process skills, (2) attitudes toward the basic science process skills, (3) selection of process objectives for a science unit, and (4) lesson planning practices. A related purpose was to…

Campbell, Richard L.; Okey, James R.

243

Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a brief summary of those relevant to issues raised by researchers at the workshop.

Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

2011-03-31

244

Basic principles and applications of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in oral and maxillofacial imaging: A pictorial essay.  

PubMed

A combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) and computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) has increasingly become a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of head and neck cancer. On the basis of both recent literature and our professional experience, we present a set of principles with pictorial illustrations and clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation and management planning of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We feel that this paper will be of interest and will aid the learning of oral and maxillofacial radiology trainees and practitioners. PMID:25473642

Omami, Galal; Tamimi, Dania; Branstetter, Barton F

2014-12-01

245

Basic principles and applications of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in oral and maxillofacial imaging: A pictorial essay  

PubMed Central

A combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has increasingly become a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of head and neck cancer. On the basis of both recent literature and our professional experience, we present a set of principles with pictorial illustrations and clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation and management planning of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We feel that this paper will be of interest and will aid the learning of oral and maxillofacial radiology trainees and practitioners. PMID:25473642

Tamimi, Dania; Branstetter, Barton F.

2014-01-01

246

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

247

Energy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demos and activities in this lesson are intended to illustrate the basic concepts of energy science—work, force, energy, power etc., and the relationships among them. The "lecture" portion of the lesson includes many demonstrations to keep students engaged, yet has high expectations for students to perform energy-related calculations and convert units. A homework assignment and quiz are provided to reinforce and assess these basic engineering science concepts.

Office of Educational Partnerships,

248

Setting Priorities for Basic Brain & Behavioral Science at NIMH Final Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup  

E-print Network

Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup on Basic Sciences ­ May 2004 PREFACE The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental illness and behavioral disorders through these priorities, the NIMH sought the advice of the National Advisory Mental Health Council (NAMHC), which in turn

Baker, Chris I.

249

The Buffalo Approach to Changing the Basic Science Curriculum, or Toiling and Dreaming in the Vineyards of Dental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The State University of New York at Buffalo dental school's reform of basic science curriculum is discussed. The paper first outlines the curriculum review/development process, focusing on incorporation of specific competencies, computer-based curriculum analysis, and the role of a dental schools consortium. The paper then looks at future…

Tedesco, Lisa A.; And Others

1992-01-01

250

The Unexpected Evolution of Basic Science Studies about Cyclic Nucleotide Action into a Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction.  

PubMed

In these Reflections, I describe my perceived role in discoveries made in the cyclic nucleotide field that culminated in the advent of PDE5 inhibitors that treat erectile dysfunction, such as Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis. The discoveries emphasize the critical role of basic science, which often evolves in unpredictable and circuitous paths, in improving human health. PMID:25505249

Corbin, Jackie

2015-01-16

251

The Frog Vestibular System as a Model for Lesion-Induced Plasticity: Basic Neural Principles and Implications for Posture Control  

PubMed Central

Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the central nervous system (CNS) to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the CNS include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims toward a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of vestibular function. PMID:22518109

Lambert, François M.; Straka, Hans

2011-01-01

252

Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students. PMID:24639820

Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

2014-01-01

253

Physiology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.  

PubMed

As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education. PMID:24882774

Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

2014-06-01

254

From Ischemic Conditioning to ‘Hyperconditioning’: Clinical Phenomenon and Basic Science Opportunity  

PubMed Central

Thousands of articles have been published on the topic of ischemic conditioning. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has been given to assessment of conditioning’s dose-response characteristics. Specifically, the consequences of multiple conditioning episodes, what we will term “hyperconditioning”, have seldom been examined. We propose that hyperconditioning warrants investigation because it; (1) may be of clinical importance, (2) could provide insight into conditioning mechanisms, and (3) might result in development of novel models of human disease. The prevalence of angina pectoris and intermittent claudication is sufficiently high and the potential for daily ischemia-reperfusion episodes sufficiently large that hyperconditioning is a clinically relevant phenomenon. In basic science, attenuation of conditioning-mediated infarct size reduction found in some studies after hyperconditioning offers a possible means to facilitate further discernment of cardioprotective signaling pathways. Moreover, hyperconditioning’s impact extends beyond cytoprotection to tissue structural elements. Several studies demonstrate that hyperconditioning produces collagen injury (primarily fiber breakage). Such structural impairment could have adverse clinical consequences; however, in laboratory studies, selective collagen damage could provide the basis for models of cardiac rupture and dilated cardiomyopathy. Accordingly, we propose that hyperconditioning represents the dark, but potentially illuminating, side of ischemic conditioning - a paradigm that merits attention and prospective evaluation. PMID:25552962

Whittaker, Peter; Przyklenk, Karin

2014-01-01

255

Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science.  

PubMed

An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher - every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians' instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual's capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive 'channels' for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218

Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David

2014-03-01

256

Targeting as a Mode of Science Communication: Principles, Issues and a Practical Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's media landscape contains a rich and diverse range of communications opportunities. New media, such as the internet, blogosphere and social networks, are complementing, supplementing and also replacing the traditional mass media communications through print, radio and television. This diversification certainly contains pitfalls and difficulties as has been demonstrated in the Climategate affair. But there are also real opportunities for utilizing the diversity to provide targeted science communications that are framed in the context of the specific group of interest. That such targeting of audience attitudes and beliefs is an important key to effective science communications has been demonstrated by, for example, Leiserowitz, Maibach et al (2009). This approach does require an understanding of the audience and a careful framing of the message in terms familiar to the targeted group. Here many factors come into play, including: including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters. In this talk we shall elaborate on the principles, issues and opportunities. A practical example of working with the religious community on communicating the science of climate change will also be presented. This will include the approach adopted, progress to date and the lessons learnt.

Holland, G. J.; Vigh, J. L.

2011-12-01

257

Design Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Design Principles for Interactive Texts is a fun-to-use interactive text on the effective design of interactive texts for education. It summarizes basic principles of interface design from studies in psychology, skills-training, education, art & design, and other sources, illustrating the principles with many examples. The text should be of interest to anyone designing presentations, computer-based reading materials, student computer labs, or educational Web sites.

Jacobs, Julie

258

Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ? 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I), hypothesis generation (Exam II), choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III), measuring scientific thought (Exam IV). The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test. Results Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p < 0.001). The scatter plot of the data showed a linear correlation between the score for each exam and the total final score. This meant that students with a higher final score were able to perform better in each exam through having drawn up a meaningful concept map. The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770), (p < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between each exam score and the average grade (p < 0.001). The highest correlation was observed between Exam I (R = 0.7708) and the average grade. This means students with higher average grades had better grades in each exam, especially in drawing the concept map. Conclusions We hope that this competition will encourage medical schools to integrate theory and practice, analyze data, and read research articles. Our findings relate to a selected population, and our data may not be applicable to all medical students. Therefore, further studies are required to validate our results. PMID:22270104

2012-01-01

259

Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to increasingly widespread inclusion practices and more thorough identification procedures, students with documented learning disabilities (LD) are becoming a larger percentage of the science classroom. Because many practicing science teachers have little training or experience in identifying and meeting the needs of students with disabilities, this article outlines basic educational principles that support the unique learning needs of these students. Each principle is accompanied by examples of how a science instructor might put the principle, "science for all students," into practice.

Alden, Peg B.; Grumbine, Rich

2006-03-01

260

Enhancing Science Teaching through Performing Marbling Art Using Basic Solutions and Base Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic solutions are an indispensable part of our daily life. Basic solutions are commonly used in industries such as the textile industry, oil refineries, the fertilizer industry, and pharmaceutical products. Most cleaning agents, such as soap, detergent, and bleach, and some of our foods, such as chocolate and eggs, include bases. Bases are the…

Çil, Emine; Çelik, Kevser; Maçin, Tuba; Demirbas, Gülay; Gökçimen, Özlem

2014-01-01

261

Proceedings of the symposium Actinides 2008 - Basic Science, Applications and Technology  

SciTech Connect

This volume brings together theorists, modelers and experimentalists working in the field of actinide science to present and discuss the latest breakthroughs in a field that spans materials science, condensed matter physics and chemistry.

Chung, B.; Thompson, J.; Shuh, D.; Albrecht-Schmitt, T.; Gouder, T. (eds.)

2008-07-01

262

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION ECEV (0404B)  

E-print Network

of Ecology 3 BIOM301 Introduction to Biometrics OR 3 BSCI370 Principles of Evolution STAT400 Applied Mammalogy 4 BSCI467 Freshwater Biology w/Lab 1 BSCI335 Mammalogy Lab 4 BSCI470 Evolutionary Mechanisms 4

Gruner, Daniel S.

263

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION ECEV (0404B)  

E-print Network

of Ecology 3 BIOM301 Introduction to Biometrics OR 3 BSCI370 Principles of Evolution STAT400 Applied 4 BSCI467 Freshwater Biology w/Lab 1 BSCI335 Mammalogy Lab 4 BSCI470 Evolutionary Mechanisms 4 BSCI

Gruner, Daniel S.

264

Using tetracyclines to treat osteoporotic\\/osteopenic bone loss: From the basic science laboratory to the clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontitis (progressive inflammatory disease characterized by alveolar bone loss, a major cause of tooth loss worldwide) is associated with both systemic osteoporosis and its milder form, osteopenia. Tetracyclines, by virtue of their non-antimicrobial pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic properties, are excellent candidate pharmaceuticals to simultaneously treat these local and systemic disorders. This paper reviews the foundational basic science and translational research which

Jeffrey B. Payne; Lorne M. Golub

2011-01-01

265

Teaching Composition: Three Basic Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the unconscious process by which humans learn to write through imitation and repetition, and describes the employment of these techniques in English composition instruction. Argues that teacher authority, based on his/her subject knowledge and ability to communicate, is also necessary to student motivation. (JP)

Mahon, Robert L.

1980-01-01

266

The Basic Principle of Calculus?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

Hardy, Michael

2011-01-01

267

[Basic principles of infection surveillance].  

PubMed

This paper reviews the ideas of Robert Koch in the context of infection surveillance of typhoid fever in Trier in 1902 and the actual epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in the world. The plan of the EC Commission for a network for surveillance and control of infectious diseases after the treaty Maastricht is presented. Definition, aim and critical points of infectious surveillance are discussed. Problem deficits in Germany associated with infection surveillance are also dealt with. PMID:9483833

Exner, M

1997-12-01

268

[The basic principles of leadership].  

PubMed

This overview of leadership research provides insights into the different leadership concepts. Early research on leadership focused on personality traits and leadership behaviour as determinants of good leadership. The recognition of leadership as a complex phenomenon resulted in concepts that examined leader characteristics and behaviour in the context of situational conditions. Modern cognitive approaches concentrated on the perception of leaders by followers and the perception of followers by leaders and the cognitive biases involved. There is a tendency in leadership research to integrate the three central aspects of leadership--person, situation and cognition--into a single framework. PMID:19545079

Pfaff, Holger; Neumann, Melanie; Kuch, Christine; Hammer, Antje; Janssen, Christian; Brinkmann, Anne; Ommen, Oliver

2009-01-01

269

Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are planned. "Other Research" includes: BUNDLE (Bridgman Unidirectional Dendrite in a Liquid Experiment) activities (primarily crucible development), vibrational float-zone processing (with Vanderbilt University), use of ultrasonics in materials processing (with UAH), rotational effects on microstructural development, and application of magnetic fields for mixing.

2003-01-01

270

MT180.02: Principles of Statistics for Health Sciences 295S Stokes Hall, MWF 1PM  

E-print Network

­5; and by appointment. E : gross@bc.edu C : http://fmwww.bc.edu/gross/MT180 R T : Principles of Statistics in the Life Sciences, by Brigitte Baldi and David S. Moore) are on reserve in O'Neill Library

Gross, Rob

271

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005  

SciTech Connect

World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

2005-04-21

272

A Multi-Instructor, Team-Based, Active-Learning Exercise to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences Content  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To introduce a multiple-instructor, team-based, active-learning exercise to promote the integration of basic sciences (pathophysiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry) and clinical sciences in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Design. A team-based learning activity that involved pre-class reading assignments, individual-and team-answered multiple-choice questions, and evaluation and discussion of a clinical case, was designed, implemented, and moderated by 3 faculty members from the pharmaceutical sciences and pharmacy practice departments. Assessment. Student performance was assessed using a multiple-choice examination, an individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), a team readiness assurance test (TRAT), and a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Student attitudes were assessed using a pre- and post-exercise survey instrument. Students’ understanding of possible correct treatment strategies for depression improved. Students were appreciative of this true integration of basic sciences knowledge in a pharmacotherapy course and to have faculty members from both disciplines present to answer questions. Mean student score on the on depression module for the examination was 80.4%, indicating mastery of the content. Conclusions. An exercise led by multiple instructors improved student perceptions of the importance of team-based teaching. Integrated teaching and learning may be achieved when instructors from multiple disciplines work together in the classroom using proven team-based, active-learning exercises. PMID:22438605

Roesch, Darren M.; Akhtar de la Fuente, Ayesha

2012-01-01

273

Science: A Practical View. Volume II. Teacher Edition. Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The guide is divided into three components. The first component helps students…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

274

Basic Concepts in the Methodology of the Social Sciences. HSRC Studies in Research Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerations of validity that are central to all disciplines in the social sciences are discussed, and concepts that are an essential part of the intellectual equipment of the social sciences researcher are systematically analyzed. Fundamental methodological concepts underlying decisions made in the research process are highlighted to encourage…

Mouton, Johann, Ed.; Marais, H. C.

275

Keynote Lecture: Basic Science and the NIH: American Society for Cell Biology Meeting  

Cancer.gov

Let me tell you briefly how it happened. Just a few years ago, my interests in the politics of science were barely noticeable. Like most of you, I was reasonably content, and often very happy, to be doing science in this remarkably exciting era in biology. Then, seemingly all at once, a number of things happened.

276

The foundations: How education major influences basic science knowledge and pseudoscience beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many pseudoscience beliefs are popular, most American research examines creation\\/evoluti on among liberal arts majors, general public adults, or, infrequently, secondary school science teachers, thus truncating the range and the populations it studies It is especially critical to study future elementary educators because of the science interest \\

Susan Carol Losh; Brandon Nzekwe

2011-01-01

277

Syllabus for PHYS 0174 Basic Physics for Science and Engineering 1  

E-print Network

's Three Laws of Motion · Newton's Law of Gravitation · Work and Conservation of Energy · Linear Momentum the principles of · Measurement and vectors · Motion in one dimension · Motion in three dimensions · Newton · Rotational Motion · Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves · Thermodynamics Physics 0174 has three components

Budny, Daniel

278

Report of the joint ESOT and TTS basic science meeting 2013: current concepts and discoveries in translational transplantation.  

PubMed

A joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and The Transplantation (TTS) Societies for basic science research was organized in Paris, France, on November 7-9, 2013. Focused on new ideas and concepts in translational transplantation, the meeting served as a venue for state-of-the-art developments in basic transplantation immunology, such as the potential for tolerance induction through regulation of T-cell signaling. This meeting report summarizes important insights which were presented in Paris. It not only offers an overview of established aspects, such as the role of Tregs in transplantation, presented by Nobel laureate Rolf Zinkernagel, but also highlights novel facets in the field of transplantation, that is cell-therapy-based immunosuppression or composite tissue transplantation as presented by the emotional story given by Vasyly Rohovyy, who received two hand transplants. The ESOT/TTS joint meeting was an overall productive and enjoyable platform for basic science research in translational transplantation and fulfilled all expectations by giving a promising outlook for the future of research in the field of immunological transplantation research. PMID:24890468

Ebner, Susanne; Fabritius, Cornelia; Ritschl, Paul; Oberhuber, Rupert; Günther, Julia; Kotsch, Katja

2014-10-01

279

Teaching Skills to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Early Basic Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…

Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

2010-01-01

280

Basic Competencies for Statistical Work in the Library and Information Science Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to prepare the reader conceptually and technically to be able to critically read literature that refers to statistically developed results. This article is not intended as a tutorial on how to perform statistical tests but rather an overview of basic definitions and concepts in the context of the research process and library decision making.

Nisa Bakkalbasi

2008-01-01

281

Basic science with pulsed power & some off-the-wall ideas  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses aspects of pulsed power for use in basic research, with a principal emphasis on ATLAS, a planned 36-MJ pulsed-power machine with a circular architechture designed primarily for z-pinch implosion of cylindrical foils. The objective of the paper is to give an overview and touch on subjects which might test the limits of this technology.

Solem, J.C.

1995-04-01

282

Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research  

E-print Network

Case Studies: Quantum Monte Carlo DOE POC: Mark PedersonLaboratory Quantum Monte Carlo DOE's Office of Science SelfMonte Carlo Effective Core Potentials Exact Diagonalization Electromagnetic Electron Pair Localization Function DOE's

Gerber, Richard

2012-01-01

283

Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries  

PubMed Central

Modern fishery science, which began in 1957 with Beverton and Holt, is ca. 50 years old. At its inception, fishery science was limited by a nineteenth century mechanistic worldview and by computational technology; thus, the relatively simple equations of population ecology became the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. The time has come for this to change and for community ecology to become the fundamental ecological science underlying fisheries. This point will be illustrated with two examples. First, when viewed from a community perspective, excess production must be considered in the context of biomass left for predators. We argue that this is a better measure of the effects of fisheries than spawning biomass per recruit. Second, we shall analyse a simple, but still multi-species, model for fishery management that considers the alternatives of harvest regulations, inshore marine protected areas and offshore marine protected areas. Population or community perspectives lead to very different predictions about the efficacy of reserves. PMID:15713590

Mangel, Marc; Levin, Phillip S.

2005-01-01

284

Reproducibility in science: improving the standard for basic and preclinical research.  

PubMed

Medical and scientific advances are predicated on new knowledge that is robust and reliable and that serves as a solid foundation on which further advances can be built. In biomedical research, we are in the midst of a revolution with the generation of new data and scientific publications at a previously unprecedented rate. However, unfortunately, there is compelling evidence that the majority of these discoveries will not stand the test of time. To a large extent, this reproducibility crisis in basic and preclinical research may be as a result of failure to adhere to good scientific practice and the desperation to publish or perish. This is a multifaceted, multistakeholder problem. No single party is solely responsible, and no single solution will suffice. Here we review the reproducibility problems in basic and preclinical biomedical research, highlight some of the complexities, and discuss potential solutions that may help improve research quality and reproducibility. PMID:25552691

Begley, C Glenn; Ioannidis, John P A

2015-01-01

285

Database search services as a basic service in academic health sciences libraries.  

PubMed

Mediated search services, usually offered for a fee, are commonplace in academic health sciences libraries. At the same time, users of these services have numerous self-service options available to them; for example, CD-ROMs and locally mounted databases. In keeping with its philosophy of access to rather than ownership of information, the University of Washington Health Sciences Library and Information Center (HSLIC) changed its policy from charging clients for mediated searching to offering mediated searches as an essential service of the library. By taking this step, HSLIC moved closer to becoming a true "library without walls." This paper describes HSLIC's experience with changing its policy and examines the issues surrounding use of the collection budget to subsidize access to online information in academic health sciences libraries. PMID:7841905

Jankowski, T A; Martin, E R

1994-10-01

286

Database search services as a basic service in academic health sciences libraries.  

PubMed Central

Mediated search services, usually offered for a fee, are commonplace in academic health sciences libraries. At the same time, users of these services have numerous self-service options available to them; for example, CD-ROMs and locally mounted databases. In keeping with its philosophy of access to rather than ownership of information, the University of Washington Health Sciences Library and Information Center (HSLIC) changed its policy from charging clients for mediated searching to offering mediated searches as an essential service of the library. By taking this step, HSLIC moved closer to becoming a true "library without walls." This paper describes HSLIC's experience with changing its policy and examines the issues surrounding use of the collection budget to subsidize access to online information in academic health sciences libraries. PMID:7841905

Jankowski, T A; Martin, E R

1994-01-01

287

HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES VERSUS WORKSHEETS IN REINFORCING PHYSICAL SCIENCE PRINCIPLES: EFFECTS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A posttest-only control group experimental design with a counter-balanced replication was used to determine the effects on cognitive achievement (both immediate and delayed) and attitude toward the subject matter of a hands-on activity versus a worksheet in reinforcing physical science principles. The experimental results were stable across both replications, regardless of the subject matter (Oh m 's Law or incline

Donald M. Johnson; George W. Wardlow; Timothy D. Franklin

1997-01-01

288

LARGE ANIMAL MODELS OF HEART FAILURE: A CRITICAL LINK IN THE TRANSLATION OF BASIC SCIENCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE  

PubMed Central

Congestive heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome, with hallmarks of fatigue and dyspnea, which continues to be highly prevalent and morbid. Due to the growing burden of HF as the population ages, the need to develop new pharmacologic treatments and therapeutic interventions is of paramount importance. Common pathophysiologic features of HF include changes in left ventricle (LV) structure, function, and neurohormonal activation. The recapitulation of the HF phenotype in large animal models can allow for the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical therapies. Models of myocardial infarction/ischemia, ischemic cardiomyopathy, ventricular pressure and volume overload, and pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy have been created in dogs, pigs, and sheep for the investigation of HF and potential therapies. Large animal models recapitulating the clinical HF phenotype and translating basic science to clinical applications have successfully traveled the journey from bench to bedside. Undoubtedly, large animal models of HF will continue to play a crucial role in the elucidation of biologic pathways involved in HF and the development and refinement of HF therapies. PMID:19808348

Dixon, Jennifer A.; Spinale, Francis G.

2009-01-01

289

Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

Mowery, Donald R.

290

Integrating the Dimensions of Sex and Gender into Basic Life Sciences Research: Methodologic and Ethical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The research process from study design and selecting a species and its husbandry, through the experiment, analysis, peer review, and publication is rarely subject to questions about sex or gender differences in mainstream life sciences research. However, the impact of sex and gender on these processes is important in explaining biological variations and presentation of symptoms and diseases.Objective: This

Anita Holdcroft

2007-01-01

291

Colloquium on Selected Topics in Behavioral Science Basic Research. (Alexandria, Virginia, April 23-25, 1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 21 summaries of research programs, funded by the United States Army Research Institute (ARI) for the Behavioral and Social Sciences which are presented are grouped in five broad topic areas: computer-based systems; information processing; learning, memory and transfer; human relations; and related issues and trends. Papers presented include:…

Nogami, Glenda Y., Ed.; And Others

292

``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite all these efforts, one can’t help noticing an asymmetric level of scientific exploitation in the realm of X-ray astronomy between developing and developed countries. The latter have traditionally enjoyed the comparative advantage of deeper know-how, deriving from direct experience in hardware and mission development. The XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre’s efforts act to alleviate this situation through, for example, increasing the usage of the web for data and information dissemination, as well as by supporting actively such initiatives as the COSPAR Capacity-Building Workshops, specifically designed to create long-lasting bridges between researchers in developing and developed countries.

Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

2006-12-01

293

Beyond the data - Topics that resonate with students when communicating basic climate science in a Geoscience course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instructors will undoubtedly want to cover basic climate change science in undergraduate geosciences courses. When instructors have limited time in a course, they would like to know what topics will not only provide factual climate data, but also resonate with students. Instructors want to bring a variety of information to the classroom, but even if time allows, this can sometimes become too overwhelming and lead to diminishing returns. This study is based on a series of surveys conducted in an upper-division Air Pollution/Atmospheric Chemistry course at Loyola Marymount University to assess students' opinions on climate change, how these opinions change throughout the semester, and what teaching resources/topics were most effective in catalyzing those changes. Data will be presented to show that not only opinions, but also the level of student confidence in this politically-sensitive topic, shifted by the end of the semester. At the end of the semester, students evaluated their level of agreement with how much each specific topic presented significantly contributed to their understanding that 1) the climate is indeed changing, and 2) humans have a large role in climate change. In general, students find the timeline of the link between greenhouse gases and temperature particularly compelling. Lastly, even in this physical science course students clearly gained an appreciation for the role of science in politics and social justice. Not only is this a tenant of liberal arts education, but it seems as if students find this interdisciplinary connection empowering.

Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

2013-12-01

294

Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach it  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the words "periodic table" send chills down your spine? Are you anxious about atomic structure? Confounded by chemical equations? Relax! The cure for chemistry confusion is within reach, courtesy of this newly available book in the Stop Faking It! series. Best-selling author Bill Robertson takes a fresh approach to chemistry fundamentals by helping you understand them from the ground up. Instead of hounding you to memorize the characteristics of atoms and the periodic table, Chemistry Basics will help you see those characteristics as a natural consequence of our understanding of atomic structure. You will learn not just that atoms behave in certain ways, but why they behave in that way. You will learn not just how to balance chemical equations, but why in the world you would want to! You will also learn not just that carbon is a building block of thousands of organic compounds, but why carbon is suited for this purpose.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

295

Chemistry Basics: Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach it (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the words "periodic table" send chills down your spine? Are you anxious about atomic structure? Confounded by chemical equations? Relax! The cure for chemistry confusion is within reach, courtesy of this newly available book in the Stop Faking It! series. Best-selling author Bill Robertson takes a fresh approach to chemistry fundamentals by helping you understand them from the ground up. Instead of hounding you to memorize the characteristics of atoms and the periodic table, Chemistry Basics will help you see those characteristics as a natural consequence of our understanding of atomic structure. You will learn not just that atoms behave in certain ways, but why they behave in that way. You will learn not just how to balance chemical equations, but why in the world you would want to! You will also learn not just that carbon is a building block of thousands of organic compounds, but why carbon is suited for this purpose.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

296

Teaching Basic Biological Simulation Techniques With the Programmable Calculator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programable calculator has great potential for the development of simulations which provide new dimensions to instruction in the biological sciences. Basic principles of both biology and simulation itself can be presented. An introductory course on digital computer simulation in biology is now taught at Michigan Technological University; the…

Spain, J. D.

1972-01-01

297

Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Incorporting Science, Technology, Fairness, and Accountability in Environmental, Health and Safety Decisions  

E-print Network

The precautionary principle is in sharp political focus today because (1) the nature of scientific uncertainty is changing and (2) there is increasing pressure to base governmental action on allegedly more "rational" ...

Ashford, Nicholas

2005-01-01

298

Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute.  

PubMed

A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein. PMID:24593507

Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

2014-02-01

299

Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

2014-02-01

300

Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute  

SciTech Connect

A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

Park, Jin Yong [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of) [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mswon@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung Chul [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15

301

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

302

Ascending monoaminergic systems alterations in Alzheimer's disease. translating basic science into clinical care.  

PubMed

Extensive neuropathological studies have established a compelling link between abnormalities in structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic (MA-ergic) systems and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main cell populations of these systems including the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the tuberomamillary nucleus undergo significant degeneration in AD, thereby depriving the hippocampal and cortical neurons from their critical modulatory influence. These studies have been complemented by genome wide association studies linking polymorphisms in key genes involved in the MA-ergic systems and particular behavioral abnormalities in AD. Importantly, several recent studies have shown that improvement of the MA-ergic systems can both restore cognitive function and reduce AD-related pathology in animal models of neurodegeneration. This review aims to explore the link between abnormalities in the MA-ergic systems and AD symptomatology as well as the therapeutic strategies targeting these systems. Furthermore, we will examine possible mechanisms behind basic vulnerability of MA-ergic neurons in AD. PMID:23707776

Trillo, Ludwig; Das, Devsmita; Hsieh, Wayne; Medina, Brian; Moghadam, Sarah; Lin, Bill; Dang, Van; Sanchez, Martha Millan; De Miguel, Zurine; Ashford, J Wesson; Salehi, Ahmad

2013-09-01

303

Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: a role for community clinicians  

PubMed Central

Background Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances occurring in medical research laboratories into care for patients in communities throughout the country has been a major challenge. One contributing factor has been the relative absence of community practitioners from the US biomedical research enterprise. Identifying and addressing the barriers that prevent their participation in research should help bridge the gap between basic research and practice to improve quality of care for all Americans. Methods We interviewed over 200 clinicians and other healthcare stakeholders from 2004 through 2005 to develop a conceptual framework and set of strategies for engaging a stable cadre of community clinicians in a clinical research program. Results Lack of engagement of community practitioners, lack of necessary infrastructure, and the current misalignment of financial incentives and research participation emerged as the three primary barriers to community clinician research participation. Although every effort was made to learn key motivators for engagement in clinical research from interviewees, we did not observe their behavior and self-report by clinicians does not always track with their behavior. Conclusions A paradigm shift involving acknowledgement of the value of clinicians in the context of community research, establishment of a stable infrastructure to support a cohort of clinicians across time and research studies, and realignment of incentives to encourage participation in clinical research is required. PMID:21463516

2011-01-01

304

Basic science and its relationship to environmental restoration: Preparing for the 21. century. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the two day meeting in order to focus on ways to organize and mobilize the scientific community to effectively address the maze of global environmental problems. Using the Office of Energy Research (ER) as a Test Case, the participants were asked to address such questions as: What are the problems ER can effectively address? Is there a hierarchy of issues involved in attacking those problems? Are there new multi-disciplinary constructs that should be encouraged in the university environment, much like the applied science departments that developed at many institutions in the 1970`s and 1980`s; and/or in the national laboratories? What does it take to get the best minds in the university and national laboratory environments actively engaged in investigations of fundamental environmental problems? If such a beginning can be made, how should its significance be communicated to other agencies?

NONE

1995-12-31

305

Study of the impacts of patient-educators on the course of basic sciences in dental studies.  

PubMed

Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients. PMID:24628743

Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C

2015-02-01

306

Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

2001-12-12

307

The rat in basic therapeutic research in homeopathy.  

PubMed

The Similia Principle, the basis of homeopathy, implies that substances initiating symptoms when applied to healthy biological systems can be utilized as remedies to treat a diseased system with similar symptoms. Depending whether the remedy substance was of the same type as the etiologic agent, treatment is classified as either homologous or heterologous. The intact rat is the biological system most utilized in basic science homeopathic research. The Homeopathy Basic Research experiments (HomBRex) database (about 1300 experiments on model biological systems in homeopathic research) was analyzed for homologous and heterologous treatments of disease states of intact rats. The relationship between the Similia Principle and hormesis is discussed. PMID:19945680

van Wijk, R; Clausen, J; Albrecht, H

2009-10-01

308

Basic Electronics I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

Robertson, L. Paul

309

Contour Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contour Basics is an exercise designed to introduce students to contour plots. The Contour Activity is a great on-line resource that starts slowly and increases in difficulty. It teaches students basic techniques for generating contours, introduces students to the subtleties of generating contour plots with sparse data, provides many opportunities for students to assess their own progress and understanding and has complete on-line drawing capabilities. The exercise is geared toward atmospheric and oceanic sciences but is beneficial for all geoscience students. In addition to the exercise, this site includes information on teaching materials, teaching notes and tips, assessment suggestions and additional references. This activity is part of the Starting Point Collection: http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/

Ackerman, Steve

310

Beginning to Teach Chemistry: How personal and academic characteristics of pre-service science teachers compare with their understandings of basic chemical ideas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 150 pre?service science teachers (PSTs) participated in a study comparing academic and personal characteristics with their misconceptions about basic chemical ideas taught to 11–16?year?olds, such as particle theory, change of state, conservation of mass, chemical bonding, mole calculations, and combustion reactions. Data, collected by questionnaire, indicate that despite all PSTs being regarded technically as ‘academically well?qualified’ for science teaching,

Vanessa Kind; Per Morten Kind

2011-01-01

311

PLS 3004C: Principles of Plant Science Credit: 3 Credit Hours  

E-print Network

to the principles and practices of plant production systems. An overview of plant evolution, anatomy, physiology, improvement, pest, water and nutrient management as applied to a variety of plant production systems. Course for a fundamental understanding of plant biology and production. The course is designed to provide the student

Watson, Craig A.

312

A Cross-College Age Study of Science and Nonscience Students' Conceptions of Basic Astronomy Concepts in Preservice Training for High-School Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article reports the results of a a questionaire that was given to 433 students in college preservice training for future high school teachers. Results indicated that science and nonscience majors held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-07-17

313

Use of the NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Examination as a Progress Test in the Preclerkship Curriculum of a New Medical School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we describe the innovative use of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) as a progress test during the preclerkship medical curriculum. The main aim of this study was to provide external validation of internally developed multiple-choice assessments in a new medical…

Johnson, Teresa R.; Khalil, Mohammed K.; Peppler, Richard D.; Davey, Diane D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

2014-01-01

314

PLS 3004C: Principles of Plant Science Credit: 3 Credit Hours  

E-print Network

production systems. An overview of plant evolution, anatomy, physiology, improvement, pest, water and nutrient management as applied to a variety of plant production systems. Course Purpose: The purpose biology and production. The course is designed to provide the student with basic knowledge of plant

Watson, Craig A.

315

Categorical principles, techniques and results for high-level-replacement systems in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to give an introduction how to use categorical methods in a specific field of computer science: The field of high-level-replacement systems has its roots in the well-established theories of formal languages, term rewriting, Petri nets, and graph grammars playing a fundamental role in computer science. More precisely, it is a generalization of the algebraic

Hartmut Ehrig; Michael Löwe

1993-01-01

316

Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. Material and Methods: The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. Results: WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Conclusion: Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly. PMID:24379959

Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

2013-01-01

317

Prevention Science 513 Research Methods in Prevention Science  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12; Prevention Science 513 Research Methods in Prevention Science Fall with a theoretical and practical foundation for understanding research methods, especially as they pertain This course is designed to: 1) Increase students' understanding of basic principles of research methods

Collins, Gary S.

318

479Program of Medical Laboratory Sciences Undergraduate Catalogue 201314  

E-print Network

, antigens, antibodies, and complement system, as well as basic principles in blood banking and transfusion medicine. First semester. #12;480 Program of Medical Laboratory Sciences Undergraduate Catalogue 2013

Shihadeh, Alan

319

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

Busch, Phylliss

1987-01-01

320

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why earthworms are fascinating and important animals whose study should be expanded. Describes how to collect earthworms and their castings and how to demonstrate their tunneling activity. Stresses animal's uniqueness and how it is interrelated with other animals, plants, and non-living parts of the world. (NEC)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1986-01-01

321

Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five activities on the concept of evaporation as a cooling process is presented. Activities include discovering which hand, the wet one or dry one, is cooler; reviving a wilted plant; measuring surface area of leaves; collecting water vapor from leaves; and finding out the cooling effect of trees. (ERB)

Busch, Phyllis S.

1984-01-01

322

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-01-01

323

Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

England, Richard

2009-01-01

324

Group Work in Elementary Science: Towards Organisational Principles for Supporting Pupil Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group work has been promoted in many countries as a key component of elementary science. However, little guidance is given as to how group work should be organized, and because previous research has seldom been conducted in authentic classrooms, its message is merely indicative. A study is reported, which attempts to address these limitations.…

Howe, Christine; Tolmie, Andy; Thurston, Allen; Topping, Keith; Christie, Donald; Livingston, Kay; Jessiman, Emma; Donaldson, Caroline

2007-01-01

325

Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.

Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F.; Misewich, J.A.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Smith, D. L.; Tsao, J. Y.; Kung, H.; Crawford, M. H.; Coltrin, M. E.; Fitzsimmons, T. J.; Kini, A.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Kitts, S.; Shapard, L.; Brittenham, P. W.; Vittitow, M. P.

2006-05-24

326

The common principles established to expert's preparation by a remote methods in the Earth sciences field, and their decision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern socially economic situation in the country and in an education system is those, that traditional forms of getting education and training model cannot satisfy all needs for the educational services usually concentrated in the big cities, and so - the increased interest to new, progressive specialities has received the development in electronic - training systems. The attitude to education on the part of the states, the governments, societies has changed also. Education began to be considered as the major factor of economic growth and social development of the countries, the decision of some global problems connected to survival of mankind. In this connection, recently development and practical introduction of technologies of remote and open education are conducted in the different countries, the especial attention is given to the systems, capable to comprise, transfer and analyze huge streams of information. The experience which has been saved up by foreign colleagues, shows, that the sanction of this technological conflict lays, generally, in sphere of creation of a wide network of remote training, and, in narrow, both quality and quantity of a substantial part, also it is necessary not to forget about a choice of electronic-training systems with their reference to various areas. And an occurrence of the computer equipment in the user's end, development of existing ways and means of data transmission, functional expansion of already existing and creation of absolutely new hardware-software complexes, and many other things has begun occurrence of new scientific directions in such basic area of sciences as the Earth - science. (These are geoinformation systems, research of natural resources by space methods, organization and technology of data protection in geoinformation systems etc.) Clearly, that new specialities impose the certain conditions for preparation of experts, and, carrying out the analysis of already existing electronic training systems in the field of geoinformation systems, there have been revealed a number of lacks which do not allow to prepare highly skilled experts at a high level in the given area. The output consists in use of electronic-training systems, but even here, there is a number of problems, decision of which lays in the process of remote training of the Earth sciences. Classification of the systems engaged in the field of the Earth sciences training has revealed a number of lacks and has allowed to develop the certain methodological aspects, necessary to take into account creating them. One of such of electronic training systems basic lacks is that the trained itself is kind of "torn off" from modern hardware-software complexes, that is basic in the training the given scientific direction, in connection with that, the practical part is inseparable from theoretical, and student cannot use saved up experience in practice, knowing only the theory. Teaching of a material in the majority of systems goes with group at once. (Individual interests "are absorbed" by desire of the majority, and, accordingly, the user of system sometimes cannot receive answers to many questions). Impossibility of allocation of the concrete user for his training under more or less strong separate program or his reception of additional knowledge on adjacent areas. Many systems do not support on (off) -- line conferences or don't support the huge streams of the information transfer, that in training of the Earth sciences -- is the one of the basic criteria, (because the various territorially distributed users of system could exchange their experience, could share impressions about use of the certain hardware-software complexes, participate in conferences spent by the various centers, to communicate with the tutors not only in the form of various forums, but also operatively (it is possible even visually, by means of use of system of Web- videotranslations) to receive answers to arising questions, etc.). And introduction of such opportunities as ``daily planning'' and ``reminder'' to the system -

Kudzh, S.; Trofimov, S.

327

High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP) for studies of basic nuclear science relevant to Stellar and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear processes have been explored traditionally by means of conventional accelerator experiments, which are difficult to execute at conditions relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis. Thus, nuclear reactions at stellar energies are often studied through extrapolations from higher-energy data or in low-background underground experiments. Even when measurements are possible using accelerators at relevant energies, thermonuclear reaction rates in stars are inherently different from those in accelerator experiments. The fusing nuclei are surrounded by bound electrons in accelerator experiments, whereas electrons occupy mainly continuum states in a stellar environment. Nuclear astrophysics research will therefore benefit from an enlarged toolkit for studies of nuclear reactions. In this presentation, we report on the first use of High Energy Density Plasmas for studies of nuclear reactions relevant to basic nuclear science, stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility at University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in which spherical capsules were irradiated with powerful lasers to compress and heat the fuel to high enough temperatures and densities for nuclear reactions to occur. Four experiments will be highlighted in this presentation. In the first experiment, the differential cross section for the elastic neutron-triton (n-T) scattering at 14.1 MeV was measured with significantly higher accuracy than achieved in accelerator experiments. In the second experiment, the T(t,2n)4He reaction, a mirror reaction to the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction that plays an important role in the proton-proton chain that transforms hydrogen into ordinary 4He in stars like our Sun, was studied at energies in the range 15-40 keV. In the third experiment, the 3He+3He solar fusion reaction was studied directly, and in the fourth experiment, we probed the T+3He reaction, possibly relevant to Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Frenje, Johan

2014-06-01

328

[Intensified insulin therapy in Type 1 diabetes. Results of a 1-year treatment using the basic-bolus principle in hard-to-control diabetic patients].  

PubMed

Thirty-six adult type 1 diabetics, whose metabolic control was unsatisfactory on conventional insulin treatment or on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, were treated for an average of 13 months by the basis-bolus insulin regimen using pen-like insulin injectors. HbAlc-values improved from 8.1% before to 6.7% at the end of the observation period, with the same daily injected amount of insulin (39 +/- 2 IU/d before, 38.7 +/- 2 IU/d after switching to the new regimen). The number of hypoglycemic events did not increase with the new insulin regimen. Acceptability was good. Flexibility as to the timing of meals and easy handling of the device were considered the main advantages of the new system. Some patients were bothered by the need for intensified self-monitoring of blood glucose. The insulin regimen according to the basis-bolus principle using pen-like injectors led to an improvement of both metabolic control of the patients and their quality of life. It is, however, mandatory that they are properly instructed and willing to perform regular home monitoring of blood glucose. PMID:3062773

Spinas, G A; Straumann, E; Jäggi, E; Berger, W

1988-12-24

329

Precis of the Government Response to the IUS Select Committee Report 6. The allocation of the CSR07 science budget has been consistent with the Haldane Principle.  

E-print Network

Precis of the Government Response to the IUS Select Committee Report 6. The allocation of the CSR07 science budget has been consistent with the Haldane Principle. 10. The Government understands how those whose work is not funded may well question those who gave it a lower priority. 11. The Government

Crowther, Paul

330

Data Communication Principles Reliable Data Transfer  

E-print Network

Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer Data Communication Basics Mahalingam Ramkumar Mississippi State University, MS September 8, 2014 Ramkumar CSE 4153 / 6153 #12;Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer 1 Data Communication Principles Data Rate of a Communication

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

331

Using Basic Science to Design a Clinical Trial: Baseline Characteristics of Women Enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational and epidemiological studies suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD)\\u000a risk. However, results from prospective trials showed neutral or adverse effects most likely due to differences in participant\\u000a demographics, such as age, timing of initiation of treatment, and preexisting cardiovascular disease, which reflected in part\\u000a the lack of basic science information on mechanisms of action of

V. M. Miller; D. M. Black; E. A. Brinton; M. J. Budoff; M. I. Cedars; H. N. Hodis; R. A. Lobo; J. E. Manson; G. R. Merriam; F. Naftolin; N. Santoro; H. S. Taylor; S. M. Harman

2009-01-01

332

Materials Science & Technology Division FACT SHEET The MST division mission is to conduct basic and applied research and development  

E-print Network

Materials Science & Technology Division FACT SHEET Mission: The MST division mission is to conduct of modeling and simulation, the three classical pillars of materials science: synthesis, structural characterization, and property evaluation, and a variety of applied materials science and technology topics ranging

Pennycook, Steve

333

Basic teaching methods in physics and social science classroom: Reality and upper secondary school students' expectations in Norway and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, there was a worldwide discussion about the decreasing interest in science and technology studies on all levels. Much research has been organised to clarify what might affect student motivation to study science and, in particular, physics. The answers to what might motivate students are typically sought by investigating their interests or attitudes to (i) science (or domains

Jari Lavonen; Carl Angell; Reijo Byman; Ellen Henriksen; Ismo Koponen

334

Baking Soda Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1994

1994-01-01

335

Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy (“Pre-RT-MRI examination”) and at the time of BT (“BT MRI examination”) with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring procedure. Choice of imaging parameters and BT equipment is made after taking into account aspects of interaction between imaging and applicator reconstruction, as well as those between imaging, geometry and dose calculation. In a prospective clinical context, to implement 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy and to take advantage of its full potential, it is essential to successfully meet the MR imaging criteria described in the present recommendations of the GYN GEC-ESTRO working group. PMID:22296748

Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M.; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

2012-01-01

336

Green Plants. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

Friedland, Mary

337

Configuration of the Hemoglobin Oxygen Dissociation Curve Demystified: A Basic Mathematical Proof for Medical and Biological Sciences Undergraduates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discussion of illustrating in simple mathematics the fundamental reason for the crucial sigmoidal configuration of the ODC such that the medical and bioscience undergraduates can readily appreciate it, which is the objective of this basic dissertation.

Melvin Khee-Shing Leow (National University of Singapore Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medicine)

2007-06-01

338

Food Science. Content Modules for Food Science Featuring Problem-Solving Activities in Family and Consumer Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food science course developed in Missouri combines basic scientific and mathematics principles in a hands-on instructional format as a part of the family and consumer sciences education curriculum. Throughout the course, students conduct controlled experiments and use scientific laboratory techniques and information to explore the biological…

Roff, Lori; Stringer, Lola

339

PRINCIPLES OF ARCHIVES & RECORDS MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

PRINCIPLES OF ARCHIVES & RECORDS MANAGEMENT Archives and records management is based upon." The basic unit used in all discussions of records management and all records retention and disposi- tion of a record series is known as "appraisal," the second basic principle of records management. Appraisal

New Mexico, University of

340

29 CFR 779.100 - Basic coverage in general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...Employment to Which the Act May Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage General Principles § 779.100 Basic coverage in...

2010-07-01

341

29 CFR 779.100 - Basic coverage in general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...Employment to Which the Act May Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage General Principles § 779.100 Basic coverage in...

2011-07-01

342

29 CFR 779.100 - Basic coverage in general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...Employment to Which the Act May Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage General Principles § 779.100 Basic coverage in...

2013-07-01

343

29 CFR 779.100 - Basic coverage in general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...Employment to Which the Act May Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage General Principles § 779.100 Basic coverage in...

2012-07-01

344

29 CFR 779.100 - Basic coverage in general.  

...Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...Employment to Which the Act May Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage General Principles § 779.100 Basic coverage in...

2014-07-01

345

Lab Basics for Biogeochemistry of Trace Metals Lab Soil and Water Science Department at the University of Florida  

E-print Network

average for our group is 4-5) · Your thesis will consist of 2-4 publications, i.e. you write papers as you importantly work smart o The key to success is communication The following information is provided to you maintained and provides information about our program The "Lab Basic" can be found at http

Ma, Lena

346

Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01

347

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM Sem. Course Title Credits Status  

E-print Network

: Basic concepts and Instrumental methods of analysis; Determination of major parameters of water (C ) 3:0 New 6 v Introduction to Environmental Science and Engineering 3:0 New 7 v Design Principles vii Principles and Applications of GIS and Remote Sensing 2:1 New 22 viii Introduction to Climate

Srinivasan, N.

348

YES Mag: Science Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Parents, are you looking for a way to excite your children about science? This website developed by YES Mag, Canada's science magazine for kids, may just have the answer. Users can find numerous fun science activities addressing many of the basic science principles and phenomena including Newton's third law, lightening, wind, and chromatography. Each activity includes pictures to assist in the implementation of the project as well as a convenient printable version. With over thirty-five activities, children are sure to have a fun learning experience.

349

The role of a science story, activities, and dialogue modeled on Philosophy for Children in teaching basic science process skills to fifth graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an application of Philosophy for Children pedagogy to science education. It was designed to answer the question, What roles do a science story (Harry Discovers Science), multi-sensorial activities designed to accompany the story, and classroom dialogue associated with the story---all modeled on the Philosophy for Children curriculum---play in the learning processes of a class of fifth graders

Louise Brandes Moura Ferreira

2004-01-01

350

Development of e-Learning Courses for Promoting Student's Global Competency-Basic Courses as a Guide to ESP Education in Advanced Science and Technology-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osaka University has been chosen for the FY2005's “Selected Efforts of the Distinctive University Education Support Program (Gendai GP/Good Practice) ”by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) . The aim of this project is to improve English proficiency of undergraduate students with scientific backgrounds. Under this strategic fund, e-Learning course contents were developed for instructing basic, yet practical English for Biotechnology during FY2005. Throughout the project, e-Learning contents will be developed for five other selected subjects of science i.e., 1) biotechnology, 2) information technology, 3) nano-technology, 4) environmental technology and 5) robotics technology, for undergraduate students as guiding courses to ESP education in graduate (higher) level.

Nishikawa, Mikako; Nakajima, Mikio; Iwai, Chiharu; Ogasawara, Fumie; Kishino, Fumio; Fukui, Kiichi

351

Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of doctoral students in the basic biomedical sciences at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Midway through graduate training, UCSF students are already considering a broad range of career options, with one-third intending to pursue a non–research career path. To better support this branching career pipeline, we recommend that national standards for training and mentoring include emphasis on career planning and professional skills development to ensure the success of PhD-level scientists as they contribute to a broadly defined global scientific enterprise. PMID:21885820

Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O’Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

2011-01-01

352

Nutrition in pregnancy: basic principles and recommendations.  

PubMed

Healthy diet in pregnancy should guarantee proper fetal growth and development, maintain (and promote) maternal health and enable lactation. Nutritional counseling and interventions need to be an integral part of antenatal care and continue during pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of maternal, fetal and neonatal complications, as well as the short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common in women who begin the gestation as undernourished or obese in comparison to pregnant women whose weight is within normal ranges. Increased nutritional and energy needs in pregnancy are met through numerous metabolic adaptations; pregnancy is successfully achieved within wide range of variations in energy supply and weight gain. However, if nutrient restriction exceeds the limits of adaptive responses, evidence indicates that fetus will develop the alternative metabolic competence that might emerge as a disease (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and stroke) in adult life. PMID:24684045

Ple?as, Draga; Plesinac, Snezana; Konti? Vucini?, Olivera

2014-01-01

353

[Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: basic principles].  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy involves the administration of a photosensitizing drug and its subsequent activation by light at wavelengths matching the absorption spectrum of the photosensitizer. Currently, topical photodynamic therapy has received approval for the treatment of cutaneous oncologic conditions such as actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma in many countries in the world. Multicenter randomized controlled studies have demonstrated high efficacy and superior cosmetic outcome over standard therapies. For many non-oncologic dermatological diseases such as acne vulgaris, viral warts and localized scleroderma, case reports and small series have confirmed the potential of photodynamic therapy. After the development of topical photosensitizers 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or its methyl ester (MAL), photodynamic therapy has gained worldwide popularity in dermatology, as these drugs do not induce prolonged phototoxicity as the systemic photosensitizing hematoporphyrin derivatives do. The production of reactive oxygen intermediates such as singlet oxygen depends on the concentration and localization of the photosensitizer in the diseased tissue as well as the applied light dose. Either incoherent lamps or LED arrays are suitable for the cytotoxic effects resulting in tumor destruction or immunomodulatory effects improving inflammatory condition. PMID:20098846

Torezan, Luís; Niwa, Ane Beatriz Mautari; Neto, Cyro Festa

2009-01-01

354

Basic principles of cone beam computed tomography.  

PubMed

At the end of the millennium, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) heralded a new dental technology for the next century. Owing to the dramatic and positive impact of CBCT on implant dentistry and orthognathic/orthodontic patient care, additional applications for this technology soon evolved. New software programs were developed to improve the applicability of, and access to, CBCT for dental patients. Improved, rapid, and cost-effective computer technology, combined with the ability of software engineers to develop multiple dental imaging applications for CBCT with broad diagnostic capability, have played a large part in the rapid incorporation of CBCT technology into dentistry. PMID:24993919

Abramovitch, Kenneth; Rice, Dwight D

2014-07-01

355

Spectral Doppler: Basic Principles and Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral Doppler ultrasound velocimetry involves systematic analysis of the spectrum of frequencies that constitute the Doppler signal. This chapter presents a general perspective on Doppler signal anlyses and describes the spectral Doppler ultrasound devices commercially available for clinical use. They include continuous-wave (CW) Doppler, pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler and duplex Doppler devices. Within the realm of obstetric usage, the application needs

Dev Maulik

356

Line Scanners Basic line-scanner principle  

E-print Network

bit #12;Example · Leica ADS80 #12;Comparison to frame sensor · Three-line · 3 rays/strip for every% overlap · 4 for 80% overlap #12;Comparison to frame sensor · Three-line · parallax angle given by interior orientation · Frame · parallax angle depending on base length #12;Comparison to frame sensor · Three

Giger, Christine

357

Using technology to promote science as a basic subject for literacy: A precollege/college/industry/government collaboration  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to ensure that All students have the opportunity to learn science, and it is being accomplished through a unique working model program that: (1) changes the way that teaching and learning take place; (2) incorporates the advanced technology of microscopy directly into the K-12 curriculum; and (3) develops R & D teacher specialists. We conducted three in-service science courses, a Summer Science Microscopy Camp, and a staff development program (the latter funded by a NYS Education Department grant) in which science professors, industrial engineers and scientists interacted with teachers and students to explore the world using high technology. This year, all 5th and 7th graders in the district (200 students) and about 1,000 high school science students are having experiences as active researchers, solving real-life, multi-step problems using all levels of microscopy, including scanning tunneling. Students develop a chronological portfolio, using multimedia formats. Our 1993 Summer Microscopy Camp attendance record was 98%, compared to the typical 75% for other programs.

Redmond, B.L. [Microscopy Facility, New Paltz, NY (United States); Saturnelli, A.M. [Newburgh Free Academy, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

358

The Basics of MRI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Basics of MRI is a hypertextbook by Dr. Joseph Hornak of the Rochester Institute of Technology that focuses on the mathematics and physics of magnetic resonance imaging. "Exponential Functions," "Differentials and Integrals," and "Coordinate Transformation" are just a few of the mathematical topics discussed. The physics behind MRI is broken down into the following chapters: "Spin Physics," "NMR Spectroscopy," "Fourier Transforms," "Imaging Principles," and "Fourier Transform Imaging Principles." Hornak has also included a multitude of information on imaging techniques, presentation, and hardware. Those concerned with what occurs during a MRI exam, rather than the math and physics of MRI, will want to consult the chapter entitled "Your MRI Exam."

Hornak, Joseph P.

359

Biology of Mucosally Transmitted Sexual Infection—Translating the Basic Science into Novel HIV Intervention: A Workshop Summary  

PubMed Central

Abstract A group of over 200 international scientists came together on April 15 in Sydney, Australia just before the 2012 International Microbicides Conference as a part of a workshop to address the basic concepts and factors that modulate HIV infection at the mucosal surface. The meeting focused on defining the interaction between virus, prevailing host physiology, microbiota, and innate and adaptive immune responses and how they combine to impact the outcome at the moment of potential viral transmission. Speakers examined the biology of HIV entry during transmission, innate and natural antiviral mechanisms at the mucosa, microbicide efficacy, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamics, animal models, and opportunities for combining HIV prevention strategies. Other viral infection models both in vivo and in vitro were considered for the insights they provided into HIV transmission events. The workshop raised important questions that we need to answer to further our basic understanding of host and viral factors influencing HIV transmission to inform the development of novel prevention strategies. PMID:22966898

Purcell, Damian; Cunningham, Anthony; Turville, Stuart; Tachedjian, Gilda

2012-01-01

360

Resident's Morning Report: An Opportunity to Reinforce Principles of Biomedical Science in a Clinical Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a…

Brass, Eric P.

2013-01-01

361

Student failures on first-year medical basic science courses and the USMLE step 1: A retrospective study over a 20-year period.  

PubMed

Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, solely or in combination, have previously been found to be predictors of achievement in the basic science years and/or on the Step 1. The purposes of this retrospective study were to: (1) determine if our statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between preadmission variables (MCAT, uGPA, and applicant pool size), and (2) study correlates of the number of failures in five M1 courses with those preadmission variables and failures on Step 1. Statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between all preadmission variables. Only one course, Microscopic Anatomy, demonstrated significant correlations with all variables studied including the Step 1 failures. Physiology correlated with three of the four variables studied, but not with the Step 1 failures. Analyses such as these provide a tool by which administrators will be able to identify what courses are or are not responding in appropriate ways to changes in the preadmissions variables that signal student performance on the Step 1. Anat Sci Educ. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24827142

Burns, E Robert; Garrett, Judy

2014-05-14

362

Program for Educational Mobility for Health Manpower (The Basic Sciences), June 12-August 25, 1970. Preliminary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community college administrators and faculty in the areas of anatomy, physiology, chemistry, physics, and microbiology attended an 11-day workshop to redefine, modify, and develop science concepts for a core curriculum in the allied health field. To achieve workshop objectives, the committee heard presentations by consultants, visited clinical…

Coordinating Council for Education in the Health Sciences for San Diego and Imperial Counties, CA.

363

Accepting Evolution or Discarding Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenging basic principles of constitutional law, advocates of intelligent design are undermining educators' ability to teach evolution in their science classrooms. Because US Supreme Court rulings now prohibit creationist accounts of the origin of life in schools, arguments favoring divine intervention, known as intelligent design, have emerged…

Sharpes, Donald K.; Peramas, Mary M.

2006-01-01

364

Machines. Physical Science in Action. Revised Edition. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of physical science. Seven separate units…

Echaore, Susan D.; Wentz, Budd

365

The Future of Restorative Neurosciences in Stroke: Driving the Translational Research Pipeline From Basic Science to Rehabilitation of People After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Major advances during the past 50 years highlight the immense potential for restoration of function after neural injury, even in the damaged adult human brain. Yet, the translation of these advances into clinically useful treatments is painstakingly slow. Objective Here, we consider why the traditional model of a “translational research pipeline” that transforms basic science into novel clinical practice has failed to improve rehabilitation practice for people after stroke. Results We find that (1) most treatments trialed in vitro and in animal models have not yet resulted in obviously useful functional gains in patients; (2) most clinical trials of restorative treatments after stroke have been limited to small-scale studies; (3) patient recruitment for larger clinical trials is difficult; (4) the determinants of patient outcomes and what patients want remain complex and ill-defined, so that basic scientists have no clear view of the clinical importance of the problems that they are addressing; (5) research in academic neuroscience centers is poorly integrated with practice in front-line hospitals and the community, where the majority of patients are treated; and (6) partnership with both industry stakeholders and patient pressure groups is poorly developed, at least in the United Kingdom where research in the translational restorative neurosciences in stroke depends on public sector research funds and private charities. Conclusions We argue that interaction between patients, front-line clinicians, and clinical and basic scientists is essential so that they can explore their different priorities, skills, and concerns. These interactions can be facilitated by funding research consortia that include basic and clinical scientists, clinicians and patient/carer representatives with funds targeted at those impairments that are major determinants of patient and carer outcomes. Consortia would be instrumental in developing a lexicon of common methods, standardized outcome measures, data sharing and long-term goals. Interactions of this sort would create a research-friendly, rather than only target-led, culture in front-line stroke rehabilitation services. PMID:19189939

Cheeran, Binith; Cohen, Leonardo; Dobkin, Bruce; Ford, Gary; Greenwood, Richard; Howard, David; Husain, Masud; Macleod, Malcolm; Nudo, Randolph; Rothwell, John; Rudd, Anthony; Teo, James; Ward, Nicholas; Wolf, Steven

2011-01-01

366

Principles in Remote Sensing: Image Processing and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced, interactive tutorial, learners encounter basic concepts in remote sensing via satellites, and investigate various techniques for manipulating and analyzing satellite images. Topics included include temporal resolution, weather forecasting, adjusting contrast for feature identification, Legrangian Animation, channel combination and color enhancement. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the third of three modules in the tutorial, Principles in Remote Sensing. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

367

Principles of Human-Machine Interfaces and Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

† This chapter introduces basic principles of human-machine interfaces and human- machine interactions, including issues of levels of autonomy, teaming, human per- formance enhancement, and shared control between machine and human operator. Specific challenges that face life sciences and micro-nano applications are given. Human-machine interaction (HMI) can be generally defined by drawing upon related literature on human-computer interaction (HCI) and

Marcia K. O'Malley

368

Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Benson, S.M.

1997-07-01

369

Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: The role of organizations in addressing clinician barriers  

PubMed Central

Background New National Institutes of Health policies call for expansion of practice-based research to improve the clinical research enterprise and facilitate dissemination of evidence-based medicine. Objective This paper describes organizational strategies that influence clinicians' decisions to participate in clinical research. Design We reviewed the literature and interviewed over 200 clinicians and stakeholders. Results The most common barriers to community clinician participation in clinical research relate to beliefs that clinical research is too burdensome and has little benefit for the participating clinician or patient. We identified a number of approaches healthcare organizations can use to encourage clinicians to participate in research, including an outreach campaign to promote the benefits of clinical research; selection of study topics of interest to clinicians; establishment and enforcement of a set of research principles valuing the clinician and patient; development of a transparent schedule of reimbursement for research tasks; provision of technological and technical assistance to practices as needed; and promotion of a sense of community among clinicians involved in practice-based research. Conclusions Many types of existing healthcare organizations could provide the technical and intellectual assistance community clinicians need to participate in clinical research. Multiple approaches are possible. PMID:21463517

2011-01-01

370

Models of natural fracture connectivity: Implications for reservoir permeability. Annual report for DOE Basic Energy Sciences, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Fluid flow through fracture networks in a rock mass depends strongly on the nature of connections between fracture segments and between individual fractures. Therefore the objective of this research project is to develop three dimensional models for natural fracture connectivity using an integrated field, laboratory, and theoretical methodology. The geometric models we have developed are based on detailed field mapping and observations from outcrops of both massive and layered sedimentary rocks, typical of producing oil and gas reservoirs, or of aquifers. Furthermore, we have used computer simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for fracture connectivity (or lack thereof) as single and multiple sets of fractures evolve. The computer models are based on fracture mechanics principles and the laboratory experiments utilize layered composite materials analogous to sedimentary sequences. By identifying the physical mechanisms of connectivity we can relate the degree of connectivity to the geometry, state of stress, and material properties of the reservoir rocks and, in turn, be in a position to evaluate the influence of these factors on fracture permeability.

Pollard, D.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Earth Sciences; Aydin, A. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1995-06-01

371

Models of natural fracture connectivity: Implications for Reservoir permeability. Final report for DOE Basic Energy Sciences, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Fluid flow through fracture networks in a rock mass de ends strongly on the nature of connections between fracture segments and between individual fractures. Therefore the objective of this research project is to develop three dimensional models for natural fracture connectivity using an integrated field, laboratory, and theoretical methodology. The geometric models we have developed are based on detailed field mapping and observations from outcrops of both massive and layered sedimentary rocks, typical of producing oil and gas reservoirs, or of aquifers. Furthermore, we have used computer simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for fracture connectivity (or lack thereof) as single and multiple sets of fractures evolve. The computer models are based on fracture mechanics principles and the laboratory experiments utilize layered composite materials analogous to sedimentary sequences. By identifying the physical mechanisms of connectivity we can relate the degree of connectivity to the geometry, state of stress, and material properties of the reservoir rocks and, in turn, be in a position to evaluate the influence of these factors on fracture permeability.

Pollard, D.D.; Aydin, A.

1995-06-01

372

15 Years of Cell-penetrating, Guanidinium-rich Molecular Transporters: Basic Science, Research Tools, and Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

Conspectus All living systems require biochemical barriers. As a consequence, all drugs, imaging agents, and probes have targets that are either on, in, or inside of these barriers. Fifteen years ago, we initiated research directed at more fully understanding these barriers and at developing tools and strategies for breaching them that could be of use in basic research, imaging, diagnostics and medicine. At the outset of this research and to a lesser extent now, the “rules” for drug design biased the selection of drug candidates to mainly those with an intermediate and narrow log P. At the same time, it was becoming increasingly apparent that Nature had long ago developed clever strategies to circumvent these “rules”. In 1988, for example, independent reports appeared documenting the otherwise uncommon passage of a protein (HIV-Tat) across a membrane. A subsequent study called attention to a highly basic domain in this protein (Tat49–57) being responsible for its cellular entry. This conspicuously contradictory behavior, i.e., a polar, highly charged peptide passing through a non-polar membrane, set the stage for learning how Nature had gotten around the current “rules” of transport. As elaborated in our studies and discussed herein, the key strategy used in Nature rests in part on the ability of a molecule to change its properties as a function of microenvironment, being a polarity chameleon – i.e., being polar in a polar milieu and relatively non-polar in a non-polar environment. Because this research originated in part with the protein Tat and its basic peptide domain, Tat49–57, the field focused heavily on peptides, even limiting its nomenclature to names such as ‘cell-penetrating peptides,’ ‘cell-permeating peptides,’ ‘protein transduction domains,’ and ‘membrane translocating peptides’ to note a few. Starting in 1997, through a systematic reverse engineering approach, we established that the ability of Tat49–57 to enter cells is not a function of its peptide backbone, but rather the number and spatial array of its guanidinium groups. These function-oriented studies allowed one to design more effective peptidic agents and to think beyond the confines of peptidic systems to new and even more effective non-peptidic agents. Because the function of passage across a cell membrane is not limited to or even best achieved with the peptide backbone, we referred to these agents by their shared function, i.e., ‘cell-penetrating molecular transporters’. The scope of this molecular approach to breaching biochemical barriers has expanded remarkably in the past 15 years, enabling or enhancing the delivery of a wide range of cargos into cells and across other biochemical barriers; creating new tools for research, imaging, and diagnostics; and introducing new therapies into clinical trials. PMID:23697862

Stanzl, Erika Geihe; Trantow, Brian M.; Vargas, Jessica R.; Wender, Paul A.

2013-01-01

373

The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

1976-01-01

374

Fluoridation Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Oral Health home School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation Fluoridation Basics Benefits Guidelines ... Health Engineering & Operations Infection Control School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation FAQs Community Water Fluoridation ...

375

Biomedical Social Science, Unit I: Health and Society. Basic Social Science Inquiry Into Health-Related Problems. Instructor's Manual. Revised Version, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents lesson plans to accompany the lessons presented in the associated student text. The lessons are designed to teach social science concepts that enhance the prospective health care practitioner's ability to interact effectively with people and to anticipate the demands of health care delivery situations. An introduction to the…

Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

376

Radiation Leukemogenesis: Applying Basic Science of Epidemiological Estimates of Low Dose Risks and Dose-Rate Effects  

SciTech Connect

The next stage of work has been to examine more closely the A-bomb leukemia data which provides the underpinnings of the risk estimation of CML in the above mentioned manuscript. The paper by Hoel and Li (Health Physics 75:241-50) shows how the linear-quadratic model has basic non-linearities at the low dose region for the leukemias including CML. Pierce et. al., (Radiation Research 123:275-84) have developed distributions for the uncertainty in the estimated exposures of the A-bomb cohort. Kellerer, et. al., (Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 36:73-83) has further considered possible errors in the estimated neutron values and with changing RBE values with dose and has hypothesized that the tumor response due to gamma may not be linear. We have incorporated his neutron model and have constricted new A-bomb doses based on his model adjustments. The Hoel and Li dose response analysis has also been applied using the Kellerer neutron dose adjustments for the leukemias. Finally, both Pierce's dose uncertainties and Kellerer neutron adjustments are combined as well as the varying RBE with dose as suggested by Rossi and Zaider and used for leukemia dose-response analysis. First the results of Hoel and Li showing a significantly improved fit of the linear-quadratic dose response by the inclusion of a threshold (i.e. low-dose nonlinearity) persisted. This work has been complete for both solid tumor as well as leukemia for both mortality as well as incidence data. The results are given in the manuscript described below which has been submitted to Health Physics.

Hoel, D. G.

1998-11-01

377

HF system design principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder/decoder, channel encoder/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

Darnell, M.

1983-05-01

378

HF system design principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general principles of HF communication system design, using as a framework a generalized communication system comprising: propagation path, information source and sink, source encoder\\/decoder, channel encoder\\/decoder, and RF equipment. The basic properties of the medium relevant to the design, control and operation of HF systems are considered. In particular, the problems of HF system control are examined in depth.

M. Darnell

1983-01-01

379

Principles of Applied Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course, presented by MIT and taught by professor Aslan Kasimov, describes basic principles of applied mathematics. Specifically, the material looks at mathematical analysis of continuum models of various natural phenomena. The course materials include student assignments and exams. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kasimov, Aslan

380

Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

Schaars, Marvin A.

381

06-02552 Principles of Programming Languages The University of Birmingham Autumn Semester 2012-13 School of Computer Science  

E-print Network

-13 School of Computer Science c Uday Reddy2012-13 General Information Staff Professor Uday S. Reddy Office: 210 Computer Science Tel: 414 2740 Email: U.S.Reddy 'at' cs.bham.ac.uk Office hours: Tuesdays, 4 for the module is · John C. Mithcell: Concepts in Programming Languages, Cambridge University Press, 2002

Reddy, Uday S.

382

Body Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

383

Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

384

Thermodynamics of magnetic systems from first principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional calculations have proven to be a useful tool in the study of ground state properties of many materials. The investigation of finite temperature magnetism on the other hand has to rely usually on the usage of empirical models that allow the large number of evaluations of the system's Hamiltonian that are required to obtain the phase space sampling needed to obtain the free energy, specific heat, magnetization, susceptibility, and other quantities as function of temperature. We have demonstrated a solution to this problem that harnesses the computational power of today's large massively parallel computers by combining a classical Monte-Carlo calculations with our first principles multiple scattering electronic structure code (LSMS) for constrained magnetic states. Here we will present recent advances in our method that improve the convergence as well as applications to 3d element based ferromagnets. This research was performed at Oak Ridge National Lab and sponsored in parts by the Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Scientific User Facilities Division, the Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Science of

Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Gregory; Rusanu, Aurelian; Nicholson, Don M.

2012-02-01

385

32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test and...

2011-07-01

386

32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...knowledge and understanding in science and engineering, rather...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test and...

2010-07-01

387

32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...understanding in science and engineering, rather than the practical...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test...

2013-07-01

388

32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...understanding in science and engineering, rather than the practical...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test...

2012-07-01

389

32 CFR 37.1240 - Basic research.  

...2014-07-01 false Basic research. 37.1240 Section 37...Part § 37.1240 Basic research. Efforts directed toward...understanding in science and engineering, rather than the practical...typically is funded within Research, Development, Test...

2014-07-01

390

Principles of volcanic risk metrics: Theory and the case study of Mount Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite volcanic risk having been defined quantitatively more than 30 years ago, this risk has been managed without being effectively measured. The recent substantial progress in quantifying eruption probability paves the way for a new era of rational science-based volcano risk management, based on what may be termed “volcanic risk metrics” (VRM). In this paper, we propose the basic principles

Warner Marzocchi; Gordon Woo

2009-01-01

391

Basic Laboratory Methods in a Regulated Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biotechnology transforms knowledge that emerges from life science research into technology, the creation of products of value to people. Beginning biotechnology students therefore need to develop a strong foundation in laboratory science that is integrated with an understanding of product quality. This course provides students with a foundation in basic concepts and techniques necessary to work as effective professionals in a biotechnology laboratory or small scale production facility. The course emphasizes metrology (the study of measurements), solution preparation, performing assays, and basic biological separation methods. These fundamental laboratory techniques are essential for student success in later molecular biology, cell culture, bioprocessing, analytical, and other specialized courses. Throughout the course the principles of product quality systems (e.g., Good Manufacturing/Laboratory Practices and ISO 9000) are integrated as students explore documentation, calibration, accuracy and precision, error reduction, trouble-shooting, verification and validation of assays, and other quality concepts. Integrating a "quality-mindset" into their laboratory work is important both for students who plan to work in a biotechnology company and for students who some day aspire to generate meaningful results in a research environment.

Mowery, Jeanette

392

Experience of the creative Space-Astrophysics Education in Israeli Science-Educational Center "Blossoms of Science" - creative activity from mini-projects in basic school to ASTROTOP-projects for graduates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 12 year experience of educational project in Space Astrophysics Environment field realized on the base of National Science-Educational Center Blossoms of Science of the Jordan Valley College Our approach is based on the natural curiosity of children as driver of their self-development from the first minutes of their life and even in adult state This approach shift center of the weight in educational process from direct lectures sermons explanation from teacher to children on own attempts of children to investigate problem what is interesting for them by themselves individually or in group Our approach includes four levels of the projects nano-projects for children garden and basic school up to 10-12 years micro-projects for intermediate school 12-16 years mini-projects for high school 16-18 years and macro-projects for the best graduates high schools and students of colleges 17-22 years These levels and projects are interconnected one with another and sometimes participants started on the micro-projects level in intermediate school continue their activity up to macro-projects of the graduate s diploma level For each level we organize courses for preparation of the teachers and instructors interested in the using of our receipts and published books and brochures for them The content of our activity for different levels a Level of kinder gardens-basic schools -- special software with interactive movie - - nano-projects b Level of intermediate school Days of Science in tens schools of Israel--

Pustil'Nik, L.; Pundak, D.

393

Career Basics Booklet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Struggling with your next career step? Science Careers' editorial team brings you "Career Basics: Advice and Resources for Scientists." The booklet provides advice and help on preparing CVs and resumes, writing grants and scientific papers, networking, and much more. Read each article in the booklet online, or download each chapter or the entire booklet as a PDF. All for free. It is one more tool Science Careers provides to help you jump-start your career, be it in academia or outside the ivory tower!

Science Careers (Science)

2009-01-01

394

Basic Immunology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some individuals might blanch at the idea of a "basic" immunology overview, but Professor Vladimir V. Klimov provides just such a resource on this site. As the homepage notes, the site is designed to assist undergraduate students learning about the basics of immunology through essays, images, animations, quizzes, case histories, and external links. Visitors can begin by looking over the "Table of Contents" area, which includes seven complete chapters of information. These chapters include "The Immune Responses", "Effector Activity", and "Functional Organization of the Immune System". While some of the materials on the site require a paid subscription, there's enough free material here to get students on their way to learning more about this field of study.

Klimov, Vladimir V.

395

THEMIS GEONS Background Science and Users Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a user's guide that contains background science and technology information for the Geomagnetic Event Observatory Network by Students program, or GEONS. Learners can review the role that terrestrial magnetism plays in shaping a number of important Earth systems. The guide also explains the basic operating principles behind magnetometers, particularly the magnetometer system used in the GEONS program.

396

Machâs Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from Kyoto University, provides a discussion of Machâs Principle, a concept that played an important role in forming Einstein's theory of general relativity. Excerpts from Machâs original text are examined and discussed for his ideas that are closely related to this principle. The general ambiguity of Machâs Principle, and Einsteinâs interpretations of it are also presented.

Uchii, Soshichi

2007-10-10

397

Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment.  

PubMed

Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review. PMID:23162229

Topaz, Moris

2012-05-01

398

Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team. PMID:24290796

Kim, Hoon Gi

2013-12-01

399

GPS Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Aviation Administration maintains the graphically impressive Global Positioning System (GPS) Basics Web site. From the history of the global positioning system and how it works to governmental policy that controls its use, this site does a good job of explaining all facets of what GPS is about without being overly technical. Interested visitors can explore some of the other links that cover satellite navigation topics as well, such as GPS programs; a library of documents, fact sheets, press releases, and news; frequently asked questions; links; and more. Anyone interested in mapping, navigation, or similar subjects will enjoy exploring the interesting information provided on this well designed site.

400

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University of Houston,

401

ACS calibration pipeline testing: basic image reduction  

E-print Network

Hack, Colin Cox Space Telescope Science Institute 28 May 1999 ABSTRACT This report describes the basic. For a detailed description of CALACS, see ACS Instrument Science Report 99-03 by Hack. This report describes

Sirianni, Marco

402

Chapter 4. Basic Soil Fertility Greg Mullins  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................... 72 Residual N from legume cover cropsChapter 4. Basic Soil Fertility Greg Mullins Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech David J. Hansen Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware Table

Kaye, Jason P.

403

Visual Representations in Science Education: The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Cognitive Load Theory on Instructional Design Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual representations are essential for communicating ideas in the science classroom; however, the design of such representations is not always beneficial for learners. This paper presents instructional design considerations providing empirical evidence and integrating theoretical concepts related to cognitive load. Learners have a limited…

Cook, Michelle Patrick

2006-01-01

404

Report of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENSFI): formulation and testing of principles to evaluate STR multiplexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a collaborative exercise organised under the auspices of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI). The purpose of this EU (European Union) funded group is to carry out research to enable STR loci to be compared between European laboratories, ultimately leading to the formation of a pan-European database. Accordingly, an exercise was designed to evaluate a

Peter Gill; Rebecca Sparkes; Lyn Fereday; David J. Werrett

2000-01-01

405

Applying Innovative Educational Principles when Classes Grow and Resources Are Limited: Biochemistry Experiences at Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching to large classes is often challenging particularly when the faculty and teaching resources are limited. Innovative, less staff intensive ways need to be explored to enhance teaching and to engage students. We describe our experience teaching biochemistry to 350 students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) under…

Omer, Selma; Hickson, Gilles; Tache, Stephanie; Blind, Raymond; Masters, Susan; Loeser, Helen; Souza, Kevin; Mkony, Charles; Debas, Haile; O'Sullivan, Patricia

2008-01-01

406

06-02552 Principles of Programming Languages The University of Birmingham Spring Semester 2009 School of Computer Science  

E-print Network

School of Computer Science c Uday Reddy2009 General Information Staff Prof Uday Reddy Office: 210 Tel: 414 2740 Email: U.S.Reddy Office hours: Mondays, 4:30­5:30pm, Tuesdays, 4:30­5:30pm notes. The following books are meant for additional background reading. Micael J. C. Gordon, Programming

Reddy, Uday S.

407

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Code Basics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPH is the shorthand for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. This method is a Lagrangian method which means that it involves following the motion of elements of fluid. These elements have the characteristics of particles and the method is called a particle method. A useful review of SPH (Monaghan 1992) gives the basic technique and how it can be applied to numerous problems relevant to astrophysics. You can get some basic SPH programs from http://www.maths.monash.edu.au/~jjm/sphlect. In the present lecture I will assume that the student has studied this review and therefore understands the basic principles. In today's lecture I plan to approach the equations from a different perspective by using a variational principle.

Monaghan, J. J.

2001-12-01

408

Basic space payload fastener  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new basic space fastener has been developed and tested by the GSFC. The purposes of this fastener are to permit assembly and servicing in space by astronauts and/or robots and to facilitate qualification of payloads on Earth prior to launch by saving time and money during the systems integration and component testing and qualification processes. The space fastener is a rework of the basic machine screw such that crossthreading is impossible; it is self-locking and will not work its way out during launch (vibration proof); it will not wear out despite repeated use; it occupies a small foot print which is comparable to its machine screw equivalent, and it provides force and exhibits strength comparable to its machine screw equivalent. Construction is ultra-simple and cost effective and the principle is applicable across the full range of screw sizes ranging from a #10 screw to 2.5 cm (1 in) or more. In this paper, the fastener principles of operation will be discussed along with test results and construction details. The new fastener also has considerable potential in the commercial sector. A few promising applications will be presented.

Vranish, J. M.; Gorevan, Stephen

1995-01-01

409

Teaching/learning principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

410

The basic science of tendinopathy.  

PubMed

Tendinopathy is a common clinical problem with athletes and in many occupational settings. Tendinopathy can occur in any tendon, often near its insertion or enthesis where there is an area of stress concentration, and is directly related to the volume of repetitive load to which the tendon is exposed. Recent studies indicate tendinopathy is more likely to occur in situations that increase the "dose" of load to the tendon enthesis - including increased activity, weight, advancing age, and genetic factors. The cells in tendinopathic tendon are rounder, more numerous, and show evidence of oxidative damage and more apoptosis. These cells also produce a matrix that is thicker and weaker with more water, more immature and cartilage-like matrix proteins, and less organization. There is now evidence of a population of regenerating stem cells within tendon. These studies suggest prevention of tendinopathy should be directed at reducing the volume of repetitive loads to below that which induces oxidative-induced apoptosis and cartilage-like genes. The management strategies might involve agents or cells that induce tendon stem cell proliferation, repair and restoration of matrix integrity. PMID:18478310

Xu, Yinghua; Murrell, George A C

2008-07-01

411

Health Instruction Packages: Basic Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in a set of nine learning modules designed to instruct nursing and allied health students in a variety of biological topics. The first module, by Barbara Cathey, discusses cell growth and the proliferation of cells in benign and malignant tumors. The second module, by Eugene Volz, describes the…

Cathey, Barbara; And Others

412

SECTION TITLE 4 5division of engineering & applied science ENGenious ISSUE 8 2011  

E-print Network

SECTION TITLE 4 5division of engineering & applied science ENGenious ISSUE 8 2011 Heading 1 Paragraph MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR The 75-faculty-strong Engineering and Applied Science (EAS) Division have adopted two basic principles. First, by design, we don't cover all areas in engineering

413

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Baccalaureate Degree, Radiation Sciences  

E-print Network

: 027:053 Human Anatomy (3sh) 060:113 Human Anatomy Online (4sh) 060:099 Anatomy Physiology for Radiation Sciences (4sh) 060:110 Principles of Human Anatomy (3sh) AND one of the following: 029:008 Basic · Prerequisite Courses: - Rhetoric: 010:003 Accelerated Rhetoric (4 sh) - Natural Sciences: anatomy, one of these

414

Online Courses: Montana State University NTEN: The Dirt on Soil Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dirt on Soil Science is a 1 credit graduate course for K-6 elementary school teachers who are interested in understanding the basic principles of soil science. This online course lasts 6-weeks and includes conversing with your instructor and classmat

1900-01-01

415

The Science Workbook of Student Research Projects in Food - Agriculture - Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook provides descriptions of research projects for high school and middle school science teachers and students. The projects can be used as demonstrations in the laboratory or classroom to help teachers illustrate the practical application of basic science principles. They can also be used by students, under the guidance of the teachers,…

Darrow, Edward E., Ed.

416

Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: Science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist–practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive

Scott O. Lilienfeld; Rachel Ammirati; Michal David

417

[Kraepelin's basic nosologic postulates. An attempt at a critical evaluation of the later works of Kraepelin].  

PubMed

This study discusses three important papers by Emil Kraepelin, published between 1918 and 1920. Kraepelin supports--in accordance with his teacher Wilhelm Wundt--the view of psychophysical parallelism as a basic principle of dealing with the questions of mental illness. Kraepelin is often called a nosologist; but one must not forget that Kraepelins nosology was not a static one, nor did he vote in favor of any kind of dogmatism. Only when Kraepelin's basic positions are reflected in a differentiated way, his enormous influence on very different parts of psychiatry as science can be understood. PMID:3073607

Hoff, P

1988-01-01

418

Principles of electroanalytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Using a structured approach, this book offers a basic understanding of theoretical and practical aspects of a wide range of electroanalytical techniques. It provides basic definitions, conventions, principles, and approaches and covers approximately fifteen analytical methods based on electrochemical cells and electrolysis cells. Reflecting the latest advances in the field, it is designed to teach the reader to select a suitable method for a particular application, identify similarities between methods, and prepare for further study. The book features self-assessment work and suggests experiments for three-hour lab periods. SI units are used extensively.

Riley, T.; Tomlinson, C.; James, A.M.

1987-01-01

419

Sunspace basics  

SciTech Connect

Anyone who lives in a home with a sunspace will tell you that the sunspace is the most enjoyable room in the house. Many times the homeowner`s only regret is that the sunspace is not larger. Although aesthetics often drive the decision to add a sunspace or include one in a new home design, sunspaces can also provide supplemental space heating and a healthy environment for plants and people. In fact, a well-designed sunspace can provide up to 60% of a home`s winter heating requirements. This publication addresses basic elements of sunspace design; design considerations for supplemental space heating, growing plants, and use as a living space; design guidelines including siting, heat distribution, and glazing angles; and major sunspace components including glazing options, thermal mass, insulation, and climate controls. A list of sources for more information is also provided.

Not Available

1994-11-01

420

Lawrence Hall of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lawrence Hall of Science is a resource center for preschool through high school science and mathematics education, and a public science center with hands-on experiences for learners of all ages. Home of the William Knox Holt Planetarium, there is extensive educational programming centered on astronomy, including Planetarium Activities for Student Success kits for purchase that illustrate basic principles of astronomy. Earthquakes, erosion, wind and weather are the focus of the Forces that Shape the Bay exhibits, and there are also a number of exhibits highlighting math and physics. The website provides many online games and home activities available for download. The Lawrence Hall of Science Center for Curriculum Innovation creates instructional materials in mathematics and science for preschool through 12th graders for use by students, teachers and other educators, parents and families, and the website provides an array of information on the various programs. Title II funding for professional development is available.

421

Science, Technology, and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These lecture notes cover the effects of science and technology on society and how our understanding of the basic structure and operating principles of the universe has affected human lives. Examples of beneficial technology are listed including agricultural genetics, disease control, and a case-study of the benefits of electricity. This is contrasted with technological excesses, but the irony is that without technology, fewer people would survive. Besides exploring some ethical questions and supporting technology, suggestions for science and technology policy are presented.

O'Connell, Robert W.

2009-07-06

422

Correspondence Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correspondence principle is due to Niels Bohr (1885–1962). According to Bohr, the principle justifies the use of formal\\u000a classical expressions in quantum theory and a physical interpretation of quantum theory in terms of classical concepts. The\\u000a principle emerged from his use of classical concepts and formal analogies in ? Bohr's atomic model of 1913. Before the rise of quantum

Brigitte Falkenburg

423

Thinking about Thinking and Emotion: The Metacognitive Approach to the Medical Humanities that Integrates the Humanities with the Basic and Clinical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Medical knowledge in recent decades has grown prodigiously and has outstripped the capacity of the human brain to absorb and understand it all. This burgeoning of knowledge has created a dilemma for medical educators. We can no longer expect students to continue memorizing this large body of increasingly complex knowledge. Instead, our efforts should be redirected at developing in students a competency as flexible thinkers and agile learners so they can adeptly deal with new knowledge, complexity, and uncertainty in a rapidly changing world. Such a competency would entail not only cognitive but also emotional skills essential for the holistic development of their professional identity. This article will argue that metacognition—“thinking about thinking (and emotion)”—offers the most viable path toward developing this competency. The overwhelming volume of medical knowledge has driven some medical schools to reduce the time allocated in their curricula to the “soft-option” humanities as they tend to consider them an expendable “luxury.” Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, has moved away from the traditional conception of the medical humanities as “the arts,” composed of art, music, and literature, toward an approach that integrates the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences, based on metacognition. This metacognitive approach to the humanities, described in this article, has three goals: 1) to develop students as flexible thinkers and agile learners and to provide them with essential cognitive and emotional skills for navigating medical complexity and uncertainty; 2) to elicit in students empathy and tolerance by making them aware of the immense diversity in human cognition (and emotion); and 3) to integrate the humanities with the basic and clinical sciences. Through this metacognitive approach, students come to understand their patterns of cognition and emotions, and in the group setting, they learn to mindfully calibrate their thinking and emotions. They gain a humbling appreciation of the fallibility of the human mind/brain and how cognitive biases and misperceptions can lead to medical error. They come to appreciate the complex interplay between cognition and emotion, and the importance of cognitive monitoring and emotional regulation. In the group setting, students also gain a sense of perspective of their thinking patterns and emotions in relation to those of their peers. Perspective taking and mindfulness engender tolerance and empathy, which ultimately serves as a platform for working collaboratively in teams as medical professionals. Students become aware of the social context in which thinking and learning occur, and this further shapes their professional identity. Thinking, learning, and interacting in the group setting ultimately induces a shift from self-preoccupation and an individualistic approach to knowledge toward an appreciation of collective cognition and empathy towards others. In this article, I describe the metacognitive approach to the medical humanities at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and how it is designed to develop students as agile learners and flexible thinkers with the mindful capacity for cognitive and emotional monitoring and regulation. Thinking and learning in the group setting of the colloquium ultimately also fosters the student’s professional identity.

Eichbaum, Quentin G

2014-01-01

424

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

425

Core Principles Methodology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly published document from the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank of International Settlements considers the methodology used in determining The Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision, "a global standard for prudential regulation and supervision," which has been endorsed by many countries worldwide. There are three sections to the report. The first chapter looks at the background for the core principles and "the preconditions for effective banking supervision." The second chapter "raises a few basic considerations regarding the conduct of an assessment and the compilation and presentation of the results," and the last chapter discusses each core principle individually. The 56-page document is available in .pdf format. A thumbnail map of each page, shown on the left, is the best way to navigate the report.

426

Principled Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

2009-01-01

427

Pascal's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from HyperPhysics provides a description of Pascal's Principle, which explains how pressure is transmitted in an enclosed fluid. Drawings and sample calculations are provided. Examples illustrating the principle include a hydraulic press and an automobile hydraulic lift.

Nave, Carl R.

428

Visual representations in science education: The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive load theory on instructional design principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual representations are essential for communicating ideas in the science classroom; however, the design of such representations is not always beneficial for learners. This paper presents instructional design considerations providing empirical evidence and integrating theoretical concepts related to cognitive load. Learners have a limited working memory, and instructional representations should be designed with the goal of reducing unnecessary cognitive load. However, cognitive architecture alone is not the only factor to be considered; individual differences, especially prior knowledge, are critical in determining what impact a visual representation will have on learners' cognitive structures and processes. Prior knowledge can determine the ease with which learners can perceive and interpret visual representations in working memory. Although a long tradition of research has compared experts and novices, more research is necessary to fully explore the expert-novice continuum and maximize the potential of visual representations.

Cook, Michelle Patrick

2006-11-01

429

Basic Coastal Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This text/reference is the only one of its kind to offer the basics on surface wave mechanics and coastal processes along with the fundamentals of coastal engineering analysis and design. It also provides the necessary background from which the reader can pursue a more advanced study of the various theoretical and applied aspects of coastal hydromechanics and coastal engineering design. This classic text/reference offers senior and beginning post-graduate students in civil and mechanical engineering or the physical and environmental sciences a well-rounded introduction to coastal engineering.

Sorensen, Robert M.

430

Merging basic science and applied reservoir characterization research: An effective approach for assisting industry in field optimization for incremental recovery of oil and gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a dual approach of basic research and applied field-optimization studies, Bureau geoscientists are helping industry maximize the recovery of oil and gas in stratigraphically complex reservoirs. Basic research on reservoir architecture is supported by two industrial associates programs that are evaluating siliciclastic reservoirs (Characterization of Heterogeneity Style and Permeability Structure in a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework in Fluvial-Deltaic Reservoirs) and

R. A. Levey; T. Noel; S. P. Dutton

1995-01-01

431

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BASIC PROGRAM, SUPPORTING COURSES, & CORE Ecology & Evolution ECEV (0404B) C or better required in all courses effective 9/2005  

E-print Network

BIOM301 Introduction to Biometrics OR 3 BSCI370 Principles of Evolution STAT400 Applied Probability BSCI467 Freshwater Biology w/Lab 1 BSCI335 Mammalogy Lab 4 BSCI470 Evolutionary Mechanisms 4 BSCI337

Gruner, Daniel S.

432

Coarse graining approach to First principles modeling of structural materials  

SciTech Connect

Classical Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations characterizing extended defects typically require millions of atoms. First principles calculations employed to understand these defect systems at an electronic level cannot, and should not deal with such large numbers of atoms. We present an e cient coarse graining (CG) approach to calculate local electronic properties of large MD-generated structures from the rst principles. We used the Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) method for two types of iron defect structures 1) screw-dislocation dipoles and 2) radiation cascades. The multiple scattering equations are solved at fewer sites using the CG. The atomic positions were determined by MD with an embedded atom force eld. The local moments in the neighborhood of the defect cores are calculated with rst-principles based on full local structure information, while atoms in the rest of the system are modeled by representative atoms with approximated properties. This CG approach reduces computational costs signi cantly and makes large-scale structures amenable to rst principles study. Work is sponsored by the USDoE, O ce of Basic Energy Sciences, Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the ORNL, which is supported by the O ce of Science of the USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Rusanu, Aurelian [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Wang, Yang [Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Zhang, X.-G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL

2013-01-01

433

TABLE OF CONTENTS THE SCIENCE OF OCEANOGRAPHY 2  

E-print Network

for the benefit of humanity. Oceanography is an interdisciplinary science integrating the basic principles's last great frontier. Applications of high technology to oceanographic instrumentation and vessels of sample and data analysis, and exposed to everything else that goes into the execution of a successful

Wilcock, William

434

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-science Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments, worksheets, and interactive classroom learning techniques such as Peer Instruction (PI) and SCALE-UP.2 It was found that the new course showed an increase in students' class participation, attendance, and overall interest, with most rating their science experience as very positive.

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-12-01

435

Principles of traditional animation applied to 3D computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the basic principles of traditional 2D hand drawn animation and their application to 3D computer animation. After describing how these principles evolved, the individual principles are detailed, addressing their meanings in 2D hand drawn animation and their application to 3D computer animation. This should demonstrate the importance of these principles to quality 3D computer animation.

John Lasseter

1987-01-01

436

PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy  

E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy Dept. of Soil Science University of Wisconsin #12;Phosphorus Terminology · Phosphorus (P) = element name and symbol · P2O5 = phosphate (oxide) Amount of P in fertilizers use #12;Forms & Concentrations of Phosphorus (P) in Soils Form Concentration (ppm) Total 1000 Soil

Balser, Teri C.

437

Harmonic Morphisms -Basics Sigmundur Gudmundsson  

E-print Network

Harmonic Morphisms - Basics Sigmundur Gudmundsson Department of Mathematics Faculty of Science Lund University Sigmundur.Gudmundsson@math.lu.se March 11, 2014 #12;Harmonic Maps in Gaussian Geometry Harmonic Maps in Riemannian Geometry Outline 1 Harmonic Maps in Gaussian Geometry Holomorphic Functions in One

Gudmundsson, Sigmundur

438

La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen II. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume II. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the second in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. This guide is divided into three components. The first component…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

439

La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen III. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume III. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the third in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) the scientific…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

440

La ciencia en la vida actual. Volumen I. Edicion para el maestro (Science in Everyday Life. Volume I. Teacher Edition). Applied Basic Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, the first in a series of three, provides the Spanish-speaking intermediate science student and teacher an opportunity to review selected science concepts and processes through activities which emphasize the applicability of scientific knowledge in the professional world. The three components in this guide deal with (1) ecology (what…

Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Dallas.

441

Principles of Semiconductor Devices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home page of an online and interactive textbook, Principles of Semiconductor Devices., written by Bart J. Van Zeghbroeck, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). A browser environment was chosen so that text, figures and equations can be linked for easy reference. A table of contents, a glossary, active figures and some study aids are integrated with the text with the intention to provide a more effective reference and learning environment. Chapter titles include: Semiconductor Fundamentals, Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, p-n Junctions, Bipolar Transistors, MOS Capacitors, and MOSFET.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart Jozef

442

Edge Detection by Helmholtz Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

.We apply to edge detection a recently introduced method for computing geometricstructures in a digital image, without any a priori information. According toa basic principle of perception due to Helmholtz, an observed geometric structureis perceptually \\\\meaningful" if its number of occurences would be very small in arandom situation: in this context, geometric structures are characterized as largedeviations from randomness. This

Agnès Desolneux; Lionel Moisan; Jean-michel Morel

2001-01-01

443

Systems Science Approach to Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

444

Bernoulli's Principle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. Students learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

445

Principles of pharmacology.  

PubMed

An understanding of the basic principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs is important in appropriate therapeutic use of various drugs. In simple terms, the effects of the body on the drug once it has entered the body has been referred to as pharmacokinetics, and it aims to provide a quantitative assessment of the main processes involved in biodisposition of the drug, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Pharmacodynamics concerns itself with the effects of the drug on the body and the main processes involved are the action of the drug on specific sites, especially the receptors. In addition, pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics evaluates the influence of genetics on drug response. This article reviews basic concepts of pharmacology applicable to psychotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of mental disorders of children and adolescents. PMID:21281845

Feucht, Cynthia; Patel, Dilip R

2011-02-01

446

Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

Trumper, Ricardo

2006-01-01

447

STOCK ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES AND TERMS appendix 4  

E-print Network

unit of effort) are basic data for stock assessments. In addition, the National Marine Fisheries341 STOCK ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES AND TERMS APPENDIX 4 appendix 4: Stock assessment principles and Terms Much of the information in this report comes from the scientific analysis of fisheries data to de

448

Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism  

SciTech Connect

To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism

Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; David Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

2002-03-01

449

Radar principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

450

Project Earth Science: Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The forecast for learning meteorology is bright! With nineteen hands-on activities, ten readings, and a thorough resource guide, Project Earth Science: Meteorology brings the atmosphere right into the classroom. Designed for small budgets, Meteorology is teacher-written and classroom-tested, with ready-to-use, self-directed activities. These activities require students to make clouds and hail; build weather maps; and understand the causes of smog, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Whether it's exploring basic principles or following real-world examples, your students will agree--discovering how weather works was never this much fun!

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

451

S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education. Commentary from the Scientific Grassroots. A White Paper on the Issues and Need for Public Funding of Basic Science and Engineering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the results of an ad hoc workshop called "S.E.E.ing the Future: Science Engineering and Education" Held at Dartmouth College in November of 2000 and sponsored by Dartmouth, the National Science Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company, and Science Service of Washington, DC. This transdisciplinary conference was one of a series…

Jemison, Mae C., Ed.

452

Basic Skills Applications in Occupational Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains 50 lesson plans for learning activities that incorporate basic skills into content areas of career education, mathematics, science, social studies, communications, and productive work habits. Each lesson consists of a purpose, basic skills applications, approximate time required, materials needed, things for the teacher to do…

Hendrix, Mary

453

UK performance in basic solid state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern is growing about the health of UK basic research. There is also growing interest in the scope for quantitative indicators in science policy decisions. A Royal Society study has applied quantitative techniques to evaluate national performance in basic solid state physics.

P. M. D. Collins; M. Hart; D. M. Hicks

1987-01-01

454

The Principle of Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. General Principles: 1. Prefaratory explanations; 2. The relatedness of nature; 3. Equality; 4. Some principles of physical science; Part II. Physical Applications: 5. The equations of motion; 6. On the formula of dJ2; 7. Permanent gravitational fields; 8. Apparent mass and the spectral shift; 9. Planetary motion; 10. electromagnetic equations; 11. Gravitation and light waves; 12. Temperature effects on gravitational forces; 13. The electrostatic potential and spectral shift; 14. The lib effect; 15. Permanent directions of vibration and the doubling effect; 16. Steady electromagnetic fields; 17. The Moon's motion; Part III. Elementary Theory of Tensors: 18. Fundamental notions; 19. Elementary properties; 20. The process of restriction; 21. Tensors of the second order; 22. The Galilean tensor; 23. The differentiation of tensor components; 24. Some important tensors.

Whitehead, A. N.

2011-06-01

455

Principles and Ethics in Scientific Communication in Biomedicine  

PubMed Central

Introduction and aim: To present the basic principles and standards of scientific communication and writing a paper, to indicate the importance of honesty and ethical approach to research and publication of results in scientific journals, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author. Results: In the past more than 20 years there is an increasingly emphasized importance of respecting fundamental principles and standards of scientific communication and ethical approach to research and publication of results in peer review journals. Advances in the scientific community is based on honesty and equity of researchers in conducting and publishing the results of research and to develop guidelines and policies for prevention and punishment of publishing misconduct. Today scientific communication standards and definitions of fraud in science and publishing are generally consistent, but vary considerably policies and approach to ethics education in science, prevention and penal policies for misconduct in research and publication of results in scientific journals. Conclusion: It is necessary to further strengthen the capacity for education and research, and raising awareness about the importance and need for education about the principles of scientific communication, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education of the scientific community, in undergraduate teaching and postgraduate master and doctoral studies, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud. PMID:24505166

Donev, Doncho

2013-01-01

456

Wishful science: the persistence of T. D. Lysenko's agrobiology in the politics of science.  

PubMed

The suppression of genetics in Soviet Russia was the big scandal of twentieth-century science. It was also a test case for the role of scientists in a liberal democracy. The intellectual's perennial dilemma between scientific truthfulness and political loyalty was sharpened by acute ideological conflicts. The central topic of this essay is how the conflict was played out in Soviet agricultural and biological science in the 1930s and 1940s. The account is focused on the role of the then current Soviet science policy and its basic epistemic principles, the "unity of theory and practice" and the "practice criterion of truth". PMID:18831321

Roll-Hansen, Nils

2008-01-01

457

BASIC HEALTH SCIENCES (GRETCHEN) Dean Richard Fine, School of Medicine 4-1785 Lorraine Rubino, Assistant to the Dean 4-9011 HSC, L4, 170 Z=8430  

E-print Network

-7606 Diane Doran-Sheehy 2-9445 SBS S-501 4364 Art (ARH & ARS) Joseph Monteyne/ARH Stephanie Dinkins/ARS 2-8533 Robert Haltiwanger 2-8560 Life Sciences 336 5215 Music (MUS) (CHRIS) (CHRIS) Perry Goldstein 2

458

Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's doctoral programs continue to prepare students for a traditional academic career path despite the inadequate supply of research-focused faculty positions. We advocate for a broader doctoral curriculum that prepares trainees for a wide range of science-related career paths. In support of this argument, we describe data from our survey of…

Fuhrmann, C. N.; Halme, D. G.; O'Sullivan, P. S.; Lindstaedt, B.

2011-01-01

459

Molecular Physics: Theoretical Principles and Experimental Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The richly illustrated book comprehensively explains the important principles of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and their spectra in two separate, distinct parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical aspects of molecular physics, such as the vibration, rotation, electronic states, potential curves, and spectra of molecules. The different methods of approximation for the calculation of electronic wave functions and their energy are also covered. The introduction of basics terms used in group theory and their meaning in molecular physics enables an elegant description of polyatomic molecules and their symmetries. Molecular spectra and the dynamic processes involved in their excited states are given its own chapter. The theoretical part then concludes with a discussion of the field of Van der Waals molecules and clusters. The second part is devoted entirely to experimental techniques, such as laser, Fourier, NMR, and ESR spectroscopies, used in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, and material science. Time-resolved measurements and the influence of chemical reactions by coherent controls are also treated. A list of general textbooks and specialized literature is provided for further reading. With specific examples, definitions, and notes integrated within the text to aid understanding, this is suitable for undergraduates and graduates in physics and chemistry with a knowledge of atomic physics and familiar with the basics of quantum mechanics.

Demtröder, Wolfgang

2005-11-01

460

The Basics of Brain Development  

PubMed Central

Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the basic stages and mechanisms of mammalian brain development. Studies elucidating the neurobiology of brain development span the levels of neural organization from the macroanatomic, to the cellular, to the molecular. Together this large body of work provides a picture of brain development as the product of a complex series of dynamic and adaptive processes operating within a highly constrained, genetically organized but constantly changing context. The view of brain development that has emerged from the developmental neurobiology literature presents both challenges and opportunities to psychologists seeking to understand the fundamental processes that underlie social and cognitive development, and the neural systems that mediate them. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of some very basic principles of brain development, drawn from contemporary developmental neurobiology, that may be of use to investigators from a wide range of disciplines. PMID:21042938

Stiles, Joan

2010-01-01

461

Plants. A Language Development Unit for Science. Life and the Environment. Grades One, Two and Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the basic principles of the Language Development Approach is that students must learn the language necessary to understand, talk, and write about all subject areas in order to succeed in school. This book contains information about teaching primary school science in the Northwest Territories with lessons that emphasize language. The goals…

Gilmour, Margy; McGregor, Cathy, Ed.

462

Math/Science/Technology Projects for the Technology Teacher. A Professional Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The underlying development behind this monograph grew out of a series of 14 panels (20 inches by 28 inches) illustrating the basic linkages between existing industrial arts/technology education activities and mathematics or science principles or societal and environmental impacts. Specifically, each panel contained a full-color photograph of a…

Maley, Donald L., Ed.

463

Acoustic Positioning for Space Processing of Materials Science Samples in Mirror Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a review of the basic principles of levitation under special consideration of multiaxial positioning in cylindrical tubes, the adaptation of a tube levitator to the monoellipsoidal mirror furnace ELLI is reported. The levitator-furnace combination has been qualified for a sounding rocket experiment in the TEXUS program where the containerless processing of single materials science samples of 8-10 nun diameter

E. G. Lierke; R. Grossbach; K. Flogel; P. Clancy

1983-01-01

464

RPL Dosimetry: Principles and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) is applied to the glass dosimeter, which is one of the most excellent solid state dosimeters. The silver activated phosphate glass irradiated with ionizing radiations emits luminescence when exposed to UV light. This phenomenon is called RPL. The most characteristic features of the glass dosimeters are data accumulation and no fading. The basic principle of RPL is described and then how it is applied to the glass dosimeter is explained. Finally some applications of RPL will be introduced.

Yamamoto, Takayoshi

2011-05-01

465

Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

466

Basics of Photometry Photometry: Basic Questions  

E-print Network

Basics of Photometry #12;Photometry: Basic Questions · How do you identify objects in your image type of object you're studying? #12;#12;#12;Topics 1. General Considerations 2. Stellar Photometry 3. Galaxy Photometry #12;I: General Considerations 1. Garbage in, garbage out... 2. Object Detection 3

Masci, Frank

467

A Basic Guide to Nuclear Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 100 nuclear power plants supply over 17 percent of the electricity in the United States. The basic principles of how nuclear energy works and how it is used to make electricity are explained in this profusely illustrated booklet written for the average sixth grade reader. Discussions include: (1) atomic structure; (2) nuclear fission;…

Martocci, Barbara; Wilson, Greg

468

Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

2013-01-01

469

The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and use any…

Greenfield, Rich

2006-01-01

470

Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

471

Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

Lundin, Robert W.

472

Tutorial: basic concepts in quantum circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade a new way to compute has been defined which, unlike conventional methods, is based on quantum mechanics rather than classical physics. This fundamental change in paradigm can, in principle, solve some important and hitherto intractable problems such as prime factorization of large numbers. This tutorial presentation will review the basics of quantum computation and the design

John P. Hayes

2003-01-01

473

Tutorial: basic concepts in quantum circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Over the last decade a new way to compute has been defined which, unlike conventional methods, is based on quantum mechanics rather than classical physics. This fundamental change in paradigm can, in principle, solve some important and hitherto intractable problems such as prime factorization of large numbers. This tutorial presentation reviews the basics of quantum computation

J. P. Hayes

2003-01-01

474

Arthropod surveillance programs: Basic components, strategies, and analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. Herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium “Advancements in arthro...

475

Uncertainty Principle and the Standard Quantum Limits  

E-print Network

The role of the Uncertainty Principle is examined through the examples of squeezing, information capacity, and position monitoring. It is suggested that more attention should be directed to conceptual considerations in quantum information science and technology.

Horace P. Yuen

2005-10-10

476

Essential Principle 3: Correlation to Standards and Curriculum Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, the author identifies science content standards for grades K-5 from the national standards that are aligned with the third essential principle of the climate sciences--life on Earth depends on, is shaped by, and affects climate. In addition she reviews misconceptions commonly held by children about adaptations and natural selection. The free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle is structured around the seven essential principles of the climate sciences and explores a different principle each issue.

Kimberly Lightle

477

Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible. Although evidence for this kind of transfer has historically been controversial, experiments and observations of students suggest pedagogical

Robert L. Goldstone; Uri Wilensky

2008-01-01

478

Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

2008-01-01

479

Protein Multifunctionality: Principles and Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

In the review, the nature of protein multifunctionality is analyzed. In the first part of the review the principles of structural/functional organization of protein are discussed. In the second part, the main mechanisms involved in development of multiple functions on a single gene product(s) are analyzed. The last part represents a number of examples showing that multifunctionality is a basic feature of biologically active proteins. PMID:21566747

Zaretsky, Joseph Z.; Wreschner, Daniel H.

2008-01-01

480

The Principles of Phototransferred Thermoluminescence  

SciTech Connect

The principles of phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) are described, and some of the basic theoretical ideas underlying this technique are presented. It is demonstrated that the PTTL efficiency is dependent on the photon energy as well as on the activation energies of the various traps involved in the process. A simple two-traps-one-recombination-center model is capable of predicting a variety of different PTTL behaviors, some already were observed experimentally.

Moscovitch, Marko [Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

2011-05-05

481

Kepler and Mach's Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

Barbour, Julian

482

Mechanical Principles of Biological Nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological nanocomposites, such as bone, tooth, shell, and wood, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. Much recent effort has been directed at exploring the basic mechanical principles behind the microstructures of these natural materials to provide guidelines for the development of novel man-made nanocomposites. This article reviews some of the recent studies on mechanical properties of biological nanocomposites, including their stiffness, strength, toughness, interface properties, and elastic stability. The discussion is focused on the mechanical principles of biological nanocomposites, including the generic nanostructure of hard-mineral crystals embedded in a soft protein matrix, the flaw-tolerant design of the hard phase, the role of the soft matrix, the hybrid interface between protein and mineral, and the structural hierarchy. The review concludes with some discussion of and outlook on the development of biomimicking synthetic materials guided by the principles found in biological nanocomposites.

Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

2010-08-01

483

PASCAL vs BASIC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

Mundie, David A.

1978-01-01

484

Basic Facts about VHL  

MedlinePLUS

Home › Patients/Caregivers › Basic Facts about VHL Basic Facts about VHL The VHL gene hijacks the major ... body. While blood vessels normally branch out like trees, in people with VHL little knots of blood ...

485

Basics of Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS

... 2 Standard Handouts • S01 Version 5.0 The Basics of Weight Control A calorie is a unit ... beverages you drink provide energy and nutrients. The basic required nutrients are: water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary ...

486

Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

Spray, S.D.

1998-08-01

487

Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments  

SciTech Connect

Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

Bodnarczuk, M.

1989-02-01

488

Mechanics of smart dielectric elastomer structures: basic principles and applications  

E-print Network

MUSCLES COMPARISON: NATURAL MUSCLES vs ACTUATOR MATERIALS MOTIVATION ­ COMPOSITE DIELECTRIC ELASTOMER. · Shortcomings · high electric fields, · small energy density. Artificial muscles Composites can overcome) + + + + + + + + + + + + Charge flows in the battery + + Open circuit (constant Q, Capacitance increase, Stretching

489

[Basic principles of psychological adjustment in the chronically ill child].  

PubMed

How a chronic illness leads to emotional disorders in a child or adolescent is primarily defined by the style of coping within the family. coping style describes the inner confrontation and the way of coming to terms with the disease and its effective management. For the treating physician, knowledge of the determining factors is important not only to perceive disturbances in the patient-physician relationship but also between the child or adolescent and his family. This is important when deciding whether the physician himself can intervene or whether outside help is necessary. Of these determining factors, the cognitive understanding of the disease by the affected child or adolescent and the art of communication within the family are described. Most important is the parental coping style, formed in earlier crisis situations, into which the child or adolescent is now integrated. Pathological "pseudo" solutions together with reasonably successful forms of coping and their influence on the patient-doctor-relationship are discussed. PMID:9312424

Colditz, K

1997-06-01

490

Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry 1: Basic Principles and Performance Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the historical development, performance characteristics (sample requirements, analysis time, ionization characteristics, speciation capabilities, and figures of merit), and applications of laser microprobe mass spectrometry. (JN)

Denoyer, Eric; And Others

1982-01-01

491

Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging--an update.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has undergone many technologic advances over the past few years. Many of these advances were stimulated by the wealth of information emerging from nuclear magnetic resonance research in the areas of new and optimal scanning methods and radio-frequency coil design. Other changes arose from the desire to improve image quality, ease siting restrictions and generally facilitate the clinical use of MR equipment. Many questions, however, remain unanswered. Perhaps the most controversial technologic question involves the optimal field strength required for imaging or spectroscopic applications or both. Other issues include safety and clinical efficacy. Technologic issues affect all aspects of MR use including the choice of equipment, examination procedure and image interpretation. Thus, an understanding of recent changes and their theoretic basis is necessary. PMID:3911591

Scherzinger, A L; Hendee, W R

1985-12-01

492

Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging - an update  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has undergone many technologic advances over the past few years. Many of these advances were stimulated by the wealth of information emerging from nuclear magnetic resonance research in the areas of new and optimal scanning methods and radio-frequency coil design. Other changes arose from the desire to improve image quality, ease siting restrictions and generally facilitate the clinical use of MR equipment. Many questions, however, remain unanswered. Perhaps the most controversial technologic question involves the optimal field strength required for imaging or spectroscopic applications or both. Other issues include safety and clinical efficacy. Technologic issues affect all aspects of MR use including the choice of equipment, examination procedure and image interpretation. Thus, an understanding of recent changes and their theoretic basis is necessary. 92 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

Scherzinger, A.L.; Hendee, W.R.

1985-12-01

493

431 531 Class Notes 1 1 Basic Principles  

E-print Network

circuit consisting of a single voltage source VTH in series with a single resistor RTH. The concept circuit, that is a closed conductive path for example a battery con- nected to a resistor via conductive wire, or a network of interconnected paths. 1. For any node of the circuit P in I = P out I. Note

Frey, Raymond E.

494

Statistical Characterization of Radiological Images: Basic Principles and Recent Progress  

PubMed Central

This paper surveys our current understanding of the statistical properties of radiological images and their effect on image quality. Attention is given to statistical descriptions needed to compute the performance of ideal or ideal-linear observers on detection and estimation tasks. The effects of measurement noise, random objects and random imaging system are analyzed by nested conditional averaging, leading to a three-term expansion of the data covariance matrix. Characteristic functionals are introduced to account for the object statistics, and it is shown how they can be used to compute the image statistics. PMID:20948984

Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.

2010-01-01

495

Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities  

E-print Network

From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

2011-11-10

496

Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

1990-01-01

497

Genomic Signal Processing: Predicting Basic Molecular Biological Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in high-throughput technologies enable acquisition of different types of molecular biological data, monitoring the flow of biological information as DNA is transcribed to RNA, and RNA is translated to proteins, on a genomic scale. Future discovery in biology and medicine will come from the mathematical modeling of these data, which hold the key to fundamental understanding of life on the molecular level, as well as answers to questions regarding diagnosis, treatment and drug development. Recently we described data-driven models for genome-scale molecular biological data, which use singular value decomposition (SVD) and the comparative generalized SVD (GSVD). Now we describe an integrative data-driven model, which uses pseudoinverse projection (1). We also demonstrate the predictive power of these matrix algebra models (2). The integrative pseudoinverse projection model formulates any number of genome-scale molecular biological data sets in terms of one chosen set of data samples, or of profiles extracted mathematically from data samples, designated the ``basis'' set. The mathematical variables of this integrative model, the pseudoinverse correlation patterns that are uncovered in the data, represent independent processes and corresponding cellular states (such as observed genome-wide effects of known regulators or transcription factors, the biological components of the cellular machinery that generate the genomic signals, and measured samples in which these regulators or transcription factors are over- or underactive). Reconstruction of the data in the basis simulates experimental observation of only the cellular s